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Sample records for juvenile abalone haliotis

  1. STIMULASI PERTUMBUHAN JUVENIL ABALON, Haliotis squamata DENGAN PEMBERIAN HORMON REKOMBINAN IKAN rElGH

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    Fitriyah Husnul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Masalah yang paling utama dalam budidaya abalon tropis adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Penggunaan rElGH (recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone untuk menstimulasi pertumbuhan beberapa spesies ikan sudah dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji akselerasi pertumbuhan juvenil abalon tropis, Haliotis squamata setelah diberi perlakuan perendaman hormon rekombinan ikan kerapu kertang, Epinephelus lanceolatus pada frekuensi yang berbeda. Ada empat perlakuan frekuensi perendaman rElGH yaitu 4, 9, 16 kali, dan tanpa perendaman (kontrol. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Perendaman dilakukan selama tiga jam, dengan interval waktu empat hari. Kepadatan abalon tropis 100 ekor/L air laut yang mengandung 30 mg rElGH. Wadah untuk perendaman berupa beaker glass yang dilengkapi dengan aerasi. Penelitian dilakukan selama tujuh bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa abalon tropis yang direndam rElGH dengan frekuensi empat kali menghasilkan pertumbuhan bobot tubuh dan panjang cangkang tertinggi dan berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan lainnya (P<0,05. Sintasan abalon tropis yang diberi perlakuan perendaman hormon rElGH lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan kontrol. The most crucial problem in tropical abalone aquaculture is the slow growth of the species. Studies investigating the use of rElGH (recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone for promoting growth have been performed in various species. This research aimed to examine the growth acceleration of tropical abalone, Haliotis squamata juvenile after being treated in different immersion frequencies of recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone (rElGH. There were four treatments of rElGH immersion frequency: 4, 9, 16 times and without rElGH immersion (control. Each treatment was performed in triplicates. Immersion was performed for 3 hours, at 4-day intervals and a density of 100 tropical abalones in 1 L seawater containing 30

  2. AVAILABILITY OF PHOSPHORUS FROM SELECTED INORGANIC PHOSPHATES TO JUVENILE ABALONE,HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI INO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭北平; 麦康森; 徐玮

    2002-01-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relativelyconstant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78%-0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone.A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juvenilesof similar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72%-65.02%), daily increment in shelllength (36.87-55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44-4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9-19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71%-9.33%) and protein (46.68%-49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45%-97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganiccompounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87%-97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and77%, respectively. ``

  3. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

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    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  4. The hydrogen peroxide impact on larval settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an important economic mollusk. The settlement and metamorphosis are two critical stages during its development period, which has direct influence on abalone survival and production. The influence of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) on abalone embryo and juvenile development were examined in this study. Larvae of Haliotis diversicolor supertexta were induced to settlement and metamorphose by exposure to seawater supplemented with hydrogen peroxide. They had the best performance at 800 μmol/L. The concentration of 1 000 μmol/L or higher was toxic to the larvae, as the larvae could settle down only at benthic diatom plates without complete metamorphosis. In addition, H2O2 adding time was critical to the larval performance. 24h after two-day post-fertilization was proved to be the optimal adding time. In this paper, two action mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide are discussed: (1) hydrogen peroxide has direct toxicity to ciliated cells, thus cause apoptosis; (2) hydrogen peroxide, as a product from catecholamines' autoxidation process in vivo, can reverse this process to produce neuro-transmitters to induce abalone metamorphosis.

  5. Non-selective in situ grazing of diatoms by juvenile Green Abalone (Haliotis fulgens Philippi, 1945 in the Baja California Peninsula Consumo in situ no selectivo de diatomeas por juveniles de abulón azul (Haliotis fulgens Philippi, 1945 en la Península de Baja California

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    Uri Argumedo Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available For experimental or rearing purposes, young abalones are fed benthic diatoms successfully during their early life stages without considering if the diatoms provided are found in the abalone habitat, nor if grazing selectivity exists. Our aim in this study was to gather further evidence that would indicate whether young Haliotis fulgens graze diatoms in situ selectively. Thirty-four specimens of young H. fulgens were collected in a fishing site in BCS, México on two dates. We identified the diatoms in their gut contents (144 species and determined their relative abundances. Fourteen diatoms (80% of the total abundance were considered most important and twelve were among the most important in the diet of young abalone in BCS. The diversity values (H' of the diatoms in their guts ranged from 1.05 to 4.47, depending on dominance, which reflected the structure of diatom assemblages in situ. The above observations and the low similarity measured between samples show that species richness and equitability are similar even if the species composition of diatoms ingested by young abalone differs between specimens. The results lead us to conclude that grazing of diatoms by young H. fulgens is non-selective, and that the structure of diatom assemblages is more important than the particular taxa in their diet.Durante sus etapas tempranas de vida los abulones jóvenes son alimentados exitosamente con diatomeas bentónicas sin considerar si las especies suministradas se hallan en su medio natural, o si existe algún tipo de preferencia o selectividad por ciertas diatomeas. El objetivo de este estudio fue recabar evidencias acerca de si los juveniles de Haliotis fulgens Philippi presentan un consumo selectivo de diatomeas cuando se alimentan in situ. Se recolectaron treinta y cuatro juveniles de H. fulgens en un sitio de pesca de BCS, México en dos fechas. Se disecaron y se examinaron contenidos intestinales. Se identificaron 144 taxa de diatomeas y se

  6. PEMATANGAN GONAD INDUK ABALON Haliotis squamata MELALUI PENGELOLAAN PAKAN

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    Ibnu Rusdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan hewan yang bersifat herbivora di alam memakan berbagai jenis makroalga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai makroalga sebagai pakan terhadap perkembangan gonad abalon Haliotis squamata. Dalam penelitian ini diterapkan 4 perlakuan pemberian pakan yaitu: (A Gracilaria sp., (B Ulva sp., (C Sargassum sp., (D Kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (rasio 1:1:1. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap masing-masing dengan 3 ulangan. Induk-induk abalon dipelihara dalam 12 buah kontainer plastik berlubang ukuran 0,58 m x 0,39 m x 0,31 m dan ditempatkan dalam sebuah bak semen ukuran 3 m x 2 m x 1 m. Setiap kontainer berisi abalon sebanyak 10 ekor dengan ukuran awal rata-rata panjang cangkang dan bobot masing-masing 58,9±1,37 mm dan 36,1±4,06 g. Pakan diberikan dengan dosis 15%-20% dari bobot biomassa setiap 2 hari sekali. Pergantian air menggunakan sistem sirkulasi dengan debit 5-6 L/menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata pertumbuhan bobot mutlak dan laju pertumbuhan bobot harian berbeda nyata (P<0,05 antar perlakuan. Tingkat kematangan gonad (TKG induk abalon pada hari ke-70 diperoleh TKG-III tertinggi dihasilkan pada perlakuan kombinasi Gracilaria + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (P<0,05. Perlakuan pakan kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. dan Sargassum sp. terlihat lebih sesuai dalam memacu pematangan gonad induk abalon H. squamata.  Abalone is a herbivorous animal which consumes various kinds of macroalgae in the wild. The aim of the study was to study the effects of various kinds of macroalgae on gonadal maturation of abalone, Haliotis squamata. The experiment applied four kinds of macroalgae i.e.: (A Gracilaria sp.; (B Ulva sp.; (C Sargassum sp.; and (D Combination of Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (ratio 1:1:1 as food for abalone broodstock. The experiment was arranged in complete random design with three replications. One cemented tank of 3 m x 2 m x 1 m in

  7. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jinghua; XU Wei; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Wenbing; FENG Xiuni; LIUFU Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight:1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length:19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0,10,and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg,respectively.Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments.Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GPX),glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione.However,activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased.Therefore,antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  8. Effects of dietary vitamin A on antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jinghua; ZHANG Wenbing; MAI Kangsen; FENG Xiuni; XU Wei; LIUFU Zhiguo; TAN Beiping

    2006-01-01

    A 240 d growth experiment was conducted in a re-circulated water system to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin A on growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone [initial mass was (0.96 ± 0.02) g, shell length was (17.70 ± 0.06) mm] were fed to satiation one of three semi-purified diets containing 0, 1×103, 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet, respectively. Results showed that the daily increment in shell length (DISL) of abalone in the treatment with 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet was significantly higher than that with 0 or 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram supplementation (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency (0 IU/kg) significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the viscera of abalone (P < 0.05). In muscle, the effects of vitamin A deficiency on SOD and GPX activities were the same as those in viscera, however, the activity of GR significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency significantly decreased the ratio of CAT to SOD (catalase/superoxide dismutase) in viscera (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, it significantly decreased the ratio of GR to GPX in muscle (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, excessive vitamin A (1×106 IU/kg) had no significant effects on the activities of CAT, SOD and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P > 0.05), but significantly elevated GPX and GR activities in viscera (P < 0.05). In muscle, the activities of CAT, SOD, GPX, GST and GR were significantly decreased by the excessive dietary vitamin A supplement (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, vitamin A-excessive had no significant effect on the value of ratio of CAT to SOD either in viscera or in muscle (P>0.05). The ratio of GR to GPX was significantly decreased in viscera, but significantly elevated in muscle in the vitamin A

  9. Cryopreservation of sperm of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

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    Salinas-Flores, L.; Paniagua-Chavez, C. G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Tiersch, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Abalone culture, a developing industry in Baja California, Mexico, would benefit from genetic improvement and controlled breeding. The use of cryopreserved sperm would allow germplasm availability, and this study was designed to develop sperm cryopreservation protocols for red abalone Haliotis rufescens. The acute toxic effects of the cryoprotectants dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), and glycerol (GLY) were assessed after suspending sperm in different concentrations, whereby cryoprotectant treatments of 10% DMSO and 10% GLY equilibrated for 10 min yielded the highest range of motile sperm in preliminary freezing trials and were used for cryopreservation studies. To determine effective cooling rates, three freezing chambers were tested. Replicate samples of sperm from 4 males were placed in 0.5-mL French straws and frozen using a commercial freezing chamber (CFC) used for bull sperm, a programmable rate chamber (PRC), and a manually controlled styrofoam chamber (MCC). For the CFC, the cooling rate was 16??C/min, from 4??C to -140??C. For the PRC and MCC, it was 1??C/min, from -20??C to -30??C. The samples were held at -30??C for 5 min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196??C) for storage, and each sample was thawed in a water bath at 45??C for 8 s. The quality of thawed sperm was determined by estimating percent motility, evaluating membrane integrity using a dual-staining technique and flow cytometry, and estimating fertilization rate. Statistical analyses were performed using 2-way ANOVA where chamber and treatment were the independent variables. Sperm quality parameters were independent. For motilities, a significant interaction was noted between the cryoprotective treatment and the chamber type, whereby motilities for DMSO and GLY were higher (P = 0.0055) using MCC. Membrane integrities were significantly lower after using the PRC than the CFC or the MCC (P = 0.0167). The highest post-thaw motility (48 ?? 7%) was found using sperm

  10. Population dynamics and resilience of green abalone Haliotis fulgens in Isla Natividad

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetto, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Aim of my thesis project was to evaluate the efficacy of two marine reserves in Isla Natividad (Mexico) as a management tool for the green abalone (Haliotis fulgens) fishery. The first step was to develop and calibrate a demographic for green abalone to describe its dynamic when subjected to exploitation. To do so, I defined a size-based matrix model that allows incorporating information on growth, size-specific survival and size-specific fecundities; specifically, I conducted an extensive li...

  11. Effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 Fads expression of abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas

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    Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; He, Gen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase genes ( Fads) expression of juvenile abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas. Six purified diets were formulated to contain tripalmitin (TP), olive oil (OO, 72.87% 18:1n-9), grape seed oil (GO, 68.67% 18:2n-6), linseed oil (LO, 70.48% 18:3n-3), ARA oil (AO, 41.81% ARA) or EPA oil (EO, 44.09% EPA and 23.67% DAH). No significant difference in survival rate was observed among abalone fed with different diets. Weight gain rate ( WGR) and daily growth rate of shell length ( DGR SL) were significantly increased in abalone fed with diets containing OO, AO and EO, but decreased in abalone fed with LO diet ( P < 0.05) in comparison with those fed with TP. High level of dietary 18:2n-6 resulted in higher content of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in abalone fed with GO than those fed with TP, OO, LO and EO ( P < 0.05). n-3 PUFAs in abalone fed with LO was significantly higher than those in abalone fed with TP, OO, GO and AO ( P < 0.05). The highest contents of 20:1n-9 and 22:1n-9 were observed in abalone fed with OO. The expression of Δ5 Fads in hepatopancreas of abalone was enhanced by high concentration of 18:3n-3 and suppressed by dietary LC-PUFAs; however it was not affected by dietary high concentration of 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6. These results provided valuable information for understanding the synthesis of LC-PUFAs and nutritional regulation of Δ5 Fads expression in abalone.

  12. Characterisation and expression of the biomineralising gene Lustrin A during shell formation of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

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    Gaume, B; Denis, F; Van Wormhoudt, A; Huchette, S; Jackson, D J; Avignon, S; Auzoux-Bordenave, S

    2014-03-01

    The molluscan shell is a remarkable product of a highly coordinated biomineralisation process, and is composed of calcium carbonate most commonly in the form of calcite or aragonite. The exceptional mechanical properties of this biomaterial are imparted by the embedded organic matrix which is secreted by the underlying mantle tissue. While many shell-matrix proteins have already been identified within adult molluscan shell, their presence and role in the early developmental stages of larval shell formation are not well understood. In the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, the shell first forms in the early trochophore larva and develops into a mineralised protoconch in the veliger. Following metamorphosis, the juvenile shell rapidly changes as it becomes flattened and develops a more complex crystallographic profile including an external granular layer and an internal nacreous layer. Amongst the matrix proteins involved in abalone shell formation, Lustrin A is thought to participate in the formation of the nacreous layer. Here we have identified a partial cDNA coding for the Lustrin A gene in H. tuberculata and have analysed its spatial and temporal expression during abalone development. RT-PCR experiments indicate that Lustrin A is first expressed in juvenile (post-metamorphosis) stages, suggesting that Lustrin A is a component of the juvenile shell, but not of the larval shell. We also detect Lustrin A mRNAs in non-nacre forming cells at the distal-most edge of the juvenile mantle as well as in the nacre-forming region of the mantle. Lustrin A was also expressed in 7-day-old post-larvae, prior to the formation of nacre. These results suggest that Lustrin A plays multiple roles in the shell-forming process and further highlight the dynamic ontogenic nature of molluscan shell formation.

  13. Construction of the BAC Library of Small Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) for Gene Screening and Genome Characterization.

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    Jiang, Likun; You, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Zixia; Chen, Baohua; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Ke, Caihuan; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is one of the most important aquaculture species in East Asia. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization, genome analysis, and genetic breeding of it, we constructed a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, which is an important genetic tool for advanced genetics and genomics research. The small abalone BAC library includes 92,610 clones with an average insert size of 120 Kb, equivalent to approximately 7.6× of the small abalone genome. We set up three-dimensional pools and super pools of 18,432 BAC clones for target gene screening using PCR method. To assess the approach, we screened 12 target genes in these 18,432 BAC clones and identified 16 positive BAC clones. Eight positive BAC clones were then sequenced and assembled with the next generation sequencing platform. The assembled contigs representing these 8 BAC clones spanned 928 Kb of the small abalone genome, providing the first batch of genome sequences for genome evaluation and characterization. The average GC content of small abalone genome was estimated as 40.33%. A total of 21 protein-coding genes, including 7 target genes, were annotated into the 8 BACs, which proved the feasibility of PCR screening approach with three-dimensional pools in small abalone BAC library. One hundred fifty microsatellite loci were also identified from the sequences for marker development in the future. The BAC library and clone pools provided valuable resources and tools for genetic breeding and conservation of H. diversicolor.

  14. KERAGAAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN VARIASI GENETIK ABALON Haliotis squamata Reeve (1846 HASIL SELEKSI F-1

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    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Produksi benih abalon Haliotis squamata skala massal di hatcheri telah berhasil dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali. Permasalahan utama dalam budidaya abalon adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Keadaan tersebut diduga karena pengaruh faktor genetik dan lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keragaan pertumbuhan dan variasi genetik abalon tumbuh cepat hasil seleksi individu. Hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa pembentukan populasi F-1 mempunyai pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dengan F-1 kontrol. Peningkatan bobot yang dicapai 22,15 g atau 17,93% lebih baik dibandingkan F-1 kontrol. Keragaman genetik F-1 terseleksi yang ditunjukkan dari nilai heterozigositas adalah (Ho. 0,023 terjadi penurunan 21,7% jika dibandingkan F-0. Hal ini dapat terjadi karena hilangnya beberapa allele dalam proses seleksi. Terdapat hubungan antara jumlah heterozigot pada lokus tertentu dengan pertumbuhan abalon. Hasil ini diharapkan dapat mendukung upaya meningkatkan produksi benih yang mempunyai performa fenotipe dan genotipe unggul sehingga dapat mendukung kegiatan budidaya abalon yang berkelanjutan.

  15. DIETARY PHOSPHORUS REQUIREMENT OF YOUNG ABALONE,HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI INO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭北平; 麦康森; 刘付志国

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the dietary phosphorus requirement of the young abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Five semi-purified diets were formulated to provide a series of graded levels of dietary total phosphorus (0.23%-1.98) from monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2PO4). The brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Similar size abalone were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates each treatment. The abalone were hand-fed to satiation with appropriate diets in excess, once daily at 17:00. The feeding trial was run for 120-d. Survival rate and soft-body to shell ratio (SB/S) were constantly maintained regardless of dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (WGR), daily increment in shell length (DISL), muscle RNA to DNA ratio (RNA/DNA), carcass levels of lipid and protein, soft-body alkaline phosphatase (SBAKP), and phosphorus concentrations of whole body (WB) and soft body (SB) were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) affected by the dietary phosphorus level. The dietary phosphorus requirements of the abalone were evaluated from the WGR, DISL, and RNA/DNA ratio respectively, by using second-order polynomial regression analysis. Based on these criteria, about 1.0%-1.2% total dietary phosphorus, i.e. 0.9%-1.1% dietary available phosphorus is recommended for the maximum growth of the abalone.

  16. Genetic diversity and stock identification of small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) in Taiwan and Japan.

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    Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan

    2017-01-01

    Small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is a commercially valuable species for both fisheries and aquaculture. The production of annual farmed small abalone in Taiwan, once the highest in the world, has dramatically decreased in the past 15 years, and currently, the industry is close to collapse. Understanding the genetic diversity of small abalone and developing stock identification methods will be useful for genetic breeding, restoring collapsed stocks, managing stocks, and preventing illegal trade. We investigated 307 cultured and wild individuals from Taiwan, Japan, and Bali Island (Indonesia) by using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Network analysis of mtDNA COI gene sequences revealed that the individuals collected from Taiwan, Japan, and Indonesia could be identified, and showed significant genetic divergence. In addition, the Indonesian population (Haliotis diversicolor squamata) was significantly different from the other populations and might need to be considered a separate species. We discovered a single nucleotide polymorphism marker in the mtDNA COI gene that can be used to distinguish the Taiwan population from the Japan population. We also developed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection. Furthermore, we could identify the cultured stocks, wild population, and hybrid stocks by using 6 microsatellites and amplified fragment length polymorphism. This study contributes useful tools for stock identification and the production of high-disease resistant small abalone strains (Japan × Taiwan or Taiwan × Japan). Efforts should be made to avoid unintentional random genetic mixing of the Taiwan population with the Japan population and subsequent breakdown of population differentiation, which impair local adaptation of the Taiwan wild population. Molecular markers revealed a split between the Taiwan and Japan populations, and the existence of a possible barrier to the free

  17. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrates Sources on Lipids Compositions in Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weifang; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Wenbing; XU Wei; AI Qinghui; YAO Chunfeng; LI Huitao

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm±0.09 mm; initial weight. 3.42 g±0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly (P<0.05)higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin than those fed with wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly (P<0.05) lower in abalone fed with heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly (P< 0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin and heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  18. Unusual micrometric calcite-aragonite interface in the abalone shell Haliotis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Chevallard, Corinne; Farre, Bastien; Meibom, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Species of Haliotis (abalone) show high variety in structure and mineralogy of the shell. One of the European species (Haliotis tuberculata) in particular has an unusual shell structure in which calcite and aragonite coexist at a microscale with small patches of aragonite embedded in larger calcitic zones. A detailed examination of the boundary between calcite and aragonite using analytical microscopies shows that the organic contents of calcite and aragonite differ. Moreover, changes in the chemical composition of the two minerals seem to be gradual and define a micrometric zone of transition between the two main layers. A similar transition zone has been observed between the layers in more classical and regularly structured mollusk shells. The imbrication of microscopic patches of aragonite within a calcitic zone suggests the occurrence of very fast physiological changes in these taxa.

  19. Characterization of genic microsatellite markers derived from expressed sequence tags in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琪; 束婧; 赵翠; 刘士凯; 孔令锋; 郑小东

    2010-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).Repeat motifs were found in 4.95% of the ESTs at a frequency of one repeat every 10.04 kb of EST sequences,after redundancy elimination.Seventeen polymorphic EST-SSRs were developed.The number of alleles per locus varied from 2-17,with an average of 6.8 alleles per locus.The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.159 to 0.928 and from 0.132 to 0.922,respective...

  20. Gene expression profiling in respond to TBT exposure in small abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiwei; Zou, Zhihua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiling of small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor by tributyltin (TBT) exposure using a cDNA microarray containing 2473 unique transcripts. Totally, 107 up-regulated genes and 41 down-regulated genes were found. For further investigation of candidate genes from microarray data and EST analysis, quantitative real-time PCR was performed at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 96 h and 192 h TBT exposure. 26 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in different time course, 3 of them were unknown. Some gene homologues like cellulose, endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, ferritin subunit 1 and thiolester containing protein II CG7052-PB might be the good biomarker candidate for TBT monitor. The identification of stress response genes and their expression profiles will permit detailed investigation of the defense responses of small abalone genes.

  1. Investigating the establishment of primary cell culture from different abalone (Haliotis midae) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Mathilde; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Niesler, Carola; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2010-07-01

    The abalone, Haliotis midae, is the most valuable commodity in South African aquaculture. The increasing demand for marine shellfish has stimulated research on the biology and physiology of target species in order to improve knowledge on growth, nutritional requirements and pathogen identification. The slow growth rate and long generation time of abalone restrict efficient design of in vivo experiments. Therefore, in vitro systems present an attractive alternative for short term experimentation. The use of marine invertebrate cell cultures as a standardised and controlled system to study growth, endocrinology and disease contributes to the understanding of the biology of economically important molluscs. This paper investigates the suitability of two different H. midae tissues, larval and haemocyte, for establishing primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are assessed in terms of culture initiation, cell yield, longevity and susceptibility to contamination. Haliotis midae haemocytes are shown to be a more feasible tissue for primary cell culture as it could be maintained without contamination more readily than larval cell cultures. The usefulness of short term primary haemocyte cultures is demonstrated here with a growth factor trial. Haemocyte cultures can furthermore be used to relate phenotypic changes at the cellular level to changes in gene expression at the molecular level.

  2. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; YU Rencheng; ZHOU Mingjiang

    2011-01-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides")occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  3. Cloning and Characterization of an Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) Actin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hongming; XU Wei; MAI Kangsen; LIUFU Zhiguo; CHEN Hong

    2004-01-01

    An actin encoding gene was cloned by using RT-PCR, 3' RACE and 5' RACE from abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The full length of the gene is 1532 base pairs, which contains a long 3' untranslated region of 307 base pairs and 79 base pairs of 5' untranslated sequence. The open reading frame encodes 376 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison with those of human and other mollusks showed high conservation among species at amino acid level. The identities was 96%, 97% and 96% respectively compared with Aplysia californica, Biomphalaria glabrata and Homo sapience β-actin. It is also indicated that this actin is more similar to the human cytoplasmic actin(β-actin)than to human muscle actin.

  4. Experimental evaluation of heterobeltiosis and heterosis between two populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yuewen; LIU Xiao; WU Fucun; ZHANG Guofan

    2008-01-01

    A2×2 factorial cross between two populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino,collected separately from Dalian(D)in China and Miyagi(M)in Japan,was conducted to compare performances in fertilization rate,hatching rate,metamorphosis rate and growth at days 20,43,160 and 330 between purebreds (DD and MM)and crossbreds(DM and MD)and investigate the magnitude of heterobeltiosis(better parent)and heteresis(mid-parent).Heterobehiosis and heterosis for all the traits analyzed were evidently different between crossbreds DM and MD.Heterobeltiosis in the crossbred DM varied among traits,with values of 2.5%for the fertilization rate.2.2%for the hatching rate,-1.9%for the metamorphosis rate and 7.4%for the growth at the day 330.The crossbred DM displayed positive heterotic values for fertilization rate(5.4%),hatching rate(7.4%),metamor-phosis rate(7.6%)and growth(12.0%)at the day 330.However,both heterobehiosis and heterosis for all the traits in the crossbred MD were negative except those for the growth at days 20 and 43.The results indicate the importance of selecting superi-or hybrid varieties if the exploitation of hybrid vigor is considered in the Pacific abalone breeding program.

