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Sample records for juvenile brown shrimp

  1. Age estimation of brown shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, J.; Bio, A.; Freitas, V.; Moreiro, C.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 2 methods for age estimation of Crangon crangon were compared: one based on total length, the other based on the number of segments in the antennules, as suggested by Tiews’ findings (1954: Ber Deut Wiss Kommiss 13:235-269). Shrimps from populations near the species’ geographic edges,

  2. Management options for brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) fisheries in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, J.; Kooten, van T.; Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Trapman, B.K.; Reijden, van der K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Fisheries targeting brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) in the North Sea in European waters are largely unregulated in terms of landings and effort. A license system exists, but this did not prevent the current situation of overcapacity of the shrimp fleet. The governments of the North Sea brown shrimp f

  3. Management options for brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) fisheries in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, J.; Kooten, van T.; Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Trapman, B.K.; Reijden, van der K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Fisheries targeting brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) in the North Sea in European waters are largely unregulated in terms of landings and effort. A license system exists, but this did not prevent the current situation of overcapacity of the shrimp fleet. The governments of the North Sea brown shrimp

  4. Simulating environmental effects on brown shrimp production in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a commercially important fishery species of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Young shrimp settle in estuarine salt marsh...

  5. The areal extent of brown shrimp habitat suitability in Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA: Targeting vegetated habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.M.; Nestlerode, J.A.; Harwell, L.C.; Bourgeois, P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of wetlands and shallow water habitats significantly influences Gulf of Mexico (GOM) penaeid shrimp fishery productivity. However, the GOM region has the highest rate of wetland loss in the USA. Protection and management of these vital GOM habitats are critical to sustainable shrimp fisheries. Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a major component of GOM fisheries. We present an approach for estimating the areal extent of suitable habitat for post-larval and juvenile brown shrimp in Mobile Bay, Alabama, using an existing habitat suitability index model for the northern GOM calculated from probabilistic survey of water quality and sediment data, land cover data, and submerged aquatic vegetation coverages. This estuarine scale approach is intended to support targeted protection and restoration of these habitats. These analyses indicate that approximately 60% of the area of Mobile Bay is categorized as suitable to near optimal for post-larval and juvenile shrimp and 38% of the area is marginally to minimally suitable. We identify potential units within Mobile Bay for targeted restoration to improve habitat suitability. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  7. Enhancement of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900, fed β-1.3 glucan vitamin E, and β-carotene and infected with white spot syndrome virus Incremento de la actividad superóxido dismutasa y catalasa en juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900 alimentados con β-1,3 glucano vitamina E y β-caroteno e infectados con el virus de la mancha blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Pacheco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary β-Ο-glucan, vitamin E, and β-carotene supplements in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV was evaluated. Groups of 30 organisms (weighing 1 ± 0.5 g were cultured in 60 L fiberglass tanks and fed daily with β-1.3-glucan (0.1%, vitamin E (0.01%, and β-carotene (0.01% for 23 days; the specimens were then inoculated with WSSV. The antioxidant activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were determined in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Shrimp fed with β-1.3-glucan, vitamin E, and β-carotene significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 12 and 24 h post-infection, respectively. Shrimp fed with vitamin E and β-1.3-glucan registered an increment in SOD activity from 12 to 48 h post-infection. Shrimp fed with β-carotene increased SOD activity before infection with WSSV, and shrimp fed with β-1.3-glucan and vitamin E increased CAT activity, also before infection. The CAT activity response in shrimp muscle increased with respect to the control group for all treatments tested from 1 to 6 h after inoculation with WSSV. The highest antioxidant response was registered in shrimp fed with vitamin E. Juvenile shrimp fed with vitamin E and later inoculated with WSSV registered 100% mortality at 72 h, but shrimp fed with β-Ο-glucan and β-carotene showed greater resistance to WSSV, with mortality at 144 h post-infection. This study demonstrated the capacity of juvenile Farfantepenaeus californiensis fed β-Ο-glucan, vitamin E, or β-carotene to increase the antioxidant response before and after viral infection.Se evaluó el efecto de β-1,3-glucano, vitamina E y β-caroteno en la dieta de juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis inoculados con virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca (WSSV. Se colocaron grupos de 30 camarones (peso 1 ± 0,5 g en

  8. Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Y; Monteyne, E; Neudecker, T; Tulp, I; Smagghe, G; Cooreman, K; Roose, P; Parmentier, K

    2012-03-01

    The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union therefore took measures to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on ships and ultimately banned these paints in 2003. Despite sufficient data on OT concentrations in marine gastropods, data are scarce for other species such as the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), a dominant crustacean species in North Sea inshore benthic communities. The present study provides the first spatial overview of OT concentrations in North Sea brown shrimp. We have compared these data with historical concentrations in shrimp as well as with sediment concentrations. We have also addressed the effect on the shrimp stock and any human health risks associated with the OT concentrations found. TBT and TPhT in shrimp tail muscle ranged from 4 to 124 and from 1 to 24 μg kg(-1) DW, respectively. High levels are accumulated in estuarine areas and are clearly related with sediment concentrations (biota-sediment accumulation factor ~10). Levels have decreased approximately 10-fold since the ban took effect, coinciding with a recovery of the shrimp stock after 30 years of gradual regression. Furthermore, the OT levels found in brown shrimp no longer present a human health risk.

  9. Evaluating a quantitative methionine requirement for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 10-wk feeding trial was conducted as a third study (all conducted in our laboratory) to determine a quantitative requirement of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei for sulfur amino acid methionine. Juvenile shrimp (mean weight 0.61 +/- 0.13 g) were reared in 110-L aquaria in a seawater recirculating sy...

  10. USE OF BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA IN THE FEEDING OF STURGEON JUVENILES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the technological and biological characteristics of the use of brine shrimp (Artemia in the feeding of sturgeon juvenilse (Acipenseridae. To highlight the common biotechnological bases of the enrichment of brine shrimp with biologically active substances necessary for the full development of sturgeon juveniles. Findings. The review of scientific papers showed that the technology is the use of brine shrimp in the feeding of sturgeon speices not only had not lost its relevance in aquaculture, but also continued to evolve in response to new challenges. The review contains a description of the peculiarities of the biological structure of brine shrimp eggs and methods of their quality assessment in the field. It describes the nutritional characteristics of Artemia. It is shown that brine shrimp is the best food organism for the use in the feeding of sturgeon fingerlings. The calculation scheme for Artemia decapsulation and incubation is provided. The main technological stages of of the preparation of shrimps before their use in feeding – activation, hydration, decapsulation, incubation, dehydration were described. The effect of brine shrimp nauplia enriched with biologically active substances enriched brine shrimp on sturgeon juveniles was highlighted. Practical value. Fish farm owners search for cost-effective, easy to use, and available food that is preferred by sturgeon juveniles (Acipenseridae. Brine shrimp nauplii obtained from cysts can be readil used to feed fish just after one-day incubation. Instar I (the nauplii that just hatched and contain large yolk reserves in their body and instar II nauplii (the nauplii after first moult and with functional digestive tracts are more widely used in aquaculture, because they are easy for operation, rich in nutrients, and small, which makes them suitable for feeding fish larvae as live feed or after drying. The generalized information will be important for

  11. Relating large-scale climate variability to local species abundance: ENSO forcing and shrimp in Breton Sound, Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Bryan P.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Keim, B.D.

    2010-01-01

    Climate creates environmental constraints (filters) that affect the abundance and distribution of species. In estuaries, these constraints often result from variability in water flow properties and environmental conditions (i.e. water flow, salinity, water temperature) and can have significant effects on the abundance and distribution of commercially important nekton species. We investigated links between large-scale climate variability and juvenile brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus abundance in Breton Sound estuary, Louisiana (USA). Our goals were to (1) determine if a teleconnection exists between local juvenile brown shrimp abundance and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and (2) relate that linkage to environmental constraints that may affect juvenile brown shrimp recruitment to, and survival in, the estuary. Our results identified a teleconnection between winter ENSO conditions and juvenile brown shrimp abundance in Breton Sound estuary the following spring. The physical connection results from the impact of ENSO on winter weather conditions in Breton Sound (air pressure, temperature, and precipitation). Juvenile brown shrimp abundance effects lagged ENSO by 3 mo: lower than average abundances of juvenile brown shrimp were caught in springs following winter El Niño events, and higher than average abundances of brown shrimp were caught in springs following La Niña winters. Salinity was the dominant ENSO-forced environmental filter for juvenile brown shrimp. Spring salinity was cumulatively forced by winter river discharge, winter wind forcing, and spring precipitation. Thus, predicting brown shrimp abundance requires incorporating climate variability into models.

  12. Investigations on juvenile fish excluder cum shrimp sorting device (JFE-SSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopendranath, Menothuparambil Ravunny; Pravin, Puthra; Gibinkumar, Therodath Rajan; Sabu, Sarasan; Madhu, Vettiyattil Ramakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Penaeid shrimp is a major resource in India contributing about 7.4% of the total marine fish landings. They are mostly landed by small mechanized trawlers. Shrimp trawling generates large quantities of bycatch mostly consisting of juvenile fishes, due to use of small mesh size in codends of trawl nets. Juvenile Fish Excluder cum Shrimp Sorting Device (JFE-SSD) is a bycatch reduction device with an in situ sorting mechanism, which replaces the conventional codend in a trawl. The device was designed to catch shrimps and commercially important fish species using a specially designed oval sorting grid with appropriate bar spacing and dual codends. Shrimp sorting efficiency and bycatch exclusion characteristics of JFE-SSD attached to a 29.6 m shrimp trawl, was tested by experimental fishing along the coastal waters off Cochin, India. Out of a total of 317.07 kg of catch encountered in the JFE-SSD installed trawl, 58.22% was retained in lower codend, 17.53% in upper codend and 24.25%, mostly consisting of juveniles and sub-adults of finfishes and shellfishes, was excluded from upper codend. The mean CPUE registered for upper and lower codend were 7.23±1.04 SE and 5.84±0.96 SE kg h(-1) respectively. The CPUE of shrimps retained in upper and lower codends were significantly different (Kruskal-Wallis test (1,62), P<0.001), but the mean CPUE for fishes did not vary significantly. The average escapement of shrimps and juvenile fishes from upper codend were 0.06±0.02 SE kg h(-1) and 2.40±0.44 SE kg h(-1) respectively. Significant differences in the length composition between upper and lower codends were noticed for Megalaspis cordyla, Stolephorus waitei, Metapenaeus dobsoni and Parapenaeopsis stylifera. The experiments demonstrated in situ sorting ability of the device and its potential to reduce the bycatch of juveniles and sub-adults in shrimp trawls.

  13. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). WHITE SHRIMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    temperature (15 - 66 mm long) did not fair well in in late spring and summer affect 41-opt salinity in the Laguna Madre , distribution and reduce the size of...distri- Food habits of juvenile marine bution of postlarval brown and white fishes occupying seagrass beds in shrimp near Galveston, Texas , with the...in catches shrimp of the Gulf of Mexico. of juvenile brown and white shrimp Trans. Am. Fish . Soc. 100(3):584- in a Texas estuarine canal. Con- 586

  14. Movements and activity of juvenile Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis)

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    Lardner, Bjorn; Savidge, Julie A.; Reed, Robert N.; Rodda, Gordon H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial ecology and foraging strategy of invasive animals is essential for success in control or eradication. We studied movements and activity in juvenile Brown Treesnakes on Guam, as this population segment has proven particularly difficult to control. Distance between daytime refugia (from telemetry of 18 juveniles, 423-800 mm snout-vent length) ranged from 0-118 m (n  =  86), with a grand mean of 43 m. There were tendencies for shorter snake movements on nights directly following a full moon and on dry nights, but variation among snakes was of a larger magnitude and would greatly reduce chances to detect moon or rain effects unless corrected for. Snake activity was estimated from audio recordings of signals from “tipping” radio transmitters, analyzed for pulse period and amplitude. Activity was highest in the hours immediately after sunset, and gradually declined throughout the night before dropping abruptly in conjunction with sunrise. Snake activity was higher on rainy nights, and tended to be highest during waning moons and when the moon was below the horizon. We conclude that small Brown Treesnakes forage actively and appear to move far enough to regularly encounter the traps and bait used on Guam for control purposes, suggesting that alternative explanations are required for their low capture rates with these control tools.

  15. Abundancia de juveniles de camarones peneidos comerciales en la zona norte de Laguna Madre, México Abundance of the commercial penaeid shrimp juveniles in the North zone of Laguna Madre, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando T. Wakida-Kusunoki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se tomaron muestras mensuales de agosto del 2005 a noviembre del 2006, para analizar los cambios de abundancia de juveniles de camarones peneidos comerciales en la parte norte de Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas. En cada una de las nueve estaciones de muestreo se realizó un arrastre nocturno, utilizando una red tipo chinchorro, de tamaño de malla de 1.25 cm y seis metros de longitud de relinga inferior. Se observaron tres especies de peneidos comerciales y cada una de ellas tuvo sus valores más altos de abundancia en diferentes periodos del año. El camarón café, Farfantepenaeus aztecus fue más abundante de abril-mayo; el camarón rosado, Farfantepenaeus dourarum en diciembre-enero y el camarón blanco, Litopenaeus setiferus en julio y septiembre. Estos resultados muestran que estas especies tienen un uso temporal diferencial en Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas.Monthly samplings were carried out during August, 2005 to November, 2006 to analizing the changes of the abundance of commercial juvenile penaeid shrimps in the North part of Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas. In every nine points a night trawl were carried out using a seine net of mesh size of 1.25 cm and 6 m length of bottom rope. Three commercial penaeid shrimp species were found and each one presented high abundance values for different periods of the year. Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, in April-May period; pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus dourarum, in December-January, and the white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus in July and September. These results showed that different species presented a differential temporal use in Laguna Madre.

  16. The effects of chronological age and size on toxicity of zinc to juvenile brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the role of chronological age and organism weight on zinc tolerance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Four different incubation temperatures were used to control the maturation of the juveniles prior to zinc exposure...

  17. The commons tragedy in the North Sea brown shrimp fishery: how horizontal institutional interactions inhibit a self-governance structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, Josien; Trapman, Brita K.; Steins, Nathalie A.; Poos, Jan Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulation is now widely regarded as an effective mechanism for collective action aimed at sustainable management of common pool resources. The brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) fishing industry in the Netherlands has been working on the implementation of a self-management strategy since 2007, as

  18. The detoxification process, bioaccumulation and damage effect in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to chrysene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianyun; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Lin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chrysene (CHR) on detoxification enzymes, bioaccumulation and effect of CHR on biomolecule damage in different organs of the juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed to CHR for 21 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.3, 2.1 and 14.7 μg/L. Results showed that CHR bioaccumulation increased rapidly at first then reached a plateau. The activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT) and uridinediphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) were induced and then became stable gradually. Moreover, 2.1 and 14.7 μg/L CHR treatments increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in gills and hepatopancreas, while total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and GSH/GSSG were suppressed after CHR exposure. Additionally, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, protein carbonyl (PC) contents and DNA damage were induced throughout the exposure period, and different trends were detected with time of exposure. Overall, these novel findings of CHR bioaccumulation and resulted toxicity demonstrate that CHR could affect the physical status of L. vannamei. This study will form a solid basis for a realistic extrapolation scientific data for aquaculture water monitoring and food security.

  19. Diel foraging and shelter use of large juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) under food satiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Jyde, M.; Filrup, K.;

    2012-01-01

    The diel partitioning of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta foraging behaviour is controlled by a number of factors including predation risk, competition, temperature and food availability. The present study uses PIT-tagging and visual observation to asses the use of shelter and foraging behaviour...... of Danish wild juvenile brown trout (13.5-15.6 cm). The experiment was conducted in a fluvarium and the fish were fed to satiation. It was hypothesised that food satiation would promote nocturnal foraging and increase daytime shelter use. Our results showed a significant difference in diel shelter use...

  20. Investigating the phenology of seaward migration of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) in two European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, E R.; Tummers, J. S.; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the existence of a downstream autumn-migratory phenotype in juvenile anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta), however the precise timing, extent and ecological significance of such behaviour remains ambiguous. We investigated the phenology of downstream migration of wild...

  1. Daytime habitat selection for juvenile parr brown trout (Salmo trutta) in small lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Boegh, E.; Olsen, M.;

    2014-01-01

    was determined for the four variables; water velocity, water depth, substrate and cover, and the preferences for physical habitat selection were expressed in terms of habitat suitability indices (HSI's). The statistical confidence of HSI's was evaluated using power analysis. It was found that a minimum of 22......Physical habitat is important in determining the carrying capacity of juvenile brown trout, and within freshwater management. Summer daytime physical habitat selection for the parr lifestage (7-20 cm) juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) was assessed in 6 small lowland streams. Habitat preference...... fish observations was needed to have statistical confidence in the HSIs for water depth, and a minimum of 92 fish observations for water velocity during daytime summer conditions. Generally parr were utilising the deeper habitats, indicating preference for deeper water. Cover was also being selected...

  2. Growth of juvenile shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros fed with squid and mussel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Small juveniles of both sexes and females of large juveniles of Metapenaeus monoceros attained faster growth with squid diet. Males of large juveniles registered better growth with mussel diet. No significant difference was observed in moult weights...

  3. Effects of turbidity on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow and brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan; Vaage, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Diet studies of rainbow and brown trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable depending on the physical conditions under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub changes in response to changes in turbidity. In overnight laboratory trials, we exposed hatchery-reared juvenile humpback chub and bonytail Gila elegans (a surrogate for humpback chub) to adult rainbow and brown trout at turbidities ranging from 0 to 1,000 formazin nephlometric units. We found that turbidity as low as 25 formazin nephlometric units significantly reduced predation vulnerability of bonytail to rainbow trout and led to a 36% mean increase in survival (24–60%, 95% CI) compared to trials conducted in clear water. Predation vulnerability of bonytail to brown trout at 25 formazin nephlometric units also decreased with increasing turbidity and resulted in a 25% increase in survival on average (17–32%, 95% CI). Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered humpback chub is important when evaluating management options aimed at preservation of native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park. This research suggests that relatively small changes in turbidity may be sufficient to alter predation dynamics of trout on humpback chub in the mainstem Colorado River and that turbidity manipulation may warrant further investigation as a fisheries management tool.

  4. Effect of cadmium and glutathione on malic enzyme activity in brown shrimps (Crangon crangon from the Gulf of Gdańsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward F. Skorkowski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The high level of cadmium in the abdominal muscle of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon is due to the serious pollution of the water in the Gulf of Gdansk. The inhibition of malic enzyme (ME activity by cadmium, and in consequence the reduced formation of NADPH, could interfere with cellular mechanisms for detoxifying the organism and reducing oxidative stress. The reduced glutathione (GSH concentration in the abdominal muscle of C. crangon was calculated to be 5.8 mM. The objective of this study was to evaluate the part played by GSH in the effect of cadmium on the activity of NADP-dependent malic enzyme from abdominal muscles of brown shrimps. This enzyme is activated by certain divalent cations (Mg, Mn. The results demonstrate that cadmium inhibits ME activity from shrimp muscle, and that GSH and albumin can reduce this cadmium-inhibited NADP-dependent malic enzyme activity.

  5. Field observations onsSelectivet tidal-stream transport for postlarval and juvenile pink shrimp in florida bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales, Maria M.; Robblee, M.B.; Browder, Joan A.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Postlarvae and juveniles of pink shrimp were collected in the summers of 2005 and 2006 at three stations in northwestern Florida Bay, the main nursery ground of this species in South Florida. Collections were made at one- or two-hour intervals during three full moon nights and two new moon nights at depth intervals in the water column. Results of the five collections were consistent with the assumption that postlarvae use a flood-tide transport (FTT) to advance into the estuary by ascending in the water column during the dark-flood tide and resting near the bottom during the ebb tide. Evidence of a FTT were higher numbers of postlarvae per hour collected during the flood tide vs. ebb tide and the large number of postlarvae collected with highest velocity flood tide currents. ANOVA indicated significant differences in the number of postlarvae collected between tidal stages and moon phases, but not among depths. Postlarvae were more abundant during new moon than full moon. We also found different patterns of postlarval distribution between the new and full moon. During the new moon, a large peak of postlarvae occurred coincident with highest current speeds, whereas, with one exception, during the full moon postlarvae were more abundant in the second half of the flood period near the slack tide. In contrast, juveniles exhibited a behavior and migratory pattern opposite to that of postlarvae. ANOVA indicated significant differences between the number of juveniles captured between tidal stages and among depths, but not between moon phases. Juveniles were found almost exclusively near the surface on the ebb tide. Significantly larger juveniles were captured on the dark-ebb rather than on the dark-flood tide during both moon phases, suggesting that older juveniles were leaving the Bay on the ebb tide. ?? The Crustacean Society.

  6. Identification of the major brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) allergen as the muscle protein tropomyosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daul, C B; Slattery, M; Reese, G; Lehrer, S B

    1994-09-01

    Shrimp, a major seafood allergen, was investigated as a model food allergen. Extracts from both shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) meat and cooking fluid contain a substantial and similar amount of allergenic activity. A 36-kD allergen, demonstrated in both extracts by SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis, reacted with 28/34 (82%) sera from shrimp-sensitive, skin test and RAST-positive, individuals. This allergen, named Pen a I, was isolated by SDS-PAGE; its amino acid composition was rich in aspartic and glutamic acids. A 21-residue peptide, obtained from endoproteinase Lys-C digested Pen a I by high-performance liquid chromatography, demonstrated significant homology (60-87%) with the muscle protein tropomyosin from various species and origins. The greatest homology (87%) was noted with tropomyosin of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) reflecting the phylogenic relationship between these two arthropods. These studies demonstrate that tropomyosin is the major shrimp allergen. Although the amino acid sequence of this shrimp muscle protein shares considerable homology with tropomyosins of other species including man, significant differences remain in allergenic activity.

  7. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  8. Daytime habitat selection for juvenile parr brown trout (Salmo trutta in small lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conallin J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical habitat is important in determining the carrying capacity of juvenile brown trout, and within freshwater management. Summer daytime physical habitat selection for the parr lifestage (7–20 cm juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta was assessed in 6 small lowland streams. Habitat preference was determined for the four variables; water velocity, water depth, substrate and cover, and the preferences for physical habitat selection were expressed in terms of habitat suitability indices (HSI’s. The statistical confidence of HSI’s was evaluated using power analysis. It was found that a minimum of 22 fish observations was needed to have statistical confidence in the HSIs for water depth, and a minimum of 92 fish observations for water velocity during daytime summer conditions. Generally parr were utilising the deeper habitats, indicating preference for deeper water. Cover was also being selected for at all sites, but selection was inconsistent among sites for the variables substrate and velocity. The results indicate that during daytime summer conditions water depth is a significant variable for parr habitat selection in these small lowland streams, with cover also being important. Therefore, daytime refugia may be a critical limiting factor for parr in small lowland streams, and important for stream management actions under the Water Framework Directive.

  9. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P vannamei.

  10. Burrowing behavior of penaeid shrimps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, and white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, were held were held under natural light conditions before experiments. Experiments...

  11. Seasonal variations in larval biomass and biochemical composition of brown shrimp, Crangon crangon (Decapoda, Caridea), at hatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Ángel; Anger, Klaus

    2013-06-01

    The "brown shrimp", Crangon crangon (Linnaeus 1758), is a benthic key species in the North Sea ecosystem, supporting an intense commercial fishery. Its reproductive pattern is characterized by a continuous spawning season from mid-winter to early autumn. During this extended period, C. crangon shows significant seasonal variations in egg size and embryonic biomass, which may influence larval quality at hatching. In the present study, we quantified seasonal changes in dry weight (W) and chemical composition (CHN, protein and lipid) of newly hatched larvae of C. crangon. Our data revealed significant variations, with maximum biomass values at the beginning of the hatching season (February-March), a decrease throughout spring (April-May) and a minimum in summer (June-September). While all absolute values of biomass and biochemical constituents per larva showed highly significant differences between months ( P additive models (GAM), key variables of embryonic development exerted significant effects on larval condition at hatching: The larval carbon content (C) was positively correlated with embryonic carbon content shortly after egg-laying ( r 2 = 0.60; P Additionally, water temperature ( r 2 = 0.57; P food availability (phytoplankton C; r 2 = 0.39; P effects persisting from the embryonic to the larval phase. Since "winter larvae" are more likely exposed to poor nutritional conditions, intraspecific variability in larval biomass at hatching is interpreted as part of an adaptive reproductive strategy compensating for strong seasonality in plankton production and transitory periods of larval food limitation.

  12. Growth of hatchery raised banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis (de Man) (Crustacea: Decapoda) juveniles under different salinity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    relationships of estuaries to the fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico, in Estuaries, edited by Lauff G H (Amer Ass Adv Sci Publ, Washington D C) 1967, pp. 621-638. 3 Mair J McD, Salinity and water-type preference of four species of postlarval shrimp (Penaeus) from... west Mexico, J Exp Mar Biol Ecol, 45(1980)69-82. 4 Achuthankutty C T & Parulekar A H, Biology of commercially important penaeid prawns of Goa waters, Indian J Mar Sci, 15 (1986)171-173. 5 Achuthankutty C T & Parulekar A H, Distribution of penaeid...

  13. DE0823-49 is a juvenile binary brown dwarf at 20.7 pc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlmann, J.; Burgasser, A. J.; Martín, E. L.; Lazorenko, P. F.; Bardalez Gagliuffi, D. C.; Mayor, M.; Ségransan, D.; Queloz, D.; Udry, S.

    2015-07-01

    Astrometric monitoring of the nearby early-L dwarf DE0823-49 has revealed a low-mass companion in a 248-day orbit that was announced in an earlier work. Here, we present new astrometric and spectroscopic observations that allow us to characterise the system in detail. The optical spectrum shows Li i-absorption indicative of a young age and/or substellar mass for the primary component. The near-infrared spectrum is best reproduced by a binary system of brown dwarfs with spectral types of L1.5 + L5.5 and effective temperatures of 2150 ± 100 K and 1670 ± 140 K. To conform with the photocentric orbit size measured with astrometry and the current understanding of substellar evolution, the system must have an age in the 80-500 Myr range. Evolutionary models predict component masses in the ranges of M1 ≃ 0.028-0.063 M⊙ and M2 ≃ 0.018-0.045 M⊙ with a mass ratio of q ≃ 0.64-0.74. Multi-epoch radial velocity measurements unambiguously establish the three-dimensional orbit of the system and allow us to investigate its kinematic properties. DE0823-49 emerges as a rare example of a nearby brown dwarf binary with orbit, component properties, and age that are characterised well. It is a juvenile resident of the solar neighbourhood, but does not appear to belong to a known young association or moving group. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 086.C-0680, 088.C-0679, 090.C-0786, and 092.C-0202.

  14. Distribution pattern of juveniles of the pink shrimps Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817 and F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 on the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Caetano da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The spatio-temporal distribution of juveniles of the pink shrimps Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817 and Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 in the Ubatuba region (SP was investigated. Sampling was performed in the bays of Ubatumirim (UBM, Ubatuba (UBA and Mar Virado (MV. A total of 2,018 F. brasiliensis and F. paulensis were collected. The largest catch of juveniles of both species occurred in UBA (N = 867, followed by UBM (N = 729 and MV (N= 422. The bottom sediment in MV had the highest silt and clay content, which explains the negative correlation of the substrate with the abundance of both species. Temperature was positively correlated with the abundance of both species. Juveniles were highly abundant in shallower areas in the summer of 1998. The high rainfall in this El Niño period may have lowered the salinity in estuarine waters and led the shrimps to move to coastal areas in search of higher salinities such as in bays. With this unusually early reduction in salinity, individuals migrated to the bay before the closed season began and thus became more exposed to fishing. We confirmed that monitoring environmental variations, especially in El Niño years, is essential for understanding the distribution patterns of juveniles of both species.

  15. Structure and interactions of calcite spherulites with {alpha}-chitin in the brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior C.U. Apdo., Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Physikalisches Institut and Center for Nanotechnology, Universitaet Muenster, Gievenbecker Weg 11, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Aguilar-Franco, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Depto de Fisicoquimica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria Apartado Postal 20-364 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Magana, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Depto de Estado Solido, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria Apartado Postal 20-364 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Flores, C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Depto de Estado Solido, Laboratorio de Biomateriales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior C.U. S/N CP 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Pina, C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Depto de Estado Solido, Laboratorio de Biomateriales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior C.U. S/N CP 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Velazquez, R. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Km. 15 Carretera Queretaro-San Luis Potosi, C.P. 76230, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Schaeffer, T.E. [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Nanotechnology, Universitaet Muenster, Gievenbecker Weg 11, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Bucio, L. [Instituto de Fisica, Depto de Estado Solido, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria Apartado Postal 20-364 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Basiuk, V.A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior C.U. Apdo., Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    White spots form in the brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus, Decapoda) shell during frozen storage. The mineral formed consists of calcite incorporated into an amorphous {alpha}-chitin matrix. We studied mechanisms of interaction of amorphous {alpha}-chitin macromolecules with hkl crystal planes to form highly ordered structures, as well as the role of specific sites in the biopolymer, which can be related to nucleation and spheroidal crystal growth. We used low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and molecular mechanics modeling (MM+ method). AFM images showed fingerprint distances in the biopolymer and a highly layered structure in the crystalline material. The presence of {alpha}-chitin, with a specific spatial distribution of radicals, is thought to be responsible for nucleation and to thermodynamically stabilize ions to form the spherulite crystalline phase, which are usually oval to spherical (0.10 to 200 {mu}m in diameter). Our models of crystal-biopolymer interaction found high affinity of CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} anions in the (104) crystalline plane (the main plane in calcite monocrystals) to NH- groups of the biopolymer, as well as of the C=O in the biopolymer to Ca{sup 2+} cations in the crystalline structure. These interactions explain the spherical growth and inhibition in some planes. The specific physicochemical interactions (docking of groups depending on their geometrical distribution) suggest that the biomineral structure is controlled by the biopolymer on a local scale. This information is useful for further design and improvement of (hybrid) materials for versatile application, from nanotechnology to biomedicine and engineering.

  16. Spatial distribution of southern brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus subtilis on the Amazon continental shelf: a fishery, marine geology and GIS integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah E. G. Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The spatial distribution of the southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 was studied based on industrial fishing fleet activities and is associated with geological and oceanographic characteristics of the benthonic environments on the Amazon continental shelf. Using a geographical information system (GIS this paper sought to calculate the relative abundance of brown shrimp based on catch per unit effort (CPUE and compare it with bathymetry, type of sedimentary structure, sedimentation rate and bottom salinity. As a result, we have concluded that the relative abundance (in terms of CPUE is not uniformly distributed in space. Spatial analysis indicates that commercial trawling efforts were made in the (foreset region of the subaqueous Amazon delta at depths of 40 to 60 m. In this region, prawn are responsible for the bioturbation of the sediments and the creation of a sedimentary structure called mottled mud. In the foreset region, sedimentation rates progressively increased up to 10 cm.yr-1; re-suspension was reduced and bottom salinity was high (~ 36. It appears that all of these factors define a stable muddy area with intense bioturbation. This notable biological activity is to be explained by the occurrence of a high F. subtilis abundance that appears to originate in a microbial loop. We concluded that by combining fishery information with environmental data from a GIS, it was possible to identify abundance distribution patterns for southern brown shrimp and other economically important fishery resources and to understand how they change on a large spatial-scale.

  17. Enfermedad de la mancha del caparazón en el camarón de cultivo Litopenaeus vannamei - Brown spot disease in aquaculture shrimp litopenaeus vanname.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rubio Limonta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa presencia de manchas color café a negro en el camarón Litopenaeus vannamei constituye un síndrome relacionado con infecciones bacterianas o fúngicas en cutícula, apéndices o branquias, causante de depreciación comercial del producto.AbstractThe presence of brown to black spots on shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a syndrome related to bacterial or fungal cuticle, appendages or gills, causing commercial depreciation of the product.

  18. Enfermedad de la mancha del caparazón en el camarón de cultivo Litopenaeus vannamei - Brown spot disease in aquaculture shrimp litopenaeus vanname.

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Rubio Limonta; Raquel Silveira Coffigny; Lourdes Pérez Jar; Norma González Herrate

    2012-01-01

    ResumenLa presencia de manchas color café a negro en el camarón Litopenaeus vannamei constituye un síndrome relacionado con infecciones bacterianas o fúngicas en cutícula, apéndices o branquias, causante de depreciación comercial del producto.AbstractThe presence of brown to black spots on shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a syndrome related to bacterial or fungal cuticle, appendages or gills, causing commercial depreciation of the product.

  19. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero ( P0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  20. Estimation of genetic parameters and genotype-by-environment interactions related to acute ammonia stress in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles at two different salinity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Cao, Baoxiang; Meng, Xianhong; Sui, Juan; Dai, Ping; Luo, Kun; Shi, Xiaoli; Hao, Dengchun; Han, Guomin; Kong, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Regarding the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the deterioration of water quality from intensive culture systems and environmental pollution is a common but troublesome problem in the cultivation of this species. The toxicities that result from deteriorating water quality, such as that from ammonia stress, have lethal effects on juvenile shrimp and can increase their susceptibility to pathogens. The toxicity of ammonia plays an important role in the frequently high mortality during the early stage on shrimp farms. However, little information is available regarding the genetic parameters of the ammonia tolerance of juveniles in the early stage, but this information is necessary to understand the potential for the genetic improvement of this trait. Considering the euryhalinity of L. vannamei and the fact that low salinity can increase the toxicity of ammonia stress, we estimated the heritability of ammonia tolerance in juveniles in 30‰ (normal) and 5‰ (low) salinity in this study using the survival time (ST) at individual level and the survival status at the half-lethal time (SS50) at the family level. In the normal and low salinity conditions and for the merged data, the heritability estimates of the ST (0.784±0.070, 0.575±0.068, and 0.517±0.058, respectively) and SS50 (0.402±0.061, 0.216±0.050, and 0.264±0.050, respectively) were all significantly greater than zero, which indicates that the ammonia-tolerance of shrimp can be greatly improved. So it might provide an alternative method to reduce mortality, help to enhance resistance to pathogens and reduce the occurrence of infectious diseases. The significant positive genetic correlation between ST and body length suggested that ammonia is more toxic to shrimp in the early stage. The medium-strength genetic correlations of the ST and SS50 between the two environments (0.394±0.097 and 0.377±0.098, respectively) indicate a strong genotype-by-environment (G×E) interaction for ammonia tolerance

  1. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, Lisa I; van der Meulen, Myra D; Maes, Thomas; Bekaert, Karen; Paul-Pont, Ika; Frère, Laura; Robbens, Johan; Vethaak, A Dick

    2015-09-15

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North Sea. Synthetic fibers ranging from 200μm up to 1000μm size were detected in 63% of the assessed shrimp and an average value of 0.68±0.55microplastics/g w. w. (1.23±0.99microplastics/shrimp) was obtained for shrimp in the sampled area. The assessment revealed no spatial patterns in plastic ingestion, but temporal differences were reported. The microplastic uptake was significantly higher in October compared to March. The results suggest that microplastics >20μm are not able to translocate into the tissues.

