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Sample records for juvenile american shad

  1. Food habits of Juvenile American Shad and dynamics of zooplankton in the lower Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, C.A.; Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    As many as 2.4 million adult American shad annually pass John Day Dam, Columbia River to spawn upriver, yet food web interactions of juvenile shad rearing in John Day Reservoir are unexplored. We collected zooplankton and conducted mid-water trawls in McNary (June-July) and John Day reservoirs (August-November) from 1994 through 1996 during the outmigration of subyearling American shad and Chinook salmon. Juvenile American shad were abundant and represented over 98% of the trawl catch in late summer. The five major taxa collected in zooplankton tows were Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia, cyclopoid cope-pods, rotifers, and calanoid copepods. We evaluated total crustacean zooplankton abundance and Daphnia biomass in relation to water temperature, flow, depth, diel period, and cross-sectional location using multiple regression. Differences in zooplankton abundance were largely due to differences in water temperature and flow. Spatial variation in total zooplankton abundance was observed in McNary Reservoir, but not in John Day Reservoir. Juvenile American shad generally fed on numerically abundant prey, despite being less preferred than larger bodied zooplankton. A decrease in cladoceran abundance and size in August coupled with large percentages of Daphnia in juvenile American shad stomachs indicated heavy planktivory. Smaller juvenile American shad primarily fed on Daphnia in August, but switched to more evasive copepods as the mean size of fish increased and Daphnia abundance declined. Because Daphnia are particularly important prey items for subyearling Chinook salmon in mainstem reservoirs in mid to late summer, alterations in the cladoceran food base is of concern for the management of outmigrating salmonids and other Columbia River fishes. ?? 2006 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Trophic interactions and consumption rates of subyearling Chinook Salmon and nonnative juvenile American Shad in Columbia River reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.; Beauchamp, David A.; Bollins, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    We used a large lampara seine coupled with nonlethal gastric lavage to examine the diets and estimate consumption rates of subyearling Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha during July and August 2013. During August we also examined the diet and consumption rates of juvenile American Shad Alosa sapidissima, a potential competitor of subyearling Chinook Salmon. Subyearling Chinook Salmon consumed Daphnia in July but switched to feeding on smaller juvenile American Shad in August. We captured no juvenile American Shad in July, but in August juvenile American Shad consumed cyclopoid and calanoid copepods. Stomach evacuation rates for subyearling Chinook Salmon were high during both sample periods (0.58 h−1 in July, 0.51 h−1 in August), and daily ration estimates were slightly higher than values reported in the literature for other subyearlings. By switching from planktivory to piscivory, subyearling Chinook Salmon gained greater growth opportunity. While past studies have shown that juvenile American Shad reduce zooplankton availability for Chinook Salmon subyearlings, our work indicates that they also become important prey after Daphnia abundance declines. The diet and consumption data here can be used in future bioenergetics modeling to estimate the growth of subyearling Chinook Salmon in lower Columbia River reservoirs.

  3. American shad in the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J.H.; Hinrichsen, R.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Feil, D.H.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima from the Hudson River, New York, were introduced into the Sacramento River, California, in 1871 and were first observed in the Columbia River in 1876. American shad returns to the Columbia River increased greatly between 1960 and 1990, and recently 2-4 million adults have been counted per year at Bonneville Dam, Oregon and Washington State (river kilometer 235). The total return of American shad is likely much higher than this dam count. Returning adults migrate as far as 600 km up the Columbia and Snake rivers, passing as many as eight large hydroelectric dams. Spawning occurs primarily in the lower river and in several large reservoirs. A small sample found returning adults were 2-6 years old and about one-third of adults were repeat spawners. Larval American shad are abundant in plankton and in the nearshore zone. Juvenile American shad occur throughout the water column during night, but school near the bottom or inshore during day. Juveniles consume a variety of zooplankton, but cyclopoid copepods were 86% of the diet by mass. Juveniles emigrate from the river from August through December. Annual exploitation of American shad by commercial and recreational fisheries combined is near 9% of the total count at Bonneville Dam. The success of American shad in the Columbia River is likely related to successful passage at dams, good spawning and rearing habitats, and low exploitation. The role of American shad within the aquatic community is poorly understood. We speculate that juveniles could alter the zooplankton community and may supplement the diet of resident predators. Data, however, are lacking or sparse in some areas, and more information is needed on the role of larval and juvenile American shad in the food web, factors limiting adult returns, ocean distribution of adults, and interactions between American shad and endangered or threatened salmonids throughout the river. ?? 2003 by the American Fisheries Society.

  4. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  5. Size and age distributions of Juvenile Connecticut River American shad above Hadley Falls: Influence on outmigration representation and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, M. J.; Letcher, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    Age- and size-based habitat use and movement patterns of young-of-year American shad in rivers are not well understood. Adult females reach their natal rivers at different times and ascend the river at different rates, which may lead to variation of hatch dates at a single location. Also, shad are serial spawners, so eggs of the same female may be released at different distances from the river mouth. It has long been hypothesized that juvenile shad emigration is a function of size or age, and not necessarily keyed only to a decrease in water temperature during the fall. We seined three sites in the Connecticut River biweekly to collect pre-migrant shad during river residence (spring to fall). During emigration, samples were also collected weekly at two hydroelectric facilities. Otoliths were removed from ???20% of the fish to obtain age and growth rate information. We found increases in length and age over time until late in the season, after which such increases were mostly insigniftlant. Cohorts collected early in the year as pre-migrants were never sampled as migrants later in the year at the hydroelectric projects. Cohorts collected late in the year as migrants were never collected earlier in the year as pre-migrants. Only during a narrow window of time were fish collected as both pre-migrants and migrants. Fish that were hatched later in the season exhibited higher growth rates than fish that were hatched earlier in the season. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of different salinities on growth performance, survival, digestive enzyme activity, immune response, and muscle fatty acid composition in juvenile American shad (Alosa sapidissima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Feng; Gao, Xiao-Qiang; Yu, Jiu-Xiang; Qian, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Qiao-Yun; Liu, Bao-Liang; Hong, Lei

    2017-06-01

    The effects of salinity on survival, growth, special activity of digestive enzymes, nonspecific immune response, and muscle fatty acid composition were evaluated in the American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Juveniles of 35 days after hatching were reared at 0 (control), 7, 14, 21, and 28 ppt for 60 days. At the end of the experiment, juvenile American shad presented higher survival and specific growth rate (SGR) in salinity group (7, 14, and 21 ppt) than control group (P fatty acids (MUFA) exhibited a decreasing trend, while an increased level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was detected with the increase of salinity. Among the PUFA, the content of n-3 fatty acids in muscle tissue was found to be increasing with the increasing salinity, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Results indicate that appropriate increase in salinity was reasonable and beneficial for juvenile American shad culture after a comprehensive consideration, especially salinity range from 14 to 21 ppt.

  7. Growth characteristics and Otolith analysis on Age-0 American Shad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Sally T.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Otolith microstructure analysis provides useful information on the growth history of fish (Campana and Jones 1992, Bang and Gronkjaer 2005). Microstructure analysis can be used to construct the size-at-age growth trajectory of fish, determine daily growth rates, and estimate hatch date and other ecologically important life history events (Campana and Jones 1992, Tonkin et al. 2008). This kind of information can be incorporated into bioenergetics modeling, providing necessary data for estimating prey consumption, and guiding the development of empirically-based modeling scenarios for hypothesis testing. For example, age-0 American shad co-occur with emigrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon originating from Hanford Reach and the Snake River in the lower Columbia River reservoirs during the summer and early fall. The diet of age-0 American shad appears to overlap with that of juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Chapter 1, this report), but juvenile fall Chinook salmon are also known to feed on age-0 American shad in the reservoirs (USGS unpublished data). Abundant, energy-dense age-0 American shad may provide juvenile fall Chinook salmon opportunities for rapid growth during the time period when large numbers of age-0 American shad are available. Otolith analysis of hatch dates and the growth curve of age-0 American shad could be used to identify when eggs, larvae, and juveniles of specific size classes are temporally available as food for fall Chinook salmon in the lower Columbia River reservoirs. This kind of temporally and spatially explicit life history information is important to include in bioenergetics modeling scenarios. Quantitative estimates of prey consumption could be used with spatially-explicit estimates of prey abundance to construct a quantitative assessment of the age-0 American shad impact on a reservoir food web.

  8. Growth characteristics and otolith analysis on age-0 American shad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Sally T.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Otolith microstructure analysis provides useful information on the growth history of fish (Campana and Jones 1992, Bang and Gronkjaer 2005). Microstructure analysis can be used to construct the size-at-age growth trajectory of fish, determine daily growth rates, and estimate hatch date and other ecologically important life history events (Campana and Jones 1992, Tonkin et al. 2008). This kind of information can be incorporated into bioenergetics modeling, providing necessary data for estimating prey consumption, and guiding the development of empirically-based modeling scenarios for hypothesis testing. For example, age-0 American shad co-occur with emigrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon originating from Hanford Reach and the Snake River in the lower Columbia River reservoirs during the summer and early fall. The diet of age-0 American shad appears to overlap with that of juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Chapter 1, this reoprt), but juvenile fall Chinook salmon are also known to feed on age-0 American shad in the reservoirs (USGS unpublished data). Abundant, energy-dense age-0 American shad may provide juvenile fall Chinook salmon opportunities for rapid growth during the time period when large number of age-0 American shad are available. Otolith analysis of hatch dates and the growth curve of age-0 American shad could be used to identify when eggs, larvae, and juveniles of specific size classes are temporally available as food for fall Chinook salmon in the lower Columbia River reservoirs. This kind of temporally and spatially explicit life history information is important to include in bioenergetics modeling scenarios. Quantitive estimates of prey consumption could be used with spatially-explicit estimates of prey abundance to construct a quantitative assessment of the age-0 American shad impact on a reservoir food web. Analysis of the age-0 American shad growth trajectory or individual growth records may show evidence of differential growth rates over time that may

  9. Migratory Patterns of American Shad (Alosa Sapidissima) Revealed by Natural Geochemical Tags in Otoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    200-201. Nolan, K., Grossfield, J., & Wirgin, I. 1991. Discrimination among Atlantic coast populations of American shad (A losa sapidissima) using...element signatures in otoliths record natal river of juvenile American shad (A losa sapidissima). Limnology and Oceanography 43: 1826-1835. Thorrold

  10. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Sally T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur.

  11. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Sally T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur. Bioenergetics modeling is particularly useful when research questions involve multiple species and trophic levels (e.g. plankton communities). Bioenergetics models are mass-balance equations where the energy acquired from food is partitioned between maintenance costs, waste products, and growth (Winberg 1956). Specifically, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model (Hanson et al. 1997) is widely used in fisheries science. Researchers have extensively tested, reviewed, and improved on this modeling approach for over 30 years (Petersen et al. 2008). Development of a bioenergetics model for any species requires three key components: 1) determine physiological parameters for the model through laboratory experiments or incorporate data from a closely related species, 2) corroboration of the model with growth and consumption estimates from independent research, and 3) error analysis of model parameters. Wisconsin bioenergetics models have been parameterized for many of the salmonids and

  12. FEEDING OF JUVENILE TWAITE SHAD (ALOSA FALLAX LACÉPÈDE, 1803 IN THE ELBE ESTUARY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OESMANN S.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal, diurnal and size-dependent trends of food composition, prey selection and daily ration of juvenile twaite shad were investigated in the Elbe estuary. Juvenile twaite shad were caught for diet analysis with framed gape stow nets in the mesohaline region of the Elbe estuary in April, July and August 1993. Copepods, mysids and fish were identified as main food items of juvenile twaite shad. In August, the importance of mysids and fish as main prey organisms increased with increasing total length of twaite shad, whereas the proportion of copepods decreased. During night fishes were consumed to a lesser extent than during day. Insects were mainly eaten during night. In the early morning copepods were main food items. Juvenile twaite shad preferred the mysidacean Mesopodopsis slabberi and the sprat Sprattus sprattus. Cladocerans were ingested corresponding to their availability, whereas all other food items were avoided. Daily ration according to WINBERG (1956 showed peak values in spring and summer and decreased during the following season. The maximum daily ration of about 45 % of body wet weight was calculated in May. Daily ration decreased with increasing age of juvenile twaite shad.

  13. Demographic population model for American shad: will access to additional habitat upstream of dams increase population sizes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline in their native range, and modeling possible management scenarios could help guide their restoration. We developed a density-dependent, deterministic, stage-based matrix model to predict the population-level results of transporting American shad to suitable spawning habitat upstream of dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia. We used data on sonic-tagged adult American shad and oxytetracycline-marked American shad fry both above and below dams on the Roanoke River with information from other systems to estimate a starting population size and vital rates. We modeled the adult female population over 30 years under plausible scenarios of adult transport, effective fecundity (egg production), and survival of adults (i.e., to return to spawn the next year) and juveniles (from spawned egg to age 1). We also evaluated the potential effects of increased survival for adults and juveniles. The adult female population size in the Roanoke River was estimated to be 5,224. With no transport, the model predicted a slow population increase over the next 30 years. Predicted population increases were highest when survival was improved during the first year of life. Transport was predicted to benefit the population only if high rates of effective fecundity and juvenile survival could be achieved. Currently, transported adults and young are less likely to successfully out-migrate than individuals below the dams, and the estimated adult population size is much smaller than either of two assumed values of carrying capacity for the lower river; therefore, transport is not predicted to help restore the stock under present conditions. Research on survival rates, density-dependent processes, and the impacts of structures to increase out-migration success would improve evaluation of the potential benefits of access to additional spawning habitat for American shad.

  14. This Letter is a Non-Technical Annual Report of Activities on Project 2007-275-00, Impact of American Shad for the Period February 1, 2008 through January 31, 2009.

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    Parsley, Michael J.

    2009-01-30

    This letter is a non-technical annual report of activities on Project 2007-275-00, Impact of American Shad for the period February 1, 2008 through January 31, 2009. A non-technical report is appropriate at this time since data collection is ongoing and results are preliminary. This report is intended to highlight accomplishments during this performance period. Progress on administrative work elements in the statement of work has been captured in the periodic status reports provided through Pisces. During this performance period the USGS accomplished the following tasks: (1) Co-chaired a symposium on American shad in the Columbia Basin at the annual meeting of the Western Division, American Fisheries Society. The USGS gave four presentations from work done during this project. Abstracts of the presentations were attached to the 2007 progress report. (2) Continued parameterization of a bioenergetics model for juvenile American shad. We performed a literature review to determine the applicability of the existing adult salmon bioenergetics parameters to juvenile fall Chinook salmon in support of our modeling investigation of diet overlap between juvenile American shad and fall Chinook salmon. We formulated testable hypotheses to investigate using bioenergetics models and conceptually developed model simulations. Held an in-house workshop to obtain feedback on the physiological parameters we selected for the American shad bioenergetics model and to solicit feedback on our modeling approach to address research questions. (3) Received a Section 10 ESA sampling permit based on the application submitted in the 2007 contract period. With the ESA permit in hand, we obtained scientific collection permits from the states of Washington and Oregon that allowed us to use a variety of fisheries sampling techniques to capture juvenile and adult American shad. (4) Conducted field sampling to meet project objectives. Gillnetting efforts to capture adult American shad near Astoria were

  15. Multibeam sonar (DIDSON) assessment of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) approaching a hydroelectric dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Ann B.; Bailey, Michael M.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the fish community approaching the Veazie Dam on the Penobscot River, Maine, prior to implementation of a major dam removal and river restoration project. Multibeam sonar (dual-frequency identification sonar, DIDSON) surveys were conducted continuously at the fishway entrance from May to July in 2011. A 5% subsample of DIDSON data contained 43 793 fish targets, the majority of which were of Excellent (15.7%) or Good (73.01%) observation quality. Excellent quality DIDSON targets (n = 6876) were apportioned by species using a Bayesian mixture model based on four known fork length distributions (river herring (alewife,Alosa psuedoharengus, and blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis), American shad, Alosa sapidissima) and two size classes (one sea-winter and multi-sea-winter) of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). 76.2% of targets were assigned to the American shad distribution; Atlantic salmon accounted for 15.64%, and river herring 8.16% of observed targets. Shad-sized (99.0%) and salmon-sized (99.3%) targets approached the fishway almost exclusively during the day, whereas river herring-sized targets were observed both during the day (51.1%) and at night (48.9%). This approach demonstrates how multibeam sonar imaging can be used to evaluate community composition and species-specific movement patterns in systems where there is little overlap in the length distributions of target species.

  16. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in american shad during their migration in the Hudson River, spring 1977.

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    Pastel, M; Bush, B; Kim, J S

    1980-06-01

    Fifty-two female American shad (Alosa sapidissima) were collected during the spring of 1977 at two sites on the lower Hudson River, 27 miles and 75 miles from the river mouth. The fish were extracted with hexane, and the extracts were analyzed by electron-capture gas chromatography (EC-GC) and by GC/mass spectrometry (MS), PCBs were quantitated by EC-GC, and the concentrations were compared by fish length and by site. Fish collected from the downstream site contained a mean PCB concentration of 2.0 +/- 1.0 microgram/g, wet weight; fish from the upstream site contained a mean PCB concentration of 6.1 +/- 2.6 microgram/g, wet weight. Aliquots of the hexane extracts were fractionated before analysis by GC/MS. The presence of PCBs was confirmed, and DDE and the alkane series from C22 through C26 were detected. American shad are saltwater fish that only enter fresh water to spawn. Because they do not feed in fresh water before spawning, they may be used as an indicator of water contamination.

  17. American shad migratory behavior, weight loss, survival, and abundance in a North Carolina River following dam removals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Joshua K.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive management and research, populations of American Shad Alosa sapidissima have experienced prolonged declines, and uncertainty about the underlying mechanisms causing these declines remains. In the springs of 2007 through 2010, we used a resistance board weir and PIT technology to capture, tag, and track American Shad in the Little River, North Carolina, a tributary to the Neuse River with complete and partial removals of low-head dams. Our objectives were to examine migratory behaviors and estimate weight loss, survival, and abundance during each spawning season. Males typically immigrated earlier than females and also used upstream habitat at a higher percentage, but otherwise exhibited relatively similar migratory patterns. Proportional weight loss displayed a strong positive relationship with both cumulative water temperature during residence time and number of days spent upstream, and to a lesser extent, minimum distance the fish traveled in the river. Surviving emigrating males lost up to 30% of their initial weight and females lost up to 50% of their initial weight, indicating there are potential survival thresholds. Survival for the spawning season was low and estimates ranged from 0.07 to 0.17; no distinct factors (e.g., sex, size, migration distance) that could contribute to survival were detected. Sampled and estimated American Shad abundance increased from 2007 through 2009, but was lower in 2010. Our study provides substantial new information about American Shad spawning that may aid restoration efforts.

  18. Regional variation in muscle metabolic enzymes in individual American shad (Alosa sapidissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J.B.K.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of the activity of metabolic enzymes is often used to asses metabolic capacity at the tissue level, but the amount of regional variability within a tissue in an individual fish of a given species is frequently unknown. The activities of four enzymes (citrate synthase (CS), phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ??-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) were assayed in red and white muscle at 10 sites along the body of adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Red and white muscle HOAD and white muscle CS and LDH varied significantly, generally increasing posteriorly. Maximal variation occurs in red muscle HOAD (~450%) and white muscle LDH (~60%) activity. Differences between the sexes also vary with sampling location. This study suggests that the variability in enzyme activity may be linked to functional differences in the muscle at different locations, and also provides guidelines for sample collection in this species.

  19. An integrative study of larval organogenesis of American shad Alosa sapidissima in histological aspects

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    Gao, Xiaoqiang; Hong, Lei; Liu, Zhifeng; Guo, Zhenglong; Wang, Yaohui; Lei, Jilin

    2016-01-01

    We describe organogenesis at a histological level in American shad ( Alosa sapidissima) larvae from 0 until 45 days after hatching (DAH). Larval development was divided into four stages based on the feeding mode, external morphological features, and structural changes in the organs: stage 1 (0-2 DAH), stage 2 (3-5 DAH), stage 3 (6-26 DAH) and stage 4 (27-45 DAH). At early stage 2 (3 DAH), American shad larvae developed the initial digestive and absorptive tissues, including the mouth and anal opening, buccopharyngeal cavity, oesophagus, incipient stomach, anterior and posterior intestine, differentiated hepatocytes, and exocrine pancreas. The digestive and absorptive capacity developed further in stages 2 to 3, at which time the pharyngeal teeth, taste buds, gut mucosa folds, differentiated stomach, and gastric glands could be observed. Four defined compartments were discernible in the heart at 4 DAH. From 3 to 13 DAH, the excretory systems started to develop, accompanied by urinary bladder opening, the appearance and development of primordial pronephros, and the proliferation and convolution of renal tubules. Primordial gills were detected at 2 DAH, the pseudobranch was visible at 6 DAH, and the filaments and lamellae proliferated rapidly during stage 3. The primordial swim bladder was first observed at 2 DAH and started to inflate at 9 DAH; from then on, it expanded constantly. The spleen was first observed at 8 DAH and the thymus was evident at 12 DAH. From stage 4 onwards, most organs essentially manifested an increase in size, number, and complexity of tissue structure.

  20. Identification of American shad spawning sites and habitat use in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined spawning site selection and habitat use by American shad Alosa sapidissima in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina, to inform future management in this flow-regulated river. American shad eggs were collected in plankton tows, and the origin (spawning site) of each egg was estimated; relocations of radio-tagged adults on spawning grounds illustrated habitat use and movement in relation to changes in water discharge rates. Most spawning was estimated to occur in the Piedmont physiographic region within a 25-river-kilometer (rkm) section just below the lowermost dam in the system; however, some spawning also occurred downstream in the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region has a higher gradient and is predicted to have slightly higher current velocities and shallower depths, on average, than the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region is dominated by large substrates (e.g., boulders and gravel), whereas the Coastal Plain is dominated by sand. Sampling at night (the primary spawning period) resulted in the collection of young eggs (≤1.5 h old) that more precisely identified the spawning sites. In the Piedmont region, most radio-tagged American shad remained in discrete areas (average linear range = 3.6 rkm) during the spawning season and generally occupied water velocities between 0.20 and 0.69 m/s, depths between 1.0 and 2.9 m, and substrates dominated by boulder or bedrock and gravel. Tagged adults made only small-scale movements with changes in water discharge rates. Our results demonstrate that the upstream extent of migration and an area of concentrated spawning occur just below the lowermost dam. If upstream areas have similar habitat, facilitating upstream access for American shad could increase the spawning habitat available and increase the population's size.

  1. Modeling migratory energetics of Connecticut River American shad (Alosa sapidissima): implications for the conservation of an iteroparous anadromous fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2010-01-01

    We present a simulation model in which individual adult migrant American shad (Alosa sapidissima) ascend the Connecticut River and spawn, and survivors return to the marine environment. Our approach synthesizes bioenergetics, reproductive biology, and behavior to estimate the effects of migratory distance and delays incurred at dams on spawning success and survival. We quantified both the magnitude of effects and the consequences of uncertainty in the estimates of input variables. Behavior, physiology, and energetics strongly affected both the distribution of spawning effort and survival to the marine environment. Delays to both upstream and downstream movements had dramatic effects on spawning success, determining total fecundity and spatial extent of spawning. Delays, combined with cues for migratory reversal, also determined the likelihood of survival. Spawning was concentrated in the immediate vicinity of dams and increased with greater migratory distance and delays to downstream migration. More research is needed on reproductive biology, behavior, energetics, and barrier effects to adequately understand the interplay of the various components of this model; it does provide a framework, however, that suggests that provision of upstream passage at dams in the absence of expeditious downstream passage may increase spawning success — but at the expense of reduced iteroparity. 

  2. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  3. Spawning migration and population condition of Twaite Shad (Alosa fallax, Lacépède 1803 in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svajūnas Stankus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Basic biological information for a twaite shad population (Alosa fallax, Lacépède 1803 is presented based on a 2-year study involving 273 adult and 18 juveniles specimens. The fish were caught in the Curonian lagoon and coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. At the end of July, 2004 was observed intensive and record late spawning of the twaite shad. At the end of May, 2005 was observed the beginning of spawning migration of this fish. Twaite shad was one of the key fish species caught with 38-50 mm mesh size nets at the material sampling location. The CPUE in different mesh size gill nets fluctuated from 2.7 to 32 individuals. In the spawning shoal male individuals were predominant. The standard body length of twaite shad females varied from 322 to 430 mm. The standard body length of males varied from 280 to 390 mm. Twaite shad ranged from 2+ to 9+ years, but the majority were from 4+ to 7+ years. Females exhibited higher CF and GSI values than males. Young fish were caught at 7 stations out of 17, although their abundance was not high. Besides the twaite shad, there were juveniles of 18 more fish species caught in the coastal zone.

  4. Crocodylus acutus (American Crocodile). Long distance juvenile movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Rafael; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Mazzotti, Frank; Cherkiss, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Crocodylus acutus (American Crocodile) is the most widely distributed New World crocodilian species with its range extending from Peru in the south to the southern tip of peninsular Florida in the north. Crocodylus acutus occupies primarily coastal brackish water habitat, however it also occurs in freshwater to hypersaline habitats (Thorbjarnarson 2010. In Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. [Third Edition], American Crocodile Crocodylus acutus, pp. 46–53 S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group, Darwin). There is limited literature on long distance movements of juvenile crocodilians worldwide and no literature on juvenile crocodiles in Florida. However, adult C. acutus in Florida have been documented to make seasonal movements of 5–15 km from preferred foraging habitat to nesting beaches (Mazzotti 1983. The Ecology of Crocodylus acutus in Florida. PhD Dissertation. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania. 161pp), and one adult was documented making a 35 km trip from her nest site to preferred foraging habitat (Cherkiss et. al. 2006. Herpetol. Rev. 38:72–73). Rodda (1984. Herpetologica 40:444–451) reported on juvenile C. acutus movement in Gatun Lake, Panama, and found that juveniles stayed within 1 km of their nest site for the first month. Movements of juvenile Crocodylus porosus (Saltwater Crocodile) in a river system in Northern Australia showed a maximum movement of 38.9 km from a known nest site, with the majority of the crocodiles staying within 15.6 km downstream to 6.8 km upstream (Webb and Messel 1978. Aust. Wildlife Res. 5:263–283). Juvenile movement of Crocodylus niloticus (Nile Crocodile) in Lake Ngezi, Zimbabwe showed crocodiles restricted their movements from 1.0 km up to 4.5 km through the wet and dry seasons (Hutton 1989. Am. Zool. 29:1033–1049). Long distance movements of alligators were recorded for sizes ranging from 28 cm to 361 cm in a coastal refuge in Louisiana, where

  5. Retention and effects of miniature transmitters in juvenile American eels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Janak, Jill; Liss, Stephanie A.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Harnish, Ryan A.

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of a non-functional acoustic micro transmitter (tag) on survival, tag loss, and swimming ability of juvenile American eels (Anguilla rostrata). The transmitter was designed for implantation through a < 3 mm opening into the body cavity of anguilliform fishes without the need for sutures. American eels used for the swimming performance study were 113–175 mm (N = 120). There were two treatment groups (tagged and non-tagged), each treatment was split into six size groups of 10 mm for testing. Potential transmitter effects on swimming performance were examined by comparing critical swimming speeds (Ucrit an index of prolonged swimming performance) for tagged and non-tagged eels. There was no significant difference in Ucrit between tagged and non-tagged eels for all of the size groups tested. Median Ucrits for tagged eels ranged from 50.2 cm/s for the smallest group tested (113–119 mm) to 63.9 cm/s for fish 141–150 mm in length. Non-tagged group median Ucrits ranged from 47.2 cm/s for the smallest group to 66.9 cm/s for the 141–150 mm group. An additional 26 eels (115–208 mm) were tagged and held for 38 d (without undergoing swimming performance tests) to determine the effects on survival and tag loss. There was no mortality during the holding period and the majority of the tag loss occurred after 20 days post-tagging, which is the current projected life of the tag. Our results indicate that micro acoustic tags can be successfully implanted in juvenile American eels with no apparent impacts to swimming ability, and would be a viable option for examining eel movement patterns in river systems and near hydroelectric facilities.

  6. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  7. American juvenile justice system: history in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Aaron; Segal, Roland; Boden, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The original theory behind separating juvenile offenders from adult offenders was to provide care and direction for youngsters instead of isolation and punishment. This idea took hold in the 19th century and became mainstream by the early 20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, public concern grew because of a perceived lack of effectiveness and lack of rights. The Supreme Court made a series of rulings solidifying juvenile rights including the right to receive notice of charges, the right to have an attorney and the right to have charges proven beyond a reasonable doubt. In the 1980s, the public view was that the juvenile court system was too lenient and that juvenile crimes were on the rise. In the 1990s, many states passed punitive laws, including mandatory sentencing and blanket transfers to adult courts for certain crimes. As a result, the pendulum is now swinging back toward the middle from rehabilitation toward punishment.

  8. HYDROCEPHALUS IN THREE JUVENILE NORTH AMERICAN BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sylvia H; Novak, Janelle; Hecht, Silke; Craig, Linden E

    2016-06-01

    Hydrocephalus has been reported in a variety of species, including the North American black bear ( Ursus americanus ). This report describes three cases of hydrocephalus in this species from wild bears aged 3-4 mo considered retrospectively from necropsy records of one institution. Clinical signs included cortical blindness and ataxia. Primary gross findings were doming of the skull, gyri compression and flattening, and lateral ventricle dilation. Two cases had severe bilateral ventricular dilation with loss of the septum pellucidum; atrophy of the surrounding corpus callosum; and bilateral periventricular tears involving the caudate nuclei, internal capsule, and adjacent cerebrum. Histologically, the cases with periventricular tearing had severe axonal loss and degeneration, malacia, hemorrhage, and variable periventricular astrocytosis. All cases were likely congenital, given the bears' age and lack of an apparent acquired obstruction.

  9. Blood and Plasma Biochemistry Reference Intervals for Wild Juvenile American Alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew T; Kupar, Caitlin A; Kelley, Meghan D; Finger, John W; Tuberville, Tracey D

    2016-07-01

    : American alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ) are one of the most studied crocodilian species in the world, yet blood and plasma biochemistry information is limited for juvenile alligators in their northern range, where individuals may be exposed to extreme abiotic and biotic stressors. We collected blood samples over a 2-yr period from 37 juvenile alligators in May, June, and July to establish reference intervals for 22 blood and plasma analytes. We observed no effect of either sex or blood collection time on any analyte investigated. However, our results indicate a significant correlation between a calculated body condition index and aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Glucose, total protein, and potassium varied significantly between sampling sessions. In addition, glucose and potassium were highly correlated between the two point-of-care devices used, although they were significantly lower with the i-STAT 1 CG8+ cartridge than with the Vetscan VS2 Avian/Reptile Rotor. The reference intervals presented herein should provide baseline data for evaluating wild juvenile alligators in the northern portion of their range.

  10. Resting metabolic rate and heat increment of feeding in juvenile South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassis, M; Rodríguez, D H; Ieno, E N; Denuncio, P E; Loureiro, J; Davis, R W

    2014-02-01

    Bio-energetic models used to characterize an animal's energy budget require the accurate estimate of different variables such as the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the heat increment of feeding (HIF). In this study, we estimated the in air RMR of wild juvenile South American fur seals (SAFS; Arctocephalus australis) temporarily held in captivity by measuring oxygen consumption while at rest in a postabsorptive condition. HIF, which is an increase in metabolic rate associated with digestion, assimilation and nutrient interconversion, was estimated as the difference in resting metabolic rate between the postabsorptive condition and the first 3.5h postprandial. As data were hierarchically structured, linear mixed effect models were used to compare RMR measures under both physiological conditions. Results indicated a significant increase (61%) for the postprandial RMR compared to the postabsorptive condition, estimated at 17.93±1.84 and 11.15±1.91mL O2 min(-1)kg(-1), respectively. These values constitute the first estimation of RMR and HIF in this species, and should be considered in the energy budgets for juvenile SAFS foraging at-sea.

  11. Migration behaviour of twaite shad Alosa fallax assessed by otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magath, V; Marohn, L; Fietzke, J; Frische, M; Thiel, R; Dierking, J

    2013-06-01

    Individual migration behaviour during the juvenile and adult life phase of the anadromous twaite shad Alosa fallax in the Elbe estuary was examined using otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca profiles. Between hatching and the end of the first year of life, juveniles showed two migration patterns. Pattern one exhibited a single downstream migration from fresh water to the sea with no return into fresh water. In contrast, pattern two showed a first migration into the sea, then a return into fresh water and, finally, a second downstream migration into marine water. This first report of migration plasticity for A. fallax points to different exposure times to estuarine threats depending on the migration strategy. In adults, high Sr:Ca and low Ba:Ca in the majority of individuals confirmed prior reports of a primarily marine habitat use. Patterns reflecting spawning migrations were rarely observed on otoliths, possibly due to the short duration of visits to fresh water.

  12. Donor life stage influences juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata attraction to conspecific chemical cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Schmucker, Andrew K.; Johnson, Nicholas; Hansen, Michael J.; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential role of conspecific chemical cues in inland juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata migrations by assessing glass eel and 1 year old elver affinities to elver washings, and elver affinity to adult yellow eel washings. In two-choice maze assays, glass eels were attracted to elver washings, but elvers were neither attracted to nor repulsed by multiple concentrations of elver washings or to yellow eel washings. These results suggest that A. rostrata responses to chemical cues may be life-stage dependent and that glass eels moving inland may use the odour of the previous year class as information to guide migration. The role of chemical cues and olfaction in eel migrations warrants further investigation as a potential restoration tool.

  13. ALTERATIONS IN SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TESTOSTERONE IN JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to determine whether hepatic biotransformation of testosterone is normally sexually dimorphic in juvenile alligators and whether living in a contaminated environment affects hepatic dimorphism. Lake Woodruff served as our reference site. Moonshine Bay, ...

  14. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  15. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  16. Status of the Shad and Metcalfe Island Rookery at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of the nesting successes at Rookeries on Shad Island and Metcalfe Island at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 2006. The report also provides a...

  17. Status of the Shad and Metcalfe Island Rookery at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the sixth year of detailed studies conducted at the Great Blue Heron Rookery on Shad and Metcalfe Islands located within the Missisquoi National Wildlife...