  5. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra Processing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, and thromboelastography (TEG. All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  6. Effects of dietary carbohydrates sources on lipids compositions in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Yao, Chunfeng; Li, Huitao

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm ± 0.09 mm; initial weight: 3.42 g ± 0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly ( P starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  7. Expression of biomineralisation genes in tissues and cultured cells of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Matthew; Gaume, Béatrice; Denis, Françoise; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie

    2013-10-01

    Mollusc shell biomineralisation involves a variety of organic macromolecules (matrix proteins and enzymes) that control calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition, growth of crystals, the selection of polymorph, and the microstructure of the shell. Since the mantle and the hemocytes play an important role in the control of shell formation, primary cell cultures have been developed to study the expression of three biomineralisation genes recently identified in the abalone Haliotis tuberculata: a matrix protein, Lustrin A, and two carbonic anhydrase enzymes. Mantle cells and hemocytes were successfully maintained in primary cultures and were evaluated for their viability and proliferation over time using a semi-automated assay (XTT). PCR and densitometric analysis were used to semi-quantify the gene expression and compare the level of expression in native tissues and cultured cells. The results demonstrated that the three genes of interest were being expressed in abalone tissues, with expression highest in the mantle and much lower in the hemocytes and the gills. Biomineralisation genes were also expressed significantly in mantle cells, confirming that primary cultures of target tissues are suitable models for in vitro investigation of matrix protein secretion.

  8. Sequences Characterization of Microsatellite DNA Sequences in Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus hannat)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi; Kijima Akihiro

    2007-01-01

    The microsatellite-enriched library was constructed using magnetic bead hybridization selection method, and the microsatellite DNA sequences were analyzed in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Three hundred and fifty white colonies were screened using PCR-based technique, and 84 clones were identified to potentially contain microsatellite repeat motif. The 84 clones were sequenced, and 42 microsatellites and 4 minisatellites with a minimum of five repeats were found (13.1% of white colonies screened). Besides the motif of CA contained in the oligoprobe, we also found other 16 types of microsatellite repeats including a dinucleotide repeat, two tetranucleotide repeats, twelve pentanucleotide repeats and a hexanucleotide repeat. According to Weber(1990), the microsatellite sequences obtained could be categorized structurally into perfect repeats (73.3%), imperfect repeats(13.3%), and compound repeats (13.4%). Among the microsatellite repeats, relatively short arrays (< 20 repeats) were most abundant,accounting for 75.0%. The largest length of microsatellites was 48 repeats, and the average number of repeats was 13.4. The data on the composition and length distribution of microsatellites obtained in the present study can be useful for choosing the repeat motifs for microsatetlite isolation in other abalone species.

  9. Feeding preferences and the nutritional value of tropical algae for the abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex R Angell

    Full Text Available Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g(-1 and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g(-1 of dry weight was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties.

  10. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ae; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae Ha; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Ah-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Choi, Ik-Young; Sohn, Young Chang

    2017-01-01

    In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone. PMID:28282934

  11. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus) via EST Database Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Aibin; BAO Zhenmin; WANG Mingling; CHANG Dan; YUAN Jian; WANG Xiaolong; HU Xiaoli; LIANG Chengzhu; HU Jingjie

    2008-01-01

    The EST database of the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus) was mined for developing mierosatellite markers. A total of 1476 EST sequences were registered in GenBank when data mining was performed. Fifty sequences (approximately 3.4%) were found to contain one or more mierosatellites. Based on the length and GC content of the flanking regions, duster analysis and BLASTN, 13 microsatellite-containing ESTs were selected for PCR primer design. The results showed that 10 out of 13 primer pairs could amplify seorable PCR products and showed polymorphism. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13 and the values of Hoand He varied from 0.1222 to 0.8611 and 0.2449 to 0.9311, respectively. No significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) between any pairs of these loci was found, and 6 of 10 loci conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). These EST-SSRs are therefore potential tools for studies of intraspecies variation and hybrid identification.

  12. 饲料中钾对皱纹盘鲍幼鲍生长及其生理指标的影响%EFFECTS OF DIETARY POTASSIUM ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF JUVENILE ABALONE (HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI INO) AND ITS PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚芳; 张文兵; 麦康森; 徐玮; 刘付志国; 艾庆辉; 李会涛

    2012-01-01

    在以酪蛋白和明胶为蛋白源的半精制基础饲料中,添加不同浓度梯度的钾(0、2、4、8、16、32 g 钾/kg 饲料),钾源为KCl,配制成6种实验饲料(实测钾含量分别为:0.10、2.12、4.39、9.79、20.08和27.26 g/kg),探讨皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai) 幼鲍对饲料中钾的需求量及其在长期适应不同含量钾的过程中的生理反应.幼鲍初始体重为(0.24 ± 0.00)g,初始壳长为(12.24 ± 0.04)mm,实验在流水系统中进行,养殖周期为15周.实验期间水温12-23℃,海水钾含量为(472.94 ± 3.59)mg/L.结果表明,饲料中不同含量的钾对皱纹盘鲍的增重率(WGR,%)、贝壳日增长(DISL,μm/d)及存活率没有显著影响(P > 0.05).皱纹盘鲍软体部的水分、粗脂肪和贝壳的灰分含量受饲料中钾含量的影响不显著(P > 0.05).当饲料中钾含量大于等于4.39 g/kg时,与0.10 g/kg饲料组相比,软体部粗蛋白质含量显著升高(P 0.05).幼鲍软体部钠含量在饲料钾含量为20.08、27.26 g/kg时显著低于其他各组(P 0.05) differences in the weight gain ratio (WGR, %), daily increment in shell length (DISL, um/d) and the survival of abalone among treatments. There were also no significant (P > 0.05) differences in lipid, moisture contents in soft body and ash content in shell among the six dietary treatments. Compared with that in the treatment of 0.10 g/kg diet, the protein content in soft body increased significantly (P < 0.05) when dietary potassium was more than 4.39 g/kg diet. The content of potassium in the soft body and potassium, sodium in the shell was maintained relatively constant regardless of dietary treatment. The soft body sodium content was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in 20.08 and 27.26 g/kg of dietary treatment than any other treatments. The activity of gill Na -K ATPase decreased steadily with the increasing of dietary potassium. Data from the growth parameters (WGR and DISL) showed that it was unnecessary to add potassium to

  13. Identification of a female spawn-associated Kazal-type inhibitor from the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianfang; Nuurai, Parinyaporn; McDougall, Carmel; York, Patrick S; Bose, Utpal; Degnan, Bernard M; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-07-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) undergoes a period of reproductive maturation, followed by the synchronous release of gametes, called broadcast spawning. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the tropical species Haliotis asinina undergoes a two-week spawning cycle, thus providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of endogenous spawning-associated peptides. In female H. asinina, we have isolated a peptide (5145 Da) whose relative abundance in hemolymph increases substantially just prior to spawning and is still detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms up to 1-day post-spawn. We have isolated this peptide from female hemolymph as well as samples prepared from the gravid female gonad, and demonstrated through comparative sequence analysis that it contains features characteristic of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). Has-KPI is expressed specifically within the gonad of adult females. A recombinant Has-KPI was generated using a yeast expression system. The recombinant Has-KPI does not induce premature spawning of female H. asinina when administered intramuscularly. However it displays homomeric aggregations and interaction with at least one mollusc-type neuropeptide (LRDFVamide), suggesting a role for it in regulating neuropeptide endocrine communication. This research provides new understanding of a peptide that can regulate reproductive processes in female abalone, which has the potential to lead to the development of greater control over abalone spawning. The findings also highlight the need to further explore abalone reproduction to clearly define a role for novel spawning-associated peptide in sexual maturation and spawning. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Analysis of microbiota on abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea for improved product management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-10-03

    Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition.

  15. Articulated coralline algae of the genus Amphiroa are highly effective natural inducers of settlement in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Craigie, Alina; Yeates, Alice; Degnan, Sandie M

    2008-08-01

    The initiation of metamorphosis in marine invertebrates is strongly linked to the environment. Planktonic larvae typically are induced to settle and metamorphose by external cues such as coralline algae (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). Although coralline algae are globally abundant, invertebrate larvae of many taxa settle in response to a very limited suite of species. This specificity impacts population structure, as only locations with the appropriate coralline species can attract new recruits. Abalone (Gastropoda, Haliotidae) are among those taxa in which closely related species are known to respond to different coralline algae. Here we identify highly inductive natural cues of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. In contrast to reports for other abalone, the greatest proportion of H. asinina larvae are induced to settle and metamorphose (92.8% to 100% metamorphosis by 48 h postinduction) by articulated corallines of the genus Amphiroa. Comparison with field distribution data for different corallines suggests larvae are likely to be settling on the seaward side of the reef crest. We then compare the response of six different H. asinina larval families to five different coralline species to demonstrate that induction by the best inductive cue (Amphiroa spp.) effectively extinguishes substantial intraspecific variation in the timing of settlement.

  16. Identification of two carbonic anhydrases in the mantle of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda, Haliotidae): phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE Roy, Nathalie; Marie, Benjamin; Gaume, Béatrice; Guichard, Nathalie; Delgado, Sidney; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Sire, Jean-Yves; Marin, Frédéric

    2012-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) represent a diversified family of metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide. They are involved in a wide range of functions, among which is the formation of CaCO(3) skeletons in metazoans. In the shell-forming mantle tissues of mollusks, the location of the CA catalytic activity is elusive and gives birth to contradicting views. In the present paper, using the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a key model gastropod in biomineralization studies, we identified and characterized two CAs (htCA1 and htCA2) that are specific of the shell-forming mantle tissue. We analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. Combining various approaches, including proteomics, activity tests, and in silico analyses, we showed that htCA1 is secreted but is not incorporated in the organic matrix of the abalone shell and that htCA2 is transmembrane. Together with previous studies dealing with molluskan CAs, our findings suggest two possible modes of action for shell mineralization: the first mode applies to, for example, the bivalves Unio pictorum and Pinctada fucata, and involves a true CA activity in their shell matrix; the second mode corresponds to, for example, the European abalone, and does not include CA activity in the shell matrix. Our work provides new insight on the diversity of the extracellular macromolecular tools used for shell biomineralization study in mollusks.

  17. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAYAN SOFYAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarkono, Faturrahman, Sofyan Y. 2010. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 38-42. The purpose of this study was to isolate, select and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB from abalone as a potential candidate probiotic in abalone cultivation system. Selective isolation of LAB performed using de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium. LAB isolate that potential as probiotics was screened. Selection was based on its ability to suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria, bacterial resistance to acidic conditions and bacterial resistance to bile salts (bile. Further characterization and identification conducted to determine the species. The results showed that two of the ten isolates potential to be developed as probiotic bacteria that have the ability to inhibit several pathogenic bacteria such as Eschericia coli, Bacillus cereus dan Staphylococus aureus, able to grow at acidic condition and bile tolerance during the incubation for 24 hour. Based on the API test kit, the both of isolate identified as members of the species Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei.

  18. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) from small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Rongyao; You, Weiwei; Chen, Jun; Huang, Heqing; Ke, Caihuan

    2012-10-01

    GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), a multifunctional protein participating in autophagy process, is evolutionarily conserved and involves in innate immunity in eukaryotic cells, but currently there is no research on the relationship between GABARAP and innate immunity in mollusc. In the present study, the GABARAP full-length cDNA and its genomic DNA were firstly cloned from small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor), which was named as saGABARAP. Its full-length cDNA is 963 bp with a 354 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 117 aa, a 276 bp 5'-UTR, and a 333 bp 3'-UTR including a poly(A) tail, two typical polyadenylation signals (AATAA) and two RNA instability motifs (ATTTA). The deduced protein has an estimated molecular weight of 13.9 kDa and a predicted PI of 8.73. Its genomic DNA comprises 4352 bp, containing three exons and two introns. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that saGABARAP was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, with the highest expression level in hepatopancreas, and was upregulated in hepatopancreas and hemocytes after bacterial challenge. In addition, saGABARAP was ubiquitously expressed at all examined embryonic and larval development stages. These results suggested that saGABARAP could respond to bacteria challenge and may play a vital role in the adult innate immune system against pathogens and the development process of abalone embryo and larvae.

  20. Influences of DMP on the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta by gametes exposure.

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    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Di-methyl phthalate (DMP, a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC, is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate. Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb. However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17β-HSD-11 and 17β-HSD-12 in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis.

  1. Potential mechanisms of phthalate ester embryotoxicity in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jin [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Cai Zhonghua, E-mail: caizh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xing Kezhi [Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The effects and associated toxicological mechanisms of five phthalate esters (PAEs) on abalone embryonic development were investigated by exposing the embryos to a range of PAEs concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 {mu}g/mL). The results showed that PAEs could significantly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformations, and suppress the metamorphosis of abalone larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms of PAEs to abalone embryos included, affecting the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-pump and Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+}-pump activities, altering the peroxidase (POD) level and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, damaging the extraembryonic membranes structure, as well as disrupting endocrine-related genes (gpx, cyp3a, and 17{beta}-hsd 12) expression properties. Taken together, this work showed that PAEs adversely affected the embryonic ontogeny of abalone. The abilities of PAEs affecting the osmoregulation, inducing oxidative stress, damaging embryo envelope structure, and causing physiological homeostasis disorder, are likely to be a part of the common mechanisms responsible for their embryonic toxicity. - Highlights: > PAEs affected abalone hatchability, morphogenesis and metamorphosis behavior. > The toxicity of the five PAEs to embryogenesis was ranked as DBP > DEP > DMP > DOP > DEHP. > The osmoregulation disorder and oxidative damage are the potential mechanisms. - Potential mechanisms of PAEs on abalone embryogenesis are osmoregulation disorder, oxidative damage and physiological dysfunction.

  2. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens.

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    Katherina B Brokordt

    Full Text Available Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2 and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes and extracellular (serum protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R, the h2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CVA of 13.3-16.2% in young adults and of 2.7-8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals.

  3. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic variation of Chinese and Japanese wild Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) measured by microsatellite DNA markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi; KIJIMA Akihiro

    2006-01-01

    Population differentiation and relationships among three wild populations of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai collected from coastal seas around China and Japan were estimated using microsatellite DNA analysis. The results obtained with six microsatellite loci showed a high genetic diversity for China and Japan populations. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 11.7 to 23.0, and the average of observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.656 to 0.721, and from 0.721 to 0.793, respectively. The observed genotype frequencies at each locus were mostly in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations with five exceptions. Significant differences were detected between Chinese and Japanese H. discus hannai populations [Weir and Cocker-ham's fixation index(Fst) range: 0.020~0.023; Slatkin's fixation index (Rst) range: 0.016~0.044], and no obvious difference was detected between the samples of Japanese H. discus hannai populations (Fst=0.002; Rst = 0.007). The level of differentiation among populations is further evidenced by the nNeighbor-joining tree topology on which the Japanese samples were closely clustered, and the Chinese population formed a separate cluster. These results suggest that care should be taken in future management of different populations.

  5. Effects of the dietary administration of sodium alginate on the immune responses and disease resistance of Taiwan abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winton; Yu, Jyun-Sian

    2013-03-01

    Sodium alginate extracted from brown algae was reported to enhance the immune response and resistance of fish and shrimp. In this study, survival rates of the abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and its non-specific immune parameters such as the total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency to V. parahaemolyticus by H. diversicolor supertexta were determined when abalone (4.5 ± 0.4 g) were fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹. Abalone fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ for 14 days and at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ for 21 days had significantly higher survival rates than those fed the control diet after challenge with V. parahaemolyticus. The relative survival percentages of abalone fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ sodium alginate-containing diets for 14 and 21 days were 16.1%, 40.0%, and 48.0%, and 63.6%, 27.3% and 22.6%, respectively. The PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus of abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the control diet for 14 days. After 21 days, the PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus by abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the other diets. It was concluded that sodium alginate can be used as an immunostimulant for abalone through dietary administration to enhance immune responses of abalone and resistance against V. parahaemolyticus, which were related to the dose and timing of administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of large body size in abalones (Haliotis): Patterns and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J.A.; Lindberg, D.R.; Wray, C.

    2005-01-01

    Kelps and other fleshy macroalgae - dominant reef-inhabiting organisms in cool - seasmay have radiated extensively following late Cenozoic polar cooling, thus triggering a chain of evolutionary change in the trophic ecology of nearshore temperate ecosystems. We explore this hypothesis through an analysis of body size in the abalones (Gastropoda; Haliotidae), a widely distributed group in modern oceans that displays a broad range of body sizes and contains fossil representatives from the late Cretaceous (60-75 Ma). Geographic analysis of maximum shell length in living abalones showed that small-bodied species, while most common in the Tropics, have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas large-bodied species occur exclusively in cold-water ecosystems dominated by kelps and other macroalgae. The phylogeography of body size evolution in extant abalones was assessed by constructing a molecular phylogeny in a mix of large and small species obtained from different regions of the world. This analysis demonstrates that small body size is the plesiomorphic state and largeness has likely arisen at least twice. Finally, we compiled data on shell length from the fossil record to determine how (slowly or suddenly) and when large body size arose in the abalones. These data indicate that large body size appears suddenly at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Our findings support the view that fleshy-algal dominated ecosystems radiated rapidly in the coastal oceans with the onset of the most recent glacial age. We conclude with a discussion of the broader implications of this change. ?? 2005 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection and localisation of the abalone probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and its extracellular protease, VmproA, within the digestive tract of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Huddy

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone.

  8. Cascading effects from survival to physiological activities, and gene expression of heat shock protein 90 on the abalone Haliotis discus hannai responding to continuous thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Lee, Jung Sick; Kang, Ju-Chan; Kim, Jae Won; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2015-02-01

    Increasing temperatures can be a significant stressor for aquatic organisms. Abalones, a type of large marine gastropods, are the most commercially important species in aquaculture for Asia. To evaluate the potential ecological risk posed by temperature stress, we measured biological responses such as survival rate, adhesion ability (falling rate), and foot abnormalities in the abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Additionally, biochemical and molecular responses were evaluated in H. discus hannai exposed to various temperature gradients. The survival rate was reduced in abalones exposed to relative high temperatures (more than 26 °C). Increased temperature stress induced a higher falling rate and abnormal foot structure. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in abalones exposed to relative high temperatures (26 and 28 °C). The activities of superoxide dismutase were induced in a time-dependent manner after high temperature stress. Generally, heat shock protein 90 also increased significantly in H. discus hannai exposed to temperature gradients (more than 24 °C) for 12 h. These results provide valuable information regarding stress responses to increased temperatures, in H. discus hannai: adverse biological and molecular outcomes could be utilized as risk assessments and stress monitoring of marine ecosystems under increased water temperatures.

  9. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  10. GROW-OUT OF ABALONE Haliotis squamata IN FLOATING CAGES FED DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF SEAWEED AND WITH REDUCTION OF STOCKING DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is a herbivore marine animal which feeds on seaweed. Abalone culture has a good prospect in terms of price, market share and simple culture technique. Thus, a study was conducted with the aim of finding out an effective and efficient abalone culture technique in terms of feed use and density. In this study, a 42 cm diameter plastic container with a 22 cm height was used. Three vertically arranged containers were used as the experimental group which were put into a net box and hung onto a raft so that the containers were placed in a 4 m depth below the sea surface. The juvenile of abalones being used came from a hatchery production that has been adapted to cages environment with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. feed. The initial density of abalones was 450 for each container, with the initial weight of 2.6-3.2 g and the 2.5-2.7 cm shell lengths. The abalones were fed with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. seaweeds with different Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportions, i.e. 100/0% (A; 80/20% (B; and 60/40% (C as the treatments. Each treatment consisted of two replications. After three months of rearing period, densities of abalones were reduced to be 190 for each experimental unit. Weight and shell length of abalones were measured every month by measuring 25 abalone samples from each experimental unit. The result of the experiment showed that the increase in the Ulva sp. proportion in the feed increased the growth of abalones and decreased the feed conversion. Feeding with Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportion of 60%/40% allowed the best growth of abalones. The decrease of abalone density in the experimental unit after three months of rearing also produced an increase in their growth.

  11. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhihui; ZHANG Xiangjing; CAI Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP),diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP,DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of 1-1. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  12. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  13. Selection of reference genes as internal controls for gene expression in tissues of red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Mollusca, Vetigastropoda; Swainson, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Landavery, Edgar A; Portillo-López, Amelia; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A

    2014-10-10

    The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is one of the most important species for aquaculture in Baja California, México, and despite this, few gene expression studies have been done in tissues such as gill, head and gonad. For this purpose, reverse transcription and quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a powerful tool for gene expression evaluation. For a reliable analysis, however, it is necessary to select and validate housekeeping genes that allow proper transcription quantification. Stability of nine housekeeping genes (ACTB, BGLU, TUBB, CY, GAPDH, HPRTI, RPL5, SDHA and UBC) was evaluated in different tissues of red abalone (gill, head and gonad/digestive gland). Four-fold serial dilutions of cDNA (from 25 ngμL(-1) to 0.39 ngμL(-1)) were used to prepare the standard curve, and it showed gene efficiencies between 0.95 and 0.99, with R(2)=0.99. geNorm and NormFinder analysis showed that RPL5 and CY were the most stable genes considering all tissues, whereas in gill HPRTI and BGLU were most stable. In gonad/digestive gland, RPL5 and TUBB were the most stable genes with geNorm, while SDHA and HPRTI were the best using NormFinder. Similarly, in head the best genes were RPL5 and UBC with geNorm, and GAPDH and CY with NormFinder. The technical variability analysis with RPL5 and abalone gonad/digestive gland tissue indicated a high repeatability with a variation coefficient within groups ≤ 0.56% and between groups ≤ 1.89%. These results will help us for further research in reproduction, thermoregulation and endocrinology in red abalone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of dietary zinc on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins in hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglong; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Xiaoli

    2011-06-01

    The expression patterns of different genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins were investigated, in present study, by real-time quantitative PCR in the hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai fed with different levels of dietary zinc (6.69, 33.8, 710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) for 20 weeks. The antioxidant enzymes include Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), mu-glutathione-s-transferase (mu-GST) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx). The results showed that the mRNA expression of these antioxidant enzymes increased and reached the maximum at the dietary zinc level of 33.8 mg/kg, and then dropped progressively. Expression levels of the heat shock proteins (HSP26, HSP70 and HSP90) firstly increased at 33.8 mg/kg dietary Zn level, and reached to the maximum at 710.6 mg/kg, then dropped at 3462.5 mg/kg (pantioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in hepatopancreas (plevels of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, but excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) induces a high oxidative stress in abalone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular characterization of collagen IV evidences early transcription expression related to the immune response against bacterial infection in the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovar-Vera, Ornella; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-02-01

    Collagen IV has been described as a structural protein of the basement membrane, which as a whole forms a specialized extracellular matrix. Recent studies have indicated a possible relationship between collagen IV and the innate immune response of invertebrate organisms. The present study characterized the alpha-1 chain of collagen IV in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Hr-ColIV) and evaluated its association with the innate immune response against Vibrio anguillarum. To further evidence the immune response, the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Hr-MMP-1) and C-type lectin (Hr-CLEC) genes were also assessed. The complete sequence of Hr-ColIV was composed of 6658 bp, with a 5'UTR of 154 bp, a 3'UTR of 1177 bp, and an ORF of 5327 bp that coded for 1776 amino acids. The innate immune response generated against V. anguillarum resulted in a significant increase in the transcript levels of Hr-ColIV between 3 and 6 hpi, whereas Hr-MMP-1 and Hr-CLEC had the highest transcript activity 6 and 12 hpi, respectively. The results obtained in this study propose a putative biological function for collagen IV involved in the early innate immune response of the red abalone H. rufescens.