  2. Toxicokinetics of tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) and effects on plasma sex hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmill, Bonnie [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Pleskach, Kerri [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Peters, Lisa [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Palace, Vince [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Wautier, Kerry; Park, Brad [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Darling, Colin; Rosenberg, Bruno [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); McCrindle, Robert [Wellington Laboratories Incorporated, Research Division, Guelph, ON N1G 3M5 (Canada); Tomy, Gregg T., E-mail: gregg.tomy@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Technical 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane or tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) used primarily as an additive flame retardant in polystyrene foams, contains two diastereoisomers, {alpha}- and {beta}- present in equimolar amounts. At temperatures in excess of 125 {sup o}C, isomerization to two other isoforms, {delta}- and {gamma}- is possible. The recent detection of TBECH in the environment and studies suggesting that isomers are androgenic prompted us to examine the toxicokinetics and biochemical effects of one of the isomers, {beta}-, in a controlled laboratory environment. Juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to three different amounts of the {beta}-isomer (low, medium and high) via the food followed by a period in which they were exposed to unfortified food. A fourth group of fish was exposed to unfortified food for the duration of the experiment. On days 0, 7, 14, 21, 35, 49, 56, 63, 77, 91, 105, and 133, eight fish from each treatment group were euthanized and liver, plasma, lower jaw (i.e., thyroid tissue) and gonad were collected and the remaining tissue ('whole-fish') was retained. {beta}-Isomer content was measured in whole-fish and in liver while estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) were measured in plasma. Based on liver and gonad somatic indices, no apparent effects on liver or gonad development in fish from any of the treatment groups were observed. The bioaccumulation of {beta}-isomer was similar in fish from all treatment groups with steady-state occurring before the end of the uptake phase. Depuration of the {beta}-isomer from fish obeyed first order kinetics and there were no statistically significant differences in the depuration half life (t{sub 1/2}) among the treatment groups: 22.5 {+-} 10.4 (low), 13.5 {+-} 5.9 (med) and 13.8 {+-} 2.2 (high) days. Steady-state biomagnification factors were much smaller than 1 for fish in all treatment groups. Debrominated metabolites were not

  3. The Areal Extent of Brown Shrimp Habitat Suitability in Mobile Bay, Alabama USA: Targeting Vegetated Habitat Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of wetlands and shallow water habitats significantly influences Gulf of Mexico (GOM) penaeid shrimp fishery productivity. However, the GOM region has the highest rate of wetland loss in the U.S. Protection and management of these vital GOM habitats are critical t...

  4. The Areal Extent of Brown Shrimp Habitat Suitability in Mobile Bay, Alabama USA: Targeting Vegetated Habitat Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of wetlands and shallow water habitats significantly influences Gulf of Mexico (GOM) penaeid shrimp fishery productivity. However, the GOM region has the highest rate of wetland loss in the U.S. Protection and management of these vital GOM habitats are critical t...

  5. The effect of choline and cystine on the utilisation of methionine for protein accretion, remethylation and trans-sulfuration in juvenile shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Lenaïg; Vachot, Christiane; Surget, Anne; Rigolet, Vincent; Kaushik, Sadasivam J; Geurden, Inge

    2011-09-01

    This 35-d feeding experiment examined in juvenile shrimp Penaeus monodon (3·3 g initial body weight) the effects of methionine (Met), choline and cystine on protein accretion and the activity of two key enzymes of remethylation (betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase; BHMT) and trans-sulfuration (cystathionine β-synthase; CBS). The interaction between Met and choline was tested using semi-purified diets either adequate or limiting (30 or 50 %) in total sulphur amino acid (SAA) content with a constant cystine:Met ratio. The diets contained either basal or excess choline (3 v. 7 g/kg feed). Cystine was added to two other 30 and 50 % Met-limiting diets to adjust the SAA supply to that of the control diet in order to evaluate the interaction between Met and cystine. As expected, N accretion was significantly lower with the SAA-limiting diets but increased back to control levels by the extra choline or cystine, demonstrating their sparing effect on Met utilisation for protein accretion. We show, for the first time, the activities of BHMT and CBS in shrimp hepatopancreas. Only BHMT responded to the SAA deficiencies, whereas the extra choline and cystine did not stimulate remethylation or down-regulate trans-sulfuration. Our data also suggest the capacity of P. monodon to synthesise taurine, being significantly affected by the cystine level in the 30 % SAA-limiting diets. Further research is warranted to better understand the metabolic regulation of taurine synthesis in shrimp and of the observed Met-sparing effects.

  6. Effect of cadmium-polluted diet on growth, salinity stress, hepatotoxicity of juvenile Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): Protective effect of Zn(II)-curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying-Ying; Chen, Shi-Jun; Chen, Ming; Tian, Li-Xia; Niu, Jin; Liu, Yong-Jian; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major transitional metals that have toxic effects on aquatic organisms. To investigate the effects of dietary cadmium on growth, salinity stress, hepatotoxicity in juvenile Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei) and potential protective effect of Zn(II)-curcumin, five experimental diets (control, 100mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin, 30mg/kg Cd, 30mg/kg Cd+100mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin, 30mg/kg Cd+200mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin) were formulated. The results showed that Cd at 30mg/kg induced significant increase in weight gain, specific growth rate and visible alterations to the hepatopancreas structures of L. vannamei. Compared with control diet, 100mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin added diet had no effect on growth performance or feed utilization, while healthier hepatopancreas and less plasma ALT, AST production was found. Moreover, 200mg/kg dietary Zn(II)-curcumin significantly ameliorated the Cd induced hepatotoxicity while 100mg/kg dietary Zn(II)-curcumin slightly ameliorated. Cd accumulation in the whole body was decreasing and Metallothioneins like was increasing in hepatopancreas with increasing dietary Zn(II)-curcumin level. The shrimp fed with dietary Zn(II)-curcumin showed higher survival rate after acute salinity change. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that hepatotoxicity and hormesis could be induced by Cd when Cd levels were 30mg/kg, Zn(II)-curcumin could mitigate the effects of dietary Cd on L. vannamei.

  7. Compensatory growth of juvenile brown flounder Paralichthys olivaceus following low temperature treatment for different periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yinhui; Liu, Xiujia; Huang, Guoqiang; Wei, Liuzhi; Zhang, Xiumei

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the effects of low temperature (8.5°C) on the growth and feeding rates and feed conversion efficiency of juvenile P. olivaceus with an average initial weight of 3.87 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SE). Fish were exposed to 8.5°C for 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and then to 20°C for 10, 9, 8, 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Low temperature clearly led to growth depression. The weight of fish exposed to low temperature for 1 week was restored to that of control, while that of fish exposed to low temperature longer was significantly decreased ( P 0.05). Feeding rate and feed conversion efficiency were reduced at low temperature in juvenile P. olivaceus. The compensatory growth of juvenile P. olivaceus may therefore be attributed to the improvement of feeding rate. Our results suggested that growth depression occurs when juvenile P. olivaceus are exposed to low temperature for more than one week.

  8. Size-based trends and management implications of microhabitat utilization by Brown Treesnakes, with an emphasis on juvenile snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Reed, Robert N.

    2007-01-01

    The brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis, or BTS), a costly invasive species, has been the subject of intensive research on Guam over the past two decades. The behavior and habitat use of hatchling and juvenile snakes, however, remain largely unknown. We used a long-term dataset of BTS captures (N = 2,415) and a dataset resulting from intensive sampling within and immediately around a 5-ha fenced population (N = 2,541) to examine habitat use of BTS. Small snakes were almost exclusively arboreal and that they appeared to prefer tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) habitats. In contrast, large snakes used arboreal and terrestrial habitats in roughly equal proportion, and were less frequently found in tangantangan. Among snakes found in trees, there were no clear size-based preferences for certain heights above ground, nor for size-based choice of perch diameters. We discuss these results as they relate to management and interdiction implications for brown treesnakes on Guam and in potential incipient populations on other islands.

  9. Changes in the fatty acid composition of wild harlequin shrimp, Hymenocera picta Dana, 1852 from eggs, newly hatched zoea and juvenile stages: an insight into the fatty acid requirements for aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarunan Pratoomyot

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The colourful harlequin shrimp, Hymenocera picta, is a valuable marine ornamental species but low survival remains a bottleneck to successful commercial culture. Understanding the biochemical composition, notably through the determination of the fatty acid profiles in wild eggs, newly hatched and juvenile shrimp, can provide important information on the nutritional requirements of H. picta. Following analysis, the rank order of fatty acid composition was saturates > monoenes > polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Within the PUFA content, n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA was the major representative in all three stages; n-6 PUFA was found in lower amounts, and, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6 was not detectable. Observed increases in EPA and DHA from the eggs through to newly hatched zoea and juvenile shrimp indicate the importance of n-3 HUFA for growth and survival, i.e. as components in the formation of cell membranes. These findings should be given due consideration as a first approach to understanding the fatty acid requirements of harlequin shrimp.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a juvenile hormone esterase gene from brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhua; Yang, Baojun; Gu, Jianhua; Yao, Xiangmei; Zhang, Yixi; Song, Feng; Liu, Zewen

    2008-12-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) plays key roles in the regulation of growth, development, diapause and reproduction in insects, and juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an important role in regulating JH titers. We obtained a full-length cDNA encoding JHE in Nilaparvata lugens (NlJHE), the first JHE gene cloned from the hemipteran insects. The deduced protein sequence of Nljhe contains the five conserved motifs identified in JHEs of other insect species, including a consensus GQSAG motif that is required for the enzymatic activity of JHE proteins. Nljhe showed high amino acid similarities with Athalia rosae JHE (40%) and Apis mellifera JHE (39%). Recombinant NlJHE protein expressed in the baculovirus expression system hydrolyzed [3H] JH III at high activity and yielded the specificity constants (kcat/KM=4.28x10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) close to those of the validated JHEs from other insect species, indicating that Nljhe cDNA encodes a functional JH esterase. The Nljhe transcript was expressed mainly in the fat body and the expression level reached a peak at 48 h after ecdysis of the 5th instar nymphs. In the 5th instar, macropterous insects showed significantly higher Nljhe mRNA levels and JHE activities, but much lower JH III levels, than those detected in the brachypterous insects soon after ecdysis and at 48 h after ecdysis. These data suggest that NlJHE might play important roles in regulation of JH levels and wing form differentiation.

  11. Osmoregulation by juvenile brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, in hypo- and hyper-saline waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, R L; Hansen, M J; Franklin, C E

    2015-07-01

    While there is a considerable body of work describing osmoregulation by elasmobranchs in brackish and saltwater, far fewer studies have investigated osmoregulation in hypersaline waters. We examined osmo- and ionoregulatory function and plasticity in juvenile brown-banded bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum, exposed to three experimental salinities (25, 34 and 40‰) for two weeks. C. punctatum inhabits sheltered coastal areas and bays which can naturally become hypersaline as a consequence of evaporation of water but can also become hyposaline during flood events. We hypothesised that C. punctatum would demonstrate a phenotypically plastic osmoregulatory physiology. Plasma osmolality, urea, Na(+) and Cl(-) levels increased significantly with increasing environmental salinity. Rectal gland and branchial sodium-potassium ATPase (NKA) activities were unaffected by salinity. Using immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting we found evidence for the presence of the key ion-regulatory proteins vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (VHA), pendrin (Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) co-transporter) and the Na(+)-H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) in discrete cells within the branchial epithelia. These results indicate that C. punctatum is a partially euryhaline elasmobranch able to maintain osmo- and ionoregulatory function between environmental salinities of 25‰ and 40‰. As suggested for other elasmobranchs, the gills of C. punctatum likely play a limited role in maintaining Na(+) homeostasis over the salinity range studied, but may play an important role in acid-base balance.

  12. 凡纳滨对虾幼虾的缬氨酸需要量%Valine Requirement of Juvenile Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vanname

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周歧存; 王用黎; 黄文文; 霍雅文; 王猛强

    2015-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary valine content on growth per-formance, common nutrient composition and amino acid metabolic enzyme activities of juvenile Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vanname ) , and in order to determine the valine requirementof juvenile Pacific white shrimp. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets ( crude protein content was about 40.0%, and crude lipid content was about 7. 5%) were formulated with fish meal and soybean meal as main protein sources,and the measued values of valine content ( dry matter basis) in those diets were 1. 56%, 1.64%, 1.72%, 1.82%, 1.90% and 1.96%, respectively. A total of 540 juvenile Pacific white shrimp with the body weight was about 0.3 g were randomly divided into 6 groups with 3 replicates per group ( diet) and 30 juven-iles per replicate. The results showed that the weight gain rate, specific growth rate, protein retention rate and feed efficiency were firstly increased and then decreased with dietary valine content increasing, and the biggest values of them were found when dietary valine content was 1.82%. When dietary valine content was 1.72%, the crude protein content of whole body had the highest value, and it was decreased in different degree with di-etary valine content further increasing. The crude protein content of muscle had the highest value when dietary valine content was 1. 96%, and it was significantly higher than when dietary valine content was 1. 56% or 1.72% ( P0.05) . The highest values of alanine aminotransferase activ-ity in serum and hepatopancreas were all found in the group with the highest content of valine ( the group with the valine content was 1.96%) , and the highest values of alanine aminotransferase activity in muscle and alka-line phosphatase activity in hepatopancreas were all found in the group with the valine content was 1.90%. Di-etary valine content had no significant effect on aspartate aminotransferase activity in

  13. DE0823$-$49 is a juvenile binary brown dwarf at 20.7 pc

    CERN Document Server

    Sahlmann, J; Martín, E L; Lazorenko, P F; Gagliuffi, D C Bardalez; Mayor, M; Ségransan, D; Queloz, D; Udry, S

    2015-01-01

    Astrometric monitoring of the nearby early-L dwarf DE0823$-$49 has revealed a low-mass companion in a 248-day orbit that was announced in an earlier work. Here, we present new astrometric and spectroscopic observations that allow us to characterise the system in detail. The optical spectrum shows LiI-absorption indicative of a young age and/or substellar mass for the primary component. The near-infrared spectrum is best reproduced by a binary system of brown dwarfs with spectral types of L1.5 $+$ L5.5 and effective temperatures of $2150\\pm100$ K and $1670\\pm140$ K. To conform with the photocentric orbit size measured with astrometry and the current understanding of substellar evolution, the system must have an age in the 80--500 Myr range. Evolutionary models predict component masses in the ranges of $M_1\\simeq0.028-0.063\\,M_\\odot$ and $M_2\\simeq0.018-0.045\\,M_\\odot$ with a mass ratio of $q\\simeq0.64-0.74$. Multi-epoch radial velocity measurements unambiguously establish the three-dimensional orbit of the sys...

  14. External fluorescence retention of calcein-marked juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta raised in natural and artificial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, A; O'Rourke, J; Rubin, J-F

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence retention and intensity of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta marked during their first summer were monitored in a hatchery and in four natural streams. A handheld detector was used for direct examination. In the hatchery, three marking treatments (T) were compared: 3·5 min in a 0·5% calcein solution (T0·5-3·5), 7 min in a 0·5% calcein solution (T0·5-7) and 3·5 min in a 1% calcein solution (T1-3·5). The fish were raised indoors for 11 months and then outdoors until 18 months. The fluorescence retention rate was 100% in all treatments at 11 months, although T1-3·5 showed the highest mean fluorescence intensity, followed by T0·5-7 and T0·5-3·5. The fluorescence intensity was not correlated with the final total length (L(T)) of the fish in two treatments, although it significantly decreased with increasing L(T) in T1-3·5. At 18 months, fluorescent, suggesting a negative effect of sunlight exposure. In stream studies, the fluorescence intensity did not significantly differ according to final L(T); an overall mean ± s.d. retention rate of 70·7 ± 26·6% was measured at 12 months with a decrease to 48·6 ± 24·6% at 24 months. Significant differences amongst streams and within reaches of the same stream were observed. Because of a significant positive effect of the shading index on the fluorescence intensity, the use of calcein should be restricted to streams unexposed to direct sunlight. Consequently, the marking method would be reliable for 1 year monitoring studies in shaded streams.

  15. Estimación de la emigración del camarón café Farfantepenaeus aztecus a través de la boca del Mezquital, Tamaulipas, México Emigration assessment of the Brown Shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus through Mezquital Inlet, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando T. Wakida-Kusunoki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan la variación en abundancia de juveniles de camarón café (Farfantepeneaeus aztecus durante su principal periodo de emigración hacia el mar, en la boca del Mezquital, Tamaulipas. Los muestreos fueron realizados entre mayo y julio del 2003 al 2007 y consistieron en el uso de una red de corriente experimental durante el periodo nocturno y durante periodos de bajamar, en los tres días anteriores y posteriores a la presencia de luna nueva y llena. La información fue complementada con datos de abundancia obtenidos con arrastres en cruceros de investigación realizados en la costa de Tamaulipas durante mayo a julio del 2003 al 2007. Los resultados muestran que los máximos valores de emigración (kg/noche se presentan durante el periodo lunar a finales de mayo y/o principios de junio, indistintamente de la fase lunar y se relacionaron directamente con aumentos en los valores de abundancia en la zona costera y marina. Estos resultados son de gran importancia porque demuestran que mayo y junio son meses críticos para esta especie, y sirven como base para la definición de los periodos de veda para la pesca de camarón, tanto en la zona lagunar como en altamar.Variations of juvenile abundance of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus during its main period of migration in Mezquital Inlet, Tamaulipas are presented. Sampling was carried out from 2003 to 2007 between May and July and consisted in the use of an experimental net during the nocturnal period and ebb tide, three days before and after full and new moon. The information was complemented with abundance data of trawl research cruises carried out off the coast of Tamaulipas between May and July from 2003 to 2007. The results showed that the higher values of emigration (kg/night occurred during the moon period in late May or early June, independently of the lunar phase. The higher values of emigration toward the sea are directly related to the increase in the abundance in the coastal

  16. Growth and Feed Efficiency of Juvenile Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Formulated Diets Containing Different Levels of Poultry by-Product Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Shuyan; TAN Beiping; MAI Kangsen; ZHENG Shixuan

    2009-01-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture ofLitopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower (P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litopenaeus vannamei.

  17. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  18. Immunity enhancement with administration of Gracilaria corticata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae compared to gamma irradiation in expose to WSSV in shrimp, in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Kakoolaki, Shapour; Mohammadidost, Mehrdad

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the efficacy of Gracilaria corticata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and gamma irradiation WSSV as immunostimulants to white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven hundred and twenty healthy shrimp SPF L. vannamei subadult with average weight of 10 ± 1.02 g were collected and divided into 8 groups. The first group (T1) was fed with commercial pellet, the second group (T2) fed with S. cerevisiae (2 g/kg), the third group (T3) fed with G. corticata powder mixed with shrimp feed (2 g/kg) and, finally, the fourth group (T4) was fed with commercial pellet and injected intramuscularly gamma irradiant WSSV (1 μl/gbw) for 10 days. The shrimps were then injected with WSSV and maintained for 25 days. The positive control group for each treatment was maintained in the same manner but without injection with WSSV. Moreover, survival rate and immune parameters such as total hemocyte count (THC), total protein plasma (TPP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity and phenoloxidase activity (PO) were determined. Results indicated that the survival rates for groups T4, T3 T2 and T1 were 57.05 ± 3.52%, 22.5 ± 0.5%, 15 ± 1.05% and 00.0 ± 0%, respectively. Ultimately, at the end of the study the shrimp group T4 showed higher hematological data: THC, TPP, SOD, POD and PO. The study concluded that gamma irradiant WSSV is effective immunostimulants in shrimp L. vannamei and the immunity has better performances than those of the G. corticata and S. cerevisiae.

  19. Variación morfológica del camarón café (Farfantepenaeus californiensis en el Pacífico mexicano Morphological variation of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus californiensis in Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Barbosa-Saldaña

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El análisis multivariado de datos morfométricos se ha utilizado ampliamente en especies comerciales para definir unidades de pesca independientes. En la presente investigación se analizó la diferenciación del camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900 del Pacífico mexicano mediante el análisis morfométrico de 171 individuos recolectados en 4 localidades y se comparó con la subdivisión geográfica que el Instituto Nacional de la Pesca estableció para el monitoreo de sus poblaciones. La variación morfológica de cada muestra se estimó mediante el (CV% promedio de 18 medidas. Se realizó un análisis discriminante utilizando proporciones estandarizadas de algunas de estas medidas y se calcularon las distancias de Manhattan entre las muestras; con éstas se obtuvo un dendrograma por el método UPGMA en el cual la agrupación de las localidades mostró una diferenciación morfológica clinal, relacionada con un gradiente geográfico. La baja variabilidad morfológica estimada al interior de las muestras permitió inferir que cada localidad conforma un grupo fenotípicamente homogéneo, aunque con claras diferencias entre sí, que podrían estar relacionadas con las características ambientales de cada localidad y con posibles variaciones genéticas entre las poblaciones. La diferenciación morfológica del camarón café del Pacífico mexicano que se encontró en esta investigación aporta elementos adicionales para sustentar la división geográfica que el Instituto Nacional de la Pesca ha establecido para el estudio de la pesquería del camarón.Multivariate analyses of morphometric data have been widely used to define independent fishing units for exploited species. In this study we analyzed the morphometric variability of 4 brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900 locations from the Mexican Pacific to assess whether differentiation agrees with the geographical subdivision established by the Instituto

  20. Crystal Shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: One egg white, 500 grams of shredded river shrimp, 10 grams of soda, 750 grams of cooking oil, sesame oil, sugar, salt, corn starch and hot pepper, and half ladle of soup-stock. Directions: 1. Clean the shrimp with salt, then wash away the salt and strain off the

  1. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Silvânia Volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite: juvenile Paleoproterozoic crust in the basement of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, Goiás, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FISCHEL DANIELLE P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for felsic metavolcanic rocks from the Silvânia Sequence and Jurubatuba Granite in the central part of the Brasília Belt. Zircon grains from a metavolcanic sample yielded 2115 ± 23 Ma and from the granite yielded 2089 ± 14 Ma, interpreted as crystallization ages of these rocks. Six metavolcanic samples of the Silvânia Sequence yielded a six-point whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron indicating a crystallization age of 2262 ± 110 Ma and positive epsilonNd(T = +3.0 interpreted as a juvenile magmatic event. Nd isotopic analyses on samples from the Jurubatuba Granite have Paleoproterozoic T DM model ages between 2.30 and 2.42 Ga and epsilonNd(T values vary between -0.22 and -0.58. The oldest T DM value refers to a sedimentary xenolith in the granite. These results suggest crystallization ages of Silvânia volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite are the first evidence of a ca. 2.14-2.08 juvenile magmatic event in the basement of the central part of the Brasília Belt that implies the presence of arc/suture hidden in reworked basement of the Brasília Belt.

  2. The problem of sampling families rather than populations: Relatedness among individuals in samples of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1997-01-01

    In species exhibiting a nonrandom distribution of closely related individuals, sampling of a few families may lead to biased estimates of allele frequencies in populations. This problem was studied in two brown trout populations, based on analysis of mtDNA and microsatellites. In both samples mt......DNA haplotype frequencies differed significantly between age classes, and in one sample 17 out of 18 individuals less than 1 year of age shared one particular mtDNA haplotype. Estimates of relatedness showed that these individuals most likely represented only three full-sib families. Older trout exhibiting...

  3. Chlorine, temperature, and exposure duration effects of power plant effluents on juvenile blue crabs Callinectes sapidus and grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Burton, D.T.; Margrey, S.L.

    1979-07-01

    The effects of interacting Cl, temperature, and exposure conditions similar to those found in power plant effluents were assessed for the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and the grass shrimp Palemonetes pugio. Test organisms were exposed to total residual Cl (TRC) concentrations of 0.00, 0.15, and 0.30 mg/l in combination with temperatures 2, 6, and 10/sup 0/C above ambient for 0.08, 2.0, and 4.0 h. The TRC concentrations were decayed over a 1 to 1.5-h period to < 0.01 mg/l. Temperatures were decayed over a 4-h period to 2/sup 0/C above ambient. These conditions were used to simulate Cl and temperature conditions encountered in power plant discharge canals and near-field receiving streams. Regression model techniques were used to establish the interaction of Cl, temperature excess (..delta..T), and exposure duration as factors that caused death up to 36 h after the exposure period. Mortality increased for grass shrimp as the Cl concentration, ..delta..T, and length of exposure increased. A percentage mortality model for grass shrimp shows that (1) the response to Cl concentration alone and ..delta..T alone is proportional to the square root of Cl concentration and ..delta..T, (2) the effect of duration of exposure is linear, and (3) no second-order interactions occurred among the variables tested. No significant mortality was found for blue crabs for any of the variables tested.

  4. Requerimientos de proteína y energía bruta en juveniles de camarón rosado Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 sometidos a diferentes salinidades Gross protein and energy requirements for pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 juvenile under different salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ramos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el requerimiento de proteína (PB y energía bruta (EB y su relación óptima en dietas prácticas para juveniles de camarón rosado Farfantepenaeus paulensis en diferentes salinidades. Se sembraron camarones con peso promedio de 0,353 g en 54 estanques de PVC con densidad inicial de 40 ind m-2. El experimento fue factorial, con tres niveles de proteína bruta 24, 35 y 48%, tres salinidades 10, 20 y 30 psu y dos niveles de energía bruta 3200 y 4200 kcal kg-1 de dieta, con tres réplicas, en un período experimental de 25 días. Los resultados indicaron que la salinidad y la proteína tuvieron un efecto significativo (P 0,05 sobre la sobrevivencia, tasa de crecimiento específica y ganancia en peso. La respuesta de los camarones a las necesidades de proteína y energía bruta en las salinidades probadas fue diferente. En la salinidad de 10 psu los requerimientos fueron 35% PB y 4200 kcal kg-1 (83,3 mg PB kcal-1, mientras que en salinidades de 20 y 30 psu fueron 25% de PB y 3200 kcal kg-1 (75,0 mg PB kcal-1.The requirement of gross protein and energy and the optimal ratio of these in practical diets for pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus paulensis juveniles in different salinities were determined. Shrimp with a mean initial weight of 0.353 g were stocked in 54 plastic tanks at initial densities of 40 ind m-2. The experiment was factorial, with three levels of gross protein (24, 35, 48%, three levels of salinities (10, 20, 30 psu, and two levels of gross energy (3200, 4200 kcal kg-1; the experiment lasted 25 days and considered three replicates. The results showed that salinity and protein had a significant effect (P < 0.05 on weight gain and the specific growth rate, but did not influence on survival. The energy had no significant effect on survival, growth rate, or weight gain. The response of the shrimp to the gross energy and protein level showed different requirements according to the different salinities tested. At salinity of 10 psu

  5. Is the Dutch shrimp fishery sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, H.C.; Daan, N.

    2001-01-01

    The fishery of the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon LINNEAUS 1758) is a widespread human activity in the coastal zone. Yet management of this fishery has never been implemented. The question is raised whether an uncontrolled fishery is sustainable or the conceivable ecological stress results in

  6. Is the Dutch shrimp fishery sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, H.C.; Daan, N.

    2001-01-01

    The fishery of the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon LINNEAUS 1758) is a widespread human activity in the coastal zone. Yet management of this fishery has never been implemented. The question is raised whether an uncontrolled fishery is sustainable or the conceivable ecological stress results in recruit

  7. Abundancia de juveniles de camarones peneidos comerciales en la zona norte de Laguna Madre, México Abundance of the commercial penaeid shrimp juveniles in the North zone of Laguna Madre, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Armando T. Wakida-Kusunoki; Leobardo García-Solorio; Norma Gloria Vázquez Benavides

    2008-01-01

    Se tomaron muestras mensuales de agosto del 2005 a noviembre del 2006, para analizar los cambios de abundancia de juveniles de camarones peneidos comerciales en la parte norte de Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas. En cada una de las nueve estaciones de muestreo se realizó un arrastre nocturno, utilizando una red tipo chinchorro, de tamaño de malla de 1.25 cm y seis metros de longitud de relinga inferior. Se observaron tres especies de peneidos comerciales y cada una de ellas tuvo sus valores más altos...

  8. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  9. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

  10. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

  11. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown... and/or milk, and par-fried. The products included in the scope of this investigation are...

  12. Juvenile life stages of the brown alga Fucus serratus L. are more sensitive to combined stress from high copper concentration and temperature than adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Nielsen, Hanne Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2014-01-01

    The combined effects of exposure to copper and temperature were investigated in adult specimens and germlings of the canopy-forming brown alga Fucus serratus. A matrix of four temperatures, 6, 12, 17 and 22 °C, and three concentrations of copper, 0, 100 and 1,000 nM total copper were used. Measured...

  13. Shrimp Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Shrimp Survey was initiated in 1983 by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) and monitors the relative abundance (number of shrimp),...

  14. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  15. Effect of Two Oil Dispersants on Larval Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, P.; Key, P. B.; Chung, K. W.; DeLorenzo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study focused on the effects that two oil dispersants, Corexit® EC9500A and Finasol® OSR52, have on the development of larval grass shrimp, (Palaemonetes pugio). The hypothesis was that Finasol would have a greater effect on larval grass shrimp development than Corexit. The experiment was conducted using 300 grass shrimp larvae that were 24 hours old. Each larva was exposed individually. In total, five sub-lethal concentrations were tested for each dispersant (control, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0,10.0 mg/L). The larvae were exposed for five days then transferred to clean seawater until metamorphosis into the juvenile stage. Key data measurements recorded included number of days to become juveniles, number of instars, length, dry weight, and mortality. Data from exposed shrimp was compared to the results of the control for each dispersant concentration. Corexit and Finasol exposure treatments of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L showed significantly higher values for number of days and number of instars to reach juvenile status than values obtained from unexposed, control shrimp. Overall, mortality was higher in the Finasol treatments but the two dispersants did not respond significantly different from one another. Future studies are needed to determine the long term effects of dispersant exposure on all grass shrimp life stages and how any dispersant exposure impacts grass shrimp populations. Grass shrimp serve as excellent toxicity indicators of estuaries, and further studies will help to develop better oil spill mitigation techniques.

  16. Determination of the grow-out density of Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Perez-Farfante, 1967 shrimp juveniles with a view to providing alternative culture structures (pens in Ibiraquera Lagoon, Imbituba, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vinatea

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ibiraquera Lagoon, which is located between the municipalities of Garopaba and Imbituba, both in Santa Catarina, a state of southern Brazil, was set up in the last decade as part of a Program for the Restocking of Coastal Lagoons. This program obtained successful results for several years. However, nowadays the productivity of this natural environment has probably been reduced because of its overfishing, specially of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Perez-Farfante, 1967, and above all the effect of anthropogenic factors. Such facts have led some researchers to question the viability of successfully restocking the lagoon, since eutrophication would be accelerated by several other factors. Thus, to discover whether the young of F. paulensis could grow and survive feeding only on the natural food of the lagoon´s environment, and whether they were able to tolerate the quality of the water, an experiment was designed to calculate how the lagoon would support future restocking. To this end a farming process was set up which lasted 93 days, testing 3 different densities: 1, 1.5, and 2 shrimps/m2 in standard circular pens of 50 m2. Results after the farming period regarding growth the physico-chemical parameters indicated values in the expected range that fell within the tolerance limits for the survival and satisfactory development of the young of F. paulensis, since significant differences in the daily fluctuations of the dissolved oxygen (OD were not found. Results on the growth were also found to have similar values to those found by other researchers in the dos Patos Lagoon, in the neighboring state of Rio Grande do Sul. Treatment with a density of 1 shrimp/m2 was significantly different (p<0.05 in relation to the other two treatments with densities of 1.5 and 2, both of which had very similar values. However, the final results of shrimp survival and polychaeta biomass throughout the experiment did not present significant differences (p

  17. Administration of Bacillus subtilis strains in the rearing water enhances the water quality, growth performance, immune response, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi infection in juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokaeifar, Hadi; Babaei, Nahid; Saad, Che Roos; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Balcazar, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, vegetative cell suspensions of two Bacillus subtilis strains, L10 and G1 in equal proportions, was administered at two different doses 10(5) (BM5) and 10(8) (BM8) CFU ml(-1) in the rearing water of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for eight weeks. Both probiotic groups showed a significant reduction of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate ions under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In comparison to untreated control group, final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR) and digestive enzymatic activity were significantly greater in the BM5 and BM8 groups. Significant differences for survival were recorded in the BM8 group as compared to the control. Eight weeks after the start of experiment, shrimp were challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in shrimp survival between probiotic and control groups. Cumulative mortality of the control group was 80%, whereas cumulative mortality of the shrimp that had been given probiotics was 36.7% with MB8 and 50% with MB5. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (PE), lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan- binding protein (LGBP) and serine protein (SP). The expression of all immune-related genes studied was only significantly up-regulated in the BM5 group compared to the BM8 and control groups. These results suggest that administration of B. subtilis strains in the rearing water confers beneficial effects for shrimp aquaculture, considering water quality, growth performance, digestive enzymatic activity, immune response and disease resistance.

  18. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

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    Madelon van de Kerk

    Full Text Available Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp.

  19. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  20. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  1. [Exploitation of the shrimp trawl fishery in the period 1991-1999 at the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabash Blanco, Farid A

    2007-03-01

    In Costa Rica, the Gulf of Nicoya shrimp fishery originated in 1952 and represented one of the most important economic activities in the region. Nevertheless, overfishery reduced the captured volumes to levels that prevent this commercial activity. I analyzed official fishery statistics between 1991 and 1999. These species involved are: two species of white shrimp, (Litopenaeus occidentalis and L. stylirostris), the "titi" shrimp (Xiphopenaeus riveti), the brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus californiensis), the "pinki" shrimp (F. brevirostris) and the "fidel" shrimp (Solenocera agassizi). All the species reached the Maximum Sustainable Yield in the decades of 1970 and 1980 and are now found at over-exploitation levels. I recommend that this shrimp trawl fishery be completely closed down.