  18. Understanding the influence of predation on introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Late summer and fall diet and condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in the middle Columbia River, USA. Interim Report of Research 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Weaver,; Ayers,; Van Dyke, Erick S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima in the middle Columbia River (MCR)—a high energy food available in the summer and fall—may be contributing to the increased growth and enhanced condition of nonnative piscivores. To test this hypothesis we quantified the late summer and autumn diets of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the three lowermost reservoirs on the Columbia River (Bonneville [BON], The Dalles [TDA], and John Day [JDA]). The diet of smallmouth bass (SMB) was fairly similar among reservoirs, with crustaceans (52–82%) and fish (13–38%) being the dominant prey groups by percent mass. Cottidae were usually the dominant fish prey in the diet of SMB at all areas and the contribution of juvenile shad ranged from 0–8.2%. Fish (mostly Cyprinidae and Cottidae) were always the dominant prey item for walleye (WAL) at all areas and at all times, ranging from 70–100% of their diet by mass. Juvenile American shad composed from 10–27% (by mass) of the diet of walleye, depending on area and month. For channel catfish (CHC), the most common prey items consumed were crustaceans (20%–80% by mass) and unidentified items (30%–80%). Fish represented a relatively small component (< 4%) of their diet. We also evaluated the condition of SMB and WAL by determining relative weights (Wr) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI). Mean Wr for SMB greater than 300 mm ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 depending on area and month and showed a significant increase from August to September for fish in BON only. Overall, mean Wr of WAL was similar at all areas, ranging from 0.89–0.91, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish in TDA only. Overall, mean HSI of SMB ranged from 1.18 to 1.48, did not differ between fish in different reservoirs, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish from the lower JDA only. Mean HSI of WAL was significantly higher in

  19. American Academy of Pediatrics: Health care for children and adolescents in the juvenile correctional care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the population of juvenile offenders in the United States. Juveniles detained or confined in correctional care facilities have been shown to have numerous health problems. Such conditions may have existed before incarceration; may be closely associated with legal problems; may have resulted from parental neglect, mental health disorders, or physical, drug, or sexual abuse; or may develop within the institutional environment. Delinquent youths are often disenfranchised from traditional health care services in the community. For these adolescents, health care provided through correctional services may be their major source of health services. Pediatricians and correctional health care systems have an opportunity and responsibility to help improve the health of this underserved and vulnerable group of adolescents.

  20. Field Grow-out of Juvenile American Lobsters in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Early benthic stage American lobsters, Homarus americanus, were held in a pilot nursery system in Long Island Sound (LIS) to test field grow-out, as a step toward...

  1. OCCURRENCE OF AGONE ALOSA AGONE IN LAKE SHKODRA, ALBANIA IN SYMPATRY WITH TWAITE SHAD ALOSA FALLAX NILOTICA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAKAJ N.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Twaite shad, Alosa fallax nilotica occurs in Lake Shkodra (Albania in sympatry with Agone Alosa agone. Differences in morpho-meristic variables, in the biology and the ecology of the two species are presented and potential explanations for the occurrence of these shad populations in sympatry are discussed.

  2. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  3. Persistent maternal effects on juvenile survival in North American red squirrels

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Tricia D; Boutin, Stan; Jalene M. LaMontagne; McAdam, Andrew G; Humphries, Murray M.

    2007-01-01

    Maternal effects can have lasting fitness consequences for offspring, but these effects are often difficult to disentangle from associated responses in offspring traits. We studied persistent maternal effects on offspring survival in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) by manipulating maternal nutrition without altering the post-emergent nutritional environment experienced by offspring. This was accomplished by providing supplemental food to reproductive females over winter...

  4. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  5. Bunch yield of interspecific hybrids of American oil palm with oil palm in the juvenile phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Alberto Gomes Junior

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify superior genotypes, 42 progenies of interspecific hybrids between American oil palm and oil palm were evaluated in an area with incidence of bud rot. The following variables were assessed: total bunch yield (TBY, number of bunches (NB and mean bunch weight (MBW from the third to the sixth year of cultivation and estimates of genetic parameters obtained by REML/BLUP procedures. High heritability values of the evaluated traits were observed. The gain estimates for TBY were 14.49% for the selection of the five best progenies and 33.36% for the selection of the five best trees, considering multiplication by cloning. A medium correlation was observed between TBY and NB (r2 = 0.33±0.021, a high correlation between TBY and MBW (r2 = 0.53±0.019 and a negative high correlation between NB and MBW (r2 = –0.60±0.018. The results indicate a high expectation of gains with selection for TBY.

  6. Histamine Formation in a Dry Salted Twaite Shad ( Alosa fallax lacustris ) Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconi, Mauro; Bellagamba, Federica; Bernardi, Cristian; Martino, Piera Anna; Moretti, Vittorio Maria

    2017-01-01

    Landlocked shad is a freshwater clupeid fish ( Alosa fallax lacustris ) whose consumption is associated with the risk of scombrotoxin poisoning. Traditionally, fresh shad are subjected to an artisanal processing procedure, consisting of dry salting and maturation under pressure, to give a fish product named missoltino , which is stored in large metallic barrels and is sold to local consumers and restaurants. In recent years, the introduction of modern food packaging technologies has enabled this product to also be distributed in shops and supermarkets. Consequently, the determination of the safety of this product is an urgent issue. The aims of the present research were to measure histamine levels and histamine-forming bacteria in shad products collected at different phases of preparation and ripening, in order to minimize poison hazards, to provide technical information about risk, and to standardize the production process. One hundred twenty-six samples of shad (21 fresh fish and 105 dried) at different phases of preparation and ripening were collected from seven producers and were analyzed for chemical composition, histamine content, and microbiological properties. After 130 days of ripening, samples from three producers presented unacceptable amounts of histamine (>200 mg/kg), according to European Union legislation. A moderate negative correlation was found between histamine levels and salt content (r =-0.504, P fish handling and storage conditions during processing.

  7. Temporal habitat suitability modeling of Caspian shad (Alosa spp. in the southern Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haghi Vayghan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To comprehensively manage an ecosystem such as that of the Caspian Sea, the world’s largest lake, detailed knowledge of the habitat traits of the living organisms in the ecosystem is essential. The present study examined environmental variables and used the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model to determine the most preferred seasonal habitat and optimal environmental range of Caspian shad (Alosa spp. The fish preferred deep waters with low levels of total organic matter and sea level anomaly in winter and productive areas with a high concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chla and relatively high benthos biomass in spring. The number per unit area (NPUA-based HSI model determined that the geometric mean model (GMM was the optimal model for defining a suitable habitat in winter. For spring, the arithmetic mean model (or GMM in the NPUA-based HSI model most accurately predicted preferred habitat for Caspian shad. The average NPUA in both seasons increased with the HSI; areas with an HSI of between 0.4 and 0.6 in spring and between 0.6 and 0.8 in winter had a high percentage of total catch. Areas with an HSI of more than 0.5 had over 91% and 63% of the total catch in spring and winter, respectively, demonstrating the reliability of the NPUA-based HSI model in predicting Caspian shad habitat. The present study shows that remotely sensed data plus depth are the most critical environmental variables in Caspian shad habitats and that Chla and SLA are the most critical remotely sensed parameters for near real-time prediction of Caspian shad habitat.

  8. A Study of Behavior and Nest Distribution in the Shad Island Rookery Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Shad Island is one of the largest Great Blue Heron rookeries on Lake Champlain. Recent concern about the effects of invading Double-crested Cormorants has prompted...

  9. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  10. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  11. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  12. Macroparasites of allis shad (Alosa alosa) and twaite shad (Alosa fallax) of the Western Iberian Peninsula Rivers: ecological, phylogenetic and zoonotic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, M; Roura, A; Mota, M; Nachón, D J; Antunes, C; Cobo, F; MacKenzie, K; Pascual, S

    2015-10-01

    Samples of anadromous Alosa alosa (Clupeidae) (n = 163) and Alosa fallax (Clupeidae) (n = 223), caught in Western Iberian Peninsula Rivers from 2008 to 2013, were examined for buccal, branchial and internal macroparasites, which were identified using morphological and molecular methods. Alosa alosa were infected with Anisakis simplex s.s., Anisakis pegreffii, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Rhadinorhynchus pristis, Mazocraes alosae, Hemiurus appendiculatus, Ceratothoa italica and an unidentified ergasilid copepod. Ceratothoa italica represents a new host record for A. alosa. Alosa fallax were infected with A. simplex s.s., A. pegreffii, H. aduncum, H. appendiculatus, Clavellisa emarginata and an unidentified cymothoid isopod. This is the first report of C. italica, C. emarginata and M. alosae in the Iberian Peninsula. The phylogenetic positions of M. alosae, H. appendiculatus and C. emarginata were assessed using 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA); our contributions provide a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within their groups. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the parasite faunas of these two shad species are consistent with different feeding strategies. The results provide information about host migration behaviour and transmission pathways through diet during the marine trophic phase of the shad's life cycle and their roles as paratenic or final hosts and transporters of parasites between seawater and freshwater environments. The zoonotic parasites A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii pose a risk for consumers or riverine mammals (e.g. European otter). The use of parasites as biological tags for shad stocks in Western Iberian Rivers could be a useful approach in multidisciplinary studies concerning fish stock delimitation and characterization.

  13. Anisakis infection in allis shad, Alosa alosa (Linnaeus, 1758), and twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), from Western Iberian Peninsula Rivers: zoonotic and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, M; Mota, M; Nachón, D J; Antunes, C; Cobo, F; Garci, M E; Pierce, G J; Pascual, S

    2015-06-01

    Spawning individuals of allis shad, Alosa alosa (Linnaeus, 1758), and twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), were sampled from three rivers on the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula (Ulla, Minho, Mondego) during 2008 to 2013 to assess the presence of the zoonotic marine parasite Anisakis spp. larvae. The results revealed that both shad species were infected by third-larval stage Anisakis simplex s.s. and Anisakis pegreffii. The latter is reported in mixed infections in both shad species of Western Iberian Peninsula for the first time. In A. alosa, the prevalence of Anisakis infection can reach 100%, while in A. fallax, prevalence was up to 83%. Infected individuals of the former species also often contain much higher number of parasites in theirs internal organs and flesh: from 1 to 1138 Anisakis spp. larvae as compared to 1 to 121 larvae, respectively. In general, numbers of A. pegreffii were higher than those of A. simplex s.s. Our results suggest that in the marine environment of the Western Iberian Peninsula, both anadromous shad species act as paratenic hosts for A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii, thus widening the distribution of the infective nematode larvae from the marine to the freshwater ecosystem. This finding is of great epidemiological relevance for wildlife managers and consumers, considering the zoonotic and gastroallergic threats posed of these parasites.

  14. A species-to-be? The genetic status and colonization history of the critically endangered Killarney shad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, Ilaria; McDevitt, Allan D; King, James J; Roche, William K; McLoughlin, Carol; Mariani, Stefano

    2013-12-01

    Typically anadromous, the twaite shad (Alosa fallax) can become landlocked and adapt to a fully freshwater life. The only landlocked shad population in Northwestern Europe is found in a lake in Ireland, Lough Leane. The Killarney shad, Alosa killarnensis (or Alosa fallax killarnensis, as it is mostly referred to) displays a level of morphological divergence that indicates a long-term isolation in the lake. Microsatellites and mtDNA control region sequences were used within a coalescent framework (BEAST and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC)) to investigate its colonization history and to clarify its taxonomic status. Results indicate that the lake was likely colonized in two independent events, the first coinciding with the retreat of the ice sheet from the area after the Last Glacial Maximum and the second after the Younger Dryas. Microsatellite data has shown that these two landlocked lineages have completely admixed within the lake, and have started diverging significantly from their closest ancestor, the twaite shad. We argue that our molecular results (together with the life-history and physiological divergence between Killarney and twaite shad) are conspicuous enough to view the landlocked population as a new species, and one whose future existence would certainly not be insured by its sister taxon.

  15. When a relationship is imperative, will young women knowingly place their sexual health at risk? A sample of African American adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiford, Jerris L; Seth, Puja; Fasula, Amy M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2017-04-27

    Background: HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (HIV/STIs) are significant contributors to adolescent girls' morbidity in the US. Risks for HIV/STIs are increased among adolescent girls involved in the juvenile justice system, and African American adolescent girls comprise nearly 50% of adolescent girls in detention centres. Although HIV prevention programs focus on HIV/STI knowledge, increased knowledge may not be sufficient to reduce sexual risk. The present study examined the interactive effects of HIV/STI knowledge and the importance of being in a relationship (a relationship imperative) on sexual risk behaviours in a sample of detained African American adolescent girls. Methods: In all, 188 African American adolescent girls, 13-17 years of age, were recruited from a short-term detention facility in Atlanta, Georgia, and completed assessments on sexual risk behaviours, relationship characteristics, HIV/STI knowledge and several psychosocial risk factors. Results: When girls endorsed a relationship imperative, higher HIV/STI knowledge was associated with low partner communication self-efficacy, inconsistent condom use and unprotected sex, when controlling for demographics and self-esteem. Conclusions: Young girls with high HIV/STI knowledge may have placed themselves at risk for HIV/STIs given the importance and value they place on being in a relationship. Contextual factors should be considered when developing interventions.

  16. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  17. Climate change and the green energy paradox: the consequences for twaite shad Alosa fallax from the River Severn, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprahamian, M W; Aprahamian, C D; Knights, A M

    2010-11-01

    A stock-recruitment model with a temperature component was used to estimate the effect of an increase in temperature predicted by climate change projections on population persistence and distribution of twaite shad Alosa fallax. An increase of 1 and 2° C above the current mean summer (June to August) water temperature of 17·8° C was estimated to result in a three and six-fold increase in the population, respectively. Climate change is also predicted to result in an earlier commencement to their spawning migration into fresh water. The model was expanded to investigate the effect of any additional mortality that might arise from a tidal power barrage across the Severn Estuary. Turbine mortality was separated into two components: (1) juvenile (pre-maturation) on their out migration during their first year and on their first return to the river to spawn and (2) post-maturation mortality on adults on the repeat spawning component of the population. Under current conditions, decreasing pre-maturation and post-maturation survival by 8% is estimated to result in the stock becoming extinct. It is estimated that an increase in mean summer water temperature of 1° C would mean that survival pre and post-maturation would need to be reduced by c. 10% before the stock becomes extinct. Therefore, climate change is likely to be beneficial to populations of A. fallax within U.K. rivers, increasing survival and thus, population persistence.

  18. USE OF RIVER HABITAT SURVEY TO DETERMINE THE SPAWNING HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS OF TWAITE SHAD (ALOSA FALLAX FALLAX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CASWELL P. A.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The spawning habitat of twaite shad comprises a fast-flowing shallow area of unconsolidated gravel/pebble and/or cobble substrate. The River Habitat Survey flow types « smooth flow », « rippled flow » and « unbroken standing waves » were significantly (P < 0.05 associated with the presence or absence of shad eggs. The presence of eggs was significantly associated with the higher energy flow types « rippled flow » and « unbroken standing waves », and the absence of eggs was significantly associated with the lower energy flow type « smooth flow ».

  19. USE OF RIVER HABITAT SURVEY TO DETERMINE THE SPAWNING HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS OF TWAITE SHAD (ALOSA FALLAX FALLAX).

    OpenAIRE

    CASWELL P. A.; Aprahamian, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    The spawning habitat of twaite shad comprises a fast-flowing shallow area of unconsolidated gravel/pebble and/or cobble substrate. The River Habitat Survey flow types « smooth flow », « rippled flow » and « unbroken standing waves » were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with the presence or absence of shad eggs. The presence of eggs was significantly associated with the higher energy flow types « rippled flow » and « unbroken standing waves », and the absence of eggs was significantly asso...

  20. The relationship between haematocrit and some biological parameters of the Indian shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Family Clupeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad, L. A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemathological parameters have been recognised as valuable tools for the monitoring of fish health. Here we analyse the relationship between haematocrit and body length, sex and reproductive state in the Indian Shad Tenualosa ilisha. Haematocrit value showed a quadratic relationship to fish size (body length, incrementing as the fish body length increased up to 400 mm, after which it decreased. Male fish showed a higher haematocrit value than females. Haematocrit appeared to be higher in the pre-spawning period than in the spawning phase, but then increased slightly in the post-spawning period.

  1. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process for decentralized wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Lynn, Thomas J; Banihani, Qais; Bartacek, Jan; Jenicek, Pavel; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen discharges from decentralized wastewater treatment (DWT) systems contribute to surface and groundwater contamination. However, the high variability in loading rates, long idle periods and lack of regular maintenance presents a challenge for biological nitrogen removal in DWT. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process was developed that combines nitrate (NO3(-)) adsorption to scrap tire chips with sulfur-oxidizing denitrification. This allows the tire chips to adsorb NO3(-) when the influent loading exceeds the denitrification capacity of the biofilm and release it when NO3(-) loading rates are low (e.g. at night). Three waste products, scrap tire chips, elemental sulfur pellets and crushed oyster shells, were used as a medium in adsorption, leaching, microcosm and up-flow packed bed bioreactor studies of NO3(-) removal from synthetic nitrified DWT wastewater. Adsorption isotherms showed that scrap tire chips have an adsorption capacity of 0.66 g NO3(-)-N kg(-1) of scrap tires. Leaching and microcosm studies showed that scrap tires leach bioavailable organic carbon that can support mixotrophic metabolism, resulting in lower effluent SO4(2-) concentrations than sulfur oxidizing denitrification alone. In column studies, the T-SHAD process achieved high NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies under steady state (90%), variable flow (89%) and variable concentration (94%) conditions.

  2. Population structure of the Korean gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) using multivariate morphometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, Se Hun; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2016-03-01

    The gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, is one of the most important fish species in Korea, China, Japan and Taiwan, and therefore the implementation of an appropriate population structure analysis is both necessary and fitting. In order to clarify the current distribution range for the two lineages of the Korean gizzard shad (Myoung and Kim 2014), we conducted a multivariate morphometric analysis by locality and lineage. We analyzed 17 morphometric and 5 meristic characters of 173 individuals, which were sampled from eight localities in the East Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Korean Strait. Unlike population genetics studies, the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) results showed that the two morphotypes were clearly segregated by the center value "0" of CAN1, of which morphotype A occurred from the Yellow Sea to the western Korean Strait with negative values, and morphotype B occurred from the East Sea to the eastern Korean Strait with positive values even though there exists an admixture zone in the eastern Korean Strait. Further studies using more sensitive markers such as microsatellite DNA are required in order to define the true relationship between the two lineages.

  3. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  4. 2013 Update of the 2011 American College of Rheumatology Recommendations for the Treatment of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ringold

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines and recommendations developed and/or endorsed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR are intended to provide guidance for particular patterns of practice and not to dictate the care of a particular patient.The ACR considers adherence to these guidelines and recommendations to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in light of each patient’s individual circumstances.Guidelines and recommendations are intended to promote beneficial or desirable outcomes but cannot guarantee any specific outcome. Guidelines and recommendations developed or endorsed by the ACR are subject to periodic revision as warranted by the evolution of medical knowledge, technology, and practice.The American College of Rheumatology is an independent, professional, medical and scientific society which does not guarantee, warrant, or endorse any commercial product or service.

  5. Great Blue Herons in the Lake Champlain Ecosystem An Assessment of the Rookeries on Shad Island, VT and Valcour Island, New York Spring/Summer 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lake Champlain is home to four Great Blue Heron rookeries, three large and one small. The Shad Island, Valcour Island and Porter Bay rookeries are large rookeries...

  6. An Assessment of Breeding Great Blue Herons and the Impact of Double-Crested Cormorants in the Shad Island Rookery, Swanton Vermont 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Concern about the effects of invading Double-crested Cormorants on Lake Champlain has prompted investigations in the Great Blue Heron rookery on Shad Island, Vermont...

  7. Great Blue Herons in the Lake Champlain Ecosystem An Assessment of the Great Blue Heron Rookeries on Shad Island, Vermont and Valcour Island, New York in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the 2002 breeding season the status of the two largest Great Blue Heron rookeries on Lake Champlain: one on Valcour Island, New York and the other on Shad Island,...

  8. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  9. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  10. Chronic Ingestion of Coal Fly-Ash Contaminated Prey and Its Effects on Health and Immune Parameters in Juvenile American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, John W; Hamilton, Matthew T; Metts, Brian S; Glenn, Travis C; Tuberville, Tracey D

    2016-10-01

    Coal-burning power plants supply approximately 37 % of the electricity in the United States. However, incomplete combustion produces ash wastes enriched with toxic trace elements that have historically been disposed of in aquatic basins. Organisms inhabiting such habitats may accumulate these trace elements; however, studies investigating the effects on biota have been primarily restricted to shorter-lived, lower-trophic organisms. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), a long-lived, top-trophic carnivore, has been observed inhabiting these basins, yet the health or immune effects of chronic exposure and possible accumulation remains unknown. In this study, we investigated how chronic dietary ingestion of prey contaminated with coal combustion wastes (CCWs) for 25 months, and subsequent accumulation of trace elements present in CCWs, affected juvenile alligator immune function and health. Alligators were assigned to one of four dietary-treatment groups including controls and those fed prey contaminated with CCWs for one, two, or three times a week. However, no effect of Dietary Treatment (p > 0.05) was observed on any immune parameter or hematological or plasma analyte we tested. Our results suggest that neither exposure to nor accumulation of low doses of CCWs had a negative effect on certain aspects of the immune and hematological system. However, future studies are required to elucidate this further.

  11. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). American Shad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    vi NOMENCLATURE/TAXONOMY/RANGE. .. .... ...... ....... ....... 1 MORPHOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION AIDS. .. ....... ...... ....... 3...MORPHOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION AIDS congeneric alewife (A. useudoharenus) and blueback herring (A. aestivalis) The following description of have fewer than 55...the Connecticut River because the eggs are highly sought as above Holyoke Dam, Massachusetts, food by consumers (Ulrich et al. mainly consumed

  12. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  13. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  14. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  15. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  16. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  17. HABITAT USE OF AGE - 0 TWAITE SHAD (ALOSA FALLAX LACÉPÈDE, 1803 IN THE TIDAL FRESHWATER REGION OF THE ELBE RIVER, GERMANY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERKENS M.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Between April and August 1997 the distribution of twaite shad larvae in the lower Elbe River downstream the city of Hamburg was examined by ring net, lift net and pop net sampling. During each haul six environmental parameters - water depth, water temperature, conductivity, oxygen concentration, distance from shore line and distance from river channel - were estimated. Twaite shad larvae were found from 26 May to 10 July. Yolk sac larvae were present from 26 May to 25 June. High abundances of twaite shad larvae were found in the side channels and main channels. A canonical correspondence analysis was calculated to evaluate the importance of measured environmental parameters for the distribution of age - 0 fishes. Water depth, distance from shore line and distance from river channel were identified as main parameters for the distribution of species. Twaite shad larvae preferred maximum water depth and distance from shore line and short distances to the river channel. An upstream displacement of the spawning grounds of twaite shad was observed, following a trend first noticed in the early 90th. Nowadays, the location of spawning grounds corresponds to the situation at the beginning of the 19th century. Reduced water pollution is believed to be the main reason for this phenomenon.

  18. The Heterogeneity of Juvenile Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile myositis is a heterogeneous group of systemic autoimmune diseases, in which clinical and serologic subgroups result in subsets of patients with distinct clinical manifestations, disease courses, immunogenetic associations, responses to therapy, and prognoses. A newly identified autoantibody of unknown specificity, anti-p155, is myositis-associated and seen in up to 20 – 30% of juvenile and adult DM patients. HLA DRB1*0301 and its linked allele DQA1*0501 have been identified as the major immunogenetic risk factor for juvenile and adult DM in both European- and African- American patients, and DQA1*0301 is an additional risk factor in European American patients. Several DQA1 alleles also are protective for juvenile DM. Environmental risk factors are poorly understood, but growing evidence suggests a role for infectious agents and ultraviolet radiation. The current therapy of juvenile DM consists of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, with the adjunctive treatment of cutaneous manifestations and rehabilitation. Therapeutic trials of biologic agents, including anti-TNFα and anti-CD20, may aid in developing promising new therapies for these disorders. PMID:17317616

  19. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  20. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  1. The Life History of the Protandrous Tropical Shad Tenualosa macrura (Alosinae: Clupeidae): Fishery Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, S. J. M.; Brewer, D. T.; Milton, D. A.; Merta, Gede Sedana; Efizon, D.; Fry, G.; van der Velde, T.

    1999-11-01

    Tenualosa macrura is a tropical shad that was previously found throughout the estuaries and coastal waters of Sumatra and Borneo where it formed the basis of flourishing fisheries. The only viable fishery today has contracted to the Riau Province of Sumatra, Indonesia. To provide information for conservation and fisheries management, a two-year study of the biology, ecology and life history characteristics of T. macrura was conducted. The evidence from sizes of sexes, sex ratios and histology is that T. macrura is a protandrous hermaphrodite. It changes from male to female mainly between 14 and 20 cm SL (standard length) (six months to one year in age), after the male has spawned. Almost all fish in their second year are females; the species does not appear to live beyond two years. There is a regular movement of spawning males and females between the Strait of Malacca (salinity 28-30) and the spawning grounds in the sheltered straits (salinity 20-28) of Riau Province on each new and full moon. Their occurrence in the inshore straits leads to heavy fishing during these moon phases. The main nursery areas are the shallow coastal waters of the Strait of Malacca. The decline in catches of T. macrura has probably been as a result of fishers intensively targeting aggregations of spawning females. Furthermore, most are caught before spawning. It is postulated that the protandrous habit of this species, and its likewise endangered congener of Sarawak, T. toli, renders them more vulnerable to overfishing than is the gonochoristic and more widespread T. ilisha that is heavily fished from Burma through the Indian sub-continent to Kuwait.

  2. Effects of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) density on the survival and growth of juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas): Implications for North American river fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cecil A.

    1996-01-01

    I used replicated 37.8 1 aquaria in a factorial design (four densities of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha; two hydrologic regimes) to determine if the survival or growth of juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) was affected by the density of zebra mussel or by the retention time of the test system. None of the fathead minnows died during the 30-d experiment. However, growth of fathead minnows was lower (P0.05). These laboratory results suggest that juvenile fish survival will not be affected by low to moderate densities of mussels (0-3000 m super(-2)) but fish growth might be adversely affected at moderate densities of mussels (e.g., 3000 m super(-2)).

  3. Pelagic life and depth: coastal physical features in West Africa shape the genetic structure of the Bonga Shad, Ethmalosa fimbriata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Dominique Durand

    Full Text Available The bonga shad, Ethmalosa fimbriata, is a West African pelagic species still abundant in most habitats of its distribution range and thought to be only recently affected by anthropogenic pressure (habitat destruction or fishing pressure. Its presence in a wide range of coastal habitats characterised by different hydrodynamic processes, represents a case study useful for evaluating the importance of physical structure of the west African shoreline on the genetic structure of a small pelagic species. To investigate this question, the genetic diversity of E. fimbriata was assessed at both regional and species range scales, using mitochondrial (mt and nuclear DNA markers. Whereas only three panmictic units were identified with mtDNA at the large spatial scale, nuclear genetic markers (EPIC: exon-primed intron-crossing indicated a more complex genetic pattern at the regional scale. In the northern-most section of shad's distribution range, up to 4 distinct units were identified. Bayesian inference as well as spatial autocorrelation methods provided evidence that gene flow is impeded by the presence of deep-water areas near the coastline (restricting the width of the coastal shelf, such as the Cap Timiris and the Kayar canyons in Mauritania and Senegal, respectively. The added discriminatory power provided by the use of EPIC markers proved to be essential to detect the influence of more subtle, contemporary processes (e.g. gene flow, barriers, etc. acting within the glacial refuges identified previously by mtDNA.

  4. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  5. The role of water ventilation and sediment ingestion in the uptake of benzo[A]pyrene in gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolok, Alan; Huckins, James N.; Petty, Jimmie D.; Oris, James T.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether sediment ingestion or water ventilation was the primary route of uptake for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), a detritivorous fish. Two experiments were conducted in which fish were exposed to sediments spiked with 1 μg/g BaP. In the first experiment, fish were prevented from feeding by esophagus ligation. In the second experiment, 20 nonligated fish and 30 ligated fish were added to the aquarium. The nonligated fish roiled the water as they fed. Fish were collected 4, 8, 15, and 22 d after the experiments began. Gizzard shad metabolize BaP; therefore, the concentrations of BaP equivalents (parent BaP plus metabolite) were determined. Concentrations of BaP equivalents were significantly greater in the ligated fish in experiment 2 relative to those in experiment 1. In contrast, the concentration of BaP equivalents in the ligated fish in experiment 2 was not significantly different than that in the nonligated fish. Our results suggest that ventilation of turbid water may be a significant source of BaP for gizzard shad. Sediment ingestion, however, does not appear to significantly influence the total body concentration of BaP equivalents in gizzard shad.

  6. Diel and seasonal distribution patterns of eggs, embryos and larvae of Twaite shad Alosa fallax fallax (Lacépède, 1803) in a lowland tidal river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Eduardo; Pedro Andrade, José

    2008-09-01

    The anadromous Twaite shad Alosa fallax fallax (Lacépède, 1803) is globally classified as "Data Deficient" by the IUCN but the Instituto de Conservação da Natureza, Portugal, classified the species as "Vulnerable". In this study, the aims were to describe the putative diel, seasonal and inter-annual patterns of distribution and abundance of Twaite shad early life-history stages in a lowland tidal river, River Mira (south Portugal), and to examine how changes in temperature, rainfall, microplankton biomass, potential prey and competitors' predator abundance affect the distribution patterns using generalised additive models (GAM). Twaite shad yolk-sac larvae were collected indiscriminately at various times of day while larvae were more common during daylight hours in comparison to samples collected during the night, independently of tide. Moreover, A. f. fallax eggs, embryos and larvae were found in samples from late-March to mid-June. Peak densities were observed around late-April for eggs, mid-May for embryos and mid to late-May for larvae. The observed among- and within-year changes in abundance of Twaite shad embryos and larvae were related, through GAM, with a combination of environmental covariates, mainly in a non-linear way.

  7. Organochlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, and PBDEs in grey mullets (Liza ramada) and allis shads (Alosa alosa) from the Vilaine estuary (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquené, Gilles; Abarnou, Alain

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the contamination levels of various organohalogenated compounds in two migratory fish species in the Vilaine River in western France. Organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs)), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in two diadromous species from the Vilaine estuary, the grey mullet (Liza ramada)-an amphihaline species, and the allis shad (Alosa alosa)-an anadromous species. Fish were collected in spring 2004 and spring 2005, upstream and downstream of the Arzal Dam. PCB contamination varied from 27 to 200 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.). PCDDs/Fs, expressed in toxicity equivalent quantity (TEQ) varied from 0.4 to 2.8 pg g(-1) d.w. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs expressed in total TEQ varied from 1.4 to 18.8 pg g(-1) d.w. PBDE47 was present at around 2-10 ng g(-1) d.w. and concentrations of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane breakdown product p,p'-dichlorodiphenylchloroethylene varied from 1 to 14 ng g(-1) d.w. For both species, specimens collected upstream were more contaminated. The grey mullet specimens were less contaminated than the allis shad when taken downstream of the dam but were more contaminated upstream. The allis shads presented intermediate contaminant concentrations with a less pronounced difference between upstream and downstream specimens. However, it is thought that shads do not feed when they spawn in the upstream parts of rivers, which should modify the contaminant concentrations. However, measurements in upstream shad samples show an unexpected increase of the contamination, which remains unexplained.

  8. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ophthalmologist or orthopedic surgeon), and other health professionals (dentist, nutritionist or psychologist) as well as reach out ... American College of Rheumatology Committee on Communications and Marketing. This information is provided for general education only. ...

  9. 2013 Update of the 2011 American College of Rheumatology Recommendations for the Treatment of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Recommendations for the Medical Therapy of Children With Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis and Tuberculosis Screening Among Children Receiving Biologic Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringold, Sarah; Weiss, Pamela F.; Beukelman, Timothy; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Ilowite, Norman T.; Kimura, Yukiko; Laxer, Ronald M.; Lovell, Daniel J.; Nigrovic, Peter A.; Robinson, Angela Byun; Vehe, Richard K.

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations developed and/or endorsed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) are intended to provide guidance for particular patterns of practice and not to dictate the care of a particular patient. The ACR considers adherence to these guidelines and recommendations to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in light of each patient's individual circumstances. Guidelines and recommendations are intended to promote beneficial or desirable outcomes but cannot guarantee any specific outcome. Guidelines and recommendations developed or endorsed by the ACR are subject to periodic revision as warranted by the evolution of medical knowledge, technology, and practice. The American College of Rheumatology is an independent, professional, medical and scientific society which does not guarantee, warrant, or endorse any commercial product or service. PMID:24078300

  10. Ecology of the early life-history stages of shad Alosa fallax fallax (Lacépède, 1803) in the River Mira, with a note on Alosa spp. larvae in the River Guadiana

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, E.

    2006-01-01

    Tese dout., Ecologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2006 Allis and Twaite shad Alosa spp. are anadromous clupeid species, which still migrate into several rivers along Portugal to spawn but are regarded as Endangered or Vulnerable (using IUCN criteria). Within the framework of a countrywide research project, this dissertation reports the work carried out (from February 1998 until July 2000) to study the biology and ecology of the early life-history stages of Twaite shad, Alosa f...

  11. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analgesics for Osteoarthritis (Report from AHRQ) Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic Health Information Juvenile Arthritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Juvenile Arthritis PDF Version Size: 123 KB ...

  12. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  13. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  14. Some aspects of the reproductive biology of the twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), in the River Ulla (Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula)

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Nachón; Sandra Barca; Servia, María J.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of fecundity is a key step to quantify the reproductive potential of individual fish and to understand the stock-recruitment relationship, increasing the knowledge of the state of a stock and improving the assessment of the spawning stock biomass. For the present work we investigated the fecundity and gonad development in anadromous female twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), during the upstream spawning migration in the River Ulla. Thirty-four females were sampled with tram...

  15. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  16. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.A. Brosens; D. Langeveld; W.A. van Hattem; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a

  17. Acute toxicity of resmethrin, malathion and methoprene to larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus amemcanus) and analysis of pesticide levels in surface waters after Scourge™, Anvil™ and Altsoid™ application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkosky, Ann M.; Ruggieri, Joseph P.; Terracciano, Stephen A.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    Acute toxicity and immune response, combined with temperature stress effects, were evaluated in larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to malathion, resmethrin and methoprene. These pesticides were used to control West Nile virus in New York in 1999, the same year the American lobster population collapsed in western Long Island Sound (LIS). Whereas the suite of pesticides used for mosquito control changed in subsequent years, a field study was also conducted to determine pesticide concentrations in surface waters on Long Island and in LIS after operational applications. The commercial formulations used in 2002 and 2003—Scourge, Anvil and Altosid—contain the active ingredients resmethrin, sumithrin and methoprene, respectively. Concentrations of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were also measured as a proxy for pesticide exposure. Acute mortality in Stage I-II larval lobsters demonstrated that they are extremely sensitive to continuous resmethrin exposure. Resmethrin LC50s for larval lobsters determined under flow-through conditions varied from 0.26–0.95 μg L−1 in 48- and 96-h experiments at 16°C, respectively. Increased temperature (24°C) did not significantly alter resmethrin toxicity. Malathion and methoprene were less toxic than resmethrin. The 48-h LC50 for malathion was 3.7 μg L−1 and methoprene showed no toxicity at the highest (10 μg L−1) concentration tested. Phenoloxidase activity was used as a measure of immune response for juvenile lobsters exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations. In continuous exposures to sublethal doses of resmethrin (0.03 μg L−1) or malathion (1 μg L−1) for 7 d at 16 or 22°C, temperature had a significant effect on phenoloxidase activity (P ≤ 0.006) whereas pesticide exposure did not (P = 0.880). The analytical methods developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LC-TOF-MS) provided high sensitivity with mass

  18. Juveniles on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kathleen M

    2002-10-01

    This article describes common forensic evaluations requested of juvenile court mental health evaluators. There has been a legal shift toward criminalization of juvenile court, with a greater emphasis on rights, abandonment of the rehabilitative model, and greater movement of adolescents into the adult criminal court. A resulting shift has been the redefinition of juvenile court forensic evaluations toward the specificity of adult forensic work. The challenge for evaluators is to refine their knowledge of the forensic standards and bring knowledge of development, assessment, and diagnosis in juveniles and interview techniques appropriate to juveniles to improve the evaluation and forensic reports.