  16. Effects of Waterborne Cu and Cd on Anti-oxidative Response, Lipid Peroxidation and Heavy Metals Accumulation in AbaloneHaliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Yanju; ZHANG Wenbing; XU Wei; ZHANG Yanjiao; ZHOU Huihui; MAI Kangsen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxida- tive response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abaloneHaliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49g±0.01g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08mgL-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mgL-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04mgL-1, 0.06mgL-1 and 0.08mgL-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopan-creas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense against Cu

  17. The Effect of Pleistocene Climate Fluctuations on Distribution of European Abalone (Haliotis tuberculata), Revealed by Combined Mitochondrial and Nuclear Marker Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Valérie; Van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2017-04-01

    The genetic differentiation among the populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata was investigated using different markers to better understand the evolutionary history and exchanges between populations. Three markers were used: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the sperm lysin nuclear gene, and eight nuclear microsatellites. These markers present different characteristics concerning mutation rate and inheritance, which provided complementary information about abalone history and gene diversity. Genetic diversity and relationships among subspecies were calculated from a sample of approximately 500 individuals, collected from 17 different locations in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, Macaronesia, and Mediterranean Sea. COI marker was used to explore the phylogeny of the species with a network analysis and two phylogenetic methods. The analysis revealed 18 major haplotypes grouped into two distinct clades with a pairwise sequence divergence up to 3.5 %. These clades do not correspond to subspecies but revealed many contacts along Atlantic coast during the Pleistocene interglaciations. The sperm lysin gene analysis separated two different subtaxa: one associated to Macaronesian islands, and the other to all other populations. Moreover, a small population of the northern subtaxon was isolated in the Adriatic Sea-probably before the separation of the two lineages-and evolved independently. Microsatellites were analyzed by different genetics methods, including the Bayesian clustering method and migration patterns analysis. It revealed genetically distinct microsatellite patterns among populations from Mediterranean Sea, Brittany and Normandy, Morocco, and Canary and Balearic islands. Gene flow is asymmetric among the regions; the Azores and the Canary Islands are particularly isolated and have low effective population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that climate changes since the Pleistocene glaciations have played a major role in the

  18. Structural Changes and Rheological Properties of Dry Abalone Meat (Haliotis diversicolor) During the Process of Water Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological property and water content of dry abalone meat in the process of water restoration were studied. The weight and volume of dry abalone meat increased with water restoration. When observed under a light microscope, structural change in myofibrils was obvious and a distinct network was found. When water restoration time increased from 24h to 72h, the instantaneous modulus E0 and viscosity η1 increased, whereas the rupture strength and relaxation time (τ1) were reduced. There were no significant changes of rheological parameters (E0, η1, τ1, rupture strength) from 72 h to 96 h of water restoration. Therefore, the dry abalone meat was swollen enough at the time of 72 h. The rheological parameters were obviously influenced by the structural changes.

  19. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

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    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  20. Broad-scale genetic patterns of New Zealand abalone, Haliotis iris, across a distribution spanning 13° latitude and major oceanic water masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Margaret; McCowan, Tom; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-08-01

    The New Zealand black-foot abalone, Haliotis iris, or pāua, is endemic to the rocky reefs surrounding New Zealand, whose main land mass spans 13° of latitude and separates the Tasman Sea from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of this important commercial, cultural and recreational species by genotyping nine microsatellite loci in 485 pāua from 27 locations distributed across mainland New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. We found low, but significant, levels of genetic differentiation. Key genetic breaks were identified among the Chatham Islands and mainland samples; patterns that are strongly corroborated by prior work employing mtDNA sequences. AMOVAs indicated that samples from the south of the North Island were more similar to the South Island samples than to other North Island samples, however multivariate analysis and Bayesian clustering could not identify a significant pattern. Differentiation between the Chatham Islands and the mainland is most likely due to isolation by distance, while differentiation of North Island samples corresponds with major components of New Zealand's oceanography, Cook Strait and the East Cape. Despite intense fishing pressure, we detected no signature of genetic bottlenecks in any region suggesting that population sizes have remained relatively stable over recent time or that the census size of this species is much larger than its effective population size.

  1. Endoscopy of gastropods: A novel view of the mantle cavities and gills of the keyhole limpet Diodora aspera and the abalone Haliotis rufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltzow, Janice

    2015-07-01

    The gills, or ctenidia, of marine gastropods serve as the sites for respiratory gas exchange. Cilia on the surface provide the pump that moves water through the mantle cavity and enhance diffusion. Because the gills are housed inside the shell, it is difficult to view them while they are functioning. Published images of gills show contracted, fragile structures that are distorted by the processes of dissection and preservation. Members of the families Fissurellidae (keyhole limpets) and Haliotidae (abalone) have openings in their shells through which water enters and/or exits. I inserted an endoscope connected to a video camera into the openings of the shells of living, non-anaesthetized individuals of the fissurellid Diodora aspera and the haliotid Haliotis rufescens. In both species, the dorsal afferent branchial vessel of the afferent gill axis appeared large and inflated, as did the leaflets that extended from either side of the axis. In D. aspera, the leaflets appeared to fill the mantle cavity and responded to touch, particles, and dye in the water by contracting quickly and slowly re-extending. In contrast, the gills of H. rufescens did not noticeably respond to disturbance. On the other hand, these gills showed a regular pattern of pleats that had not been described in the extensive anatomical literature of these common and economically significant animals. These results provide a novel view of the gastropod mantle cavity as a dynamic space filled by the gills, which divide the mantle cavity into distinct incurrent and excurrent chambers and produce a laminar flow of water through the cavity.

  2. Identification and comparison of amorphous calcium carbonate-binding protein and acetylcholine-binding protein in the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Wang, Hongzhong; Cui, Yu; Zhang, Guiyou; Zheng, Guilan; Liu, Shiting; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2009-01-01

    Nacre has two different microarchitectures: columnar nacre and sheet nacre. We previously identified an important regulator of the morphology of sheet nacre tablets, which was named amorphous calcium carbonate-binding protein (pf-ACCBP). However, little is known about its counterpart in columnar nacre. Moreover, pf-ACCBP shares significant sequence similarity with a group of acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBP) that participate in neuronal synapses transmission, but the relationships between the two proteins, which are homologous in sequences but disparate in function, have not been studied yet. Here, we identified an amorphous calcium carbonate-binding protein and an acetylcholine-binding protein in the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, named hdh-ACCBP and hdh-AChBP, respectively. Studies of hdh-ACCBP indicated that it was a counterpart of pf-ACCBP in gastropods that might function similarly in columnar nacre formation and supersaturated extrapallial fluid. Analysis of hdh-AChBP showed that unlike previously identified AChBP, hdh-AChBP was not only expressed in the nervous system but could also be detected in non-nervous system cells, such as the goblet cells of the mantle pallial. Additionally, its expression patterns during embryo and larval development did not accord with ganglion development. These phenomena indicated that AChBP might play more general roles than just in neuronal synapses transmission. Comparison of hdh-ACCBP and hdh-AChBP revealed that they were quite different in their post-translational modification and oligomerization and that they were controlled under different transcriptional regulation systems, consequently obtaining disparate expression profiles. Our results also implied that ACCBP and AChBP might come from a common ancestor through gene duplication and divergence.

  3. Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Haliotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bravo Portela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium.

  4. Application of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci Identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae in the Genetic Characterization of Wild and Released Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Wan Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5 was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (FST and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (FST = 0.002, p > 0.05. Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05, the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci

  5. NUTRITION REQUIREMENT OF CULTURED ABALONE POST LARVAE AND JUVENILES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa Iba

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abalone aquaculture attracts wide attention nowadays because of its high market value and depleted of wild stocks. China and Japan are the main producer of abalone from aquaculture followed by other countries such as New Zealand, Australia and US. Most of cultured abalone are temperate species but considerable research efforts have been made to culture tropical abalone in the Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia. Most of abalone culture still depends on natural food but recent studies have been conducted to develop artificial diet for abalone. This will not only reduce wild harvest of macrolagae but also develop high nutrition diet at low cost. Successful abalone aquaculture is determined by correct nutrition supplement in the diet. As other cultured animal, abalone requires balanced nutrition of carbohydrate, protein, lipid, vitamins, and minerals. As herbivores, abalone can utilize carbohydrate efficiently as energy source and thus only requires low level of protein (range from 27%—40%. Lipid requirements range from 3%—5% while some minerals such as calcium and phosphorus in artificial feed are only needed in small amount, 0.5% of calcium in diets and 0.7% of phosphorus in the diet can improve the growth rate of abalone. There is not available information of vitamin upplementation in the diet but it is suggested that natural food meets the requirement.

  6. Impact of post-rigor high pressure processing on the physicochemical and microbial shelf-life of cultured red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brianna H; Perkins, L Brian; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2016-03-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) of post-rigor abalone at 300MPa for 10min extended the refrigerated shelf-life to four times that of unprocessed controls. Shucked abalone meats were processed at 100 or 300MPa for 5 or 10min, and stored at 2°C for 35days. Treatments were analyzed for aerobic plate count (APC), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), K-value, biogenic amines, color, and texture. APC did not exceed 10(6) and TVBN levels remained below 35mg/100g for 35days for the 300MPa treatments. No biogenic amines were detected in the 300MPa treatments, but putrescine and cadaverine were detected in the control and 100MPa treatments. Color and texture were not affected by HPP or storage time. These results indicate that post-rigor processing at 300MPa for 10min can significantly increase refrigerated shelf-life of abalone without affecting chemical or physical quality characteristics important to consumers.

  7. 杂交鲍苗种“病毒性萎缩症(AbSV)”病理学研究%Studies on Pathology of “Shriveling Syndrome Associated Virus(AbSV)” in Juvenile Hybrid Abalone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小强

    2013-01-01

    从福州地区患病杂交鲍苗种组织中分离到一种球形病毒用以感染健康鲍,通过对感染发病的鲍苗进行光镜和电镜观察,发现:病毒主要在消化腺嗜碱性细胞的细胞核中发生;消化腺消化细胞和嗜碱性细胞细胞核异形、染色质固缩,内质网扩张,线粒体嵴断裂、消失;消化腺小叶基膜肌纤维断裂、消失;消化道肠道具微绒毛的柱状细胞和纤毛柱状细胞发生自溶现象;足部肌细胞核浓缩,染色质固缩、边集,肌纤维断裂出现空泡.据此推测,病毒以鲍消化腺嗜碱性细胞为靶细胞,造成消化腺和胃、肠道等消化系统病变,机体因长期营养不良而萎缩,最后因全身性感染出现死亡.%Pathological analysis was done on juvenile hybrid abalone (Haliotisdiscus discus Haliotis discus hannai)artificially infected by a spherical virus isolated from the diseased ones in Fuzhou.Examination of artificially infected juvenile hybrid abalone by optical and electron microscopy showed that the virion mainly developed in nucleus of basophilic cells in digestive gland,and led to nuclear heteromorphosis,chromatin condensation,endoplasmic reticulum expansion,and mitochondria cristae breakage in digestive gland cell and basophilic cell.Meanwhile,broken digestive gland lobule basal lamina muscle fibers,autolysis and pyknosis of microvillus and cilium columnar cell in digestive gland intestinal tract were observed.In foot muscle cells,muscle fibers were broken and vesicles emerged,together with chromatin condensation and margination.These results suggested that the digestive gland basophilic cells maybe the special target cell of this virus,the infection could cause lesion in digestive gland and digestive organs such as stomach,intestines.Atrophy due to long-term malnutrition and systemic infection would finally led to death.

  8. An invertebrate signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) ortholog from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic structure, early developmental expression, and immune responses to bacterial and viral stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family members are key signaling molecules that transduce cellular responses from the cell membrane to the nucleus upon Janus kinase (JAK) activation. Although seven STAT members have been reported in mammals, very limited information on STAT genes in molluscans is available. In this study, we identified and characterized a STAT paralog that is homologous to STAT5 from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, and designated as AbSTAT5. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence for AbSTAT5 (790 amino acids) with other counterparts revealed conserved residues important for functions and typical domain regions, including the N-terminal domain, coiled-coil domain, DNA-binding domain, linker domain, and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains as mammalian counterparts. Analysis of STAT phylogeny revealed that AbSTAT5 was clustered with the molluscan subgroup in STAT5 clade with distinct evolution. According to the genomic structure of AbSTAT5, the coding sequence was distributed into 20 exons with 19 introns. Immunologically essential transcription factor-binding sites, such as GATA-1, HNF, SP1, C/EBP, Oct-1, AP1, c-Jun, and Sox-2, were predicted at the 5'-proximal region of AbSTAT5. Expression of AbSTAT5 mRNA was detected in different stages of embryonic development and observed at considerably higher levels in the morula and late veliger stages. Tissue-specific expressional studies revealed that the highest level of AbSTAT5 transcripts was detected in hemocytes, followed by gill tissues. Temporal expressions of AbSTAT5 were analyzed upon live bacterial (Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes), viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (lipopolysaccharides and Poly I:C) stimulations, and significant elevations indicated immune modulation. These results suggest that AbSTAT5 may be involved in maintaining innate immune responses from developmental to adult stages in

  9. AKTIVITAS ENZIM KOMERSIAL, EKSTRAK KASAR ENZIM DARI VISCERA KEONG MAS (Pila polita, ABALON (Haliotis asinina, DAN BEKICOT (Achatina fulica UNTUK LISIS JARINGAN RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii PADA KULTUR PROTOPLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Redjeki Hesti Mulyaningrum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam usaha perbaikan kualitas bibit rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dilakukan kultur protoplas dengan isolasi protoplas menggunakan enzim. Untuk mendapatkan sumber enzim yang ekonomis sebagai alternatif pengganti enzim komersial dan untuk mengetahui perbandingan konsentrasi enzim komersial yang optimum agar menghasilkan jumlah protoplas yang maksimum, dilakukan karakterisasi terhadap enzim dari berbagai sumber. Aktivitas ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera bekicot (Achatina fulica tidak berbeda nyata dengan enzim komersial (P>0,05 dengan aktivitas sebesar 0,729 unit/mL; enzim komersial 0,354 unit/mL; ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera keong mas (Pila polita 0,048 unit/mL; dan ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera abalon (Haliotis asinina 0,014 unit/mL. Perbandingan enzim komersial yang optimum adalah 2:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 1,26 x 108 sel/mL; kemudian 1:2 dengan jumlah protoplas 1,22 x 108 sel/mL; perbandingan 1:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 8,36 x 107 sel/mL; perbandingan 0:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 6,33 x 107 sel/mL; dan perbandingan 1:0 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 9,55 x 106 sel/mL. Rumput laut asal Takalar memiliki protoplas dengan kepadatan tertinggi sebesar 3,7 x 108 sel/mL. Effort to improve the quality of seaweed seed Kappaphycus alvarezii has been done by protoplast culture with protoplast isolation using enzyme. To find out economical enzyme sources as alternatives to substitute the expensive commercial enzyme and to determine the optimum concentration ratio of commercial enzyme to produce maximum amount of protoplast, characterization was executed to several potential sources. Activity of crude extract enzyme from viscera of garden snail (Achatina fulica was not significantly different with commercial enzyme (P>0.05 it was 0.729 unit/mL, commercial enzyme 0.354 unit/mL activity; crude extract enzyme from viscera of golden snail (Pila polita 0.048 unit/mL activity and crude extract enzyme from viscera of abalone

  10. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru; Kimura, Kan

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone ( Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone of approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  11. Management and Risk Assessment of Sabellid Polychaete Infestations in Abalone Mariculture Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kuris, Armand M.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1993, growers at some commercial abalone mariculture facilities (AMFs) in Southern California brought an interesting sabellid polychaete to our attention. The worm infested shells of cultured red abalone, Haliotis rufescens. Heavily infested abalone ceased growth. Their shells exhibited domed teratology often lacking respiratory holes. The worms appeared to bore into the shell. We discovered that all AMFs in California were infested; several were so heavily infest...

  12. 鲍鱼内脏中天然牛磺酸的提取与检测%Extraction and determination of taurine from viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章骞; 郑福来; 翁凌; 张凌晶; 曹敏杰

    2014-01-01

    目的:以皱纹盘鲍内脏为原料,优化高纯度牛磺酸的提取工艺,并建立用高压液相色谱检测牛磺酸纯度的方法。方法经水煮、乙醇抽提、蒸发浓缩、沉淀、活性炭处理、结晶等步骤,获得高纯度天然牛磺酸。用高压液相色谱检测牛磺酸纯度的方法为:色谱柱:Discovery C18;流动相:甲醇-0.05 mol/L乙酸钠缓冲液(pH 5.3)(v/v,50:50);流速:1 mL/min;检测波长:330 nm;柱温:室温。结果该提取工艺能从1 kg 鲍鱼内脏中提取得到天然牛磺酸3.07 g。采用该检测方法,牛磺酸的出峰时间为6.037 min,在1~20μg/mL浓度范围内线性关系良好(R2=0.9999),最低检出限为0.03μg/mL,最低定量限为0.12μg/mL,样品测定的平均回收率为99.44%(RSD=0.25%),方法的精密度和稳定性好(RSD<1%),用该方法检测提取得到的牛磺酸纯度为96.06%。采用红外光谱法(IR)对提取得到的鲍鱼内脏牛磺酸进一步作结构鉴定,发现它与标准品的红外特征吸收峰一致。结论获得了高纯度牛磺酸的提取工艺。本方法精密度和稳定性好,回收率高。%Objective The viscera from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) was used as raw materials to isolate natural taurine and an HPLC method for the determination of the purity of taurine was established. Methods Natural taurine was isolated by combining methods of high temperature stewing, activated carbon treatment, ethanol extraction, concentration, precipitation and crystallization. The HPLC method for determination of the purity of taurine was performed on a Discovery C18 column eluted with a mobile phase of 50% methyl alcohol and 50% sodium acetate (pH 5.3) at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at room tem-perature and detected by a UV detector at 330 nm. Results Taurine (3.07 g) was isolated from 1 kg ab-alone viscera by the extraction method. The retention time of taurine was at 6.037 min on HPLC and the method showed a good linearity within concentration of

  13. Does abalone nacre form by heteroepitaxial nucleation or by growth through mineral bridges?

    OpenAIRE

    Schäffer, Tilman E.; Ionescu-Zanetti, Cristian; Proksch, Roger; Fritz, Monika; Walters, Deron A.; Almqvist, Nils; Zaremba, Charlotte M.; Belcher, Angela M.; Smith, Bettye L.; Stucky, Galen D.; Morse, Daniel E.; Hansma, Paul K.

    1997-01-01

    We present experimental support for a model of abalone nacre growth that is based on mineral bridges between successive aragonite tablets rather than on heteroepitaxial nucleation. Interlamellar sheets of organic polymers delineate the aragonite tablets but allow the tablets to grow mineral bridges through pores in the sheets. Atomic force microscope images of interlamellar organic sheets from flat pearls made by Haliotis rufescens (red abalone; marine gastropod mollusk) reveal a fibrous core...

  14. 周期性断食对皱纹盘鲍生长、摄食、排粪和血细胞组成的影响%Effect of periodic starvation on growth, feeding, defecation and granulocyte of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任黎华; 张继红; 王文琪; 杜美荣; 张明亮; 高亚平; 吴桃

    2012-01-01

    对壳长为65 mm的皱纹盘鲍进行投喂2d、饥饿1~4 d的周期性断食处理,连续投喂组作为对照.皱纹盘鲍的摄食、生长、排粪和血细胞组成的研究结果表明,当投喂2d,饥饿天数少于2d时,皱纹盘鲍的生长没有显著差异(P>0.05),饥饿天数多于3d,鲍体重开始下降;摄食率呈随解饿时间增加呈升高趋势,但实验组间无显著差异(P>0.05);排粪率与粪便中的有机物含量随饥饿时间增长而降低,其中,各处理阶段间的差异显著(P<0.05).血细胞中颗粒细胞的比例在饥饿少于2d的实验组间无差异,但显著高于投喂2d、饥饿3d的实验组与投喂2d、饥饿4d的实验组(P<0.05).%Aquaculture of abalone was limited in northern China by the lack of fresh food in summer.For a new feeding method,the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino at shell length of 65mm were treated with periodic starvation,i.e.feeding for 2d,then starving for 1~ 4d,with continuous feeding treatment as control.Results of growth,feeding,defecation and granulocyte suggested that there was no significant difference in growth when starvation was less than 2d (P>0.05),while body weight dropped in other groups(more than 3d starvation).Food intake rate increased as starvation lasted,but there was no significant difference between each group (P>0.05).Fecal production rate and organic matter in feces decreased with prolonged starvation,and it was significantly different during each treatment stage (P<0.05); Ratio of granulocyte showed no difference in treatments of starvation less than 2d,and significantly higher for group of starvation less than 2d than groups of f2s3 and f2s4 (P<0.05).

  15. PENGARUH SEKS RASIO TERHADAP TINGKAT KEBERHASILAN PEMIJAHAN PADA KAWIN SILANG Haliotis asinina DENGAN Haliotis squamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Ary Sudarmawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Haliotis asininna dan Haliotis squamata merupakan jenis abalon yang banyak dijumpai dan dikembangkan di Indonesia. Kendala yang sering dihadapi yaitu  menentukan jumlah induk yang berujung pada rendahnya produksi benih. Upaya peningkatan kualitas benih terus dilakukan salah satunya dengan kawin silang dengan perbandingan jumlah induk yang sesuai. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui jumlah induk betina abalon yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan larva yang optimal, serta mengetahui perbedaan tingkat keberhasilan persilangan dua jenis induk. Metode yang digunakan adalah eksperimental dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap  dua faktor. Faktor pertama, jumlah induk betina (1:2, 1:3 dan 1:4. Faktor kedua, persilangan dengan dua aras yaitu H. asinina jantan dengan H. squamata betina dan H. asinina betina dengan H. squamta jantan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rasio jumlah induk tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap keberhasilan pemijahan. Namun faktor persilangan memberikan pengaruh  nyata (p<0,05 terhadap jumlah telur, tingkat pembuahan dan tingkat penetasan. Persilangan dengan induk betina H. squamata menghasilkan tingkat keberhasilan lebih tinggi dibandingakan dengan induk betina H. asinina. Kata kunci: H. asinina, H. squamata, jumlah induk, kawin silang

  16. Postlarva rearing of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta with different unicelluar algae species%不同单胞藻饵料培养九孔鲍早期稚贝的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭峰; 柯才焕; 周时强

    2007-01-01

    以单种培养的6种底栖硅藻和具有底栖习性的亚心形扁藻(Platymoras sp.)为饵料,培养九孔鲍(Haliotis diversicolor supertexta)受精后12 d的早期稚贝并观察其生长和存活,培养期为28 d, 目的是筛选能维持早期稚贝高存活率和生长率的藻种.实验结果表明,培养稚贝成活率最高的3个藻种由大到小依次是爪哇曲壳藻亚缢变种(Achnanthes javanica var.)、流水双眉藻(Amphora fluninensis)和亚历山大菱形藻(Nitzschia alexandrina),使稚贝生长最快的3个藻种由大到小依次是流水双眉藻、爪哇曲壳藻亚缢变种和亚历山大菱形藻.研究结果揭示了适宜的底栖硅藻种类对鲍早期稚贝阶段生长和存活的重要性.个体小或者胞外产物量大的藻类很可能对九孔鲍早期稚贝的培养是有利的.

  17. 九孔鲍幼鲍生长性状的遗传参数估计%Genetic parameter estimation of growth traits in small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋湘; 刘建勇; 赖志服

    2013-01-01

    Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an economically important shellfish species in southern China. However, intensive culture practices have resulted in genetic degradation (e.g., inbreeding depression). In addition, there has been a recent increase in the mass mortality of H. diversicolor supertexta during the post-larval and grow-out stages, resulting in a decrease in production. To address this, genetic improvement is likely to play an important role in the sustainable development of the H. diversicolor supertexta aquaculture industry. Narrow-sense heritability(h2) provides an index of additive genetic variation. The index is a key indicator of the degree of ge-netic improvement in an unknown natural population with putative commercial value. We estimated the heritabil-ity of shell length, shell width, and body weight of H.diversicolor supertexta by means of intra group correlation of full-sibs.Twelve half-sib families and thirty-six full-sib families of H. diversicolor supertexta were obtained by artificial fertilization of three females by single males based on an unbalanced nest design. Each full-sib family was reared separately and all families experienced environmental conditions that were as similar as possible. A random sample of 30 individuals from each family was harvested and the shell length, shell width, and body weight of each individual was measured 40, 120, 180, and 240 days after hatching (dph). The genetic parameters for shell length, shell width, and body weight were estimated with a single trait animal model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. The estimates of narrow-sense heritabilities ranged from 0.13±0.09 to 0.56±0.15 for shell length and 0.13±0.06−0.62±0.13 for shell width. The heritability of body weight was between 0.18±0.15 and 0.26±0.08. We observed a significant positive genetic and phenotypic correlation (correlation coefficient ranges:0.85–0.98 and 0.66–0.94, respectively)among shell length, shell width, and

  18. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  19. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S Friedman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS. Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI off Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point (CP in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host-parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  20. Expression of biomineralisation genes in tissues and cultured cells of the abalone Haliotistuberculata

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neill, Matthew; Gaume, Béatrice; Denis, Françoise; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Mollusc shell biomineralisation involves a variety of organic macromolecules (matrix proteins and enzymes) that control calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition, growth of crystals, the selection of polymorph, and the microstructure of the shell. Since the mantle and the hemocytes play an important role in the control of shell formation, primary cell cultures have been developed to study the expression of three biomineralisation genes recently identified in the abalone Haliotis tuberculata: a mat...

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Haliotis laevigata (Gastropoda: Haliotidae) using MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nick A; Hall, Nathan E; Ross, Elizabeth M; Cooke, Ira R; Shiel, Brett P; Robinson, Andrew J; Strugnell, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, is reported. MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing of one individual was assembled to yield a single 16,545 bp contig. The sequence shares 92% identity to the H. rubra mitochondrial genome (a closely related species that hybridize with H. laevigata in the wild). The sequence will be useful for determining the maternal contribution to hybrid populations, for investigating population structure and stock-enhancement effectiveness.