  2. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE AGONISTTS ON METAMORPHOSIS AND REPRODUCTION IN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative developmental and reproductive studies were performed on several species of estuarine crustaceans in response to three juvenile hormone agonists (JHAs) (methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen). Larval development of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was greater ...

  4. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471 Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Jatoba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by

  5. Double Taste of Shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinvao Restaurant

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 8 shrimp (about 500g), 50 grams of oil, 150 grams of egg white, a little salt, MSG, pepper powder, Shaoxing wine, coriander, sesame, flour and sugar. Directions: 1. De-vein and wash the shrimp. Cut in half, separating the head from the tail. 2. Soak the shrimp tails in the salt, Shaoxing wine, pepper powder and MSG. Baste the tails with flour and coat with egg white and sesame. 3. Mix the starch in with egg white and stir until smooth. Spread the paste on the tails without the sesame, then sprinkle with coriander.

  6. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  7. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  8. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  9. Do Penaeid Shrimps have a Preference for Mangrove Habitats? Distribution Pattern Analysis on Inhaca Island, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnbäck, P.; Macia, A.; Almqvist, G.; Schultz, L.; Troell, M.

    2002-09-01

    Scientific information on how penaeid shrimps are distributed within mangrove ecosystems is scarce, which presents an obstacle for fisheries as well as mangrove management. This study investigated the prime nursery microhabitats for the two major commercial species in Mozambique-Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus monoceros. Stake net enclosures were used to sample shrimps living among unvegetated shallows and mangroves at Inhaca Island, Mozambique, during three consecutive spring tide periods. Four microhabitats were sampled: (1) sand flat; (2) fringe Avicennia marina on sandy substrate; (3) fringe A. marina on muddy substrate; and (4) interior A. marina adjacent to the supratidal terrestrial margin. P. indicus had a significant preference for fringe mangroves over the adjacent sand flat (P<0·001 and P=0·05). Postlarval shrimps only occupied the sand flat, whereas the mangrove was utilized by postlarval, juvenile and sub-adult life stages. Within the fringe mangrove, there was no correlation between shrimp abundance and organic content of sediment (5·7-11·6 shrimps m-2). Shrimps utilized the most interior margin of the mangroves (0·35 shrimps m-2), although catch rates were significantly lower than in the mangrove fringe (P<0·001). M. monoceros was significantly (P<0·01), more abundant in the sand flat (0·44-2·1 shrimps m-2) than in the mangrove fringe (0·04-0·61 shrimps m-2), although this habitat preference was not evident for juvenile and sub-adult life stages. The results demonstrate the extensive use of mangrove habitats by penaeid shrimps. The confinement to mangroves for P. indicus, but not for M. monoceros, is discussed in the context of habitat characteristics and predation avoidance behaviour. Methodological considerations of the stake net technique are also outlined.

  10. [The use of shrimp and turkey buzzard flour and milk whey in food for shrimp under controlled laboratory conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosemena, G

    1990-01-01

    Two diets were prepared for the shrimp's development in the tanks, based on fish meals, shrimp's head meals, "gallinaza" and milk whey. The diets had a protein concentration of 37.8% and 45%, using as control a commercial diet with 35% of protein. Twelve juvenile shrimps with average weights of 2.30 gr. to 3.09 gr were used in each of the six-40 liter aquariums under laboratory controlled conditions for a 28 days period. The growth increments were low in spite of the high protein concentration, due to a deficiency in some essential aminoacid and were not successful in supplementing it with the protein sources used. The aquarium areas turned out to be limiting and growth was affected by density. The statistic analysis showed no significant differences in the treatments used.

  11. Disturbance of recruitment success of mantis shrimp in Tokyo Bay associated with effects of hypoxia on the early life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Keita; Tajima, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Takamichi; Ohata, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2014-08-30

    We investigated effects of severe hypoxia (dissolved oxygen mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria in Tokyo Bay. Ten-year field surveys were conducted to examine quantitative relationships in annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, and spatial distribution of juveniles and severe hypoxia. There was no significant correlation between annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, suggesting that mortality during larval or juvenile stages varies among years, which might have regulated abundance of young-of-the-year juveniles. Juvenile density was low in the severely hypoxic area, implying that hypoxia could affect survivals and spatial distribution of juveniles. Meanwhile, there are yearly fluctuations in juvenile density in normoxic areas of both northern and southern part of the bay. This evidence suggests that abundance of post-settled juveniles might have been determined by not only effects of hypoxia, but also other factors influencing mortality during the early life stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Priming the immune system of Penaeid shrimp by bacterial HSP70 (DnaK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuoc, L H; Hu, B; Wille, M; Hien, N T; Phuong, V H; Tinh, N T N; Loc, N H; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to test the effect of DnaK on priming immune responses in Penaeid shrimp. Juvenile-specific pathogen-free (SPF) P. vannamei shrimp were injected with 0.05 μg recombinant DnaK. One hour post-DnaK priming, a non-lethal dose of Vibrio campbellii (10(5) CFU shrimp(-1)) was injected. Other treatments include only DnaK or V. campbellii injection or control with blank inocula. The haemolymph of three shrimp from each treatment was collected at 1.5, 6, 9 and 12 h post-DnaK priming (hpp). It was verified that injection with DnaK and V. campbellii challenge affected the transcription of 3 immune genes, transglutaminase-1 (TGase-1), prophenoloxidase-2 (proPO-2) and endogenous HSP70 (lvHSP70). In P. monodon, shrimp were first injected with DnaK at a dose of 10 μg shrimp(-1) and one hour later with 10(6) CFU of V. harveyi (BB120) shrimp(-1). Shrimp injected with DnaK showed a significant increase in proPO expression compared to the control (P < 0.05). Yet a double injection (DnaK and Vibrio) seemed to cause an antagonistic response at the level of expression, which was not equalled at the level of PO activity. Those results suggest that DnaK is able to modulate immune responses in P. vannamei and P. monodon.

  13. Mantis shrimp allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R Eiró; Zavala, B Bartolomé; Escoda, J M Soler

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old female who experienced two immediate episodes of labial, lingual and larynx angiodema after eating fried mantis shrimp (Squilla empusa), a crustacean belonging to the Squillidae family, and a third episode after eating shellfish pudding. Prick by prick tests to mantis shrimp and to other crustacean were positive. Serum specific IgE showed higher values than 0.35 kU/L to extracts from mantis shrimp shell, prawn, large prawn and crab. Serum specific IgE against large prawn tropomyosin were below 0.35 kU/L. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electropheresis (SDS-PAGE) immunoblotting results with raw mantis shrimp shell revealed IgE-binding bands of 46 kDa and 25 kDa, in non reducing and reducing conditions, respectively. Cross-reactivity studies using the enzyme allergo sorbent test (EAST)-inhibition and Immunoblotting-inhibition methods showed the existence of significant cross-reactivity between the IgE-binding proteins present in mantis shrimp and those from prawn, large prawn and small crab.

  14. Acesso ao alimento artificial e enchimento do trato digestivo de juvenis do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae durante as fases clara e escura do período de 24 horas Artificial food access and digestive tract filling of juvenil marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae during light and dark phases in 24-hour period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S. Pontes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de dados acerca do comportamento alimentar do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 com relação ao alimento artificial ofertado em bandejas poderá induzir a uma alimentação inadequada, resultando no desperdício da ração, no aporte desnecessário de nutrientes, e conseqüente aumento dos custos com a alimentação e da poluição ambiental potencial desta atividade. Objetivando fornecer subsídios para a melhoria do manejo alimentar praticado nas fazendas, foram realizados estudos comportamentais utilizando 64 juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei (7,57 ± 1,01g, mantidos em densidade populacional de 33 m², submetidos a fotoperíodo artificial, em ciclo invertido, para observação durante as fases clara e escura. A ração foi ofertada em intervalos pré-estabelecidos, registrando-se posteriormente através de método focal contínuo: a latência para chegada à bandeja, b latência para consumo do alimento e c Índice de Enchimento do Trato Digestivo. Os animais foram mais rápidos para chegar à bandeja e também para iniciar o consumo do alimento nos horários da fase clara. O enchimento do trato digestivo mostrou-se superior na meia hora subsequente à oferta do alimento, especialmente nos horários da fase clara.The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 behavior related to feed offer in trays can result inadequate feeding by the animal, feed wastage and unnecessary nutrient input, increasing feed costs and potential environmental pollution of that culture. In order to provide tools for improved feed management methods in shrimp farms, a behavioral study was conducted, using 64 Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (7,57 ± 1,01g, one animal per 33 m². They were submitted to artificial photoperiods, half of them in reversed cycle, in order to register behavior during light and dark phases. The following variables were registered (continuous sampling after feed exposition: a latency to access the

  15. Characterization of recombinant shrimp allergen Pen a 1 (tropomyosin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, G; Jeoung, B J; Daul, C B; Lehrer, S B

    1997-01-01

    Tropomyosin (Pen a 1) from brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, has been identified as the only major shrimp allergen. Since beef, pork and chicken are other tropomyosin-containing foods that are not very allergenic, tropomyosins can serve to investigate the contribution of the structural properties of a protein to its allergenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the primary structure of Pen a 1 and to identify IgE-binding epitopes. The screening of a unidirectional expression cDNA library from shrimp tail muscle with the Pen-a-1-specific monoclonal antibody 4.9.5 resulted in 4 positive Escherichia coli clones. Immunoblot analysis with human sera from shrimp-allergic subjects demonstrated IgE binding of all 4 recombinant shrimp proteins. Three of 4 expressed recombinant proteins have a molecular weight of approximately 36 kD, consistent with the molecular weight of natural Pen a 1. The DNA sequence analysis identified these recombinant shrimp proteins as tropomyosin and could be aligned with the sequence of greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) tropomyosin (Met e 1). In order to characterize contiguous IgE-binding epitopes of Pen a 1, a peptide library (Novagen epitope mapping system) expressing 10-30 amino-acid-residue-long recombinant Pen a 1 peptides was constructed and screened with human IgE. Four recombinant, IgE-reactive Pen a 1 peptides were selected and sequenced. They show various degrees of sequence identity with tropomyosins of other arthropods, such as fruitfly and house dust mite, helminths and vertebrates.

  16. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  17. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris L van der Ham

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF. Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1 exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2 fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  18. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  19. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  20. Shrimp Ball Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Press the spring onion and ginger, add 25 grams water, soak for ten minutes, filter and remove the residue.Mince the shrimp meat and add pork fat. Add Shaoxing wine, egg white, spring onion and ginger juice, salt, MSG, and cornstarch, and blend. Slice the ham, and clean the bean sprouts. Put clear stock in a wok and heat.

  1. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  2. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P vannamei.

  3. Phylogeography of the common shrimp, Crangon crangon (L.) across its distribution range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, P.C.; Campos, J.; van Bleijswijk, J.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    The common or brown shrimp Crangon crangon (L.) is a highly abundant and important taxon, both ecologically and commercially, yet knowledge on its population structure and historical biogeography is limited. We studied population genetic structure across the distribution range of this species by

  4. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  5. Development of protein enriched shrimp croquette from shrimp industry wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M.; Rahman, M.L.; Nowsad Alam, A.K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Protein fortified and tasty shrimp croquette was developed from different component parts of shrimp wastes by using a combination of vegetables (potato, Colocasia, green banana, green papaya and spinach), spices (green chili, onion, garlic, turmeric, red pepper and ginger) and other ingredients (salt, wheat flour, egg, sugar and milk powder). The ingredients were mixed with variable quantities of shrimp shell powder (3, 5 and 10%), shaped and covered with egg and bread crumb. Proximate compos...

  6. Microbial Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Umesha, R.K.

    serious economic losses in several countries. According to a World Bank Report, global losses due to shrimp diseases are around US $ 3,000 million (Lundin, 1996). Thus, health management is of major importance in aquaculture. Diseases caused... for nauplii production and enrichment should be employed (Dhont et al., 1993). Management of shrimp diseases Effective management of the health of shrimp requires consideration of the fact that there is a delicate balance between the host, pathogen...

  7. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  8. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  9. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  10. Effects of juvenile hormone antagonist KK-42 on temporal and spatial expressions of FAMeT in shrimp Penaeus schmitti%保幼激素拮抗物KK-42对凡纳滨对虾FAMeT时空表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏西超; 王雪参; 李昕; 吕黎; 宁黔冀

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the treatment of juvenile hormone antagonist KK-42 can significantly accelerate growth of Penaeus schmitti, which has been applied in P. schmitti aquaculture, but the mechanism of KK-42 is unclear. To provide the theory support involved in KK-42 application, the temporal and spatial expressions of farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FAMeT), a key synthesis enzyme of methyl farnesoate (MF) which is the important hormone regulating directly crustacean growth, was assayed and the effect of KK-42 on the enzyme was researched. The shrimps (Penaeus schmitti), 3.5-5.0 cm long, were randomly divided into two groups, soaked in KK-42 solution at a concentration of 1.95×10-4 mol/L or in the solution without KK-42 for 1 min, respectively,and then cultured in normal way. The levels of FAMeT mRNA were determined using real-time PCR and hemolymph MF titer was analyzed by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the expression pattern of FAMeT derived from the muscle, eyestalk and mandibular organ (MO) tissues varied in control, of which, the mRNA levels in muscle and eyestalk tissues were not only relatively low but also little various during the experiment. However, an obvious fluctuation of mRNA level occurred in MO during the stage of experiment, more than l-fold of increase in mRNA level was observed on days 2, 6, 7, and 8 comparing to that on day 0. The hemolymph MF content in control shrimps rose during the experiment. Administration of KK-42 resulted in the universal depression on FAMeT expression in three tissues mentioned above; the most significant inhibitory effect occurred in MO where the level of FAMeT mRNA was considerably lower than that in control group from day 1 to day 7; the level even decreased to 50.9% (P<0.01), 63.4% (P<0.01) and 55.7% (P<0.01)on dayl, day 4 and day 6 after KK-42 treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the amount of hemolymph MF fell in KK-42-treated shrimps compared to

  11. Analysis of the sulphite content in shrimps and prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bonerba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are redefined in European legislation (EC Regulation No. 1333/2008. Sulphur dioxide (E220 and sulphite (E221- E228 are widely used in food processing as preservatives because they slow down bacterial growth on foods and prevent oxidation or browning developing on shrimp and lobster. Shellfish processors, farmers and fishermen have long used sulfiting agents in a variety of species of warm and coldwater crustaceans as a treatment to prevent prawns and shrimps melanosis (blackspot, which is a natural process that makes the shell black after harvesting caused by Polyphenoloxidase enzyme systems which remain active during refrigeration or ice storage. Sulfite-induced hypersensitivity is the most well-established adverse response in humans to this food additive. In the present study the presence of sulfites in different frozen and thawed shrimp and prawn species belonging to Penaeoidea superfamily has been evaluated by the Monier-Williams procedure, in order to carry out a risk assessment and evaluate the levels of consumer exposure to this class of additives from these fish products. In addition to assessing and monitoring the correct use of the additive, according to the limits imposed by the European regulations, the correct consumer information on labels was also evaluated. Analysis were performed on both whole shrimp (shell on and inedible parts (head and peeled shell. Sulphites concentration in frozen samples (expressed as SO2 mg/kg mean value±S.D. was 214±17.43 for head on shell on shrimps; 170.73±14.99 for shell on headless shrimps; 112.90±27.55 for peeled and deveined shrimps. Thawed shrimps were purchased at mass retailers channel and local fish markets and local seafood retailers and purveyors: for these samples, all head on shell on, the sulphites concentration (expressed as SO2 mg/kg mean value±S.D. was 160.05±26.15 and 292.54±146.04, respectively. Non-edible parts showed, in all samples, much higher concentrations.

  12. Composition of shrimp populations (Crustacea: Decapoda in non-vegetated areas of two river islands in a Brazilian Amazon estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Sousa Vilela da Nóbrega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the shrimp found in non-vegetated areas of an estuary of the Amazon River. We ascertained the input of juveniles, species' biometrics and the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of species. The samples were collected monthly, from August 2006 to July 2007, in two places in the estuary, each next to an island. For collecting, we used a manual trawl to perform three hauls per month, totaling 36 samples per site. The abundance of shrimps was estimated as a function of the density of specimens per unit area. We used the Spearman's correlation to test the hypothesis that there is significant correlation between the average of the environmental variables measured and variations in shrimp density. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney tests showed that there were significant differences in environment factors (temperature and salinity among the months and sites. We obtained 6,091 shrimps, from which 5,231 (85.88% were caught off the Arapiranga Island and 860 (14.12% off the Mosqueiro Island, Palaemonidae and Penaeidae were the only families recorded. Five species were collected: Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862, Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879, and Farfantepenaeus subtilis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967. The latter (pink shrimp was found for the first time in oligohaline environments (0-8. Macrobrachium amazonicum was the most abundant species. The recruitment of M. amazonicum juveniles was continuous throughout the year. The population of M. surinamicum was composed by juveniles and adults and that of F. subtilis exclusively by juveniles. The environmental factors analyzed were variable throughout the year and seem to explain the patterns of shrimp species occurrence in the region, the variation in their abundance and juvenile recruitment.

  13. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  14. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  15. Research agenda shrimp pulse fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlen, van B.; Rasenberg, M.M.M.; Verschueren, B.; Polet, H.

    2015-01-01

    In the recent decennia, many developments have taken place to improve the selectivity of the shrimp fishing gears. Recently, the development of a pulse gear for catching shrimps has taken up again as an opportunity to decrease discards, inspired by developments in the flatfish pulse fishery.

  16. The Effect of Three Culture Methods on Intensive Culture System of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhen; WAN Rong; SONG Xiefa; GAO Lei

    2013-01-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance.This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84d.The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks,i.e.,outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C),greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M).Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C (P <0.05).In contrast to the other two treatments,mode-M had stable pH after 50d cultivation of shrimps.In the mid-late period,the average concentrations of TAN,NO2-N,DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C (P <0.05).Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments (P >0.05),mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield,survival rate and feed conversion rate (P < 0.05) than other modes.There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments (P<0.05).These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system ofL.vannamei.

  17. Effect of stocking density on extensive production of freshwater shrimp in coal mine reclamation ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, J.H.; Wynne, F.; Coyle, S.D. [Kentucky State Univ., Frankfort, KY (United States). Aquaculture Research Center; Grey, B. [Peabody Coal Co., Rockport, KY (United States); McGuire, J.

    1998-12-31

    The use of post-mining reclamation ponds for the production of freshwater shrimp was evaluated by examining different stocking densities. Juvenile shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) averaging 0.5g each were stocked into four existing ponds at Peabody`s Ken Surface Mine at 6,175; 12,350; 18,500; and 24,700/ha (2,500, 5,000, 7,500, and 10,000/acre) on June 1, 1995. Shrimp were fed twice a week for 103 days, with harvest conducted September 13, 1995. Survival averaged 40%, overall. Average individual weight size was inversely related to stocking density ranging from 52 g (8.7 shrimp/lb) at 6,175/ha to 20.3 g (22.7 shrimp/lb) at 18,500/acre. Total production was directly related to stocking density ranging from 97 kg/ha (86 lbs/acre) at low density to 211 kg/ha (188 lbs/acre) at 18,500/ha shrimp acre. The major difficulty was at harvest due to difficulty in draining ponds. Construction of designed culture ponds with gravity drains during reclamation could greatly enhance survival, harvestability, and commercial feasibility.

  18. Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity.

  19. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  20. SEBARAN HORIZONTAL JUVENIL UDANG DI PERAIRAN LAGUNA SEGARA ANAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Wahyu Hendro Tjahjo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Terdapat sembilan spesies udang ekonomis penting di  perairan Cilacap dan sekitarnya yang termasuk komoditas perikanan tangkap, dimana sebanyak 34% dari total udang yang tertangkap nelayan, menetas dan dibesarkan di kawasan laguna Segara Anakan. Kondisi ini mengisyaratkan agar dalam pengelolaan perikanan, Segara Anakan perlu mendapat perhatian termasuk aspek ekologis perairan. Untuk itu dilakukan penelitian dengan tujuan untuk mengkaji kelimpahan dan sebaran horizontal juvenil udang  serta preferensi habitatnya di perairan Laguna Segara Anakan. Penelitian lapang dilakukan sebanyak 3 kali frekuensi pengambilan sampel, yaitu pada April, September dan Desember 2012. Pengambilan sampel udang dilakukan dengan alat tangkap mini beam trawl secara terstratifikasi pada delapan titik stasiun pengamatan. Analisa data meliputi kelimpahan dan distribusi horizontal udang, serta preferensi habitatnya. Kelimpahan juvenil udang tertinggi ditemukan di stasiun Klaces dan terendah di stasiun Sapuregel Kecil, dimana nilainya berkisar antara 8-446 ekor/1000 m2 (udang penaeid 8-336 ekor/1000 m2. Post larva udang penaeid tampak dapat  menyesuaikan diri terhadap fluktuasi salinitas yang berkisar antara 2-35 ‰ hingga menjadi juvenil muda serta siap bermigrasi kembali ke laut hingga dewasa untuk melakukan siklus berikutnya. Dari data variasi kelimpahan dan pola sebaran juvenil udang diperoleh gambaran bahwa preferensi habitat bagi udang adalah tipe dasar perairan yang lembut (soft, biasanya terdiri dari campuran lumpur dan pasir.  Kelompok udang penaeid ini tersebar relatif merata di perairan laguna.   There are nine species of economically important shrimp in Cilacap water  which  belonging to  fisheries commodities, where as many as 34 % of the total shrimp caughted are hatched and raised in the Segara Anakan lagoon. This condition implies that in fisheries management option, Segara Anakan lagoon  include its ecological aspects need attention.  In this

  1. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  2. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  3. Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Permit Landings Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set contains annual shrimp landings at the permit level from 2005-current fishing year. This also contains annual value of permit holders shrimp landings by...

  4. Amphidromy in shrimps: a life cycle between rivers and the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond T Bauer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Amphidromy is a diadromous life history pattern, common in tropical and subtropical freshwater caridean shrimps, in which adults live, breed and spawn small-sized embryos in freshwater but have extended larval development (ELD in marine waters. Most completely freshwater species spawn large embryos with either direct or abbreviated larval development (ALD. An important benefit of amphidromy is dispersal among river systems via marine larvae, which increases their access to alternative habitats. Thus, amphidromous species have much broader geographic distributions than closely related completely freshwater ones with ALD. ALD and freshwater ELD species appear to have evolved from amphidromous species with marine ancestors. Delivery of larvae to the sea in many amphidromous species is accomplished by upstream hatching and river drift of larvae to the sea. In other species, the females themselves apparently migrate down to marine waters to spawn. After development, the postlarvae must find a river mouth and migrate upstream to the adult habitat. Migrations occur at night, with juveniles swimming or crawling along the river or stream bank. Larvae are released during the wet or flood season of the year, while juvenile migrations take place during the dry or low-flow season. Both larval downstream and juvenile upstream movements are disrupted by human impacts such as dams and other forms of river control. Although much progress has been made in understanding the evolution and ecology of amphidromy, research is still needed on all aspects of shrimp amphidromy, especially in Latin America with its diverse freshwater shrimp fauna.

  5. The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasué, M.; Dearden, P.

    2009-06-01

    Intensive black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal ( N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

  6. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  7. Effects of carotenoid sources on growth performance, blood parameters, disease resistance and stress tolerance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding trial were conducted to determine the effects of various sources of carotenoid on growth performance, disease resistance, blood parameters, stress tolerance and pigmentation in juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Trial I was performed in small shrimp (1 g average body weight. The shrimp were fed with control diet without carotenoid (diet 1 while diets 2 to 6 contained 50 mg/kg astaxanthin (Lucanthin Pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 200 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 125 mg/kg Betatene® extracted from Dunaliella and 3% dried Spirulina respectively. There was an improvement in color in all groups of shrimp fed caroteniod supplemented diets, but no significant differences in weight gain or survival among the shrimps fed each test diet (p>0.05. Resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection and stress tolerance (salinity stress, were not significantly different among treatments. Trial II was performed in juvenile shrimp (10 g average body weight fed test diets containing 100 ppm astaxanthin (Lucanthin pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg Betatene® and 3% dried Spirulina compared with those fed control diet without carotenoid. At the end of 6 weeks feeding period, shrimp fed control diet as well as astaxanthin and dried Spirulina supplemented diets had higher levels of total hemocyte counts than those of all β-carotene supplemented diets feeding group. However, phenoloxidase activity and clearance of pathogenic vibrio from the hemolymphwere not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05. Astaxanthin levels were highest in the shrimp fed all carotenoid-supplemented diets. In conclusion, a natural carotenoid i.e. dried Spirulina and carotenoid extracted from Dunaliella which have a lower production cost than analytical carotenoid showed beneficial effects on shrimp feed supplement.

  8. Occurrence and temporal variation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in shrimp aquaculture: ARGs dissemination from farming source to reared organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Haochang; Liu, Shan; Hu, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xiangrong; Xu, Wujie; Xu, Yu; Li, Zhuojia; Wen, Guoliang; Liu, Yousheng; Cao, Yucheng

    2017-12-31

    Considerable attention has been paid to the occurrence and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquatic environments. However, the temporal variation and dissemination of ARGs in aquaculture environments and reared organisms need further study. This study investigated the abundance and diversity of ARGs and bacterial community in water source, shrimp pond water, sediment, and shrimps during the rearing period in Pearl River Delta region, South China. The results showed that sul1, qnrD, cmlA, and floR were the predominant ARGs in the aquaculture samples. A trend of decreasing abundance of ARGs was observed for pond water samples during the rearing period, whereas an increasing trend was observed in the sediment and shrimp samples. The total concentration of ARGs in water source was significantly higher than that in shrimp pond water (pshrimps were 4.48-19.0 times higher than those in juvenile shrimps. Similar to water source and pond water, cmlA and sul1 were the predominant ARGs in shrimp intestinal tract. The bacterial community in the shrimp intestinal tract changed greatly from juvenile to adult. The results of the present study indicated that the abundances of ARGs in aquaculture varied temporally during the rearing period. Water source was an important medium disseminating ARGs to the aquaculture environments and reared organisms. Sul1 could be used as a potential indicator for ARGs in both water and sediment in aquaculture in the estuary of the Pearl River Delta, South China. This study represents a case study for the temporal variation of abundance and dissemination of ARGs in aquaculture and is a reference for potential risks to food safety and human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Salas-Durán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to meassure the effect of shrimp meal (SM in commercial laying hen diets. From April to September 2013, in Costa Rica, Pleuroncodes planipes was used to obtain a meal (SM with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40.67%, ether extract (11.05%, crude fiber (7.12%, ash (27.48%, calcium (9.03%, phosphorus (2.66%, amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84% and acidity (8.34. Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05. The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets.

  10. Possible causes for growth variability and summer growth reduction in juvenile plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. in the western Dutch Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, Henk W.; Jung, Alexa Sarina; Freitas, Vânia; Philippart, Catharina J. M.; Witte, Johannes IJ.

    2016-05-01

    Growth variability within individuals and among groups and locations and the phenomenon of summer growth reduction has been described for juvenile flatfish in a variety of European coastal areas whereby the underlying causes still remain elusive. Potential mechanisms were tested for juvenile plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. in the western Dutch Wadden Sea, by analysing published and unpublished information from long-term investigations (1986-present). Growth variability did occur and could be explained by differences induced by environmental variability (water temperature), and by non-genetic irreversible adaptation and sex. Dynamic Energy Budget analysis indicated that especially sexually-dimorphic growth in combination with variability in sex ratio could explain most of the variability in growth and the increase in the range of the size of individuals within the population over time. Summer growth reduction was not only observed among 0-group plaice in the intertidal, but also in the subtidal and tidal gullies as well as among I- and II-group plaice. Intraspecific competition for food was not detected but some support for interspecific competition with other predators was found. Also resource competition (due to crowding) with the other abundant epibenthic species (0-, I- and II-group flounder Platichthys flesus; the brown shrimp Crangon crangon; the shore crab Carcinus maenas; the goby species Pomatoschistus minutus and Pomatoschistus microps) could not explain the summer growth reduction. The observed growth reduction coincided with a decrease in stomach content, especially of regenerating body parts of benthic prey items. It is hypothesised that macrozoobenthos becomes less active after the spring phytoplankton bloom, reducing prey availability for juvenile plaice in summer, causing a reduction in food intake and hence in growth.

  11. A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

  12. A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhou

    Full Text Available Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905 was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN, white tail disease (WTD or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD. To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

  13. Levels of PAHs in the Waters, Sediments, and Shrimps of Estero de Urias, an Estuary in Mexico, and Their Toxicological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foday M. Jaward

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PAHs were measured in water, sediment, and shrimps of Estero de Urias, an estuary in Sinaloa, Mexico, during the rainy and dry seasons, and analyzed for eleven PAHs routinely detected in samples. Phenanthrene was the most dominant congener in the water, sediment, and shrimp samples comprising about 38, 24, and 25%, respectively, of the eleven PAHs detected, followed by pyrene and naphthalene in water and sediment samples, and pyrene and fluorine in the shrimp samples. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 9 to 347 ng/L in water, 27 to 418 ng/g in sediments, and 36 to 498 ng/g in shrimps. The sources of contamination are closely related to human activities such as domestic and industrial discharge, automobile exhausts, and street runoff. High concentrations were also measured during the rainy season and during the first quarter of the year. Toxicity tests were also carried out, exposing fish embryos and juvenile shrimps to some of these PAHs. Fish embryos exposed to PAHs showed exogastrulation, while juvenile shrimps showed significantly lower growth rates than controls. DNA and protein alterations were also observed. These toxicity tests indicate that PAH concentrations measured could be dangerous to some aquatic organisms, particularly during early stages of development.

  14. Polarization signals in mantis shrimps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Caldwell, Roy L.; Roberts, Nicholas; Marshall, Justin

    2009-08-01

    While color signals are well known as a form of animal communication, a number of animals communicate using signals based on patterns of polarized light reflected from specialized body parts or structures. Mantis shrimps, a group of marine crustaceans, have evolved a great diversity of such signals, several of which are based on photonic structures. These include resonant scattering devices, structures based on layered dichroic molecules, and structures that use birefringent layers to produce circular polarization. Such biological polarizers operate in different spectral regions ranging from the near-UV to medium wavelengths of visible light. In addition to the structures that are specialized for signal production, the eyes of many species of mantis shrimp are adapted to detect linearly polarized light in the ultraviolet and in the green, using specialized sets of photoreceptors with oriented, dichroic visual pigments. Finally, a few mantis shrimp species produce biophotonic retarders within their photoreceptors that permit the detection of circularly polarized light and are thus the only animals known to sense this form of polarization. Mantis shrimps use polarized light in species-specific signals related to mating and territorial defense, and their means of manipulating light's polarization can inspire designs for artificial polarizers and achromatic retarders.

  15. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  16. Risk factors in pediatric shrimp allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Maskatia, Zahida; Miller, Sarah; Guffey, Danielle; Minard, Charles G; Davis, Carla M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of shellfish allergy is ∼1.3% in the United States, with shrimp most commonly reported. Shellfish is one of the top causes of food-induced anaphylactic reactions, yet there are no reported rates of pediatric shrimp anaphylaxis in the literature. In previously reported adults with shrimp allergy, the rate of anaphylaxis to shrimp was 42%. To describe the rate of anaphylaxis among children with shrimp allergy, demographics, clinical presentation, and cross-reactive sensitization. Retrospective chart review of children ≤18 years old who presented with shrimp allergy to Texas Children's Hospital Allergy and Immunology Clinic over 11 years. Sixty-eight patients were identified with shrimp allergy (61% male, 39% female), with a median age of diagnosis at 5.6 years (range, 0.96-16.6 years). The rate of anaphylaxis was 12%, and mucocutaneous symptoms were most common (skin symptoms, 70%; urticaria, 58%; and angioedema, 58%). No factors were positively associated with anaphylaxis, whereas patients without anaphylaxis had a significantly higher rate of eczema compared with those with anaphylaxis (p = 0.02). African Americans and Asian Americans were disproportionately affected (p shrimp was significantly lower in children with shrimp allergy than in adults, and anaphylactic reactions were negatively associated with eczema. Cross-reactivity to other crustaceans and mollusks does not uniformly occur. Prospective studies with double blinded placebo-controlled food challenges are needed to further characterize patients with shrimp allergy.