  19. Influences of Sex, Incubation Temperature, and Environmental Quality on Gonadal Estrogen and Androgen Receptor Messenger RNA Expression in Juvenile American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon C.; Milnes, Matthew R.; Kohno, Satomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    Gonadal steroid hormone receptors play a vital role in transforming ligand signals into gene expression. We have shown previously that gonads from wild-caught juvenile alligators express greater levels of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) than estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2). Furthermore, sexually dimorphic ESR2 mRNA expression (female > male) observed in animals from the reference site (Lake Woodruff, FL, USA) was lost in alligators from the contaminated Lake Apopka (FL, USA). We postulated that environmental contaminant exposure could influence gonadal steroid hormone receptor expression. Here, we address questions regarding gonadal estrogen and androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression in 1-yr-old, laboratory-raised alligators. What are relative expression levels within gonads? Do these levels vary between sexes or incubation temperatures? Can contaminant exposure change these levels? We observed a similar pattern of expression (ESR1 > AR > ESR2) in ovary and testis. However, both incubation temperature and environment modulated expression. Males incubated at 33.5°C expressed greater AR levels than females incubated at 30°C; dimorphic expression was not observed in animals incubated at 32°C. Compared to Lake Woodruff alligators, Lake Apopka animals of both sexes showed lesser ESR2 mRNA expression levels. Employing cluster analyses, we integrated these receptor expression patterns with those of steroidogenic factors. Elevated ESR2 and CYP19A1 expressions were diagnostic of alligator ovary, whereas elevated HSD3B1, CYP11A1, and CYP17A1 expressions were indicative of testis. In contrast, AR, ESR1, and NR5A1 showed variable expressions that were not entirely associated with sex. These findings demonstrate that the mRNA expression of receptors required for steroid hormone signaling are modified by exposure to environmental factors, including temperature and contaminants. PMID:19759368

  20. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lodewijk AA Brosens; Danielle Langeveld; W Arnout van Hattem; Francis M Giardiello; G Johan A Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer.The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34.Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes.Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum,juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis.In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found.Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway.It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-alled "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma.Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment,follow-up and screening of at risk individuals.Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome.In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  1. 2011 American College of Rheumatology Recommendations for the Treatment of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Initiation and Safety Monitoring of Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Arthritis and Systemic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BEUKELMAN, TIMOTHY; PATKAR, NIVEDITA M.; SAAG, KENNETH G.; TOLLESON-RINEHART, SUE; CRON, RANDY Q.; DeWITT, ESI MORGAN; ILOWITE, NORMAN T.; KIMURA, YUKIKO; LAXER, RONALD M.; LOVELL, DANIEL J.; MARTINI, ALBERTO; RABINOVICH, C. EGLA; RUPERTO, NICOLINO

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations developed and/or endorsed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) are intended to provide guidance for particular patterns of practice and not to dictate the care of a particular patient. The ACR considers adherence to these guidelines and recommendations to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in light of each patient’s individual circumstances. Guidelines and recommendations are intended to promote beneficial or desirable outcomes but cannot guarantee any specific outcome. Guidelines and recommendations developed or endorsed by the ACR are subject to periodic revision as warranted by the evolution of medical knowledge, technology, and practice. PMID:21452260

  2. DIFFERENT PACKAGING METHODS EFFECTS ON SENSORY QUALITY AND CHEMICAL CRITERIA OF MARINATED SHAD (ALOSA IMMACULATA, B., 1838

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Erdem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the sensory and chemical parameters of marinated shad (Alosa immaculata, Bennett, 1838 were determined. Fish were marinated with different package methods (in brine, oiland vacuum packed and stored at 4±1°C. During the storage period, diffusion of proximate composition, acetic acid and sodium chloride into the fish fillets were determined. At the end of 7months storage period, TVB-N were 8.05, 16.81 and 17.56 (mg/100 g, TMA were 2.28, 2.53 and 2.73 (mg/100 g, TBA were 7.08, 7.13 and 6.05 (mg malonaldehyde/kg and pH were 4.42, 4.72 and 4.77 for brine, oil and vacuum packed samples, respectively. Throughout the storage period, effect of different package methods on TVB-N, TMA, TBA, pH, aw, acetic acid, sodium chloride and sensory issues were significant (p<0.05.

  3. Effects of temperature, salinity and feeding frequency on growth and mortality of twaite shad (Alosa fallax larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Available knowledge on the ecological requirements of the twaite shad Alosa fallax larvae is limited, restricting the development of effective management and conservation measures for this anadromous clupeid in European rivers. In this study, the effects of water temperature, salinity and feeding frequency on A. fallax larval growth and mortality were evaluated. For a period of ten days after the onset of exogenous feeding, A. fallax larvae exhibited higher survival rates when subjected to salinities of 2.5 g·L-1 and 5 g·L-1, from trials conducted at 0 g·L-1, 2.5 g·L-1, 5 g·L-1, 10 g·L-1, 15 g·L-1, 20 g·L-1. Higher food availability resulted in higher larval growth and survival rates during this period. Water temperature effects on larvae growth and survival was evaluated for a period of three months after hatching. Alosa fallax larvae exhibited higher growth and survival rates when subjected to temperatures of 24 °C and 28 °C, in contrast to trials conducted at 20 °C. These results are compared to other Alosa spp. and considerations on conservation measures are discussed in light of the results.

  4. Effect of a size-selective biomanipulation on nutrient release by gizzard shad in Florida (USA lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaus M.H.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although fish removal for biomanipulation is often highly size-selective, our understanding of the nutrient cycling effects of this size-selection is poor. To better understand these effects, we measured nutrient excretion by gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum of differing sizes from four central Florida (USA lakes and combined these measures with gillnet biomass and size-structure data to compare lake-wide effects among lakes and years. Direct removal of P in fish tissue ranged from 0.16−1.00 kg·P·ha-1·yr-1. The estimated reduction in P excretion due to harvest ranged from 30.8−202.5 g·P·ha-1·month-1, with effects strongly tied to the biomass and size structure harvested. The amount of P release prevented per kg of fish removed was lower in previously unharvested lakes, due to the initial removal of larger fish with lower mass-specific excretion rates. Gill net mesh size impacted the size distribution of harvested fish, with smaller fish that excrete more P per gram being more vulnerable to smaller mesh sizes. In Lake Apopka, decreasing the mesh size by 1.3 cm yielded P excretion reductions that were 10.7−15.1% larger. Fish harvesting to reduce internal nutrient cycling can be most effective by increasing total harvest and by harvesting smaller size classes over multiple years.

  5. The Gendered Monitoring of Juvenile Delinquents: A Test of Power-Control Theory Using a Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Bryan, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Through the framework of power-control theory (PCT), we provide a model of juvenile offending that places the gendered-raced treatment of juveniles central to the analysis. We test the theory using a unique sample that is predominately African American, poor, and composed entirely of juvenile offenders. Multivariate models compare the predictive…

  6. EFFECT OF GANGES RIVER MORPHOLOGICAL DYNAMICS AND FARAKKA BARRAGE ON UPWARD MIGRATION AND CATCH OF INDIAN SHAD (TENUALOSA ILISHA) IN BANGLADESH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Faruque, Hasan; Sarker, HM

    2016-01-01

    becoming a threatened species due to human intervention and climatic factors. This study is aimed to assess the impact of the Farakka barrage and the Ganges River morphological dynamics on the Indian shad migration and catch in Bangladesh. Results have indicated that the average water level...... because of the changes in width of the river, and the shifting of river bends is quite frequent over the period of time and is more diverse in the upstream region than downstream. The decreased water level and the frequent shifting of the river bends might force the Hilsa fish to restrict their migration...

  7. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  8. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  9. Philanthropist in Juvenile Reformatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of February 1, 2007, Chen Guangbiao, a noted philanthropist, found himself in the Jiangsu Provincial Juvenile Reformatory in Jurong City for a ceremony to donate two buses, 100 computers, and 100 desks and 100 chairs for the juvenile offenders to use in their study.

  10. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  11. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  12. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  13. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  14. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  15. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  16. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  17. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapy Regular Exercise en español Artritis idiopática juvenil It may begin with a swollen knuckle, a ... may suddenly appear and disappear, developing in one area and then another. High fevers that tend to ...

  18. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  19. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Treatment Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Shirley; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Colbert, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    No specific recommendations for the treatment of juvenile spondyloarthritis have been established. Important differences exist in how spondyloarthritis begins and progresses in children and adults, supporting the need for pediatric-specific recommendations. Recently published recommendations for the treatment of juvenile arthritis consider children with sacroiliitis in a separate group, and allow for more accelerated institution of a TNF inhibitor depending on disease activity and prognostic ...

  20. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  1. Comparative phylogeography and demographic history of European shads (Alosa alosa and A. fallax inferred from mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Rui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative broad-scale phylogeographic studies of aquatic organisms provide insights on biotic responses to the paleohydrological dynamics associated with climatic oscillations. These insights can be used to formulate a framework for understanding the evolutionary history of a species or closely related taxa as well as aid in predictive modeling of further responses to climate change. Anadromous fishes constitute interesting models for understanding the relative importance of environmental versus biological factors in shaping intraspecific genetic substructure on the interface between marine and freshwater realms. European shads, Alosa alosa and A. fallax are anadromous species that have persisted through historical large-scale environmental perturbations and now additionally face an array of anthropogenic challenges. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation of these species is needed to provide insights on both the historical processes that have shaped their extant genetic structure and diversity, and the prospects for their future management and conservation. Results Despite introgressive hybridization, A. alosa and A. fallax are genetically divergent, congruent with previous studies. Three similarly divergent mtDNA clades were recognized within both A. fallax and A. alosa, most likely originating during common periods of isolation during the Pleistocene among the studied oceanographic regions. Periods of basin isolation apparently extended to the Black Sea as additional Alosa clades occur there. The present day geographic distribution of genetic diversity within European Alosa sp. suggests the existence of a strong but permeable barrier between the Atlantic and Mediterranean seas, as shown for a number of other aquatic species. Overall mtDNA diversity is considerably lower for A. alosa compared to A. fallax, suggesting that the former species is more sensitive to climatic as well as anthropogenic changes. For A

  2. Holocene Depositional History of Shad Pond, a Hypersaline Coastal Lagoon, Eleuthera, Bahamas and Its Influence on Lucayan Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boush, L. E.; Fentress, S.; Conroy, M.; Cook, A.; Miseridina, D.; Buynevich, I. V.; Myrbo, A.; Brown, E. T.; Berman, M.; Gnivecki, P.; Kjellmark, E.; Savarese, M.; Brady, K.

    2013-12-01

    Shad Pond, an enclosed hypersaline lagoon on the southeastern tip of Eleuthera, Bahamas reveals a ~5000-year record of hurricane activity, as well as sea-level and climate change history. Three sediment cores recovered 1.04-2.54 m of sediment over bedrock along a transect perpendicular to shoreline. Sediment composition and grain size, loss on ignition, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of the cores along with dune transects and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles adjacent to the lake provide a comprehensive dataset to interpret the history of this coastal basin. The sedimentary sequence was composed of alternating lithofacies that included microbial mats, sand, and peat. Laminated mats often alternated with sandy layers in thin to medium-bedded units. Two peat layers were found in the basal part of the shore-distal core (Site 1) between 1.82-2.40 m and 2.53-2.54 m and were separated by a 13-cm-thick gray mud layer. In general, organic matter and carbonate content tracked granulometry and composition in all cores. High-resolution XRF scans of Ca and Sr at Site 1 show elevated levels ~3,700 cal yBP, which correlate with the top of the peat layer, but these elemental concentrations vary at Site 3. XRF measurements of Fe indicate a dust flux that has been recorded regionally throughout the Caribbean. Dune transects and GPR profiles indicate a phased history of the pond, beginning with initial stages as an open lagoon dominated by red mangrove, with black mangrove and buttonwood also present. The lake likely closed at approximately 3,700 cal yBP indicated by the transition between the upper peat and microbial mat layers. This could have been due to increased storm events in a regime of rising sea level. Aeolian aggradation continued to heighten the barrier between the bedrock headlands to its present position. Hurricane overwash deposits punctuated the algal mat accumulation throughout this time period. Present-day hypersaline conditions sustain algal mats

  3. Differences between Juvenile Offenders with and without Intellectual Disability in Offense Type and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscher, Jessica J.; van der Put, Claudia E.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine differences between American juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability (ID) in offense type and risk factors. The sample consisted of adolescents with ID (n = 102) and without ID (n = 526) who appeared before the courts for a criminal act and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court…

  4. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  5. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  6. 2016 Classification criteria for macrophage activation syndrome complicating systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis : A European league against Rheumatism/American college of Rheumatology/Paediatric rheumatology international trials organisation collaborative initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravelli, Angelo; Minoia, Francesca; Davì, Sergio; Horne, Anna Carin; Bovis, Francesca; Pistorio, Angela; Aricò, Maurizio; Avcin, Tadej; Behrens, Edward M.; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Filipovic, Lisa; Grom, Alexei A.; Henter, Jan Inge; Ilowite, Norman T.; Jordan, Michael B.; Khubchandani, Raju; Kitoh, Toshiyuki; Lehmberg, Kai; Lovell, Daniel J.; Miettunen, Paivi; Nichols, Kim E.; Ozen, Seza; Schmid, Jana Pachlopnik; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V.; Russo, Ricardo; Schneider, Rayfel; Sterba, Gary; Uziel, Yosef; Wallace, Carol; Wouters, Carine; Wulffraat, Nico|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073121185; Demirkaya, Erkan; Brunner, Hermine I.; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino; Cron, Randy Q.

    2016-01-01

    To develop criteria for the classification of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) in patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). A multistep process, based on a combination of expert consensus and analysis of real patient data, was conducted. A panel of 28 experts was first asked to

  7. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  8. PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN LARVAL AND JUVENILE ANURANS INHABITING FARM PONDS IN TENNESSEE, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Schmutzer, A. Chandler; Burton, Elizabeth C; Merrill, Anita; Baldwin, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    .... During 2005, 104 American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and 80 green frog (Rana clamitans) larvae and 40 green frog juveniles were collected from farm ponds in Tennessee, and complete necropsies were performed...

  9. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  10. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  11. Juvenile idiopatiske inflammatoriske myopatier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Sanner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM is a group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases in children and adolescents, characterized by chronic skeletal muscle inflammation. Unlike in adults, dermatomyositis (JDM is by far the most common of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children and adolescents. The hallmark of JDM is calcinosis, lipodystrophy and vasculitis, findings that differs the juvenile form of dermatomyosits from the adult form. JDM is still diagnosed and classified by Bohan and Peter’s criteria from 1975. There are limited data on long time outcome of this disease

  12. The Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization/American College of Rheumatology provisional criteria for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: prospective validation of the definition of improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruperto, N; Ravelli, A; Oliviera, S

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use the Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization (PRINTO) core set of outcome measures to develop a validated definition of improvement for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Thirty-seven experienced pediatric...... rheumatologists from 27 countries, each of whom had specific experience in the assessment of juvenile SLE patients, achieved consensus on 128 patient profiles as being clinically improved or not improved. Using the physicians' consensus ratings as the gold standard measure, the chi-square, sensitivity......, specificity, false-positive and false-negative rates, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and kappa level of agreement for 597 candidate definitions of improvement were calculated. Only definitions with a kappa value greater than 0.7 were retained. The top definitions were selected based...

  13. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  14. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  15. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  16. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  17. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  18. Juvenile Incarceration and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Barnert, ES; R Perry; Morris, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure a...

  19. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  20. 2016 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism Criteria for Minimal, Moderate, and Major Clinical Response in Juvenile Dermatomyositis: An International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation Collaborative Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G; Aggarwal, Rohit; Pistorio, Angela; Bayat, Nastaran; Erman, Brian; Feldman, Brian M; Huber, Adam M; Cimaz, Rolando; Cuttica, Rubén J; de Oliveira, Sheila Knupp; Lindsley, Carol B; Pilkington, Clarissa A; Punaro, Marilynn; Ravelli, Angelo; Reed, Ann M; Rouster-Stevens, Kelly; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; Dressler, Frank; Magalhaes, Claudia Saad; Constantin, Tamás; Davidson, Joyce E; Magnusson, Bo; Russo, Ricardo; Villa, Luca; Rinaldi, Mariangela; Rockette, Howard; Lachenbruch, Peter A; Miller, Frederick W; Vencovsky, Jiri; Ruperto, Nicolino

    2017-05-01

    To develop response criteria for juvenile dermatomyositis (DM). We analyzed the performance of 312 definitions that used core set measures from either the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group (IMACS) or the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO) and were derived from natural history data and a conjoint analysis survey. They were further validated using data from the PRINTO trial of prednisone alone compared to prednisone with methotrexate or cyclosporine and the Rituximab in Myositis (RIM) trial. At a consensus conference, experts considered 14 top candidate criteria based on their performance characteristics and clinical face validity, using nominal group technique. Consensus was reached for a conjoint analysis-based continuous model with a total improvement score of 0-100, using absolute percent change in core set measures of minimal (≥30), moderate (≥45), and major (≥70) improvement. The same criteria were chosen for adult DM/polymyositis, with differing thresholds for improvement. The sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 91-98% for minimal improvement, 92-94% and 94-99% for moderate improvement, and 91-98% and 85-86% for major improvement, respectively, in juvenile DM patient cohorts using the IMACS and PRINTO core set measures. These criteria were validated in the PRINTO trial for differentiating between treatment arms for minimal and moderate improvement (P = 0.009-0.057) and in the RIM trial for significantly differentiating the physician's rating for improvement (P Rheumatology.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile primary osteoporosis juvenile primary osteoporosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile primary osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  4. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  5. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  6. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  7. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  8. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, M; Santos-Muñoz, A; Calb, I; Magariños, C

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, gingival hypertrophy, and flexion contractures of the large joints. The light and electron microscopic features are very distinctive. Here we report an 8-month-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Histologic and ultrastructural features were typical of JHF. Clinical features, pathology, and physiology are discussed.

  9. COMPARISON OF MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERS OF TWAITE SHAD (ALOSA FALLAX NILOTICA, GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, 1808 AMONG THREE AREAS IN TURKISH SEAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURAN C.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Degree of differentiation among populations of twaite shad, Alosa fallax nilotica, in Turkish territorial waters was evaluated with the truss morphometric system using Discriminant Function (DFA and Principal Component Analyses (PCA. Approximately 40 individuals were collected from each sea to represent regions. In DFA, the proportion of correctly classified Eastern Mediterranean sea sample to their original group was highest (90 % with a high overall random assignment of individuals into their original population (78 %. Plotting discriminant function 1 (DF1 and discriminant function 2 (DF2 explained 100 % of total between group variability and clearly discriminated Eastern Mediterranean sea sample from the Baltic and Aegean sea samples, which were over plotted. This findings was also supported in multivariate analysis of variance. PCA revealed that the observed differences were mainly from posterior morphometric measurements of the fish. The patterns of morphological differentiation suggested that there is limited exchange of individuals among areas to homogenize populations phenotypically from the Black and Aegean seas to Eastern Mediterranean sea.

  10. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  11. Interperting update of the 2011 American College of Rheumatology recommendations for the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in 2013%2013年美国风湿病学会关于幼年特发性关节炎治疗建议(2011年版)更新的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹兰芳; 屠志强

    2014-01-01

    2011年美国风湿病学会(ACR)发表了幼年特发性关节炎(JIA)治疗建议,将其分为5种亚型进行讨论.2013年ACR对该建议进行更新,着重于全身型幼年特发性关节炎(SOJIA)治疗的阐述.根据全身型该亚型的临床表现特点将其分为3个表型,并首次提出具有巨噬细胞活化综合征特征表现的概念.针对全身型亚型的临床表现评分应用不同的治疗方案,并指出该治疗推荐适用于具有一般临床表型的病例,而非罕见表现病例或难治性全身型关节炎患儿.%The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) published treatment recommendations for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in 2011.The recommendations meant as a guide to health care providers caring for JIA children with dividing JIA into 5 distinct subtypes.The ACR updated the 2011 recommendations in 2013 and focused on the treatment of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SOJIA).According to the clinical feature of the SOJIA,the subtybe is developed to 3 phenotypes.And the conception was firstly addressed that systemic JIA with features concerning for macrophage activation syndrome(MAS).Different treatment options was applied for clinical manifestations score,and these recommendations offered guidance for providers caring for children with the most common phenotypes associated with systemic JIA,rather than exceptional cases with unusual disease manifestations or refractory disease.

  12. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  13. Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity.

  14. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil Acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil Acupuncture in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialda Höfling P. Dias

    2012-01-01

    semanales de acupuntura. Las evaluaciones antes y después de la acupuntura incluyeron datos demográficos, características del dolor musculoesquelético, número de puntos dolorosos (NPD, escala visual analógica (EVA de dolor, algiometría e índice de mialgia (IM. Durante el estudio, los pacientes pudieron usar analgésicos, amitriptilina, y fueron orientados a practicar actividad física aeróbica. Los resultados antes y después de la acupuntura fueron comparados por la prueba no paramétrica de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: De los 38 pacientes con fibromialgia juvenil acompañados en ocho años consecutivos, 13 tenían todas las informaciones en los prontuarios y en las fichas de acupuntura y fueron evaluados. De estos 13, siete obtuvieron mejora en los tres parámetros analizados (número de puntos dolorosos, EVA de dolor e IM. Las medianas del número de puntos dolorosos y del EVA de dolor fueron significativamente mayores antes del tratamiento cuando comparados al final del tratamiento con las sesiones de acupuntura [14 (11-18 vs. 10 (0-15, p=0,005; 6 (2-10 vs. 3 (0-10, p=0,045; respectivamente]. Por otra parte, la mediana del IM fue significativamente menor antes del tratamiento [3,4 (2,49-4,39 vs. 4,2 (2,71-5,99, p=0,02]. Ninguno de los pacientes con fibromialgia juvenil presentó eventos adversos asociados a la acupuntura. CONCLUSIONES: Acupuntura es una modalidad de la Medicina Tradicional China que puede ser utilizada en los pacientes pediátricos con fibromialgia. Futuros estudios controlados serán necesarios.OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of acupuncture in the treatment of adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients with juvenile fibromyalgia (American College of Rheumatology criteria submitted at least to 11 weekly sections of acupuncture. The evaluations before and after acupuncture included: demographic data, musculoskeletal pain findings, pain visual analog scale (VAS, algometry, and myalgic index (MI. These patients could

  15. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  16. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  17. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  18. Update on juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K M; Kang, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. The pathophysiology of juvenile myasthenia gravis is similar to that of adult myasthenia gravis, though there remain important differences regarding presentation and therapeutic options. We review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical studies of myasthenia gravis have been carried out primarily in adult populations. As juvenile myasthenia gravis is rare, it has been difficult to collect prospective randomized controlled data to evaluate treatment outcomes and efficacy. A recent retrospective series suggests that, as in adult myasthenia gravis, thymectomy is a viable therapeutic option for selected cases of generalized juvenile myasthenia gravis. This is corroborated by the clinical experience of the authors in a referral center with a cohort of patients affected by juvenile myasthenia gravis over a number of years. Recent studies illustrate that some, but not all, adult research on myasthenia gravis is applicable to children and adolescents with juvenile myasthenia gravis. Adult research can inform pediatric studies, but should not be regarded as a substitute for dedicated research in those populations.

  19. American College of Rheumatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  20. Juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P

    1995-05-01

    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  1. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-08-19

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  2. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Krishnamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis is a rare, autosomal-recessive disease characterized by papular and nodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and bone involvement in variable degrees. It is a connective tissue disorder with aberrant synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by fibroblasts. We report a 5-year-old female born of first-degree consanguineous marriage who presented with multiple, recurrent, painless, variable-sized nodules. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears and the subsequent histopathological examination from the nodules showed benign spindle cells in a Periodic acid Schiff-positive myxoid background. The disease has a relentlessly progressive course, with most patients surviving only up to the 4 th decade. As of now, there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Genetic counseling is essential to explain to parents about a 25% chance of having a diseased baby in any pregnancy. With the gene being mapped recently, techniques for antenatal diagnosis are likely to be established.

  3. [JUVENILE DERMATOMYOSITIS AND CALCINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dermatomiositis (JD) is autoimmune disease that progresses with time; JD's main differentiated syndromes are rash on the skin, poor function of muscles, and often developing invalidism. If the health practitioners manage to diagnose the JD on an early stage and prescribe the adequate treatment the disease will not progress aggressively. This approach is tangible for practical rheumatology and pediatric. The article aims to present the reasons of the development of the JD and calcinosis. The study based on the description of the patients with JD. There are distinguished the main symptoms of the disease in children: frequent and acute developments of muscles calcinosis, occasionally with diffuse character followed with hypotrophy of the muscles, contractures and invalidism. One of the patient cases that describe the article is the thirteen-year boy with JD indicating repeated sequence of the disease, with diffusive calcinosis, cellulitis followed with secondary infection and impaired vision.

  4. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  5. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children.

  6. Judging the Role of the Juvenile in America From Desperate Housewife

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄欣

    2012-01-01

      Children are the core of the family. In American families, parents give them love. At the same time, they also tell them how to be independent and self-reliance. Even when they are only nine or ten, they learn to be responsible. It can not be imagined in China. In America, every person emphasizes independence and self-reliance. And everyone wants to be so. The writer will analyze the role of the juvenile according to Des-perate Housewife. Desperate Housewife is an American teleplay. It mainly talks about the ordinary people and the ordinary life in America. So the writer chooses this teleplay. Andrew, Julie and John are the main juvenile players. They have their own characters which the writer believes that they can reflect the main characters of American juvenile to some extent.

  7. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations.......Juvenile anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris were tested in two behavioural laboratory set-ups for their ability to visually or chemically recognize conspecifics. Individuals of two other species of anemonefish, A. clarkii and Dascyllus aruanus, were also used as test specimens for recognition....... The results indicate that juvenile A. ocellaris recognize conspecifics visually rather than by olfaction. This is contrary to their finding mechanism of their host anemone. However, the results also indicate that the juvenile A ocellaris are neither attracted nor deterred by the presence of conspecifics...

  8. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  9. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  10. 2016 Classification Criteria for Macrophage Activation Syndrome Complicating Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation Collaborative Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelli, Angelo; Minoia, Francesca; Davì, Sergio; Horne, AnnaCarin; Bovis, Francesca; Pistorio, Angela; Aricò, Maurizio; Avcin, Tadej; Behrens, Edward M; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Filipovic, Lisa; Grom, Alexei A; Henter, Jan-Inge; Ilowite, Norman T; Jordan, Michael B; Khubchandani, Raju; Kitoh, Toshiyuki; Lehmberg, Kai; Lovell, Daniel J; Miettunen, Paivi; Nichols, Kim E; Ozen, Seza; Pachlopnik Schmid, Jana; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Russo, Ricardo; Schneider, Rayfel; Sterba, Gary; Uziel, Yosef; Wallace, Carol; Wouters, Carine; Wulffraat, Nico; Demirkaya, Erkan; Brunner, Hermine I; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino; Cron, Randy Q

    2016-03-01

    To develop criteria for the classification of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) in patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). A multistep process, based on a combination of expert consensus and analysis of real patient data, was conducted. A panel of 28 experts was first asked to classify 428 patient profiles as having or not having MAS, based on clinical and laboratory features at the time of disease onset. The 428 profiles comprised 161 patients with systemic JIA-associated MAS and 267 patients with a condition that could potentially be confused with MAS (active systemic JIA without evidence of MAS, or systemic infection). Next, the ability of candidate criteria to classify individual patients as having MAS or not having MAS was assessed by evaluating the agreement between the classification yielded using the criteria and the consensus classification of the experts. The final criteria were selected in a consensus conference. Experts achieved consensus on the classification of 391 of the 428 patient profiles (91.4%). A total of 982 candidate criteria were tested statistically. The 37 best-performing criteria and 8 criteria obtained from the literature were evaluated at the consensus conference. During the conference, 82% consensus among experts was reached on the final MAS classification criteria. In validation analyses, these criteria had a sensitivity of 0.73 and a specificity of 0.99. Agreement between the classification (MAS or not MAS) obtained using the criteria and the original diagnosis made by the treating physician was high (κ=0.76). We have developed a set of classification criteria for MAS complicating systemic JIA and provided preliminary evidence of its validity. Use of these criteria will potentially improve understanding of MAS in systemic JIA and enhance efforts to discover effective therapies, by ensuring appropriate patient enrollment in studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  11. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  12. Kill Them Before They Grow. Misdiagnosis of African American Boys in American Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael

    This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and,…

  13. Kill Them Before They Grow. Misdiagnosis of African American Boys in American Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael

    This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and,…

  14. 2013 update of the 2011 American College of Rheumatology recommendations for the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (selected translation)%2013年美国风湿病学会关于幼年特发性关节炎治疗建议(2011年版)的更新(摘译)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠志强; 曹兰芳

    2014-01-01

    The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) updated the 2011 recommendations for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in 2013 and focused on the treatment of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SOJIA).According to the clinical feature of the SOJIA,the subtype is developed to 3 phenotypes:(1) phenotype of systemic JIA with active systemic features and yarying degrees of synovitis; (2) phenotype of systemic JIA without active systemic features and with varying degrees of active synovitis ; (3) phenotype of systemic JIA with features concerning for macrophage activation syndrome (MAS).The treatment recommendation was made according each phenotype,including initial therapeutic options and therapeutic options for continued disease activity.And uncertain or inappropriate options for continued disease were listed alphabetically.Development of treatment recommendations for children with SOJIA and features of MAS is particularly challenging.However,it is anticipated that in the near future,with research of the disease process,the better recommendation may be made.%2013年美国风湿病学会(ACR)对2011年幼年特发性关节炎(JIA)治疗建议进行了更新,着重阐述了全身型幼年特发性关节炎(SOJIA)的治疗.该更新根据SOJIA的临床表现特点将其分为3个表型:(1)具有全身症状合并关节炎表现的SOJIA;(2)具有关节炎表现但不合并全身症状的SOJIA;(3)具有巨噬细胞活化综合征(MAS)特征表现的SOJIA.按照SOJIA不同表型,推荐了相应的治疗参考方案,包括初始和后续治疗,并列出疗效不确切或不适宜使用的药物.对于SOJIA合并MAS的诊疗未明确阐述,但随着未来对该问题的深入研究,将会有更好的诊疗策略呈现.

  15. Juveniles tried as adults: the age of the juvenile matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Jaclyn K; Woody, William Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Serious juvenile crimes require evaluation of a child as a criminal defendant in adult court. In such cases, it is crucial to understand jurors' attitudes, biases, and ability to follow legal instructions and maintain fairness. 308 undergraduate psychology students served as mock jurors, were randomly separated into four groups, and each group read the same realistic summary of a trial with the defendant's age presented as 13, 15, 17, or 21 years. Participants were asked to render guilty or not guilty verdicts and, if guilty, to suggest sentences. Chi-squared analysis indicated 13- and 15-year-old defendants were convicted less often than 17- and 21-year-old defendants, showing that jurors distinguished between juvenile defendants of different ages, but not minors and adults as defined by law. Additional analysis showed that age did not affect sentencing recommendations. Decision processes jurors use for juveniles tried as adults are discussed.

  16. Females in the Juvenile Justice System: Who Are They and How Do They Fare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Kohl, Patricia L; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2014-02-01

    Increasing numbers of female youth involved in the juvenile justice system highlight the need to examine this population. This study enumerates distinct profiles of risk and protection among juvenile court-involved females, examining young adult outcomes associated with these profiles. Administrative data on 700 participants were drawn from multiple service sectors in a Midwest metropolitan region. Latent class and Pearson chi-square analyses were used. Five unique classes were identified; these classes were associated with young adult outcomes. One class of impoverished African American females was most likely to experience problematic young adult outcomes but least likely to have received juvenile justice services. Findings highlight the heterogeneity in the female juvenile court population and discrepancies between service needs and service receipt.