  2. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: Sea otters and black abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter T.; Jurgens, Laura J.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  3. Calcifying algae maintain settlement cues to larval abalone following algal exposure to extreme ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Jennifer K; Barry, James P; Gabrielson, Paul W; Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Potts, Donald C; Palumbi, Stephen R; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2017-07-18

    Ocean acidification (OA) increasingly threatens marine systems, and is especially harmful to calcifying organisms. One important question is whether OA will alter species interactions. Crustose coralline algae (CCA) provide space and chemical cues for larval settlement. CCA have shown strongly negative responses to OA in previous studies, including disruption of settlement cues to corals. In California, CCA provide cues for seven species of harvested, threatened, and endangered abalone. We exposed four common CCA genera and a crustose calcifying red algae, Peyssonnelia (collectively CCRA) from California to three pCO2 levels ranging from 419-2,013 µatm for four months. We then evaluated abalone (Haliotis rufescens) settlement under ambient conditions among the CCRA and non-algal controls that had been previously exposed to the pCO2 treatments. Abalone settlement and metamorphosis increased from 11% in the absence of CCRA to 45-69% when CCRA were present, with minor variation among CCRA genera. Though all CCRA genera reduced growth during exposure to increased pCO2, abalone settlement was unaffected by prior CCRA exposure to increased pCO2. Thus, we find no impacts of OA exposure history on CCRA provision of settlement cues. Additionally, there appears to be functional redundancy in genera of CCRA providing cues to abalone, which may further buffer OA effects.

  4. Population structure of Haliotis rubra from South Australia inferred from nuclear and mtDNA analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongbao; Sharon A Appleyard; Nicholas G Elliott

    2006-01-01

    Microsatellite loci and mtDNA-RFLPs were surveyed in four spatially separated populations of Haliotis rubra and two populations of putative Haliotis conicorpora from South Australia. A high level of microsatellite genetic diversity was observed in all populations although several loci were characterized by homozygote excesses, probably due to null alleles. MtDNA variation was also moderate with an average of 80% haplotype variation across the six populations. Despite the high levels of genetic variation, significant pair-wise spatial differentiation is not detected among the populations. Hierarchical AMOVA analysis revealed very low levels of genetic partitioning on either a spatial or putative species level. Both molecular techniques revealed little genetic differentiation across the six populations, suggesting a panmictic population model for these South Australian abalone populations. Furthermore, no molecular evidence suggests that the putative H. conicorpora individuals sampled from South Australia belong to a separate species.

  5. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  6. Attenuation of UV-B exposure-induced inflammation by abalone hypobranchial gland and gill extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuanpradit, Chitraporn; Jaisin, Yamaratee; Jungudomjaroen, Sumon; Mitu, Shahida Akter; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Sobhon, Prasert; Cummins, Scott F.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UV-B) is a known causative factor for many skin complications such as wrinkles, black spots, shedding and inflammation. Within the wavelengths 280–320 nm, UV-B can penetrate to the epidermal level. This investigation aimed to test whether extracts from the tropical abalone [Haliotis asinina (H. asinina)] mucus-secreting tissues, the hypobranchial gland (HBG) and gills, were able to attenuate the inflammatory process, using the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Cytotoxicity of abalone tissue extracts was determined using an AlamarBlue viability assay. Results showed that HaCaT cells could survive when incubated in crude HBG and gill extracts at concentrations between 2.5 μg/ml extract showed a significant decrease in intensity for COX-2, phospho-p38 and phospho-SPK/JNK. The present study demonstrated that abalone extracts from the HGB and gill can attenuate inflammatory proteins triggered by UV-B. Hence, the contents of abalone extract, including cellmetabolites and peptides, may provide new agents for skin anti-inflammation, preventing damage due to UV-B. PMID:28358420

  7. Trading on extinction: An open-access deterrence model for the South African abalone fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. Crookes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available South African rhinoceros (e.g.Diceros bicornis and abalone (Haliotis midae have in common that they both are harvested under open-access conditions, are high-value commodities and are traded illegally. The difference is that a legal market for abalone already exists. An open-access deterrence model was developed for South African abalone, using Table Mountain National Park as a case study. It was found that illegal poaching spiked following the closure of the recreational fishery. The resource custodian's objective is to maximise returns from confiscations. This study showed that a legal trade results in a trading on extinction resource trap, with a race for profits, an increase in the probability of detection after a poaching event and the depletion of populations. In contrast with HS Gordon's seminal article (J Polit Econ 1954;62:124-142, profit maximisation does not automatically improve the sustainability of the resource. Under certain conditions (e.g. a legal trade with costly enforcement, profit maximisation may actually deplete abalone populations. The article also has implications for rhino populations, as a legal trade is currently proposed.

  8. cDNA microarray analysis of disk abalone genes in gills and hemocytes after viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jehee

    2012-06-01

    A disk abalone Haliotis discus discus 4.2 K cDNA microarray was designed by selecting abalone expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Transcriptional profiles in gills and hemocytes were analyzed upon abalone challenged with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in order to select candidates for screening of immune response genes. Among the 4188 genes analyzed, 280 (6.6%) transcripts were changed their expression level in gills and hemocytes against VHSV challenge compared to control animals. Total of 88 and 65 genes were up-regulated in gills and hemocytes, respectively. These genes can be grouped under various immune-functional categories such as transcription factors (Krüppell-like factor; ETS-family transcription factor), inflammatory and apoptosis related genes (TNF superfamily members, Fas ligand), IFN regulatory proteins (IFN-44 like, interferon gamma-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase) and detoxification proteins (glutathione peroxidase). In contrast, 25 and 102 genes were shown down-regulation in gills and hemocytes, respectively. Among the differentially expressed transcripts, considerably higher numbers of ESTs were represented as either hypothetical (unknown) proteins or no GenBank match suggesting those may be novel genes associated with internal defense of abalone.

  9. “东优1号”杂色鲍及其亲本群体肌肉营养成分的比较分析%Analysis on Nutritional Components in New Variety ‘Dongyou No.1’and Its Parental Populations of Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜孙安; 姚清华; 林香信; 林虬; 苏德森

    2015-01-01

    对日本、台湾杂色鲍及其杂交后代(“东优1号”)足肌的营养成分进行比较分析。结果表明,“东优1号”的粗蛋白含量显著低于日本群体但高于台湾群体,粗脂肪含量高于双亲;“东优1号”和日本群体足肌的EAA、总氨基酸及呈味氨基酸的含量均显著高于台湾群体(P <0.05);3种鲍足肌的 SRCAA 均大于80%,且E/T、E/N 均符合 FAO/WHO 的蛋白模式;“东优1号”的饱和脂肪酸(SFA)和必需脂肪酸(EFA)总量均显著低于双亲,不饱和脂肪酸总量显著低于台湾群体而高于日本群体,多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)n-6和 n-3的比值低于双亲,ΣPUFA 与ΣSFA 的比值高于双亲。3种鲍足肌均含有种类齐全、比例合理的氨基酸,脂肪酸营养丰富、结构均衡,具有较高的营养价值,是优质的蛋白源。“东优1号”的营养成分较好地综合了双亲的优良性状,部分性状优于双亲,更符合人类健康饮食的要求。%The nutritional components from foot muscle of RITAI Haliotis diversicolor (Japan population and Taiwan population)and their reciprocal hybrids (‘Dongyou 1 ’)were comparatively analyzed according to the national standard method.The protein content in ‘Dongyou 1’was significantly lower than that of Japan population but higher than that of Taiwan population,while the lipid content in ‘Dongyou 1’was higher than its parents.Total amino acids (TAA),essential amino acids (EAA)and delicious amino acids (DAA)in ‘Dongyou 1 ’and Japan population are higher than Taiwan population (P <0.05).SRCAA of all the 3 groups are higher than 80%,and E/T and E/N of them are consistent with the FAO/WHO proteinaceous model.Contents of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and essential fatty acid (EFA)in ‘Dongyou 1 ’were lower than its parents;Content of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA)in ‘Dongyou 1’was between that of Taiwan population and Japan population

  10. Development and preliminary evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for Halioticida noduliformans in abalone tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, Mariska R; Christison, Kevin W; Macey, Brett M

    2012-06-13

    Abalone Haliotis midae exhibiting typical clinical signs of tubercle mycosis were discovered in South African culture facilities in 2006, posing a significant threat to the industry. The fungus responsible for the outbreak was identified as a Peronosporomycete, Halioticida noduliformans. Currently, histopathology and gross observation are used to diagnose this disease, but these 2 methods are neither rapid nor sensitive enough to provide accurate and reliable diagnosis. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a rapid and reliable method for the detection and quantification of a variety of pathogens, so therefore we aimed to develop a qPCR assay for species-specific detection and quantification of H. noduliformans. Effective extraction of H. noduliformans genomic DNA from laboratory grown cultures, as well as from spiked abalone tissues, was accomplished by grinding samples using a pellet pestle followed by heat lysis in the presence of Chelax-100 beads. A set of oligonucleotide primers was designed to specifically amplify H. noduliformans DNA in the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, and tested for cross-reactivity to DNA extracted from related and non-related fungi isolated from seaweeds, crustaceans and healthy abalone; no cross-amplification was detected. When performing PCR assays in an abalone tissue matrix, an environment designed to be a non-sterile simulation of environmental conditions, no amplification occurred in the negative controls. The qPCR assay sensitivity was determined to be approximately 0.28 pg of fungal DNA (~2.3 spores) in a 25 µl reaction volume. Our qPCR technique will be useful for monitoring and quantifying H. noduliformans for the surveillance and management of abalone tubercle mycosis in South Africa.

  11. Microstructure, chemistry, and electronic structure of natural hybrid composites in abalone shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srot, Vesna; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Salzberger, Ute; Koch, Christoph T; Hahn, Kersten; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A

    2013-05-01

    The crystal structure and chemical composition at the inorganic/inorganic and inorganic/organic interfaces in abalone shell (genus Haliotis) were investigated using advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Electron energy-loss near-edge structures (ELNES) of Ca-M2,3, C-K, Ca-L2,3, O-K and low-loss EEL spectra acquired from aragonite and calcite are distinctly different. When comparing biogenic with inorganic material for aragonite, only minor differences in C-K fine structures could be detected. The crystal structure of the mineral bridges was confirmed by ELNES experiments. ELNES and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) experiments of regular and self-healed interfaces between nacreous aragonite and prismatic calcite reveal relatively rough transitions. In this work, the importance of TEM specimen preparation and specimen damage on structural features is discussed.

  12. Splice variants of perlucin from Haliotis laevigata modulate the crystallisation of CaCO3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Dodenhof

    Full Text Available Perlucin is one of the proteins of the organic matrix of nacre (mother of pearl playing an important role in biomineralisation. This nacreous layer can be predominately found in the mollusc lineages and is most intensively studied as a compound of the shell of the marine Australian abalone Haliotis laevigata. A more detailed analysis of Perlucin will elucidate some of the still unknown processes in the complex interplay of the organic/inorganic compounds involved in the formation of nacre as a very interesting composite material not only from a life science-based point of view. Within this study we discovered three unknown Perlucin splice variants of the Australian abalone H. laevigata. The amplified cDNAs vary from 562 to 815 base pairs and the resulting translation products differ predominantly in the absence or presence of a varying number of a 10 mer peptide C-terminal repeat. The splice variants could further be confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS analysis as endogenous Perlucin, purified from decalcified abalone shell. Interestingly, we observed that the different variants expressed as maltose-binding protein (MBP fusion proteins in E. coli showed strong differences in their influence on precipitating CaCO3 and that these differences might be due to a splice variant-specific formation of large protein aggregates influenced by the number of the 10 mer peptide repeats. Our results are evidence for a more complex situation with respect to Perlucin functional regulation by demonstrating that Perlucin splice variants modulate the crystallisation of calcium carbonate. The identification of differentially behaving Perlucin variants may open a completely new perspective for the field of nacre biomineralisation.

  13. [Construction of SSH library from haemocyte of variously colored abalone challenged with bacteria and differential expression analysis of macrophage expressed protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Lin; Xu, Dan-Dan; Qiao, Kun; Cai, Ling; Huang, Wei-Bin; Zhang, Nai; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2008-08-01

    Abalones are considered to be the most precious delicacy from the sea, and become very important commercial seafood in aquaculture worldwide. Variously colored abalone (Haliotis diversicolor Reeve, 1846) has been widely cultured on the southeast coast for more than twenty years. However, abalone culture frequently suffers from bacterial infection and mass mortality of reared abalones causes serious economic losses. Unfortunately, knowledge of the defense mechanism in this animal is still lacking. In this study, using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology, a forward SSH library was constructed from haemocytes of H. diversicolor, with the content of 1.37x10(6) pfu and the recombinant rate of 98.18%. After the recombinant plasmids were sequenced, partial cDNA of macrophage expressed protein (MEP) was recognized based on BLAST searches in NCBI, with the size of 1,551 bp, and continuously encoding 517 amino acids. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR results showed that MEP cDNA was distinctly up-regulated in haemocytes of the bacterial-challenged group compared to the unchallenged group. The gene information obtained from this library will provide new insights into the immune mechanism of H. diversicolor and facilitate future study of target genes involved in the response to invading microorganisms.

  14. Rheological Properties and Structural Changes in Different Sections of Boiled Abalone Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin; TANG Zhixu; ZHANG Zhaohui; Ogawa Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    Changes in tissue structures, rheological properties of cross- and vertical section boiled abalone meat were studied in relation to boiling time. The adductor muscle of abalone Haliotis discus which was removed from the shell, was boiled for 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively. Then it was cut up and separated into cross- and vertical section meat. When observed by a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope, structural changes in the myofibrils were greatest in the cross section meat compared with the vertical section meat. When boiling time was increased from 1 h to 3 h, the instantaneous modulus E0 and rupture strength of both section meat decreased gradually with increased boiling time, and no significant differences were observed between these two section meat for the same boiling time. When boiled for 1 h, the relaxation time of cross section meat was much longer than that of vertical section meat. There were no significant changes in the relaxation time of vertical section for different boiling time, but the relaxation time of cross section meat was reduced gradually with increasing boiling time. These results confirmed that the difference in rheological properties between the cross- and vertical section meat was mainly due to the denaturation level of myofibrils when heated for 1 h, as well as due to the changes in the amount of denatured proteins, and the manner in which the inner denatured protein components weve exchanged after boiling time was increased from 1 h to 3 h.

  15. Growth and Survival Studies on Hybridization Between Cultured Stock and Wild Stock of Haliotis diversicolor supertexta%九孔鲍养殖群体与野生群体杂交一代生长比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋湘; 刘建勇; 赖志服

    2013-01-01

    Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an economically important shellfish species in southern China. However, genetic degradation, such as inbreeding depression, becomes more and more serious. In addition, massive mortality of the H.diversicolor supertexta occurred at post-larval and grow-out stages and production of H.diversicolor supertexta dramatically reduced in recent year. Genetic improvement plays an important role in sustainable development for H.diversicolor supertexta aquaculture industry. F1 generation of four groups, Shanwei(BD)♀×Shenzheng(YS)♂, YS♀×BD♂, BD♀×BD♂and YS♀×YS♂were obtained from mating and crossing within and between Cultured stock and Wild stock of H. diversicolor supertexta. We comparison of egg size, fertilization rate, larval settlement rate, larval metamorphosis rate, larval survival rate and postlarval growth among four groups in 40-280 days. The results revealed that the egg size of wild populations were 12.14% bigger than cultured populations.(p<0.01). The hybridization groups also bigger than self-fertilized groups on fertilization rate、larval settlement rate、larval metamorphosis rate (p<0.05). The hybridization groups showed heterosis of various degrees on larval settlement rate, larval metamorphosis rate, larval survival rate and postlarval growth compared to self-fertilized groups. Heterosis of the survival rate in juvenile abalone ranged from(14.89 ± 3.60)%to(43.00±2.15)%. Heterosis of shell length in juvenile abalone ranged from (5.18 ± 1.46)%to (18.52±2.12)%, Heterosis of shell width in juvenile abalone ranged from (6.17 ± 1.09)%to (16.72±1.26)%, Heterosis of body weight in juvenile abalone ranged from (9.86 ± 1.25)%to (12.55 ± 1.26)%, It is indicated that the cross between geographically different stocks may be an effective way for genetic improvement of H. diversicolor supertexta.%  利用九孔鲍(Haliotis diversicolor supertexta)汕尾养殖群体(BD)和深圳野生群体(YS)进行群体

  16. Comparison of polysaccharides of Haliotis discus hannai and Volutharpa ampullacea perryi by PMP-HPLC-MS(n) analysis upon acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dongmei; Wen, Chengrong; Liu, Haiman; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2015-10-13

    Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Haliotis) is a highly valued marine shellfish, and it is sometimes replaced by another cheaper Gastropoda mollusk, Volutharpa ampullacea perryi (Volutharpa). Polysaccharides from pleopods, viscera and gonads of these two gastropods were compared by analyzing the mono- and di-saccharides in their acid hydrolysates using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Disaccharide analysis revealed the distribution of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) in the biological samples. GlcA-(1 → 2)-Man, GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalN, and another disaccharide consisting of a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose were found in the hydrolysates, which indicated the existence of AGSP (abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide) with the backbone composed of → 2)-α-Man(1 → 4)-β-GlcA(1 → repeating unit, AAP (abalone glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide) with the backbone of → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 2)-GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 4)-GlcA-(1 → repeating unit, and unidentified DS1P containing a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose unit, respectively. As shown by extracted ion chromatograms (XICs), AAP was the only UACP found in pleopods of the two gastropods; gonads and viscera of Haliotis contained DS1P and AGSP, while those of Volutharpa contained DS1P, AGSP as well as AAP. Monosaccharides in the acid hydrolysates were demonstrated in XICs by extracting their corresponding PMP derivative quasi-molecular ions one by one, and the results indicated the similar conclusion to the disaccharide analysis. Therefore, it could be concluded that polysaccharides from pleopods of the two gastropods are very similar, while those from their viscera and gonads differ greatly.

  17. Advances in genetics and breeding in abalone:a review%鲍遗传育种研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡明夷; 柯才焕; 周时强; 王桂忠

    2004-01-01

    Abalones are important farming species with a high economic value. They have already been farmed for more than 50 years. As problems and new requirements rose continuously in culture industry of abalone, studies on genetic and breeding techniques are needed to improve characteristics and to gain new traits. This review concentrates on advances in genetics and breeding techniques in abalone. As for genetic studies, karyological analyses, allozyme, DNA markers and genetic diversity were reviewed. So far, karyological analyses in abalone have been performed in 12 species that can be divided into three groups according to the chromosome number. In some economically important species, loci of allozymes and. microsatellites have been isolated and applied to investigate the genetic structure of natural and hatchery populations and to identify the result of chromosome set manipulation, but the related reports are only a few yet. The resultsof investigation with DNA markers and allozymes showed that the genetic structure of natural populations presents two characteristics: excessive homozygosity and subdivision. Advances of various breeding techniques, including introduction, selection,hybridization, polyploidy, gynogenesis and gene manipulation, were reviewed in the other part. Although Haliotis discus discus, introduced from Japan, has become one of the most important culture species in China, the economic, social and environmental effects of introduction have been rarely studied. Selection is one of the most important and basic breeding techniques, but the studies on selection are only a few and preliminary, referring to the relations between genetic characteristics and the traits of growth and resistance, genetic diversity and heritability of quantitative traits, and the effect of selection. Interspecific hybridization was the first breeding program carded out in abalone. Experimental hybridization have been carded out for about 20 crosses. Heterosis,such as faster

  18. Growth of eight Pacific abalone families at three temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao; DENG Yuewen; ZHANG Guofan

    2005-01-01

    Growth rates, measured as shell length and body weight daily growth, were studied in the eight families of Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino, reared at 12, 16 and 20 ℃ for 40 d respectively. The results show that J1Rh family grew the best at 12 ℃, with growth rates of (32.88 ±4.66) μm/d and (5.24 ± 1.84) mg/d. C1Jm family had the highest growth rates of (58.00 ±2.00) μm/d and (9.71 ± 1.21) mg/d at 16 ℃. J1Jm family ranked the first at 20 ℃, with growth rates of (66.00 ± 1.76) μm/d and (10.99±0.34) mg/d.RjRh family had the slowest growth rates at all three temperatures. Shell length growth rates were 18.25, 33.00 and 43.13 μm/d respectively, while body weight growth rates were 2.47, 2.56 and 4.75 mg/d respectively. Both temperature and family had significant effect on growth rates (P<0.05). At 16 and 20 ℃, maternal effects on growth rates were not significant (P>0.05), but paternal effects on growth rates were significant (P<0.05). Results of this study indicate genetic difference among the families and importance of selecting male breeders in the commercial hatchery.

  19. Herencia mendeliana en microsatélites de abulón amarillo Haliotis corrugata

    OpenAIRE

    Noé Díaz-Viloria; Ricardo Pérez-Enríquez; Pedro Cruz-Hernández; Daniel Aguilar-Osuna

    2013-01-01

    En México la pesquería de abulón amarillo (Haliotis corrugata) se ha visto fuertemente afectada por la sobrepesca y factores ambientales. En este contexto, la repoblación de los bancos silvestres mediante liberación de larvas o juveniles producidos en laboratorio se ha vislumbrado como una alternativa para incrementar la producción. Cualquier programa de repoblamiento debe considerar una estrategia de manejo genético que evite la pérdida de diversidad genética y que permita dar seguimiento de...

  20. Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.

  1. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  2. A Mox homeobox gene in the gastropod mollusc Haliotis rufescens is differentially expressed during larval morphogenesis and metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, B M; Degnan, S M; Fentenany, G; Morse, D E

    1997-07-07

    We have isolated a homeobox-containing cDNA from the gastropod mollusc Haliotis rufescens that is most similar to members of the Mox homeobox gene class. The derived Haliotis homeodomain sequence is 85% identical to mouse and frog Mox-2 homeodomains and 88.9% identical to the partial cnidarian cnox5-Hm homeodomain. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA accumulation reveals that this gene, called HruMox, is expressed in the larva, but not in the early embryo. Transcripts are most prevalent during larval morphogenesis from trochophore to veliger. There are also transient increases in transcript prevalence 1 and 3 days after the intitiation of metamorphosis from veliger to juvenile. The identification of a molluscan Mox homeobox gene that is more closely related to vertebrate genes than other protostome (e.g. Drosophila) genes suggests the Mox class of homeobox genes may consist of several different families that have been conserved through evolution.

  3. 75 FR 29316 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13599

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) and white abalone (Haliotis sorenseni). The permit holder is requesting... oxyrinchus desotoi) sturgeon, totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi), and black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii)....

  4. First molluscan transcription factor activator protein-1 (Ap-1) member from disk abalone and its expression profiling against immune challenge and tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Lee, Sukkyoung; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Yeo, Sang-Yeop; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-12-01

    The regulation of transcriptional activation is an essential and critical point in gene expression. In this study, we describe a novel transcription factor activator protein-1 (Ap-1) gene from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus (AbAp-1) for the first time in mollusk. It was identified by homology screening of an abalone normalized cDNA library. The cloned AbAp-1 consists of a 945 bp coding region that encodes a putative protein containing 315 amino acids. The AbAp-1 gene is composed of a characteristic Jun transcription factor domain and a highly conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) signature similar to known Ap-1 genes. The AbAp-1 shares 46, 43 and, 40% amino acid identities with fish (Takifugu rubripes), human and insect (Ixodes scapularis) Ap-1, respectively. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed that AbAp-1 gene expression is constitutive in all selected tissues. AbAp-1 was upregulated in gills after bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes) challenge; and, upregulated in hemocytes and gills by viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge. Shell damage and tissue injury also increased the transcriptional level of Ap-1 in mantle together with other transcription factors (NF-kB, LITAF) and pro-inflammatory TNF-α. All results considered, identification and gene expression data demonstrate that abalone Ap-1 is an important regulator in innate immune response against bacteria and virus, as well as in the inflammatory response during tissue injury. In addition, stimulation of Ap-1 under different external stimuli could be useful to understand the Ap-1 biology and its downstream target genes, especially in abalone-like mollusks.

  5. Reprint of: Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.I., E-mail: mil032@ucsd.edu; Chen, P.Y.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M.A.

    2011-05-10

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T {approx} 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Underwater adhesion of abalone: The role of van der Waals and capillary forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, A.Y.M., E-mail: albertlin22@yahoo.com [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Brunner, R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Chen, P.Y. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Talke, F.E. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Meyers, M.A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The observation of the pedal foot of the red abalone Haliotis rufescens reveals the presence of micrometer-scaled setae terminating in nanometer-sized cylindrical fibrils, with some resemblance to those found on the gecko foot. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) pull-off force measurements on a single seta are compared with theoretical estimates for van der Waals attraction obtained through the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) equation, approximately 600 nN, and show agreement. The use of the JKR equation is justified through an analysis of the shape of the fibril extremities (parabolic) as well as their diameter ({approx}200 nm). Measurements under varying humidity conditions indicate that additional capillary interactions play a role, since the pull-off force increases with humidity. It is proposed that both van der Waals and capillary forces play a role in the attachment mechanism of H. rufescens, effectively enabling suction to reach its theoretical limit. Bulk pull-off force measurements on entire live animals yield an average detachment stress of 115 kPa, consistent with theoretical estimates. The setae and nanoscale fibril terminations enable compliance to surfaces with a variety of roughnesses, effectively sealing the interface, in addition to providing capillary and van der Waals forces.