  17. INTERAKSI TROFIK JUVENIL IKAN DAN UDANG DI LAGUNA SEGARA ANAKAN, CILACAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Wahju Hendro Tjahjo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Segara Anakan mempunyai peran penting sebagai kawasan pengelolaan sumber daya ikan dan udang. Beberapa jenis ikan dan udang menggunakan laguna ini sebagai daerah asuhan. Penelitian dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui aspek biologi juvenil ikan dan udang dalam memanfaatkan sumber daya makanan alami dilakukan di perairan laguna Segara Anakan Kabupaten Cilacap pada tahun 2010. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode tersratifikasi dengan menetapkan 9 stasiun pengamatan. Analisis data meliputi kebiasaan makan, tingkat trofik, luas relung serta interaksi juvenile ikan dan udang dalam memanfaatkan sumber daya makanan alami. Hasil analisis kebiasaan makan menunjukkan bahwa juvenil ikan dan udang dapat dikelompokan menjadi tiga tingkatan trofik yaitu herbivora (2,00 – 2,50, omnivora (2,51 – 3,00 dan karnivora (3,01 – 3,50.  Luas relung makanan juvenil ikan dan udang adalah relatif sempit atau bersifat spesialis dengan nilai indeks berkisar antara 1,00 – 3,02. Hasil analisis kesamaan dalam pemanfaatan sumber daya makanan menunjukkan bahwa interaksi antar jenis ikan dan udang relatif rendah, sehingga peluang terjadinya kompetisi antar jenis rendah. Kondisi ini dapat diartikan bahwa ketersediaan makanan alami di perairan laguna tidak menjadi faktor pembatas.   Segara Anakan loogon plays an important role as the management area of fish and shrimp resources. Several species of fish and shrimp use this lagoon as an area of nursery ground. A research aimed to investigate the biological aspects of juvenile fish and shrimps in the utilization of natural food resources. Have been conductcd in the lagoon of Segara Anakan, Cilacap District in 2010. Sampling was done by using a stratification method with 9 research stations. Food habits, trophic level, niche width and interactions in the utilization of natural food resources were analyzed. Results showed that the juveniles of fish and shrimp could be grouped into three trophic levels i

  18. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  19. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  20. A novel integrase-containing element may interact with Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) to cause slow growth in giant tiger shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background From 2001-2003 monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) caused severe economic losses for Thai shrimp farmers who cultivated the native, giant tiger shrimp, and this led them to adopt exotic stocks of the domesticated whiteleg shrimp as the species of cultivation choice, despite the higher value of giant tiger shrimp. In 2008, newly discovered Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) was proposed as a necessary but insufficient cause of MSGS, and this stimulated the search for the additional component cause(s) of MSGS in the hope that discovery would lead to preventative measures that could revive cultivation of the higher value native shrimp species. Results Using a universal shotgun cloning protocol, a novel RNA, integrase-containing element (ICE) was found in giant tiger shrimp from MSGS ponds (GenBank accession number FJ498866). In situ hybridization probes and RT-PCR tests revealed that ICE and Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) occurred together in lymphoid organs (LO) of shrimp from MSGS ponds but not in shrimp from normal ponds. Tissue homogenates of shrimp from MSGS ponds yielded a fraction that gave positive RT-PCR reactions for both ICE and LSNV and showed viral-like particles by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Bioassays of this fraction with juvenile giant tiger shrimp resulted in retarded growth with gross signs of MSGS, and in situ hybridization assays revealed ICE and LSNV together in LO, eyes and gills. Viral-like particles similar to those seen in tissue extracts from natural infections were also seen by TEM. Conclusions ICE and LSNV were found together only in shrimp from MSGS ponds and only in shrimp showing gross signs of MSGS after injection with a preparation containing ICE and LSNV. ICE was never found in the absence of LSNV although LSNV was sometimes found in normal shrimp in the absence of ICE. The results suggest that ICE and LSNV may act together as component causes of MSGS, but this cannot be proven conclusively without single and combined bioassays

  1. A novel integrase-containing element may interact with Laem-Singh virus (LSNV to cause slow growth in giant tiger shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriurairatana Siriporn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From 2001-2003 monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS caused severe economic losses for Thai shrimp farmers who cultivated the native, giant tiger shrimp, and this led them to adopt exotic stocks of the domesticated whiteleg shrimp as the species of cultivation choice, despite the higher value of giant tiger shrimp. In 2008, newly discovered Laem-Singh virus (LSNV was proposed as a necessary but insufficient cause of MSGS, and this stimulated the search for the additional component cause(s of MSGS in the hope that discovery would lead to preventative measures that could revive cultivation of the higher value native shrimp species. Results Using a universal shotgun cloning protocol, a novel RNA, integrase-containing element (ICE was found in giant tiger shrimp from MSGS ponds (GenBank accession number FJ498866. In situ hybridization probes and RT-PCR tests revealed that ICE and Laem-Singh virus (LSNV occurred together in lymphoid organs (LO of shrimp from MSGS ponds but not in shrimp from normal ponds. Tissue homogenates of shrimp from MSGS ponds yielded a fraction that gave positive RT-PCR reactions for both ICE and LSNV and showed viral-like particles by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Bioassays of this fraction with juvenile giant tiger shrimp resulted in retarded growth with gross signs of MSGS, and in situ hybridization assays revealed ICE and LSNV together in LO, eyes and gills. Viral-like particles similar to those seen in tissue extracts from natural infections were also seen by TEM. Conclusions ICE and LSNV were found together only in shrimp from MSGS ponds and only in shrimp showing gross signs of MSGS after injection with a preparation containing ICE and LSNV. ICE was never found in the absence of LSNV although LSNV was sometimes found in normal shrimp in the absence of ICE. The results suggest that ICE and LSNV may act together as component causes of MSGS, but this cannot be proven conclusively without single

  2. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bestha Lakshmi; Buddolla Viswanath; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are ch...

  3. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analgesics for Osteoarthritis (Report from AHRQ) Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic Health Information Juvenile Arthritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Juvenile Arthritis PDF Version Size: 123 KB ...

  4. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  5. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  6. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  7. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.A. Brosens; D. Langeveld; W.A. van Hattem; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a

  8. Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou-Olayan, A.H. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait); Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Juveniles on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kathleen M

    2002-10-01

    This article describes common forensic evaluations requested of juvenile court mental health evaluators. There has been a legal shift toward criminalization of juvenile court, with a greater emphasis on rights, abandonment of the rehabilitative model, and greater movement of adolescents into the adult criminal court. A resulting shift has been the redefinition of juvenile court forensic evaluations toward the specificity of adult forensic work. The challenge for evaluators is to refine their knowledge of the forensic standards and bring knowledge of development, assessment, and diagnosis in juveniles and interview techniques appropriate to juveniles to improve the evaluation and forensic reports.

  10. The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum, its symbionts and helminths as bioindicators of chemical pollution in Campeche Sound, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Del Rio-Rodríguez, R; Gold-Bouchot, G; Rendón-von Osten, J; Miranda-Rosas, G A

    2006-06-01

    The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum may acquire pollutants, helminths and symbionts from their environment. Statistical associations were studied between the symbionts and helminths of F. duorarum and pollutants in sediments, water and shrimps in Campeche Sound, Mexico. The study area spatially overlapped between offshore oil platforms and natural shrimp mating grounds. Spatial autocorrelation of data was controlled with spatial analysis using distance indices (SADIE) which identifies parasite or pollutant patches (high levels) and gaps (low levels), expressing them as clustering indices compared at each point to produce a measure of spatial association. Symbionts included the peritrich ciliates Epistylis sp. and Zoothamnium penaei and all symbionts were pooled. Helminths included Hysterothylacium sp., Opecoeloides fimbriatus, Prochristianella penaei and an unidentified cestode. Thirty-five pollutants were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and heavy metals. The PAHs (2-3 ring) in water, unresolved complex mixture (UCM), Ni and V in sediments, and Zn, Cr and heptachlor in shrimps were significantly clustered. The remaining pollutants were randomly distributed in the study area. Juvenile shrimps acquired pesticides, PAHs (2-3 rings) and Zn, while adults acquired PAHs (4-5 rings), Cu and V. Results suggest natural PAH spillovers, and continental runoff of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), PCBs and PAHs (2-3 ring). There were no significant associations between pollutants and helminths. However, there were significant negative associations of pesticides, UCM and PCBs with symbiont numbers after controlling shrimp size and spatial autocorrelation. Shrimps and their symbionts appear to be promising bioindicators of organic chemical pollution in Campeche Sound.

  11. Function of shrimp STAT during WSSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Rong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-06-01

    JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays key roles in the antiviral immunity of mammals, fish and insect. However, limited knowledge is known about the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp although virus disease has caused severe mortality in shrimp aquaculture. In order to understand the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp, dsRNA interfering technique was used to silence the expression of STAT gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, and the mortality of shrimp was detected after WSSV infection. Furthermore, the expressions of some potential target genes regulated by STAT or genes related to RNA interfering pathway were detected in STAT silenced shrimp during WSSV infection. The WSSV copy number in STAT silenced shrimp was 10(2)-10(3) copies/ng DNA which was much lower than that in the control. The mortality in STAT silenced shrimp caused by WSSV infection decreased very significantly compared to their controls. The function of STAT was verified in vitro cultured cells of hematopoietic tissue of crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by adding specific inhibitor of STAT3(S3I-201), and the cultured cells treated with S3I-201 showed much less WSSV copy number than their controls, which further suggested that STAT might be helpful for the replication of WSSV. Expression analysis on the potential STAT target genes and genes in RNA interfering pathway provide important information for understanding the functional mechanism of STAT in antiviral immunity of shrimp.

  12. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lodewijk AA Brosens; Danielle Langeveld; W Arnout van Hattem; Francis M Giardiello; G Johan A Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer.The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34.Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes.Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum,juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis.In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found.Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway.It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-alled "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma.Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment,follow-up and screening of at risk individuals.Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome.In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  13. Apparent carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of feeds for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae, cultivated at different salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Gucic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially farmed species worldwide because of its fast growth, good survival rate at high farming densities, and osmoregulatory capacity, which makes it an excellent candidate for cultures at different salinities. The knowledge of shrimp nutritional requirements is critical in the formulation of diets to allow optimal growth at different environmental conditions and development stages. The effect of salinity on apparent digestibility of shrimp feed is not well known, and this information is required in shrimp diet formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of carbohydrates (ACD and lipids (ALD were determined for juvenile whiteleg shrimps under controlled culture conditions. We evaluated the apparent digestibility of six commercial (D1:37CP, D2:38CP, D3:39CP, D4:34CP, D5:35CP, and D6:37CP and two experimental (E1:33CP and E2:33CP diets for juvenile whiteleg shrimp cultivated at three salinities (5, 35 and 50psu in 60L aquariums. ACD and ALD were determined in vivo using chromic oxide as an inert marker. Our results showed that ALD in most cases was over 80%, independent of salinity, except the E1:33CPdiet which had 74.0% at 50psu. Diet D3:39CP showed the highest ALD coefficient (90.1 and 90.6% at 5 and 35psu, respectively. For ACD, differences were detected between commercial and experimental diets at every salinity level, although salinity effect on ACD was not significant. Diet D4:34CP had the highest coefficient (92.4% at 5psu, and E2:33CP at 35 and 50psu (97.3 and 94.7%. This study demonstrated that there is no significant effect of saline variations on carbohydrate and lipid digestibility by juvenile whiteleg shrimp, under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 61 (3: 1201-1213. Epub 2013 September 01.

  14. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  15. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one of the optional forms of shrimp specified in paragraph (c) of this section with safe and suitable...

  16. Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in the biofloc production of the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Kassio Rios da; Wasielesky Junior,Wilson; Abreu, Paulo Cesar Oliveira Vergne de

    2013-01-01

    A study evaluating nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics was carried out using biofloc technology (BFT) systems employed to raise Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. The study was carried out for 42 d in three fiberglass tanks with 210 L useful volume with no water exchange. Salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, nutrients, suspended solids, and chlorophyll-a were monitored every 3 d. At the completion of the experiment, the shrimp had absorbed 39.1 and 35.0% of the total nitrogen (N) and phosph...

  17. Shape, colour plasticity, and habitat use indicate morph-specific camouflage strategies in a marine shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rafael C; Stevens, Martin; Flores, Augusto A V

    2016-10-18

    Colour and shape polymorphisms are important features of many species and may allow individuals to exploit a wider array of habitats, including through behavioural differences among morphs. In addition, differences among individuals in behaviour and morphology may reflect different strategies, for example utilising different approaches to camouflage. Hippolyte obliquimanus is a small shrimp species inhabiting different shallow-water vegetated habitats. Populations comprise two main morphs: homogeneous shrimp of variable colour (H) and transparent individuals with coloured stripes (ST). These morphs follow different distribution patterns between their main algal habitats; the brown weed Sargassum furcatum and the pink-red weed Galaxaura marginata. In this study, we first investigated morph-specific colour change and habitat selection, as mechanisms underlying camouflage and spatial distribution patterns in nature. Then, we examined habitat fidelity, mobility, and morphological traits, further indicating patterns of habitat use. H shrimp are capable of changing colour in just a few days towards their algal background, achieving better concealment in the more marginal, and less preferred, red weed habitat. Furthermore, laboratory trials showed that habitat fidelity is higher for H shrimp, whereas swimming activity is higher for the ST morph, aligned to morphological evidence indicating these two morphs comprise a more benthic (H) and a more pelagic (ST) life-style, respectively. Results suggest that H shrimp utilise a camouflage strategy specialised to a limited number of backgrounds at any one time, whereas ST individuals comprise a phenotype with more generalist camouflage (transparency) linked to a more generalist background utilisation. The coexistence within a population of distinct morphotypes with apparently alternative strategies of habitat use and camouflage may reflect differential responses to substantial seasonal changes in macroalgal cover. Our findings

  18. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestha Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  19. Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Viswanath, Buddolla; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  20. A model for discrimination freshness of shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linong Du

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp is popular for its nutrition and dainty, however, it is easy to decay, and its freshness degrades, so, it is important to assess its freshness. The shrimp gives off unpleasant odor with its freshness change, detecting its odor difference can evaluate its freshness. The feasibility of using electronic nose for evaluating the freshness of shrimp (Penaeus vanmamei is explored in this paper. The odor of shrimp, stored at 5 °C, was detected by the electronic nose. Combined with the sensory evaluation and TVBN, a model based on the electronic nose was constructed to evaluate the shrimp freshness. In principal components analysis, the first three principal components accounted for 86.97% of total variation, and they are used to establish a model to estimate the shrimp freshness with Fisher Liner Discriminant. The discriminant rates were 98.3% for 120 modeling sample data, and 91.7% for 36 testing sample data. The model could be easily used to evaluate the freshness of shrimp with better accuracy.

  1. The Effects of Shrimp Gut Probiotic Bacteria on the Shrimp Larvae (Penaeus Chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The survival rates of shrimp larvae in different stage are higher than those of control groups when probiotic bacteria strains X4B-1 and X1B-1 which are isolated from gut of adult shrimp are added into the little volume rearing sea water of shrimp larvae. The effects of probiotic bacteria are evaluated by challenge test (pathogenic bacteria Z3G2 isolated from disease shrimp larvae in the hatchery of Jimo town) and low salinity stress resistance tests on shrimp larvae, the survival rate and lengths of the shrimp larvae in the experiment are determined. Results indicate that 1. The survival rate, ability of resistant to low salinity, lengths of the delivered shrimp larvae are improved after the strains of probiotic bacteria, X4B-1 or X1B-1, are added into the rearing sea water of hatchery. 2. The addition of the probiotic bacteria could not influence the change of the bacteria number, NH3-N and COD value in the rearing sea water. 3. The probiotic bacteria used in the experiment have many enzymes such as Lipase, Amylase, Gelatinase and Lecithinase. These enzymes may help the probiotic bacteria to digest the food components fed to shrimp larvae and increase the digestive efficiency of post larvae. This may be one of the reasons why these probiotic bacteria are beneficial to the shrimp larvae.

  2. Antiviral defense in shrimp: from innate immunity to viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Huang, Tianzhi; Zhang, Xiaobo; He, Jian-Guo

    2014-08-01

    The culture of penaeid shrimp is rapidly developing as a major business endeavor worldwide. However, viral diseases have caused huge economic loss in penaeid shrimp culture industries. Knowledge of shrimp innate immunity and antiviral responses has made important progress in recent years, allowing the design of better strategies for the prevention and control of shrimp diseases. In this study, we have updated information on shrimp antiviral immunity and interactions between shrimp hosts and viral pathogens. Current knowledge and recent progress in immune signaling pathways (e.g., Toll/IMD-NF-κB and JAK-STAT signaling pathways), RNAi, phagocytosis, and apoptosis in shrimp antiviral immunity are discussed. The mechanism of viral infection in shrimp hosts and the interactions between viruses and shrimp innate immune systems are also analyzed.

  3. Dietary administration of sodium alginate enhances the immune ability of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winton; Liu, Chun-Hung; Kuo, Ching-Ming; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2005-01-01

    Haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (12.3 +/- 1.2 g) which had been fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g kg(-1) after five months. L. vannamei fed a diet containing 2.0 g kg(-1) sodium alginate had increased phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst and SOD activity, but decreased GPX activity significantly. L. vannamei fed a diet containing 2.0 g kg(-1) sodium alginate had increased phagocytic activity and the shrimp fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g kg(-1) had increased clearance efficiency to V. alginolyticus. In another experiment, L. vannamei, which had been fed control diet, or sodium alginate-containing diets after 5 months, were challenged with V. alginolyticus at 2 x 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) shrimp(-1) and then placed in seawater of 15 per thousand. The survival of shrimp fed a diet containing 2.0 g kg(-1) after one day, and the survival of shrimp fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0.5 and 1.0 g kg(-1) after 2-4 days increased significantly, as compared to that of shrimp fed control diet. It is therefore concluded that administration of sodium alginate in the diet at 2.0 g kg(-1) or less could enhance the immune ability of L. vannamei and increase its resistance to V. alginolyticus infection.

  4. Artemia franciscana as a vector for infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) to Litopenaeus vannamei juvenile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral; Lavander, Henrique David; de Santana Luna, Manuella Maria; de Melo Eloi da Silva, Ana Odete; Gálvez, Alfredo Olivera; Coimbra, Maria Raquel Moura

    2015-03-01

    In 2004, the infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) was recognized as the main cause of Litopenaeusvannamei shrimp culture's drop in Brazil. In health animal control programs, in order to reduce virus prevalence in production units it is necessary to screen live feed used. Among live diets used in aquaculture, the brine shrimp Artemia sp. is essential in crustacean larviculture and maturation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Artemiafranciscana to IMNV through an immersion challenge and virus-phytoplankton adhesion route and to elucidate its role as a vector for IMNV transmission to L.vannamei. A. franciscana adults were infected with IMNV through both routes, as demonstrated by PCR-positive reactions. However, infected A. franciscana showed no signs of infection. More than 40% of L. vannamei juveniles fed with IMNV-infected A. franciscana by virus-phytoplankton adhesion route were positive by real-time PCR, whereas only a 10% infection rate was found among shrimp fed with IMNV-infected brine shrimp using the immersion challenge. Significant differences were found in mean viral load between immersion and virus-phytoplankton adhesion shrimp treatments (p ⩽ 0.05). Moreover, the mean viral loads were 1.34 × 10(2) and 1.48 × 10(4) copies/μg(-1) of total RNA for virus-phytoplankton adhesion and IMNV-infected tissue treatments, respectively, and the difference was not significant (p ⩾ 0.05). The results indicated that A. franciscana act as a vector for IMNV transmission under the experimental conditions examined. Although no mass mortalities were detected in L. vannamei fed with IMNV-infected brine shrimp, these infected shrimp should not be disregarded as a source of IMNV in grow-out units.

  5. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  6. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  7. Philanthropist in Juvenile Reformatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of February 1, 2007, Chen Guangbiao, a noted philanthropist, found himself in the Jiangsu Provincial Juvenile Reformatory in Jurong City for a ceremony to donate two buses, 100 computers, and 100 desks and 100 chairs for the juvenile offenders to use in their study.

  8. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  9. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  10. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  11. Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Permit Gear Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set contains annual vessel gear characterization of permit holders shrimp vessel. Data includes net type, TED type, BRD type, etc.

  12. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...

  13. Observer Coverage of the Southeastern Shrimp Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vessel, gear and biological data collected by fishery observers from the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic commerical shrimp fishery.

  14. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  15. The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

  16. Ultraviolet photoreception in mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T W; Marshall, N J; Quinn, C A; King, C A

    1994-06-01

    An UV-sensitive class of photoreceptors exists in all regions of the retinas of mantis shrimps. UV photosensitivity apparently resides in rhabdomeres of the eighth retinular cell (R8) that lies atop each rhabdom; and in ommatidia where the R8 rhabdomere consists of microvilli parallel in a single direction, sensitivity is maximal when the e-vector of plane-polarized light is parallel to the microvilli. Spectral sensitivity of the UV photoreceptor peaks at 345 nm and is best explained by the presence of a photopigment with lambda max near 325 nm overlain by material that absorbs UV light at wavelengths below approximately 350 nm. Rhabdomeres of R8 cells in several different retinal regions of a variety of species examined contain a photopigment absorbing maximally below 340 nm. Under appropriate conditions, a metapigment with lambda max near 460 nm can be formed. UV vision may be useful for enhancing the visual contrast of midwater predators or prey.

  17. Fungal infection of mantis shrimp (Oratosquilla oratoria) caused by two anamorphic fungi found in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Pham Minh; Hatai, Kishio; Kurata, Osamu; Tensha, Kozue; Yoshitaka, Uchida; Yaguchi, Takashi; Udagawa, Shun-ichi

    2009-05-01

    Two fungal pathogens of the mantis shrimp (Oratosquilla oratoria) in Yamaguchi and Aichi Prefectures, Japan are described as the new species Plectosporium oratosquillae and Acremonium sp. (a member of the Emericellopsis marine clade). Both fungi infect the gills of the mantis shrimp, which become brown or black due to melanization. The former species is characterized by its slow growth on artificial seawater yeast extract peptone glucose (PYGS) agar, pale yellow to pale orange or grayish yellow colonies, short cylindrical solitary phialides with a wavy tip, and one-celled ellipsoidal conidia. Although lacking the two-celled conidia demonstrated by the type species Plectosporium tabacinum, the taxonomic placement of the new species was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2). Acremonium sp., the other causal pathogen, differs from P. oratosquillae by its fast growth on PYGS agar, pale orange to salmon-colored colonies, long, slender conidiophores consisting of solitary phialides with tips lacking an undulate outline, and typically cylindrical conidia. Analysis of ITS and beta-tubulin gene sequences placed this fungus within the phylogenetically distinct Emericellopsis (anam. Acremonium) marine clade. Various physiological characteristics of both pathogens were also investigated. This is the first report of a fungal infection found on the mantis shrimp in Japan.

  18. HSP70 and HSP90 are involved in shrimp Penaeus vannamei tolerance to AHPND-causing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus after non-lethal heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junprung, Wisarut; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2017-01-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying toxin-producing plasmid, has led to severe mortalities in farmed penaeid shrimp throughout Asia. Previous studies reported that a non-lethal heat shock (NLHS) could enhance disease tolerance in aquatic animals. Here, we investigate whether the NLHS could enhance the survival of shrimp Penaeusvannamei upon challenge with an AHPND-causing strain of V. Parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND). Two NLHS conditions, acute and chronic NLHSs, were used. The former abruptly exposed the juveniles shrimp from 28 °C to 38 °C for 30 min only once whereas the latter exposed the shrimp to 38 °C for 5 min every day for 7 days. The treated shrimp were, then, challenged with VPAHPND at day 3, day 7, and day 30 during the recovery time after the treatment. The results showed that the shrimp exposed to either acute or chronic NLHS had higher survival rate (>50%) than that of the non-heated shrimp control (20%) when they were challenged with VPAHPND at day 3 recovery time. However, only those exposed to chronic NLHS showed the VPAHPND protection at day 7 and day 30 recovery times. Furthermore, the qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of heat shock proteins, LvHSP70, LvHSP90 as well as other immune-related genes, LvproPO and LvCrustin, were induced upon exposure of shrimp to chronic NLHS. Interestingly, gene silencing of LvHSP70 and LvHSP90 eliminated the VPAHPND tolerance in the chronic NLHS shrimp and had decreasing PO activity suggesting that these LvHSPs played crucial roles in bacterial defense in shrimp. All together, we show for the first time that the NLHS enhance the shrimp tolerance to VPAHPND infection and this is likely mediated by the induction of LvHSP70, LvHSP90 and subsequent activation of the proPO system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of temperature on the standard metabolic rates of juvenile and adult Exopalaemon carinicauda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengsong; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-03-01

    Ridgetail white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) are of significant economic importance in China where they are widely cultured. However, there is little information on the basic biology of this species. We evaluated the effect of temperature (16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34°C) on the standard metabolic rates (SMRs) of juvenile and adult E. carinicauda in the laboratory under static conditions. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ammonia-N excretion rate (AER), and atomic ratio of oxygen consumed to nitrogen consumed (O:N ratio) of juvenile and adult E. carinicauda were significantly influenced by temperature ( P OCR and AER of juveniles increased significantly with increasing temperature from 16 to 34°C, but the maximum OCR for adults was at 31°C. Juvenile shrimp exhibited a higher OCR than the adults from 19 to 34°C. There was no significant difference between the AERs of the two life-stages from 16 to 31°C ( P >0.05). The O:N ratio in juveniles was significantly higher than that in the adults over the entire temperature range ( P OCR and AER ranged from 5.03 to 0.86 and 6.30 to 0.85 for the adults, respectively, and from 6.09-1.03 and 3.66-1.80 for the juveniles, respectively. The optimal temperature range for growth of the juvenile and adult shrimp was from 28 to 31°C, based on Q 10 and SMR values. Results from the present study may be used to guide pond culture production of E. carinicauda.

  20. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on the allergenicity of shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The tropomyosin fraction of shrimp proteins is potentially responsible for allergic reaction in individuals with genetic predisposition to allergy. However, there are no efficient and safe methods to reduce its allergenicity. High intensity ultrasound is known to change the structure of proteins. This study is aimed at assessing high intensity ultrasound's effect on the allergenicity of shrimp allergen. Shrimp and purified shrimp allergen were treated with high intensity ultrasound for 30~180 min. Extracts of treated samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with pool serum of shrimp allergy patients and polyclonal anti-allergen antibodies and by immunoblotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Shrimp treated with high intensity ultrasound showed a decrease in allergenicity measured with ELISA. A linear relationship between the immune response induced by treated shrimp allergen and the applied treatment time was observed. The decrease in allergenicity was confirmed by immunoblot assays with shrimp allergic patients serum. Allergenicity of shrimp allergen extracted from treated shrimp was higher than that of purified shrimp allergen with the same treatment time. Gel-filtration HPLC was applied for analysis of shrimp allergen after treatment with high intensity ultrasound. Some fractions were appeared with increasing treatment time. The results suggested that high intensity ultrasound could be used to reduce the allergenicity of shrimp.

  1. Foraging success of juvenile pike Esox lucius depends on visual conditions and prey pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, M; Hylander, S; Ranåker, L; Nilsson, P A; Brönmark, C

    2011-07-01

    Young-of-the-year pike Esox lucius foraging on copepods experienced different foraging success depending on prey pigmentation in water visually degraded by brown colouration or algae. Both attack rate and prey consumption rate were higher for E. lucius foraging on transparent prey in brown water, whereas the opposite was true in algal turbid water. Pigments in copepod prey may have a cryptic function in brown water instead of a photo-protective function even if prey-size selectivity was stronger than selection based on pigmentation in juvenile E. lucius.

  2. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  3. Using microsatellite markers to identify heritability of Pacific whiteleg shrimpLitopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDRIANTAHINA Farafidy; LIU Xiaolin; HUANG Hao

    2015-01-01

    Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an economically relevant shrimp species in many Asian countries. The specific objective of the current research was to assess microsatellite markers in screening the fast-growth of domesticatedL. vannamei stocks to establish a founder population for breeding-selection plans. The postlarvae produced by the reproduction of second generation broodstock were cultured in the same conditions throughout a five months growing period. Ninety juvenile shrimp were selected from the slow-, medium- and the fast-growth groups, and ten microsatellite markers were used to investigate their genetic diversity, and to understand the improvement of a breeding-selection scheme. Ten polymorphic loci (markers) (M1–M10) were produced at ten loci in this sample, among them Primer M8 was the highest polymorphic locus and M7 was the lowest one. A specific locus was found in the fast-growth group using Primer M5. The longest genetic distance (0.481) was determined between the fast- and medium-growth groups and the shortest (0.098) was between the slow- and medium-growth groups; therefore, the largest genetic identity (0.946) was observed between the slow-and medium-growth groups and the smallest (0.667) was observed between the medium- and fast-growth groups. The Unweighted Paired Group with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) dendrogram based on Nei’s genetic distances provided two different groups; the first consist of the slow- and medium-growth groups and the second the fast-growth group. Selection response and realized heritability for growth were 11.55% and 31.26%, respectively. Therefore, this set of microsatellite markers would provide a useful tool in shrimp breeding schemes.

  4. Development of Researches on Preservation and Storage Technology of Shrimps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海玲; 杨春莉; 杨春瑜

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the world’s fisheries, shrimp consumption and trade are occupying an increasingly important position in the international aquatic products market. China is the world’s largest producer of shrimp and is also the main exporter of shrimp, however, compared with developed countries, technology level of shrimp production and processing in our country is still low at present, especially in aspect of shrimp preservation and storage techniques. So it is necessary to study various technologies and applications of sterilization and conclude the effective methods of shrimp preservation and storage. Traditional storage, chemical and biological technology, low temperature preservation, heat treatment, gas preservation and physical sterilization technology are reviewed in this paper based on shrimp preservation aiming to provide certain theoretical reference and practical basis for shelf life extension of shrimp.

  5. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  6. 2012 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected economic data on inshore commercial shrimp fishermen who held licenses to commercially harvest shrimp in state waters of the U.S. Gulf of...

  7. English trials of a Dutch shrimp sorting machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, P.J

    1973-01-01

    This paper has been produced to bring to the notice of shrimp fishermen, merchants and processors details of the specification and performance of a Dutch shrimp sieve which employs rotating cylinders...

  8. White spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sangamaheswaran, A.P.; Jeyaseelan, M.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The white spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp affects the development of the global shrimp industry. This paper reviews the viruses that cause the disease, the transmission of the virus, diagnosis and preventive measures.

  9. Shrimp trawlers as a local attractor of seabirds in nearshore waters of South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Wickliffe, Lisa C.; Sachs, Elena B.

    2011-01-01

    Shrimp trawling is common throughout the southeastern and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the USA and is the primary contributor to fisheries discards in these regions. Tens of thousands of nearshore seabirds nest near shrimp trawling grounds in the USA, but to date, there has been no assessment of the relationship between seabirds and shrimp trawlers. We examined the taxonomic composition of bycatch, rate at which seabirds scavenged bycatch, and energy density of discarded bycatch in a nearshore commercial shrimp fishery. Bycatch was primarily comprised of demersal fish that are not typically accessible to the plunge-diving and surface-feeding seabirds that occur in the area. Hence, seabird diets in the region appear to be broadened taxonomically by the availability of discards. Results from discard experiments indicated that 70% of the nearly 5,500 items discarded by hand were scavenged by seabirds and that the fate of a discarded item was most strongly predicted by its taxonomic order. Laughing gulls scavenged the greatest proportion of discards, although brown pelicans were the only species to scavenge more discards than predicted based upon their abundance. Because this is the first such study in the region, it is difficult to ascertain the extent or intensity of the impact that discards have on nearshore seabirds. Nonetheless, our results suggest that it will be difficult for managers to clearly understand fluctuations in local seabird population dynamics without first understanding the extent to which these species rely upon discards. This may be especially problematic in situations where seabird populations are recovering following natural or anthropogenic stressors.

  10. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Reinhard Vogl; Brojo Gopal Paul

    2012-01-01

    In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798) aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Banglade...

  11. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  12. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  13. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  14. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapy Regular Exercise en español Artritis idiopática juvenil It may begin with a swollen knuckle, a ... may suddenly appear and disappear, developing in one area and then another. High fevers that tend to ...

  15. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  16. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  17. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Treatment Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Shirley; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Colbert, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    No specific recommendations for the treatment of juvenile spondyloarthritis have been established. Important differences exist in how spondyloarthritis begins and progresses in children and adults, supporting the need for pediatric-specific recommendations. Recently published recommendations for the treatment of juvenile arthritis consider children with sacroiliitis in a separate group, and allow for more accelerated institution of a TNF inhibitor depending on disease activity and prognostic ...

  18. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  19. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti...

  20. Balancing options for shrimp farming : a landscape approach to investigate the future of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joffre, O.M.

    2015-01-01

    Balancing options for shrimp farming A landscape approach to investigate the future of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta Olivier Joffre While providing an option for development in coastal areas, shrimp farming is usually associated  with high environmental cost due to the

  1. Liquid chromatographic determination of furazolidone in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehly, G R; Plakas, S M; el Said, K R

    1994-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the quantitation of furazolidone residues in shrimp muscle. The shrimp homogenate (1.0 g) is extracted with acetonitrile, and the extract is taken to dryness. The residue is dissolved in acetonitrile, and the solution is passed through alumina and C18 cleanup columns. The eluate is taken to dryness and reconstituted in a suitable solvent for reversed-phase (C18) LC with UV detection at 365 nm. Recoveries of furazolidone from shrimp homogenates spiked from 5 to 80 ng/g ranged from 74.3 to 79.7%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 5.0-8.9%. RSDs for incurred furazolidone quantitated at 5.9 and 9.2 ng/g were 6.6 and 7.6%, respectively.

  2. Automation in stock-culture maintenance and juvenile separation of the mysid Mysidopsis bahia (Molenonck)

    OpenAIRE

    Léger, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1982-01-01

    A batch system with subgravel filter for stock-culture maintenance of Mysidopsis bahia in artificial sea water is described. The feeding of mysids on Artemia is optimized through the cyclic pumping of brine shrimp instar I nauplii from a refrigerator to the stock-cultures. An easily constructed incubator-separator apparatus is described for the standardized harvesting of mysid juveniles to be used as test organisms.

  3. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  4. Biophysics. For certain shrimp, life's a snap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2000-09-22

    On page 2114 of this issue, physicists report that a collapsing bubble outside the claw of the snapping shrimp Alpheus heterochaelis causes its characteristic clack. According to this new study, A. heterochaelis clamps its claw so rapidly that a water jet gushing from the claw first loses and then gains pressure, causing an air bubble in the jet to swell and collapse with a pronounced "snap!" The imploding bubble generates shock waves that stun nearby prey and ward off other shrimp, who have learned to keep their distance.

  5. The impact of shrimp farming on mangrove ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Elizabeth Clare

    2008-01-01

    Farmed shrimp production and value continue to increase with Asia producing the global majority of shrimp and the USA, Japan and Europe being the main importers. Shrimp farming systems are very diverse in their management, size and impacts. There are many causes for mangrove loss but the conversion...... of mangroves to shrimp farms has caused considerable attention. The major issues of shrimp farming include the loss of important ecological and socio-economic functions of mangrove ecosystems, changes in hydrology, salinization, introduction of non-native species and diseases, pollution from effluents......, chemicals and medicines, use of wild fish for feed, capture of wild shrimp seed and loss of livelihoods and social conflicts. Global awareness about the need to reduce the impacts of shrimp farming and the importance of sustainable use of mangrove ecosystems has led to a number of guidelines being published...