  17. Forensic aspects of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L H

    2000-10-01

    The juvenile justice system was created because it was recognized that youthful offenders needed to be managed differently from adults. They were to receive habilitation services instead of punishment. It is now more than a century since the creation of the first juvenile court. After 67 years, the US Supreme Court, in Kent v United States stated that the model was not working because juveniles in the criminal justice system received no treatment and they had no rights. Because the issue that had been appealed was the lack of rights (not lack of treatment), the Court mandated that juveniles, like adults, be given certain rights. The following year, in In re Gault, the Court expanded these rights. Subsequent Supreme Court cases have dealt with these kinds of issues--that is, whether juvenile offenders are entitled to the same rights as adults and subject to the same penalties. The Supreme Court has never heard a "right to treatment" case, which is the other part of the juvenile court system. Cases have been brought in lower courts (e.g., Nelson v. Heyne, 1972) alleging inadequate treatment services, but no national impact has resulted. Thus, in general, children in the juvenile court system do not have an enforceable right to treatment and can obtain only what services are available in their jurisdictions. The services often are woefully inadequate. Sentencing a youth to probation, with the requirement that he or she participate in counseling or mental health treatment, is meaningless if services are not available. Community-based, model programs that provide effective treatment do exist. They are, as yet, the rare exception rather than the norm and, therefore, are not available to most youthful offenders. Incarcerated juveniles, obviously, cannot avail themselves of community programs. Litigation to give these youth the same rights as adults in penal institutions is not the answer because incarcerated adults don't have a right to treatment, only a right to be free

  18. Juvenile Correctional Institutions Library Services: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Annette M.

    This bibliography lists citations for 14 articles, books, and reports concerned with library services in juvenile correctional institutions. A second section lists 21 additional materials on adult correctional libraries which also contain information relevant to the juvenile library. (KP)

  19. Some aspects of the reproductive biology of the twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803, in the River Ulla (Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Nachón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of fecundity is a key step to quantify the reproductive potential of individual fish and to understand the stock-recruitment relationship, increasing the knowledge of the state of a stock and improving the assessment of the spawning stock biomass. For the present work we investigated the fecundity and gonad development in anadromous female twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803, during the upstream spawning migration in the River Ulla. Thirty-four females were sampled with trammel nets between April and June 2011 in seating areas for this species, located at 24 km and 20 km from the Atlantic Ocean respectively. Fish were lengthed to the nearest millimetre, weighed to the nearest gram and aged by using scales. Factor condition (K was estimated as K= (TW/TL^3*100 where TW is fish total weight (g and TL is fish total length (cm. The ovaries from each female were removed and weighted to the nearest 0.01 gram. Approximately one gram samples were taken from the anterior, central and posterior regions of each ovary and preserved in 70 % ethanol. The number of eggs in each subsample was counted and the fecundity computed from the mean. Individual fecundity (F was computed and F was divided by the weight of the fish to estimate relative fecundity (FR. Also the gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated to assess changes in fish maturity and spawning stage during the upstream migration. Female age ranged from 4 to 7 years and values of TL, TW, K and GSI were [mean ± SE (range]: 493 ± 7.3 mm (408-562 mm; 1,112 ± 53.7 g (592-1,626 g; 0.91 ± 0.02 (0.67-1.09 and 12.5 ± 0.47 (6.6-21.4 respectively. The value of fecundity (F was [mean ± SE (range]: 96,471 ± 6,493 oocytes (24,962 to 182,154 oocytes, while the relative fecundity (Fr was [mean ± SE (range]: 87,142 ± 3,592 oocytes (25,319 to 129,189 oocytes. A significant correlation (Spearman´s ρ test, p<0.05 between fecundity and all parameters has been determined. As observed in previous

  20. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  1. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  2. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  3. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  4. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  5. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  6. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…

  7. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  8. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  9. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  10. Evaluating effects of residential treatment for juvenile offenders by statistical metaanalysis : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grietens, H; Hellinckx, W

    2004-01-01

    Statistical metaanalyses on the effects of residential treatment for juvenile offenders were reviewed to examine the mean effect sizes and reductions of recidivism reported for this group. Five metaanalyses (three on North American and two on European studies) were selected and synthesized in a seco

  11. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  12. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  13. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  14. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  15. Case Report: Juvenile Tophaceous Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Gunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disease that manifests as recurrent arthritis. Its incidance increases with age. Clinical findings include recurrent acute arthritis, tophus at joints and tissues, uricacid stones and gouty nephropathy. Tophi is a late period complication of arthritis. In this casereport we presented  a patient with early-onset juvenile tophaceous gout.

  16. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations....

  17. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  18. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  19. Disease activity, severity, and damage in the UK Juvenile-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Louise; Leone, Valentina; Pilkington, Clarissa; Tullus, Kjell; Rangaraj, Satyapal; McDonagh, Janet E; Gardner-Medwin, Janet; Wilkinson, Nick; Riley, Phil; Tizard, Jane; Armon, Kate; Sinha, Manish D; Ioannou, Yiannis; Archer, Neil; Bailey, Kathryn; Davidson, Joyce; Baildam, Eileen M; Cleary, Gavin; McCann, Liza J; Beresford, Michael W

    2012-07-01

    The UK Juvenile-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (JSLE) Cohort Study is a multicenter collaborative network established with the aim of improving the understanding of juvenile SLE. The present study was undertaken to describe the clinical manifestations and disease course in patients with juvenile SLE from this large, national inception cohort. Detailed data on clinical phenotype were collected at baseline and at regular clinic reviews and annual followup assessments in 232 patients from 14 centers across the UK over 4.5 years. Patients with SLE were identified according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria. The present cohort comprised children with juvenile SLE (n=198) whose diagnosis fulfilled ≥4 of the ACR criteria for SLE. Among patients with juvenile SLE, the female:male sex distribution was 5.6:1 and the median age at diagnosis was 12.6 years (interquartile range 10.4-14.5 years). Male patients were younger than female patients (PLupus Assessment Group disease activity index demonstrated significantly increased frequencies of musculoskeletal (82%), renal (80%), hematologic (91%), immunologic (54%), and neurologic (26%) involvement among the patients over time. A large proportion of the patients (93%) were taking steroids and 24% of the patients required treatment with cyclophosphamide. Disease damage was common, with 28% of the patients having a Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/ACR damage score of ≥1. The data on these patients from the UK JSLE Cohort Study, comprising one of the largest national inception cohorts of patients with juvenile SLE to date, indicate that severe organ involvement and significant disease activity are primary characteristics in children with juvenile SLE. In addition, accumulation of disease-associated damage could be seen. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  20. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  1. Behavioral Thermoregulation and Trade-Offs in Juvenile Lobster Homarus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Travis V; McGaw, Iain J

    2016-02-01

    Water temperature influences the behavior and distribution patterns of both larval and adult American lobster Homarus americanus. However, very little is known about the responses of juvenile lobsters. The juvenile life stage is a critical period; high levels of mortality, combined with specific behavioral responses, can disconnect larval settlement from patterns of abundance of adults. We assessed behavioral thermoregulation in juvenile lobsters, and determined how thermal preferences can be altered by the presence of shelter and food. Juvenile lobsters avoided temperatures higher than 20 °C and lower than 8 °C, and had a mean temperature preference of 16.2 ± 1 °C. This preference was unaffected by prior acclimation, origin (laboratory-raised or wild), or size. When the animals were subjected to a temperature change (5-20 °C), activity rates peaked at 15 °C, and remained stable thereafter. Activity rates did not change when a shelter was added. The addition of food resulted in an increase in activity associated with food handling. When juvenile lobsters were offered a choice between temperature, shelter, and food, they always chose the environment with a shelter, even when it was in a thermally unfavorable temperature. Juveniles also spent more time in a thermally unfavorable environment when food was present; however, acquisition of a shelter was prioritized over food. Although juveniles had a similar thermal preference to adults, they are more vulnerable to predation; the innate shelter-seeking behavior of juveniles overrode their thermal preference. While temperature is an important environmental factor affecting the physiology, distribution, and growth of aquatic ectotherms, our findings suggest that trade-off behaviors occur in order to maintain optimal fitness and survival of the individual. © 2016 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  2. Acculturation and Enculturation Trajectories among Mexican-American Adolescent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Chassin, Laurie; Lee, Joanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines changes over time in ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement, Spanish language use, English language use, Mexican/Mexican-American affiliation/identification and Anglo affiliation/identification in a sample of Mexican-American adolescents participating in a longitudinal study of juvenile offenders. The…

  3. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release. Juveniles for whom bond has been posted,...

  4. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  5. The Shad-Fack Transom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crannell, Annalisa

    2011-01-01

    We provide several constructions, both algebraic and geometric, for determining the ratio of the radii of two circles in an Apollonius-like packing problem. This problem was inspired by the art deco design in the transom window above the Shadek Fackenthal Library door on the Franklin & Marshall College campus.

  6. A model for simulating the active dispersal of juvenile sea turtles with a case study on western Pacific leatherback turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalire, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic currents are known to broadly shape the dispersal of juvenile sea turtles during their pelagic stage. Accordingly, simple passive drift models are widely used to investigate the distribution at sea of various juvenile sea turtle populations. However, evidence is growing that juveniles do not drift purely passively but also display some swimming activity likely directed towards favorable habitats. We therefore present here a novel Sea Turtle Active Movement Model (STAMM) in which juvenile sea turtles actively disperse under the combined effects of oceanic currents and habitat-driven movements. This model applies to all sea turtle species but is calibrated here for leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). It is first tested in a simulation of the active dispersal of juveniles originating from Jamursba-Medi, a main nesting beach of the western Pacific leatherback population. Dispersal into the North Pacific Ocean is specifically investigated. Simulation results demonstrate that, while oceanic currents broadly shape the dispersal area, modeled habitat-driven movements strongly structure the spatial and temporal distribution of juveniles within this area. In particular, these movements lead juveniles to gather in the North Pacific Transition Zone (NPTZ) and to undertake seasonal north-south migrations. More surprisingly, juveniles in the NPTZ are simulated to swim mostly towards west which considerably slows down their progression towards the American west coast. This increases their residence time, and hence the risk of interactions with fisheries, in the central and eastern part of the North Pacific basin. Simulated habitat-driven movements also strongly reduce the risk of cold-induced mortality. This risk appears to be larger among the juveniles that rapidly circulate into the Kuroshio than among those that first drift into the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC). This mechanism might induce marked interannual variability in juvenile survival as the

  7. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  8. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  9. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos; Persephone XIROU; Giorgos BALLIS; Tsekos, Antonis; Ntomouchtsis, Aris; Alexandros VALASIDIS; Doxa MAGGOUDI

    2012-01-01

    Ossifying fibroma (OS) represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a) juvenile trabecular OS and b) juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment pl...

  10. American College of Rheumatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pharyngitis, Adenitis Syndrome (Juvenile) Polymyalgia Rheumatica Psoriatic Arthritis Raynaud's Phenomenon Reactive Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Sjogren's Syndrome Spinal Stenosis Spondyloarthritis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Juvenile) Takayasu's ...

  11. Distinct synovial immunopathologic characteristics of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kruithof; V. van den Bossche; L. de Rycke; B. Vandooren; R. Joos; J.D. Canete; P.P. Tak; A.M.H. Boots; E.M. Veys; D. Baeten

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To characterize the synovial immunopathologic features of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis (SpA) in relation to adult SpA and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. Synovial biopsy samples were obtained from 10 patients with juvenile-onset SpA, 23 with adult SpA, 19 w

  12. Justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño Rojas, Cielo

    2016-01-01

    El artículo explora las posibilidades de la justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa en los sistemas de justicia juvenil en la región. Si bien la justicia restaurativa no aparece explícitamente en los instrumentos internacionales sobre justicia penal juvenil, estos dan la oportunidad para que aquella se desarrolle dentro de los sistemas de justicia juvenil. Inicialmente se aborda su evolución histórica para establecer el origen de sus principales características. A continuació...

  13. Juvenile and adult offenders arrested for sexual homicide: an analysis of victim-offender relationship and weapon used by race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Myers, Wade C

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on racial offending patterns of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). This study used a 30-year U.S. Supplementary Homicide Reports sample of SHOs arrested in single-victim situations (N = 3745). The analysis strength was used to determine whether the findings yielded meaningful patterns for offender profiling. Several important findings emerged for the juvenile offenders. Juvenile White SHOs were likely to target victims with whom they shared a mutual relationship. In contrast, Black juveniles were equally likely to murder strangers and those with whom they had prior and familial relationships. Notably, no juvenile Black SHOs were arrested for murdering intimate partners. Juvenile White SHOs were twice as likely to use edged weapons as their Black counterparts. Black juveniles, conversely, were more likely than White juveniles to use personal weapons. Beyond these findings, known victim-offender relationships and weapon used may not have significant utility for investigators in identifying the SHO race, even after controlling for offender age. Limitations and future directions are discussed. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis. Fibromatosis hialina juvenil. Diagnostico radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-10-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  15. Morphology and histochemistry of juvenile American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) nephrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon C; Hyndman, Kelly A; Cox, Ashley; Lawler, Ashley; Mathavan, Ketan; Guillette, Louis J

    2009-10-01

    Here we present a detailed morphological description of the alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) kidney and nephron. We present a series of histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical markers that clearly define the seven regions of the alligator nephron. The alligator kidney is composed of many paired (mirrored) lobules on each kidney (lobe). Single nephrons span the width of lobules three times. The fine structure of glomeruli, lying in rows spanning the height of the lobule, is resolved by periodic acid methionine silver (PAMS) and periodic acid Schiff's (PAS) histochemistry. Glomeruli are connected to the proximal tubule (PT) via a neck segment. The PT is alcian blue-negative, making it distinct from the distal tubule (DT), connecting segment (CS), and collecting duct (CD). The PT is clearly identifiable by a PAS-positive brush border membrane. The PT is connected to the DT via an intermediate segment (IS) that makes a 180 degrees turn to connect these tubules. PAMS-positive material is found in the lumens of the PT, IS, and DT. Also, PAMS-positive granules are found in the DT, CS, and CD. Immunolocalization of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase to the basolateral membrane of the DT, CS, and CD suggests a role of this enzyme in driving primary and secondary transport processes in these segments, including bicarbonate transport into the lumen of the DT (leading to an alkaline urine). Through the techniques described here, we have identified a series of distinct markers to be used by pathologists, veterinarians, and researchers to easily identify alligator nephron segments. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Cognitive and academic functioning of juvenile detainees: Implications for correctional populations and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E.; Washburn, Jason J.; Abram, Karen M.; Thomas, Ursula C.; Welty, Leah J.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functioning affects health. This study assessed cognitive functioning among participants in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a stratified random sample of 1,829 newly detained juveniles (10-18 years old) from Cook County, Illinois. We examined receptive vocabulary, oral reading, arithmetic computation skills, and general intellectual abilities. Our sample exhibited impaired overall intellectual functioning and deficits in all areas. Males performed more poorly than females overall. More than three-quarters of males showed below average overall intellectual functioning, and nine in ten males had below average receptive vocabulary skills. Hispanic and African American males performed more poorly than non-Hispanic white males; The multiple systems that serve delinquent youth—correctional, health, legal, and rehabilitative—must collaborate to tailor needed services to the cognitive level of youth in the juvenile justice system. PMID:24352405

  17. Cognitive and academic functioning of juvenile detainees: implications for correctional populations and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E; Washburn, Jason J; Abram, Karen M; Thomas, Ursula C; Welty, Leah J; Teplin, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functioning affects health. This study assessed cognitive functioning among participants in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a stratified random sample of 1,829 newly detained juveniles (10 to 18 years old) from Cook County, Illinois. The study examined receptive vocabulary, oral reading, arithmetic computation skills, and general intellectual abilities. The sample exhibited impaired overall intellectual functioning and deficits in all areas. Males performed more poorly than females. More than three quarters of males showed below average overall intellectual functioning, and 9 in 10 had below average receptive vocabulary skills. Hispanic and African American males performed more poorly than non-Hispanic White males. The multiple systems that serve delinquent youth--correctional, health, legal, and rehabilitative--must collaborate to tailor needed services to the cognitive level of youth in the juvenile justice system.

  18. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  19. [Juvenile monomelic amyotrophy: Hirayama disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowski, W; Baniukiewicz, E; Lewonowska, M

    1998-01-01

    We present three patients with unilateral upper limb weakness (with muscular atrophy)-two of them with distal and one with proximal localization. The disease onset was between 18th end 35-th year of life; the disease course was biphasic (i.e. progressive within first 1 to 3 years, and stabilized during following 4-24 years). The laboratory investigations permitted to diagnose juvenile monomelic amyotrophy, an entity that is very rare outside Japan. Electromyography revealed neurogenic involvement with spinal features also in clinically unaffected muscles. We suggest that these results may support the hypothesis of this disease being a benign variant of spinal muscular atrophy.

  20. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations.

  1. Glucocorticoids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Although the use of corticosteroids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is now much more limited owing to the availability of methotrexate and biological agents, there are clinical scenarios where it is still indicated. For example, corticosteroids may be indicated for intraarticular injections to prevent joint deformities, as a "bridge" drug to relieve symptoms in polyarticular disease while waiting for methotrexate and biologics to exert their full therapeutic effects, and in the treatment of chronic iridocyclitis, macrophage activation syndrome, and systemic JIA, although the advent of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockers has greatly reduced the latter indication.

  2. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Over the past decade there have been considerable changes in the classification and imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Radiology now has a considerable role in the management of JIA, the differential diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and detecting complications. The different imaging modalities available, their role and limitations are discussed in this article and the various disease features that the radiologist should be aware of are described. An approach to the imaging of the child with joint disease and in the monitoring of disease complications are also discussed. (orig.)

  3. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  4. Changes in Juvenile Justice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dennis S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses rising juvenile and youth crime in China, highlighting the essence of Chinese Marxist criminological thought and changing conceptions of delinquency from the postrevolutionary period to the present; examining official responses to delinquency and the recent development of juvenile justice; and suggesting that current delinquency control…

  5. Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa: Family Therapy's Natural Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, H. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a severe problem both in terms of presenting symptomatology and its tendency toward chronicity. Researchers have consistently shown that family-based approaches are superior to individual approaches for the treatment of juvenile AN. This article addresses the capacity deficit of trained family therapists to treat…

  6. Sexually dimorphic body plumage in juvenile crossbills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelaar, P; Phillips, RE; Knops, P

    2005-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in color and pattern of contour feathers is rare in juvenile songbirds. We describe how captive-bred juvenile males of Scottish Crossbill (Loxia scotica) and nominate Red Crossbill (L. curvirostra curvirostra) can be differentiated from females prior to prebasic molt by an unstreak

  7. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  8. Alternative sanctions for juveniles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, P.H. van der

    1993-01-01

    In the Netherlands alternative sanctions for juveniles have become very popular. In less than ten years, the alternative sanction has surpassed the fine as the most frequently imposed penal sanction for juveniles. As a result of this popularity, some net widening has occured. In general, alternativl

  9. Psychiatric Disorder in a Juvenile Assessment Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.; DeComo, Robert E.; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M.; Nolen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile assessment centers (JACs) were developed to address service fragmentation and promote the sharing of information among agencies providing services to youth involved with the juvenile justice system. To date, there are no reports that describe the diagnostic profiles of the youth served by such centers. The authors hypothesize that the…

  10. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  11. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  12. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  13. Group sexual offending by juvenile females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Weerman, F.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal pr

  14. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  15. Treatment of refractory juvenile idiopathic arthritis via pulse therapy using methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Caroline Monteiro de Castro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Patients with refractory juvenile idiopathic arthritis can benefit from aggressive therapy. CASE REPORT: We followed the clinical course of 4 patients (2 male, 2 female aged 9.1-17.8 years (mean of 14.5 years with polyarticular onset of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and one 16-year-old boy with juvenile spondyloarthropathy associated with inflammatory bowel disease. All the juvenile rheumatoid arthritis patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology. All patients had unremitting arthritis despite maximum therapy. All patients began receiving treatment using intravenous cyclophosphamide at 500-750 mg/m² and intravenous methylprednisolone at 30 mg/kg, for 3 days monthly (1 g maximum. The patients received between 3 and 11 monthly treatments, and/or 3-5 treatments every two months for 12 months, according to the severity of the disease and/or response to the therapy. All but one patient were evaluated retrospectively at the start (time 0 and 6 months (time 1, and 12 months (time 2 after the beginning of the treatment. A rapid and clinically significant suppression of systemic and articular manifestations was seen in all patients. Our results showed the favorable effect of this treatment on the clinical and some laboratory manifestations of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  16. A social work study on juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical study to study the effects of different factors on juvenile delinquency. The investigation distributes 100 questionnaires among people who are involved with crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are five hypotheses in our survey and we look to see whether family conditions, religion, economical conditions, media and physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency in Iranian society. The results shows that while family conditions, physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency, other factors do not statistically have any impact on juvenile delinquency. The study suggests that a better family condition could help reduce juvenile delinquency and people could guide their children through better consultations.

  17. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  18. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  19. Profile of Incarcerated Juveniles: Comparison of Male and Female Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Dell, Rex; Davis, Candice; Guerrieri, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Effective methods of identifying potential juvenile offenders are critical when developing prevention programs within both state and national juvenile justice systems. The characteristics of juvenile offenders in a large juvenile justice system are examined in this study. Participants live in a Midwestern city with a high rate of crime as…

  20. 8 CFR 1236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 1236.3... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release....

  1. Habitat associations of juvenile versus adult butterflyfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, M. S.; Berumen, M. L.; Marnane, M. J.; Eagle, J. V.; Pratchett, D. J.

    2008-09-01

    Many coral reef fishes exhibit distinct ontogenetic shifts in habitat use while some species settle directly in adult habitats, but there is not any general explanation to account for these differences in settlement strategies among coral reef fishes. This study compared distribution patterns and habitat associations of juvenile (young of the year) butterflyfishes to those of adult conspecifics. Three species, Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon melannotus, and Chaetodon vagabundus, all of which have limited reliance on coral for food, exhibited marked differences in habitat association of juvenile versus adult individuals. Juveniles of these species were consistently found in shallow-water habitats, whereas adult conspecifics were widely distributed throughout a range of habitats. Juveniles of seven other species ( Chaetodon aureofasciatus, Chaetodon baronessa, Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon plebeius, Chaetodon rainfordi, and Chaetodon trifascialis), all of which feed predominantly on live corals, settled directly into habitat occupied by adult conspecifics. Butterflyfishes with strong reliance on corals appear to be constrained to settle in habitats that provide access to essential prey resources, precluding their use of distinct juvenile habitats. More generalist butterflyfishes, however, appear to utilize distinct juvenile habitats and exhibit marked differences in the distribution of juveniles versus adults.

  2. 78 FR 54678 - Establishment of the Attorney General's Advisory Committee of the Task Force on American Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... to Violence, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Room 5312, 810 Seventh Street NW... American Indian/Alaska Native Children Exposed to Violence AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and... Indian/Alaska Native Children Exposed to Violence (hereinafter, the ``AI/AN Advisory Committee''). The...

  3. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos VAHTSEVANOS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ossifying fibroma (OS represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a juvenile trabecular OS and b juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment plan included radical surgical excision of the lesion and restoration with autologous osteochondral graft from the 6th rib of the ipsilateral side.

  4. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... was preferred for conventional ultrasound oculometry due to its extreme repeatability of measuring values, thus making it well fitted for evaluating very small differences. In particular, this had bearing for the decelerating end phase of growth in the longitudinal investigation. RESULTS: Sorby's statement...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  5. SUBTYPES OF JUVENILE SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Slarovoitova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to allot clinical forms of juvenile systemic scleroderma (JSSD. Material and methods: investigation and dynamic observation of 60 patients aged 14-54 (mean age 25.1 ±7.2 with onset of disease in child's and adolescent’s ages from 1 to 16 years old ( in average 11. 4±3.8 year old and disease duration from 1 to 39 years (in average 13.1 ±7.9. Results: 55% of patients demonstrated JSSD subtype with focal cutaneous lesion of different localization. The possibility of overlap-syndrome development in JSSD patients with onset in adolescent age typical for SSD-rheumatoid arthritis, SSD-polymvositis should be underlined. Conclusion: knowledge of different clinical forms and courses of the disease, modern diagnostics and early beginning of differential JSSD treatment will enable us to improve the prognosis and disease outcome.

  6. Juvenile Huntington disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Parisi, Virginia; Etcheverry, José Luis; Sanguinetti, Ana; Cordi, Lorena; Binelli, Adrian; Persi, Gabriel; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed demographic, clinical and genetic characteristics of juvenile Huntington disease (JHD) and it frequency in an Argentinean cohort. Age at onset was defined as the age at which behavioral, cognitive, psychiatric or motor abnormalities suggestive of JHD were first reported. Clinical and genetic data were similar to other international series, however, in this context we identified the highest JHD frequency reported so far (19.72%; 14/71). Age at onset of JHD is challenging and still under discussion. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that clinical manifestations, other than the typical movement disorder, may anticipate age at onset of even many years. Analyses of JHD cohorts are required to explore it frequency in populations with different backgrounds to avoid an underestimation of this rare phenotype. Moreover, data from selected populations may open new pathways in therapeutic approaches and may explain new potential correlations between HD presentations and environmental or biological factors.

  7. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  8. Juvenile prison: Remarks on the specific characteristics of regular sentencing

    OpenAIRE

    Miladinović-Stefanović, Dušica

    2015-01-01

    The system of the juvenile criminal law in the Republic of Serbia includes different mechanisms of social response to juvenile delinquency, including corrective orders, corrective measures and juvenile prison. This paper deals with the issue of determining a relevant sentence for juvenile offenders in trial proceedings. The legislator has provided a number of guidelines for these proceedings: the specific range of the juvenile prison sentence, the purpose of punishment, the degree of maturity...

  9. Parenting Styles and Family Communication as Correlates of Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine parenting styles and family communication as correlates of juvenile delinquency. A review of the literature was completed in the areas of parenting styles, family communication, and juvenile delinquency. The literature that was reviewed for this study was examined mainly from juvenile perceptions. This study was approached from a general systems theory perspective. A sample of juveniles (N = 78) from Weber County, Utah, involved in the juvenile justice...

  10. Experimental infection of adult and juvenile coyotes with domestic dog and wild coyote isolates of Hepatozoon americanum (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Jennifer Jane; Kocan, A Alan; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Bahr, Robert J; Ewing, Sidney A

    2005-07-01

    Each of five adult and four juvenile coyotes (Canis latrans) was exposed to an oral dose of 50 Hepatozoon americanum oocysts recovered from Amblyomma maculatum ticks that previously fed on either naturally infected domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) or naturally infected wild coyotes. All coyotes exposed to H. americanum became infected, regardless of isolate source, and all exhibited mild to moderate clinical disease that simulated American canine hepatozoonosis in naturally infected dogs. At 100 days postexposure, parasitemia was greater in juvenile than adult coyotes (0.9% and 0.3%, respectively); radiographic imaging of femurs revealed moderate exostosis in all juveniles and mild to moderate new bone growth in four of five (80%) adult coyotes. Gross postmortem analysis of bone lesions demonstrated variation between age groups of coyotes but not between isolates of H. americanum. Microscopic evaluation of skeletal muscle revealed that parasite-induced lesions were significantly more numerous (t = 5.0, df = 7, P = 0.001) in juvenile than adult coyotes. Results of this study indicate that juvenile and adult coyotes are equally susceptible to experimental infection with H. americanum isolated from domestic dog and wild coyote sources. The age of coyotes at the time of exposure, and possibly the number of H. americanum oocysts ingested, might influence morbidity and mortality, but it appears that both adult and juvenile coyotes could be reservoirs of H. americanum.

  11. Are antipredator behaviours of hatchery Salmo salar juveniles similar to wild juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvanes, A G V

    2017-01-27

    This study explores how antipredator behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar developed during conventional hatchery rearing of eggs from wild brood stock, compared with the behaviour of wild-caught juveniles from the same population. Juveniles aged 1+ years were tested in two unfamiliar environments; in one S. salar were presented with simulated predator attacks and in the other they were given the opportunity to explore an open-field arena. No difference was found in their spontaneous escape responses or ventilation rate (reflex responses) after simulated predator attacks. Hatchery-reared juveniles were more risk-prone in their behaviours than wild-caught individuals. Hatchery juveniles stayed less time in association with shelter. In the open-field arena, hatchery juveniles were more active than wild juveniles. Hatchery juveniles were also immobile for less time and spent a shorter amount of time than wild juveniles in the fringe of the open-field arena. Salmo salar size had no effect on the observed behaviour. Overall, this study provides empirical evidence that one generation of hatchery rearing does not change reflex responses associated with threats, whereas antipredator behaviour, typically associated with prior experience, was less developed in hatchery-reared than in wild individuals.

  12. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  13. Advances in the treatment of polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Kate; Wedderburn, Lucy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To review recent advances in the management strategies of polyarticular course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and identify unanswered questions and avenues for further research. Recent findings There is evidence for an early, aggressive, treat-to-target approach for polyarticular JIA. Clinical disease activity criteria have been recently defined and validated, including criteria for inactive disease and the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS). There is a need for evidence-based, defined disease targets and biomarkers for prediction of response, including targets for remission induction, and guidelines on drug withdrawal. Recent treatment consensus plans and guidelines are discussed and compared, including the 2015 NHS England clinical policy statement, the 2014 Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) treatment plans and the 2011 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guidelines. Evidence for new agents such as tocilizumab, rituximab, golimumab, ustekinumab, certolizumab and tofacitinib is promising: the recent clinical trials are summarized here. Stratification of individual patient treatment remains a goal, and predictive biomarkers have been shown to predict success in the withdrawal of methotrexate therapy. Summary There are promising advances in the treatment approaches, disease activity criteria, clinical guidelines, pharmaceutical choices and individually stratified therapy choices for polyarticular JIA. PMID:26147756

  14. Juvenile Sex Offending Through a Developmental Life Course Criminology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Current American policies and responses to juvenile sex offending have been criticized for being based on myths, misconceptions, and unsubstantiated claims. In spite of the criticism, no organizing framework has been proposed to guide policy development with respect to the prevention of juvenile sex offending. This article proposes a developmental life course (DLC) criminology perspective to investigate the origins, development, and termination of sex offending among youth. It also provides a review of the current state of knowledge regarding various parameters characterizing the development of sex offending (e.g., prevalence, age of onset, frequency, persistence, continuity in adulthood, and versatility). The review highlights some heterogeneity across these developmental parameters suggesting the presence of different sex offending patterns among youth. In fact, it is proposed that, based on the current knowledge, such heterogeneity can be accounted for by a dual taxonomy of adolescents involved in sexual offenses: (a) the adolescent-limited and (b) the high-rate/slow-desister. The DLC criminology approach and the dual taxonomy are proposed as organizing frameworks to conduct prospective longitudinal research to better understand the origins and development of sex offending and to guide policy development and responses to at-risk youth and those who have committed sexual offenses.

  15. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Epilepsia mioclônica juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alfradique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile myoclonus epilepsy (JME is a common epileptic syndrome, the etiology of which is genetically determined. Its onset occurs from 6 through 22 years of age, and affected patients present with myoclonic jerks, often associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures - the most common association - and absence seizures. JME is non-progressive, and there are no abnormalities on clinical examination or intellectual deficits. Psychiatric disorders may coexist. Generalized polyspike-and-waves are the most characteristic electroencephalographic pattern. Usual neuroimaging studies show no abnormalities. Atypical presentations should be entertained, as they are likely to induce misdiagnosis. Prevention of precipitating factors and therapy with valproic acid (VPA are able to control seizures in the great majority of patients. Whenever VPA is judged to be inappropriate, other antiepileptic drugs such as lamotrigine may be considered. Treatment should not be withdrawn, otherwise recurrences are frequent.A epilepsia mioclônica juvenil é uma síndrome epiléptica comum, cuja etiologia é fundamentada na genética. Inicia-se entre 6 e 22 anos e os indivíduos apresentam mioclonias, que podem ser acompanhadas por crises tônico-clônicas generalizadas - associação mais comum - e crises de ausência. A doença não é progressiva, e não há alterações detectáveis no exame físico ou déficits intelectuais. Distúrbios psiquiátricos podem coexistir. Polipontas-ondas lentas generalizadas constituem o padrão eletrencefalográfico ictal típico. Não há anormalidades em exames de imagem convencionais. Apresentações atípicas devem ser consideradas, pois predispõem a erros de diagnóstico. A prevenção de fatores desencadeantes e o uso de ácido valpróico (VPA controlam as crises epilépticas na grande maioria dos casos. Quando o VPA é inapropriado, outras drogas como a lamotrigina podem ser utilizadas. O tratamento não deve ser interrompido

  16. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and the temporomandibular joint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resonance imaging findings of temporomandibular joint inflammation among juvenile ... The mean total MRI score was significantly higher in patients with active ... Clinical signs of TMJ arthritis can be used as filter for MRI examination TMJ is ...

  17. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenoma of breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Madhumita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old girl with rapidly enlarging bilateral breast lumps is reported. It was diagnosed as a case of juvenile fibroadenoma following fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed on histopathological examination of the excised specimens.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile Paget disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information & Resources MedlinePlus (1 link) Health Topic: Bone Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Juvenile ... on PubMed Daroszewska A, Ralston SH. Mechanisms of disease: genetics of Paget's disease of bone and related disorders. ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antaya RJ, Cajaiba MM, Madri J, Lopez MA, Ramirez MC, Martignetti JA, Reyes-Múgica M. Juvenile hyaline ... 103. Citation on PubMed Dowling O, Difeo A, Ramirez MC, Tukel T, Narla G, Bonafe L, Kayserili ...

  20. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in a Nigerian boy. ... lead to delay in commencing appropriate treatment. ... of two months duration, had an elevated Rheumatoid factor and X-ray findings suggestive of ...

  1. Screening Incarcerated Juveniles Using the MAYSI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy L; Grande, Todd L; Hallman, Janelle; Underwood, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of mental health disorders among incarcerated juveniles is a matter of national and global concern. Juvenile justice personnel need accurate screening measures that identify youth requiring immediate mental health services. The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) to examine the utility of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2 (MAYSI-2) in identifying juveniles with mental health concerns in a large sample of juveniles (N = 4,009), (b) to provide data regarding rates of identified mental health needs in incarcerated youth, and (c) to provide descriptive comparisons to other studies using the MAYSI-2. Mean scores of subscales were compared with the MAYSI-2 normative samples and other recent studies. Results indicated that this population has a high occurrence of mental health symptoms and there is high variability in the severity of the symptoms. In addition, a multivariate analysis of variance test found significant differences in mental health problems across ethnic groups.

  2. SAB Juvenile Reef Fish (2002-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Trawls were made during the summer months in shallow seagrass beds to monitor the number and species of juvenile snapper using the grass as a nursery.

  3. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish habitat utilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile rockfish were observed amongst coral, sponge, cobble, and gravel habitats. Rockfish utilized coral habitats more than any other, while gravel was the least...

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF WATER TEMPERATURE AND FLOW ON YEAR CLASS STRENGTH OF TWAITE SHAD (ALOSA FALLAX FALLAX FROM THE RIVER SEVERN, ENGLAND.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APRAHAMIAN M. W.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Year class strength (YCS was estimated for the 25 year period between 1972 and 1996. The index (YCS was based on the mean number of six year old female fish caught per tide (1972-1991 in a net fishery at the start of the freshwater phase of their spawning migration, or predicted from juvenile data (1992-1996. The variation in recruitment as measured by the coefficient of variation for the 20 year period (1972 to 1991 was 124.5 %. There was good spawning success in 1976 and 1989 and particularly poor recruitment in the periods 1977 to 1981 and 1985 to 1988. Since 1990 recruitment has remained relatively stable. Water temperature was positively correlated to YCS with mean July temperature explaining the greatest proportion of the variance in YCS (67 %, followed by August (48 %, June (31 % and October (20 % ; May and September temperatures did not significantly explain the variation in YCS. Flow in the months June to August were significantly inversely correlated with YCS, with the greatest proportion of the variability explained by August flows (41 %, followed by flows in July (36 % and June (25 %. Flows in May, September and October were not significantly correlated with YCS. Combining environmental variables in a multiple regression indicated that mean daily temperature between June and August accounted for 77.1 % of the variability in year class strength. The inclusion of flow did not increase significantly the amount of variation explained.