  7. Desarrollo del ensilado del alga Gracilaria chilensis para la alimentación del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mardones

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el principal insumo usado como alimento para abalones son las algas Gracilaria chilensis y Macrocystis pyrifera. Estas algas experimentan una notable baja de disponibilidad en otoño e invierno, lo cual trae consigo un aumento considerable de los precios, al tener que depender del abastecimiento desde áreas cada vez más alejadas de los centros de cultivo de abalones y, eventualmente, generando impactos ecológicos indirectos en sus poblaciones. El objetivo fue elaborar y evaluar un ensilado del alga G. chilensis para la alimentación de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens, determinando la cantidad de lixiviados generados durante el proceso, el cambio en la composición proximal del alga, la preferencia y consumo del abalón rojo de ensilado de G. chilensis. Se logró un producto ensilado de buenas características físicas, químicas y de conservación, así como una buena aceptación por parte del abalón.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of By-Products from Haliotis discus hannai in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seok Rho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several reports promoted the potential of shellfish due to their ability to act as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai viscera is, reported to possess bioactivities such as antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of mucus-secreting glands from shell-shucking waste of H. discus hannai was evaluated using RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell model. Results indicated that presence of H. discus hannai mucosubstance by-products (AM significantly lowered the nitric oxide (NO production along the expressional suppression of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and enzymes iNOS and COX-2. Also, AM was shown to increase expression of anti-inflammatory response mediator HO-1. Presence of AM also scavenged the free radicals in vitro. In conclusion, by-products of H. discus hannai are suggested to possess notable anti-inflammatory potential which promotes the possibility of utilization as functional food ingredient.

  9. Marine reserves help preserve genetic diversity after impacts derived from climate variability: Lessons from the pink abalone in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Munguía-Vega

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is crucial for the adaptation of exploited species like the pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata, faced with threats from climate change, overfishing and impacts associated with aquaculture production. While marine reserves are commonly used to mitigate risks to marine populations, the duration, size, location and larval connectivity needed for a reserve to help conserve genetic resources is still poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of fishing, reserves, and restocking on the genetic diversity of 10 populations from central Baja California, Mexico, and Southern California, USA. We demonstrate that each population shows characteristic genetic signatures according to recent management decisions. We found high allelic diversity, particularly rare alleles, a larger effective population size and a lack of a recent genetic bottleneck in pink abalones within a small (0.8 km2, recently established (5 years reserve in Baja California, compared to other fished sites after a climatic bottleneck. Higher diversity may result from the presence of older animals in the reserve. Due to its location, the reserve may also act as an important hub connecting distant populations via larval dispersal. In contrast, a population from California showed genetic isolation, loss of allelic diversity and high relatedness, consistent with the collapse of fisheries in the 1990s and their lack of recovery thereafter. In addition, a fished area in Baja California with a history of restocking for over a decade showed an increase in frequency of related individuals and high genetic differentiation from nearby sites that were consistent with the production of larvae from a few adults in the laboratory. A network of strategically placed small marine reserves that considers ocean circulation patterns could help to maintain genetic diversity and connectivity of exploited populations.

  10. Duplicate abalone egg coat proteins bind sperm lysin similarly, but evolve oppositely, consistent with molecular mimicry at fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Aagaard

    Full Text Available Sperm and egg proteins constitute a remarkable paradigm in evolutionary biology: despite their fundamental role in mediating fertilization (suggesting stasis, some of these molecules are among the most rapidly evolving ones known, and their divergence can lead to reproductive isolation. Because of strong selection to maintain function among interbreeding individuals, interacting fertilization proteins should also exhibit a strong signal of correlated divergence among closely related species. We use evidence of such molecular co-evolution to target biochemical studies of fertilization in North Pacific abalone (Haliotis spp., a model system of reproductive protein evolution. We test the evolutionary rates (d(N/d(S of abalone sperm lysin and two duplicated egg coat proteins (VERL and VEZP14, and find a signal of co-evolution specific to ZP-N, a putative sperm binding motif previously identified by homology modeling. Positively selected residues in VERL and VEZP14 occur on the same face of the structural model, suggesting a common mode of interaction with sperm lysin. We test this computational prediction biochemically, confirming that the ZP-N motif is sufficient to bind lysin and that the affinities of VERL and VEZP14 are comparable. However, we also find that on phylogenetic lineages where lysin and VERL evolve rapidly, VEZP14 evolves slowly, and vice versa. We describe a model of sexual conflict that can recreate this pattern of anti-correlated evolution by assuming that VEZP14 acts as a VERL mimic, reducing the intensity of sexual conflict and slowing the co-evolution of lysin and VERL.

  11. Fishing diseased abalone to promote yield and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Bidegain, Gorka; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2016-01-01

    Past theoretical models suggest fishing disease-impacted stocks can reduce parasite transmission, but this is a good management strategy only when the exploitation required to reduce transmission does not overfish the stock. We applied this concept to a red abalone fishery so impacted by an infectious disease (withering syndrome) that stock densities plummeted and managers closed the fishery. In addition to the non-selective fishing strategy considered by past disease-fishing models, we modelled targeting (culling) infected individuals, which is plausible in red abalone because modern diagnostic tools can determine infection without harming landed abalone and the diagnostic cost is minor relative to the catch value. The non-selective abalone fishing required to eradicate parasites exceeded thresholds for abalone sustainability, but targeting infected abalone allowed the fishery to generate yield and reduce parasite prevalence while maintaining stock densities at or above the densities attainable if the population was closed to fishing. The effect was strong enough that stock and yield increased even when the catch was one-third uninfected abalone. These results could apply to other fisheries as the diagnostic costs decline relative to catch value.

  12. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT BACTERIA FROM HALIOTIS TUBERCULATA AND MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance (AR of Gram negative bacteria from Haliotis tuberculata (Ht and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mg was assessed. Essential differences between R profiles of Pseudomonas spp and of other strains was not observed. Strains AR from Ht and Mg was similar.

  13. 杂色鲍与盘鲍杂交F1的早期生物学表现%Early-stage performance of hybrid between Haliotis diversicolor and H. discus discus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡明夷; 柯才焕; 郭峰; 王桂忠; 王志勇; 王艺磊

    2011-01-01

    比较研究杂色鲍(Haliotis diversicolor)(S)与盘鲍(H.discus discus)(J)正反交F1及其亲本自繁后代的卵裂速度和孵化速度,以及杂色鲍与盘鲍杂交F及杂色鲍自繁幼体的成活率.在22~23℃下,杂色鲍自繁后代的早期发育速度快于盘鲍自繁后代.杂色鲍和盘鲍2细胞期分别为授精后45.3 min±8.9 min和59.3min±8.9min.卵裂间隔时间分别为21.7min±2.9min和27.0min±2.6min,孵化时间分别为授精后563.4 min和711.8 min.SJ和JS杂交F的第一次卵裂速度均比他们的双亲慢,2细胞期分别为69.3min±17.5 min和71.7 min±5.8 min;而卵裂间隔时间(τ)表现出较强的母本效应,略长于母本,分别为22.2 min±4.7 min和31.3 min±6.1 min;孵化速度均慢于其母本自繁后代,分别为授精后632.7 min和授精后874.3 min.计算结果表明,自繁和杂交胚胎过程发育经历细胞周期数相当,SS、SJ、JJ和JS的从2细胞到孵化经历时间分别相当于23.9τ、25.4τ、24.1τ和24.8τ.另一方面,SJ杂交F在附着变态阶段大量畸形、死亡,变态后成活率仅为母本自繁组合的1.2%,显现出较高程度的杂交不亲和.本文的研究结果为杂色鲍与盘鲍杂交F的后续应用开发提供了依据,也为进一步研究杂交F的遗传本质及父母本的基因互作关系奠定基础.%In present study, mitotic intervals, hatching speed and survival rate of embryos produced from reciprocal hybrid cross and pure cross of small abalone (S, Haliotis diversicolor) and Japanese abalone (J, H. discus discus) were investigated. At 22~23 ℃, the small abalone developed faster than the Japanese abalone at early stage. The times to reach the two-cell stage were 45.3 min ± 8.9 min post insemination (p.i.) for the small abalone and 59.3 min ± 8.9 min for the Japanese abalone. The small abalone took 21.7 min ± 2.9 min to complete a cleavage cycle and 563.4 min to hatch out, while the Japanese abalone took 31.3 min ± 6.1 min and 711.8 min

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of lustrin A, a matrix protein from shell and pearl nacre of Haliotis rufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X; Belcher, A M; Hansma, P K; Stucky, G D; Morse, D E

    1997-12-19

    A specialized extracellular matrix of proteins and polysaccharides controls the morphology and packing of calcium carbonate crystals and becomes occluded within the mineralized composite during formation of the molluscan shell and pearl. We have cloned and characterized the cDNA coding for Lustrin A, a newly described matrix protein from the nacreous layer of the shell and pearl produced by the abalone, Haliotis rufescens, a marine gastropod mollusc. The full-length cDNA is 4,439 base pairs (bp) long and contains an open reading frame coding for 1,428 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals a highly modular structure with a high proportion of Ser (16%), Pro (14%), Gly (13%), and Cys (9%). The protein contains ten highly conserved cysteine-rich domains interspersed by eight proline-rich domains; a glycine- and serine-rich domain lies between the two cysteine-rich domains nearest the C terminus, and these are followed by a basic domain and a C-terminal domain that is highly similar to known protease inhibitors. The glycine- and serine-rich domain and at least one of the proline-rich domains show sequence similarity to proteins of two extracellular matrix superfamilies (one of which also is involved in the mineralized matrixes of bone, dentin, and avian eggshell). The arrangement of alternating cysteine-rich domains and proline-rich domains is strikingly similar to that found in frustulins, the proteins that are integral to the silicified cell wall of diatoms. Its modular structure suggests that Lustrin A is a multifunctional protein, whereas the occurrence of related sequences suggest it is a member of a multiprotein family.

  15. Cytogenetic analysis and chromosomal characteristics of the polymorphic 18S rDNA of Haliotis discus hannai from Fujian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haishan; Luo, Xuan; You, Weiwei; Dong, Yunwei; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-01-01

    We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82%) and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14%) and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%). The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located terminally on the short arms of other chromosomes, either metacentric or submetacentric pairs. The number of Ag-nucleoli ranged from 2 to 8, and the mean number was 3.61 ± 0.93. Among the scored interphase cells, 41% had 3 detectable nucleoli and 37% had 4 nucleoli. The 18S rDNA FISH result is the first report of the location of 18S rDNA genes in H. discus hannai. The 18S rDNA locations were highly polymorphic in this species. Copies of the gene were observed in the terminal of long or/and short arms of submetacentric or/and metacentric chromosomes. Using FISH with probe for vertebrate-like telomeric sequences (CCCTAA)3 displayed positive green FITC signals at telomere regions of all analyzed chromosome types. We found about 7% of chromosomes had breaks in prophase. A special form of nucleolus not previously described from H. discus hannai was observed in some interphase cells. It consists of many small silver-stained nucleoli gathered together to form a larger nucleolus and may correspond to prenucleolar bodies.

  16. Cytogenetic analysis and chromosomal characteristics of the polymorphic 18S rDNA of Haliotis discus hannai from Fujian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishan Wang

    Full Text Available We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82% and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14% and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%. The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located terminally on the short arms of other chromosomes, either metacentric or submetacentric pairs. The number of Ag-nucleoli ranged from 2 to 8, and the mean number was 3.61 ± 0.93. Among the scored interphase cells, 41% had 3 detectable nucleoli and 37% had 4 nucleoli. The 18S rDNA FISH result is the first report of the location of 18S rDNA genes in H. discus hannai. The 18S rDNA locations were highly polymorphic in this species. Copies of the gene were observed in the terminal of long or/and short arms of submetacentric or/and metacentric chromosomes. Using FISH with probe for vertebrate-like telomeric sequences (CCCTAA3 displayed positive green FITC signals at telomere regions of all analyzed chromosome types. We found about 7% of chromosomes had breaks in prophase. A special form of nucleolus not previously described from H. discus hannai was observed in some interphase cells. It consists of many small silver-stained nucleoli gathered together to form a larger nucleolus and may correspond to prenucleolar bodies.

  17. Characterization and expression analysis of EF hand domain-containing calcium-regulatory gene from disk abalone: calcium homeostasis and its role in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikapitiya, Chamilani; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Se-Jae; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

    2010-08-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a calcium-regulatory gene (denoted as Ab-CaReg I) was identified from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus cDNA library. The Ab-CaReg I is composed of 176 amino acids and the calculated molecular mass and isoelectric point were 20 and 4.2, respectively. The sequence homology of Ab-CaReg I was 28-30 and 18-27% of known calmodulin and troponin C, respectively. Four characteristic calcium-binding EF hand motifs with some modifications at conserved positions of known homologous calmodulin genes were observed in the sequence. The tissue-specific transcription analysis and variation of mRNA transcription level of Ab-CaReg I in gills and mantle after animals were immersed in seawater containing 2000 ppm CaCl(2) was quantified by SYBR Green real-time PCR analysis. Transcription variation of Ab-CaReg I in hemocytes and gills followed by bacteria challenge (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) was used to investigate Ab-CaReg I in immune responses. Transcripts of Ab-CaReg I mRNA were mainly detected in hemocytes, mantle, muscle, gills, digestive tract and hepatopancreas with highest expression in hemocytes. The CaCl(2) immersion significantly altered the Ab-CaReg I mRNA transcription level by 3 h, compared to animals in normal seawater (control). The mRNA expression of Ab-CaReg I in gills and hemocytes was upregulated significantly to 11-fold and 4-fold in 3 h compared to control (uninfected), respectively, in bacteria-challenged abalones. The results suggest that Ab-CaReg I could be effectively induced to maintain internal Ca(2+) homeostasis of the animal due to influx of Ca(2+) in the cells by external stimuli such as a high dose of Ca(2+) and pathogens like bacteria.

  18. Contrasting patterns of population connectivity between regions in a commercially important mollusc Haliotis rubra: integrating population genetics, genomics and marine LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A D; van Rooyen, A; Rašić, G; Ierodiaconou, D A; Gorfine, H K; Day, R; Wong, C; Hoffmann, A A; Weeks, A R

    2016-08-01

    Estimating contemporary genetic structure and population connectivity in marine species is challenging, often compromised by genetic markers that lack adequate sensitivity, and unstructured sampling regimes. We show how these limitations can be overcome via the integration of modern genotyping methods and sampling designs guided by LiDAR and SONAR data sets. Here we explore patterns of gene flow and local genetic structure in a commercially harvested abalone species (Haliotis rubra) from southeastern Australia, where the viability of fishing stocks is believed to be dictated by recruitment from local sources. Using a panel of microsatellite and genomewide SNP markers, we compare allele frequencies across a replicated hierarchical sampling area guided by bathymetric LiDAR imagery. Results indicate high levels of gene flow and no significant genetic structure within or between benthic reef habitats across 1400 km of coastline. These findings differ to those reported for other regions of the fishery indicating that larval supply is likely to be spatially variable, with implications for management and long-term recovery from stock depletion. The study highlights the utility of suitably designed genetic markers and spatially informed sampling strategies for gaining insights into recruitment patterns in benthic marine species, assisting in conservation planning and sustainable management of fisheries.

  19. Chemical interactions and textural characteristics of abalone pleopod muscle protein during heating%热加工过程中鲍鱼腹足蛋白间作用力及其质构特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽; 李岩; 董秀萍; 王垚; 辛丘岩; 潘锦锋

    2014-01-01

    为探究蛋白质形成凝胶过程中其化学作用力的变化规律以及与凝胶特性之间的关系,该文以鲍鱼腹足为原料,采用溶液分级提取方法,并结合扫描电镜和红外光谱法,考察热加工中鲍鱼腹足蛋白间作用力及其质构特性的变化情况。结果表明,随着加热温度升高(60、80、100℃),扫描电镜结果显示,鲍鱼腹足中间部位与边缘和过渡部位形成孔洞较小、排列紧密的网络结构,同时红外结果表明,随温度升高,蛋白二级结构发生明显变化, N-H弯曲和C-N伸缩振动较为明显,α-螺旋变为无规则卷曲结构,肌球蛋白疏水性增加,-S-S-形成。此时,对应离子键、氢键含量均呈下降趋势,疏水键相对含量呈先上升后下降趋势,二硫键、非二硫共价键含量呈上升趋势。进一步研究表明,各化学作用力与蛋白凝胶质构特性具有高度相关性。在较低温度下(60℃)离子键、氢键和疏水键对凝胶稳定性起主要作用,此时形成的凝胶较柔软;在较高温度下(80、100℃)二硫键、非二硫共价键为维持凝胶稳定的主要作用力,此时凝胶特性较佳,富有弹性、较好的凝聚性和回复性。该研究为热加工过程中鲍鱼腹足蛋白质变化的机理提供参考依据。%Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is an important commercial seafood species. Pleopod muscle is the edible part of abalone, which is rich in protein and mainly composed of myofibril protein and collagen. The change in conformation and aggregation of protein during heating would affect the quality of the product. Chemical interactions including hydrogen bonds, disulfide bonds, non-disulfide bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrophobicity have shown great effect on textural properties of muscle protein. This study used the method of grading extraction solution, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) to

  20. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  1. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhenliang [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Chen, Jingdi, E-mail: ibptcjd@fzu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Wang, Hailiang [The Affiliated Stomatological Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang, Qiqing, E-mail: zhangqiq@126.com [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro by self-organized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell. • The abalone shell water-soluble matrix contains protein and polysaccharide. • The abalone water-soluble matrix can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP by self-organized. • Achieved self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects in

  2. Harmful Ciliates and Dominant Genus in Culture Ponds of Young Abalone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建荣; 徐润林; 廖家遗

    2004-01-01

    By using the methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, the species composition and dominant genus of harmful, ciliates in young abalone culture ponds are studied. Totally 68 species of ciliates, belonging to 3 classes, 16 orders and 46 genus, are found. The dominant ciliate species are Aspidisca leptaspis, Vorticella sp. and Euplotes rariseta. During the young abalone cultivation, the numbers of young abalones increase first,and then show a trend of decreasing. The relationship between the density and composition of ciliates and the density of algae in the young abalone culture ponds is also discussed.

  3. 78 FR 69033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Pinto Abalone as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    .... Distribution and Life History of the Pinto Abalone The pinto abalone is a marine gastropod mollusc and a member... in temperature, from 2 to 24 degrees Celsius, based on laboratory experiments (COSEWIC, 2009). Pinto... abalone were not targeted by the California fishery; however, approximately 21,000 animals belonging to...

  4. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  5. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  6. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF ESTS (EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS) FROM LIVE AND KINEY OF HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI AND CLONING OF NPY(NEUROPEPTIDE Y) RECEPTOR GENE%皱纹盘鲍肝、肾表达序列标签及神经肽Y(NPY)受体基因的克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明刚; 毕元兑; 王玲; 孙修勤; 刘峰; 王波

    2011-01-01

    通过构建皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus Hannai)cDNA文库并进行大规模测序,获得了1282条高质量的ESTs序列,对这些序列进行拼接,获得了包括650条序列在内的244组片段重叠群(Contigs)和632个单一序列(Singletons).使用BlastX软件对876个Unigenes(Unigerie为Coiltig和Singleton的总和)进行同源性对比,有393个获得了功能提示,占总基因数的45%.根据EST信息,采用RACE方法.首次得到皱纹盘鲍神经肤Y(neuropeptide Y,NPY)受体基因,并对其结构进行了分析.结果表明,该受体基因cDNA由1534个核苷酸组成,编码区1050bp,可以编码350个氨基酸;该多肤的分子量为39.56kda,等电点为9.57,具有7个明显的跨膜螺旋且TM7区有NPXXY模体.%A cDNA library was constructed from liver and kidney of abalone (Haliotis discus Hannai) and 1445 clones were selected for sequencing. One thousand and two hundred eighty two high qualitative ESTs were obtained through bioinformatics analyses. Splicing of these sequences, 244 contigs (consisting of 650 sequences) and 632 singletons were obtained. Using BlastX program for the Homologous comparison, 393 unigenes shared signifi cant homology with known sequences in protein database of NCBI accounted for 45 % of the number of unigenes. Among that, 63 (16%) were immune-related. The full length of the NPY (neuropeptide Y) receptor cDNA was cloned through the 5'-RACE with the specific primers based on the sequence of the EST. The full length of NPY receptor cDNA from Haliotis discus hannai was 1534bp and encoded 350 amino acid. BLAST analysis revealed that the NPY receptor gene from Haliotis discus hannai shared high identity with the NPY receptor genes from other organisms in amino acid. This NPY receptor have a predicted molecular of 39.56 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 9.57, receptively.

  7. Status of abalone fishery and experiential mariculture as a resource conservation strategy in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study described the abalone f ishery in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan to develop mariculture and to reseed a part of the harvest as a resource conservation strategy. The abalone fishery of Anda is artisanal or smallscale, typif ied by f ishers gleaning or free-diving on shallow rocky areas which are the typical habitat of abalone. Low densities of 1.67 to 8 individuals per 250 m2 were observed. Local f ishers have knowledge of productive f ishing areas. Hence, cage culture of abalone in these areas could be a viable resource conservation strategy as they serve as reproductive reserves to supply larvae for continued productivity of the f ishing grounds. Abalone mariculture following the Farmer Field School (FFS concept was explored to address both resource management and economic needs. As a resource enhancement activity, mariculture guarantees that cultured abalone are allowed to grow to maturity before harvested, while some are retained to restock a marine sanctuary. Sincemariculture makes possible the aggregation of individuals, the probability that fertilization would take place is increased. As supplemental source of livelihood, abalone is a high value commodity and its culture can help augment the income of f ishers. Small abalone (3-4 cm can be cultured further for 3-4 months to increase their size and weight. Mariculture should be done from November to May to avoid the rainy season and improve survivorship. The experiential activity was successful because it became a means for the f ishers to experienceresource management. Under the FFS, the researcher became a facilitator and mentored the cooperators in learning from their experience. The lessons sharpened the f ishers’ skills in observation, problem-solving, decision-making, and critical thinking. This enabled them to gain an appreciation of their resource.

  8. Using Local Ecological Knowledge and Environmental Education in Resource Management of Abalone in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to (1 determine the local ecological knowledge (LEK of abalone gatherers through interviews and mentoring, and assess the correspondence between scientific information and LEK, so that areas where local knowledge may be most useful in resource management could be identified, and (2 to empower selected gatherers/farmers with knowledge and technical skills through environmental education to help develop or build their capacity to become sustainable resource managers. The LEK of abalone fishers was determined using three complementary approaches – group interview, individual interview, and mentoring sessions. Local fishers possess a wealth of knowledge about the interactions of species gained through many years of observations, and this knowledge may be useful in guiding biologists in ecological restoration or management regimes. Additionally, the fishers’ LEK, validated by modern scientific ecological findings, could be a source of important and effective ideas in resource management. The knowledge of the abalone gatherers about important abalone fishing grounds should help in pinpointing critical areas that need to be managed. Abalone mariculture in cages should be set up in these areas to routinely create dense breeding populations which can help in enhancing recovery and in providing fishers with a source of additional income. The continued enforcement of marine protected areas and the periodic release or reseeding of abalone in sanctuaries could also be considered viable resource management options. Other recommendations for resource management based on gathered local knowledge and lessons learned from the environmental education (EE seminars are also presented.

  9. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  10. Effect of abalone farming on sediment geochemistry in the Shallow Sea near Wando, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Yang Ho; Shin, Yun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Wando County has grown up to 93% of the total abalone produced in South Korea since the late 1990s; however, this production has been decreasing in recent years. The objectives of this study were to understand the potential contamination risks of abalone farming and to examine the influence of intensive abalone farming on sediment quality by analyzing grain-size composition, organic matter (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulfur (TS)) and heavy metal content, pH, and 210Pb geochronology. The results of organic matter analysis from surface and core sediment (length: 64 cm) showed that the area around the abalone farm had oxic marine-to-brackish conditions, but that the area directly below an abalone cage (location 7) had reductive conditions, with a C/S ratio of ~2. The average TN levels in the surface and core sediments were 0.25% and 0.29%, respectively, and this was predominantly due to the use of seaweed for feed. The low sediment pH (surface, 7.23; core, 7.04), indicates that acidification of the bottom sediment has gradually increased since the initiation of abalone farming and is likely due to the continuous accumulation of uneaten feed and feces. Heavy metal pollution was not apparent based on the examination of EF and Igeo, although the excess metal flux of Ni, Pb, Cu, Co, As, and Cd increased toward surface of the sediment core. These sediment changes may be caused by the rapid accumulation (sedimentation rate: 1.45 cm/year) of sludge discharged from the abalone farm and may be controlled by tidal currents, physiography, water depth, and tidal ranges.