  6. Alkanes in shrimp from the Buccaneer Oil Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.; Chang, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    A total of 36 samples of shrimp were examined from the region of the Buccaneer oil field, eighteen of which were representatives of the commercial species Penaeus aztecus and the rest were various other species: Penaeus duorarum (pink shrimp), Trachypenaeus duorarum (sugar shrimp), Squilla empusa (mantis shrimp), and Sicyonia dorsalis (chevron shrimp). The alkanes and deuteriated alkanes were completely separated by GC, so a mass spectrometer was not required for their detection and quantitation. To confirm the identities of individual compounds, however, some samples were examined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results show that only thirteen of the forty shrimp collected from the region of the Buccaneer oil field contained petroleum alkanes, and the majority of these were obtained from trawls immediately adjacent to the production platforms. It appears that shrimp caught in the region of the Buccaneer oil field are not appreciably tainted with hydrocarbons discharged from the production platforms. (JMT)

  7. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  8. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  9. Carryover effects of predation risk on postembryonic life-history stages in a freshwater shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, Romina Belén; Vázquez, María Guadalupe; González-Sagrario, María de los Ángeles; Spivak, Eduardo Daniel

    2014-04-01

    For organisms with complex life histories it is well known that risk experienced early in life, as embryos or larvae, may have effects throughout the life cycle. Although carryover effects have been well documented in invertebrates with different levels of parental care, there are few examples of predator-induced responses in externally brooded embryos. Here, we studied the effects of nonlethal predation risk throughout the embryonic development of newly spawned eggs carried by female shrimp on the timing of egg hatching, hatchling morphology, larval development and juvenile morphology. We also determined maternal body mass at the end of the embryonic period. Exposure to predation risk cues during embryonic development led to larger larvae which also had longer rostra but reached the juvenile stage sooner, at a smaller size and with shorter rostra. There was no difference in hatching timing, but changes in larval morphology and developmental timing showed that the embryos had perceived waterborne substances indicative of predation risk. In addition to carryover effects on larval and juvenile stages, predation threat provoked a decrease of body mass in mothers exposed to predator cues while brooding. Our results suggest that risk-exposed embryos were able to recognize the same infochemicals as their mothers, manifesting a response in the free-living larval stage. Thus, future studies assessing anti-predator phenotypes should include embryonic development, which seems to determine the morphology and developmental time of subsequent life-history stages according to perceived environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Feeding ecology of penaeid shrimp in Kenyan mangrove ecosystems: implications for biological shrimp aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gatune, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological shrimp aquaculture derives its feed input from the naturally occurring food sources. This practice has an environmental advantage of reducing the use of fish meal as the main food input. Use of fish meal in aquaculture has a negative effect on the coastal fisheries in the sense of depleting fish stocks. It also has a tendency to discharge wastes that pollutes the receiving coastal ecosystems. Ecological shrimp aquaculture therefore impacts low burden to the coastal ecosystems since...

  11. Prevalence of Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to survey the prevalence of some infectious diseases e.g. Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and to assess the impact of such infectious agents to indigenous aquatic animals in Thailand. Samples of both larval and juvenile or adult shrimp from each region of the country were collected and screened for TSV and IHHNV using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Viruses isolated from affected shrimp were used for determine the susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand.A total of 163 samples of larval shrimp from hatcheries were screened. The results showed infection with TSV and IHHNV in 3.68 and 44.17%, respectively. As high as 7.32% TSV infection was detected in shrimp samples collected from the South Eastern coast, followed by the Eastern and Central regions with percentages of 5.56 and 4.53, respectively. Shrimp with the highest rate of IHHNV infection, 55.56% were collected from the Eastern region. A total of 192 samples of shrimp reared in grow-out ponds were also collected. The results showed shrimp were infected with TSV and IHHNV with percentages of 6.67 and 67.19, respectively. The highest prevalence of IHHNV (up to 90% was found in samples collected from the lower Southern region. The highest prevalence of TSV infection (11.29% was reported in shrimp from the Central region. A study of the susceptibility to TSV and IHHNV infection of some indigenous aquatic species of Thailand was also carried out. The results showed many aquatic species native to Thailand e.g. black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, speckled shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros, dwarf prawn (Macrobrachium equideus, krill (Acetes sp., mantis lobster (Chloridopsis immaculatus, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri and M. rosenbergii, mangrove crab (Sesarma sp. and mud crab (Scylla serrata were susceptible to viruses and

  12. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  13. Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao-qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2015-03-01

    a model crustacean brine shrimp, which will increase the risk of juvenile brine shrimp and possibly also other crustaceans, as important live feeds for aquaculture being introduced in the ecosystem especially the marine food webs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How snapping shrimp snap: through cavitating bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Andreas Michel; Schmitz, Barbara; von der Heydt, A.; Lohse, Detlef

    2000-01-01

    The snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis) produces a loud snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of its snapper claw. One of the effects of the snapping is to stun or kill prey animals. During the rapid snapper claw closure, a high-velocity water jet is emitted from the claw with a speed

  15. On the Sound of Snapping Shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Andreas Michel; von der Heydt, A.; Lohse, Detlef; Schmitz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Snapping shrimp produce a snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of their snapper claw. Source levels reported for Alpheus heterochaelis are as high as 220 dB (peak-to-peak) re. 1 µPa at 1 m distance. The loud snap has been attributed to the mechanical contact made when the snapper claw

  16. Neoliberalism and shrimp industry in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Romero Salgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of the shrimp industry development in the mangrove ecosystem, the socio-environmental conflicts generated and its relationship with neoliberalism and the financial crisis of 1999 in Ecuador. After a review of the importance of the mangrove ecosystem, the stages of the shrimp expansion, its promoters, the mangrove deforestation and the socio-environmental effects caused, I will analyze the shrimp crisis, its parallels with the financial crisis of 1999 and its subsequent recovery. I will show that the shrimp industry expanded in mangrove areas in order to reduce costs, even breaking the law and creating environmental degradation, vulnerability of the costs and loss of natural resources, based on the exploitation and privatization of a public good. This created unemployment, migration and impoverishment to local populations and costs that the State will have to assume. Therefore, it is a process of “accumulation by dispossession” characteristic of neoliberalism.

  17. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  18. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Sidik

    Full Text Available The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂ efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  19. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  20. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  1. Juvenile idiopatiske inflammatoriske myopatier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Sanner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM is a group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases in children and adolescents, characterized by chronic skeletal muscle inflammation. Unlike in adults, dermatomyositis (JDM is by far the most common of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children and adolescents. The hallmark of JDM is calcinosis, lipodystrophy and vasculitis, findings that differs the juvenile form of dermatomyosits from the adult form. JDM is still diagnosed and classified by Bohan and Peter’s criteria from 1975. There are limited data on long time outcome of this disease

  2. Spoilage evaluation, shelf-life prediction, and potential spoilage organisms of tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus notialis) at different storage temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.; Besten, den H.M.W.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the freshness of shrimp is a concern to shrimp stakeholders. To improve shrimp quality management, it is of importance to evaluate shrimp spoilage characteristics. Therefore, microbiological, sensory, and chemical changes of naturally contaminated tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus

  3. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  4. Lipid Adaptation of Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata in Hydrothermal Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yadong; Wang, Chunsheng; Xu, Jilin

    2015-12-01

    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is the most abundant species in hydrothermal vents. Lipids, the component of membranes, play an important role in maintaining their function normally in such extreme environments. In order to understand the lipid adaptation of R. exoculata (HV shrimp) to hydrothermal vents, we compared its lipid profile with the coastal shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (EZ shrimp) which lives in the euphotic zone, using ultra performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. As a result, the following lipid adaptation can be observed. (1) The proportion of 16:1 and 18:1, and non-methylene interrupted fatty acid (48.9 and 6.2 %) in HV shrimp was higher than that in EZ shrimp (12.7 and 0 %). While highly-unsaturated fatty acids were only present in the EZ shrimp. (2) Ceramide and sphingomyelin in the HV shrimp were enriched in d14:1 long chain base (96.5 and 100 %) and unsaturated fatty acids (67.1 and 57.7 %). While in the EZ shrimp, ceramide and sphingomyelin had the tendency to contain d16:1 long chain base (68.7 and 75 %) and saturated fatty acids (100 and 100 %). (3) Triacylglycerol content (1.998 ± 0.005 nmol/mg) in the HV shrimp was higher than that in the EZ shrimp (0.092 ± 0.005 nmol/mg). (4) Phosphatidylinositol and diacylglycerol containing highly-unsaturated fatty acids were absent from the HV shrimp. (5) Lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine were rarely detected in the HV shrimp. A possible reason for such differences was the result of food resources and inhabiting environments. Therefore, these lipid classes mentioned above may be the biomarkers to compare the organisms from different environments, which will be benefit for the further exploitation of the hydrothermal environment.

  5. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  6. Effects of coal combustion residues on survival, antioxidant potential, and genotoxicity resulting from full-lifecycle exposure of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio Holthius)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmick, Danika M.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Rowe, Christopher L. [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, 1, Williams Street, PO Box 38, Solomons, MD, 20688 (United States); Hopkins, William A. [Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 100 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Coal combustion residues (CCRs), largely derived from coal-fired electrical generation, are rich in numerous trace elements that have the potential to induce sublethal effects including oxidative stress, alterations in antioxidant status and DNA single strand breaks (SSB). CCRs are frequently discharged into natural and man-made aquatic systems. As the effects of CCRs have received relatively little attention in estuarine systems, the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was chosen for this study. Grass shrimp were exposed in the laboratory to CCR-enriched sediments and food over a full life cycle. Survival to metamorphosis was significantly reduced in CCR-exposed larvae (17 {+-} 4 versus 70 {+-} 13% in the controls) but not in the juveniles or adults. The COMET assay, a general but sensitive assay for genotoxicity, was used to quantify DNA SSB in the adults. Total antioxidant potential was examined to assess the overall antioxidant scavenging capacity of CCR-exposed and non-exposed adult grass shrimp. Grass shrimp exposed to CCR significantly accumulated selenium and cadmium compared to unexposed shrimp, although an inverse relationship was seen for mercury accumulation. Chronic CCR exposure caused DNA SSB in hepatopancreas cells, as evidenced by the significantly increased percent tail DNA, tail moment, and tail length as compared to reference shrimp. However, no significant difference was observed in total antioxidant potential. Our findings suggest that genotoxicity may be an important mode of toxicity of CCR, and that DNA SSB may serve as a useful biomarker of exposure and effect of this very common, complex waste stream. (author)

  7. Polyculture of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei and milkfish, Chanos chanos as a strategy for efficient utilization of natural food production in ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessie Joy G. Elle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Both shrimps and milkfish are important aquaculture species in the Philippines. In the presentstudy, we described a modified extensive polyculture method for white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannameiand miklkfish, Chanos chanos in ponds during the wet months. This particular culture system uses two ormore species in a particular production area with the purpose of maximizing the utilization of theavailable natural food present in the system. Two 1-hectare earthen ponds were prepared and addedwith organic and/or inorganic fertilizers to enhance natural food production. The ponds were stocked withwhite shrimp postlarvae (PL at a density of 1 PL m-2 and milkfish at 750 juveniles ha-1. There was nowater exchange during the first two months of culture followed by a bi-weekly water exchange untilharvest. No artificial feeding was provided during the culture period, instead, the ponds weresupplemented with inorganic fertilizers every month to ensure stable production of natural food. Bothshrimps and milkfish appeared healthy and no disease outbreaks were observed during the productioncycle. The physico-chemical parameters of the water in the ponds were within the optimum levels thatare required for both shrimp and milkfish farming. The phytoplankton population was stable andpredominantly composed of Chlorella sp., a green microalga (Chlorophyta. The cultured stock wereharvested after 100 days of culture at sizes of 13-15 for white shrimp and > 250 g for milkfish. Therewas high survival rate of milkfish but low for white shrimps, and this could be affected by the prevailingclimatic condtions during culture and the age and size of the species during stocking.

  8. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  9. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  10. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  11. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  12. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  13. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of the youngest exposed pluton in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analysis using the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) shows that the Yongsheng pluton, located to the south of Huadian County, Jilin Province, in the North China Craton, has a zircon U-Pb isotopic emplacement age of (31.6±13) Ma. It is therefore the youngest exposed pluton so far recognized in eastern China. Although geochemical data indicate intensive crystal fractionation, the Sr-Nd isotopic features suggest that the magmatic source region of the lithospheric mantle was weakly depleted. This implies that the previous enriched lithospheric mantle had been replaced by juvenile asthenospheric mantle before or during the Palaeogene. This recognition has great significance for future work on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic geological evolution and deep geological processes in eastern China.

  14. Homogeneous sample preparation of raw shrimp using dry ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, E A; Altwein, D M; Johnson, L E; Farley, J R; Hammersmith, A A

    1995-01-01

    Sample homogeneity is critical to accurate and reproducible analysis of trace residues in foods. A method of uniform sample preparation using dry ice is described for shrimp. Other sample preparation techniques for raw shrimp produce nonhomogeneous samples. Sample homogeneity was determined through analysis of chloramphenicol added to intact tiger or white shrimp prior to sample preparation. Simulated chloramphenicol residue levels were 50, 15, 10, and 5 ppb. No significant differences were noted when analyses of shrimp inoculated with chlor-amphenicol prior to sample preparation with dry ice were compared with analyses of shrimp spiked after grinding with dry ice. Grinding shrimp with dry ice produced samples with homogeneous chloramphenicol residues. This technique should be applicable to other tissues and vegetable products.

  15. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  16. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  17. Probiotic modulation of the gut bacterial community of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irasema E Luis-Villaseñor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of two probiotic mixtures was studied using the fingerprints of the bacterial community of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles exposed to probiotics and challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170. Fingerprints were constructed using 16S rRNA gene and the PCR-SSCP (Single strand conformation polymorphism technique, and the probiotics used were an experimental Bacillus mixture (Bacillus tequilensis YC5-2 + B. endophyticus C2-2 and YC3-B and the commercial probiotic Alibio. The DNA for PCR-SSCP analyses was extracted directly from the guts of shrimps treated for 20 days with the probiotics and injected with 2.5*10(5 CFU g-1 of V. parahaemolyticus one week after suspension of the probiotic treatment. Untreated shrimps served as positive (injected with V. parahaemolyticus and negative (not injected controls Analysis of the bacterial community carried out after inoculation and 12 and 48 h later confirmed that V. parahaemolyticus was present in shrimps of the positive control , but not in the negative control or treated with the probiotic mixtures. A significant difference in the diversity of the bacterial community was observed between times after infection. The band patterns in 0-12 h were clustered into a different group from that determined after 48 h, and suggested that during bacterial infection the guts of whiteleg shrimp were dominated by gamma proteobacteria represented by Vibrio sp. and Photobacterium sp. Our results indicate that the experimental and the commercial mixtures are suitable to modulate the bacterial community of L. vannamei and could be used as a probiotic to control vibriosis in juvenile shrimp.

  18. Seafood consumption habits of South Carolina shrimp baiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Deborah; Vahey, Grace; Faith, Trevor; Vena, John; Williams, Edith M

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp baiting is a fishing technique used by many South Carolinians and has been regulated in the state since the late 1980s. A postcard survey was developed and included with 400 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) annual surveys of registered shrimp baiters over a two-year period. The survey contained questions concerning frequency, portion size, baiting locations, and preparation techniques for shrimp as well as other species consumed and demographic information. An overall response rate of 37% was received. The majority of respondents were men over the age of 55 years. Charleston and Beaufort counties were the most common locations for shrimp baiting. Almost half (45.9%) of respondents reported eating locally caught shrimp at least 2-3 times per month. The most common portion size was ½ pound (8 oz. or 277 g), with 44.8% of respondents reporting this as their typical amount of shrimp ingested at one meal. Only 3.7% of respondents reported typically eating the whole shrimp, while all other respondents ingested shrimp with the head removed. The most commonly consumed species besides shrimp were blue crab, oysters, and flounder. According to the US Food and Drug Administration mercury (Hg) guidelines, the majority (97%) of our respondents were not at risk for consuming unsafe levels of Hg from locally caught shrimp. However, this does not take into account other local seafood eaten or other contaminants of concern. These consumption results may be used in conjunction with data on contaminant levels in shrimp to determine potential adverse health risks associated with consumption of locally caught shrimp.

  19. Bacterial Selection from Shrimp Ponds for Degradation of Organic Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Powtongsook, S.; Chanpun, K.; Suntornsuk, W.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulation of ammonia, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide in a shrimp pond is generally caused by incomplete degradation of residual organic matters from overfeeding and from organic wastes released by shrimps. The phenomenon affects shrimp growth and survival rate. The objectives of this investigation were to screen for a bacterial strain able to digest organic residues and to evaluate the changes of residues by bacterial activities under natural conditions. The results from this work showed tha...

  20. Governance and the study of shrimp revitalization program in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dyspriani, Polite

    2007-01-01

    Shrimp world production in the last few years has shown very high growth rates. It is marked by an increasing of production volume, and by shifting from capture to aquaculture fisheries within the production system. This has occurred mostly regarding to the brackish water pond. For some years, the government has had to face hard choices in order to ensure shrimp aquaculture developed sustainable. The desire and temptation to pursue the excessive development of shrimp production as a source of...

  1. Optimization of carotenoids extraction from Penaeus semisulcatus shrimp wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza jahed Khaniki; Parisa Sadighara; Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi; Mahmood Alimohammadi; Naiema Vakili Saatloo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find effective method for carotenoids extraction from shrimp waste which is one of the important sources of natural carotenoids and produced in large quantities in Iran. Methods: Two methods of carotenoids extraction, enzymatic and alkaline (NaOH 1 normal) treatment, were assayed. About 5 g of gritted shrimp wastes were used at each stage. For alkaline treatment, sodium hydroxide were added to shrimp waste. After 48 h, the mixture was filtered and centrifuged. ...

  2. Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun; Malfatti, Francesca; Azam, Farooq

    2011-07-01

    Microorganisms play integral roles in the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish and shellfish production. We quantified the pathways of shrimp fecal bacterial activities and their role in C- and N-flux partitioning relevant to culturing Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in RAS. Freshly produced feces from P. vannamei contained 0.6-7 × 10(10) bacteria g(-1) dry wt belonging to Bacteroidetes (7%), Alphaproteobacteria (4%), and, within the Gammaproteobacteria, almost exclusively to the genus Vibrio (61%). Because of partial disintegration of the feces (up to 27% within 12 h), the experimental seawater became inoculated with fecal bacteria. Bacteria grew rapidly in the feces and in the seawater, and exhibited high levels of aminopeptidase, chitinase, chitobiase, alkaline phosphatase, α- and β-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Moreover, fecal bacteria enriched the protein content of the feces within 12 h, potentially enriching the feces for the coprophagous shrimp. The bacterial turnover time was much faster in feces (1-10 h) than in mature RAS water (350 h). Thus, shrimp fecal bacteria not only inoculate RAS water but also contribute to bacterial abundance and productivity, and regulate system processes important for shrimp health.

  3. First report of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in crustaceans: conservation of its functions as growth promoting factor and immunomodulator in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Juana María; Carpio, Yamila; Morales, Reynold; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Ramos, Laida; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The high conservation of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) sequence indicates that this peptide fulfills important biological functions in a broad spectrum of organisms. However, in invertebrates, little is known about its presence and its functions remain unclear. Up to now, in non-mammalian vertebrates, the majority of studies on PACAP have focused mainly on the localization, cloning and structural evolution of this peptide. As yet, little is known about its biological functions as growth factor and immunomodulator in lower vertebrates. Recently, we have shown that PACAP, apart from its neuroendocrine role, influences immune functions in larval and juvenile fish. In this work, we isolated for the first time the cDNA encoding the mature PACAP from a crustacean species, the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, corroborating its high degree of sequence conservation, when compared to sequences reported from tunicates to mammalian vertebrates. Based on this, we have evaluated the effects of purified recombinant Clarias gariepinus PACAP administrated by immersion baths on white shrimp growth and immunity. We demonstrated that PACAP improves hemocyte count, superoxide dismutase, lectins and nitric oxide synthase derived metabolites in treated shrimp related with an increase in total protein concentration and growth performance. From our results, PACAP acts as a regulator of shrimp growth and immunity, suggesting that in crustaceans, as in vertebrate organisms, PACAP is an important molecule shared by both the endocrine and the immune systems.

  4. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...

  5. Shrimp viral diseases, import risk assessment and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Ababouch, Lahsen

    2012-09-01

    Shrimp is an important commodity in international trade accounting for 15 % in terms of value of internationally traded seafood products which reached $102.00 billion in 2008. Aquaculture contributes to over 50 % of global shrimp production. One of the major constraints faced by shrimp aquaculture is the loss due to viral diseases like white spot syndrome, yellow head disease, and Taura syndrome. There are several examples of global spread of shrimp diseases due to importation of live shrimp for aquaculture. Though millions of tonnes of frozen or processed shrimp have been traded internationally during the last two decades despite prevalence of viral diseases in shrimp producing areas in Asia and the Americas, there is no evidence of diseases having been transmitted through shrimp imported for human consumption. The guidelines developed by the World Animal Health Organisation for movement of live animals for aquaculture, frozen crustaceans for human consumption, and the regulations implemented by some shrimp importing regions in the world are reviewed.

  6. Market integration of cold and warmwater shrimp in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Ståhl, Lisa; Nielsen, Max

    2017-01-01

    This study examines market integration between the cold and warmwater shrimp value chain in the UK, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, and Norway using cointegration methods. For all countries, market integration exists between cold and warmwater unprocessed shrimp imports, where the law of one price (LOP......) holds in three of the five cases. For processed shrimp, the LOP holds in three of four integrated cases, and for retail sales in the UK and Denmark, the LOP fails to hold in the presence of market integration. Unprocessed coldwater shrimp leads the market in northern Europe. Downstream, prices adjust...

  7. Expression profile of key immune-related genes in Penaeus monodon juveniles after oral administration of recombinant envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu Saidumuhammed; Kiron, Viswanath; Bright Singh, Issac S; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2016-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most catastrophic pathogen the shrimp industry has ever encountered. VP28, the abundant envelope protein of WSSV was expressed in bacteria, the purified protein administered orally to Penaeus monodon juveniles and its immune modulatory effects examined. The results indicated significant up-regulation of caspase, penaeidin, crustin, astakine, syntenin, PmRACK, Rab7, STAT and C-type lectin in animals orally administered with this antigen. This revealed the immune modulations in shrimps followed by oral administration of rVP28P which resulted in the reduced transcription of viral gene vp28 and delay in mortality after WSSV challenge. The study suggests the potential of rVP28P to elicit a non-specific immune stimulation in shrimps.

  8. Antibiotic-Resistant Vibrios in Farmed Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined in 100 strains of Vibrio isolated from the Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and identified phenotypically. A high antibiotic-resistance index (75% was observed, with the following phenotypic profiles: monoresistance (n=42, cross-resistance to β-lactams (n=20 and multiple resistance (n=13. Plasmid resistance was characterized for penicillin (n=11, penicillin + ampicillin (n = 1, penicillin + aztreonam (n = 1, and ampicillin (n = 1. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs by the other strains (n=86 was possibly mediated by chromosomal genes. The findings of this study support the conclusion that the cultured shrimps can be vehicles of vibrios resistant to β-lactam and tetracycline.

  9. Risk of spread of penaeid shrimp viruses in the Americas by the international movement of live and frozen shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightner, D V; Redman, R M; Poulos, B T; Nunan, L M; Mari, J L; Hasson, K W

    1997-04-01

    Within the past decade, viral diseases have emerged as serious economic impediments to successful shrimp farming in many of the shrimp-farming countries of the world. In the western hemisphere, the viral agents of Taura syndrome (TS) and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis have caused serious disease epizootics throughout the shrimp-growing regions of the Americas and Hawaii, while in Asia the viral agents of white spot syndrome (WSS) and yellow head (YH) have caused pandemics with catastrophic losses. The international transfer of live shrimp for aquaculture purposes is an obvious mechanism by which the viruses have spread within and between regions in which they have occurred. Shrimp-eating gulls, other seabirds and aquatic insects may also be factors in the spread of shrimp viruses between and within regions. Another potentially important mechanism for the international spread of these pathogens is the trade in frozen commodity shrimp, which may contain viruses exotic to the importing countries. The viral agents of WSS, YH and TS have been found, and demonstrated to be infectious, in frozen shrimp imported into the United States market. Mechanisms identified for the potential transfer of virus in imported frozen products to domestic populations of cultured or wild penaeid shrimp stocks include: the release of untreated liquid or solid wastes from shrimp importing and processing plants directly into coastal waters, improper disposal of solid waste from shrimp importing and processing plants in landfills so that the waste is accessible to gulls and other seabirds, and the use of imported shrimp as bait by sports fishermen.

  10. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy De Grave

    Full Text Available We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT. Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats.

  11. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grave, Sammy; Smith, Kevin G; Adeler, Nils A; Allen, Dave J; Alvarez, Fernando; Anker, Arthur; Cai, Yixiong; Carrizo, Savrina F; Klotz, Werner; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Page, Timothy J; Shy, Jhy-Yun; Villalobos, José Luis; Wowor, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats).

  12. U-Pb geochronology of zircon and polygenetic titanite from the Glastonbury Complex, Connecticut, USA: An integrated SEM, EMPA, TIMS, and SHRIMP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Wintsch, R.P.; Fanning, C.M.; Dorais, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    U-Pb ages for zircon and titanite from a granodioritic gneiss in the Glastonbury Complex, Connecticut, have been determined using both isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and the sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP). Zircons occur in three morphologic populations: (1) equant to stubby, multifaceted, colorless, (2) prismatic, dark brown, with numerous cracks, and (3) elongate, prismatic, light tan to colorless. Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of the three populations shows simple concentric oscillatory zoning. The zircon TIMS age [weighted average of 207Pb/206Pb ages from Group 3 grains-450.5 ?? 1.6 Ma (MSWD=1.11)] and SHRIMP age [composite of 206Pb/238 U age data from all three groups-448.2 ?? 2.7 Ma (MSWD = 1.3)], are interpreted to suggest a relatively simple crystallization history. Titanite from the granodioritic gneiss occurs as both brown and colorless varieties. Scanning electron microscope backscatter (BSE) images of brown grains show multiple cross-cutting oscillatory zones of variable brightness and dark overgrowths. Colorless grains are unzoned or contain subtle wispy or very faint oscillatory zoning. Electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) clearly distinguishes the two populations. Brown grains contain relatively high concentrations of Fe2O3, Ce2O3 (up to ~ 1.5 wt.%), Nb2O5, and Zr. Cerium concentration is positively correlated with total REE + Y concentration, which together can exceed 3.5 wt.%. Oscillatory zoning in brown titanite is correlated with variations in REE concentrations. In contrast, colorless titanite (both as discrete grains and overgrowths on brown titanite) contains lower concentrations of Y, REE, Fe2O3, and Zr, but somewhat higher Al2O3 and Nb2O5. Uranium concentrations and Th/U discriminate between brown grains (typically 200-400 ppm U; all analyses but one have Th/U between about 0.8 and 2) and colorless grains (10-60 ppm U; Th/U of 0-0.17). In contrast to the zircon U-Pb age results, SHRIMP U

  13. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong,Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.; Olesen, Jørgen; Joachim T. Haug

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoolo...

  14. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent.

  15. Trophic ecology of Atlantic seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri: Intertidal benthic microalgae support the subtidal food web off Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Tomas; De Backer, Annelies; Kerkhove, Thomas; Dakriet, Nyasha Nanseerà; De Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Hostens, Kris

    2016-12-01

    A combination of stomach content analyses and dual stable isotope analyses was used to reveal the trophic ecology of Atlantic seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri off the coast of Suriname. This coastal penaeid shrimp species has a rather omnivorous diet, feeding opportunistically on both animal prey and primary food sources. The species is a predator of hyperbenthic crustaceans, including copepods, amphipods and the luciferid shrimp Lucifer faxoni, which are mainly preyed upon during daytime, when these prey typically reside near the seabed. Benthic microalgae (BM) from intertidal mudflats and offshore sedimentary organic matter (SOM) were important primary food sources. Due to their depleted 13C values, coastal sedimentary and suspended organic matter, and carbon from riverine and mangrove-derived detritus were not incorporated by X. kroyeri. An ontogenetic diet shift was observed from postlavae to juveniles and adults. Adult X. kroyeri were located higher in the food chain, mainly preying on larger benthic organisms. Intertidal BM were an important food source for all life stages of X. kroyeri, contributing up to 64% to the overall diet based on a Bayesian mixing model. Because X. kroyeri is the main epibenthic organism found at high densities in nearshore waters up to 30 m depth, the species plays a crucial role in transferring energy from low trophic level prey and primary food sources up to higher levels in the food chain. Our results indicate that primary production on intertidal mudflats, through BM, forms an important energy source for the subtidal turbid-water food web in muddy tropical coasts. Conservation of intertidal areas and their associated mangrove systems will therefore likely benefit coastal shrimp production and fisheries in tropical ecosystems.

  16. Purifying and Testing Gecko Skin Compounds, a Promising Attractant for Small Brown Treesnakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    499. Keiser, D., D. Keiser, and B. H. Brattstrom. 2011. Coluber (=Masticophis) flagellum (Coachwhip). Unusual feeding behavior. Herpetological ...juvenile Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis). Herpetological Conservation and Biology 4:313-323. Rodda, G. H., K. Dean-Bradley, and T. H. Fritts...2005. Glueboards for estimating lizard abundance. Herpetological Review 36:252–259. Rodda, G. H., Fritts, T. H., Clark, C. S., Gotte, S. W. and Chiszar

  17. Juvenile Galápagos Pelicans Increase Their Foraging Success by Copying Adult Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Henrik; Teschke, Irmgard

    2012-01-01

    Social learning is the building block of culture and traditions in humans and nonhuman animals, and its study has a long history. Most investigations have addressed either the causation or the function of social learning. Though much is known about the underlying mechanisms of social learning, demonstrations of its adaptive value in a natural setting are lacking. Here we show that juvenile brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) can increase their foraging efficiency by copying adult diving behaviour, suggesting that social learning helps juveniles to find profitable food patches. Our findings demonstrate the potential fitness consequences of behavioural copying and thus highlight the possible adaptive importance of social learning. PMID:23251646

  18. Juvenile Galapagos pelicans increase their foraging success by copying adult behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Brumm

    Full Text Available Social learning is the building block of culture and traditions in humans and nonhuman animals, and its study has a long history. Most investigations have addressed either the causation or the function of social learning. Though much is known about the underlying mechanisms of social learning, demonstrations of its adaptive value in a natural setting are lacking. Here we show that juvenile brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis can increase their foraging efficiency by copying adult diving behaviour, suggesting that social learning helps juveniles to find profitable food patches. Our findings demonstrate the potential fitness consequences of behavioural copying and thus highlight the possible adaptive importance of social learning.

  19. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hess

    Full Text Available Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  20. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  1. Juvenile Incarceration and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Barnert, ES; R Perry; Morris, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure a...

  2. Use of sibling relationship reconstruction to complement traditional monitoring in fisheries management and conservation of brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozerov, Mikhail; Jürgenstein, Tauno; Aykanat, Tutku; Vasemägi, Anti

    2015-08-01

    Declining trends in the abundance of many fish urgently call for more efficient and informative monitoring methods that would provide necessary demographic data for the evaluation of existing conservation, restoration, and management actions. We investigated how genetic sibship reconstruction from young-of-the-year brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) juveniles provides valuable, complementary demographic information that allowed us to disentangle the effects of habitat quality and number of breeders on juvenile density. We studied restored (n = 15) and control (n = 15) spawning and nursery habitats in 16 brown trout rivers and streams over 2 consecutive years to evaluate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities. Similar juvenile densities both in restored and control spawning and nursery grounds were observed. Similarly, no differences in the effective number of breeders, Nb(SA) , were detected between habitats, indicating that brown trout readily used recently restored spawning grounds. Only a weak relationship between the Nb(SA) and juvenile density was observed, suggesting that multiple factors affect juvenile abundance. In some areas, very low estimates of Nb(SA) were found at sites with high juvenile density, indicating that a small number of breeders can produce a high number of progeny in favorable conditions. In other sites, high Nb(SA) estimates were associated with low juvenile density, suggesting low habitat quality or lack of suitable spawning substrate in relation to available breeders. Based on these results, we recommend the incorporation of genetic sibship reconstruction to ongoing and future fish evaluation and monitoring programs to gain novel insights into local demographic and evolutionary processes relevant for fisheries management, habitat restoration, and conservation.