  5. Volume 89, Issue4 (September 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Original PaperSpatial Analysis of Twaite Shad, Alosa fallax (Lacepède, 1803), in the Southern North Sea: Application of Non-Linear Geostatistics as a Tool to Search for Special Areas of Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzenmüller, Vanessa; Maynou, Francesc; Ehrich, Siegfried; Zauke, Gerd-Peter

    2004-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the suitability of non-linear geostatistics and indicator kriging (IK) as a tool in environmental impact assessment and nature conservation, in particular to search for potential Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) for the endangered fish species twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacepède, 1803) within the German Exclusive Economical Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea. To analyse the spatial distribution of this fish species, data on standardised biomass index (catch per unit effort, c.p.u.e., kg × 30 min-1) from 1996 to 2001 were used, regarding the third and fourth quarters of each year, respectively. Thereby we assume that the spatial distribution can be described as a time-invariant process. This assumption is supported by information on annual sampling effort, allocation of hauls and spatial distribution of the positive catches. All indicator variograms obtained for different c.p.u.e. cut-off values displayed distinct spatial structures, clearly indicating that the indicator variables were spatially autocorrelated. Gaussian models were fitted by least-squares methods and were evaluated with a goodness-of-fit statistic. Subsequently, IK was employed to estimate the probability of exceeding the c.p.u.e. cut-off values for the twaite shad in the investigation area. These were highest in the Weser- and Elbe-estuary, probably because of migrations of twaite shad to and from estuaries at the time of investigation due to spawning, while within the German EEZ of the North Sea no such areas with increased probabilities could be discerned. Thus, although available data did not allow to identify and implement any SAC in the German EEZ, the methods employed here can be regarded as a promising management tool in biological conservation issues. (

  6. An Empirical Evaluation of Juvenile Awareness Programs in the United States: Can Juveniles Be "Scared Straight"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Bell, Keith J.; Dodson, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile awareness programs like Scared Straight became popular crime prevention strategies during the 1970s. Juvenile offenders and at-risk youth who participate in these programs are taken to prisons where inmates use confrontational methods to recount stories about violence, sex, and abuse perpetrated by fellow inmates while living a life…

  7. Juvenile fibromyalgia: Guidance for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kikuchi, Masako; Miyamae, Takako

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) is a disease in which patients complain of acute and chronic severe pain, an overt primary cause for which cannot be found or surmised. Although patients with JFM mainly complain of systemic pain or allodynia in the medical interview and physical examination, the concept of the disease is the total sum of painful illness, chronic fatigue, hypothermia and many other autonomic symptoms and signs. Many issues are interacting including individual traits (personality, temperament, sensitivity, memory of pain; age: early adolescence), individual states (self-esteem, anxiety, developmental level), and external stressors (parent especially mother, school environment). JFM is diagnosed on the combination of disease history, physical examination to determine the 18 tender points and allodynia, pain from gently touching their hair, and negative results of blood tests (inflammatory markers, thyroid function, myogenic enzymes). The goals of treatment are the following: restoration of function and relief of pain. Psychological support is advocated. Although the exact number of patients with JFM is still to be elucidated, it seems to be growing because pediatric rheumatologists in Japan encounter children with a wide variety of musculoskeletal pains. This guideline describes how to diagnose JFM in children and how to treat them appropriately.

  8. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research.

  9. Whole-body MRI of juvenile spondyloarthritis: protocols and pictorial review of characteristic patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Michael R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tse, Shirley M.L.; Rachlis, Alisa C. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Rheumatology, Toronto (Canada); Gupta, Sumeet; Stimec, Jennifer [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Spondyloarthritides are a group of inflammatory rheumatological diseases that cause arthritis with a predilection for spinal or sacroiliac involvement in addition to a high association with HLA-B27. Juvenile spondyloarthritis is distinct from adult spondyloarthritis and manifests more frequently as peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. Consequently juvenile spondyloarthritis is often referred to as enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) subtype under the juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) classification criteria. The American College of Rheumatology Treatment Recommendations for JIA, including ERA, are based on the following clinical parameters: current treatment, disease activity and the presence of poor prognostic features. The MRI features of juvenile spondyloarthritis include marrow edema, peri-enthesal soft-tissue swelling and edema, synovitis and joint or bursal fluid. Marrow edema is nonspecific and can be seen with other pathologies as well as in healthy subjects, and this is an important pitfall to consider. With further longitudinal study and validation, however, whole-body MRI with dedicated images of the more commonly affected areas such as the spine, sacroiliac joints, hips, knees, ankles and feet can serve as a more objective tool compared to clinical exam for early detection and monitoring of disease activity and ultimately direct therapeutic management. (orig.)

  10. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  11. American Corrections at the Crossroads: A Time to Reconsider Our Penal Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerome G.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the history of punishment for crimes in American society and argues that the present system is racially biased. Alternatives, such as treatment, particularly for juveniles, are sorely needed, but are unlikely to replace the viciousness that characterizes justice and corrections for African Americans. (SLD)

  12. Pendidikan Agama Islam Sebagai Pencegah Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values ​​of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  13. PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM SEBAGAI PENCEGAH JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  14. Parasite removal improves reproductive success of female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse E H Patterson

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate potential reproductive costs associated with parasitism, we experimentally removed ectoparasites from reproductive female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. Body mass and overwinter survival of mothers, days to juvenile emergence, juvenile survival from birth to emergence, and body mass of juveniles at emergence were all compared to those of untreated (control animals. Ectoparasite removal did not affect the body mass of mothers throughout the lactation period and overwinter survival of mothers did not differ between treatments and controls. Likewise, there was no effect of treatment on the number of days to juvenile emergence. However, treated mothers raised offspring that were significantly heavier (11% than controls at emergence. Juveniles from treated mothers were also 24% more likely to survive from birth to emergence. Our results indicate that ectoparasites impose costs on the reproductive success of female red squirrels and that ectoparasites have the potential to influence red squirrel life-histories and population dynamics.

  15. Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

  16. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish DNA species identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Many pelagic juvenile rockfish (Sebastes) were collected in juvenile salmonid surveys in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) from 1998 to 2002. Often species identification of...

  17. A case report of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Choudhary

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, movement disorder, dementia, and behavioural disturbances. It is caused by a mutation in IT15 gene on chromosome 4p16.3, which leads to unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion. The onset of juvenile HD occurs before the 2nd decade of life and comprises approximately 10% of total HD patients. Juvenile HD differs in symptomatology and is usually transmitted from paternal side with genetic anticipation phenomenon. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain shows specific changes of early affection of caudate nucleus and putamen. Multidisciplinary approach with symptomatic treatment of specific symptoms is the current available management. Gene editing and gene silencing treatment are under trial. Hereby, we introduce a case of an 8-year-old boy, who presented with typical symptoms of juvenile HD, positive family history with genetic anticipation phenomenon and characteristic MRI findings.

  18. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  19. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl término «delincuencia juvenil» fue acuñado en Inglaterra en el año 1815, “Se entiende por delincuencia juvenil el conjunto de delitos, contravenciones o comportamientos socialmente reprochables, que cometen las personas consideradas como jóvenes por la ley”1 . Cada Estado está sujeto a su propio sistema jurídico, para algunos es delincuente juvenil el adolescente que comete acciones sancionadas por la ley sin importar su gravedad, otros Estados sólo consideran como delincuente juvenil al joven que comete un acto delictivo grave.El fenómeno de la delincuencia juvenil es algo que se inscribe en los espacios de una sociedad en la cual su estructura material, y su formación social consecuente, se halla en una profunda crisis. Que jóvenes conformen bandas de delincuencia organizada nos está indicando que son el resultado de la misma criminalidad general que se ha apoderado de la sociedad en la perspectiva de lograr sobrevivir materialmente. El capitalismo no es sólo acumulación de riqueza sino concentración de la misma en muy pocas manos; y todo el sistema institucional y legal tiende a favorecer ese fenómeno porque éste constituye la supra estructura del modo de producción capitalista. Así como los adultos se organizan para delinquir, lo hacen los niños y los jóvenes a partir de una edad en la cual pueden percibir que la sociedad no es sana y no tienen porvenir humano en ella. Abandonados y sujetos a la violencia que engendra el sistema, ellos simplemente responden en una manifestación de reflejos condicionados que sostienen la sobrevivencia en forma instintiva; “los niños no saben de normas legales sino de formas de sobrevivir a semejante situación; el instinto de sobrevivencia no tiene edades ni la normatividad puede incidir en él”.Palabras ClavesDelincuencia juvenil, Jóvenes, Criminalidad, Familia, Factores, Acto delictivo, Responsabilidad Penal.AbstractThe term “juvenile delinquency” was coined in

  20. Immunization Coverage Among Juvenile Justice Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Gregory L; Glanz, Jason M; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anoshiravani, Arash

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to (1) quantify the baseline immunization coverage of adolescents entering the juvenile justice system and (2) assess the effect of detention-based care on immunization coverage in youth. A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was performed of 279 adolescents detained at a large juvenile detention facility. Only 3% of adolescents had received all study immunizations prior to detention. Before detention, immunization coverage was significantly lower than that for the general adolescent population for all vaccines except the first doses of hepatitis A and varicella-zoster virus vaccines. Subsequent to detention, most individual immunization coverage levels increased and were significantly higher than in the general adolescent population. The routine administration of immunizations in the juvenile justice setting can help detained youth achieve levels of immunization coverage similar to their nondetained peers.

  1. Effect of TBT on Ruditapes decussatus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, M R; Langston, W J; Bebianno, M J

    2006-06-01

    The effects of sublethal concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on growth of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were determined during exposure to TBT concentrations of 50, 100 and 250 ng l(-1) (as Sn) for a period up to two years. Length and weight of clams increased continuously in all treatments throughout the experimental period, and, overall, rates were not significantly influenced by TBT exposure, although final length and weight were inversely related to increasing TBT concentration. Juvenile R. decussatus therefore appear to be less sensitive to TBT than larval stages. Some juveniles exposed to TBT developed abnormal shell growth, laterally, changing the typical flattened shape of clams into a more "rounded" form. This characteristic was more visible in the anterior margins of valves than posteriorly, and mainly observed in clams exposed to TBT at 50 ng l(-1) (as Sn).

  2. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesher, Melissa S

    2015-06-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with months of severe widespread musculoskeletal pain. He was profoundly fatigued and unable to attend school. Laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, inflammatory markers, and thyroid function, was unrevealing. Physical examination was also normal except for multiple tender points. The patient was diagnosed with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome and referred for multidisciplinary treatment including physical therapy, exercise, and counseling, and his daily functioning gradually improves. Juvenile fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome that often severely limits patients' activities and can impede normal adolescent development. Effective treatment requires an understanding of the biologic, psychologic, and social factors contributing to the perpetuation of chronic pain. The author reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, and treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia. Medications, particularly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, can be useful adjuncts to therapy. However, multimodal pain management including intensive physical therapy, exercise, counseling, and sleep hygiene is most effective in treating fibromyalgia.

  3. Hydrodynamic modeling of juvenile mussel dispersal in a large river: The potential effects of bed shear stress and other parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraio, J.A.; Weber, L.J.; Newton, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    might determine juvenile settling distributions. Field data are needed to test these hypotheses. Results support the idea that flow patterns and b can act as negative censoring mechanisms controlling settling distributions. Furthermore, a river reach probably has a quantifiable threshold range of flow rates. Above the upper threshold, ??b probably is the primary determinant of juvenile settling distribution. Relationships of ?? with H, Fr, S, and QS were relatively weak. Important physical processes that affect dispersal probably are not captured by approximations based on large-scale hydraulic parameters, such as Fr and H. ?? 2010 The North American Benthological Society.

  4. Juvenile age estimation from facial images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eilidh; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Age determination from images can be of vital importance, particularly in cases involving suspected child sexual abuse (CSA). It is imperative to determine if an individual depicted in such an image is indeed a child, with a more concise age often sought, as this may affect the severity of offender sentencing. The aims of this study were to establish the accuracy of visual age estimation of the juvenile face in children aged between 0 and 16years and to determine if varying levels of exposure to children affected an individual's ability to assess age from the face. An online questionnaire consisting of 30 juvenile face images was created using SurveyMonkey®. The overall results suggested poor accuracy for visual age estimation of juvenile faces. The age, sex, occupation and number of children of the participants did not affect the ability to estimate age from facial images. Similarly, the sex and age of the juvenile faces did not appear to affect the accuracy of age estimation. When specific age groups are considered, sex may have an influence on age estimation, with female faces being aged more accurately in the younger age groups and male faces more accurate after the age of 11years, however this is based on a small sample. This study suggests that the accuracy of juvenile age estimation from the face alone is poor using simple visual assessment of images. Further research is required to determine exactly how age is assessed from a facial image, if there are indicators, or features in particular that lead to over- or under-estimation of juvenile age.

  5. Substance-related disorders among juvenile offenders: what role do psychopathic traits play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R; Tatar, Joseph R; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    Substance use disorders are associated with psychopathy, a personality disorder that is heterogeneous in both adults and youth; secondary variants of psychopathy with comorbid psychopathology and primary variants without comorbidity show distinct correlates and outcomes. In adult criminal populations, secondary variants report greater substance abuse compared with primary variants. The primary aim of this study is to replicate and extend these findings to a juvenile offender population. Compared with primary variants of juvenile psychopathy, secondary variants (a) reported significantly more frequent substance use--particularly alcohol--within the 6 months prior to incarceration (d = .43), (b) were almost twice as likely to abuse substances while incarcerated, and (c) were more likely to be diagnosed with a current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) substance use disorder. Practical implications for working with justice-involved youth are discussed.

  6. Juvenile dermatomyositis in a Nigerian girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa. PMID:24706700

  7. Posttraumatic stress among youths in juvenile detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Derek; Thompson, Sanna J; Sanford, Julia

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 1.8 million juveniles were arrested in the United States for delinquency in 2009. Previous studies indicate high rates of exposure to traumatic events and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms for these youths. This study examined PTS in a sample of 170 youths in juvenile detention. The results of this study reveal higher rates of PTS symptoms (21%) compared to national rates (6%). The data also suggest youths suffering from more PTS symptoms also report higher depression, anxiety, anger, family relationship worries, thought problems, and attention problems. These factors provide a direction for continued practice targeting these youths.

  8. [HLA antigens in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumba, I V; Sochnev, A M; Kukaĭne, E M; Burshteĭn, A M; Benevolenskaia, L I

    1990-01-01

    Antigens of I class HLA system (locus A and B) were investigated in 67 patients of Latvian nationality suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Associations of HLA antigens with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis partially coincided with the ones revealed earlier. Typing established an increased incidence of antigen B27 (p less than 0.01) and gaplotype A2, B40 (p less than 0.01). Antigen B15 possessed a protective action with respect to JRA. Interlocus combinations demonstrated a closer association with the disease than a single antigen. The authors also revealed markers of various clinico-anatomical variants of JRA.

  9. Metabolic responses to hypoglycemia in juvenile diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Krarup, T;

    1980-01-01

    Glucagon and metabolic responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were studied in seven juvenile diabetics, age 31 +/- 2 years (mean and S.E.M.), duration of diabetes 17 +/- 3 years, with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (decreased beat-to-beat variation in heart rate during hyperventilation and...... in both patient groups. Metabolic responses to hypoglycemia were also similar in the two patient groups. In conclusion, diabetic autonomic neuropathy has no effect on glucagon and metabolic responses to hypoglycemia in juvenile, insulin-treated diabetics....

  10. Juvenil Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emin YANIK et al.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an uncommon skin disease characterized by follicularkeratotic papules, erythemato-squamous plaques and palmoplantar keratoderma. Etyology isunknown. A 8 years-old boy presented with a 15 days history of scaly patches and plaques withfollicular papules involving his scalp and face. However he had palmoplantar keratoderma onhis hands and feet. Based upon clinical and histopatological findings, he was diagnosed asJuvenile PRP. Acitretin was initiated for therapy. We presented our case because of its rarity.

  11. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Marialda Höfling P.; Amaral,Elisabete; PAI, Hong Jin; Daniela Terumi Y. Tsai; LOTITO, Ana Paola N; Leone,Claudio; Silva, Clovis Artur

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever a utilização da acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia) submetidos a, pelo menos, 11 sessões semanais de acupuntura. As avaliações antes e após acupuntura incluíram dados demográficos, características da dor musculoesquelética, número de pontos dolorosos (NPD), escala visual analógica (EVA) de dor, algiometria e índice miálgico (IM). D...

  12. Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents: Profiles of Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Melissa H.; Cummings, Jack A.; McKinney, Robert

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study of resiliency profiles of male and female juvenile offenders committed to a juvenile correctional facility was conducted. The goal of the present study was to examine juvenile offenders' positive characteristics (e.g., adaptability, optimism, self-efficacy, tolerance of differences). To assess positive characteristics and…

  13. Programa Shortstop: A Culturally Focused Juvenile Intervention for Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Ruan, Karen; Duenas, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Culturally sensitive juvenile delinquency and substance abuse interventions are relatively limited and unavailable to many first-time Hispanic juvenile offenders. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a culturally focused juvenile and substance abuse intervention program for first time Hispanic youth offenders. The intent of…

  14. Increased Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. van Hattem; L.A.A. Brosens; S.Y. Marks; A.N.A. Milne; S. van Eeden; C.A. Iacobuzio-Donahue; A. Ristimäki; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims: Gastrointestinal juvenile polyps may occur in juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) or sporadically. JPS is an autosomal-dominant condition caused by a germline defect in SMAD4 or BMPR1A in 50% to 60% of cases, and is characterized by multiple juvenile polyps, predominantly in the col

  15. Chronic Juvenile Delinquency and the "Suppression Effect": An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark; Norman, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Notes that fear of apprehension and punishment have been reported to suppress juvenile crime. Discusses suppression effect in regard to the correlates of chronic juvenile delinquency and exploratory evidence that youth who commit large volume of crime do not fear sanctions imposed by juvenile court any more than youth who commit only one offense…

  16. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikanza, Ian C

    2002-01-01

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is the most common childhood chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease. The therapeutic approach to JRA has, to date, been casual and based on extensions of clinical experiences gained in the management of adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The physiology of inflammation has been systemically studied and this has led to the identification of specific therapeutic targets and the development of novel approaches to the management of JRA. The classical treatments of the disease such as methotrexate, sodium aurothiomalate and sulfasalazine, are not always effective in controlling RA and JRA. This has necessitated the development of novel agents for treating RA, most of which are biological in nature and are targeted at specific sites of the inflammatory cascades. These biological therapeutic strategies in RA have proved successful and are being applied in the management of JRA. These developments have been facilitated by the advances in molecular biology which have heralded the advent of biodrugs (recombinant proteins) and gene therapy, in which specific genes can be introduced locally to enhance in vivo gene expression or suppress gene(s) of interest with a view to down-regulating inflammation. Some of these biodrugs, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha), monoclonal antibodies (infliximab, adalimumab), TNF soluble receptor constructs (etanercept) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) have been tested and shown to be effective in RA. Etanercept has now been licensed for JRA. Clinical trials of infliximab in JRA are planned. Studies show that the clinical effects are transient, necessitating repeated treatments and the risk of vaccination effects. Anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta and interferon-beta (IFN-beta) are undergoing clinical trials. Many of these agents have to be administered parenterally and production costs are very high; thus, there is a need

  17. The challenges of the first migration: movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Eggers, Ute; Flack, Andrea; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, we examined the patterns and potential causes of age-related differences in fall migration properties of white storks by comparing first-year juveniles and adults. We compared juvenile and adult parameters of movement, behaviour and energy expenditure (estimated from overall dynamic body acceleration) and placed this in the context of the juveniles' lower survival rate. Juveniles used flapping flight vs. soaring flight 23% more than adults and were estimated to expend 14% more energy during flight. Juveniles did not compensate for their higher flight costs by increased refuelling or resting during migration. When juveniles and adults migrated together in the same flock, the juvenile flew mostly behind the adult and was left behind when they separated. Juveniles showed greater improvement in flight efficiency throughout migration compared to adults which appears crucial because juveniles exhibiting higher flight costs suffered increased mortality. Our findings demonstrate the conflict between the juveniles' inferior flight skills and their urge to keep up with mixed adult-juvenile flocks. We suggest that increased flight costs are an important proximate cause of juvenile mortality in white storks and likely in other soaring migrants and that natural selection is operating on juvenile variation in flight efficiency.

  18. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  19. Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2010: Selected Findings. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report Series. Bulletin NCJ 241134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Sarah; Sickmund, Melissa; Sladky, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This bulletin is part of the "Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report Series." The "National Report" offers a comprehensive statistical overview of the problems of juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and the response of the juvenile justice system. During each interim year, the bulletins in the "National…

  20. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Transport stress catabatic effect of anesthetic benzocaine on American shad Alosa sapidissima%苯唑卡因对美洲鲥运输应激的缓解作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜浩; 危起伟; 甘芳; 刘鉴毅; 杨德国; 陈细华; 张燕

    2006-01-01

    以苯唑卡因为麻醉剂,研究了人工养殖1+龄美洲鲥(Alosa sapidissima)幼鱼在有无麻醉剂作用下长途运输2 h后血清皮质醇和生化指标的变化,探索美洲鲥运输后高死亡率的原因以及麻醉剂对运输应激的缓解作用.实验对运输前、运输2 h、加20 mg/L苯唑卡因麻醉运输2 h后的美洲鲥血清中的皮质醇激素以及血液生化指标进行了比较.结果表明,运输应激对美洲鲥皮质醇和血液生理生化指标产生了显著的影响.运输2 h后美洲鲥血清皮质醇激素含量非麻醉运输组[(41.97±17.92)ng/mL,n=9]和麻醉运输组[(15.62±1.80)ng/mL,n=9]比运输前[(2.05±1.48)ng/mL,n=10]分别显著上升20倍和4倍左右(P<0.05),麻醉运输组鱼皮质醇激素显著低于非麻醉运输组(P<0.05).不加麻醉剂2 h运输应激后血清TP、AP、AKP、CHE、ALT、K+、Ca2+、GLU显著高于运输前水平(P<0.05),白蛋白与球蛋白之比AP/GP显著低于运输前水平(P<0.05),而麻醉运输组的上述指标与运输前没有显著差异.非麻醉运输组和麻醉剂组,运输后血清LDH、AST都呈不显著增加(P>0.05).实验结果显示,美洲鲥在运输应激后,心脏和肝脏等组织受到一定程度的损伤,可能是导致美洲鲥运输后较高死亡率的原因.麻醉剂苯唑卡因应用于长途运输有助于维持鱼体生化指标的稳定,对鱼体运输应激反应有很好的缓解作用.

  2. Are Adolescents Less Mature than Adults?: Minors' Access to Abortion, the Juvenile Death Penalty, and the Alleged APA "Flip-Flop"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Woolard, Jennifer; Graham, Sandra; Banich, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Association's (APA's) stance on the psychological maturity of adolescents has been criticized as inconsistent. In its Supreme Court amicus brief in "Roper v. Simmons" (2005), which abolished the juvenile death penalty, APA described adolescents as developmentally immature. In its amicus brief in "Hodgson v. Minnesota"…

  3. Are Adolescents Less Mature than Adults?: Minors' Access to Abortion, the Juvenile Death Penalty, and the Alleged APA "Flip-Flop"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Woolard, Jennifer; Graham, Sandra; Banich, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Association's (APA's) stance on the psychological maturity of adolescents has been criticized as inconsistent. In its Supreme Court amicus brief in "Roper v. Simmons" (2005), which abolished the juvenile death penalty, APA described adolescents as developmentally immature. In its amicus brief in "Hodgson v. Minnesota"…

  4. Ethnic monitoring and social control: Descriptions from juveniles in juvenile care institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Basic, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has emphasized the institutional racism in total institutions. Researchers have highlighted the importance of narratives but have not focused on narratives about ethnic monitoring and social control. This article tries to fill this gap by analysing stories related to descriptions of ethnic monitoring and social control as told by juveniles of non-Swedish ethnicity in Swedish juvenile care institutions. A juvenile’s ethnicity was highlighted by drawing attention to the staff’...

  5. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currently...

  6. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  7. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; W. Cossermelli

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography.

  8. Family Disruption and Delinquency. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Rivera, Craig; Huizinga, David; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    At study sites in Rochester (New York), Denver (Colorado) and Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), three research teams studying the impact of family disruption on juvenile delinquency have interviewed approximately 4,000 participants at regular intervals for a decade, recording their lives in detail. Findings to date indicate that preventing delinquency…

  9. Childhood ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-05-12

    May 12, 2012 ... years old of age. We describe a case ... Juvenile granulosa cell tumour a subtype of ovarian stro- mal cell ... A more serious estrogen effects can occur in various end ... usually behave in a benign manner despite having histo-.

  10. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in juvenile chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, L; Horst, G; Limburg, P; deGraeffMeeder, ER; Kuis, W; Kallenberg, C

    1997-01-01

    Objective, To evaluate the diagnostic significance of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) by assessing the prevalence of ANCA in juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) (n = 93) of either oligoarticular, polyarticular, or systemic onset. To investigate the prevalence of ANCA in other diseases of c

  11. Biologisk terapi ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has undergone marked changes. There is substantial evidence that inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) like etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab show significant efficacy when standard therapy fails, and long-ter...

  12. Smerte og smertemestring ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels; Thastum, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Pain is one of the primary symptoms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA patients have reduced pain tolerance and pain threshold compared to healthy controls. In children with JIA the greater use of coping strategies such as problem-solving, positive self-statements and distraction consist...

  13. Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Thyrotoxicosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, R. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hansen, D.

    2015-01-01

    . Additional data were collected on children diagnosed with GD in 2008-2012. Results: In total, 237 patients with juvenile thyrotoxicosis (JT) were identified. The overall IR in 1998-2012 was 1.58/100,000 person-years and has increased significantly from 0.79/100,000 person-years in 1982-1988 (p

  14. Predictors of juveniles' noncompliance with probation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeMoyer, Amanda; Goldstein, Naomi E S; McKitten, Rhonda L; Prelic, Ana; Ebbecke, Jenna; Foster, Erika; Burkard, Casey

    2014-12-01

    Probation is the most common disposition for adjudicated youth, but little is known about which specific requirements are commonly imposed on juveniles, the requirements with which juveniles most often fail to comply, and how certain youth characteristics and/or imposed requirements might relate to probation noncompliance. An investigation of 120 archived files of youth represented by an urban public defender's office identified 29 probation requirements imposed on youth and 18 requirements with which youth commonly failed to comply. Results revealed that 52% of youth failed to comply with at least one probation requirement; prior probation noncompliance and race were both significantly associated with noncompliance in the examined probation disposition. In addition, the probability of probation noncompliance was significantly higher when youth received either of two substance-related probation requirements: drug tests or drug and alcohol counseling. Such results may prompt further investigation of juvenile probation-related predictors, identify areas of need for clinical service provision to foster successful completion of probation requirements, and help identify areas of potential biases among juvenile court personnel.

  15. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography. Images PMID:1444631

  16. The human microbiome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Anouk; ter Haar, Nienke M.; de Roock, Sytze; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The

  17. Alteracioness cognitivas en familias con Parkinson juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Lopera Restrepo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Neurociencias de la Universidad de Antioquia reportó por primera vez en Colombia cuatro familias afecatas por la Enfermedad de Parkinson Familiar Juvenil portadoras de la mutación G736A en el gen Parkin.

  18. Metamorphosis: How Missouri Rehabilitates Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Juveniles convicted of serious offenses usually end up in large correctional facilities that focus on punishment--not rehabilitation. The state of Missouri, however, has found a better way to help end the cycle of crime: by creating a network of small facilities that provide therapy and educational opportunities, it has dramatically reduced…

  19. The human microbiome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Anouk; ter Haar, Nienke M.; de Roock, Sytze; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The

  20. Autoimmune hepatitis and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, M. E. J.; Porta, G.; Fiorot, F. J.; Campos, L. M. A.; Sallum, A. M. E.; Silva, C. A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are both autoimmune disorders that are rare in children and have a widespread clinical manifestation. A few case reports have shown a JSLE-AIH associated disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first study that simultaneousl

  1. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (TERMINOLOGICALAND CLASSIFICATION ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Kuzmina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the data of home and foreign literature and on the long-term experience of pediatric rheumatologists, terminologic and classification aspects of Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA are presented. Approaches to developing of diagnostic and classification of JRA criteria in future are described.

  2. Evaluating juvenile detainees' Miranda misconceptions: The discriminant validity of the Juvenile Miranda Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Allyson J; Rogers, Richard; Williams, Margot M; Drogin, Eric Y

    2017-05-01

    Most juvenile arrestees in custodial settings waive their Miranda rights almost immediately, and many then provide incriminating statements, if not outright confessions. Forensic practitioners are then asked to provide retrospective determinations regarding whether these waivers were effectuated knowingly, voluntarily, and intelligently. At present, the forensic assessment instrument for juvenile Miranda issues consists of the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments (MRCI)-which as its name implies-focuses mostly on Miranda comprehension with a de-emphasis of Miranda reasoning. In partially addressing this gap, the current study investigated the clinical utility of the Juvenile Miranda Quiz (JMQ) for evaluating key Miranda misconceptions, a critically important component of Miranda reasoning. Using data from 201 juvenile detainees, we evaluated the JMQ's discriminability with regards to cognitive variables and MRCI scales. Many moderate effect sizes in the predicted direction were found for the JMQ Primary Total and Juvenile Total scores. Finally, these detainees were tested using a mock crime scenario with a representative Miranda warning plus a brief interrogation to evaluate whether they would waive their rights, and if so, whether they would confess. Using Miranda measures to predict problematic outcomes (i.e., impaired waivers followed by confessions), the JMQ Juvenile Total proved the most successful. These findings are discussed within the context of the "intelligent" prong of Miranda waivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eutsler, Eric P. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Horton, Daniel B. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Wilmington, DE (United States); Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Finkel, Terri [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Orlando, FL (United States); Averill, Lauren W. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  4. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.;

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  5. Abundance, stock origin, and length of marked and unmarked juvenile Chinook salmon in the surface waters of greater Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.A.; Greene, C.M.; Moran, P.; Teel, D.J.; Kuligowski, D.R.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Beamer, E.M.; Karr, J.R.; Fresh, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery) and unmarked (majority naturally spawned) juveniles by means of monthly surface trawls at six river mouth estuaries in Puget Sound and the areas in between. Juvenile Chinook salmon were present in all months sampled (April-November). Unmarked fish in the northern portion of the study area showed broader seasonal distributions of density than did either marked fish in all areas or unmarked fish in the central and southern portions of the sound. Despite these temporal differences, the densities of marked fish appeared to drive most of the total density estimates across space and time. Genetic analysis and coded wire tag data provided us with documented individuals from at least 16 source populations and indicated that movement patterns and apparent residence time were, in part, a function of natal location and time passed since the release of these fish from hatcheries. Unmarked fish tended to be smaller than marked fish and had broader length frequency distributions. The lengths of unmarked fish were negatively related to the density of both marked and unmarked Chinook salmon, but those of marked fish were not. These results indicate more extensive use of estuarine environments by wild than by hatchery juvenile Chinook salmon as well as differential use (e.g., rearing and migration) of various geographic regions of greater Puget Sound by juvenile Chinook salmon in general. In addition, the results for hatchery-generated timing, density, and length differences have implications for the biological interactions between hatchery and wild fish throughout Puget Sound. ?? American

  6. The impact of schools on juvenile substance initiation and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Mach, Traci; Clapp, John D

    2004-06-01

    We use data from the two rounds of the NLSY97 and the corresponding QED data to examine the effectiveness of school endowments and curricula in targeting juvenile use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. Our results support the notion that schools matter in reducing juvenile involvement in substance use. Higher discretionary dollars per pupil are linked to reduced rates of juvenile initiation and repetitive use rates of cigarettes and marijuana. Additionally, school curricula, as indicated by the implementation of year round classes and some innovative and after-school programs--such as gifted and talented, attendance monitoring, homework hotline, international baccalaureate, extended-day, and mentoring, programs, affect both juvenile initiation to tobacco and alcohol use and juvenile repetitive use of tobacco and alcohol. In particular, we find that juvenile initiation to cigarette use is approximately between 2 percentage points and 3 percentage points lower among youths attending schools with gifted and talented and international baccalaureate programs. In addition, juvenile repetitive cigarette use is approximately 54%, 52%, and 48% lower among youths attending schools offering year round classes, international baccalaureate, and twenty-first century programs, respectively. Finally, juvenile initiation to alcohol use and juvenile repetitive use of alcohol are approximately 3% and 20% lower, respectively, among youths in schools offering gifted and talented programs. In sum, while these programs are not implemented to address substance use problems among the student body, we find that the implementation of these programs is often accompanied by a reduction in juvenile initiation and repetitive substance use.

  7. Heart Disease, Hypertension, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, and Preeclampsia/Eclampsia in Mothers With Juvenile Arthritis: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Debbie E; Vinet, Évelyne; Bérard, Anick; Duffy, Ciarán; Hazel, Beth; Meshefedjian, Garbis; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Bernatsky, Sasha

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether women with a history of juvenile arthritis are at higher risk for heart disease and hypertension and for developing adverse maternal outcomes: gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal hypertension, and preeclampsia/eclampsia. We designed a nested case-control study from a cohort of first-time mothers with prior physician billing codes suggesting juvenile arthritis, and a matched comparison group without juvenile arthritis. For the nested case-control design, we selected 3 controls for each case for the outcomes of heart disease (n = 403), prepregnancy hypertension (n = 66), gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 285), maternal hypertension (n = 561), and preeclampsia/eclampsia (n = 236). We used conditional logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age and education. Having juvenile arthritis was associated with heart disease (odds ratio [OR] 2.44 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.15-5.15]) but not with gestational hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or preeclampsia/eclampsia. All 66 cases of prepregnancy hypertension had juvenile arthritis. Having prepregnancy hypertension was strongly associated with preeclampsia/eclampsia (OR 8.05 [95% CI 2.69-24.07]). Women with a history of juvenile arthritis had a higher risk of heart disease. This risk signals the potential importance of cardiac prevention strategies in juvenile arthritis. As this was a retrospective study, it was not possible to correct for some relevant potential confounders. Further studies should assess the impact of medications, disease severity, and other factors (e.g., obesity) on cardiac outcomes in juvenile arthritis. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Invaders eating invaders: potential trophic interactions between the amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus and juvenile crayfish Orconectes limosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Buřič

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated potential interspecific predation between two invasive crustacean species, currently widespread and co-occurring in European inland waters: the Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus (Gammaridae and the North American spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus (Cambaridae. We evaluated interactions of adult specimens of D. villosus and juvenile O. limosus (from the 3rd developmental stage – DS under conditions with and without feeding. We used two different experimental setups: short-term (one-week rearing in aquaria each containing 30 specimens of either single-species or mixed stock, and 20-daylong rearing in small circular plates with one individual of each species. In the aquaria, a significant effect of D. villosus presence on survival of O. limosus stocks was found, with stronger influence on unfed stocks. Survival of D. villosus was not influenced by either O. limosus presence or feeding. Direct predation of D. villosus on juvenile O. limosus, predominantly on the 3rd DS, was often observed in the small plates. The 5th DS O. limosus was killed only a few times and was already able to feed on adult D. villosus. Our results show that both species are able to affect each other negatively through intra-guild predation: D. villosus may successfully feed on juvenile O. limosus (3rd and 4th DS, but larger crayfish can resist predation by the amphipod.