  11. Effects of three dietary treatments on the energy budget of different sized Haliotis discus hannai Ino%饵料对不同规格皱纹盘鲍能量收支的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任黎华; 张继红; 王文琪; 杜美荣; 高亚平; 张明亮

    2011-01-01

    对3种不同规格的皱纹盘鲍(41.40士2.05、54.22±2.66、63.17±2.52 mm)分别进行不同饵科搭配的投喂,并对各生理活动的能量代谢进行了测量与计算.实验结果表明,搭配投喂的实验纽中皱纹盘鲍能够摄取更多的有机物作为能量代谢的基质.扣除代谢能、排泄能和排粪能后,搭配投喂能提供给皱纹盘鲍的生长能显著高于对照组(P<0.05),尤其是孔石莼与裙带菜搭配投喂组以及裙带菜与海带搭配投喂组,其获得的生长能的比例在3种规格组中均处在很高的水平,是鲍的筏式养殖中值得推广使用的投喂方法.%With the increasing price of kelp, sustainable food and suitable feeding strategy are becoming important in the abalone culture industry. In this experiment, Haliotis discus hannai Ino were sized into three groups, A (41.40 + 2. 05mm), B (54. 22±2. 66mm) and C (63. 17zb2. 52 mm) respectively, and fed with four dietary treatments. Energy budget of various stages were measured and calculated. The mixed-diet treatments showed more organic matter intake than groups fed on kelp alone, indicating that they could get more energy for metabolism. According to the energy budget equation, growth energy of group fed on mixed diet was significantly higher than that of the group fed on kelp alone (P<0. 05), especially in group 1 and group 2. Level of growth energy was high in all of the experimental groups, and the feeding methods were worthy to be used in the abalone culture industry.

  12. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  13. Primary Study on Experiment of Tetraploid Induction in Haliotis discus hannai with PEG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yajuan; MAO Lianju; LI Xia; WANG Zichen; YU Yi

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was performed on induction tetraploid of Haliotis discus hannai at two-cell stage through cell fusion with PEG treatment. In this paper, the orthogonal experiment of three factors and three levels [L9concentration: 45%, 50%, 55%; treatment duration time: 1, 2, 3 min, respectively. The results showed that the optimal pattern of three factors and three levels on inducing tetraploid of Haliotis discus hannai at two-cell stage through using PEG treatment were: molecular weight 4 000, concentration 55%, treatment duration time: 2 min. The highest tetraploid induction rate was 10.8% at embryo period. The three factors treatment sequence was treatment duration time →concentration→molecular weight.

  14. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  15. 咖啡因加热休克诱导皱纹盘鲍多倍体的研究%Induction of Polyploid in the Pacific Abalone by Caffeine-Heat Shock Treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛连菊; 王子臣; 刘相全; 李雅娟; 高悦勉

    2000-01-01

    Polyploid of Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino, was induced by blocking Polar body I with caffeine-heat shock treatments. Fertilized eggs were treated with caffeine concentrations at: 2.5mmol/L, 5mmol/L and 10mmol/L; heat shock temperatures at 24℃, 26℃, 28℃, lasting for 10min to 30min, total 5 periods of time,beginning at 10min post-pertilization. Both fertilizing and incubating at 21℃ sea water.The results of studies showed that the effective procedure for inducing triploid appeared to be 5mmol/L and 10mmol/L Caffeine concentration, heat shock tempera- ture 26℃, duration 10min to 15min, all beginning at 10min after insemination. The percentage of triploid was 64.6%~77.8%, Comprehensive efficiency index of polyploid induction was 0.57~0.61. Under the condition of 5mmol/L caffeine conce- ntration and the temperature 26℃ for 30 min duration at 10min post-fertilization, 2.8%~3.6% tetraploid embryos could be produced.%报道了用咖啡因加热休克抑制受精卵的第一极体的释放诱导皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai Ino)多倍体的研究结果。皱纹盘鲍的卵在21℃海水中受精,受精后10分钟开始处理,药物浓度分别为2.5mmol/L、5mmol/L、10mmol/L,热休克温度分别为24℃、26℃、28℃,处理的持续时间为10分钟至30分钟,共分5个时间段。结果表明,药物浓度5mmol/L和10mmol/L,处理温度26℃,处理持续时间10~15分钟,其三倍体诱导率可达66.4%~77.8%,综合评价指数为0.57~0.61。在5mmol/L,26℃条件下,处理持续时间30分钟可以产生2.8%~3.6%的四倍体胚胎。

  16. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  17. Acceleration of calcite kinetics by abalone nacre proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, G; Qiu, S R; Orme, C A; Morse, D E; De Yoreo, J J

    2005-06-09

    The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures have long been an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over synthesis of crystalline materials. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineral surfaces. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that bio-organic additives can dramatically alter crystal shapes and growth-rates in vitro. However, previous molecular-scale studies revealing mechanisms of growth modification focused on small molecules such as amino acids or peptides and always observed growth inhibition. In contrast, studies using full proteins were non-quantitative and underlying sources of growth modification were ill-defined. Here we investigate interactions between proteins isolated from abalone shell nacre and growing surfaces of calcite. We find that these proteins significantly accelerate the molecular-scale kinetics and, though much larger than atomic steps, alter growth morphology through step-specific interactions that lower their free energies. We propose that these proteins act as surfactants to promote ion attachment at calcite surfaces.

  18. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  19. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  20. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  1. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  2. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  3. Kryoelektronenmikroskopie von Proteinen: 3D-Struktur (12 A) des Hämocyanins der Schnecke Haliotis

    OpenAIRE

    Meißner, Ulrich

    2000-01-01

    Zusammenfassung:Die Quartärstruktur des respiratorischen Proteins Hämocyanin (Isoform HtH1) aus der marinen Schnecke Haliotis tuberculata wurde vermittels Kryoelektronen-mikroskopie und 3D-Rekonstruktion untersucht. Das Molekül ist zylinderförmig, hat einen Durchmesser von ca. 35 nm und besteht aus einer Zylinderwand und einem internen Kragenkomplex. Dieser wiederum besteht aus einem Collar und einem Arc.Die kryoelektronenmikroskopischen Aufnahmen von in glasartigem Eis fixierten HtH1-Molekül...

  4. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  5. 杂色鲍紫色酸性磷酸酯酶基因克隆及应激下的表达%Molecular cloning and expression of purple acid phosphatase in Haliotis diversicolor under stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贻涛; 蔡秀红; 张子平; 王国栋; 邹志华; 王淑红; 王艺磊

    2013-01-01

    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is one of the most commercially important cultured abalone in southern coastal areas in China. However, the frequent occurrence of infectious disease, especially during hot summers, is a major problem that has threatened the abalone aquaculture industry for a long time. As an inverte-brate, abalone lacks an adaptive immune system and relies exclusively on innate immunity to defend against bac-terial challenge. However, research on gastropod immune responses is limited. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) belongs to a large family of dinuclear metalloenzymes and is distinguished from other acid phosphatases by its purple color, which is due to a Tyr-to-iron (III) charge transfer transition. PAPs are a group of tartrate resistant, molybdate sensitive, iron containing acid phosphatases with a molecular weight of about 35-40 kD and a high activity towards activated phosphoric acid monoesters and anhydrides. They catalyze the hydrolysis of a wide range of phosphate esters. PAPs play important roles in response to different stresses in plants and mammals. However, to date it has not been investigated in molluscs. In this study, the first molluscan PAP gene, HdPAP from H. diversicolor, was cloned by combining the expressed sequence tag (EST) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) methods. Its full length cDNA sequence is 1 215 bp, with a 969 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 322 amino acids (GenBank:KC337074). The 5′and 3′untranslated regions (UTR) of HdPAP contain 28 bp and 218 bp, respectively. Pairwise analysis results revealed that the HdPAP amino acid sequence has the highest iden-tity, 59%, to the invertebrate Saccoglossus kowalevskii PAP. The calculated molecular mass of deduced HdPAP is 36.8 kD with a theoretical isoelectric point (PI) of 5.27. Multiple sequence alignment of the HdPAP amino acid sequence with other known vertebrate PAPs and invertebrate PAP family proteins revealed that it was conserved, while

  6. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapido-Rosenthal, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-..beta..-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC/sub 50/) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds.

  7. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  8. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  9. Use of oil palm kernel meal as a supplement material for abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K. Miller cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcharat, V. and

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum rate of oil palm kernel meal, for an abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus cultivation. Different concentrations of oil palm kernel meal (5- 20% were added to pararubber sawdust and used to grow the abalone mushroom in plastic bags. Growth rate of the mycelia, number of days from watering to harvesting and yield were compared to those on 94% sawdust + 5% rice bran + 1% Ca(OH2. The results showed that 10% oil palm kernel meal was the optimum concentration for abalone mushroom cultivation. Yield on 950 g/bag of 89% sawdust + 10% oil palm kernel meal + 1% Ca(OH2 was 202.12 g/bag (B.E. = 60.79% during 120 days of havesting time. Addition of higher concentration of oil palm kernel meal (15-20% did not increase yield of the basidiocarps.

  10. Effect of Abalone Hydrolysates Encapsulated by Double Emulsion on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Fresh Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The intake of dietary salt through food now exceeds current nutritional recommendations and is thought to have negative effects on human health, such as the increasing prevalence of hypertension. This study was performed to investigate whether W1/O/W2 double emulsions can be used to enhance the saltiness of cheese without increasing the salt content (W1 is distilled water or 1% abalone hydrolysate, and W2 is 1% NaCl or 1% abalone hydrolysate + 1% NaCl solution). We also investigated the effect of adding abalone hydrolysate to the double emulsion as a saltiness enhancer. The cheeses were physico-chemically evaluated to determine curd yield, pH value, moisture content, color, texture, salt release rate, and sensory properties. No significant differences were observed in curd yield, pH value, moisture content, lightness, or redness between the cheeses made with and without the double emulsion. However, in the evaluation of salt release rate, fresh cheese made with double emulsion (W1 = distilled water, W2 = 1% NaCl + 1% abalone hydrolysate) was detected earlier than the control or the other treatments. In the sensory evaluation, fresh cheese made with the double emulsion showed higher scores for saltiness and overall preference than the control or the other treatments. We concluded that abalone hydrolysate encapsulated in a double emulsion (W1 is water and W2 is abalone hydrolysate and NaCl solution) could enhance the saltiness of fresh cheese while maintaining the same salt concentration, without altering its physical properties. PMID:28515645

  11. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  12. Mox homeobox expression in muscle lineage of the gastropod Haliotis asinina: evidence for a conserved role in bilaterian myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, V F; Degnan, B M

    2002-04-01

    Mox homeobox genes are expressed during early vertebrate somitogenesis. Here we describe the expression of Has-Mox, a Mox gene from the gastropod Haliotis asinina. Has-Moxis expressed in the trochophore larva in paraxial mesodermal bands. During larval development, Has-Mox expression remains restricted to mesodermal cells destined to form adult muscle in the foot. This restricted expression of Has-Mox in Haliotis is similar to that observed for vertebrate Mox genes, suggesting a conserved role in myogenesis in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. In contrast, Mox is not expressed in muscle lineages in the ecdysozoan representatives Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila; the C. elegansgenome has lost Mox altogether. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-002-0223-6.

  13. 皱纹盘鲍眼部组织的显微及亚显微结构观察%Light and electron microscopic study of the eye ofHaliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高霄龙; 张墨; 李贤; 宋昌斌; 刘鹰

    2016-01-01

    采用组织学和电镜的方法,对皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai Ino)的眼部组织进行了光镜和电镜观察,以期为进一步从分子生物学角度解析鲍对光照的生理响应机制提供组织学与细胞学基础。结果发现,眼部组织由外至内依次为视网膜色素上皮细胞层、外核层、光感受器内节、内核层、黑色素颗粒沉积层、视觉纤维层。组织表面布满乳头状突起,每一乳状突起的顶端均具有一簇或两簇纤毛环。疏松结缔组织和平滑肌纤维等是组织内的主要成分,结缔组织间分布的胶原纤维等对保持细胞的弹性和韧性具有重要的作用。研究结果显示了鲍的眼部组织在感受和辨识外界光环境因子中的重要作用,也为鲍养殖生产中的光环境因子优化和调控、深入探讨鲍对光照的生理应答机制提供了形态学依据。%Light is a key environmental factor that influences the growth, culture and survival of aquatic organisms. In the present study, the eye tissues ofHaliotis discus hannaiIno were observed under the light microscope, scan-ning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope to provide an enhanced histological and cytologi-cal basis for analysis of the physiological response mechanism of abalone to light from the perspective of mo-lecular biology. Findings show that the eye tissues, from the outside to the inside, are: retinal pigment epithelium, outer nuclear layer, inner segment, inner nuclear layer, melanin granules sediment and optical fiber layer. Connec-tive tissue mainly exists between the epithelium and the outer nuclear layer, and a portion of the connective tissue nucleus is a darker color. The optical fiber layer mainly comprises the light red reticular nerve fibers which gradually become dense from the outside to the inside. The front ends of eye tissues are cylinder-shaped with an obvious circular depression, in which the reticular nerve fibers are

  14. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analgesics for Osteoarthritis (Report from AHRQ) Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic Health Information Juvenile Arthritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Juvenile Arthritis PDF Version Size: 123 KB ...

  15. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  17. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  18. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.A. Brosens; D. Langeveld; W.A. van Hattem; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a

  19. Studies on the Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pathogens Caused Massive Death of Post Larvae of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta)%南方九孔鲍鲍苗掉板病原菌的药敏测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志; 蔡俊鹏; 杨洪志; 徐丽

    2005-01-01

    为提高鲍鱼培苗的成活率,对分离自广东汕尾一养殖场鲍苗掉板池中(包括水、藻膜和变白鲍苗)的、经回归感染试验证明为致病菌的菌株进行了鉴定和药物敏感性测定.API鉴定表明,这些致病菌株由Vibrio alginolyticus,Vibrio cholerae,Vibrio parahaemolyticus等组成,其中弧菌17株,约占总分离菌株的50%,而溶藻弧菌则为弧菌的优势菌株,有11株,约占弧菌总数的70%.药敏结果显示,绝大多数菌株对链霉素、红霉素和庆大霉素敏感;相反,四环素和新生霉素则对它们没有作用或不敏感.

  20. 九孔鲍养殖水体及消化道细菌学的研究%Bacteriological Studies in a Digestive Tract of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) and in the Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡创华; 周毅频; 蔡俊鹏; 杨洪志

    2005-01-01

    2002年对汕尾健生鲍鱼养殖场养殖水体和鲍消化道中异养细菌及弧菌的数量和类群组成进行了研究.研究结果表明:养殖水体中异养细菌数量的四季变化从2.4×104~1.3×l05 cfu/ml,平均为7.6×104 cfu/ml;消化道中异养细菌数量四季变化则从1.6×107~5.4×107 cfu/g(湿重),平均为3.3×107 cfu/g.水体中弧菌数量四季变化从1.2×104~5.1×104 cfu/ml,平均为2.5×104 cfu/ml;而消化道中弧菌数量四季变化则从2.8×105~3.8×105 cfu/g,平均为3.2×105cfu/g.水体中细菌类群由Sphingomonas, Vibrio, Pasteurella, Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Weeksella和Alcall组成,消化道中细菌类群由Sphingomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Shewanella, Sphingobacterium, Pseudomonas组成,水体和消化道弧菌种类主要为Vibrio fluvialis,Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Vibrio vulnificus,Vibrio cholerae,Vibrio minicus,Vibrio alginolyticus.并对不同养殖场水源弧菌数量也进行了比较.

  1. Juveniles on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kathleen M

    2002-10-01

    This article describes common forensic evaluations requested of juvenile court mental health evaluators. There has been a legal shift toward criminalization of juvenile court, with a greater emphasis on rights, abandonment of the rehabilitative model, and greater movement of adolescents into the adult criminal court. A resulting shift has been the redefinition of juvenile court forensic evaluations toward the specificity of adult forensic work. The challenge for evaluators is to refine their knowledge of the forensic standards and bring knowledge of development, assessment, and diagnosis in juveniles and interview techniques appropriate to juveniles to improve the evaluation and forensic reports.

  2. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lodewijk AA Brosens; Danielle Langeveld; W Arnout van Hattem; Francis M Giardiello; G Johan A Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer.The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34.Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes.Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum,juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis.In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found.Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway.It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-alled "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma.Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment,follow-up and screening of at risk individuals.Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome.In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  3. Nanoscale elasticity mappings of micro-constituents of abalone shell by band excitation-contact resonance force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2014-02-21

    The macroscopic mechanical properties of the abalone shell have been studied extensively in the literature, but the in situ nanoscale elasticity of various micro-constituents in the shell have not been characterized and reported yet. In this study, the nanoscale elasticity mappings including different micro-constituents in abalone shell were observed by using the Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) technique. CR-FM is one of the advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques that is able to quantify the local elastic moduli of various materials in a non-destructive manner. Instead of an average value, an elasticity mapping that reveals the nanoscale variations of elastic moduli with location can be extracted and correlated with the topography of the structure. Therefore in this study, by adopting the CR-FM technique that is incorporated with the band excitation technique, the elasticity variations of the abalone shell caused by different micro-constituents and crystal orientations are reported, and the elasticity values of the aragonite and calcite nanograins are quantified.

  4. 杂色鲍的遗传育种研究进展%Advances in Genetics and Breeding of Haliotis diversicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯才焕; 游伟伟

    2011-01-01

    Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important shellfish speices in southern China. However, massive mortality of the Haliotis diversicolor has occurred at post-larval and grow-out stages and production of Haliotis diversicolor has dramatically reduced in recent years. Genetic improvement plays an important role in sustainable development for Haliotis diversicolor aquaculture industry. This review concentrated on advances in genetic and breeding in Haliotis diversicotor , such as biological characteristics , selective breeding,crossbreeding,gynogenesis, molecular markers, genetic linkage map and QTL mapping, functional genes and transgenosis. The further reseach directions in these topics were also proposed.%杂色鲍是我国南方重要的海水养殖种,但近年来因种质退化等原因导致暴发性病害频发,杂色鲍的遗传改良研究对于杂色鲍养殖产业的可持续健康发展十分重要.综合厦门大学贝类遗传育种课题组近10年的研究成果,评述了近年来杂色鲍的生物学特征、选择育种、杂交育种、雌核发育、DNA分子标记开发和利用、遗传图谱构建和QTL定位、功能基因及转基因鲍等方面的研究进展,并提出了今后杂色鲍遗传育种研究的发展思路.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and burn injury wound healing properties of the shell of Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Cheng; Wu, Shing-Yi Sean; Su, Wei-Yang; Lin, Yuan-Chuan; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Wu, Wei-Hao; Chen, Chun-Hong; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2016-11-28

    The shell of Haliotis diversicolor, or shijueming (SJM), is a type of traditional Chinese medicine. The SJM has appeared in historical records as early as the third and fourth centuries. Historical records have revealed that SJM had mainly been used to treat eye diseases. After the Qing Dynasty (1757), records had emerged, detailing the use of SJM for treating skin injuries, particularly for treating poorly managed ulcers or traumatic wounds. Furthermore, in our anti-inflammation-screening system, SJM significantly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins. Previous studies have yet to adopt an animal model to verify the phenomenon and described in the historical records regarding the efficacy of SJM in promoting wound healing. Besides, the mechanism of wound healing effect of SJM is also not clear. This study applied in vitro and in vivo models, tissue section analysis, and western blotting to evaluate the effect of SJM on wound healing. The RAW 264.7 cells were used in anti-inflammatory activity assay and phagocytic assay. Male Wistar rats were used to evaluate the effect of SJM on burn injury healing. A copper block (2 × 2 cm, 150 g) preheated to 165 °C in a dry bath was used to contact the skin area for 10 s, thus creating a full-thickness burn injury. The results were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, picrosirius red staining and Western blotting. The results revealed that in the in vitro model, the presence of SJM decreased the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and enhanced the functions of macrophages. The results of the rat burn injury model revealed that SJM decreased neutrophil infiltration, promoted wound healing, thus increasing the collagen I content and promoting the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) protein. We speculate that the effect and mechanism of SJM on promoting wound healing is related to macrophage activation. In the inflammation phase, SJM alleviates inflammation by

  6. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  7. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  8. Philanthropist in Juvenile Reformatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of February 1, 2007, Chen Guangbiao, a noted philanthropist, found himself in the Jiangsu Provincial Juvenile Reformatory in Jurong City for a ceremony to donate two buses, 100 computers, and 100 desks and 100 chairs for the juvenile offenders to use in their study.

  9. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  10. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  11. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  12. Shewanella haliotis BP-1海藻酸裂解酶基因的克隆表达%Gene Cloning and Expression of Alginate Lyase from Shewanella haliotis BP-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桂媛; 温顺华; 李锋; 卢明倩; 王巧贞; 廖威; 黄庶识

    2016-01-01

    Objective]Alginate lyase in Shewanella haliotis BP-1 strains was studied illustrate its biological activity of degrading alginate.[Methods]The gene cloning technology and the Escherichia coli heterologous expression technology were applied to overexpress the alginate lyase;And the enzyme activity was analyzed after the crude enzyme was separated and purified by DEAE Sepharose FF chromatogra-phy.[Results]The alginate lyase gene Alg 1 7S , with a size of 2 1 5 7 bp,was cloned from S. haliotis BP-1 strain genomic DNA and encoded an alginate lyase Alg17S,which belonged to pol-ysaccharide lyase(PL)1 7 family and had a size of 79 726 Da protein(including an N-terminal signal peptide of 26 amino acid signal peptide).Alg17S showed high sequence identity of 5 2% with PL-17 protein sequence Alg17C from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40.Both the purified recombi-nase Alg17S and the △snAlg17S(without the N-terminal signal peptide of 26 amino acids)can degrade alginate,but the enzymatic activity of △snAlg17S revealed a specific activity of 9 635 U/mg,which was more efficient than Alg17S.[Conclusion]The recombinant alginate lyase △s-nAlg17S that has both high-level expression and high enzymatic activity could be a potential en-zyme for further researching on the alginate saccharification and the biofuels production.%【目的】了解海洋细菌Shewanella haliotis B P-1中海藻酸裂解酶降解海藻酸钠的生物活性。【方法】应用基因克隆和大肠杆菌异源表达技术,过量表达海藻酸裂解酶,将粗酶液通过 DEAE Sepharose FF柱分离纯化后检测其酶活性。【结果】从S.haliotis BP-1菌株的基因组DNA中克隆得到一个大小为2157 bp的海藻酸裂解酶基因Alg17S ,该基因编码的海藻酸裂解酶 Alg17S属于PL17家族的蛋白,大小为79726 Da,其中包括N端26个氨基酸的信号肽,与Saccharophagus degradans 2-40菌株产生的海藻酸裂解酶 Alg17C 具有高度同源性,相似性为52%。

  13. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  14. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Haliotis ovina 18S rDNA in the Different Geographical Populations of Hainan%海南不同地理群体羊鲍18SrDNA的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文杰; 黄勃; 王仁恩; 张钰

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to clone and analyze the sequence of 18S rDNA from Haliotis ovina. [ Method ] TV 18S rRNA genes of two different H. ovina geographical populations,which frum different area of Hainan, were cloned by molecular biology method and sequenced.and then aligned with H. asinina 18S rRNA genes of same sea area. [ Result] 18S rRNA genes of individuals from the same group had no differentiation,the similarity in the 18S rRNA genes neared 100% , whereas partial differentiation between the 2 groups was observed with the similarity up to 99.5% ,and basal substitution took place at some sites. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed from sequence divergence of 18S rRNA genes, which all was built up by waled accurately those sequences according to species of abalone. An unweighted pair-group dendrogram method with a-rithmetic mean was constructed from divergence among the individuals from the 2 groups. [Conclusion] It prepared reliable basis for the genetic diversity,hereditary constitution,germplasm identification,the conservation and utilization of germplasm resource and other aspects of the study of Hainan abalone.H. ovina specially.%[目的]对海南不同地理群体羊鲍18S rDNA进行克隆,并对其进行序列分析.[方法]采用分子生物学的方法,对海南不同海区的2个羊鲍地理群体18S rRNA基因全长进行克隆和序列分析,并将得到的羊鲍18S rRNA基因序列与同海域耳鲍的进行比较.[结果]同一地理群体内羊鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因序列完全一致;不同地理群体间羊鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因在碱基组成上的相似率为99.5%,仅在某些位点处发生了碱基替换,即腺嘌呤(T)被鸟嘌呤(G)替换;同时,将这两个不同群体中羊鲍的18S rRNA基因与同一海域耳鲍18S rRNA基因序列进行比较分析发现,它们之间也只是发生了碱基替换.[结论]为海南鲍鱼特别是羊鲍的遗传多样性、遗传结构、种质鉴定及其种质资源的保护和

  15. The Relationships between Rheological Properties and Structural Changes of Chilled Abalone Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin; ZHANG Zhaohui; TANG Zhixu; TASHIRO Yuri; OGAWA Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative correlation between theological properties and structural characteristic values of chilled abalone meat was studied. Structural changes were observed, and these values were enumerated using image processing and analysis technique. Structural changes in the myofibrils and collagen fibrils were the greatest in chilling for 24 h. After chilling for 48 h, similar structures of vertical and cross sections were observed. For chilling from 0h to 72h, the instantaneous modulus E0 of the both section meat decreases gradually with time, but no significant differences were observed after chilling for 48 h.The relaxation time and viscosity of both sections attained the same values for the same chilling time, but increased gradually with increasing chilling time. Meanwhile, a negative correlation between the structural characteristic values (Dm, Am,Rvm), and rheological properties (E1,τi,η1) clearly exists. Some logarithmic expressions have been obtained for these negative correlations. These results suggest that the difference in rheological properties between the cross and vertical sections was mainly due to the structural changes of myofibrils and collagen fibrils, and rheological properties are influenced quantitatively by the structural characteristic values for chilling from 0 h to 72 h.