  3. Effect of mixed-Bacillus spp isolated from pustulose ark Anadara tuberculosa on growth, survival, viral prevalence and immune-related gene expression in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortiz, Ana Claudia; Angulo, Carlos; Luna-González, Antonio; Álvarez-Ruiz, Píndaro; Mazón-Suástegui, José Manuel; Campa-Córdova, Ángel Isidro

    2016-12-01

    The widespread overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistance shrimp pathogens, the negative impact on shrimp gut microbiota, and the presence of antimicrobial residues in aquaculture products, with negative consequences on human health. Alternatively, probiotics have positive effects on immunological responses and productive performance of aquatic animals. In this study, three probiotic bacteria, (Bacillus licheniformis MAt32, B. subtilis MAt43 and B. subtilis subsp. subtilis GAtB1), isolated from the Anadara tuberculosa were included in diets for juvenile shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, to evaluate their effects on growth, survival, disease prevalence, and immune-related gene expression. Shrimp naturally infected with WSSV and IHHNV were fed with the basal diet (control, T1) and diets supplemented with four levels of bacilli probiotic mix (1:1:1) at final concentration of (T2) 1 × 10(6), (T3) 2 × 10(6), (T4) 4 × 10(6), and (T5) 6 × 10(6) CFU g(-1) of feed. The specific growth rate of shrimp was significantly higher in T2 than in T1 (control) treatment, and the final growth as well as the survival were similar among treated groups. The prevalence of WSSV and IHHNV infected shrimp was reduced in T2 and T4 treatments, respectively, compared with control. The mRNA expression of proPO gene was higher in treatment T4 than control. The LvToll1 gene was significantly up-regulated in treatments T4 and T5 compared to control. The SOD gene was up-regulated in treatment T5 compared to control. In contrast, the mRNA expression of the Hsp70 gene was down-regulated in treatments T4 and T5 respect to control, and the TGase gene remained unaffected by the level of bacillus probiotic mix. As conclusion, the bacilli probiotic mix (Bacillus spp.) enhanced immune-related gene expression in WSSV and IHHNV naturally infected shrimp. This is the first report of probiotic potential of bacteria isolated from A. tuberculosa on the

  4. Studies on antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of crude samples of six different species of puffer fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masilamani Mohan Raj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality activity of six different species of puffer fishes, including Cyclichthys orbicularis, Diodon holocanthus, Canthigaster solandri, Arthron hispidus, A. inermis and Lagocephalua inermis (L. inermis. Methodology: The puffer fishes were collected from Annangkovil Fish Landing Centre (Lattitude 11°30.47' N; Longitude 79°47.02' E, Parangipettai, Southeast Coast of India during summer season because of availability. Fresh tissue samples were collected from the clearly washed specimens, extracted with methanol at 37 °C for 3 days and filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The solvents such as methanol and ethanol were concentrated by using rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The dark brown gummy mass was stored at 4 °C for further analysis. Prepared crude samples were analysed with human pathogens to assess the antibacterial activity and this was carried out by using standard disc diffusion method. The brine shrimp lethality was calculated as the percentage of mortality which was firstly calculated by dividing the number of dead larvae by the total number and then multiplied to 100%. Results: The antibacterial activity of crude extract of puffer fishes were exhibited against 10 different human bacterial pathogens. Among the ten human pathogens, Arthron hispidus showed maximum zone of inhibition (8 mm against Staphylococcus aureus while L. inermis showed minimum activity (1 mm against Proteus mirabilis and no zone of inhibition was observed against Staphylococcus aureus. Brine shrimp lethality was examined with six puffer fish extracts. Cyclichthys orbicularis showed maximum mortalities as 100% and L. inermis showed minimum mortalities as 70% at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, the study showed the preliminary investigation of crude extracts of puffer fishes about the prominent activity against human bacterial pathogens. The extracts had

  5. Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

  6. Convergent Evolution of the Osmoregulation System in Decapod Shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianbo; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Chengzhang; Duan, Hu; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-02-01

    In adaptating to different aquatic environments, seawater (SW) and freshwater (FW) shrimps have exploited different adaptation strategies, which should generate clusters of genes with different adaptive features. However, little is known about the genetic basis of these physiological adaptations. Thus, in this study, we performed comparative transcriptomics and adaptive evolution analyses on SW and FW shrimps and found that convergent evolution may have happened on osmoregulation system of shrimps. We identified 275 and 234 positively selected genes in SW and FW shrimps, respectively, which enriched in the functions of ion-binding and membrane-bounded organelles. Among them, five (CaCC, BEST2, GPDH, NKA, and Integrin) and four (RasGAP, RhoGDI, CNK3, and ODC) osmoregulation-related genes were detected in SW and FW shrimps, respectively. All five genes in SW shrimps have been reported to have positive effects on ion transportation, whereas RasGAP and RhoGDI in FW shrimps are associated with negative control of ion transportation, and CNK3 and ODC play central roles in cation homeostasis. Besides, the phylogenetic tree reconstructed from the positively selected sites separated the SW and FW shrimps into two groups. Distinct subsets of parallel substitutions also have been found in these osmoregulation-related genes in SW and FW shrimps. Therefore, our results suggest that distinct convergent evolution may have occurred in the osmoregulation systems of SW and FW shrimps. Furthermore, positive selection of osmoregulation-related genes may be beneficial for the regulation of water and salt balance in decapod shrimps.

  7. Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducing the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a "pen-closing" method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

  8. Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

    2014-01-01

    As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile primary osteoporosis juvenile primary osteoporosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile primary osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  12. Bacterial dynamics in intestines of the black tiger shrimp and the Pacific white shrimp during Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota play important roles in health of their host, contributing to maintaining the balance and resilience against pathogen. To investigate effects of pathogen to intestinal microbiota, the bacterial dynamics upon a shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, exposures were determined in two economically important shrimp species; the black tiger shrimp (BT) and the Pacific white shrimp (PW). Both shrimp species were reared under the same diet and environmental conditions. Shrimp survival rates after the V. harveyi exposure revealed that the PW shrimp had a higher resistance to the pathogen than the BT shrimp. The intestinal bacterial profiles were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA sequences under no pathogen challenge control and under pathogenic V. harveyi challenge. The DGGE profiles showed that the presence of V. harveyi altered the intestinal bacterial patterns in comparison to the control in BT and PW intestines. This implies that bacterial balance in shrimp intestines was disrupted in the presence of V. harveyi. The barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed the similar bacterial community structures in intestines of BT and PW shrimp under a normal condition. However, during the time course exposure to V. harveyi, the relative abundance of bacteria belong to Vibrio genus was higher in the BT intestines at 12h after the exposure, whereas relative abundance of vibrios was more stable in PW intestines. The principle coordinates analysis based on weighted-UniFrac analysis showed that intestinal bacterial population in the BT shrimp lost their ability to restore their bacterial balance during the 72-h period of exposure to the pathogen, while the PW shrimp were able to reestablish their bacterial population to resemble those seen in the unexposed control group. This observation of bacterial disruption might correlate to different mortality rates observed between the two shrimp species

  13. A New Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Forveille, T; Delfosse, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of three brown dwarf candidates identified in the first 1% of the DENIS sky survey. Low resolution spectra from 6430--9000A show these objects to have similar spectra to the uncertain brown dwarf candidate GD 165B. High resolution spectroscopy shows that one of the objects -- DBD 1228-1547 -- has a strong EW=2.3+-0.05A absorption line of Li I 6708A, and is therefore a brown dwarf with mass below 0.065 Msol. DBD 1228-1547 can now be the considered proto-type for objects JUST below the hydrogen burning limit.

  14. The importance of the surf zone for fish and brown shrimp in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.; Keeken, van O.A.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the North Sea is increasing, invloving more motorised cargo shipping, and rapidly expanding construction and operation of oil platforms and wind farms. In recent years underwater sand levees or sand suppletion near shore has been performed for coastal protection. The aim of this li

  15. Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, Y.; Monteyne, E.; Neudecker, T.; Tulp, I.Y.M.; Smagghe, G.; Cooreman, K.; Roose, P.; Parmentier, K.

    2012-01-01

    The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union there

  16. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  17. Shrimp Tropomyosin Retains Antibody Reactivity after Exposure to Acidic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although shrimp can be found in certain high acid food matrices, the allergenic capacity of shrimp tropomyosin exposed to low pH condition has not been fully clarified. Thus, a model marinade comprising white vinegar adjusted to different pH was used to determine the effects of acid-induced denatura...

  18. Defensive enrolment in mantis shrimp larvae (Malacostraca: Stomatopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haug, C.; Haug, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a possible new defensive behaviour of larval stages of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda). Mantis shrimp larvae are rarely observed in nature, thus the study is based on postures of museum material and functional morphological aspects. Specimens described here are tightly enrolled, their pleon

  19. Immune defence White Spot Syndrome Virus infected shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp worldwide. Since the initial discovery of the virus inTaiwanin 1992, it has spread to shrimp farming regions in Southeast Asia, the

  20. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  1. Controlled reproduction of penaeid shrimp: a contribution to its improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaro Montoya, J.

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation deals with controlled reproduction of penaeid shrimp. New knowledge about natural reproductive activity of Penaeus occidentalis in Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, is presented. Since in vitro fertilization of open thelycum shrimp proved unsuccessful, a hypothesis is given to explain ex

  2. Characterization of Sterol Oxidation Products in Two Breaded Shrimp Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two breaded shrimp products were examined for the changes in cholesterol, phytosterols, and fatty acids that occurred during cooking. The products were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in the raw, baked, and fried states after separation into breading and shrimp components. Cholesterol, campest...

  3. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  4. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  5. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON NITROGEN BUDGETS OF CLOSED SHRIMP POLYCULTURE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studies on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7%-83.9% of the total input nitrogen, 3.2%-7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8%-24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9%, respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% to 20.1%. The highest, 20.1%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the average of 20.0% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems. All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrogen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2%-60.8% of the total input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highest percentage in shrimp-scallop systems. During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9%-6.2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9%-8.9% of the total. The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7%-13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polyculture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen discharging

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON NITROGEN BUDGETS OF CLOSED SHRIMP POLYCULTURE SYSTEMS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐振雄; 李德尚; 张曼平; 董双林

    2001-01-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studios on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7% - 83.9% of the total input nitrogen, 3.2% - 7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8% - 24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9%, respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% to 20.1%. The highest, 20.1%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polycultttre systems, and the average of 20.0% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems.All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrngen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2% -60.8% of the total input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highost percentage in shrimp-scallop systems.During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9% - 6.2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9% - 8.9% of the total.The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7% - 13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polycul-ture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen

  8. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  10. 78 FR 13324 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... the domestic like product to include dusted shrimp. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil... Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 5149 (February 1, 2005... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China:...

  11. 78 FR 76106 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ..., 77 FR 53856 (``PRC Shrimp AR6 Final''). \\3\\ In the final results of the recently completed seventh... product to include dusted shrimp. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's... Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 5149 (February 1, 2005). Analysis of...

  12. 77 FR 36998 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY... for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Form may be found at 50 CFR 622.5(a)(1)(iii)(C... shrimp must complete an annual Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Form. The form will...

  13. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1,...

  14. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  15. Superoxide dismutase activity in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei and Nodipecten subnodosus exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa-Córdova, Angel I; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J; Luna-González, Antonio; Romero-Geraldo, María J; Ascencio, Felipe

    2009-04-01

    The toxic effect of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima on juvenile American whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and giant lion-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus was evaluated. Organisms were exposed to three densities (500, 2000, or 5000 cells mL(-1)), superoxide dismutase activity and soluble protein in the hepatopancreas and muscle were determined at 1, 6, 24 and 48 h after challenge. Shrimp exposed at 5000 cells mL(-1) significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas at 1 h post-challenge, whereas enzymatic activity in muscle significantly increased at 24 h at all densities. Scallops exposed to 500 and 2000 cells mL(-1) showed significant SOD activity increase in hepatopancreas at 24 and 12 h, respectively. Mortality at 48 h was 100% in scallops exposed to 5000 cells mL(-1). Shrimp showed higher levels of SOD activity than scallops. Soluble protein content in the shrimp hepatopancreas was significantly higher at densities of 500 and 2000 cells mL(-1) at 6 and 1 h, respectively. Soluble protein content in the scallop hepatopancreas was higher than control values at 1 h after challenge. In this study, 500 cells mL(-1) was enough to trigger SOD activity in two benthic species exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate P. lima.

  16. Suppression of Shrimp Melanization during White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-01-01

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. PMID:25572398

  17. Suppression of shrimp melanization during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-03-06

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453.

  18. Acute toxicity of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and permethrin to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.6974 Acute toxicity of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and permethrin to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.6974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Garcia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the LC50 (96h of two pesticides: Sirius® 250 SC herbicide of the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl group, and Talcord® insecticide of the permethrin group, on juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp total hemocyte count (THC was also determined as an indication of physiological alterations caused by the pesticides. Juvenile shrimp (5.0 ± 0.5 g were exposed to the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 1000 µg L-1 Sirius® 250 SC; and 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 µg L-1 Talcord®. The Talcord® LC50 (96h was of 0.00933 µg L-1 or 9.33 ng L-1. There were no significant changes in the THC between control and test groups. No Sirius® 250 SC concentrations tested killed more than 50% of the shrimp; therefore, the herbicide was considered not toxic to the juveniles. However, the THC showed significant differences between the control and test groups, suggesting sublethal effects to L. vannamei juveniles. According to the results, the insecticide Talcord® is highly lethal for L. vannamei and the herbicide Sirius® 250 SC was not lethal in the concentrations tested but showed sublethal effects as lower THC. The results demonstrate the risks involved in farming L. vannamei shrimp near rice cultures where these pesticides are routinely used.The objective of this study was to determine the LC50 (96h of two pesticides: Sirius® 250 SC herbicide of the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl group, and Talcord® insecticide of the permethrin group, on juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp total hemocyte count (THC was also determined as an indication of physiological alterations caused by the pesticides. Juvenile shrimp (5.0 ± 0.5 g were exposed to the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 1000 µg L-1 Sirius® 250 SC; and 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 µg L-1 Talcord®. The Talcord® LC50 (96h was of 0.00933 µg L-1 or 9.33 ng L-1. There were no significant changes in the THC between control and test groups. No

  19. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  20. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  1. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, M; Santos-Muñoz, A; Calb, I; Magariños, C

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, gingival hypertrophy, and flexion contractures of the large joints. The light and electron microscopic features are very distinctive. Here we report an 8-month-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Histologic and ultrastructural features were typical of JHF. Clinical features, pathology, and physiology are discussed.

  2. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  3. Nutritive value of diets containing fish silage for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Bonne, 1931).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Pedro; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Soberano, Sofía; Taboada, J Gabriel; Pérez, Marquelia; Rosas, Carlos; Cuzon, Gerard; Espinosa, L Gabriela; Sotelo, Angela

    2012-08-30

    Fish wastes has been used for many years as an alternative in feeds for aquaculture. In the present study weight gain of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets including fish waste silage (WS), fish waste silage with soybean meal SBM (WS + S) or fish waste meal (WM) was compared. A conventional acidic silage process was applied to obtain from wastes (skin, heads, bones and viscera) of snapper (Lutjanus spp.), grunt (Haemulon plumieri), and grouper (Epinephelus spp.) an ingredient rich in protein. After 3 days ensilage more than 90% protein was hydrolysed. Waste material processed at pH 3.8 lost about 24% tryptophan. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) prevented lipid oxidation, as shown after 45 days with malonaldehyde production. Shrimp fed WS + S diet gained 0.7 g per week higher than those fed WS and WM diets with 0.3 g per week (P < 0.05). WS processed with formic acid under conditions of low pH is beneficial for the white shrimp L. vannamei. It sustained reasonable weight gain combined with soybean meal in practical diets. On the other hand, BHT addition was beneficial in preventing oxidative action during silage preparation. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. On the sound of snapping shrimp

    CERN Document Server

    Versluis, Michel; von der Heydt, Anna; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Fluid dynamics video: Snapping shrimp produce a snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of their snapper claw. Our high speed imaging of the claw closure has revealed that the sound is generated by the collapse of a cavitation bubble formed in a fast flowing water jet forced out from the claws during claw closure. The produced sound originates from the cavitation collapse of the bubble. At collapse a short flash of light is emitted, just as in single bubble sonoluminescence. A model based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation can quantitatively account for the visual and acoustical observations.

  5. Vitellogenin as a biomarker for estrogenic effects in brown trout, Salmo trutta: laboratory and field investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Poul; Hansen, Pernille R; Larsen, Katrine J; Erratico, Claudio; Korsgaard, Bodil; Holbech, Henrik

    2008-11-01

    The sensitivity of juvenile brown trout towards estrogenic chemicals (17beta-estradiol [E2], estrone [E1], 17alpha-ethinylestradiol [EE2], 4-tert-octylphenol [OP], and n-butylparaben [BP]) was tested in laboratory experiments with plasma and liver vitellogenin concentrations as endpoints. Vitellogenin concentrations were also assessed in juvenile brown trout collected in streams affected by agricultural runoff and discharges from scattered houses in the open land. In the laboratory, juvenile brown trout were exposed to the chemicals in flow-through tanks for 7 to 12 d and concentration-response relationships for the induction of vitellogenin synthesis were obtained. The actual exposure concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The median plasma vitellogenin concentration in first year control brown trout reared in recirculated groundwater was 165 ng/ml with 783 ng/ml as the highest value. The median effective concentration (EC50) values for vitellogenin induction (based on plasma concentrations) were 3.7 ng EE2/L, 15 ng E2/L, 88 ng E1/L, 68 microg BP/L, and 7 microg OP/L. Median effective concentrations derived from liver vitellogenin concentrations were similar. The 166 brown trout caught in the field were mainly first and second year fish and a few third year fish. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations were below 1000 ng/L in 146 of the fish, between 1000 ng/L and 4234 ng/L in 19 fish and 5.3 x 10(6) ng/L in one male fish. Vitellogenin concentrations did not differ between first and second year fish, but were elevated in third year fish. The data may indicate that juvenile (<2 years) trout with plasma vitellogenin concentrations above 1000 ng/ml have had their vitellogenin synthesis induced by exposure to estrogens in the environment. Plasma and liver vitellogenin concentrations were closely correlated in brown trout with elevated vitellogenin concentrations. It is noteworthy, however, that exposure to synthetic estrogens (EE2, BP

  6. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  7. A Comparative Study on the Nonspecific Immunity of Juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei ever Inhabiting Freshwater and Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xuying; DING Sen; WANG Fang; DONG Shuanglin

    2014-01-01

    A study on the nonspecific immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater was carried out at different molt stages by comparing their total hemocyte count (THC) and respiratory burst (RB) and activity of phenol oxidase (PO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lysozyme (LY). Two-way ANOVA showed that salinity and molt stage independently affected THC and RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei significantly (P<0.05). The THC and RB and the activity of NOS gradually increased from the post-molt stages (A and B) to the pre-molt stages (D0-D3), which were common in shrimps inhabiting freshwater and seawater. The activity of PO peaked at the inter-molt stage (C), and touched the lowest at the post-molt stage in freshwater and pre-molt stage in seawater. The activity of LY was stable over the molt cycle. The RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei were significantly lower in freshwater than in seawater;whereas THC was significantly higher in freshwater than in seawater (P<0.05). It was concluded that the post-molt stage (especially stage A) was critical to shrimp culture, which should be intensively attended when L. vannamei was cultured in freshwater.

  8. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  9. Shrimp tropomyosin retains antibody reactivity after exposure to acidic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Cao, Hanjuan; Maleki, Soheila; Nayak, Balunkeswar Balu

    2017-08-01

    Although shrimp can be found in certain high acid food matrices, the allergenic capacity of shrimp tropomyosin exposed to low pH condition has not been fully clarified. Thus, a model marinade comprising white vinegar adjusted to different pH was used to determine the effects of acid-induced denaturation on the immunoreactivity of tropomyosin. Whole shrimp experienced either swelling or shrinkage after marination depending on the vinegar pH and the final muscle pH. The extractability of soluble myofibrillar proteins was reduced significantly among shrimp marinated in vinegar at pH 1.0-3.5, and a substantial amount of tropomyosin was retained in the insoluble pellets. Consequently, the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding capacity of tropomyosin was significantly lower in the soluble protein fraction of shrimp marinated at pH 1.0-3.5 compared with samples marinated at pH 4.8 and control. However, tropomyosin in the insoluble protein fraction of all marinated shrimp showed strong IgE-binding capacity at all marinating conditions. Thus, tropomyosin in shrimp exposed to low pH condition retained its allergenic capacity owing to the conservation of its linear epitopes. Analysis of the insoluble protein fraction was crucial for the accurate determination of the effect of low pH condition on the immunoreactivity of this allergen. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Immune response of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) against Vibrios furnissii pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumaran Subramanian; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Rajasekar Thirunavukarasu; Suresh Gopal; Pugazhvendan Sampath Renuka; Alagappan Kumarappan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyse experimental infection and immune system of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) against Vibrios furnissii (V. furnissii). Methods: Experimental animals were collected and acclimatized by maintaining specific temperature, pH and salinity to avoid mortality. Shrimps were experimentally infected with V. furnissii and their immune responses were monitored. After the infection all the shrimps were monitored for any symptoms, death rate in 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 h. Then haemolymph were collected and tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium and lysozyme were monitored in every 12 h at the interval of 48 h. Results: Shrimps infected by live V. furnissii had showed gradual increase in tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase activity, nitro-blue-tetrazolium and lysozyme activity comparing with the killed and control.Conclusions:The live V. furnissii shows infection in experimental shrimps comparing with killed V. furnissii. So the V. furnissii in nature cause the infection in shrimp Penaeus monodon immune system. This report could be applied to control of the infection in shrimp hatchery.

  11. Prediction of shelled shrimp weight by machine vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Peng-min; Li, Jian-ping; Lv, Gu-lai; Yang, Hui; Zhu, Song-ming; Lou, Jian-zhong

    2009-08-01

    The weight of shelled shrimp is an important parameter for grading process. The weight prediction of shelled shrimp by contour area is not accurate enough because of the ignorance of the shrimp thickness. In this paper, a multivariate prediction model containing area, perimeter, length, and width was established. A new calibration algorithm for extracting length of shelled shrimp was proposed, which contains binary image thinning, branch recognition and elimination, and length reconstruction, while its width was calculated during the process of length extracting. The model was further validated with another set of images from 30 shelled shrimps. For a comparison purpose, artificial neural network (ANN) was used for the shrimp weight predication. The ANN model resulted in a better prediction accuracy (with the average relative error at 2.67%), but took a tenfold increase in calculation time compared with the weight-area-perimeter (WAP) model (with the average relative error at 3.02%). We thus conclude that the WAP model is a better method for the prediction of the weight of shelled red shrimp.

  12. Prediction of shelled shrimp weight by machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-min PAN; Jian-ping LI; Gu-lai LV; Hui YANG; Song-ming ZHU; Jian-zhong LOU

    2009-01-01

    The weight of shelled shrimp is an important parameter for grading process. The weight prediction of shelled shrimp by contour area is not accurate enough because of the ignorance of the shrimp thickness. In this paper, a multivariate prediction model containing area, perimeter, length, and width was established. A new calibration algorithm for extracting length of shelled shrimp was proposed, which contains binary image thinning, branch recognition and elimination, and length reconstruction, while its width was calculated during the process of length extracting. The model was further validated with another set of images from 30 shelled shrimps. For a comparison purpose, artificial neural network (ANN) was used for the shrimp weight predication. The ANN model resulted in a better prediction accuracy (with the average relative error at 2.67%), but took a tenfold increase in calculation time compared with the weight-area-perimeter (WAP) model (with the average relative error at 3.02%). We thus conclude that the WAP model is a better method for the prediction of the weight of shelled red shrimp.

  13. ShrimpGPAT: a gene and protein annotation tool for knowledge sharing and gene discovery in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshkari, Parpakron; Vaiwsri, Sirintra; Flegel, Timothy W; Ngamsuriyaroj, Sudsanguan; Sonthayanon, Burachai; Prachumwat, Anuphap

    2014-06-21

    Although captured and cultivated marine shrimp constitute highly important seafood in terms of both economic value and production quantity, biologists have little knowledge of the shrimp genome and this partly hinders their ability to improve shrimp aquaculture. To help improve this situation, the Shrimp Gene and Protein Annotation Tool (ShrimpGPAT) was conceived as a community-based annotation platform for the acquisition and updating of full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs), Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), transcript contigs and protein sequences of penaeid shrimp and their decapod relatives and for in-silico functional annotation and sequence analysis. ShrimpGPAT currently holds quality-filtered, molecular sequences of 14 decapod species (~500,000 records for six penaeid shrimp and eight other decapods). The database predominantly comprises transcript sequences derived by both traditional EST Sanger sequencing and more recently by massive-parallel sequencing technologies. The analysis pipeline provides putative functions in terms of sequence homologs, gene ontologies and protein-protein interactions. Data retrieval can be conducted easily either by a keyword text search or by a sequence query via BLAST, and users can save records of interest for later investigation using tools such as multiple sequence alignment and BLAST searches against pre-defined databases. In addition, ShrimpGPAT provides space for community insights by allowing functional annotation with tags and comments on sequences. Community-contributed information will allow for continuous database enrichment, for improvement of functions and for other aspects of sequence analysis. ShrimpGPAT is a new, free and easily accessed service for the shrimp research community that provides a comprehensive and up-to-date database of quality-filtered decapod gene and protein sequences together with putative functional prediction and sequence analysis tools. An important feature is its community

  14. Bioavailability of crude protein and lipid from biofloc meals produced in an activated sludge system for white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sabry Neto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the bioavailability of crude protein and lipid from biofloc meals generated with an activated sludge system using two water sources: wastewater from shrimp experimental culture (BFL-W and, artificially, using clean seawater (BFL-C. The sludge system operated by chemical and organic fertilization three times per week. Sampling of bioflocs occurred every two days during 81 days. To evaluate digestibility, each type of biofloc meal was incorporated into a reference diet (REF at 300 g/kg. Another diet acted as a negative control (NEG by using fish waste meal. The apparent digestibility of bioflocs was estimated by the indirect method using chromic oxide (Cr2O3 as the inert marker at 10 g/kg of the diet. Juvenile L. vannamei of 5.09±0.79 g (n = 440 were stocked at 10 shrimp/tank in 44 tanks of 61 L each that operated under a water recirculating regime. Biofloc meals contained a high ash content (591.0-649.2 g/kg combined with a low crude protein content (95.9-137.3 g/kg. After 26 days, shrimp achieved a final survival of 93.2±0.8% and a biomass gain of 37.1±1.8 g/tank. Final shrimp body weight ranged from 9.01±0.15 to 9.45±0.13 g. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of crude protein in the biofloc produced from BFL-W, BFL-C and fish waste meal (NEG reached 26.0, 25.7, and 64.1%, respectively. Similarly, the lipid ADC was 78.9, 67.9, and 85.8%, respectively. This study indicated that biofloc meals had a low protein availability for L. vannamei. However, although low levels of lipid were present, it proved to be available for the species. The dietary inclusion of biofloc meal appears to have a growth-promoting effect on shrimp, which may be associated with trace minerals, or other nutrients not identified in this study.

  15. Shrimp thioredoxin is a potent antioxidant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aispuro-Hernandez, Emmanuel; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Del-Toro-Sanchez, Lizette; Robles-Sanchez, Rosario M; Hernandez, Jesus; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2008-07-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is a main component of the redox homeostasis machinery in the cell and it is required for ribonucleotide reductase function among others. In invertebrates, the redox balance is compromised during disease and changes in the physiological state and it is one of the components of the innate immune response. In this work, the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) LvTRX cDNA was sequenced, cloned and over-expressed in bacteria to further characterize the function of the recombinant protein. LvTRX was able to reduce insulin disulfides and it was a better antioxidant compared to reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid, by means of the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay. Interestingly, LvTRX contains aside of the canonical active site CXXC disulfide motif, one Cys (C73) residue in the interface of a putative dimer previously reported for human TRX. Using qRT-PCR, we found that shrimp LvTRX is mainly expressed in gills and pleopods; the variation of LvTRX mRNA upon hypoxia and re-oxygenation is not statistically significant. LvTRX stands as an important antioxidant that must be considered in future physiological and immune challenges studies.

  16. Thermal and microwave energy for shrimp processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M.R.R.; Novak, A.F.

    1975-12-01

    Gulf Coast shrimp were processed by 2450 MHz microwave energy and conventional boiling to determine if differences existed in organoleptic evaluation and vitamin retention. Chemical tests for vitamin A and ..beta..-carotene, and microbiological assays for niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid were used to determine vitamin retention. Statistical analyses of all results were accomplished with the use of a 360 IBM computer. Results of the organoleptic tests showed no significant difference between the two processes; the only significant difference was among the judges, showing evidence of an untrained test panel which is typical of the consuming public. Vitamin A was not found in the tailmeat and thereafter samples were analyzed for ..beta..-carotene, one of the most important provitamins A. Apparent percent retentions were calculated from the mean values of the replicas for each vitamin and varied between 77.48 and 115.0 percent for different vitamins and processes and were based on values found for the raw control. The highest value, 115.0 percent, was found in the microwave samples assayed for thiamine, and was probably caused by thiaminase found in raw shrimp, which is responsible for destruction of thiamine.

  17. A new baculovirus of cultured shrimps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈细法; 陈平; 吴定虎; 黄槐; 池信才

    1997-01-01

    By means of ultrathin section, negative staining and sucrose gradient ultra-centrifugation, a new baculovirus has been discovered and purified in lymphoid organs and such tissues as muscles of the shrimps which have been spontaneously attacked by diseases and artificially infected. With a diameter of 96-112 nm, this is the thickest baculovirus of shrimps ever known. In the center is the high-density nucleus. Between the capsid and the envelope is a broad space, which is not found in any of the baculoviruses of the prawns ever reported. On the surface of the puri-fied nucleocapsid, there is a subunit of the spiral arrangement, which is also characteristic of this virus. It has not been observed and found in the epithelial cells of the livers, intestines and cheeks, which is quite different from the fact that prawn baculoviruses infect a certain epithepilial cell of the above-mentioned ones without exception. The viruses only multiplicate inside the core of target cells, which will not form occluded bodie

  18. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  19. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  20. Update on juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K M; Kang, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. The pathophysiology of juvenile myasthenia gravis is similar to that of adult myasthenia gravis, though there remain important differences regarding presentation and therapeutic options. We review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical studies of myasthenia gravis have been carried out primarily in adult populations. As juvenile myasthenia gravis is rare, it has been difficult to collect prospective randomized controlled data to evaluate treatment outcomes and efficacy. A recent retrospective series suggests that, as in adult myasthenia gravis, thymectomy is a viable therapeutic option for selected cases of generalized juvenile myasthenia gravis. This is corroborated by the clinical experience of the authors in a referral center with a cohort of patients affected by juvenile myasthenia gravis over a number of years. Recent studies illustrate that some, but not all, adult research on myasthenia gravis is applicable to children and adolescents with juvenile myasthenia gravis. Adult research can inform pediatric studies, but should not be regarded as a substitute for dedicated research in those populations.

  1. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis and P. montagui) collected along transects across banks on the West Greenland shelf in June 1999, May and July 2000. The lipid class contents were investigated as indices of larval shrimp lipid condition...... and food type. Fatty acid compositions were investigated for lipid biomarkers to establish trophic relationships between larval shrimp and potential prey. Phospholipids were the dominant lipid class in all six pelagic development stages of larval P. borealis and P. montagui, accounting for 80 to 92...

  2. Juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P

    1995-05-01

    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  3. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-08-19

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  4. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Krishnamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis is a rare, autosomal-recessive disease characterized by papular and nodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and bone involvement in variable degrees. It is a connective tissue disorder with aberrant synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by fibroblasts. We report a 5-year-old female born of first-degree consanguineous marriage who presented with multiple, recurrent, painless, variable-sized nodules. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears and the subsequent histopathological examination from the nodules showed benign spindle cells in a Periodic acid Schiff-positive myxoid background. The disease has a relentlessly progressive course, with most patients surviving only up to the 4 th decade. As of now, there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Genetic counseling is essential to explain to parents about a 25% chance of having a diseased baby in any pregnancy. With the gene being mapped recently, techniques for antenatal diagnosis are likely to be established.

  5. [JUVENILE DERMATOMYOSITIS AND CALCINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dermatomiositis (JD) is autoimmune disease that progresses with time; JD's main differentiated syndromes are rash on the skin, poor function of muscles, and often developing invalidism. If the health practitioners manage to diagnose the JD on an early stage and prescribe the adequate treatment the disease will not progress aggressively. This approach is tangible for practical rheumatology and pediatric. The article aims to present the reasons of the development of the JD and calcinosis. The study based on the description of the patients with JD. There are distinguished the main symptoms of the disease in children: frequent and acute developments of muscles calcinosis, occasionally with diffuse character followed with hypotrophy of the muscles, contractures and invalidism. One of the patient cases that describe the article is the thirteen-year boy with JD indicating repeated sequence of the disease, with diffusive calcinosis, cellulitis followed with secondary infection and impaired vision.

  6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  7. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children.

  8. Alimento potencial para juveniles del camarón rosado (Farfantepenaeus notialis en el 2009 Golfo de Ana María Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cantón-Machín

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe determinaron las diferencias temporales y espaciales, en cuanto a:densidad y composición taxonómica del alimento potencial para juveniles del camarón rosado (Farfantepenaeus notialis; así como la relación de la densidad del alimento con respecto a la abundancia y composición por talla de juveniles del camarón, oxígeno disuelto, temperatura, salinidad y los nutrientes en el agua (fósforo inorgánico, nitrito, nitrato y amonio, en los meses de abril a septiembre del 2009, Golfo de Ana María, Cuba.SummaryWe determined the temporal and spatial differences in terms of: density and taxonomic composition and potential food for juveniles of the pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus notialis, and the relationship between the density of potential food and abundance and composition by size of juveniles of the pink shrimp, dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity and nutrients in the water (inorganic phosphorus, nitrite, nitrate and ammonium between april and september 2009, at the Ana Maria Gulf, Cuba.

  9. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  10. Expression of immune-related genes in larval stages of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Puanglarp, Narongsak; Petkon, Sasithon; Donnuea, Seri; Söderhäll, Irene; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2007-10-01

    Shrimp undergo several morphologically different stages during development and therefore the expression of some immune-related genes such as prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (Prx), crustin (Crus), penaeidin (Pen), transglutaminase (TGase), haemocyanin (Hc) and astakine (Ak) were determined during larval development of the shrimp (Penaeus monodon), i.e. nauplius 4 (N4), protozoea 1 and 3 (Z1 and 3), mysis 3 (My 3), post-larvae 3 (PL3) and also in haemocytes of juveniles. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that all transcripts were already present in the early larval stage of N4 but at different levels. The transcript of proPO was found to be extremely low or even absent at N4, whereas Prx, Crus, Pen, TGase, Hc and Ak were significantly expressed at all larval stages. Up to now expression of proPO and Prx has only been reported from haemocytes in crustaceans and in this study Prx also appeared to be expressed in stages which appear to lack haemocytes. Thus, this may suggest that Prx is expressed in other cells than haemocytes. It is well known among invertebrates that the proPO system plays a crucial role as an immune effector molecule against microbes. However, in this study, the transcript of proPO was low during the larval stages and hardly present at all at N4. This might indicate that the development of immune-competent haemocytes during the larval stages is not completed and as a consequence they are likely to be more susceptible to infectious diseases during these stages.

  11. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations.......Juvenile anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris were tested in two behavioural laboratory set-ups for their ability to visually or chemically recognize conspecifics. Individuals of two other species of anemonefish, A. clarkii and Dascyllus aruanus, were also used as test specimens for recognition....... The results indicate that juvenile A. ocellaris recognize conspecifics visually rather than by olfaction. This is contrary to their finding mechanism of their host anemone. However, the results also indicate that the juvenile A ocellaris are neither attracted nor deterred by the presence of conspecifics...

  12. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  13. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  14. When and How to Worry about OA: Greenland Shrimp Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    We use a bio-economic model of the Greenland shrimp fishery to study potential ocean acidification (OA) impacts in arctic resources. Predicted changes in pH in Baffin Bay describe an anticipated though uncertain drop. Efforts to understand changes in shrimp quantity/ quality from OA reflect...... significant uncertainty and ambiguity about direction and magnitude. Estimates on change in growth parameters show a small, statistically insignificant drop that creates expectation of only limited direct biological shifts in the bio-economic model. Indirect changes to shrimp populations in Baffin Bay from...... climate change are anticipated due to expected declines in primary production that then result in equivalent reductions in secondary production, but the range could be positive or negative. Thus, the scientific findings on the OA impacts for shrimp are sufficiently ambiguous that our results find...