  9. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron ... Anemia. Bleeding disorders. Digestive disorders. Dizziness. Fever. Fibromyalgia. Gastritis. Hangover symptoms. Headaches. HIV/AIDS. Impotence. Insomnia. Memory ...

  10. THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JosA Luis de la Cuesta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available 1. Relevant legal framework regulating criminal proceedings against juvenile offenders. 2. Age thresholds of criminal responsibility and liability to prosecution. 3. Specialized agencies. 3.1. Judges specialization. 3.2. Prosecutor\\'s specialization. 3.3. Specialization required for any, other figure acting in the proceedings. 3.4. Social services (or similar agencies involved in the proceedings. 4. Early definition of the proceedings. 5. Personality assessment procedures. 6. Mediation. 7. Personal liberty. 8. Safeguards for the protection of minors. 8.1. Affective and/or psychological assistance. 8.2. Preventing the disclosure of the juvenile offender\\'s identity. 8.3. Other measures. 9. Final remarks.

  11. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and lymphoedema: lymphangiographic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmit, P.; Brunelle, F. [Service de Radiopediatrie, Groupe Hospitalier Necker-Enfants-Malades, Paris (France); Prieur, A.M. [Unite Fonctionnelle de Rhumatologie Infantile, Groupe Hospitalier Necker-Enfants-Malades, Paris (France)

    1999-05-01

    We report a 5{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old boy with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and lower-limb lymphoedema. US, MRI and lymphangiography were performed. Based on the lymphangiographic study, we propose a pathogenesis based on obstruction of normal superficial lymphatic vessels in the affected limb. This is discussed with other pathogenetic factors proposed in the 16 previously reported cases of lymphoedema complicating JRA. (orig.) With 3 figs., 5 refs.

  12. El rock como conformador de identidades juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián de Garay

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza la relación entre el rock y las identidades juveniles, a partir del abordaje de cinco “estilos” que se pueden identificar como constitutivos de éstas identidades. Ellos son: la jerga, la estética, las producciones culturales, los no-lugares y el territorio. Finaliza el artículo señalando algunos hitos importantes de la culturarockera en la ciudad de México.

  13. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re-evaluated...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  14. De las bandas a las culturas juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Feixa

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an exposition about the processes of elaboration oftheoretical concepts and methodological schemes of five ofthe princi-pal theoretical methodological paradigms thatstudygangsand juveni-le cultures in western contemporary societies. These processes oftheoretical methodological elaboration are derived from the resul-ting empirical data based on participatory observation, analysis andrellection about the conducts displayedby theadolescents as membersof a larger society.

  15. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Nabil J.; Naffaa, Lena N.; Haddad, Maurice C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 113-6044, Beirut (Lebanon); Shabb, Nina S. [Department of Pathology, American University of Beirut - Medical Center, P.O. Box 113-6044, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2002-07-01

    We describe the CT findings in four patients and the MR imaging in one patient with juvenile ossifying fibroma. Three lesions involved the maxillary sinus and extended to the surrounding structures; one lesion was confined to the maxillary bone. CT scan revealed well-defined, expansile lesions with variable amount of calcifications. On MRI one lesion had intermediate signal intensity with significant contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  16. Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yuen Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.

  17. Do Juvenile Curfew Laws Reduce Underage Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Elyse R.; Jernigan, David H.; Miller, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although not originally enacted to deter the problem of underage drinking in the United States, one set of laws that may influence this behavior is juvenile curfew laws. This research asked the following: (a) What is the effect of enacting a juvenile curfew law on youth drinking, and (b) do demographic variables moderate the relation between juvenile curfew law enactment and drinking? This study examined the effect of juvenile curfew laws on underage drinking, using data from 46 U.S. cities from 1991 to 2005. Method: In 2014, we compiled a data set containing alcohol and curfew law data by zip code. It included 63,081 minors (ages 12–17 years) from 1,081 zip codes. We used difference-in-difference regressions to analyze the data. Results: The effect of the enactment of a curfew law on the likelihood of consuming alcohol in the past year or past 30 days or of heavy episodic drinking in the past 2 weeks was not significant when compared with cities without curfew laws during the same periods. Although the likelihood of consuming alcohol over the past year differed depending on an individual’s characteristics (e.g., race/ethnicity, age, and gender), none of the interaction terms between these characteristics and curfew laws were significant. Conclusions: Curfew laws appear to have a non-significant effect on youth drinking, but these results are unclear without more knowledge as to where and when youth are drinking both before and after the enactment of curfew laws and how these laws are being enforced. PMID:27340963

  18. Clinical presentation of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruocco Heloísa H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation a group of patients with juvenile onset of Huntington disease. METHOD: All patients were interviewed following a structured clinical questioner. Patients were genotyped for the trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeat in the Huntington Disease gene. High resolution brain MRI was performed in all patients. RESULTS: We identified 4 patients with juvenile onset of disease among 50 patients with Huntington disease followed prospectively in our Neurogenetics clinic. Age at onset varied from 3 to 13 years, there were 2 boys, and 3 patients had a paternal inheritance of the disease. Expanded Huntington disease allele sizes varied from 41 to 69 trinucleotide repeats. The early onset patients presented with rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, dysarthria, seizures and ataxia. MRI showed severe volume loss of caudate and putamen nuclei (p=0.001 and reduced cerebral and cerebellum volumes (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: 8% of Huntington disease patients seen in our clinic had juvenile onset of the disease. They did not present with typical chorea as seen in adult onset Huntington disease. There was a predominance of rigidity and bradykinesia. Two other important clinical features were seizures and ataxia, which related with the imaging findings of early cortical atrophy and cerebellum volume loss.

  19. JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is 0.86 per 1000 children. Subcutaneous nodules have been reported in 5% to 10% of children with JIA. Approximately 90% of patients with RA and subc utaneous nodules test positive for rheumatoid factor (RF, and approximately 40% o f all RF-seropositive patients with RA have subcutaneous nodules, whereas only 6% in volvement is seen in seronegative cases. We hereby report a case of atypical Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA in a 6 year old, female child with joint pain & myalgia along with subcutaneous nodules over the dorsum of feet, hands and elbows. Joint pain initial ly involving the left ankle, slowly progressed to involve the knee, shoulder, wrist, metacar pophalangeal and interphalangeal joints over a period of one year. Joint involvement was not symmetric. RF was Negative. Fundoscopy examination was normal. Histopathological examinat ion revealed a central zone of Fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by epithelioid h istiocytes and occasional lymphocytes. Differential diagnosis of Rheumatoid Nodule (R N or Subcutaneous Granuloma Annulare (SGA or Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum was made. In light of clinicopathological findings, both SGA and NLD were ruled out a nd the diagnosis of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis presenting as RF-negative polyarthritis was made.

  20. Habitat selection by juvenile Mojave Desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian D; Halstead, Brian J.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Peaden, J. Mark; Buhlmann, Kurt A.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Nafus, Melia G.

    2016-01-01

    Growing pressure to develop public lands for renewable energy production places several protected species at increased risk of habitat loss. One example is the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), a species often at the center of conflicts over public land development. For this species and others on public lands, a better understanding of their habitat needs can help minimize negative impacts and facilitate protection or restoration of habitat. We used radio-telemetry to track 46 neonate and juvenile tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert, California, USA, to quantify habitat at tortoise locations and paired random points to assess habitat selection. Tortoise locations near burrows were more likely to be under canopy cover and had greater coverage of perennial plants (especially creosote [Larrea tridentata]), more coverage by washes, a greater number of small-mammal burrows, and fewer white bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) than random points. Active tortoise locations away from burrows were closer to washes and perennial plants than were random points. Our results can help planners locate juvenile tortoises and avoid impacts to habitat critical for this life stage. Additionally, our results provide targets for habitat protection and restoration and suggest that diverse and abundant small-mammal populations and the availability of creosote bush are vital for juvenile desert tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert.

  1. Criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non sex offenders: an explorative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph; Mali, Bas R F; Bullens, Ruud A R; Vermeiren, Robert R

    2007-10-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders committed their first offense in 1996 and were followed for 7 years. Results showed that violent sex offenders and violent non-sex offenders cannot be considered a homogeneous group because of different background characteristics and criminal profiles. Sex and violent offenses often constitute a small part of a broader criminal pattern. Further research is necessary to reveal in more detail the developmental and criminological patterns of violent and sexual delinquency. Treatment and intervention programs may benefit from this.

  2. Protection of juveniles: Victims of abuse and neglect in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to analyses of the protection of juveniles - victims of abuse and neglect in criminal legal system of the Republic of Serbia. Particular attention is paid to of criminal acts against sexual integrity and family life of juveniles. The position of juveniles as witnesses in the criminal procedure has been viewed from the aspect of specify and vulnerability of the child, as well as through terms of secondary and tertiary victimization of minor as a victim.

  3. Giant Bilateral Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the Breast in Prepubescent Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery.

  4. New Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Iris Findings in Juvenile Xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Zeba A; Chen, Teresa C

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 12-month-old girl presenting with heterochromia, hyphema, and elevated intraocular pressure. This case demonstrates new ultrasound biomicroscopy iris findings of a generalized bumpy iris contour, suggesting diffuse heterogeneous involvement. This imaging finding has not been previously described. Untreated, iris juvenile xanthogranuloma may lead to corneal blood staining, glaucoma, and amblyopia. An understanding of the full range of ultrasound features of juvenile xanthogranuloma expands our appreciation for the clinical findings in this condition.

  5. Penalty responsibility of juveniles in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić-Pavlović Nikolina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The youngest members of organized society, more intensive than ever enter the circle of those whose behavior is deviant. Juvenile delinquency is a social problem, which recently experienced an expansion in all modern countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska. Considering the fact that juvenile delinquency includes lighter criminal conducts, such as, for example misdemeanors, in this paper a position of juveniles when they are a perpetrators of misdemeanors will be analyzed. Also, the paper will statistically show the number of misdemeanors in the field of public peace and order that juveniles conducted in the Republic of Srpska in the period 2004-2009.

  6. Eliminating the Competency Presumption in Juvenile Delinquency Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katner, David R

    2015-01-01

    The legal presumption used in virtually all juvenile delinquency cases in the U.S. is that all juveniles are competent to stand trial. This Article calls for the elimination of that legal presumption, which is historically based on the Dusky v. United States decision and in the adult criminal justice system. The recent decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court recognize the developmental and organic brain differences between adults and juveniles. Current research demonstrates a higher frequency rate of incompetence based on intellectual deficiencies among children when compared with adults found to be not legally competent to stand trial. By eliminating the competency presumption for juveniles in both delinquency and adult criminal proceedings, the party seeking an adjudication would be responsible for establishing that the accused juvenile is in fact, competent to stand trial. Foreign jurisdictions in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America have long required higher thresholds--at least fourteen years of age--for holding juveniles accountable for criminal misconduct, none of them presuming that juveniles are competent to go to trial. In the alternative, by expanding the factors currently in use for determination of juvenile competency by adding developmental immaturity and mental illness, juvenile justice systems could identify the reduction of recidivist offending as the primary systemic objective.

  7. Food resource utilization by juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua : a mechanism potentially influencing recruitment success at the demersal juvenile stage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; St. John, Michael; Böttcher, U.

    1997-01-01

    those reported to be consumed by juveniles in other areas. The apparent overlap in food resource utilization among the different size groups of demersal juveniles observed in this study suggests that in years with low prey abundance, or high abundance of pelagic juveniles, strong intra......Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected during surveys in the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea) in autumn 1994. Stomach contents were examined for prey composition in order to evaluate the potential importance of the pelagic and demersal habitats for recruitment success....... Juvenile cod less than 40 mm fed exclusively on pelagic prey such as copepods and cladocerans. Between 40 and 50 mm the juveniles began to consume benthic prey such as mysids and amphipods; however, copepods were still the dominant food organisms. Between 50 and 70 mm the dominant prey items consumed were...

  8. Growth of juvenile shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros fed with squid and mussel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Small juveniles of both sexes and females of large juveniles of Metapenaeus monoceros attained faster growth with squid diet. Males of large juveniles registered better growth with mussel diet. No significant difference was observed in moult weights...

  9. 78 FR 42109 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...: Juvenile Justice Reform and Reinvestment Initiative Stakeholder Survey Under OMB's Partnership Fund ACTION: 60 Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile...-3649, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs,...

  10. 77 FR 70473 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (Revision of a Currently..., Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the following...

  11. 78 FR 40189 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile Residential Facility Census (Extension, Without Change, of a... Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the...

  12. 78 FR 66383 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile Justice Reform and Reinvestment... (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will...

  13. The challenges of the first migration : movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S.; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, ...

  14. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  15. Comparison of the localization of tetrodotoxin between wild pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with tetrodotoxin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kogen; Takatani, Tomohiro; Nakayasu, Junichi; Yamazaki, Hideki; Sakiyama, Kazutaka; Ikeda, Koichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Sakakura, Yoshitaka

    2013-09-01

    To reveal the accumulation profile of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles, we compared the localization of TTX in various tissues among wild juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with or without TTX administration using immunohistochemical technique with anti-TTX monoclonal antibody. Immuno-positive reaction was observed in hepatic tissue, basal cell of skin and olfactory, olfactory epithelium, optic nerve and brain (optic tectum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata) of wild juveniles (body length: BL, 4.7-9.4 cm). TTX was detected in the same tissues as wild juveniles and epithelial cell layer of intestine of hatchery-reared juveniles (BL, 5.0-5.3 cm) to which TTX was orally administrated. No positive reaction was observed from the tissues of hatchery-reared juveniles without TTX administration. These results suggest that orally administrated TTX to the non-toxic cultured juveniles is accumulated in the same manner of wild juveniles. In addition, our study revealed that pufferfish accumulates TTX in the central nervous system.

  16. Tropical tree rings reveal preferential survival of fast-growing juveniles and increased juvenile growth rates over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Brienen, Roel J W; Soliz-Gamboa, Claudia C; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2010-02-01

    Long-term juvenile growth patterns of tropical trees were studied to test two hypotheses: fast-growing juvenile trees have a higher chance of reaching the canopy ('juvenile selection effect'); and tree growth has increased over time ('historical growth increase'). Tree-ring analysis was applied to test these hypotheses for five tree species from three moist forest sites in Bolivia, using samples from 459 individuals. Basal area increment was calculated from ring widths, for trees rings formed by small juveniles. Thus, extant adult trees in these species have had higher juvenile growth rates than extant juvenile trees. By contrast, rings formed by somewhat larger juveniles in four species showed the opposite pattern: a historical growth increase. For most size classes of > 10 cm diameter none of the patterns was found. Fast juvenile growth may be essential to enable tropical trees to reach the forest canopy, especially for small juvenile trees in the dark forest understorey. The historical growth increase requires cautious interpretation, but may be partially attributable to CO(2) fertilization.

  17. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  18. Causes of uveitis in children without juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard SB

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie B Engelhard, Asima Bajwa, Ashvini K ReddyDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to report the demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and visual outcomes of pediatric uveitis patients without juvenile idiopathic arthritis managed in a tertiary medical center.Methods: A retrospective, observational study was performed in pediatric uveitis patients without juvenile idiopathic arthritis and aged 0–18 years, who were seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.Results: Thirty-nine pediatric uveitis patients (57 eyes were identified. The patient population was 51.28% female, 51.28% Caucasian, and 33.33% African American. The mean age at diagnosis was 11.9 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.11 years. The mean number of visits to the clinic was 10.41. Of 57 eyes, 31 (54.39% had anterior uveitis, 12 (21.05% had intermediate uveitis, nine (15.79% had posterior uveitis, and five (8.77% had panuveitis. The leading diagnoses were traumatic uveitis (25.64%, undifferentiated anterior uveitis (17.95%, undifferentiated intermediate uveitis (15.38%, HLA-B27-associated anterior uveitis (7.69%, and herpetic anterior uveitis (7.69%. Systemic associations included sarcoidosis, ulcerative colitis, and psoriatic arthritis (n=3. The most common treatment modalities included local steroids (66.67%, systemic steroids (23.08%, and antimetabolites (20.51%. Ocular hypertension was found in five (12.82% patients. Ocular surgery was performed in six (15.38% patients. Mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA at baseline across all anatomical locations was 0.458 logMAR, and was 0.411 logMAR at final follow-up. Mean BCVA improved during follow-up in all but the anterior uveitis group. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was 14.27 mmHg, and was 14.22 mmHg at final follow-up.Conclusion: Uveitis in childhood is a vision-threatening group of inflammatory

  19. Longitudinal growth attainments of Indian boys with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bimal; Bhalla, Anil K; Singh, Surjit

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to study the pattern of distance and velocity growth in terms of weight and height in adolescent boys with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA). This study was conducted on children diagnosed to have JRA (Cassidy and Petty in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 2005) at the Pediatric Rheumatology and Immunology Clinic of Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. A total of 203 observations made on 70 boys with JRA, between 9 and 17 years of age, comprised the sample for this prospective mixed-longitudinal growth study. Each subject was measured for body weight and standing height using standardized anthropometric techniques (Eveleth and Tanner in Worldwide variation in human growth, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1990) at half yearly age intervals. All anthropometric measurements were carried out in the Growth Laboratory of Advanced Pediatrics Centre. Boys with polyarticular and systemic onset types of JRA in general measured lighter than their pauciarticular counterparts throughout the period of study. Height attainments in boys with polyarticular and systemic onset JRA measured shorter than their pauciarticular counterparts till 15 years and 12 years, respectively, where-after they became comparable to boys with pauciarticular JRA. As compared to normal Indian (Bhalla and Kumar in Int J Anthropol 18:113-125, 2003; Aggarwal et al. in Indian Pediatr 29:1203-1282, 1992) and American (Ogden et al. in Pediatrics 109:45-60, 2002) counterparts boys representing all categories of JRA remained lighter and shorter. Onset of Peak Height Velocity (PHV) in boys with polyarticular JRA (i.e. 12.5 years) was delayed by 1 year as compared to boys with pauciarticular JRA (i.e. 11.5 years). Attainment of Peak Weight Velocity (PWV) in boys with polyarticular JRA (i.e. 13.5 years) was also delayed by 1 year when compared to those with pauciarticular type (i.e. 12.5 years). In

  20. Juvenile Justice in Australia 2009-10. Juvenile Justice Series. Number 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalders, Rachel; Morgan, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, the state and territory governments are responsible for dealing with young people who are involved in crime. One major aspect of the juvenile justice system is the supervision of children and young people who have committed or are alleged to have committed an offence. This report presents information on the young people under…

  1. Predictors of Support for Juvenile Sex Offender Registration: Educated Individuals Recognize the Flaws of Juvenile Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Margaret C.; Smith, Amy C.; Sekely, Ady; Farnum, Katlyn S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated demographic predictors of support for juvenile sex offender registration policies, including education level, gender, political orientation, and age. Participants were 168 individuals recruited from public places in a Midwest community (45% women; M age = 42). In line with hypotheses, as education level increased, support for…

  2. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  3. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  4. Gold nephropathy in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Shuler, S E

    1979-01-01

    A 2-year-old girl was treated with gold salts for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment had to be discontinued when persistent proteinuria was detected. As this case report indicates, close monitoring of the urine is mandatory during treatment with gold salts to detect early signs of toxicity: hematuria followed by casts and then proteinuria as therapy is continued. Histologic examination with electron microscopy will help to differentiate the different forms of gold toxicity. When the findings are consistent with gold-induced renal involvement, therapy should be discontinued. The gold nephropathy usually resolves in time, with no permanent renal damage.

  5. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the paediatric perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Alison [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Department of Adolescent Rheumatology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); McDonagh, Janet E. [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Institute of Child Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Paediatric rheumatology is a relatively new specialty that has developed rapidly over the last 30 years. There have been major advances, which have included improvements in the classification and management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The former has led to enhanced international collaboration with disease registries, multicentre research and the development of new therapeutic agents. This has resulted in improved disease control and remission induction in many. There is, however, still significant morbidity associated with JIA during childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and challenges for the future include early identification of those with a poorer prognosis, appropriate administration of safe therapies and optimizing outcomes as young people move through adolescence into adulthood. (orig.)

  6. Massive juvenile angiomatosis of maxilla and mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiomatosis is a complex vascular malformation of infancy and childhood consisting of proliferating blood vessels with accompanying mature fat, fibrous tissue, lymphatic′s and nerves, which may involve skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle and occasionally bone. It is extremely rare and benign, but a clinically extensive vascular lesion of soft-tissue, which usually becomes symptomatic during childhood or adolescence. We report a rare case of massive juvenile angiomatosis of maxilla and mandible in a 15-year-old male patient.

  7. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçal, Naci; Gülçelik, Nevzat; Yildiz, Kadriye; Mungan, Sevdegül; Kutlu, Necmettin

    2005-07-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis ( JHF ) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures, and bone lesions. The skin lesions may consist of multiple large tumors, commonly on the scalp and around the neck, and small pearly, pink papules and plaques on the trunk, chin, ears, and around the nostrils. Here, we report a 2-year-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hyperplasia. The lesions were totally excised and clinicopathological diagnosis was JHF.

  8. Managing juvenile Huntington’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Quarrell, Oliver W. J.; Nance, Martha A.; Nopoulos, Peggy; Paulsen, Jane S.; Smith, Jonathan A.; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a well-recognized progressive neurodegenerative disorder that follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Onset is insidious and can occur at almost any age, but most commonly the diagnosis is made between the ages of 35 and 55 years. Onset ≤20 years of age is classified as juvenile HD (JHD). This age-based definition is arbitrary but remains convenient. There is overlap between the clinical pathological and genetic features seen in JHD and more traditio...

  9. Cranial juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena López, Cristina; Bollar Zabala, Alicia; Úrculo Bareño, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma (JPOF) is a fibroosseous tumor that arises in the craniofacial bones in young people. This lesion usually originates in the jaw, orbit, and ethmoid complex but can also be associated with the skull base and calvaria. Diagnosis must be made based on observing typical radiological and histopathological features. Although JPOF is a rare pathological entity, neurosurgeons must consider this odontogenic lesion in the differential diagnosis of skull masses given the lesion's aggressive behavior and locally invasive growth. Treatment must be gross-total resection. In the following article, the authors present a case of cranial JPOF and discuss various aspects of this entity.

  10. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a clinical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J

    2000-02-01

    The chronic arthritides in childhood remain a poorly understood group of conditions. Their classification has been a source of much confusion over the years with differences in terminology between Europe and North America. A significant step forward in paediatric rheumatology has been the recent development of an internationally agreed classification system which uses the overall term juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The various subtypes of JIA and their clinical features are described, together with an overview of their differential diagnosis, complications and outcomes. An outline of current management strategies is given and potential future developments highlighted.

  11. CYCLOSPORIN A IN THERAPY FOR JUVENILE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Fedorov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes approaches to using cyclosporin A (CsA in juvenile arthritis (JA. It shows the benefits of combination basic therapy with CsA and methotrexate included into a treatment regimen mainly for systemic JA and JA involving the eye (uveitis versus monotherapy with the above drugs. Attention is drawn to that the oral dose of glucocorticoids may be decreased when CsA is incorporated into the treatment regimen. CsA is shown to be of value as the drug of choice for the therapy of such a menacing complication of systemic JA as the macrophage activation syndrome

  12. Polipose juvenil: relato de 2 casos Juvenile polyposis: case two report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A Polipose Juvenil é uma afecção rara e faz parte do grupo das poliposes hamartomatosas familiares (PHF. É uma síndrome autossômica dominante que pode ser desencadeada por mutações no gene SMAD4/DPC4 (que codifica um sinalizador intermediário de TGF-b. Caracteriza-se pelo aparecimento de 10 ou mais pólipos hamartomatosos (juvenis no trato gastrintestinal, predominando no cólon. Costuma manifestar-se entre 4 e 14 anos de idade. Alguns pólipos adquirem focos adenomatosos apesar da natureza hamartomatosa das lesões e há chance de malignização. Relato de 2 casos de pacientes portadores de Polipose Juvenil colônica associada a focos de adenoma com displasia e revisão da literatura.Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome is a rare disease and is included in the Hamartomatous Familial Polyposis's (HFP group. It's an autosomal dominant syndrome which can be determinated by SMAD4/DPC4 germline mutations (which codifies an intermediary mediator of TGF-b. It's characterized by 10 or more hamartomatous polyps (juveniles throughout the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the colon. The symptoms usually appears between the ages of 4 and 14 years old. Some polyps can acquire adenomatous changes despite the lesion's hamartomatous nature and there's chance of colorectum malignization. Case report of two patients with Juvenile Polyposis coli associated to adenomatous changes with dysplasia and literature review.

  13. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  14. The Challenges in Providing Needed Transition Programming to Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, John S.; Bohac, Paul D.; Wade, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The transition to and from juvenile justice settings is a complex and challenging process. Effectively preparing juvenile justice personnel to address the transition needs of incarcerated students is an essential aspect of reducing the negative effects of the school-to-prison pipeline. This article examines program and professional development…

  15. Psychiatric Disorders of Youth in Detention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin examines the prevalence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders among youth at the Cook County (Illinois) Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, by gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Drawing on research conducted by the Northwestern Juvenile Project, this bulletin finds that nearly two-thirds of males and three-quarters of females studied…

  16. Treatment for Juveniles Who Sexually Offend in a Southwestern State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikomi, Philip A.; Harris-Wyatt, Georgetta; Doucet, Geraldine; Rodney, H. Elaine

    2009-01-01

    A 25-item questionnaire was mailed to sex offender treatment providers from counties with 60 or more reported juvenile sex offenders in a Southwestern state to determine the most effective treatment for juvenile sex offenders. Results indicated that cognitive behavioral therapy was the most successful reported approach to treatment with an average…

  17. Juvenile female sex offenders: Offender and offence characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all research on juvenile sex offending pertains to adolescent males. This study comprises all female juveniles convicted for sexual offences in the Netherlands between 1993 and 2008 (N = 66). From analysis of their court files and their criminal records, these female offenders are described i

  18. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. 0.57 Section 0.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney...

  19. Family and Community Perceptions of Quality in Juvenile Justice Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber, Katherine; Streeter, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    The conceptualization and empirical assessment of service quality in juvenile justice remains limited. There are few reports on programmatic attempts to assess satisfaction in juvenile justice programs or attempts to include what constitutes quality of service from multiple customer perspectives. This article describes a potential model, the Gap…

  20. The Effects of Computerized Information Systems on Juvenile Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Gary L.

    1976-01-01

    Organizational theorists alternatively hypothesized that computerized information systems (CIS) will produce no necessary changes, centralization, or decentralization in juvenile courts. This hypothesis is supported by the results of a four year study on the phenomenon. Suggestions are offered for improving the juvenile judicial system through…

  1. A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Influences on Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    This study examined influences on delinquency and recidivism using structural equation modeling. The sample comprised 199,204 individuals: 99,602 youth whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and a matched control group of 99,602 youth without juvenile records. Structural equation modeling for the…

  2. Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents: Post-Treatment Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  3. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : Post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, T.; Asscher, J.J.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U, a

  4. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1991 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital Systems Research Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This report fulfills the annual reporting requirements of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974 as amended, and describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP) efforts to carry out the broad mandates of the JJDP Act during fiscal year 1991. The report begins with an explanation of the…

  5. Practitioner Views of Priorities, Policies, and Practices in Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Shollenberger, Tracey L.; Willison, Janeen B.; Owens, Colleen E.; Butts, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Dramatic changes in juvenile justice have occurred in recent decades. One result has been the emergence of new policies and practices, many of which remain largely unexamined. One avenue for gaining insight into whether such policies and practices are needed or effective, as well as into how the juvenile justice system might be improved, is to tap…

  6. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  7. Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal…

  8. Extinguishing All Hope: Life-without-Parole for Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Sentencing juveniles to life-without-parole (JLWOP) is a practice fraught with ethical dilemmas. Through in-depth interviews with 11 men living sentences of JLWOP, their narratives of their backgrounds and experiences as juveniles were studied. Common themes were identified, and 3 general categories of cases emerged from the narratives. Ethical…

  9. IDEA-Related Professional Development in Juvenile Corrections Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Steinberg, Mary Anne; Crockett, Jean; Murphy, Kristin M.; Gaddis, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Incarcerated youth are among the least academically and behaviorally competent students in the United States. In spite of juvenile justice reform efforts, including state and federal guarantees of appropriate education, educational services in juvenile corrections (JC) schools, especially for youth with disabilities, are lacking (Houchins,…

  10. The Content Validity of Juvenile Psychopathy: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the content validity of a juvenile psychopathy measure, the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; D. R. Lynam, 1997), based on a downward translation of an adult instrument, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). The CPS was compared with two other indices of juvenile psychopathy: (a) an index derived…

  11. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  12. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  13. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E

    2010-05-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.

  14. Serum neopterin is not increased in obese juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, Harald; Freytag, Florian; Almer, Gunter; Weghuber, Daniel; Bauer-Denk, Carmen; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Cardiovascular disease is associated with inflammation and immune activation, concentrations of immune activation markers like neopterin predict outcome in adults. Methods. Serum neopterin concentrations and early metabolic and pre-atherosclerotic symptoms were analyzed in 295 obese juveniles and 101 normal weight controls of similar age. Additionally, the influence of a 12 months weight reduction program on neopterin levels was investigated in 31 obese juveniles. Results. Intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (IMT) and the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) were increased in the obese juveniles (P juveniles (P juvenile obesity behaved considerably different from what was demonstrated in adults, levels did not correlate with metabolic and pre-atherosclerotic symptoms found in early phases although early vascular burden and chronic low grade inflammation was indicated by increased IMT and CRP. Neopterin concentrations increased after a 12 months intervention program.

  15. Factors influencing predation on juvenile ungulates and natural selection implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Barber-Meyer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ungulates are generally more vulnerable to predation than are adult ungulates other than senescent individuals, not only because of their relative youth, fragility, and inexperience, but also because of congenital factors. Linnell et al.’s (Wildl. Biol. 1: 209-223 extensive review of predation on juvenile ungulates concluded that research was needed to determine the predisposition of these juveniles to predation. Since then, various characteristics that potentially predispose juvenile ungulates have emerged including blood characteristics, morphometric and other condition factors, and other factors such as birth period, the mother’s experience, and spatial and habitat aspects. To the extent that any of the physical or behavioral traits possessed by juvenile ungulates have a genetic or heritable and partly independent epigenetic component that predisposes them to predation, predators may play an important role in their natural selection. We review the possible influence of these characteristics on predisposing juvenile ungulates to predation and discuss natural selection implications and potential selection mechanisms. Although juvenile ungulates as a class are likely more vulnerable to predation than all but senescent adults, our review presents studies indicating that juveniles with certain tendencies or traits are killed more often than others. This finding suggests that successful predation on juveniles is more selective than is often assumed. Because we are unable to control for (or in some cases even measure the myriad of other possible vulnerabilities such as differences in sensory abilities, intelligence, hiding abilities, tendency to travel, etc., finding selective predation based on the relatively few differences we can measure is noteworthy and points to the significant role that predation on juveniles has in the natural selection of ungulates. Future research should compare characteristics, especially those known to

  16. [Lung is also involved in juvenile dermatomyositis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouessel, G; Thumerelle, C; Nève, V; Santangelo, T; Flammarion, S; Pruvot, I; Tillie-Leblond, I; Deschildre, A

    2014-07-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is the leading cause of chronic idiopathic inflammatory myopathy of auto-immune origin in children. Lung involvement in inflammatory myopathies is well described in adults, involving mostly interstitial lung disease, aspiration pneumonia and alveolar hypoventilation. We propose to describe its specificities in children. Pulmonary involvement may be asymptomatic and therefore must be systematically screened for. In case of clinical or functional respiratory abnormality, a chest computed tomographic (CT) scan is necessary. In children, a decrease of respiratory muscle strength seems common and should be systematically and specifically searched for by non-invasive and reproducible tests (sniff test). Interstitial lung disease usually associates restrictive functional defect, impairment of carbon monoxide diffusion and interstitial lung disease on CT scan. As in adults, the first-line treatment of juvenile dermatomyositis is based on corticosteroids. Corticosteroid resistant forms require corticosteroid bolus or adjuvant immunosuppressive drugs (methotrexate or cyclosporine). There is no consensus in pediatrics for the treatment of diffuse interstitial lung disease. Complications of treatment, including prolonged steroid therapy, are frequent and therefore a careful assessment of the treatments risk-benefit ratio is necessary, especially in growing children.

  17. El desempleo juvenil: problema de efectos perpetuos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio José De La Hoz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo evidencia avances teóricos y empíricos respecto al análisis deldesempleo juvenil, subrayando en materia teórica argumentos relacionados con las causas de estefenómeno, tales como la dinámica poblacional juvenil, el desempleo estructural y las condicionessocioeconómicas de los países; las consecuencias, como los bajos ingresos, la exclusión social yel desarrollo de actividades delictivas, efectos que pueden prolongarse por más de diez años. Y enmateria metodológica, diferencias conceptuales para definir a un individuo “joven”, que varían depaís a país, y dependen de instituciones nacionales encargadas de la información estadística, y enalgunos casos, de las mismas condiciones económicas de los países.

  18. Frontal Sinus Development and Juvenile Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kaitlin; Ross, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Assessment of development is an important component of age estimation in juveniles. One area that has not been fully investigated as a possible aging method is the development of the frontal sinus. The frontal sinuses form when the ectocranial table of the frontal bone separates from the endocranial table forming an air pocket in the bone. The endocranial table ceases growth with the brain, while the ectocranial table is displaced anteriorly as the facial bones continue growth. In order to examine growth and the utility of the frontal sinuses for age estimation, 392 radiographs were examined (♀=159 and ♂=233) from the Juvenile Radiograph Database at North Carolina State University and the Patricia Database from Mercyhurst University. The sample included individuals who ranged in age from 0 to 18 years. Anterior view (or AP) radiographs were examined and were grouped based upon the presence or absence of the frontal sinus. Individuals were grouped into four age categories. A one-way ANOVA was performed to test whether developmental phase was related to age. Results from the ANOVA show that developmental phase is significantly related to age (P Anat Rec, 300:1609-1617, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Heterogeneidad de trayectorias laborales y temporalidades juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Longo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las trayectorias laborales de los jóvenes se diversifican en función de las duraciones, las etapas y las edades en las que ocurren los acontecimientos y se alcanzan ciertos roles. Sin embargo, factores clásicos asociados al origen social o al mundo del trabajo no alcanzan para comprender la diferenciación en los modos de inserción. Este artículo propone la inclusión de las temporalidades juveniles como factor clave para la comprensión de trayectorias laborales de jóvenes. Las temporalidades juveniles sirven para observar conjuntamente los marcos temporales dominantes de la inserción y la manera en la que los mismos son vividos por los sujetos. Las mismas discuten las tesis que señalan que en Argentina los jóvenes son prisioneros de un presentismo sin proyecto o que se someten inevitablemente a un contexto laboral incierto. Cuatro tipo des temporalidades han emergido en el análisis cualitativo y longitudinal de las trayectorias : los "planificadores", los "ejecutantes", los "latentes" y los "oportunistas"

  20. Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimaz, Rolando

    2016-09-01

    Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) is a systemic inflammatory disease which has up to now been classified as a category of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. However, in this context, systemic inflammation has been associated with dysregulation of the innate immune system, suggesting that it may rather be part of the spectrum of autoinflammatory disorders. The disease is in fact unique with regard to the other JIA categories, in terms of clinical manifestations, prognosis, and response to conventional immunosuppressant therapies. It is characterized clinically by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthritis, rash, and serositis. IL-1 and IL-6 play a major role in the pathogenesis of SoJIA, and treatment with IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors has shown to be highly effective. However, complications of SoJIA, including macrophage activation syndrome, limitations in functional outcome by arthritis and long-term damage from chronic inflammation continue to be a major issue in patients' care. Recent advances on the pathogenesis and treatment have revolutionized the care and prognosis of this potentially life-threatening pediatric condition.