  16. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  17. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  18. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  19. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapy Regular Exercise en español Artritis idiopática juvenil It may begin with a swollen knuckle, a ... may suddenly appear and disappear, developing in one area and then another. High fevers that tend to ...

  20. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  1. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Treatment Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Shirley; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Colbert, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    No specific recommendations for the treatment of juvenile spondyloarthritis have been established. Important differences exist in how spondyloarthritis begins and progresses in children and adults, supporting the need for pediatric-specific recommendations. Recently published recommendations for the treatment of juvenile arthritis consider children with sacroiliitis in a separate group, and allow for more accelerated institution of a TNF inhibitor depending on disease activity and prognostic ...

  2. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  3. Rapid Immersion Freezing Mechanism of Abalone and its Experimental Verification%鲍鱼浸入式快速冷冻理论及实验验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪锦; 顾锦鸿; 沈建

    2013-01-01

    计算流体力学(CFD)可准确预测鲍鱼冷冻过程中的传热传质变化,鲍鱼冷冻过程中内部温度变化和冷冻所需时间的预测对品质研究具有重要意义.本文以鲍鱼为研究对象,研究鲍鱼的浸入式快速冷冻,基于计算流体力学建立鲍鱼的三维非稳态数值计算模型,选用冻结计算模式,建立鲍鱼热物性的多项式计算方法,提高鲍鱼冷冻过程的计算精度,利用CFD计算获得鲍鱼冷冻过程的温度分布状态,获得鲍鱼质量与冷冻时间的关系,并开展了实验验证,结果表明鲍鱼的数值计算结果是可信的,能够较为准确的预测鲍鱼快速冷冻过程中温度的变化与冷冻所需时间.%Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology can predicts heat and mass transfer during rapid freezing. In this paper, the immersion rapid freezing of abalone was investigated and computational fluid dynamics technology was employed to establish three-dimension unsteady numerical calculation model of abalone rapid freezing. Solidification model was selected and the polynomial calculation method was developed for calculating abalone thermal properties in order to improve numerical solving accuracy. The distribution of abalone temperature during the freeze process and the relationship between abalone mass and frozen time were got by using CFD technology. It was found that numerical calculation model and the simulation methods for abalone rapid immersion freezing were reliable, which could predicate abalone freeze process and freeze time.

  4. 食品中鲍鱼过敏源基因成分的检测%Detection of allergen gene of abalone in food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杨; 孙瑶; 杜影; 战晓微; 郑秋月

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a real-time fluorescent PCR method for detection of abalone gene anaphylactogen in food. Methods Genomic DNA of abalone muscle tissue was extracted by proteinase K digestion method. Specific primers and the probe were designed based on 16S rRNA genes of abalone. After PCR reaction system and conditions were optimized, the rapid real-time PCR detection method of abalone anaphylactogen was developed. The seafood including squid, sea cucumber and so on, was tested for specificity. The samples that contained abalone-derived components of 100%,10%,1%,0.1%,0.01%,and 0.001%respectively were made by blend method for sensitivity test. Results It was of high specificity by testing non abalone products, and the sensitivity test showed that the lowest amount of detecting was 0.01%. Conclusion The detection method of allergic abalone gene anaphylactogen with high specificity and sensitivity was established in this research.%目的:本文建立食品中鲍鱼过敏源基因成分实时荧光PCR检测方法。方法采用蛋白酶K消化法提取鲍鱼肌肉组织中基因组DNA,针对鲍鱼管家基因16S rRNA基因设计特异性引物和探针,确定实时荧光PCR反应体系和反应条件,建立了鲍鱼过敏源基因成分实时荧光 PCR 快速检测方法。选用鱿鱼、海参等海产品进行特异性试验;采用添加方法制备灵敏度试验样品,分别制备了鲍鱼过敏源基因成分含量分别为100%、10%、1%、0.1%、0.01%、0.001%的样品。结果对非鲍鱼类食品进行检测,结果显示出良好的特异性;灵敏度试验表明,本文建立方法的最低检测下限为0.01%。结论本文建立了特异性好,灵敏度高的鲍鱼过敏源基因成分检测方法。

  5. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  6. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  7. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  8. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  9. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  10. Juvenile idiopatiske inflammatoriske myopatier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Sanner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM is a group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases in children and adolescents, characterized by chronic skeletal muscle inflammation. Unlike in adults, dermatomyositis (JDM is by far the most common of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children and adolescents. The hallmark of JDM is calcinosis, lipodystrophy and vasculitis, findings that differs the juvenile form of dermatomyosits from the adult form. JDM is still diagnosed and classified by Bohan and Peter’s criteria from 1975. There are limited data on long time outcome of this disease

  11. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  12. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  13. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  14. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  15. Purification and characterization of perlucin and perlustrin, two new proteins from the shell of the mollusc Haliotis laevigata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, I M; Kaufmann, S; Mann, K; Fritz, M

    2000-01-07

    Two new proteins, named perlucin and perlustrin, with M(r) 17,000 and 13,000, respectively, were isolated from the shell of the mollusc Halotis laevigata (abalone) by ion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC after demineralization of the shell in 10% acetic acid. The sequence of the first 32 amino acids of perlucin indicated that this protein belonged to a heterogeneous group of proteins consisting of a single C-type lectin domain. Perlucin increased the precipitation of CaCO(3) from a saturated solution, indicating that it may promote the nucleation and/or the growth of CaCO(3) crystals. With pancreatic stone protein (lithostathine) and the eggshell protein ovocleidin 17, this is the third C-type lectin domain protein isolated from CaCO(3) biominerals. This indicates that this type of protein performs an important but at present unrecognized function in biomineralization. Perlustrin was a minor component of the protein mixture and the sequence of the first 33 amino acids indicated a certain similarity to part of the much larger nacre protein lustrin A.

  16. 76 FR 80890 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 13599 and 1614

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... oxyrinchus desotoi) sturgeon, black (Haliotis cracherodii) and white (Haliotis sorenseni) abalone, chinook... transport 100 dead shortnose sturgeon, or parts thereof, annually. Researchers are also authorized the receipt and transport of up to 350 captive bred, dead shortnose sturgeon annually from any U.S....

  17. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  18. Juvenile Incarceration and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Barnert, ES; R Perry; Morris, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure a...

  19. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile primary osteoporosis juvenile primary osteoporosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile primary osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  3. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  4. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  5. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  6. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  7. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, M; Santos-Muñoz, A; Calb, I; Magariños, C

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, gingival hypertrophy, and flexion contractures of the large joints. The light and electron microscopic features are very distinctive. Here we report an 8-month-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Histologic and ultrastructural features were typical of JHF. Clinical features, pathology, and physiology are discussed.

  8. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  9. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  10. Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity.

  11. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  12. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  13. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  14. Update on juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K M; Kang, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. The pathophysiology of juvenile myasthenia gravis is similar to that of adult myasthenia gravis, though there remain important differences regarding presentation and therapeutic options. We review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical studies of myasthenia gravis have been carried out primarily in adult populations. As juvenile myasthenia gravis is rare, it has been difficult to collect prospective randomized controlled data to evaluate treatment outcomes and efficacy. A recent retrospective series suggests that, as in adult myasthenia gravis, thymectomy is a viable therapeutic option for selected cases of generalized juvenile myasthenia gravis. This is corroborated by the clinical experience of the authors in a referral center with a cohort of patients affected by juvenile myasthenia gravis over a number of years. Recent studies illustrate that some, but not all, adult research on myasthenia gravis is applicable to children and adolescents with juvenile myasthenia gravis. Adult research can inform pediatric studies, but should not be regarded as a substitute for dedicated research in those populations.

  15. Juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P

    1995-05-01

    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  16. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-08-19

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  17. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Krishnamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis is a rare, autosomal-recessive disease characterized by papular and nodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and bone involvement in variable degrees. It is a connective tissue disorder with aberrant synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by fibroblasts. We report a 5-year-old female born of first-degree consanguineous marriage who presented with multiple, recurrent, painless, variable-sized nodules. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears and the subsequent histopathological examination from the nodules showed benign spindle cells in a Periodic acid Schiff-positive myxoid background. The disease has a relentlessly progressive course, with most patients surviving only up to the 4 th decade. As of now, there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Genetic counseling is essential to explain to parents about a 25% chance of having a diseased baby in any pregnancy. With the gene being mapped recently, techniques for antenatal diagnosis are likely to be established.

  18. [JUVENILE DERMATOMYOSITIS AND CALCINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dermatomiositis (JD) is autoimmune disease that progresses with time; JD's main differentiated syndromes are rash on the skin, poor function of muscles, and often developing invalidism. If the health practitioners manage to diagnose the JD on an early stage and prescribe the adequate treatment the disease will not progress aggressively. This approach is tangible for practical rheumatology and pediatric. The article aims to present the reasons of the development of the JD and calcinosis. The study based on the description of the patients with JD. There are distinguished the main symptoms of the disease in children: frequent and acute developments of muscles calcinosis, occasionally with diffuse character followed with hypotrophy of the muscles, contractures and invalidism. One of the patient cases that describe the article is the thirteen-year boy with JD indicating repeated sequence of the disease, with diffusive calcinosis, cellulitis followed with secondary infection and impaired vision.

  19. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  20. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children.

  1. Effects of dense phase carbon dioxide on muscle quality of Haliotis discus hannai%高密度CO2处理对皱纹盘鲍肌肉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕妙兄; 刘书成; 屈小娟; 章超桦; 吉宏武; 高加龙

    2013-01-01

      为了探讨高密度 CO2(DPCD)应用于加工皱纹盘鲍的可行性,在压力5~25 MPa、温度30~50℃、处理时间10~50 min下分别处理皱纹盘鲍,研究DPCD对其色泽、pH值、保水性、质量损失、质构等指标的影响规律。结果表明:与未处理的相比,DPCD处理对皱纹盘鲍的外观和pH值无显著影响(P>0.05),但对其色泽、基本营养成分、质量损失、保水性和质构有显著影响(P<0.05),并且随着处理强度的增加,其影响程度也加强;结合杀菌效果,DPCD处理皱纹盘鲍的适宜条件为:20 MPa、45℃、(40~50)min。研究结果将为DPCD加工技术在贝类肌肉食品中的应用提供参考。%Dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) is a non-thermal processing technology, which affects microorganisms and enzymes through molecular effects of CO2 under pressures below 50 MPa and 60 . DPCD℃has less significance effect on the quality of foods. DPCD has been applied to the process of meats, vegetables, seeds and food powders, fruits, spices and herbs, and fish. The studied objective is to investigate the effects of DPCD on bacteria inactivation and qualities of Haliotis discus hannai and to explore whether it can be applied to process Haliotis discus hannai. In this paper, the effects of pressure (5-25 MPa), exposure time (10-50 min) and temperature (30-50℃) of DPCD treatment on bacteria inactivation and qualities of Haliotis discus hannai were studied. DPCD can reach the ideal sterilizing effect for Haliotis discus hannai under the conditions of pressure 20MPa, temperature 45℃, exposure time 40-50 min. Compared with Haliotis discus hannai cooked in boiling water for 2 min (logarithmic decline of 3.59), the sterilizing effect was the equivalent by DPCD of 20 MPa and 45 for 40℃ -50 min (logarithmic decline of 3.46). The total number of colonies was less than 1000 cfu/mL. Compared with untreated Haliotis discus hannai, DPCD treatment had no

  2. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations.......Juvenile anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris were tested in two behavioural laboratory set-ups for their ability to visually or chemically recognize conspecifics. Individuals of two other species of anemonefish, A. clarkii and Dascyllus aruanus, were also used as test specimens for recognition....... The results indicate that juvenile A. ocellaris recognize conspecifics visually rather than by olfaction. This is contrary to their finding mechanism of their host anemone. However, the results also indicate that the juvenile A ocellaris are neither attracted nor deterred by the presence of conspecifics...

  3. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  4. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  5. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  6. Juveniles tried as adults: the age of the juvenile matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Jaclyn K; Woody, William Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Serious juvenile crimes require evaluation of a child as a criminal defendant in adult court. In such cases, it is crucial to understand jurors' attitudes, biases, and ability to follow legal instructions and maintain fairness. 308 undergraduate psychology students served as mock jurors, were randomly separated into four groups, and each group read the same realistic summary of a trial with the defendant's age presented as 13, 15, 17, or 21 years. Participants were asked to render guilty or not guilty verdicts and, if guilty, to suggest sentences. Chi-squared analysis indicated 13- and 15-year-old defendants were convicted less often than 17- and 21-year-old defendants, showing that jurors distinguished between juvenile defendants of different ages, but not minors and adults as defined by law. Additional analysis showed that age did not affect sentencing recommendations. Decision processes jurors use for juveniles tried as adults are discussed.

  7. Forensic aspects of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L H

    2000-10-01

    The juvenile justice system was created because it was recognized that youthful offenders needed to be managed differently from adults. They were to receive habilitation services instead of punishment. It is now more than a century since the creation of the first juvenile court. After 67 years, the US Supreme Court, in Kent v United States stated that the model was not working because juveniles in the criminal justice system received no treatment and they had no rights. Because the issue that had been appealed was the lack of rights (not lack of treatment), the Court mandated that juveniles, like adults, be given certain rights. The following year, in In re Gault, the Court expanded these rights. Subsequent Supreme Court cases have dealt with these kinds of issues--that is, whether juvenile offenders are entitled to the same rights as adults and subject to the same penalties. The Supreme Court has never heard a "right to treatment" case, which is the other part of the juvenile court system. Cases have been brought in lower courts (e.g., Nelson v. Heyne, 1972) alleging inadequate treatment services, but no national impact has resulted. Thus, in general, children in the juvenile court system do not have an enforceable right to treatment and can obtain only what services are available in their jurisdictions. The services often are woefully inadequate. Sentencing a youth to probation, with the requirement that he or she participate in counseling or mental health treatment, is meaningless if services are not available. Community-based, model programs that provide effective treatment do exist. They are, as yet, the rare exception rather than the norm and, therefore, are not available to most youthful offenders. Incarcerated juveniles, obviously, cannot avail themselves of community programs. Litigation to give these youth the same rights as adults in penal institutions is not the answer because incarcerated adults don't have a right to treatment, only a right to be free

  8. The Heterogeneity of Juvenile Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile myositis is a heterogeneous group of systemic autoimmune diseases, in which clinical and serologic subgroups result in subsets of patients with distinct clinical manifestations, disease courses, immunogenetic associations, responses to therapy, and prognoses. A newly identified autoantibody of unknown specificity, anti-p155, is myositis-associated and seen in up to 20 – 30% of juvenile and adult DM patients. HLA DRB1*0301 and its linked allele DQA1*0501 have been identified as the major immunogenetic risk factor for juvenile and adult DM in both European- and African- American patients, and DQA1*0301 is an additional risk factor in European American patients. Several DQA1 alleles also are protective for juvenile DM. Environmental risk factors are poorly understood, but growing evidence suggests a role for infectious agents and ultraviolet radiation. The current therapy of juvenile DM consists of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, with the adjunctive treatment of cutaneous manifestations and rehabilitation. Therapeutic trials of biologic agents, including anti-TNFα and anti-CD20, may aid in developing promising new therapies for these disorders. PMID:17317616

  9. Juvenile Correctional Institutions Library Services: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Annette M.

    This bibliography lists citations for 14 articles, books, and reports concerned with library services in juvenile correctional institutions. A second section lists 21 additional materials on adult correctional libraries which also contain information relevant to the juvenile library. (KP)

  10. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  11. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  12. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  13. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  14. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  15. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  16. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…

  17. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  18. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  19. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  20. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  1. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  2. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  3. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  4. Case Report: Juvenile Tophaceous Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Gunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disease that manifests as recurrent arthritis. Its incidance increases with age. Clinical findings include recurrent acute arthritis, tophus at joints and tissues, uricacid stones and gouty nephropathy. Tophi is a late period complication of arthritis. In this casereport we presented  a patient with early-onset juvenile tophaceous gout.

  5. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations....

  6. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  7. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). BLACK, GREEN, and RED ABALONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    waters in late fall, annuals begin to feed on seaweeds with thin fronds, disintegrate and perennials die back. juveniles as short as 1 cm long can The...preferring them over all other foods probably greatest in the planktonic (Hardy et al. 1980; Hines and Pearse . stages. Those that survive to live on 1982...on food quality and quantity and water temperature. Larvae are lecithotrophic and remain planktonic for periods of 5 to 14 days after hatching

  8. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  9. 九孔鲍养殖中的脓疱病病因分析和药物敏感性研究%Analysis of impetigo occurred to small abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta cultured in Fujian and its sensibility to drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄万红

    2005-01-01

    在福建沿海养殖的九孔鲍不论是成鲍还是幼鲍均经常发生脓疱病,死亡率可达50%~60%,其症状与皱纹盘鲍脓疱病相似,但对药物的敏感性却不同.研究发现:导致福建省的九孔鲍发生脓疱病的主要致病菌为溶藻弧菌(Vibrio alginolyticus)而非河流弧菌(V.fluvialis).其对多数药物不敏感,在43种抗菌药物中只对呋喃妥因、氯霉素、痢特灵等中度敏感,而对青霉素、复方新诺明和头孢类药物则完全不敏感.由于上述药物已被列为禁用渔药而不宜使用,故生产中应以新研制的无公害防治药物替代.

  10. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  11. 莆田南日岛鲍鱼养殖区环境变化评价%Environment Change Evaluation in Abalone Cultivation Area at Nanri Island of Putian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金媛娟

    2012-01-01

    根据2009-2011年13个站位的监测数据,采用富营养化评价法和内梅罗综合污染指数法对鲍鱼养殖区进行了三年的纵向数据对比,得出该区环境正在日趋恶化,通过2011年鲍鱼区、藻类区及码头区监测数据的横向对比,发现藻类养殖的开展,对鲍鱼区的海洋环境有所改善,但由于布局的不科学不合理,未能够完全发挥藻类对环境的修复作用,甚至于可能给鲍鱼造成一定时间段的不良影响。因此提出建议:应合理规划藻类区和鲍鱼区的产业布局。%According to the monitoring data of thirteen stations from2009 to 2011, this paper makes three years longitudinal data contrast for the abalone cultivation area based on the eutrophication evaluation and Nemerow pollution index. The result indicates that the environment of thearea becomes worsen. Moreover, the monitoring data compared among abalone areas, alga areas and wharfareas in 2011 shows that the development of alga cultivation makes some improvement for the marine environment of abalone areas. However, because of the unscientific and unreasonable distribution, the effects of algas on environment are notfully satisfied. Conversely, it may have harm effect onabalones for some time. So it is suggest that the industrial layout of alga areas and abalone areas should be planned reasonably.

  12. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release. Juveniles for whom bond has been posted,...

  13. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  14. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  15. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  16. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos; Persephone XIROU; Giorgos BALLIS; Tsekos, Antonis; Ntomouchtsis, Aris; Alexandros VALASIDIS; Doxa MAGGOUDI

    2012-01-01

    Ossifying fibroma (OS) represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a) juvenile trabecular OS and b) juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment pl...

  17. Distinct synovial immunopathologic characteristics of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kruithof; V. van den Bossche; L. de Rycke; B. Vandooren; R. Joos; J.D. Canete; P.P. Tak; A.M.H. Boots; E.M. Veys; D. Baeten

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To characterize the synovial immunopathologic features of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis (SpA) in relation to adult SpA and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. Synovial biopsy samples were obtained from 10 patients with juvenile-onset SpA, 23 with adult SpA, 19 w

  18. Justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño Rojas, Cielo

    2016-01-01

    El artículo explora las posibilidades de la justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa en los sistemas de justicia juvenil en la región. Si bien la justicia restaurativa no aparece explícitamente en los instrumentos internacionales sobre justicia penal juvenil, estos dan la oportunidad para que aquella se desarrolle dentro de los sistemas de justicia juvenil. Inicialmente se aborda su evolución histórica para establecer el origen de sus principales características. A continuació...

  19. Collagen study and regulation of the de novo synthesis by IGF-I in hemocytes from the gastropod mollusc, Haliotis tuberculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpentini, A; Ghayor, C; Poncet, J M; Hebert, V; Galéra, P; Pujol, J P; Boucaud-Camou, E; Lebel, J M

    2000-09-01

    To evidence a collagen synthesis and identify which type(s) of collagen is present in hemocytes from the mollusc Haliotis tuberculata, we have performed three separate approaches, namely, de novo synthesis by cultured cells, immunological approaches, and northern blot analysis. We demonstrated first that after 40-hr labeling, the de novo synthesis of collagen in the cell layer of cultured hemocytes represents 9.48 +/- 1.25% with respect to the total [(3)H]proline-labeled protein synthesis. In addition, IGF-I elicited a significant stimulation of collagen synthesis in cultured hemocytes in a dose-dependent manner from 10(-10) to 10(-8) M. The maximal stimulation (10(-9) M) induced an increase of 286 +/- 56% with respect to 100% control. By immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting, we showed that hemocytes present immunoreactive molecules to antibodies directed against the type I fibrillar collagen. In addition, using as a probe Hf 677 corresponding to a human pro alpha1(I) collagen cDNA and which encompasses the (Gly-X-Y) repeated sequence found in all Metazoa, four collagen transcripts of approximately 6.4, 5, 2.2, and 2 kb in length have been detected. These data suggest the presence of fibrillar type I collagen in hemocytes and are compatible with the concept that these cells are involved in the extracellular matrix deposition, a cardinal function in tissue repair as well as in developmental processes. Our model may appear as an excellent system to study the role of growth factors on the regulation of collagen synthesis by molluscan hemocytes. J. Exp. Zool. 287:275-284, 2000.

  20. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis. Fibromatosis hialina juvenil. Diagnostico radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-10-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  1. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  2. [Juvenile monomelic amyotrophy: Hirayama disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowski, W; Baniukiewicz, E; Lewonowska, M

    1998-01-01

    We present three patients with unilateral upper limb weakness (with muscular atrophy)-two of them with distal and one with proximal localization. The disease onset was between 18th end 35-th year of life; the disease course was biphasic (i.e. progressive within first 1 to 3 years, and stabilized during following 4-24 years). The laboratory investigations permitted to diagnose juvenile monomelic amyotrophy, an entity that is very rare outside Japan. Electromyography revealed neurogenic involvement with spinal features also in clinically unaffected muscles. We suggest that these results may support the hypothesis of this disease being a benign variant of spinal muscular atrophy.

  3. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations.

  4. Glucocorticoids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Although the use of corticosteroids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is now much more limited owing to the availability of methotrexate and biological agents, there are clinical scenarios where it is still indicated. For example, corticosteroids may be indicated for intraarticular injections to prevent joint deformities, as a "bridge" drug to relieve symptoms in polyarticular disease while waiting for methotrexate and biologics to exert their full therapeutic effects, and in the treatment of chronic iridocyclitis, macrophage activation syndrome, and systemic JIA, although the advent of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockers has greatly reduced the latter indication.

  5. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Over the past decade there have been considerable changes in the classification and imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Radiology now has a considerable role in the management of JIA, the differential diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and detecting complications. The different imaging modalities available, their role and limitations are discussed in this article and the various disease features that the radiologist should be aware of are described. An approach to the imaging of the child with joint disease and in the monitoring of disease complications are also discussed. (orig.)

  6. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  7. Optimization of LED light quality and time for artificial breeding of Haliotis discushannai%养殖皱纹盘鲍人工育苗LED光质及光照时期优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高霄龙; 李贤; 张墨; 史策; 宋昌斌; 刘鹰

    2015-01-01

    , green light and dark setting) and initial stage of lighting (fertilized egg, trochophore, eye spot larvae) on the growth, development and survival of the larvae ofHaliotis discus hannaiIno were examined. Experimental results suggested that the hatching rate of larvae under green, blue, and dark setting were all >80% and were significantly higher compared with those under red, orange, or white light (P10% of larvae, which was significantly higher than in any other treatment group (P0.05). The metamorphosis rate of larvae cultured under blue light since the fertilized egg stage was significantly higher than in any other light quality group lit at the same stage (P0.05). Under blue, green light, the survival rate of juvenile was significantly higher than any other light quality group (P0.05). In cultures lit since the fertilized egg stage, trochophore size was significantly larger under blue, green, or dark setting, compared with white or red light (P0.05). Under blue, green light, since the stage of trochophore or eye spot larvae, the size of completion of larval shell and metamorphosis was significantly bigger than any other group since the fertilized egg stage (P<0.05). However, the required time of metamorphosis of larvae since the eye spot larvae stage was significantly longer if compared to that of any other group since the stage of fertilized egg or trochophore (P<0.05). Therefore, blue, green light used as light source and lighting starting from the stage of trochophore in the culture and growth of the larvae ofH. discus hannaiIno can be highly referential to boost the hatching efficiency of seeds, increase the yield per water body and for the rapid development of the aquaculture industry.