  15. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  16. 2008 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected data on the economic performance of active commercial shrimp harvesters who primarily operated in inshore waters of western Florida,...

  17. Shrimp culture in Thailand: environmental impacts and social responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronski, R

    2000-01-01

    Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a major aquaculture commodity among Southeast Asian producers and remains a popular food export world-wide. Food brokers in Japan and the United States purchase huge quantities of these farmed shrimp and return significant foreign exchange earnings to developing nations like Thailand, a major producer and exporter since the early 1990s. However, coastal areas cannot sustain intensive shrimp farm production and local growers often end up in debt. Can the needs of farm communities around the world be suitably met when they join into a corporate-managed and export-oriented food system? What are the sustainable benefits and eventual costs to susceptible localities? The shrimp industry in Thailand reveals the difficult terrain to cross and powerful obstacles to overcome if authentic sustainable development is to be realized.

  18. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  19. Sustainable shrimp farming in India - Prospects and challenges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Shrimp farming has grown into a multi-crore industry in India. It has vast potential for further expansion. However, this growing industry needs to develop appropriate indigenous technologies in specific areas to make it a sustainable and profitable...

  20. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production. It was based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurement of shoreline length and areas of marsh having more than 5.0 kilometers of shoreline per square kilometer of area for the Louisiana coast, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield.

  1. 77 FR 29586 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction AGENCY... turtle excluder devices (TEDs) in their nets, and announced five public hearings to be held in...

  2. adoption of improved aquaculture practices by shrimp farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Adesope

    Key words: adoption, improved aquaculture, shrimp farmers ..... technical manpower for pond construction or unawareness of the techniques at the time of construction of farm. .... The First Indian Fisheries Forum Proceedings. Asian Fish. Soc.

  3. Evolution of Neural Computations: Mantis Shrimp and Human Color Decoding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaidi, Qasim; Marshall, Justin; Thoen, Hanne; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-01-01

    Mantis shrimp and primates both possess good color vision, but the neural implementation in the two species is very different, a reflection of the largely unrelated evolutionary lineages of these creatures...

  4. Toxicity and effects of mosquito larvicides methoprene and surface film (Agnique® MMF) on the development and fecundity of the tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Jiang, Yonxing; Mulla, Mir S

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the interactions of tadpole shrimp, a mosquito biological control agent, with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene and a monomolecular surface film. In laboratory assays, the tadpole shrimp (TPS) Triops newberryi (Packard) was able to tolerate high concentrations of methoprene without negative impacts on its growth, longevity, and fecundity when exposed to 1 to 10 mg/liter, or 90-900 fold, of the IE(90) levels against a laboratory colony of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The same held true in field trials when the habitats were treated with Altosid(®) Liquid Larvicide (Altosid(®) LL, 5% methoprene) at 0.3-1.2 liters/ha. or 1-4 fold of the label rates for mosquito control. However, some significant impacts on the TPS occurred when they were exposed to Agnique(®) Monomolecular Film (Agnique(®) MMF) at the label rates for mosquito control ranging from 1.89-9.45 liters/ha. under laboratory and field conditions. To avoid the negative impact of Agnique MMF on tadpole shrimp, it appears that 1.89 liters/ha. would be the maximum rate when Agnique MMF is used to control mosquitoes in the habitats where the TPS is employed as a biological control agent, or prevailing in the aquatic habitats with potential for suppressing mosquito larval populations.

  5. Transcriptional upregulation of fortilin in shrimp, Penaeus (Metapenaeus japonicus fed diets containing recombinant VP28, an antigenic protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is considered as one of the serious viral pathogens ofshrimp. There are several preventive measures that have been developed to curb the devastating effectsof this virus in shrimp aquaculture. Juvenile shrimps, Penaeus (Metapenaeus japonicus were fed withcommercial feeds that were mixed with recombinant VP28, a structural protein antigen of WSSV for aperiod of 14 days. The immune response of the shrimp during oral administration of the medicated feedwas determined by expression analysis of fortilin, a gene that is involved in the antiviral response. Therewas a significant increase in the level of expression of fortilin both in the gut and the gills in the fedgroup during the duration of feeding. The level of expression gradually decreased in the fed group,whereby at the 7th and 14th day after the last day of feeding with medicated feeds, no significantdifferences were observed between the fed and control groups in the expression at the gills and gut,respectively.

  6. Susceptibility to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in three batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeusvannamei (Boone, 1931).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Bonilla, César Marcial; Rangel, José Luis Ibarra

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the susceptibility of three different batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeusvannamei from Mexico to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). Each of the three shrimp batches came from a different hatchery. Because of their origin, it was possible that the genetic makeup of these batches was different among each other. The three batches tested showed differences in IHHNV susceptibility. Here, susceptibility is defined as the capacity of the host to become infected, and it can be measured by the infectivity titer. Susceptibility to IHHNV was observed in decreasing order in shrimp from batch 1 (hatchery from El Rosario, Sinaloa), batch 3 (hatchery from Nayarit) and batch 2 (hatchery from El Walamo, Sinaloa), respectively. The largest susceptibility difference between batches was 5012 times, and that between early and late juveniles from the same batch was 25 times. These results indicate that within a species, susceptibility to a pathogen such as IHHNV can have large differences. Susceptibility to pathogens is an important trait to consider before performing studies on pathogenesis. It may influence virological parameters such as speed of replication, pathogenicity and virus titer. In order to evaluate the potential use of IHHNV as a natural control agent against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), it is necessary to know host susceptibility and the kinetics of IHHNV infection. These features can help to determine the conditions in which IHHNV could be used as antagonist in a WSSV infection.

  7. Susceptibility to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in three batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Marcial Escobedo-Bonilla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the susceptibility of three different batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Mexico to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV. Each of the three shrimp batches came from a different hatchery. Because of their origin, it was possible that the genetic makeup of these batches was different among each other. The three batches tested showed differences in IHHNV susceptibility. Here, susceptibility is defined as the capacity of the host to become infected, and it can be measured by the infectivity titer. Susceptibility to IHHNV was observed in decreasing order in shrimp from batch 1 (hatchery from El Rosario, Sinaloa, batch 3 (hatchery from Nayarit and batch 2 (hatchery from El Walamo, Sinaloa, respectively. The largest susceptibility difference between batches was 5012 times, and that between early and late juveniles from the same batch was 25 times. These results indicate that within a species, susceptibility to a pathogen such as IHHNV can have large differences. Susceptibility to pathogens is an important trait to consider before performing studies on pathogenesis. It may influence virological parameters such as speed of replication, pathogenicity and virus titer. In order to evaluate the potential use of IHHNV as a natural control agent against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV, it is necessary to know host susceptibility and the kinetics of IHHNV infection. These features can help to determine the conditions in which IHHNV could be used as antagonist in a WSSV infection.

  8. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1985. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1987. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1984. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1980. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1986. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  16. Ten-year variations in population structure of pink-shrimp in a southwestern Atlantic Bay affected by highway construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Freitas Jr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Population structures of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and F. paulensis, consisting mainly of juveniles, were evaluated during the construction of an expressway along a mangrove area. Estuarine regions in southern Brazil function as sites for reproduction, nursery and growth of a variety of organisms, including two of the most important species of shrimp for fisheries in the southwestern Atlantic. Shrimps were collected in Saco dos Limões creek, Baía-Sul, Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, four times a year, by day and night, between 1997 and 2006. Fluctuations in the abundances of shrimp appear to be related to their life cycles, with largest abundances in Summer and Spring, rather than to impacts promoted by dredging activities during the expressway construction.OBJETIVOS: A estrutura populacional de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis e F. paulensis, consistindo principalmente de juvenis, foi avaliada durante a construção de uma via expressa ao longo de uma área de manguezais. Regiões estuarinas do sul do Brasil funcionam como locais de reprodução, berçários e de crescimento de uma variedade de organismos, incluindo duas das mais importantes espécies de camarões comerciais do Atlântico Sul Ocidental. Camarões foram coletados no Saco dos Limões, Baía Sul, Florianópolis, Estado de Santa Catarina, trimestralmente, de dia e de noite, entre 1997 e 2006. Flutuações em abundâncias de camarões podem estar relacionados aos seus ciclos de vida, com as maiores abundâncias no verão e primavera, ao invés de impactos promovidos pelas atividades de dragagem durante a construção da via expressa.

  17. Acute toxicity of Roundup® herbicide to three life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, P. K.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.

    Glyphosate based herbicides, including Roundup®, are frequently used in the chemical control of weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa. These herbicides ultimately get into water courses directly or indirectly through processes such as drifting, leaching, surface runoff and foliar spray of aquatic nuisance plants. Despite their widespread use, no water quality guideline exists to protect indigenous South African freshwater organisms from the toxic effects of these herbicides. The toxicity of the herbicide Roundup® was assessed using three different life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica, a prevalent species in South African freshwater ecosystems. Neonate (7 dph and 40 dph) shrimps were exposed to varying concentrations (1.5-50 mg/L acid equivalence (a.e.)) of the herbicide in 48 and 96 h acute toxicity tests in order to determine the most sensitive life-stage. The results showed neonates to be more sensitive to Roundup® than both juveniles and adults with mean 96 h LC 50 values of 2.5, 7.0 and 25.3 mg/L a.e. respectively. The estimated 96 h LC 50 of neonates is much lower than the application rate (20-30 mg/L a.e.), although the application’s impact will depend on the dilution rate of the applied concentration in the environment. All three life-stages of unexposed animals exhibited active and coordinated movement but exposed shrimps were erratic and slow in their movements, with neonates showing most of these behavioral irregularities. This study shows that low levels of the herbicide Roundup® may adversely affect C. nilotica health and survival. Thus, the herbicide should be carefully managed to minimize any negative impact on non-target freshwater organisms.

  18. Shrimp humoral responses against pathogens: antimicrobial peptides and melanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Visetnan, Suwattana; Amparyup, Piti; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Tang, Sureerat

    2017-05-10

    Diseases have caused tremendous economic losses and become the major problem threatening the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture. The knowledge of host defense mechanisms against invading pathogens is essential for the implementation of efficient strategies to prevent disease outbreaks. Like other invertebrates, shrimp rely on the innate immune system to defend themselves against a range of microbes by recognizing and destroying them through cellular and humoral immune responses. Detection of microbial pathogens triggers the signal transduction pathways including the NF-κB signaling, Toll and Imd pathways, resulting in the activation of genes involved in host defense responses. In this review, we update the discovery of components of the Toll and Imd pathways in shrimp and their participation in the regulation of shrimp antimicrobial peptide (AMP) synthesis. We also focus on a recent progress on the two most powerful and the best-studied shrimp humoral responses: AMPs and melanization. Shrimp AMPs are mainly cationic peptides with sequence diversity which endues them the broad range of activities against microorganisms. Melanization, regulated by the prophenoloxidase activating cascade, also plays a crucial role in killing and sequestration of invading pathogens. The progress and emerging research on mechanisms and functional characterization of components of these two indispensable humoral responses in shrimp immunity are summarized and discussed. Interestingly, the pattern recognition protein (PRP) crosstalk is evidenced between the proPO activating cascade and the AMP synthesis pathways in shrimp, which enables the innate immune system to build up efficient immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacterial Selection from Shrimp Ponds for Degradation of Organic Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powtongsook, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of ammonia, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide in a shrimp pond is generally caused by incomplete degradation of residual organic matters from overfeeding and from organic wastes released by shrimps. The phenomenon affects shrimp growth and survival rate. The objectives of this investigation were to screen for a bacterial strain able to digest organic residues and to evaluate the changes of residues by bacterial activities under natural conditions. The results from this work showed that the isolated strain, Bacillus cereus S1, had the highest protease activity (57.1 U/ml with the presence of glucoamylase and lipase activities (4.5 and 0.13 U/ml, respectively. Under an aseptic condition in 1-L flasks containing seawater with 0.1% shrimp feed, B. cereus S1 degraded organic matters and significantly reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD (70.8%. An amount of ammonia-nitrogen was increased during the first 5 days of incubation due to the degradation of organic compounds in shrimp feed. However, it declined afterward with nitrate-nitrogen increase and unchanged nitrite nitrogen content. Under natural conditions in 10-L glass jars containing seawater with 0.05% shrimp feed and 0.05% sediment, B. cereus S1 and a commercial bacterial product (Inpicin-G could reduce COD (4.5% and 15.8%, respectively and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD (35.1 and 11.4%, respectively. However, similar changes of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen contents in water samples were observed. The results indicate that this selected bacterium could reduce organic compound accumulations on a laboratory scale. In addition, the strain did not produce any enterotoxins compared to a toxin standard. Therefore, the bacterium, Bacillus cereus S1, could be applied to decrease organic matters accumulated in shrimp pond without any harm to shrimps or consumers.

  20. Evolution of neural computations: Mantis shrimp and human color decoding

    OpenAIRE

    Qasim Zaidi; Justin Marshall; Hanne Thoen; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Mantis shrimp and primates both possess good color vision, but the neural implementation in the two species is very different, a reflection of the largely unrelated evolutionary lineages of these creatures. Mantis shrimp have scanning compound eyes with 12 classes of photoreceptors, and have evolved a system to decode color information at the front-end of the sensory stream. Primates have image-focusing eyes with three classes of cones, and decode color further along the visual-processing hie...

  1. Brine Shrimp Ecology In The Great Salt Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersaline lakes are noted for their simple communities which facilitate understanding ecological interactions (Williams et al. 1990; Wurtsbaugh 1992; Jellison and Melack 1988). Nevertheless, we still cannot easily predict how environmental changes will effect the population dynamics in these lakes, at least in part because even these simple ecosystems may be more complex than we .realize. Many hypersaline lakes are dominated by the brine shrimp Artemia spp. The production of brine shrimp is...

  2. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good indication of reduction of these pathogens because of the wide natural color variation.

  3. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.;

    2016-01-01

    1928–30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially diff ering in their shield morphologies. Th e shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae......Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...... diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...

  4. Identifications of SUMO-1 cDNA and Its Expression Patterns in Pacific White Shrimp Litopeanaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanisa Laoong-u-thai, Baoping Zhao, Amornrat Phongdara, Harry Ako, Jinzeng Yang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO work in a similar way as ubiquitin to alter the biological properties of a target protein by conjugation. A shrimp SUMO cDNA named LvSUMO-1 was identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. LvSUMO-1 cDNA contains a coding sequence of 282 nucleotides with untranslated regions of 37 bp at 5'-end and 347 bp at 3'-end, respectively. The deduced 93 amino acids exhibit 83% identity with the Western Honeybee SUMO-1, and more than 65% homologies with human and mouse SUMO-1. LvSUMO-1 mRNA is expressed in most L. vannamei tissues with the highest level in hepatopancrease. The mRNA expression of LvSUMO-1 over development stages in L. Vammamei is distinguished by a low level in nauplius stage and relatively high level in postlarva stage with continuous expression until juvenile stage. The LvSUMO-1 protein and its conjugated proteins are detected in both cytoplasm and nucleus in several tissues. Interestingly, LvSUMO-1 mRNA levels are high in abdominal muscle during the premolt stage, wherein it has significant activities of protein degradation, suggesting its possible role in the regulation of shrimp muscle protein degradation.

  5. Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

  6. Modulation by K+ Plus NH4+ of microsomal (Na+, K+-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the diadromous river shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A Leone

    Full Text Available We investigate the synergistic stimulation by K(+ plus NH4 (+ of (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity in microsomal preparations of whole zoea I and decapodid III, and in juvenile and adult river shrimp gills. Modulation of (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity is ontogenetic stage-specific, and particularly distinct between juveniles and adults. Although both gill enzymes exhibit two different sites for K(+ and NH4 (+ binding, in the juvenile enzyme, these two sites are equivalent: binding by both ions results in slightly stimulated activity compared to that of a single ionic species. In the adult enzyme, the sites are not equivalent: when one ion occupies its specific binding site, (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity is stimulated synergistically by ≈ 50% on binding of the complementary ion. Immunolocalization reveals the enzyme to be distributed predominantly throughout the intralamellar septum in the gill lamellae of juveniles and adults. Western blot analyses demonstrate a single immunoreactive band, suggesting a single (Na(+, K(+-ATPase α-subunit isoform that is distributed into different density membrane fractions, independently of ontogenetic stage. We propose a model for the modulation by K(+ and NH4 (+ of gill (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity. These findings suggest that the gill enzyme may be regulated by NH4 (+ during ontogenetic development in M. amazonicum.

  7. Integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation: Potential for blue carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Thompson, Shirley; Glaser, Marion

    2017-10-04

    Globally, shrimp farming has had devastating effects on mangrove forests. However, mangroves are the most carbon-rich forests, with blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions seriously augmented due to devastating effects on mangrove forests. Nevertheless, integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation has emerged as a part of the potential solution to blue carbon emissions. Integrated mangrove-shrimp farming is also known as organic aquaculture if deforested mangrove area does not exceed 50% of the total farm area. Mangrove destruction is not permitted in organic aquaculture and the former mangrove area in parts of the shrimp farm shall be reforested to at least 50% during a period of maximum 5 years according to Naturland organic aquaculture standards. This article reviews integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation that can help to sequester blue carbon through mangrove restoration, which can be an option for climate change mitigation. However, the adoption of integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from blue carbon sequestration.

  8. STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE AND COMPETITIVE CLUSTER FOR SHRIMP INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas M. Fauzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kampung Vannamei as shrimp cluster is being developed since 2004 by PT CP Prima, tbk Surabaya through Shrimp Culture Health Management transformation technology to several traditional farmers in Gresik, Lamongan, Tuban, and Madura areas. The research objectives aims to identify and mapping of stakeholder, to analyze interaction of stakeholders, to formulate strategy from internal and external environment factors and to set priority on strategy to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster in the Kampung vannamei. Primary data was collected through stakeholders’ discussion forums, questionnaires, and interviews with relevant actors. Observations to the business unit also performed to determine the production and business conditions, particularly in capturing information about the threat and challenges. While the secondary data is used in policy documents national and local area statistics, and relevant literature. Analyses were performed by using the SRI International cluster pyramid, diamond porter’s analysis, SWOT and Matrix TOWS analysis, and analytical hierarchy process. Analyses were performed by the methods discussed in qualitative and descriptive. There are 7 strategies could be implemented to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster. However, it is recommended to implement the strategy base on priority, which the first priority is strategy to improve linkages between businesses in the upstream and downstream industries into multi stakeholders’ platform in shrimp industry.Keywords: Shrimp, Cluster, Competitiveness, Diamond Porter, SWOT Analysis, AHP

  9. Habitat selection of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in an estuary in southern Brazil: influence of salinity and submerged seagrass meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mendes Ruas

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in two estuarine inlets (Saco da Mangueira and Saco do Arraial at the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil. The changes in relative abundance and size of post-larvae and juvenile shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and juvenile blue crab Callinectes sapidus were compared, considering the influence of salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows. The analyses were performed using generalized linear models (GLM for abundance variations and ANOVA for variations on the size of individuals. The pink shrimp was more abundant at Saco da Mangueira, in seagrass meadows and areas of higher salinity. The blue crab was more abundant at Saco do Arraial and in lower levels of salinity. The importance of submerged vegetation for the blue crab lies in a preference of smaller crabs of the species for the seagrass meadows. It has been shown that these species choose different habitats in the estuary, and both the salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows influence the selection of habitat.

  10. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

    2013-04-01

    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices.

  11. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  14. Beth Starts Like Brown Bear!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Gay

    1994-01-01

    Recounts a reading teacher's illuminating experience with a first grader who enjoyed reading Bill Martin's "Brown Bear" books, despite being labeled as dyslexic. Dyslexia is an elusive condition that is biological in origin and distinct from other reading problems. New research shows that reading difficulties, including dyslexia, occur as part of…

  15. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  16. Enteric coccidiosis in the brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Pomroy, W E; Castro, I; Howe, L

    2012-10-01

    Enteric coccidiosis may cause significant morbidity and mortality in juvenile brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). Morphology of sporulated oocysts indicates that at least two Eimeria species are able to infect the brown kiwi. A histological study of the endogenous stages of coccidia was undertaken in the intestinal tracts of ten naturally infected young kiwi. Sequential sectioning of the entire intestinal tract allowed identification and recording of the distribution of the various coccidial life stages. Macromeronts measuring 268 × 162 μm when mature were found mainly within the lamina propria of the proximal one third of the small intestine. A smaller form of lamina propria meront was also identified (8.7 × 6.4 μm) with a similar distribution to the macromeronts. Small meronts (4.4 × 3.8 μm) were also identified in mucosal epithelial cells, with the overall peak in distribution within the intestinal tract being distal to the lamina propria meronts. Three morphologically distinctive gametocytes were identified. Type A gametocytes contained within epithelial cells shared the same distribution as the epithelial meronts. Polyps containing large numbers of type B gametocytes within the distal intestinal tract were found in two cases, and type C gametocytes were identified throughout the entire intestinal tract in one case only. The observational nature of this study precludes complete knowledge of the parasite life cycles using histology alone. However, it is likely that each of the three morphologically distinct gametocytes represents a separate species of enteric coccidia.

  17. Effects of neonatal overfeeding on juvenile and adult feeding and energy expenditure in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Stefanidis

    Full Text Available Overfeeding during perinatal life leads to an overweight phenotype that persists throughout the juvenile stage and into adulthood, however, the mechanism(s underlying this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that obesity due to neonatal overfeeding is maintained by changes in energy expenditure and that these changes differ between males and females. We investigated feeding, physical activity, hormonal and metabolic alterations that occur in adult rats made obese by having been nursed in small litters (SL compared with those from control litters (CL. There were no differences in absolute food intake between the groups, and juvenile and adult SL rats ate less chow per gram body weight than the CL did in the dark (active phase. Juvenile, but not adult SL rats did have reduced whole body energy expenditure, but there were no differences between the groups by the time they reached adulthood. Adult SL females (but not males had reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT temperatures compared with CL in the first half of the dark phase. Our results indicate a persistent overweight phenotype in rats overfed as neonates is not associated with hyperphagia at any stage, but is reflected in reduced energy expenditure into the juvenile phase. The reduced dark phase BAT activity in adult SL females is not sufficient to reduce total energy expenditure at this stage of life and there is an apparently compensatory effect that prevents SL and CL from continuing to diverge in weight that appears between the juvenile and adult stages.

  18. Determination of storage conditions for shrimp extracts: analysis of specific IgE-allergen profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piboonpocanun, Surapon; Boonchoo, Siribangon; Pariyaprasert, Wipada; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2010-03-01

    The consumption of shrimp is a common cause of food hypersensitivity reactions. Shrimp allergy is diagnosed using a skin prick test (SPT) as well as by food challenges. Due to the lack of a wide variety of commercial shrimp extracts for SPTs, we selected various shrimp species for the preparation of local shrimp extracts. However, optimal storage conditions for the shrimp extracts which also maintains allergenic potency has not yet been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the potency of the shrimp extracts under different storage conditions and durations. Specific IgE-allergen profiles of eight shrimp-allergic patients were investigated by using sera incubated with extracts prepared from lyophilized raw or boiled shrimp, which were stored at 4 degress C or -20 degress C for up to 4 weeks. When stored at -20 degress C, most allergens were preserved after 4 weeks. However, storage at 4 degress C results in few allergens remaining after 2 weeks. Boiled-shrimp extracts stored at 4 degree C and -20 degress C contained higher amounts of IgE-allergen complexes than raw-shrimp extracts. Moreover, in both raw and boiled shrimp extracts, the IgE bound 36-40 kDa allergens constituted the major proteins since they were observed in all IgE-allergen profiles. In conclusion, we recommend that shrimp extracts are stored at -20 degress C for 4 weeks to prevent the loss of allergens.

  19. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  20. Effects of temperature and diet on length-weight relationship and condition factor of the juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Das, Simon Kumar; Bakar, Yosni; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd

    2016-08-01

    In this study we aimed to analyze the effects of water temperature and diet on the length-weight relationship and condition of juvenile Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus over a 30-d experimental period. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory using a flow-through-sea-water system. The fish were subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (commercial pellet and natural shrimp). Fish were fed twice daily. L. malabaricus exhibited negative allometric growth (b3) at 30 °C fed with shrimp diet, which indicated that fish weight increases faster than their length. The rest of the temperatures represented negative allometric growth (b<3) on both diet, meaning that fish became lighter with increasing size. The condition factors in the initial and final measurements were greater than 1, indicating the state of health of the fish, except for those fed on a pellet diet at 34 °C. However, the best condition was obtained at 30 °C on both diets. Nevertheless, diets did not have a significant effect on growth and condition of juvenile L. malabaricus. The data obtained from this study suggested culturing L. malabaricus at 30 °C and feeding on the pellet or shrimp diet, which will optimize the overall production and condition of this commercially important fish species.

  1. Juveniles tried as adults: the age of the juvenile matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Jaclyn K; Woody, William Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Serious juvenile crimes require evaluation of a child as a criminal defendant in adult court. In such cases, it is crucial to understand jurors' attitudes, biases, and ability to follow legal instructions and maintain fairness. 308 undergraduate psychology students served as mock jurors, were randomly separated into four groups, and each group read the same realistic summary of a trial with the defendant's age presented as 13, 15, 17, or 21 years. Participants were asked to render guilty or not guilty verdicts and, if guilty, to suggest sentences. Chi-squared analysis indicated 13- and 15-year-old defendants were convicted less often than 17- and 21-year-old defendants, showing that jurors distinguished between juvenile defendants of different ages, but not minors and adults as defined by law. Additional analysis showed that age did not affect sentencing recommendations. Decision processes jurors use for juveniles tried as adults are discussed.

  2. Processing Gulf of St. Lawrence pink shrimps at Eagle Fisheries Co. Ltd., Shippegan, N.B

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gionet, W

    1969-01-01

    ... in the development of a shrimp fishery during the 1968 season in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Specialized equipment necessary for catching and holding shrimp as well as for processing was designed and constructed...

  3. Conflicting interests in the use of Kerala's penaeid shrimp resources: A case question

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, D.; David, J.; Anand, P.E.V.

    In the drive to increase foreign exchange on the shrimp resource base, the development strategy has been to bring additional backwater area under the open semi-intensive culture system. Apparently, the nature of the shrimp resource complex...

  4. Toxicological investigations of Aloe ferox Mill. extracts using Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) assay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abosede, Wintola Olubunmi; Sunday, Arowosegbe; Jide, Afolayan Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxicity of the extracts of Aloe ferox using brine shrimp was evaluated. Effects of the extracts on hatchability and lethality of brine shrimps were reported in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and LD(50) respectively...

  5. Economic Data Collection for Gulf of Mexico South Atlantic Shrimp Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Economic Survey of Federal Gulf and Atlantic Shrimp Permit Holders collects data about operating expenses and costs of owning and maintaining shrimp...

  6. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations AGENCY: United...(a)), the countervailing duty investigations concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia...

  7. Use of slaughter house waste as a feed for shrimps and prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Feeding experiments with some shrimps and fishes (Metapenaeus monoceros, Metapenaeus dobsoni, Sarotherodon mossambicus and Etroplus suratensis) using slaughter house waste as food, showed that the shrimps and arotherodon were able to utilize...

  8. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  9. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... of China,Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of...

  10. Forensic aspects of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L H

    2000-10-01

    The juvenile justice system was created because it was recognized that youthful offenders needed to be managed differently from adults. They were to receive habilitation services instead of punishment. It is now more than a century since the creation of the first juvenile court. After 67 years, the US Supreme Court, in Kent v United States stated that the model was not working because juveniles in the criminal justice system received no treatment and they had no rights. Because the issue that had been appealed was the lack of rights (not lack of treatment), the Court mandated that juveniles, like adults, be given certain rights. The following year, in In re Gault, the Court expanded these rights. Subsequent Supreme Court cases have dealt with these kinds of issues--that is, whether juvenile offenders are entitled to the same rights as adults and subject to the same penalties. The Supreme Court has never heard a "right to treatment" case, which is the other part of the juvenile court system. Cases have been brought in lower courts (e.g., Nelson v. Heyne, 1972) alleging inadequate treatment services, but no national impact has resulted. Thus, in general, children in the juvenile court system do not have an enforceable right to treatment and can obtain only what services are available in their jurisdictions. The services often are woefully inadequate. Sentencing a youth to probation, with the requirement that he or she participate in counseling or mental health treatment, is meaningless if services are not available. Community-based, model programs that provide effective treatment do exist. They are, as yet, the rare exception rather than the norm and, therefore, are not available to most youthful offenders. Incarcerated juveniles, obviously, cannot avail themselves of community programs. Litigation to give these youth the same rights as adults in penal institutions is not the answer because incarcerated adults don't have a right to treatment, only a right to be free

  11. The Heterogeneity of Juvenile Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile myositis is a heterogeneous group of systemic autoimmune diseases, in which clinical and serologic subgroups result in subsets of patients with distinct clinical manifestations, disease courses, immunogenetic associations, responses to therapy, and prognoses. A newly identified autoantibody of unknown specificity, anti-p155, is myositis-associated and seen in up to 20 – 30% of juvenile and adult DM patients. HLA DRB1*0301 and its linked allele DQA1*0501 have been identified as the major immunogenetic risk factor for juvenile and adult DM in both European- and African- American patients, and DQA1*0301 is an additional risk factor in European American patients. Several DQA1 alleles also are protective for juvenile DM. Environmental risk factors are poorly understood, but growing evidence suggests a role for infectious agents and ultraviolet radiation. The current therapy of juvenile DM consists of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, with the adjunctive treatment of cutaneous manifestations and rehabilitation. Therapeutic trials of biologic agents, including anti-TNFα and anti-CD20, may aid in developing promising new therapies for these disorders. PMID:17317616

  12. Calcification by juvenile corals under heterotrophy and elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkard, E. J.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; de Putron, S. J.; Starczak, V. R.; Zicht, A. E.

    2013-09-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) threatens the existence of coral reefs by slowing the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production of framework-building corals thus reducing the amount of CaCO3 the reef can produce to counteract natural dissolution. Some evidence exists to suggest that elevated levels of dissolved inorganic nutrients can reduce the impact of OA on coral calcification. Here, we investigated the potential for enhanced energetic status of juvenile corals, achieved via heterotrophic feeding, to modulate the negative impact of OA on calcification. Larvae of the common Atlantic golf ball coral, Favia fragum, were collected and reared for 3 weeks under ambient (421 μatm) or significantly elevated (1,311 μatm) CO2 conditions. The metamorphosed, zooxanthellate spat were either fed brine shrimp (i.e., received nutrition from photosynthesis plus heterotrophy) or not fed (i.e., primarily autotrophic). Regardless of CO2 condition, the skeletons of fed corals exhibited accelerated development of septal cycles and were larger than those of unfed corals. At each CO2 level, fed corals accreted more CaCO3 than unfed corals, and fed corals reared under 1,311 μatm CO2 accreted as much CaCO3 as unfed corals reared under ambient CO2. However, feeding did not alter the sensitivity of calcification to increased CO2; ∆ calcification/∆Ω was comparable for fed and unfed corals. Our results suggest that calcification rates of nutritionally replete juvenile corals will decline as OA intensifies over the course of this century. Critically, however, such corals could maintain higher rates of skeletal growth and CaCO3 production under OA than those in nutritionally limited environments.

  13. Comparison of the Respiratory Metabolism of Juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei Cultured in Seawater and Freshwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Sen; WANG Fang; DONG Shuanglin; LI Ying

    2014-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei, a euryhaline species, can be cultured at a wide range of salinities. The emergence of freshwater pond-culture of L. vannamei is an important prelude to the continued development of shrimp culture in China. In this study, we com-pared the respiratory metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei cultured in freshwater and saltwater by measuring their oxygen consump-tion rate (OCR), ammonium-type nitrogen excretion rate (AER) and pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activi-ties at different molting stages in order to physiecologically characterize juvenile L. vannamei under freshwater conditions. The re-sults showed that OCR was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater at all stages of molting cycle. However, variation of OCR among molting stages in saltwater was similar with that in freshwater, and the highest OCR was observed at post-molting stage. At all stages of molting cycle, AER was significantly higher in freshwater than in saltwater, and the highest was observed at post-molting stage. The activity of PK was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater. Conversely, the activity of LDH was higher in freshwater than in saltwater in general. Significant variation of PK and LDH activities in molting cycle was observed in saltwater and freshwater. The results indicated that aerobic metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei was more active in saltwater than in freshwater;while its protein metabolism was more active in freshwater than in saltwater.

  14. Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabade, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Rob; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management.

  15. Effect of Chitin Extraction Processes on Residual Antimicrobials in Shrimp Shells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the influences of industrial chitin extraction processes on the residual oxytetracycline (OTC) and oxolinic acid (OA) in shrimp carapaces and shells. The drugs were orally administered by catheter to the kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) and vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). The shrimps were sampled at 6-h post-dosing and their carapaces and shells were collected and used as raw material in the chitin extraction. Residua...

  16. Rice versus Shrimp Production in Thailand: Is There Really a Conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    MEKHORA, Thamrong; McCann, Laura M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Shrimp farming in Thailand has had disastrous effects on the environment in the past, which has prompted a government ban on shrimp production in inland areas. However, a new low-salinity shrimp farming system has developed that seems to have fewer disease and environmental problems than previous systems but competes with rice production for land and water resources. The present study found that shrimp farming exhibits increasing returns to scale and is much more profitable than rice farming,...

  17. Comparison of SHRIMP U-Pb dating of monazite and zircon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yusheng; LIU Dunyi; JIAN Ping

    2004-01-01

    Monazite dating is an important technique in geochronological studies. However, monazite U-Pb dating by SHRIMP is much less popular than zircon in geochronological applications. This paper compares the results of SHRIMP U-Pb dating of monazites and zircons separated from two granite samples, indicating that monazite SHRIMP U-Pb dating at the Beijing SHRIMP Centre is feasible and provides identical results within error.