  1. Clinical outcome measures in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alessandro; Giancane, Gabriella; Schiappapietra, Benedetta; Davì, Sergio; Calandra, Serena; Lanni, Stefano; Ravelli, Angelo

    2016-04-18

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), as a chronic condition, is associated with significant disease- and treatment-related morbidity, thus impacting children's quality of life. In order to optimize JIA management, the paediatric rheumatologist has begun to regularly use measurements of disease activity developed, validated and endorsed by international paediatric rheumatology professional societies in an effort to monitor the disease course over time and assess the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in JIA patients.A literature review was performed to describe the main outcome measures currently used in JIA patients to determine disease activity status.The Juvenile Disease Activity Score (JADAS), in its different versions (classic JADAS, JADAS-CRP and cJADAS) and the validated definitions of disease activity and response to treatment represent an important tool for the assessment of clinically relevant changes in disease activity, leading more and more to a treat-to-target strategy, based on a tight and thorough control of the patient condition. Moreover, in recent years, increasing attention on the incorporation of patient-reported or parent-reported outcomes (PRCOs), when measuring the health state of patients with paediatric rheumatic diseases has emerged.We think that the care of JIA patients cannot be possible without taking into account clinical outcome measures and, in this regard, further work is required.

  2. Managing juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Madeleine J; Dick, Andrew D; Lee, Richard J W; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Carreño, Ester; Guly, Catherine M; Ross, Adam H

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral chronic anterior uveitis is an extra-articular feature of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Although figures vary, uveitis occurs in approximately 11%-13% of patients with this disease and is most commonly associated with the female gender, oligoarthritis, and presence of antinuclear antibodies. The disease has an insidious onset and is often asymptomatic. Managing patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis remains challenging as the disease may prove to be refractory to traditional treatment regimens. Stepwise immunomodulatory therapy is indicated, with new biologic drugs being used last in cases of refractory uveitis. Small scale studies and practice have provided the evidence to undertake randomized control trials to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapies, such as infliximab and adalimumab. These have demonstrated promising results, with further data awaited from ongoing trials for adalimumab (as SYCAMORE and ADJUVITE trials). Lower grade evidence is supporting the use of newer biologics such as rituximab, daclizumab, tocilizumab, and abatacept in those cases refractory to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy.

  3. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  4. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  5. 77 FR 58813 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... bottomfish fleet; 13. Promoting American Samoa as a premier sport fishing destination by holding annual sport... abundance surveys in Pala lagoon; 24. Assessing the health and quality of juvenile reef fish habitat; 25. Assessing the health and quality of mangrove habitat in Nuuuli and Leone; and 26. Enhancing fisheries GIS...

  6. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... forward to Bang's later works produced after his return to Denmark, the article also demonstrates how the sculptural syntax and working principles developed in the early works still underlie and structure the artist's more allegorical sculptures and installations from the 2000s, thus testifying...

  7. Juvenile cellulitis in a puppy – case reportsCelulite juvenil canina – relato de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile cellulitis or juvenile sterile granulomatous lymphadenitis is a rare disorder that affects puppies between three weeks to six months years old. Clinical signs include alopecia, edema, papules, pustules and crusts especially on eyelids. Definitive diagnosis requires cytological and histological evaluation and early and aggressive therapy is recommended, once scars after recovery can be severe .The choice treatment is the high dose of corticosteroids use such as prednisone. Three animals of canine species were attended at the Veterinary Hospital Clinical Small Animal Service presenting different clinical signs. Hemogram, skin lesions and submandibular lymph nodes cytological examination was collected and analyzed. The treatment was instituted, using cephalexin (22mg/kg, twice daily up to control of secondary bacterial infection, and prednisone (2mg/kg, once a day until clinical resolution. Complete cure was obtained at the end of treatment. The aim of this work is to report three clinical cases of juvenile cellulitis in dogs. A celulite juvenil ou linfadenite granulomatosa estéril juvenil, é um distúrbio raro que acomete filhotes com idade entre três semanas a seis meses. Os sinais clínicos incluem alopecia, edema, pápulas, pústulas e crostas especialmente em pálpebras. O diagnóstico definitivo requer exames citológico e histopatológico e a terapia precoce e agressiva é preconizada, pois as cicatrizes após recuperação podem ser graves. O tratamento de escolha consiste no uso de altas doses dos glicocorticoides, como prednisona. Foram atendidos no Hospital Veterinário, três animais da espécie canina, apresentando sinais clínicos variados. Foram realizados hemograma, exame citológico das lesões de pele e dos linfonodos submandibulares. O tratamento foi instituído, utilizando-se cefalexina na dose de 22 mg/kg, duas vezes ao dia, até controle de infecção bacteriana secundária e prednisona na dose de 2mg/kg, uma vez

  8. Imaging of the temporomandibular joint in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Yoginder N; Dunnavant, F Daniel; Royal, Stuart A; Beukelman, Timothy; Stoll, Matthew L; Cron, Randy Q

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is extremely common but frequently asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast remains the gold standard for identifying TMJ arthritis in JIA. A reliable scoring system with published MRI examples of typical acute and chronic TMJ arthritis changes will be invaluable for future prospective treatment trials of TMJ arthritis in JIA. MRIs were collected from routine clinical studies assessing TMJ arthritis in JIA. Representative images were selected for publication to depict acute (synovial fluid, bone marrow edema, and synovial enhancement) and chronic (pannus, disc derangement, and condylar head flattening and erosions) TMJ arthritis findings. A preliminary MRI-based scoring system for assessing degrees of acute and chronic TMJ arthritis was developed and tested for inter- and intrareader reliability. TMJ MRIs representative of acute and chronic TMJ arthritis in JIA were selected from among thousands taken (>500 TMJ MRI studies annually at Children's of Alabama) since September 2007. Moreover, computed tomography scans depicting select bony changes (osteophyte formation, micrognathia) were chosen for publication. A description of the MRI protocol for assessing TMJ arthritis is included. A preliminary scoring system weighted for degree of acute and chronic TMJ arthritis MRI findings was found to have substantial inter- and intrareader reliability. A published set of MRIs depicting representative acute and chronic changes will help establish a standardized scoring system to assess TMJ arthritis in children with JIA. Future validation will aid in assessing improvement during treatment trials of TMJ arthritis. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in the Era of International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, Yosef

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Improved understanding of its pathogenesis has led to international cooperation in clinical studies. Multicenter, international collaborations and research facilitate rapid enrollment of enough patients to enable a variety of studies, including those of epidemiology, diagnostic and classification criteria, genetic disease predisposition, pathogenesis, outcomes, and treatment protocols. In the last 20 years, the vision of the Pediatric Rheumatology International Trial Organization (PRINTO) has become a reality of worldwide collaboration in pediatric rheumatology research, including North American and European research groups. Major advances have been made in treating systemic JIA and its main complication, macrophage-activating syndrome (MAS). Single Hub and Access Point to Pediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) is a project of the European Society of Pediatric Rheumatology with the goal of improving clinical care. Based on evidence in the scientific literature, position papers regarding optimal clinical approaches and care have been published. Formal, validated assessment tools to evaluate response to treatment have been developed. Recommendations have been established to encourage international research collaborations, especially in light of major advances achieved in the genetics of pediatric rheumatologic diseases and the need to share biological samples among different countries and continents. Every participating country has disease information available for patients and families. Additionally, educational programs and updated syllabi for pediatric rheumatology have been written to promote similar, high-level academic training in different countries. These efforts have resulted in significant improvements in treatment and in patient prognosis. However, improved cooperation is needed to enhance research with biological and genetic samples. The Israeli Research Group for

  10. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in the Era of International Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Uziel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Improved understanding of its pathogenesis has led to international cooperation in clinical studies. Multicenter, international collaborations and research facilitate rapid enrollment of enough patients to enable a variety of studies, including those of epidemiology, diagnostic and classification criteria, genetic disease predisposition, pathogenesis, outcomes, and treatment protocols. In the last 20 years, the vision of the Pediatric Rheumatology International Trial Organization (PRINTO has become a reality of worldwide collaboration in pediatric rheumatology research, including North American and European research groups. Major advances have been made in treating systemic JIA and its main complication, macrophage-activating syndrome (MAS. Single Hub and Access Point to Pediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE is a project of the European Society of Pediatric Rheumatology with the goal of improving clinical care. Based on evidence in the scientific literature, position papers regarding optimal clinical approaches and care have been published. Formal, validated assessment tools to evaluate response to treatment have been developed. Recommendations have been established to encourage international research collaborations, especially in light of major advances achieved in the genetics of pediatric rheumatologic diseases and the need to share biological samples among different countries and continents. Every participating country has disease information available for patients and families. Additionally, educational programs and updated syllabi for pediatric rheumatology have been written to promote similar, high-level academic training in different countries. These efforts have resulted in significant improvements in treatment and in patient prognosis. However, improved cooperation is needed to enhance research with biological and genetic samples. The Israeli Research

  11. From the Bench -- Juvenile Courts: How and Why They Have Changed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuys, Heather; Blitzman, Jay; Hibbler, William; Wakefield, Dana

    2000-01-01

    Offers four judges' perspectives on the various changes in the juvenile court system focusing on the increased violence among juveniles as having the greatest effect on the courts; includes issues such as juveniles being tried in adult courts, the need to improve juvenile courts, and the role of public interest. (CMK)

  12. Critical Factors in Mental Health Programming for Juveniles in Corrections Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lee A.; Phillips, Annie; von Dresner, Kara; Knight, Pamela D.

    2006-01-01

    Juveniles with mental health and other specialized needs are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, and while juvenile corrections have not historically provided standardized and evidence-based mental health services for its incarcerated youth, the demand is evident. The reality is that juveniles with serious mental illness are committed…

  13. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  14. Maternal touch moderates sex differences in juvenile social play behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N Edelmann

    Full Text Available Additional somatosensory contact of preterm human infants improves a variety of developmental assessment scores, but less is known about its lasting consequences. In rodents, maternal contact may influence the programming of juvenile social play behavior. Therefore, we used a paradigm where we can control the levels of somatosensory contact associated with maternal care. We find that additional somatosensory contact of offspring can have lasting consequences on juvenile social play behavior in a sex-dependent manner. Specifically, additional somatosensory stimuli reduced male social play behavior, but did not change female play behavior. We then examined if this additional infant contact altered some neurobiological substrates associated with play within the juvenile amygdala. Control males had lower levels of 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels contrasted to females; however, similar to its sex-dependent effect on juvenile social play, males that received additional somatosensory contact had higher serotonin 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels than control males. No difference was found in females. As serotonin signaling typically opposes juvenile play behavior, these data suggest that maternal touch can program lasting differences in juvenile social play and 5HT2a receptors mRNA levels within the juvenile amygdala.

  15. Maternal touch moderates sex differences in juvenile social play behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Michelle N; Demers, Catherine H; Auger, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Additional somatosensory contact of preterm human infants improves a variety of developmental assessment scores, but less is known about its lasting consequences. In rodents, maternal contact may influence the programming of juvenile social play behavior. Therefore, we used a paradigm where we can control the levels of somatosensory contact associated with maternal care. We find that additional somatosensory contact of offspring can have lasting consequences on juvenile social play behavior in a sex-dependent manner. Specifically, additional somatosensory stimuli reduced male social play behavior, but did not change female play behavior. We then examined if this additional infant contact altered some neurobiological substrates associated with play within the juvenile amygdala. Control males had lower levels of 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels contrasted to females; however, similar to its sex-dependent effect on juvenile social play, males that received additional somatosensory contact had higher serotonin 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels than control males. No difference was found in females. As serotonin signaling typically opposes juvenile play behavior, these data suggest that maternal touch can program lasting differences in juvenile social play and 5HT2a receptors mRNA levels within the juvenile amygdala.

  16. Few juvenile auditory perceptual skills correlate with adult performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarro, Emma C; Sanes, Dan H

    2014-02-01

    Measures of human mental development suggest that behavioral skills displayed during early life can predict an individual's subsequent cognitive performance. Support for this draws from longitudinal studies that reveal compelling within-subject correlations during childhood. If this idea applies across the life span, then correlations in performance should persist into adulthood. Here, we address this prediction in juvenile and adult gerbils by evaluating within-subject measures of auditory learning and perception. Animals were trained and tested as juveniles on either an amplitude modulation (AM) or a frequency modulation (FM) detection task. Measures of learning and perception obtained from juveniles were then compared to similar measures obtained when each subject was tested in adulthood on either the same task or the untrained task. For animals trained and tested on the AM detection task as juveniles and adults, there was no correlation between juvenile and adult learning metrics, or perceptual sensitivity. For animals trained and tested on FM detection as juveniles, we observed a significant relationship to their adult performance. Juveniles that performed the best on FM detection were the poorest at AM detection, and the best at FM detection, when tested as adults. Thus, across-age correlations for sensory and cognitive measures, obtained during development and in adulthood, depend heavily on the specific type of developmental experience and the outcome measure.

  17. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Anton PH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO. The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4 referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents, and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample. However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6% and violent recidivism (32.1%. Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary.

  18. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  19. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T.; Wolff, Kevin T.

    2017-01-01

    While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13) were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention. PMID:28212340

  20. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Baglivio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13 were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention.

  1. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed.

  2. FINES Y DETERMINACIÓN DE LAS SANCIONES PENALES JUVENILES

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffer Sotomayor, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    El artículo refiere los contenidos sobre los fines y la determinación de las sanciones penales juveniles. Se inicia con el elemento caracterizador del modelo de justicia responsabilizador penal juvenil. Presenta el dilema entre la prevención general y la prevención especial y el rol que desempeña el principio educativo, como finalidad primordial. Se presentan los principales criterios que debe considerar un juez al momento de determinar una sanción penal juvenil.

  3. Entre champetuos, pupys y harcoretos: Identidades juveniles en santa marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Giraldo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe las principales articulaciones de las identidades juveniles en la ciudad de Santa Marta, en el Caribe colombiano. Para ello, contrasta las más relevantes figuras en el espectro de las experiencias y subjetividades juveniles en sus estrechas relaciones con diferentes géneros musicales. Se evidencia, entonces, que en las identidades juveniles se pueden diferenciar unas figuras hegemónicas (champetuo, pupy, yuquero de unas alternativas (harcoreto,electrónico.

  4. The case of juvenile polygraphy as a clinical ethics dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Polygraph interrogations are used by half of all surveyed juvenile sex offender (JSO) treatment programs in the United States. This is a distinctive and controversial practice that is rarely if ever used with other juvenile delinquent populations, and that is rarely used or is banned from JSO treatment programs in other countries. Clinical polygraphy is an ethically sensitive issue because it involves mental health therapists in involuntary coercive interrogations of minors. This article reviews core mental health professional ethics principles for juveniles. JSO polygraphy is used as an illustrative issue for applying human rights principles to a practice in light of its benefits, risks, and available alternatives.

  5. Hypoglycemia and hemostatic parameters in juvenile-onset diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Nielsen, J D;

    1980-01-01

    Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous infusion of insulin in six juvenile-onset diabetic subjects. Hemostatic parameters were assessed before insulin infusion and 0, 1, and 2 h after discontinuation of insulin infusion. The onset of hypoglycemia coincided with an enhancement of ADP-induced plat......Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous infusion of insulin in six juvenile-onset diabetic subjects. Hemostatic parameters were assessed before insulin infusion and 0, 1, and 2 h after discontinuation of insulin infusion. The onset of hypoglycemia coincided with an enhancement of ADP...... potentially lead to intravascular coagulation in juvenile-onset diabetic patients....

  6. Features of trust in other people in juvenile offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Astanina N.B.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a comparative study of trust in other people in juvenile offender and law-abiding teens. The study involved 113 young offenders (from detention center for juvenile offenders, special closed schools, juvenile correctional facilities of Voronezh and Lipetsk regions) and 106 law-abiding teens, 13 to 18 years old. We identified the types of trust in other people in the two groups of adolescents. We analyzed the specifics of trust in other people in the group of ...

  7. Alteraciones de la afectividad en delincuentes juveniles privados de libertad

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Remuzgo, Salvador

    2002-01-01

    La delincuencia juvenil ha interesado al saber científico desde siempre, y son muchos los autores y escuelas de todos los ámbitos del conocimiento que han intentado dar explicaciones sobre el origen de dicho comportamiento desadaptado, sin embargo, parece claro que esta tareas no parece fácil pues en la delincuencia juvenil están implicados una multitud de factores que ... hacen muy compleja su explicación. Esta complejidad se agrava cuando intentamos estudiar al delincuente juvenil sometido ...

  8. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presenting as bilateral breast masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edison, Michele N.; Letter, Haley P. [Florida Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); O' Dell, M.C. [University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Scherer, Kurt; Williams, Jennifer L. [Florida Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); Florida State University, College of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    An 8-year-old girl presented with bilateral breast masses and was subsequently diagnosed with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome that typically presents in boys younger than 3 years of age with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and skin findings. Bilateral breast masses in a child are rare and, as such, present a diagnostic dilemma due to the relative paucity of cases in the literature. We present a case of granulocytic sarcoma of the breasts in a patient with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The authors hope that increased reporting and research regarding pediatric breast masses will help create awareness for such cases. (orig.)

  9. Caring for juveniles with mental disorders in adult corrections facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Cheryl D

    2017-02-01

    Although juveniles have developmental, educational, healthcare, and rehabilitation needs that differ from adults, thousands of them have been confined in adult corrections facilities in the past 30 years. This manuscript will review how and why juveniles end up in adult corrections facilities, who they are, their rehabilitative needs, and how they differ from adults in corrections facilities and youths in the juvenile justice system. The importance of providing developmentally-informed mental health services to youths in adult corrections facilities is examined, along with barriers to traditional adolescent psychiatric practice. Recommendations for future directions in adolescent psychiatric care are presented.

  10. Mediation involving a juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cwalina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes issues concerning mediatory proceedings regarding juvenile court cases in Poland. It was based on original master’s dissertation entitled “Mediation as a form of protection of the juvenile against stigma”. Mediation is most often defined as a voluntary attempt to resolve the conflict and to reach an agreement as it regards the compensation, in presence of impartial and neutral mediator. By contrast with court cases, mediation’s aim is not to point out who is right, but to find a solution of conflict, satisfactory to all parties. Fundamental aim of mediation within juvenile cases is educational and reformatory influence.

  11. Landmark learning by juvenile salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuring, Whitney L; Mathis, Alicia

    2014-10-01

    Learning to use a landmark as a beacon to locate resources is one of the simplest forms of spatial learning. We tested whether landmark learning occurs in a semifossorial salamander that migrates annually to breeding ponds as adults. Juvenile spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) were tested in square containers with a plastic feeding dish in each corner, and a piece of earthworm was placed in one randomly-chosen dish. For landmark-trained salamanders, a rock was placed beside the dish containing the prey. For control salamanders, the rock was placed beside a randomly selected feeding dish. Each salamander was trained once every 2 days for 30 days. Significantly more landmark-trained salamanders than control salamanders entered the landmark area first, and landmark-trained individuals had faster latencies to enter the landmark area and longer stay-times. These results suggest that spotted salamanders are able to locate resources by associating their positions with landmarks.

  12. IMPACTUL PRESEI ASUPRA DELICVENŢEI JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CIOBANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lucrarea în cauză e un rezultat al unui studiu asupra schimbărilor comportamentale ale adolescenţilor, influenţate de unele materiale publicistice. Departe de intenţia de a reveni la cenzura de altădată, autorul pledează pentru o auto-cenzură, pentru o autoexigenţă în procesul de creaţie, pentru o responsabilitate sporită pentru cuvântul scris sau rostit.THE IMPACT OF MEDIA ON THE JUVENILE DELINQUENCYThis writing is a result of a study of teenager’s behavior changes influenced by journalistic work. The author is not militating for the past censorship, but he pleads for an autocensorship, for an auto exigency during the creation process, for a high responsibility for written word or for the spoken one.

  13. Marcadores de inmunorrespuesta en la periodontitis juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Pérez Borrego,

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La periodontitis juvenil es una enfermedad del periodonto propia de adolescentes y adultos jóvenes, afecta principalmente los primeros molares y los incisivos y se caracteriza por la pérdida severa del hueso alveolar alrededor de dientes permanentes sin correspondencia entre la rapidez y severidad de la destrucción con los factores locales. En la causa de la enfermedad se citan factores genéticos, infecciosos e inmunológicos. Estudiamos algunos marcadores de inmunorrespuesta en 6 adolescentes que acudieron a nuestro servicio con el diagnóstico de periodontitis juvenil, además de su valoración clínica y radiológica. Ambos sexos se afectaron por igual, la movilidad dentaria y el sangramiento al sondeo fueron los hallazgos clínicos más relevantes y el índice de higiene bucal fue adecuado en todos los casos. No encontramos homogeneidad en las alteraciones inmunológicas, pero todos los pacientes estuvieron afectados en más de un marcador. Predominaron las alteraciones funcionales de linfocitos T en los estudios celulares. La hipogammaglobulinemia y la IgM elevada fueron las alteraciones más frecuentes en la inmunidad de anticuerpos. Se señala la dificultad que aún existe para explicar la patogenia de la enfermedad basándose solamente en un único factor de riesgo, así como la importancia de la valoración individual de cada enfermo.Juvenile periodontitis is a disease of the periodontium inherent to adolescents and young adults, affecting mainly the first molars and incisives and characterized by the severe loss of the alveolar bone sorrounding the permanent teeth with no correspondance between the celerity and severity of the destruction and the local factors. Genetic, infectious and immunological factors are considereed as the causes of the disease. Some immunoresponse markers were studied in 6 adolescents that were seen at our service with the diagnosis of juvenile periodontitis in addition to their clinical and radiological

  14. Representaciones sociales juveniles sobre la democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Díaz Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo da cuenta de una parte de los resultados obtenidos en la investigación “representaciones sociales juveniles sobre la democracia y la multiculturalidad”. Se desarrolló desde la perspectiva metodológica de la Investigación Acción Participante, proceso dentro del cual, se aplicó un cuestionario conformado por nueve preguntas, divididas en tres bloques temáticos que permitieron conocer las representaciones sociales de un grupo de veinticinco jóvenes, sobre la democracia –aspecto que se reporta en este texto– la ciudadanía y la multiculturalidad a partir de tres dimensiones: significado, vivencias y condiciones de la democracia.

  15. Anterior uveitis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1977-10-01

    The ocular and systemic characteristics of 160 patients with anterior uveitis and seronegative juvenile rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed. Chronic uveitis occurred in 131 patients, 76% of whom were girls. Both eyes were involved in 70% of the cases. Band keratopathy occurred in 41% of the eyes, cataract in 42%, and secondary glaucoma in 19%. Only 11 patients had uveitis before the onset of arthritis. Notable correlations included a pauciarticular onset of arthritis in 95% of the patients, and positive tests for antinuclear antibody in 82%. Of 29 patients with acute anterior uveitis, 27 were boys. The inflammation responded well to therapy, and serious complications did not occur. At follow-up 21 patients had typical ankylosing spondylitis, and five had sacroiliitis. The incidence of positive results of tests for HLA-B27 antigen was 94%.

  16. Screening for uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1989-03-01

    Three hundred and fifteen patients with anterior uveitis associated with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) were studied in order to identify the various risk factors for uveitis. Girls were more susceptible to uveitis than boys by a ratio of 3:1. In 94% of cases the uveitis was diagnosed after the development of arthritis. The risk of uveitis was small after seven or more years had elapsed from the onset of arthritis. Patients with pauciarticular onset JCA had the highest risk of uveitis and systemic onset patients the least risk. The presence of circulating antinuclear antibody was also an important marker for an increased risk of uveitis. A regimen for routine screening of patients is suggested.

  17. The Genomic Landscape of Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiffany Y.; Gelston, Laura C.; Wang, Yong-Dong; Mazor, Tali; Esquivel, Emilio; Yu, Ariel; Seepo, Sara; Olsen, Scott; Rosenberg, Mara; Archambeault, Sophie L.; Abusin, Ghada; Beckman, Kyle; Brown, Patrick A.; Briones, Michael; Carcamo, Benjamin; Cooper, Todd; Dahl, Gary V.; Emanuel, Peter D.; Fluchel, Mark N.; Goyal, Rakesh K.; Hayashi, Robert J.; Hitzler, Johann; Hugge, Christopher; Liu, Y. Lucy; Messinger, Yoav H.; Mahoney, Donald H.; Monteleone, Philip; Nemecek, Eneida R.; Roehrs, Philip A.; Schore, Reuven J.; Stine, Kimo C.; Takemoto, Clifford M.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Costello, Joseph F.; Olshen, Adam B.; Stewart, Chip; Li, Yongjin; Ma, Jing; Gerbing, Robert B.; Alonzo, Todd A.; Getz, Gad; Gruber, Tanja; Golub, Todd; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Loh, Mignon L.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) of childhood with a poor prognosis. Mutations in NF1, NRAS, KRAS, PTPN11 and CBL occur in 85% of patients, yet there are currently no risk stratification algorithms capable of predicting which patients will be refractory to conventional treatment and therefore be candidates for experimental therapies. In addition, there have been few other molecular pathways identified aside from the Ras/MAPK pathway to serve as the basis for such novel therapeutic strategies. We therefore sought to genomically characterize serial samples from patients at diagnosis through relapse and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia in order to expand our knowledge of the mutational spectrum in JMML. We identified recurrent mutations in genes involved in signal transduction, gene splicing, the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and transcription. Importantly, the number of somatic alterations present at diagnosis appears to be the major determinant of outcome. PMID:26457647

  18. Clinical Orofacial Examination in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Peter; Twilt, Marinka; Spiegel, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    review. The level of evidence for the 5 recommendations was derived primarily from descriptive studies, such as cross-sectional and case-control studies. CONCLUSION: Five recommendations are proposed for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA to improve the clinical practice and aid standardized......OBJECTIVE: To develop international consensus-based recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), for use in clinical practice and research. METHODS: Using a sequential phased approach, a multidisciplinary task force developed and evaluated...... a set of recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA. Phase 1: A Delphi survey was conducted among 40 expert physicians and dentists with the aim of identifying and ranking the importance of items for inclusion. Phase 2: The task force developed consensus about the domains...

  19. A case of juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayli, Savaş; Uncu, Sibel; Alpay, Köksal; Yildiz, Kadriye; Cimşit, Gülseren; Bahadir, Sevgi

    2006-04-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare, autosomally-recessive disease characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, joint contractures, gingival hypertrophy and osteolytic bone lesions. Its onset is in infancy or early childhood. The most commonly affected sites are the nose, chin, ears, scalp, back and knees. The accumulation of an amorphous, hyaline material is typical in the skin and the other organs. Herein, we report a 14-month-old boy who presented with confluent pink papules on the paranasal folds and the chin, and nodular lesions on the periauricular and perianal regions. He had gingival hypertrophy and contractures of the shoulders, knees and elbows. He also had third-degree consanguineous parents. Histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of JHF with the presence of increased numbers of fibroblasts embedded in a hyalinized connective tissue stroma.

  20. Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the proximal nail fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Iorizzo, Matilde; Tosti, Antonella

    2003-01-01

    An 18-month-old Caucasian boy presented with a firm 0.5 mm nodule, pink-red in color, with a yellow hue and some telangiectases on the surface, localized on the right thumbnail. The nodule involved all of the proximal nail fold and covered the proximal third of the nail. Pathology showed a dense dermal infiltrate of histiocytes, some of which had foamy nuclei, and multinucleated Touton giant cells. The lesion progressively decreased in size and had completely disappeared after 3 years. Periodic follow-up was important not only to monitor evolution of the juvenile xanthogranuloma, but also to avoid excessive growth of the lesion with possible definitive nail matrix damage.

  1. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Timothy E

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common epilepsy syndrome that begins most frequently in the early teenage years. It is officially classified as a type of idiopathic generalized epilepsy and is often under-recognized or misdiagnosed. This syndrome has a strong genetic component with multiple gene mutations being associated with the clinical presentation. Based upon genetic associations, there may be multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms for the disorder; the pathophysiology has not been clearly defined. A diagnosis of JME is made using the clinical history and EEG findings. Valproic acid is the primary antiepileptic drug (AED) used for JME, but some newer AEDs may be effective alternatives. Selection of an appropriate AED is essential to the proper management of JME, because of the possibility of exacerbation of seizures by some AEDs and the adverse effect profiles of effective drugs. It is important for clinicians to understand JME to correctly diagnose and manage patients with this syndrome.

  2. Chemical Evolution of the Juvenile Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Wasserburg, G J

    2009-01-01

    Only massive stars contribute to the chemical evolution of the juvenile universe corresponding to [Fe/H]-0.32. Recent observations show that there are stars with [Sr/Fe]<-2 and [Fe/H]<-3. This proves that the two-component model is not correct and that a third component is necessary to explain the observations. This leads to a simple three-component model including low-mass and normal SNe II and hypernovae (HNe), which gives a good description of essentially all the data for stars with [Fe/H]<-1.5. We conclude that HNe are more important than normal SNe II in the chemical evolution of the low-A elements, in sharp distinction to earlier models. (Abridged)

  3. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  4. [Solitary and congenital juvenile xanthogranuloma: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarte, Leticia; Stefano, Paola C; Bocian, Marcela; Solernou, Verónica; Pierini, Adrián Martín; Cervini, Andrea Bettina

    2017-02-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a bening pathology and it represents the most common form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is characterized by the presence of papules or firm nodules of a pinkish or yellow-brownish nature, which mainly compromise the skin and, exceptionally, other organs. It is a self-limited entity having a spontaneous regression during the first five years of life. We report the case of a one-month-old patient who presented a congenital tumor in the abdomen, whose histopathology showed the presence of multinucleated giant Touton cells, which are typical of this pathology. We emphasize the rare occurrence of this type of lesion and the importance of the multiple differential diagnosis to be taken into account due to the age of the patient and the characteristics of the lesion.

  5. Cytokines in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, H; Schauenstein, K

    1998-06-01

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), unlike rheumatoid arthritis of adulthood (RA), is a heterogenous disease comprising at least five subtypes that differ in clinical course and prognosis, and require different therapeutical approaches. As compared to RA, the production of local and systemic cytokines in JRA have not yet been as extensively investigated. In this article we review the available literature on cytokine expression in serum and synovial fluid in all five different subtypes of JRA. Even though the data are still fragmentary, the evidence so far suggests that the determination of serum cytokines yields relevant information as to clinical subtype and inflammatory activity of the disease. Furthermore, the cytokine data suggest that the pathogenesis of JRA may even by more heterogenous than defined by the clinical subtypes. Finally, future directions of research in this area are proposed, and-based on the latest results-arguments for (anti)cytokine therapies in JRA are critically discussed.

  6. GANGGUAN PERTUMBUHAN MANDIBULA PADA JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Puspitawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA is a systemic disease on childhood, which has chronic arthritis as its most prominent manifestation. One very common complication of JRA is growth disturbance. JRA involving temporomandibular joint usually result in mandibular growth retardation which eventually can lead to micrognathia, retrognathia, malocclusion and other mandibulofacial developmental aberrations. Factors considered to be the cause of these growth and developmental disturbances are: congenital, the disease's direct effect on the condyle, functional deficiency of the temporomandibular joint, duration, age of disease onset and type of the JRA and corticosteroid therapy. However, the mechanism for the mandibulofacial growth and developmental aberrations due to JRA are not fully understood. This literature review will discuss the hypotheses concerning mechanisms of those growth and developmental disturbances, especially based on clinical and radiographic studies on JRA cases.

  7. Mutator/hypermutable fetal/juvenile metakaryotic stem cells and human colorectal carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohith G. Kini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult age-specific colorectal cancer incidence rates increase exponentially from maturity, reach a maximum, then decline in extreme old age. Armitage and Doll (1957 postulated that the exponential increase resulted from n mutations occurring throughout adult life in normal cells at risk that initiated the growth of a preneoplastic colony in which subsequent m mutations promoted one of the preneoplastic cells at risk to form a lethal neoplasia. We have reported cytologic evidence that these cells at risk are fetal/juvenile organogenic, then preneoplastic metakaryotic stem cells. Metakaryotic cells display stem-like behaviors of both symmetric and asymmetric nuclear divisions and peculiarities such as bell shaped nuclei and amitotic nuclear fission that distinguish them from embryonic, eukaryotic stem cells. Analyses of mutant colony sizes and numbers in adult lung epithelia supported the inferences that the metakaryotic organogenic stem cells are constitutively mutator/hypermutable and that their contributions to cancer initiation are limited to the fetal/juvenile period. We have amended the two-stage model of Armitage and Doll and incorporated these several inferences in a computer program CancerFit v.5.0. We compared the expectations of the amended model to adult (15-104 yr age-specific colon cancer rates for European American males born 1890-99 and observed remarkable concordance. When estimates of normal colonic fetal/juvenile APC and OAT gene mutation rates (~2-5 x 10-5 per stem cell doubling and preneoplastic colonic gene loss rates (~ 8 x 10-3 were applied, the model was in accordance only for the values of n = 2 and m = 4 or 5.

  8. Byssogenesis in the juvenile pink heelsplitter mussel, Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hai B; Hua, Dan; Ma, Xue Y; Jin, Wu; Zhuang, Yan B; Gu, Ruo B; Yuan, Xin H; Du, Xin W; Xu, Pao

    2015-11-01

    The North American pink heelsplitter (Potamilus alatus) differs from most freshwater mussels in China by the ability to secrete an ephemeral byssus during its juvenile stage. In the present study, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate this ephemeral byssal structure, and amino acid composition was analyzed and compared with that of other species. The results revealed that the byssus consists of a long byssal thread and a few adhesive plaques which are randomly set up along the thread and assembled by petioles. There is a thin but distinctive cuticle with a continuous homogeneous matrix surrounding the byssal thread. Structural variation occurred when the byssal thread was differentially stretched. Four-stranded helical primary fasciculi, which form a stable rope-like structure, become evident after removal of the cuticle. The primary fasciculi consist of bundles of hundreds of parallel secondary fasciculi, each measuring about 5 μm in diameter. All evidence indicates that the byssus of the pink heelsplitter has a significantly different macrostructure and microstructure than the permanent byssus of the marine mussel Mytilus. Byssogenesis ceases when juveniles exceed 30 mm in length, although it varies greatly even among juveniles of similar size. Byssus formation is influenced by substrate type. The unique characteristics of the byssus have important advantages for survival, transition, and aggregation during the early life history. This study not only provides first insight into the structure of the ephemeral byssus and its relationship to freshwater mussel development and growth, but also suggests possibilities for the synthesis of novel biopolymer materials particularly useful in freshwater ecosystems.

  9. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other ill...

  10. Detecting age-structured effects in growth performance of coral reef fish juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Mellin, Camille; Galzin, R.; Ponton, Dominique; Vigliola, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The growth performance of coral reef fish juveniles collected in different habitats is often used as a proxy for habitat quality for juveniles. However, back-calculated growth trajectories of juveniles may be age-structured, for instance, because of potential differences in initial offspring size and/or quality or size-selective mortality. A novel approach is proposed to isolate growth performance of coral reef fish juveniles from potential age-based factors. Juveniles of Chromis viridis (Pom...

  11. Adapting American Policymaking to Overcome American Exceptionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    missions, and of military operations spanning administrations. In conclusion, an apologist posture to defend American foreign policies is not called...military operations spanning administrations. In conclusion, an apologist posture to defend American foreign policies is not called for. However, a deep...and brings to light the tension between American ideals and American practices and policies. V/ hen exposed, this tension opens the door for American

  12. Scaling the Feeding Mechanism of Captive Alligator mississippiensis from Hatchling to Juvenile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Kerfoot

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Small changes in size can lead to potential performance consequences and may influence an organism’s ability to utilize resources in its environment. As the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis transitions between neonate, juvenile and adult habitats (ontogenetic niche shifts, there are inevitably dynamic changes in their feeding performance. This study sought to investigate the scaling of the feeding mechanism and its performance from hatchling to juvenile size classes in A. mississippiensis. Feeding events were recorded during March 2011 at Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge (Grand Chenier, Louisiana. Thirty-six captive individuals were randomly sampled, ranging from 30.5 cm to 91.5 cm total length, and feeding events were recorded using a high speed camera at a rate of 300 fps. Results indicated that many linear, angular and timing kinematic variables scale allometrically with cranium length; whereas maximum gape velocity and duration of feeding bout do not scale with cranium length and remain constant between these size classes. Although it has been shown that there is an isometric relationship between cranial elements and body size in A. mississippiensis, this relationship is not transferred to linear and timing variables of prey-capture events. These allometric relationships echo other investigations of scaling relationships such as bite-force production and terrestrial locomotion.

  13. Scaling the Feeding Mechanism of Captive Alligator mississippiensis from Hatchling to Juvenile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, James R; Fern, Micah P; Elsey, Ruth M

    2014-11-10

    Small changes in size can lead to potential performance consequences and may influence an organism's ability to utilize resources in its environment. As the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) transitions between neonate, juvenile and adult habitats (ontogenetic niche shifts), there are inevitably dynamic changes in their feeding performance. This study sought to investigate the scaling of the feeding mechanism and its performance from hatchling to juvenile size classes in A. mississippiensis. Feeding events were recorded during March 2011 at Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge (Grand Chenier, Louisiana). Thirty-six captive individuals were randomly sampled, ranging from 30.5 cm to 91.5 cm total length, and feeding events were recorded using a high speed camera at a rate of 300 fps. Results indicated that many linear, angular and timing kinematic variables scale allometrically with cranium length; whereas maximum gape velocity and duration of feeding bout do not scale with cranium length and remain constant between these size classes. Although it has been shown that there is an isometric relationship between cranial elements and body size in A. mississippiensis, this relationship is not transferred to linear and timing variables of prey-capture events. These allometric relationships echo other investigations of scaling relationships such as bite-force production and terrestrial locomotion.

  14. Bilateral Florid Juvenile Fibroadenomas of the Breast in an Adolescent: A Rare Indication for Subcutaneous Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navneet; Saini, Shashank; Somasekhar, Soumya; Gupta, Arun

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenomas are rare and constitute about 0.5% to 4% of all fibroadenomas. They present as circumscribed, often large breast masses in adolescent females and are usually managed with simple enucleation. A 15-year-old girl presented with a 6-month history of rapidly growing breasts. On examination, she was found to have large, diffusely nodular breasts with marked asymmetry. Ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology results were suggestive of fibroadenomas, and the patient was planned for excision through a submammary incision. During surgery, both the breasts were found to be studded with nodules of varying sizes with very little normal breast tissue. A bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy was performed for complete removal of the fibroadenomas. Histopathology was reported as multiple juvenile fibroadenomas. Both breasts were later reconstructed with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with implants. We present this case to highlight a rare indication for bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy for a benign condition of the breast. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Talocalcaneal Joint Middle Facet Coalition Resection With Interposition of a Juvenile Hyaline Cartilage Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Dyane E; Wood, Ryan W; Vaardahl, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Talocalcaneal joint middle facet coalition is the most common tarsal coalition, occurring in ≤2% of the population. Fewer than 50% of involved feet obtain lasting relief of symptoms after nonoperative treatment, and surgical intervention is commonly used to relieve symptoms, increase the range of motion, improve function, reconstruct concomitant pes planovalgus, and prevent future arthrosis from occurring at the surrounding joints. Several approaches to surgical intervention are available for patients with middle facet coalitions, ranging from resection to hindfoot arthrodesis. We present a series of 4 cases, in 3 adolescent patients, of talocalcaneal joint middle facet coalition resection with interposition of a particulate juvenile hyaline cartilaginous allograft (DeNovo(®) NT Natural Tissue Graft, Zimmer, Inc., Warsaw, IN). With a mean follow-up period of 42.8 ± 2.9 (range 41 to 47) months, the 3 adolescent patients in the present series were doing well with improved subtalar joint motion and decreased pain, and 1 foot showed no bony regrowth on a follow-up computed tomography scan. The use of a particulate juvenile hyaline cartilaginous allograft as interposition material after talocalcaneal middle facet coalition resection combined with adjunct procedures to address concomitant pes planovalgus resulted in good short-term outcomes in 4 feet in 3 adolescent patients. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. GUIDE POUR L'INTERPRÉTATION DES ÉCAILLES ET L'ESTIMATION DE L'ÂGE CHEZ LES ALOSES (ALOSA SPP. DE LA FAÇADE ATLANTIQUE-EST ET DE LA MÉDITERRANÉE-OUEST. A GUIDE TO SCALE INTERPRETATION AND AGE ESTIMATION FOR THE EAST-ATLANTIC AND WEST-MEDITERRANEAN SHADS (ALOSA SPP..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAGLINIÈRE J. L.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available L'objectif général de ce guide est de fournir un manuel d'utilisation et d'interprétation des écailles pour l'estimation de l'âge chez les aloses de l'Atlantique-Est et de Méditerranée-Ouest (Grande Alose, Alose feinte atlantique et méditerranéenne. Après un présentation rapide des espèces, populations et fleuves analysés, les écailles d'aloses et les méthodes de récolte, de préparation et de montage les concernant sont décrites en détail. Des définitions et un système de notation de l'âge standards sont donnés. La grande majorité des difficultés rencontrées pour l'interprétation des écailles sont analysées en proposant des solutions et en donnant certaines recommandations. L'ensemble de ce guide est largement illustré à l'aide d'exemples d'écailles typiques et atypiques choisis chez tous les taxons des différentes populations étudiées. The general objective of this guide is to provide a practical manual for interpreting scales and the estimation of age of Alosa from the East Atlantic and West-Mediterranean (Allis shad, Atlantic and Mediterranean shad. Following a brief presentation of the species, populations and rivers studied, the scales, sampling methods and their preparation for reading are described in detail. Definitions and a standard system of notating age are given. The majority of the difficulties encountered in the interpretation of scales are analysed, solutions proposed and some recommendations given. The whole guide is largely illustrative using examples of typical and atypical scales from the various taxons of the different populations studied.

  17. Acute respiratory failure in 3 children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Britt; Hellebostad, Marit; Ifversen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare hematopoietic stem cell disease in children with features of both myelodysplasia and myeloproliferation. Extramedullary involvement has been reported and pulmonary involvement secondary to leukemic infiltration is an initial manifestation, which may resu...

  18. Juvenile Salmonid Pathogen Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  19. Cardiac involvement in adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, TThomas W; Diederichsen, L. P.; Lundberg, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) include the main subgroups polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), inclusion body myositis (IBM) and juvenile DM ( JDM). The mentioned subgroups are characterised by inflammation of skeletal muscles leading to muscle weakness and other organs can also...

  20. SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey, Surface Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey: Station Information and Surface Data. Surveys have been conducted along the central California coast in May/June...

  1. Effects of water velocity on activity of juvenile striped bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, R.R.; Griffith, J.S.; Coutant, C.C.

    1976-07-01

    The swimming activity of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum) 8 to 80 mm long was investigated in a test chamber simulating, on a small scale, a fixed-screen cooling water intake structure. As water velocity increased from 0 to 30 cm/sec area and distance traveled by juvenile bass 10 to 80 mm long decreased. However, as water velocity increased from 0 to 3 cm/sec the area and distance covered by larval bass increased. The presence of food increased the activity of larval bass, but decreased the activity of juveniles. Area ranged by striped bass at test velocities ranging from 0 to 30 cm/sec increased in proportion to body length. Juvenile striped bass tested at acclimation temperatures between 20 and 5/sup 0/C experienced a 30% reduction of activity. Activity was also reduced as temperature increased from 20 to 30/sup 0/C.

  2. SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey, CTD Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey: CTD Data. Surveys have been conducted along the central California coast in May/June every year since 1983. In...

  3. Juvenile Salmon Scale Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  4. Juvenile Salmonid IGF-I Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  5. Juvenile Salmonid Genetic Stock Identification Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  6. Juvenile Salmonid Trophic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  7. Juvenile Salmonid Parasite Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  8. Juvenile Salmonid Otolith Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  9. Delusional and psychotic disorders in juvenile myotonic dystrophy type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Delphine; Willekens, Diane; de Die-Smulders, Christine; Frijns, Jean-Pierre; Steyaert, Jean

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the clinically derived hypothesis of a relatively high incidence of delusional and psychotic disorders in adolescents with juvenile Myotonic Dystrophy type-1 (DM1). Twenty-seven subjects of age 16-25 with juvenile DM1 and their parents were invited to have a clinical psychiatric interview, and to complete an ASEBA behavior checklist (YSR, ASR, CBCL, and ABCL). We diagnosed a Delusional Disorder in 19% of our patients and a Psychotic Disorder not otherwise specified in another 19%. These two groups of patients had a significantly worse level of clinically defined general functioning. It is clinically relevant to investigate in patients with juvenile DM the symptom of delusions and the presence of a delusional and psychotic disorder, and to consider the presence of juvenile DM in youngsters presenting with such a thought disorder. These disorders compromise the general functioning of the subjects and are often to some extent treatable. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Psychological characteristics of juvenile offenders with personal immaturity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E.G. Dozortseva; A.A. Fedonkina

    2013-01-01

    .... We describe the prevalence of personal immaturity among juvenile offenders. We analyze individual psychological characteristics specific to the minors with personal immaturity and characterize the phenomenon of personal immaturity itself...

  11. Juvenile Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Specimens Collected from 1991-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile swordfish caught throughout the Pacific Ocean collected by Hawaii longline observers, aboard the Thomas Cromwell research vessel, and donated by various...

  12. Acute Respiratory Failure in 3 Children With Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Britt; Hellebostad, Marit; Ifversen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare hematopoietic stem cell disease in children with features of both myelodysplasia and myeloproliferation. Extramedullary involvement has been reported and pulmonary involvement secondary to leukemic infiltration is an initial manifestation, which may result...

  13. Juvenile Polyps in Denmark From 1995 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Brusgaard, Klaus;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile polyps in the large bowel are rare but the most common type of polyp in children. The prevalence and incidence are unknown, and few studies exist on the occurrence in adults. They are considered not to harbor any malignant potential unless they are part of the hereditary...... juvenile polyposis syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the demographics of juvenile polyps in Denmark in a 20-year period from 1995 to 2015 in both adults and children. This is the first report on the occurrence, anatomic localization, and reoccurrence of these polyps in a whole population. DESIGN: Data...... from all of the patients who had been diagnosed with 1 or more juvenile polyp from January 1, 1995, until December 31, 2014, were obtained. SETTINGS: The study was conducted based on patients registered in the nationwide pathological register in Denmark, the Danish Pathology Data Bank. PATIENTS: We...

  14. Juvenile delinquency in Russia: Ccriminal justice, trends, key issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, as well as in international statistical surveys, we can rarely find more detailed information on juvenile delinquency in the Russian Federation, as well as on the criminal reaction towards juvenile offenders. Due to the turbulent conditions and great social turmoil which took place in the last few decades in this country, there should be a greater interest in the problem of juvenile delinquency. For Serbia, the experience of the Russian Federation could be especially important if one bears in mind that our country is still going through a transition, population stratification and through economic crisis, and also that Serbia and the Russian Federation share some cultural and religious similarities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present, in the summary way, the basic features of juvenile delinquency and the criminal justice system, and thereby build a basis for future research and comparison.

  15. Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Sociological Appraisal. ... This paper discussed the emergence of the Child's Right act in Nigeria in ... of children and young persons who found themselves on the justice corridor.

  16. The Relationship between Family Functions and Juvenile Delinquency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 3, No 5 (2009) > ... Most of the studies done on Juvenile delinquency have paid little or no attention to ... This study was carried out in Nakuru town Municipality on former street children on rehabilitation in three homes.

  17. Bite force and temporomandibular disorder in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenneberg, B; Kjellberg, H; Kiliaridis, S

    1995-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functional condition of the stomatognathic system in children suffering from juvenile chronic arthritis, with respect to bite force and temporomandibular disorder in relation to radiographic abnormalities of the mandibular condyle, occlusal factors and systemic disease parameters. Thirty-five children with juvenile chronic arthritis were compared to 89 healthy children with an Angle Class I occlusion and 62 children with an Angle Class II malocclusion. Subjective symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorder and radiographic mandibular condylar changes were more common in children with juvenile chronic arthritis than in the two comparison groups. Maximal molar and incisal bite forces and maximal molar bite force endurance times were also significantly reduced in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. It is concluded that the differences between the groups are caused mainly by the systemic inflammatory disease itself, but a functional influence of weakened masticatory muscles cannot be excluded.

  18. Needs and Achievements of the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for juvenile offenders; nonetheless, those studies were more focused on recidivism than on the mechanisms associated with criminal perpetration. The current study explores the role of juvenile justice involvement and detention measures in a set of psychological, social, and criminal behavior characteristics in early adulthood. Seventy-five young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010-2011 and 240 young adults from the community filled out our protocol in 2014-2015. Young adults with juvenile justice involvement showed worse psychological, social, and criminal outcomes than those from community. Detention appears to be related to the number of deviant friends, delinquency, and school achievement in early adulthood. Our findings are in line with the labeling and deviant peer contagion theories and establish the main areas of interventions that affect the identified needs. A set of policy implications is provided.

  19. Culturas juveniles en tono de mujer. Hip hop en Medellin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garces Montoya, Angela

    2011-01-01

    El articulo hace parte de la investigacion "Mediaciones musicales juveniles", donde se indaga por la apropiacion de medios de comunicacion alternativos que les permite a los y las jovenes configurar...

  20. Measurements and Counts for Larval and Juvenile Pseudopentaceros Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Armorhead (Pseudopentaceros wheeleri) larvae and juveniles were collected in the vicinity of the Northwest and Southeast Hancock Seamounts During 1984 and 1985....

  1. An Exploration into Juvenile Records Sealed in the United States%美国未成年人前科记录封存探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿巍

    2014-01-01

    自少年法院创设伊始,美国少年司法长期秉承保密性原则而对未成年人前科记录予以封存,以避免给未成年人带来污名化后果。然而,随着各州未成年人前科记录封存呈松动趋势,部分原先严格保密并限制公布于众的前科记录,除了可向执法及司法部门开放外,亦可在一定条件下向被害人、学校及媒体开放。与此同时,依移送法律而从少年法院移送至刑事(成人)法院的未成年人,其先前少年法院记录亦可作为后者加重刑罚的考量因素之一。%Since the creation of the juvenile court, American juvenile justice has long adhered to the principle of confidentiality and therefore keeps juvenile records sealed in order to avoid stigmatization of the minors. However, the principle that was strictly followed has become loose in many states. Some of the juvenile records that were previously kept strictly confidential and restricted to the public, have gradually opened to the victims, schools and the media, in addition to opening to law enforcement and judiciary. Meanwhile, if a juvenile offender is transferred to the criminal (adult) court, his or her previous juvenile court record may also serve as an aggravating factor for sentencing in the criminal court.

  2. HIV-Risk Reduction with Juvenile Offenders on Probation

    OpenAIRE

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Udell, Wadiya

    2014-01-01

    Youth involved in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV as a result of high rates of sexual risk taking, substance use, mental health problems and sexually transmitted infections. Yet few HIV prevention programs exist for young offenders. This pilot study examined change in juvenile offenders’ sexual activity, drug/alcohol use, HIV testing and counseling, and theoretical mediators of risk taking following participation in PHAT Life, an HIV-prevention progr...

  3. [Unusual presentation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Prieto, M; Carbonero Celis, M J; Cuadrado Caballero, M C

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of autoimmune hepatitis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis is very rare. This is the case of an 18 month old female patient whose first sign of disease was torticollis due to an underlying atlanto-axial subluxation. Three months later, bilateral knee arthritis developed and she was diagnosed with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Throughout the disease a persistent elevation of liver enzymes was noted, combined with positive antinuclear antibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia, reaching the diagnosis of concomitant autoimmune hepatitis.

  4. Paracoccidioidomycosis: acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Camargo, Rosangela Maria Pires; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    The authors report aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type, in a 19-year-old female patient. Paracoccidioidomycosis, juvenile type, classically occurs in young patients, both sexes, with lymphoma-like aspects as initial presentation. However, following the natural history of the disease the lymph nodes assume patterns of infectious disease, as an abscess and fistulae. Systemic dissemination of the disease can occur and lethality and morbidity are significant in this clinical presentation. PMID:27438214

  5. Role-Playing (Psychodrama in the Social Rehabilitation of Juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzyb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the term of psychodrama in the aspect of the social rehabilitation process of juveniles. An important area of considerations is noting the most effective form of work in the modification of socially desirable behavior. Moreover, the identification and wider discussion of the aspect of psychodrama interaction indicates the emotional, therapeutic, and above all correctional dimension, so desired in the social rehabilitation of juveniles.

  6. Uveíte na artrite idiopática juvenil Uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a freqüência de uveíte anterior crônica em pacientes com artrite idiopática juvenil (AIJ e sua associação com a presença do fator antinúcleo (FAN. Casuística e métodos: foram avaliadas, retrospectivamente, 72 crianças com diagnóstico confirmado de AIJ, que tiveram avaliação oftalmológica através da biomicroscopia para exame da câmara anterior da úvea, determinação do FAN (imunofluorescência indireta e fator reumatóide (FR (prova do látex no período inicial da doença. Para os pacientes com FAN positivo, esta avaliação foi realizada a cada três meses, e, caso contrário, a cada seis meses.Resultados: dos 72 pacientes com AIJ, 40 (55,5% crianças eram do sexo masculino e 36 (50% caucasóides. A idade média de início da AIJ foi 6,4 anos (1 a 14 anos, e a idade média na época do estudo foi de 10,4 anos (1 a 19 anos. De acordo com o tipo de início da AIJ, em 32 (44,4% crianças era pauciarticular (17 meninos e 15 meninas, em 30 (41,6% era poliarticular (17 meninos e 13 meninas, e em 10 (14% era sistêmico (6 meninos e 4 meninas. A presença de uveíte anterior crônica foi detectada em cinco (6,5% crianças com idade média de 11,4 anos. Destas, quatro (80% eram do tipo de início pauciarticular (três meninas do tipo I, com FAN positivo, e um menino do tipo I, FAN negativo, e uma menina com doença poliarticular (FAN e FR negativos. Neste grupo, a idade de início da AIJ foi em média 5,1 anos (3 a 12 anos, e a idade de início da uveíte foi em média de 9 anos (4 a 16 anos. O FAN foi positivo em 3/5 pacientes (60% com uveíte. Dentre os pacientes com AIJ e sem uveíte (67 crianças, oito (12% apresentaram FAN positivo. Quanto à evolução dos pacientes com comprometimento ocular, três crianças tiveram apenas um episódio de uveíte, e duas crianças apresentaram quatro recorrências da uveíte com catarata sem atividade articular associada. A presença do FAN foi estatisticamente mais freq

  7. The role of neuroinflammation in juvenile bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Serra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pathophysiological relationship has been reported between inflammatory processes, decreased levels of neurotrophins, increased oxidative stress and psychiatric disorders in both juvenile and adult ages. Moreover, this relationship remains unclear in juvenile bipolar disorder (BD. We performed a systematic literature review of studies reporting measurements of inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or neurotrophins in juvenile and young adult subjects with BD. Concordant findings showed that inflammatory markers are increased since the earlier stages of BD. A positive correlation between decreased levels of a peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and juvenile BD is controversial suggesting that those changes might occur only during the late stage of BD. No changes in central glutathione levels were reported in young adult age BD indicating that oxidative stress may be an outcome of long illness duration and repeated affective episodes. In conclusion, preliminary findings indicate that a certain relationship exists between inflammatory process and juvenile BD but evidence are insufficient to support a causal relationship. Adequately powered and prospective studies are warranted to clarify the role of inflammation, neurotrophins and oxidative stress in juvenile BD.

  8. Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel

    2012-07-30

    A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents.

  9. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type of invest......Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type...... of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex...... was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results: The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows...

  10. Adult male coatis play with a band of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, C J; Longino, J T

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the play behaviour in one group of coatis (Nasua narica) at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. We incidentally found adult males playing with juvenile coatis, and conducted post-hoc analyses to investigate this interaction. Coati groups consist of adult females and juveniles of both sexes until male juveniles reach two years of age and leave the band to become solitary. Adult males only tolerate juveniles for a brief period during breeding season when the males court females to mate. Outside of the breeding season, adult males are known to prey on juveniles. In this study, when adult males were present with the band, play occurred more than was expected by chance, and adult males engaged in many of these play bouts. Because the mechanisms driving infanticidal behaviour are not well understood, and adult male coatis show a range of behaviours from infanticide to highly affiliative interactions with juveniles, using coatis as a model system may elucidate mechanisms underlying infanticide.

  11. Accurate aging of juvenile salmonids using fork lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; Gerken, Jonathon; Ashline, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile salmon life history strategies, survival, and habitat interactions may vary by age cohort. However, aging individual juvenile fish using scale reading is time consuming and can be error prone. Fork length data are routinely measured while sampling juvenile salmonids. We explore the performance of aging juvenile fish based solely on fork length data, using finite Gaussian mixture models to describe multimodal size distributions and estimate optimal age-discriminating length thresholds. Fork length-based ages are compared against a validation set of juvenile coho salmon, Oncorynchus kisutch, aged by scales. Results for juvenile coho salmon indicate greater than 95% accuracy can be achieved by aging fish using length thresholds estimated from mixture models. Highest accuracy is achieved when aged fish are compared to length thresholds generated from samples from the same drainage, time of year, and habitat type (lentic versus lotic), although relatively high aging accuracy can still be achieved when thresholds are extrapolated to fish from populations in different years or drainages. Fork length-based aging thresholds are applicable for taxa for which multiple age cohorts coexist sympatrically. Where applicable, the method of aging individual fish is relatively quick to implement and can avoid ager interpretation bias common in scale-based aging.

  12. [Molecular Identification and Toxicity of Pufferfish Juveniles Contaminating Whitebait Products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriake, Aya; Ohta, Akira; Okayama, Sakurako; Matsuura, Keiichi; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Catches of whitebait, sardine fry, sometimes contains other marine animals, including fishes, mollusks, and crustaceans, and therefore boiled and dried whitebait products may contain these marine animals if sorting is incomplete. In September 2014, contamination of boiled and dried whitebait products with pufferfish juveniles became a serious food safety concern, as tiger pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles are toxic and contain tetrodotoxin (TTX). The toxicity of the juveniles of other pufferfish species, however, is unclear. To evaluate the food safety of whitebait products contaminated with pufferfish juveniles, we identified the species and toxicity of pufferfish juveniles contaminating whitebait products processed between July and September, 2014. Nucleotide sequence analysis of 16S rRNA or cytochrome b gene fragments of the mitochondrial DNA indicated that partial sequences of the polymerase chain reaction products of 15 specimens were identical with those of Lagocephalus spadiceus, and partial sequence from 2 specimens were identical with those of Takifugu vermicularis. We analyzed TTX by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. TTX was not detected in the L. spadiceus specimens and was below the quantification limits (30 ng/g) in a T. vermicularis specimen. Based on whitebait product manufacturer's research, 795 individuals and 27.2 g of pufferfish juveniles were detected in 8,245 kg whitebait product. Thus, the ratio of pufferfish to whitebait product was estimated to be 0.096 individual/kg whitebait product and 0.0033 g/kg whitebait product, respectively.

  13. Study of serum syndecan-1 levels in a group of Egyptian juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaad, Naglaa Abd Elrahman; Lotfy, Hala Mohamed; Farag, Yomna Mohamed; Mahfouz, Rasha Hossam El-Din; Shahin, Rasha Mohamad Hosny

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the serum levels of Syndecan-1 in a group of Egyptian juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients and to study any possible associations with disease activity, renal activity and organ damage. Serum level of Syndecan-1 was assessed in 60 Egyptian JSLE patients and 30 apparently healthy age and gender matched children using ELISA. SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K), renal SLEDAI-2K, renal activity score and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index were assessed for all patients. Serum SDC-1 levels were higher in patients with JSLE than in healthy controls (p<0.001) and were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K (p<0.001), with renal SLEDAI score (p=0.008) and renal activity score (p=0.04). So, Syndecan-1 might be used as a marker for disease activity and renal activity in JSLE patients.

  14. Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase, the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of juvenile hormone III, exhibits substrate control

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on the cloning, sequencing, characterization, 3D modeling and docking of Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the enzyme that converts juvenile hormone acid (JHA) into juvenile hormone (JH). Purified recombinant AeaJHAMT was extensively characterized for enzym...

  15. Examination of the influence of juvenile Atlantic salmon on the feeding mode of juvenile steelhead in Lake Ontario tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Waldt, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined diets of 1204 allopatric and sympatric juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. The diet composition of both species consisted primarily of ephemeropterans, trichopterans, and chironomids, although juvenile steelhead consumed more terrestrial invertebrates, especially at the sympatric sites. Subyearlings of both species consumed small prey (i.e. chironomids) whereas large prey (i.e. perlids) made up a higher percentage of the diet of yearlings. The diet of juvenile steelhead at the allopatric sites was more closely associated with the composition of the benthos than with the drift, but was about equally associated with the benthos and drift at the sympatric sites. The diet of both subyearling and yearling Atlantic salmon was more closely associated with the benthos than the drift at the sympatric sites. The evidence suggests that juvenile steelhead may subtly alter their feeding behavior in sympatry with Atlantic salmon. This behavioral adaptation may reduce competitive interactions between these species.

  16. Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap

  17. Las medidas de seguridad en materia penal juvenil Security measures in juvenile criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Campos Zuñiga

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe una ardua discusión sobre las sanciones dentro del derecho penal juvenil, tema que cobra especial relevancia cuando nos enfrentamos a conductas delictivas cometidas por personas menores de edad en las cuales se ha determinado su condición de inimputables o toxicómanos a partir de las conclusiones de las pericias respectivas. El cuestionamiento nos lleva a dos posibles soluciones: una darle un abordaje como un problema de salud y excluirlo del derecho penal y otra, mantener la línea tradicional, en la cual se faculta al derecho penal sancionar la conducta delictiva, imponiendo una medida de seguridad. Si se admite la primera posición, la normativa aplicable lo constituye el Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia, el cual contempla la posibilidad de imponer medidas de protección para quienes están en una situación de vulnerabilidad, dentro de las que se ubican los casos de inimputables y toxicómanos, esto implica admitir medidas de "seguridad o protección" con una naturaleza jurídica de carácter administrativo. Posición que implicaría no sólo una vulneración de derechos sino que contraviene lo señalado por Sala Constitucional, la cual al desarrollar el alcance del artículo 39 de la Constitución Política, ha señalado que la imposición de las sanciones y por ende de las medidas de seguridad gozan de la garantía de la reserva de ley, destacando su naturaleza jurisdiccional y exclusivamente ante la comisión de delitos. La única solución posible en aras del respeto de esta reserva legal, es aplicar, conforme al artículo 9 de la Ley de Justicia Penal Juvenil la legislación penal de adultos y admitir la imposición de medidas de seguridad en la justicia penal juvenil.Currently, there has been an arduous discussion about penalties in juvenile criminal law, topic which becomes especially relevant when we are faced to criminal conducts from people who are underage, in which their condition of not guilty or

  18. Cibercriminalidad social juvenil: la cifra negra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Montiel Juan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El ciberespacio constituye un contexto básico de socialización para los nativos digitales, al tiempo que se configura como un espacio de oportunidad criminal en el que niños, niñas y jóvenes continúan siendo víctimas y agresores. Fenómenos como el cyberbullying, el ciberacoso sexual, el online grooming o el sexting constituyen formas de cibercriminalidad social que, según numerosos estudios sobre cibervictimización y ciberdelincuencia auto-revelada, implican a un importante número de menores en España cada año, especialmente en el caso del ciberbullying y el ciberacoso. Sin embargo, no reflejan lo mismo las estadísticas oficiales. A pesar de apuntar una tendencia creciente de la cibercriminalidad en los últimos años, representa menos de un 2% de todos los delitos conocidos y sólo se dispone de algunos datos fragmentarios sobre la implicación de menores en estos casos. Los datos muestran que este grupo de edad es el más afectado, con mucha diferencia, por los ciberdelitos sexuales, pero también son estos los ciberdelitos que más cometen.

    Por otra parte, las elevadas prevalencias reveladas por los estudios de cibervictimización y ciberdelincuencia auto-revelada no concuerdan con el escaso impacto del ciberdelito juvenil en las estadísticas oficiales y en los tribunales de justicia. Entre las posibles explicaciones destacan la transversalidad de estas formas de delincuencia, que pueden manifestarse en comportamientos ilícitos de muy diversa naturaleza, la ausencia de pruebas para su imputación y esclarecimiento, las dificultades técnicas para dejar constancia del componente cibernético al registrar el ilícito, así como la ausencia de denuncias por parte de las cibervíctimas.

    Las tasas de denuncia del online grooming y el cyberbullying son, en general, más bajas que sus equivalentes tradicionales (abuso sexual infantil y bullying. La elevada cifra negra de la cibercriminalidad social juvenil

  19. "Immune Complexes in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis"

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    Terry Lynn Moore

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract for invited review in Molecular Mechanisms of Immune Complex Pathophysiology thematic issue to be published in Frontiers in Immunology. Immune Complexes(ICin Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA Terry L. Moore, MD, FAAP, FACR, MACR Professor of Internal Medicine,Pediatrics, and Molecular Biology and Immunology Director of Adult and Pediatric Rheumatology Saint Louis University School of Medicine Saint Louis, Missouri 631`04,USA Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA reflects a group of clinically heterogeneous, autoimmune disorders in children characterized by chronic arthritis and hallmarked by elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs and associated complement activation by-products in their sera. ICs have been detected in patients’ sera with JIA utilizing a variety of methods, including the anti-human IgM affinity column,C1q solid phase assay, polyethylene glycol precipitation, Staphylococcal Protein A separation method, anti-C1q/C3 affinity columns, and FcγRIII affinity method. As many as 75% of JIA patients have had IC detected in their sera. The CIC proteome in JIA patients has been examined to elucidate disease-associated proteins that are expressed in active disease. Evaluation of these IC s have shown the presence of multiple peptide fragments by SDS-PAGE and 2-DE. Subsequently, all isotypes of rheumatoid factor (RF, isotypes of anti-cyclic citrullinated (CCP peptide antibodies, IgG, C1q, C4, C3, and the membrane attack complex (MAC were detected in these IC. Complement activation and levels of IC correlate with disease activity in JIA, indicating their role in the pathophysiology of the disease. This review will summarize the existing literature and discuss the role of possible protein modification that participates in the generation of immune response. We will address the possible role of these events in the development of ectopic germinal centers that become the secondary site of plasma cell development in JIA. We

  20. Caracterización del glaucoma juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Roche Caso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El glaucoma no es frecuente en los niños, pero cuando ocurre sus síntomas son poco perceptibles y produce graves consecuencias para la salud visual. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar, desde las aristas clínica y epidemiológica, a los pacientes con glaucoma juvenil atendidos en los servicios de oftalmología de los Hospitales Pediátricos del Cerro y «Pedro Borrás», en Ciudad de La Habana, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico longitudinal y prospectivo, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 176 pacientes entre 5 y 18 años de edad, con presunto glaucoma. La muestra, después de aplicados los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, quedó conformada por 38 casos. Se analizaron las variables: edad al momento del diagnóstico, sexo, color de la piel, antecedentes familiares según grado de parentesco, agudeza visual máxima corregida, tipo de defecto refractivo, características del ángulo camerular, espesor corneal central, valor de la presión intraocular, alteraciones fundoscópicas y campimétricas. RESULTADOS. En la mayoría de los pacientes el diagnóstico de glaucoma juvenil constituyó un hallazgo. La mediana de edad al momento del diagnóstico fue de 12,5 años, con ligero predominio de varones y de la piel no blanca. Fue más frecuente el antecedente de glaucoma en familiares de segundo grado de consanguinidad. La mayoría de los casos tenía visión óptima, algún grado de miopía y ángulo abierto sin alteraciones evidentes del ángulo camerular, entre las cuales la más frecuente fue la presencia de procesos iridianos prominentes. CONCLUSIONES. Predominaron la disminución moderada del espesor corneal y valores medios de presión intraocular de 26,91 mm Hg. La alteración fundoscópica encontrada con mayor frecuencia fue la excavación papilar moderada (entre 0,4 y 0,5 y como lesión campimétrica, el aumento de la mancha