  18. Juvenile Correctional Institutions Library Services: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Annette M.

    This bibliography lists citations for 14 articles, books, and reports concerned with library services in juvenile correctional institutions. A second section lists 21 additional materials on adult correctional libraries which also contain information relevant to the juvenile library. (KP)

  19. Efecto de la salinidad sobre la fisiología energética del camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Effect of salinity on physiological energetics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Valdez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el balance energético en juveniles de Litopenaeus vannamei, aclimatados a la salinidad como hiperosmóticos (20 ups, isosmóticos (26 ups, o hiposmóticos (32 ups. Además, se calculó la razón atómica O:N. La tasa de ingestión, el consumo de oxígeno, la excreción de amonio y el campo de crecimiento fueron afectados significativamente (p 0.05 en los camarones expuestos a las tres salinidades. Para optimizar las condiciones de cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei se recomienda mantener a los juveniles en la salinidad para la cual es isosmótico (26 ups, evitando el estrés ambiental, lo que desde el punto de vista fisiológico se canaliza en una mayor cantidad de energía hacia el campo de crecimiento.The energy balance was determined with in Litopenaeus vannamei, juveniles acclimated to salinity where they were hyperosmotic (20 ups, isosmotic (26 ups, and hypo-osmotic (32 ups. Also O:N atomic ratio was calculated. The ingestion rate, oxygen consumption, ammonium excretion and scope for growth were affected significantly (p 0.05 in the shrimps exposed to the three salinities. We recommend maintaining Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles at the salinity level which is isosmotic (26 ups, where they are free of environmental stress, these conditions for white shrimp juveniles would enhance production in the cultivation of this species.

  20. Shrimp quality and safety management along the supply chain in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis focuses on quality and safety management of tropical shrimp (Penaeus spp.) using Benin (West Africa) as an example of a shrimp exporting country. The entire supply chain, from fishing areas (brackish waters) to shrimp processing plants, was investigated. The

  1. Livelihood Capabilities and Pathways of Shrimp Farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Phung Ha, Ha; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Bosma, R.H.; Sinh, L.X.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is a major livelihood activity in the Mekong Delta in the southernmost part of Vietnam. The Vietnamese government has promoted shrimp farming as a way to reduce poverty, provide employment opportunities and increase exports to support economic development. The shrimp farming system,

  2. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21.10 and... and Commerce by the Coalition of Gulf Shrimp Industries, Biloxi, MS, alleging that an industry in the...

  3. 78 FR 40436 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear... Gear Characterization Form. The form will be provided by NMFS at the time of permit application...

  4. 78 FR 30272 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the... review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil with respect to...

  5. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004) (Brazil... Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, 70 FR 5143... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the...

  6. 77 FR 32498 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil with respect to...

  7. 75 FR 32915 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 7, 2009, the Department published a...

  8. 76 FR 38360 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 1, 2011, the Department published a...

  9. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haryadi, D.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina e

  10. Global and local governance of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Thu, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is one of seven ecological regions in Vietnam where aquaculture and shrimp products are internationally traded and the shrimp farmers are firmly embedded in a global system of production and trade. The growth of shrimp aquaculture, in addition to population growth and higher levels

  11. Shrimp quality and safety management along the supply chain in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis focuses on quality and safety management of tropical shrimp (Penaeus spp.) using Benin (West Africa) as an example of a shrimp exporting country. The entire supply chain, from fishing areas (brackish waters) to shrimp processing plants, was investigated. The ste

  12. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  13. 78 FR 15696 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Produce Development Ltd. 44. Shenzhen Yudayuan Trade Ltd. 45. Thai Royal Frozen Food Zhanjiang Co., Ltd... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering...

  14. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  15. 78 FR 72635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Department'') initiated a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp... Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

  16. 75 FR 844 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...'') is extending the time limit for the preliminary results of the new shipper review of certain frozen... order on shrimp from Vietnam for Nhat Duc Co., Ltd. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...

  17. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  18. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... concerning the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would...

  19. 76 FR 50718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the period... duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the PRC. See Initiation of...

  20. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... determines that countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of investigation...

  1. 75 FR 56988 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the period... initiation of the administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on certain frozen shrimp from...

  2. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the... of the antidumping duty orders on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam and the...

  3. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

  4. 50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654.24... Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the management area and Florida's waters off Citrus and Hernando Counties for the separation of shrimp trawling and stone...

  5. Livelihood Capabilities and Pathways of Shrimp Farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Phung Ha, Ha; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Bosma, R.H.; Sinh, L.X.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is a major livelihood activity in the Mekong Delta in the southernmost part of Vietnam. The Vietnamese government has promoted shrimp farming as a way to reduce poverty, provide employment opportunities and increase exports to support economic development. The shrimp farming system, h

  6. 75 FR 33375 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration, OMB Control... Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration. OMB... document imports of shrimp pursuant to the State Department's implementation of Section 609 of Public...

  7. 75 FR 54847 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\3... species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  8. 77 FR 12801 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results, Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\16\\ deveined or not... include, but are not limited to, white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguinensis... coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled...

  9. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off, deveined or not... warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled; (4)...

  10. 76 FR 8338 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\4\\ deveined or not... include, but are not limited to, white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis... coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled...

  11. 75 FR 12206 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\2\\ deveined or not deveined..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  12. 77 FR 53856 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ...-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\19... species include, but are not limited to, white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled...

  13. 75 FR 41813 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\3\\ deveined or not..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  14. 77 FR 4993 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... shrimp), which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more than 20 percent by weight of shrimp or prawn... prawns ] in prepared meals (HTS subheading 1605.20.05.10); (5) dried shrimp and prawns; (6) Lee Kum Kee's... From Japan, 67 FR 58 (January 2, 2002); see also Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France: Final...

  15. Adult Artemia as food for juvenile prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.

    Feeding experiments on three commercially important shrimps Penaues indicus, Metapenaeus dobsoni and M. monoceros were carried out using adult Artemia as feed. Good growth and food conversion efficiencies were recorded at 15% feeding level in all...

  16. IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon THROUGH PROBIOTICS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irsyaphiani Insan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Brebes District, the North coast of Java. Tiger shrimp farming in Indonesia, particularly in this area faced some problems which caused by improper pond preparation, disease, and low seed quality. Probiotic was applied in pond to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of tiger shrimp in ponds with probiotic applications. Six experimental ponds (each measuring 0.5 ha were selected of which three were probiotic ponds and three were controlled. Tiger shrimp postlarvae (PL-30 were stocked at density of four shrimps/m2. Tiger shrimps were reared for three months. Shrimps were fed by commercial pellet. In the first month, shrimp were fed about 7%-5% of the total biomass; in the second months, 3.5%-3% of the total biomass; and in the third month, 2.5%-2% of the total biomass. The treatments in this study were the application of probiotics with concentration of 3 mg/L that were given every five days and control (without probiotics. The results showed the rearing period was 92 ± 6 days in probiotic ponds and 76 ± 16 days in controlled pond. The shrimp in controlled pond should be harvest earlier caused by the high mortality. The average final weight was 16.2 ± 0.7 g in probiotic pond and 15.6 ± 1.9 g in controlled pond. The survival rate was 64.13 ± 12.63% in probiotic pond and 44.17 ± 14.15% in controlled pond. Production was 208 ± 46 kg/pond/cycle in probiotic pond and 123 ± 6 kg/pond/cycle in controlled pond. The result showed that probiotic plays an important role in maintaining water quality parameters and health management as well as increases the survival of shrimp.

  17. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  18. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  19. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  20. Current status of viral diseases in Indian shrimp aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandel, G M; John, K Riji; Rosalind George, M; Prince Jeyaseelan, M J

    The intensification of aquaculture has been unique in showing the overwhelming changes in global food production in the last 100 years. Presently, it is playing a vital role in the economies of several countries. Conversely, it is also to be noted that the progression of aquaculture has been the foundation of anthropogenic alteration of a gigantic hierarchy and hence not astonishingly, it resulted in spread and emergence of an increasing group of new unknown diseases. In India, Penaeus monodon, black tiger shrimp was previously the foremost-cultivated shrimp species. Subsequently in 2008, the American white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has effectively replaced it. The change in dominant species has affected disease concerns in India as well as in world shrimp aquaculture. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most deleterious for both species. Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), Monodon baculovirus (MBV) and Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are the other significant infectious agents of P. monodon and L. vannamei. An emerging disease of loose shell syndrome (LSS) was already reported from India during late 1998. A more recent disease of L. vannamei in India is monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS), a component of which seems to be Laem-Singh virus (LSNV). Thus, most of the information in this review relates to new emerging pathogens that threaten the cultivation shrimp industry in India.

  1. [Detection of allergenic substances (shrimp, crab) in processed seafood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Saita, Kiyotaka; Akaboshi, Chie; Ohsawa, Nobuhiko; Hashiguchi, Shigeki; Miyazawa, Maki

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a study (2009-2012) on processed seafood products in order to determine the level of contamination with shrimp and crab. In 2010-2012, after the Allergy Labeling Regulation went into effect, the detection rate of crustacean protein in processed seafood products including small fish, such as niboshi, tukudani and so on (both boiled and dried), was 63%. Detection rates for processed seafood products in which crustacean protein levels were below 1 μg/g were 36% with and 58% without advisory labels, allowing us to conclude that 60% of labels were adequate. On the other hand, the detection rate for processed seafood products with crustacean protein levels higher than the baseline of 10 μg/g was 9%, of which 60% carried no advisory labels. The rate of shrimp DNA detection using the Akiami primer in processed foods containing shrimp and crab was high (73%). This suggests that it is necessary to test these products using the Akiami primer for supplemental analyses of shrimp DNA. The PCR analysis for crab DNA detection failed due to combined detection of mantis shrimp DNA, which accounted for 8% of the total detected.

  2. Scenarios for Resilient Shrimp Aquaculture in Tropical Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R. Bush

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We contend there are currently two competing scenarios for the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas of Southeast Asia. First, a landscape approach, where farming techniques for small-scale producers are integrated into intertidal areas in a way that the ecological functions of mangroves are maintained and shrimp farming diseases are controlled. Second, a closed system approach, where problems of disease and effluent are eliminated in closed recirculation ponds behind the intertidal zone controlled by industrial-scale producers. We use these scenarios as two ends of a spectrum of possible interactions at a range of scales between the ecological, social, and political dynamics that underlie the threat to the resilience of mangrove forested coastal ecosystems. We discuss how the analytical concepts of resilience, uncertainty, risk, and the organizing heuristic of scale can assist us to understand decision making over shrimp production, and in doing so, explore their use in the empirical research areas of coastal ecology, shrimp health management and epidemiology, livelihoods, and governance in response to the two scenarios. Our conclusion focuses on a series of questions that map out a new interdisciplinary research agenda for sustainable shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas.

  3. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B. Luz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100 Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Feed palatability and the alternative protein sources in shrimp feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Tantikitti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Feed palatability in carnivorous aquaculture species, shrimps in particular, has been crucially related to the presence of compounds acting as attractants that are commonly associated with the prey components under wild conditions. Thus a nutritionally adequate and organoleptically-pleasing diet is essential to achieve satisfactory intake and growth in shrimps. Historically, fishmeal has been an essential dietary component of intensive shrimp cultures because of its nutrient composition and compounds of high attractability. However, in recent years the fishmeal supplies have been dwindling due to over hunting, a diminishing natural fish-stock, elevating prices and market volatility. This has led to search for cheaper sources of suitable protein as fishmeal substitutes. To improve the palatability of diets, various substances have been investigated for their effectiveness in aqua-feed including natural feed ingredients and synthetic flavor substances. For crustacean, attractants characteristically are of low molecular weight, water and ethanol soluble, and amphoteric or basic compounds that are released from potential prey items. Compounds such as free amino acids, especially taurine, hydroxyproline, glycine, arginine, glutamic acid and alanine have been identified to stimulate feeding in shrimps. The same has been identified with organic acids, nucleotides and nucleosides, betaine, and some small peptides. Palatability also has been associated with animal’s past experience with the feed. Understanding the factors that regulate feed palatability is therefore primary for successful shrimp culture.

  5. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution) were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  7. Prevalence of Three Shrimp Viruses in Zhejiang Province in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-wei Yu; Jian-ping Wang; Wei Zhang; Zheng-li Shi

    2011-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus(WSSV), Taura syndrome virus(TSV)and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus(IHHNV)are three shrimp viruses responsible for major pandemics affecting the shrimp farming industry. Shrimps samples were collected from 12 farms in Zhejiang province, China, in 2008 and analyzed by PCR to determine the prevalence of these viruses. From the 12 sampling locations, 8 farms were positive for WSSV, 8 for IHHNV and 6 for both WSSV and IHHNV. An average percentage of 57.4% of shrimp individuals were infected with WSSV, while 49.2% were infected with IHHNV. A high prevalence of co-infection with WSSV and IHHNV among samples was detected from the following samples: Bingjiang(93.3%), liuao(66.7%), Jianshan(46.7%)and Xianxiang(46.7%). No samples exhibited evidence of infection with TSV in collected samples. This study provides comprehensive information of the prevalence of three shrimp viruses in Zhejiang and may be helpful for disease prevention control in this region.

  8. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  9. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  10. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  11. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  12. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…

  13. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  14. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  15. Feeding of the planktonic shrimp Lucifer faroni Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea: Decapoda in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Amelia Vega-Pérez

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior of juveniles of the planktonic shrimp Lucifer faxoni Borradaile was studied in the laboratory under light and dark conditions. Newly-hatched nauplii and metanauplii of Artemio were used as prey organisms. The fecding raie of L. foxoni was dependent on prey size and prey density, but was not obviously affected by light or dark conditions. The capture of the prey tended to increase with longer exposure time to prey. The maximum ingestion rate was 17.28 and 13.40 nauplii.L. faxoni .d- , in the light and in the dark conditions, respectively.O comportamento alimentar de espécimens jovens de Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, em laboratório, sob condições de luz e escuro, foi estudado utilizando-se como alimento náuplios recém-eclodidos e metanáuplios de Artemio. Neste estudo a taxa de alimentação de L. faxoni foi influenciada pelo tamanho e concentração da presa, bem como pelo tempo de contato com a mesma. A atividade alimentar de L. faxoni foi maior em condições de luz, quando comparado com as condições de escuro. f- taxa máxima de ingestão calculada foi de 17,28 e 13,40 náuplios.L. faxoni .d- para as condições de luz e escuro, respectivamente.

  16. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  17. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Haug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages, alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages. These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world 1928-30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially differing in their shield morphologies. The shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults.

  18. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  19. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  20. Tropomyosin IgE-positive results are a good predictor of shrimp allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, C; Sánchez-García, S; Ibáñez, M D; López, R; Aguado, E; López, E; Sastre, B; Sastre, J; del Pozo, V

    2011-10-01

    Shrimp is a common cause of food allergy. Our aims were to determine the value of IgE antibodies in the diagnosis of shrimp allergy and to study red shrimp (Solenocera melantho) tropomyosin both as a new allergen and as a cross-reactive IgE-binding protein. We have studied 45 subjects. Skin prick test (SPT) was carried out in all subjects, and specific IgE (sIgE) to shrimp, recombinant and natural shrimp tropomyosins rPen a 1 and nPen m 1, recombinant Der p 10, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was assessed by fluoroimmunoassay and/or immunoblotting. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges were carried out to confirm diagnosis of shrimp allergy. Also, in vitro inhibition tests were performed to evaluate cross-reactivity. Shrimp allergy was confirmed in 18 shrimp-allergic patients. Skin prick test and IgE antibodies to shrimp were positive in all shrimp-allergic patients; sIgE to rPen a 1 was detected in 98% of these patients. Of the 18 shrimp-tolerant patients, 61% had positive SPT to shrimp, 55% were IgE-positive to shrimp, and 33% showed IgE antibodies to rPen a 1. Determination of IgE to rPen a 1 yielded a positive predictive value of 0.72 and a negative predictive value of 0.91. IgE levels to rPen a 1 provided additional value to the diagnosis of shrimp allergy. Some allergens in mite extract are recognized by patients who are allergic to shrimp, though their clinical relevance remains unknown. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Modulation of brown adipocyte activity by milk by-products: Stimulation of brown adipogenesis by buttermilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Kida, Ryosuke; Muto, Kengo; Nara, Takayuki Y; Kato, Ken; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipocytes dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1); Ucp1 expression is further upregulated by the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes. An increase in energy expenditure by activated brown adipocytes potentially contributes to the prevention of or therapeutics for obesity. The present study examined the effects of milk by-products, buttermilk and butter oil, on brown adipogenesis and the function of brown adipocytes. The treatment with buttermilk modulated brown adipogenesis, depending on the product tested; during brown adipogenesis, buttermilk 1 inhibited the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. In contrast, buttermilk 3 and 5 increased the expression of Ucp1 in the absence of isoproterenol (Iso), a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, suggesting the stimulation of brown adipogenesis. In addition, the Iso-induced expression of Ucp1 was enhanced by buttermilk 2 and 3. The treatment with buttermilk did not affect the basal or induced expression of Ucp1 by Iso in HB2 brown adipocytes, except for buttermilk 5, which increased the basal expression of Ucp1. Conversely, butter oil did not significantly affect the expression of Ucp1, irrespective of the cell phase of HB2 cells, ie, treatment during brown adipogenesis or of brown adipocytes. The results of the present study indicate that buttermilk is a regulator of brown adipogenesis and suggest its usefulness as a potential food material for antiobesity.

  2. Microbiological evaluation of cold-water shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatka, F A; Bartolomeo, B

    1973-06-01

    A bacteriological survey of the Maine shrimp industry was conducted to investigate the conditions associated with the production of frozen, raw, peeled shrimp. In-plant samples and finished product units were collected from seven plants. The most probable number of Escherichia coli, coliforms, and coagulase-positive staphylococci, as well as aerobic plate counts (APC), were determined. Freshly harvested shrimp collected from fishing vessels had an APC geometric mean of 510/g, and E. coli, coliforms, and coagulase-positive staphylococci were absent. Subsequent storage and insanitary practices during processing increased the APC and introduced coliforms. However, the low air temperatures (18 to 45 F) in the plants and the large volumes of cold water (34 F) used during processing inhibited significant bacterial buildup in the finished product.

  3. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-10-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing métier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested métier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers of Chennai (former Madras). Research took place in 2007 and 2008 (N = 137). Results suggest a general satisfaction with being in the fishery. However, a little over three-fifths of fishers said they would be willing to change fishing métier and about one-half said they would leave the occupation. About one-half also said they would not advise a young person to enter the occupation. The tendency to move away from the fishery is argued to reflect a growing pessimism about the future of the shrimp trawl fisheries, but also an increasing awareness of other economic opportunities.

  4. Bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Matthew C; Kastura, Mike; George, Robert; Bulman, Frank; Yarbrough, Jason; Cox, Sherry

    2011-06-01

    A description of bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia) for 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, and 10 g/L treatment baths is presented. Metronidazole was detected in adult brine shrimp tissue after enrichment periods of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, 8 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr. The assays were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. There was a positive relationship in both dose and time. When evaluating percent uptake, all three baths demonstrated a similar pattern. All three bath concentrations had a high initial concentration that fell at 30 min and slowly began to increase through the end of the study. Survival of shrimp was not affected by bath concentration but decreased over time in all treatment baths comparatively. It can be concluded that metronidazole can be successfully bioencapsulated in adult Artemia.

  5. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)]. E-mail: j.kennedy@gns.cri.nz; Mautner, M.N. [Soil, Plant and Ecological Sciences Division, Lincoln University (New Zealand) and Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8001 (New Zealand)]. E-mail: m.mautner@solis1.com; Barry, B. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Markwitz, A. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2007-07-15

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  6. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  7. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  8. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  9. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  10. Case Report: Juvenile Tophaceous Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Gunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disease that manifests as recurrent arthritis. Its incidance increases with age. Clinical findings include recurrent acute arthritis, tophus at joints and tissues, uricacid stones and gouty nephropathy. Tophi is a late period complication of arthritis. In this casereport we presented  a patient with early-onset juvenile tophaceous gout.

  11. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations....

  12. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  13. PERFORMANCES OF TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem plays an obvious role in maintaining the biological balance in the coastal environment where shrimp ponds are usually constructed. The removal of mangroves around shrimp ponds has frequently brought about harvest failure. The study evaluated the performance of tiger shrimp culture in ponds provided with water from a water body where there was mangrove vegetation (hereafter mangrove reservoir. Twelve ponds, each measuring 2,500 m2, were filled with seawater from the mangrove reservoir until the water depth of 100 cm and then stocked with 20-40 PL/m2. In the first six ponds, the bottom water was released into the reservoir when the water depth reached 140 cm and then the water depth was maintained at 100 cm. In the second six ponds, the water was released from the ponds until the water depth reached 60 cm and then refilled with reservoir water until a depth of 100 cm. Both treatment ponds received water from the reservoir which also received the wastewater. The feeds for the shrimps were broadcast into the ponds twice a day to meet the 3% shrimp biomass requirement, which adjusted every other week through sampling. The result showed that mangrove  vegetation is capable of removing excessive nutrients, up to 70% for NO3- N and NH4 +-N, reducing PO4 =-P fluctuation, and producing bioactive  compounds. In the second treatment ponds, shrimp mortality started to occur in day 28 and most died by day 54 after stocking due to white spot disease outbreak. Mass mortality took place 54 days after stocking in two out of six of the first treatment ponds.

  14. Loss of the tumour suppressor gene AIP mediates the browning of human brown fat tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Linda; Hansen, Nils; Saba, Karim H; Nilsson, Jenny; Fioretos, Thoas; Rissler, Pehr; Nord, Karolin H

    2017-10-01

    Human brown fat tumours (hibernomas) show concomitant loss of the tumour suppressor genes MEN1 and AIP. We hypothesized that the brown fat phenotype is attributable to these mutations. Accordingly, in this study, we demonstrate that silencing of AIP in human brown preadipocytic and white fat cell lines results in the induction of the brown fat marker UCP1. In human adipocytic tumours, loss of MEN1 was found both in white (one of 51 lipomas) and in brown fat tumours. In contrast, concurrent loss of AIP was always accompanied by a brown fat morphology. We conclude that this white-to-brown phenotype switch in brown fat tumours is mediated by the loss of AIP. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Structure of Brown Dwarf Circumstellar Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christina; Wood, Kenneth; Lada, C. J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Bjorkman, J. E.; Whitney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra for circumstellar disks that are heated by radiation from a central brown dwarf. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, our models yield scaleheights for brown dwarf disks in excess of three times those derived for classical T Tauri (CTTS) disks. If the near-IR excess emission observed from brown dwarfs is indeed due to circumstellar disks, then the large scaleheights we find could have a significant impact on the optical and near-IR detectabili...

  16. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  17. Biomechanics: deadly strike mechanism of a mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Korff, W L; Caldwell, R L

    2004-04-22

    Stomatopods (mantis shrimp) are well known for the feeding appendages they use to smash shells and impale fish. Here we show that the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus) generates an extremely fast strike that requires major energy storage and release, which we explain in terms of a saddle-shaped exoskeletal spring mechanism. High-speed images reveal the formation and collapse of vapour bubbles next to the prey due to swift movement of the appendage towards it, indicating that O. scyllarus may use destructive cavitation forces to damage its prey.

  18. Shrimp export from Bangladesh: Effect of war and trade liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sabur, S.A.; Palash, M S; Awal, M.A.; Rahman, K.T

    2010-01-01

    The study estimates the growth rates of frozen food, shrimp and total export, and instability of export earnings. The study evaluates the export marketing of frozen food; shrimp and fish by using time series aggregated data from the year of 1972-73 to 2005-06. The growth rates of frozen food were 44%, 11%, and 10% during post-war period (1972- 73 to 1982-83), pre-trade liberalization (1983-84 to 1992-93) and post-trade liberalization period (1993-94 to 2005-06) respectively. The export growth...

  19. Zircon SHRIMP dating of granite from Qaidamshan,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Zircon SHRIMP dating from Qaidamshan granite shows that the granite age is 446 Ma, similar to that of eclogite in the UHP belt. We think that both granite and eclogite may be formed at different stages during tectonic evolution of this area. Together with other studies we suggested that the collision of ocean and continent plates may occur at the early Caledonian in this area, forming the eclogite, and the collision of continent and continent plates at the late Caledonian, forming the Qaidamshan granite with the zircon SHRIMP age of 446 Ma.

  20. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  1. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced...... and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life...... of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora...

  2. The effects of a thermophile metabolite, tryptophol, upon protecting shrimp against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Jin, Min

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a shrimp pathogen responsible for significant economic loss in commercial shrimp farms and until now, there has been no effective approach to control this disease. In this study, tryptophol (indole-3-ethanol) was identified as a metabolite involved in bacteriophage-thermophile interactions. The dietary addition of tryptophol reduced the mortality in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus when orally challenged with WSSV. Our results revealed that 50 mg/kg tryptophol has a better protective effect in shrimp than 10 or 100 mg/kg tryptophol. WSSV copies in shrimp were reduced significantly (P < 0.01) when supplemented with 50 mg/kg tryptophol, indicating that virus replication was inhibited by tryptophol. Consequently, tryptophol represents an effective antiviral dietary supplement for shrimp, and thus holds significant promise as a novel and efficient therapeutic approach to control WSSV in shrimp aquaculture.

  3. The relative absorption of fatty acids in brown trout (Salmo trutta) fed a commercial extruded pellet coated with different lipid sources

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Valfré; Vittorio Maria Moretti; Federica Bellagamba; Fabio Caprino; Sara Panseri; Ivan Giani; Tiziana Mentasti; Giovanni Mario Turchini

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the fatty acid absorption capabilities of brown trout (Salmo trut- ta) fed commercial extruded diets. Five commercial extruded pellets, different only in the lipid sources used for fat coat- ing, were tested on juvenile brown trout for 45 days. The trout were reared in fresh water at 14.6 ± 0.4° C and 7.7 ± 0.3 mg/l, temperature and dissolved oxygen, respectively. The tested lipid sources were fish oil, canola oil, oleine...

  4. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  5. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  6. PLASMA PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Plotczyk, W.; Resztak, A.; A.; Szymanski

    1990-01-01

    The specific energy of the substrate is defined as the ratio of the plasma jet energy to the mass of the coal. The influence of the specific energy of the brown coal (10 - 35 MJ/kg) on the yield and selectivity of the gaseous products formation was determined. The pyrolysis was performed in d.c. arc hydrogen plasma jet with the 25 kW power delivered to it. The higher specific energies of coal correlated to the higher conversion degrees of the substrates to C2H2 and CO as well as to the higher...

  7. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  8. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  9. Molecule capture by olfactory antennules: mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Mark T; Mead, Kristina S; Koehl, Mimi A R

    2002-01-01

    A critical step in the process of olfaction is the movement of odorant molecules from the environment to the surface of a chemosensory structure. Many marine crustaceans capture odorant molecules with arrays of chemosensory sensilla (aesthetascs) on antennules that they flick through the water. We developed a model to calculate molecule flux to the surfaces of aesthetascs in order to study how the size, aesthetasc spacing, and flick kinematics of olfactory antennules affect their performance in capturing molecules from the surrounding water. Since the three-dimensional geometry of an aesthetasc-bearing antennule is complex, dynamically-scaled physical models can often provide an efficient method of determining the fluid velocity field through the array. Here we present a method to optimize the incorporation of such measured velocity vector fields into a numerical simulation of the advection and diffusion of odorants to aesthetasc surfaces. Furthermore, unlike earlier models of odorant interception by antennae, our model incorporates odorant concentration distributions that have been measured in turbulent ambient flows. By applying our model to the example of the olfactory antennules of mantis shrimp, we learned that flicking velocity can have profound effects on odorant flux to the aesthetascs if they operate in the speed range in which the leakiness of the gaps between the aesthetascs to fluid movement is sensitive to velocity. This sensitivity creates an asymmetry in molecule fluxes between outstroke and return stroke, which results in an antennule taking discrete samples in space and time, i.e. "sniffing". As stomatopods grow and their aesthetasc Reynolds number increases, the aesthetasc arrangement on the antennule changes in a way that maintains these asymmetries in leakiness and molecule flux between the outstroke and return stroke, allowing the individual to continue to take discrete samples as it develops.

  10. Field study of cyclic hypoxic effects on gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiandao; Brouwer, Marius

    2013-12-01

    Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, are widely used for ecological and toxicological research. They commonly experience cyclic hypoxia in their natural habitats. The response of grass shrimp to laboratory-controlled cyclic hypoxia has been studied in detail, but little is known about how field acclimatized grass shrimp regulate the gene expression and response to cyclic hypoxia. In this study we examined morphometric parameters, relative fecundity and gene expression of grass shrimp collected from two areas in Weeks Bay (Mobile, Alabama). One is a traditionally normoxic location (WBM), and the other is a traditionally cyclic hypoxic location (WC). In the week preceding grass shrimp collection dissolved oxygen (DO) at the field sites was measured continuously. DO was shrimp were significantly greater than weight and length of WC shrimp. WBM shrimp had more eggs than WC shrimp, but the difference was not significant. Shrimp from WC had a significant higher number of parasites than those from WBM. A cDNA microarray was utilized to investigate the changes in gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas. Five genes, previously identified as hypoxia/cyclic hypoxia-responsive genes in laboratory exposure studies, were significantly up-regulated in WC shrimp relative to WBM. A total of 5 genes were significantly down-regulated in the field study. Only one of those genes, vitellogenin, has been previously found in chronic and cyclic hypoxic studies. Up and down-regulation of 7 selected genes was confirmed by qPCR. The overall pattern of gene expression in wild shrimp from cyclic DO sites in Weeks Bay showed only weak correlations with gene expression in shrimp from chronic and cyclic hypoxic laboratory studies. It appears therefore that transcriptome profiles of laboratory acclimated animals are of limited utility for understanding responses in field acclimatized animals that are exposed to a broader array of environmental variables.

  11. Population structure of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862 (Crustacea: Penaeoidea in the littoral of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo H. Castro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The population structure of the penaeidean shrimp Xyphopenaeus kroyeri was studied in Ubatuba Bay, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The period and site of juvenile recruitment were monitored using a monthly sampling design with eight fixed areas (transects from September 1995 to August 1996. The population structure was assessed using size frequency distributions (based on carapace length for each month and sampling area. Females were significantly larger than males, suggesting a differential growth between sexes. The very low occurrence of large adults in the Bay can be related to offshore migration for reproduction. Recruitment occurred throughout the year, with a peak during the summer, when the highest recruitment rates were obtained along inshore transects. The present investigation revealed valuable information on the biology of the species mainly in the study region, which is considered a nursery ground for juveniles of X. kroyeri. The species showed an important variation from the typical life cycle that it is assumed to hold over its entire range and X. kroyeri should be classified as having a life cycle different from that proposed previously in the literature, i.e. the juveniles prefer inshore areas instead of estuaries. Some suggestions for the seabob fishery management are proposed as an alternative for minimising the impact during the harvest period and adjusting the protection schedule.

  12. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  13. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

  14. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  15. Optimization of carotenoids extraction from Penaeus semisulcatus shrimp wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gholamreza jahed Khaniki; Parisa Sadighara; Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi; Mahmood Alimohammadi; Naiema Vakili Saatloo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find effective method for carotenoids extraction from shrimp waste which is one of the important sources of natural carotenoids and produced in large quantities in Iran. Methods: Two methods of carotenoids extraction, enzymatic and alkaline (NaOH 1 normal) treatment, were assayed. About 5 g of gritted shrimp wastes were used at each stage. For alkaline treatment, sodium hydroxide were added to shrimp waste. After 48 h, the mixture was filtered and centrifuged.Results:Alcalase extraction produced (234.00±2.00) mg/L carotenoid and NaOH extraction produced (170.00±1.53) mg/L carotenoid. Based on the samples analyzed, alcalase enzyme showed more efficiency than NaOH extraction to achieve carotenoids from shrimp waste.Conclusions:It can be concluded that using alcalase enzyme for carotenoids extraction can produce higher carotenoids concentration than NaOH extraction method. So alcalase enzyme method can be used for achieving this kind of antioxidant.

  16. Multilevel analysis of elastic morphology: The mantis shrimp's spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, M V; Patek, S N

    2015-09-01

    Spring systems, whether natural or engineered, are composed of compliant and rigid regions. Biological springs are often similar to monolithic structures that distribute compliance and rigidity across the whole system. For example, to confer different amounts of compliance in distinct regions within a single structure, biological systems typically vary regional morphology through thickening or elongation. Here, we analyze the monolithic spring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) raptorial appendages to rapidly acquire or process prey. We quantified the shape of cross-sections of the merus segment of the raptorial appendage. We also examined specific regions of the merus that are hypothesized to either store elastic energy or provide structural support to permit energy storage in other regions of the system. We found that while all mantis shrimp contain thicker ventral bars in distal cross-sections, differences in thickness are more pronounced in high-impact "smasher" mantis shrimp than in the slower-striking "spearer" mantis shrimp. We also found that spearer cross-sections are more circular while those of smashers are more eccentric with elongation along the dorso-ventral axis. The results suggest that the regional thickening of ventral bars provides structural support for resisting spring compression and also reduces flexural stiffness along the system's long axis. This multilevel morphological analysis offers a foundation for understanding the evolution and mechanics of monolithic systems in biology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2013. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methodResults: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  18. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish...

  19. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2014. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  20. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria from shrimp farming in mangrove areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan Xuan; Munekage, Yukihiro; Kato, Shin-ichiro

    2005-10-15

    Shrimp farming is a sufficiently large and mature industry to have an effective range of antimicrobial agents for most bacterial diseases in shrimp culture. However, at present, there exists great concern over the widespread use of antibiotics in aquaculture, which may result in residue of antibiotics in water and mud, and subsequently, the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria in the environment. There is limited understanding about the effect of antibiotic residues on bacteria resistance in shrimp farming environment. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate bacterial resistance to Norfloxacin (NFXC), Oxolinic Acid (OXLA), Trimethoprim (TMP) and Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), which were found in four shrimp farming locations in mangrove areas in Vietnam. Findings indicate that there is a relatively high incidence of bacteria resistance to these antibiotics observed in most of the studied sites, particularly to antibiotics with concentration of 0.1 microg/ml. Yet the relation between concentration of antibiotic residues and incidence of antibiotic resistance is not clearly defined. Among individual antibiotics, the incidence of resistance to TMP and SMX was higher than the others. Identification of bacteria isolated from mud samples by DNA analyzer shows that Bacillus and Vibrio are predominant among bacteria resistant to the antibiotics. The result of the study also indicates that these antibiotics in media degraded more rapidly due to the presence of resistant bacteria.