  8. Changes in Juvenile Justice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dennis S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses rising juvenile and youth crime in China, highlighting the essence of Chinese Marxist criminological thought and changing conceptions of delinquency from the postrevolutionary period to the present; examining official responses to delinquency and the recent development of juvenile justice; and suggesting that current delinquency control…

  9. Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa: Family Therapy's Natural Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, H. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a severe problem both in terms of presenting symptomatology and its tendency toward chronicity. Researchers have consistently shown that family-based approaches are superior to individual approaches for the treatment of juvenile AN. This article addresses the capacity deficit of trained family therapists to treat…

  10. Sexually dimorphic body plumage in juvenile crossbills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelaar, P; Phillips, RE; Knops, P

    2005-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in color and pattern of contour feathers is rare in juvenile songbirds. We describe how captive-bred juvenile males of Scottish Crossbill (Loxia scotica) and nominate Red Crossbill (L. curvirostra curvirostra) can be differentiated from females prior to prebasic molt by an unstreak

  11. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  12. Alternative sanctions for juveniles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, P.H. van der

    1993-01-01

    In the Netherlands alternative sanctions for juveniles have become very popular. In less than ten years, the alternative sanction has surpassed the fine as the most frequently imposed penal sanction for juveniles. As a result of this popularity, some net widening has occured. In general, alternativl

  13. Psychiatric Disorder in a Juvenile Assessment Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.; DeComo, Robert E.; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M.; Nolen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile assessment centers (JACs) were developed to address service fragmentation and promote the sharing of information among agencies providing services to youth involved with the juvenile justice system. To date, there are no reports that describe the diagnostic profiles of the youth served by such centers. The authors hypothesize that the…

  14. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  15. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  16. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  17. Group sexual offending by juvenile females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Weerman, F.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal pr

  18. A social work study on juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical study to study the effects of different factors on juvenile delinquency. The investigation distributes 100 questionnaires among people who are involved with crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are five hypotheses in our survey and we look to see whether family conditions, religion, economical conditions, media and physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency in Iranian society. The results shows that while family conditions, physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency, other factors do not statistically have any impact on juvenile delinquency. The study suggests that a better family condition could help reduce juvenile delinquency and people could guide their children through better consultations.

  19. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  20. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  1. Structural investigation of a uronic acid-containing polysaccharide from abalone by graded acid hydrolysis followed by PMP-HPLC-MSn and NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-xu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dong-mei; Song, Shuang; Song, Liang; Fu, Ying-huan; Zhang, Li-peng

    2015-01-30

    A new strategy was applied to elucidate the structure of a polysaccharide from abalone gonad (AGSP). It was hydrolyzed by 0.05 M, 0.2 M, 0.5 M, and 2.0 M TFA at 100 °C for 1 h, sequentially. Every hydrolysate was ultrafiltrated (3000 Da) to collect oligo- and monosaccharides, and the final retentate was further hydrolyzed with 2.0 M TFA at 110 °C and 121 °C for 2 h, respectively. 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization followed by HPLC-MSn analysis was applied to detect the sugar residues in these hydrolysates, which allowed proposing their location in the polysaccharide structure. The retentate after 0.5 M TFA hydrolysis was confirmed as the polysaccharide backbone, and it was further analyzed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Thus, the structural elucidation of AGSP was accomplished, and it has a backbone of →4)-β-GlcA(1→2)-α-Man(1→ repeating unit with Fuc, Xyl and Gal in the branch. The analytical strategy demonstrated was useful to characterize the structure of polysaccharides.

  2. Profile of Incarcerated Juveniles: Comparison of Male and Female Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Dell, Rex; Davis, Candice; Guerrieri, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Effective methods of identifying potential juvenile offenders are critical when developing prevention programs within both state and national juvenile justice systems. The characteristics of juvenile offenders in a large juvenile justice system are examined in this study. Participants live in a Midwestern city with a high rate of crime as…

  3. 8 CFR 1236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 1236.3... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release....

  4. Habitat associations of juvenile versus adult butterflyfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, M. S.; Berumen, M. L.; Marnane, M. J.; Eagle, J. V.; Pratchett, D. J.

    2008-09-01

    Many coral reef fishes exhibit distinct ontogenetic shifts in habitat use while some species settle directly in adult habitats, but there is not any general explanation to account for these differences in settlement strategies among coral reef fishes. This study compared distribution patterns and habitat associations of juvenile (young of the year) butterflyfishes to those of adult conspecifics. Three species, Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon melannotus, and Chaetodon vagabundus, all of which have limited reliance on coral for food, exhibited marked differences in habitat association of juvenile versus adult individuals. Juveniles of these species were consistently found in shallow-water habitats, whereas adult conspecifics were widely distributed throughout a range of habitats. Juveniles of seven other species ( Chaetodon aureofasciatus, Chaetodon baronessa, Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon plebeius, Chaetodon rainfordi, and Chaetodon trifascialis), all of which feed predominantly on live corals, settled directly into habitat occupied by adult conspecifics. Butterflyfishes with strong reliance on corals appear to be constrained to settle in habitats that provide access to essential prey resources, precluding their use of distinct juvenile habitats. More generalist butterflyfishes, however, appear to utilize distinct juvenile habitats and exhibit marked differences in the distribution of juveniles versus adults.

  5. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos VAHTSEVANOS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ossifying fibroma (OS represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a juvenile trabecular OS and b juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment plan included radical surgical excision of the lesion and restoration with autologous osteochondral graft from the 6th rib of the ipsilateral side.

  6. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... was preferred for conventional ultrasound oculometry due to its extreme repeatability of measuring values, thus making it well fitted for evaluating very small differences. In particular, this had bearing for the decelerating end phase of growth in the longitudinal investigation. RESULTS: Sorby's statement...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  7. SUBTYPES OF JUVENILE SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Slarovoitova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to allot clinical forms of juvenile systemic scleroderma (JSSD. Material and methods: investigation and dynamic observation of 60 patients aged 14-54 (mean age 25.1 ±7.2 with onset of disease in child's and adolescent’s ages from 1 to 16 years old ( in average 11. 4±3.8 year old and disease duration from 1 to 39 years (in average 13.1 ±7.9. Results: 55% of patients demonstrated JSSD subtype with focal cutaneous lesion of different localization. The possibility of overlap-syndrome development in JSSD patients with onset in adolescent age typical for SSD-rheumatoid arthritis, SSD-polymvositis should be underlined. Conclusion: knowledge of different clinical forms and courses of the disease, modern diagnostics and early beginning of differential JSSD treatment will enable us to improve the prognosis and disease outcome.

  8. Juvenile Huntington disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Parisi, Virginia; Etcheverry, José Luis; Sanguinetti, Ana; Cordi, Lorena; Binelli, Adrian; Persi, Gabriel; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed demographic, clinical and genetic characteristics of juvenile Huntington disease (JHD) and it frequency in an Argentinean cohort. Age at onset was defined as the age at which behavioral, cognitive, psychiatric or motor abnormalities suggestive of JHD were first reported. Clinical and genetic data were similar to other international series, however, in this context we identified the highest JHD frequency reported so far (19.72%; 14/71). Age at onset of JHD is challenging and still under discussion. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that clinical manifestations, other than the typical movement disorder, may anticipate age at onset of even many years. Analyses of JHD cohorts are required to explore it frequency in populations with different backgrounds to avoid an underestimation of this rare phenotype. Moreover, data from selected populations may open new pathways in therapeutic approaches and may explain new potential correlations between HD presentations and environmental or biological factors.

  9. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  10. Juvenile prison: Remarks on the specific characteristics of regular sentencing

    OpenAIRE

    Miladinović-Stefanović, Dušica

    2015-01-01

    The system of the juvenile criminal law in the Republic of Serbia includes different mechanisms of social response to juvenile delinquency, including corrective orders, corrective measures and juvenile prison. This paper deals with the issue of determining a relevant sentence for juvenile offenders in trial proceedings. The legislator has provided a number of guidelines for these proceedings: the specific range of the juvenile prison sentence, the purpose of punishment, the degree of maturity...

  11. Parenting Styles and Family Communication as Correlates of Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine parenting styles and family communication as correlates of juvenile delinquency. A review of the literature was completed in the areas of parenting styles, family communication, and juvenile delinquency. The literature that was reviewed for this study was examined mainly from juvenile perceptions. This study was approached from a general systems theory perspective. A sample of juveniles (N = 78) from Weber County, Utah, involved in the juvenile justice...

  12. 海上网箱“鲍参混养”生态养殖模式探讨%The investigation on the ecological breed mode of abalone-sea cucumber polyculture in marine cage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文真

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨鲍参混养的可行性,于2011年11月在福建省连江县某海珍品养殖基地进行鲍参混养试验。选取壳长为3.0~4.0 cm的鲍苗与同规格、不同数量的海参苗进行混养试验,经过5个多月的养殖,结果表明:试验组1、试验组2与对照组鲍鱼壳长分别为6.0、5.8、5.6 cm;试验组1、试验组2海参平均体重分别为169、141 g。试验组1、试验组2每笼经济效益可增加315~434元。因此认为,鲍参混养模式在连江海区进行养殖是可行的,养殖过程中利用鲍鱼产生的残饵供给海参作为饵料,既有效地解决了残饵腐败导致鲍鱼死亡等问题,同时还可降低海参养殖成本投入,提高单位面积的经济效益。%To research and compare the feasibility, effectiveness, and economic benefits of mixed farming of abalones and sea cucumbers in sea area at Lianjiang County, Fujian Province, abalone fry with shell length of 3. 0~4. 0 cm were selected and mix farmed with different amount of similar sized sea cucumber fry for experi-ment in Lianjiang County, Fujian Province in November 2011. The experiment groups divided into Group 1, Group 2 and Control Group without sea cucumber fry, were farmed for five months. As a result, the average sea cucumber weights of Group 1 and Group 2 were 169 g and 142 g, respectively. The economic benefits of Group 1 and Group 2 had increased by RMB 315~434 Yuan per cage. So it was feasible to farm abalones and sea cucumbers together in sea area at Lianjiang. During the mixed farming, the feed residue for abalone can be used as feed for sea cucumber farming, and therefore improve the economic benefits for unit area.

  13. Are antipredator behaviours of hatchery Salmo salar juveniles similar to wild juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvanes, A G V

    2017-01-27

    This study explores how antipredator behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar developed during conventional hatchery rearing of eggs from wild brood stock, compared with the behaviour of wild-caught juveniles from the same population. Juveniles aged 1+ years were tested in two unfamiliar environments; in one S. salar were presented with simulated predator attacks and in the other they were given the opportunity to explore an open-field arena. No difference was found in their spontaneous escape responses or ventilation rate (reflex responses) after simulated predator attacks. Hatchery-reared juveniles were more risk-prone in their behaviours than wild-caught individuals. Hatchery juveniles stayed less time in association with shelter. In the open-field arena, hatchery juveniles were more active than wild juveniles. Hatchery juveniles were also immobile for less time and spent a shorter amount of time than wild juveniles in the fringe of the open-field arena. Salmo salar size had no effect on the observed behaviour. Overall, this study provides empirical evidence that one generation of hatchery rearing does not change reflex responses associated with threats, whereas antipredator behaviour, typically associated with prior experience, was less developed in hatchery-reared than in wild individuals.

  14. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  15. PLANKTON CILIATES IN ABALONE CULTIVATION ENVIRONMENT%鲍养成阶段养殖环境中的浮游纤毛虫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建荣; 白庆笙; 黄绍松; 祝铃; 徐润林

    2004-01-01

    在使用表层海水作养殖水的杂色鲍(Haliotis diversicolor)养成池,整个养成阶段共检测到浮游纤毛虫33种,其中寡毛目(Oligotrichida)的种类最多,为14种.在一个使用沙井水作养殖水的杂色鲍养成池周年研究中,共观察到浮游纤毛虫24种.2类养成池的纤毛虫优势种都是尾丝虫(Uronema sp.)、钟虫(Vorticella sp.)和具沟急游虫(Strombidium sulcatum).虽然后者养殖用水为沙井水,但养殖密度较大,水体交换量稍低,养殖水体中有机质含量高,嗜污性纤毛虫得以大量繁殖,其密度较前者高一倍.在养殖用水取水海区--红海湾近岸表层海水中,共检测到浮游纤毛虫27种,其中砂壳亚目(Tintinnina)纤毛虫16种.受水环境中二氧化碳浓度变化影响,养成池与取水海区砂壳虫的种类组成和密度有较大区别.

  16. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Epilepsia mioclônica juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alfradique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile myoclonus epilepsy (JME is a common epileptic syndrome, the etiology of which is genetically determined. Its onset occurs from 6 through 22 years of age, and affected patients present with myoclonic jerks, often associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures - the most common association - and absence seizures. JME is non-progressive, and there are no abnormalities on clinical examination or intellectual deficits. Psychiatric disorders may coexist. Generalized polyspike-and-waves are the most characteristic electroencephalographic pattern. Usual neuroimaging studies show no abnormalities. Atypical presentations should be entertained, as they are likely to induce misdiagnosis. Prevention of precipitating factors and therapy with valproic acid (VPA are able to control seizures in the great majority of patients. Whenever VPA is judged to be inappropriate, other antiepileptic drugs such as lamotrigine may be considered. Treatment should not be withdrawn, otherwise recurrences are frequent.A epilepsia mioclônica juvenil é uma síndrome epiléptica comum, cuja etiologia é fundamentada na genética. Inicia-se entre 6 e 22 anos e os indivíduos apresentam mioclonias, que podem ser acompanhadas por crises tônico-clônicas generalizadas - associação mais comum - e crises de ausência. A doença não é progressiva, e não há alterações detectáveis no exame físico ou déficits intelectuais. Distúrbios psiquiátricos podem coexistir. Polipontas-ondas lentas generalizadas constituem o padrão eletrencefalográfico ictal típico. Não há anormalidades em exames de imagem convencionais. Apresentações atípicas devem ser consideradas, pois predispõem a erros de diagnóstico. A prevenção de fatores desencadeantes e o uso de ácido valpróico (VPA controlam as crises epilépticas na grande maioria dos casos. Quando o VPA é inapropriado, outras drogas como a lamotrigina podem ser utilizadas. O tratamento não deve ser interrompido

  17. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and the temporomandibular joint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resonance imaging findings of temporomandibular joint inflammation among juvenile ... The mean total MRI score was significantly higher in patients with active ... Clinical signs of TMJ arthritis can be used as filter for MRI examination TMJ is ...

  18. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenoma of breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Madhumita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old girl with rapidly enlarging bilateral breast lumps is reported. It was diagnosed as a case of juvenile fibroadenoma following fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed on histopathological examination of the excised specimens.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile Paget disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information & Resources MedlinePlus (1 link) Health Topic: Bone Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Juvenile ... on PubMed Daroszewska A, Ralston SH. Mechanisms of disease: genetics of Paget's disease of bone and related disorders. ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antaya RJ, Cajaiba MM, Madri J, Lopez MA, Ramirez MC, Martignetti JA, Reyes-Múgica M. Juvenile hyaline ... 103. Citation on PubMed Dowling O, Difeo A, Ramirez MC, Tukel T, Narla G, Bonafe L, Kayserili ...

  1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in a Nigerian boy. ... lead to delay in commencing appropriate treatment. ... of two months duration, had an elevated Rheumatoid factor and X-ray findings suggestive of ...

  2. Screening Incarcerated Juveniles Using the MAYSI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy L; Grande, Todd L; Hallman, Janelle; Underwood, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of mental health disorders among incarcerated juveniles is a matter of national and global concern. Juvenile justice personnel need accurate screening measures that identify youth requiring immediate mental health services. The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) to examine the utility of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2 (MAYSI-2) in identifying juveniles with mental health concerns in a large sample of juveniles (N = 4,009), (b) to provide data regarding rates of identified mental health needs in incarcerated youth, and (c) to provide descriptive comparisons to other studies using the MAYSI-2. Mean scores of subscales were compared with the MAYSI-2 normative samples and other recent studies. Results indicated that this population has a high occurrence of mental health symptoms and there is high variability in the severity of the symptoms. In addition, a multivariate analysis of variance test found significant differences in mental health problems across ethnic groups.

  3. SAB Juvenile Reef Fish (2002-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Trawls were made during the summer months in shallow seagrass beds to monitor the number and species of juvenile snapper using the grass as a nursery.

  4. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish habitat utilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile rockfish were observed amongst coral, sponge, cobble, and gravel habitats. Rockfish utilized coral habitats more than any other, while gravel was the least...

  5. 耳鲍(Haliotis asinina)核糖体小亚基(18S rRNA)编码基因的克隆与序列分析%CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF GENES ENCODING HALIOTIS ASININA 18S rRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勃; 方再光; 刘均玲; 周智; 王小兵

    2007-01-01

    采用分子生物学的方法, 对南海不同海区的两个地理群体耳鲍(Haliotis asinina) 18S rRNA基因全长进行了克隆和序列分析, 并将耳鲍18S rRNA基因的序列与NCBI数据库中已收录鲍的18S rRNA基因进行了比较.结果发现, 南海耳鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因与耳鲍H. asinina isolate H11核糖体18S rRNA基因序列的相同率高达98%; 同一地理群体内耳鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因序列完全一致; 不同地理群体间耳鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因在碱基组成上的相似率为99%, 仅在某些位点处发生了碱基替换, 即腺嘌呤(T)被鸟嘌呤(G)替换; 同时, 将这两个不同群体中耳鲍的18S rRNA基因与泰国耳鲍18S rRNA基因序列进行比较分析发现, 它们之间也只是发生了碱基替换.

  6. An Empirical Evaluation of Juvenile Awareness Programs in the United States: Can Juveniles Be "Scared Straight"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Bell, Keith J.; Dodson, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile awareness programs like Scared Straight became popular crime prevention strategies during the 1970s. Juvenile offenders and at-risk youth who participate in these programs are taken to prisons where inmates use confrontational methods to recount stories about violence, sex, and abuse perpetrated by fellow inmates while living a life…

  7. Juvenile fibromyalgia: Guidance for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kikuchi, Masako; Miyamae, Takako

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) is a disease in which patients complain of acute and chronic severe pain, an overt primary cause for which cannot be found or surmised. Although patients with JFM mainly complain of systemic pain or allodynia in the medical interview and physical examination, the concept of the disease is the total sum of painful illness, chronic fatigue, hypothermia and many other autonomic symptoms and signs. Many issues are interacting including individual traits (personality, temperament, sensitivity, memory of pain; age: early adolescence), individual states (self-esteem, anxiety, developmental level), and external stressors (parent especially mother, school environment). JFM is diagnosed on the combination of disease history, physical examination to determine the 18 tender points and allodynia, pain from gently touching their hair, and negative results of blood tests (inflammatory markers, thyroid function, myogenic enzymes). The goals of treatment are the following: restoration of function and relief of pain. Psychological support is advocated. Although the exact number of patients with JFM is still to be elucidated, it seems to be growing because pediatric rheumatologists in Japan encounter children with a wide variety of musculoskeletal pains. This guideline describes how to diagnose JFM in children and how to treat them appropriately.

  8. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research.

  9. Pendidikan Agama Islam Sebagai Pencegah Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values ​​of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  10. PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM SEBAGAI PENCEGAH JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  11. Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

  12. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish DNA species identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Many pelagic juvenile rockfish (Sebastes) were collected in juvenile salmonid surveys in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) from 1998 to 2002. Often species identification of...

  13. Hierarchical super-structure identified by polarized light microscopy, electron microscopy and nanoindentation: Implications for the limits of biological control over the growth mode of abalone sea shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Andreas S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mollusc shells are commonly investigated using high-resolution imaging techniques based on cryo-fixation. Less detailed information is available regarding the light-optical properties. Sea shells of Haliotis pulcherina were embedded for polishing in defined orientations in order to investigate the interface between prismatic calcite and nacreous aragonite by standard materialographic methods. A polished thin section of the interface was prepared with a defined thickness of 60 μm for quantitative birefringence analysis using polarized light and LC-PolScope microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained for comparison. In order to study structural-mechanical relationships, nanoindentation experiments were performed. Results Incident light microscopy revealed a super-structure in semi-transparent regions of the polished cross-section under a defined angle. This super-structure is not visible in transmitted birefringence analysis due to the blurred polarization of small nacre platelets and numerous organic interfaces. The relative orientation and homogeneity of calcite prisms was directly identified, some of them with their optical axes exactly normal to the imaging plane. Co-oriented "prism colonies" were identified by polarized light analyses. The nacreous super-structure was also visualized by secondary electron imaging under defined angles. The domains of the super-structure were interpreted to consist of crystallographically aligned platelet stacks. Nanoindentation experiments showed that mechanical properties changed with the same periodicity as the domain size. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that insights into the growth mechanisms of nacre can be obtained by conventional light-optical methods. For example, we observed super-structures formed by co-oriented nacre platelets as previously identified using X-ray Photo-electron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM [Gilbert et al., Journal of the

  14. A case report of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Choudhary

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, movement disorder, dementia, and behavioural disturbances. It is caused by a mutation in IT15 gene on chromosome 4p16.3, which leads to unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion. The onset of juvenile HD occurs before the 2nd decade of life and comprises approximately 10% of total HD patients. Juvenile HD differs in symptomatology and is usually transmitted from paternal side with genetic anticipation phenomenon. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain shows specific changes of early affection of caudate nucleus and putamen. Multidisciplinary approach with symptomatic treatment of specific symptoms is the current available management. Gene editing and gene silencing treatment are under trial. Hereby, we introduce a case of an 8-year-old boy, who presented with typical symptoms of juvenile HD, positive family history with genetic anticipation phenomenon and characteristic MRI findings.

  15. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  16. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl término «delincuencia juvenil» fue acuñado en Inglaterra en el año 1815, “Se entiende por delincuencia juvenil el conjunto de delitos, contravenciones o comportamientos socialmente reprochables, que cometen las personas consideradas como jóvenes por la ley”1 . Cada Estado está sujeto a su propio sistema jurídico, para algunos es delincuente juvenil el adolescente que comete acciones sancionadas por la ley sin importar su gravedad, otros Estados sólo consideran como delincuente juvenil al joven que comete un acto delictivo grave.El fenómeno de la delincuencia juvenil es algo que se inscribe en los espacios de una sociedad en la cual su estructura material, y su formación social consecuente, se halla en una profunda crisis. Que jóvenes conformen bandas de delincuencia organizada nos está indicando que son el resultado de la misma criminalidad general que se ha apoderado de la sociedad en la perspectiva de lograr sobrevivir materialmente. El capitalismo no es sólo acumulación de riqueza sino concentración de la misma en muy pocas manos; y todo el sistema institucional y legal tiende a favorecer ese fenómeno porque éste constituye la supra estructura del modo de producción capitalista. Así como los adultos se organizan para delinquir, lo hacen los niños y los jóvenes a partir de una edad en la cual pueden percibir que la sociedad no es sana y no tienen porvenir humano en ella. Abandonados y sujetos a la violencia que engendra el sistema, ellos simplemente responden en una manifestación de reflejos condicionados que sostienen la sobrevivencia en forma instintiva; “los niños no saben de normas legales sino de formas de sobrevivir a semejante situación; el instinto de sobrevivencia no tiene edades ni la normatividad puede incidir en él”.Palabras ClavesDelincuencia juvenil, Jóvenes, Criminalidad, Familia, Factores, Acto delictivo, Responsabilidad Penal.AbstractThe term “juvenile delinquency” was coined in

  17. Immunization Coverage Among Juvenile Justice Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Gregory L; Glanz, Jason M; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anoshiravani, Arash

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to (1) quantify the baseline immunization coverage of adolescents entering the juvenile justice system and (2) assess the effect of detention-based care on immunization coverage in youth. A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was performed of 279 adolescents detained at a large juvenile detention facility. Only 3% of adolescents had received all study immunizations prior to detention. Before detention, immunization coverage was significantly lower than that for the general adolescent population for all vaccines except the first doses of hepatitis A and varicella-zoster virus vaccines. Subsequent to detention, most individual immunization coverage levels increased and were significantly higher than in the general adolescent population. The routine administration of immunizations in the juvenile justice setting can help detained youth achieve levels of immunization coverage similar to their nondetained peers.

  18. Effect of TBT on Ruditapes decussatus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, M R; Langston, W J; Bebianno, M J

    2006-06-01

    The effects of sublethal concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on growth of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were determined during exposure to TBT concentrations of 50, 100 and 250 ng l(-1) (as Sn) for a period up to two years. Length and weight of clams increased continuously in all treatments throughout the experimental period, and, overall, rates were not significantly influenced by TBT exposure, although final length and weight were inversely related to increasing TBT concentration. Juvenile R. decussatus therefore appear to be less sensitive to TBT than larval stages. Some juveniles exposed to TBT developed abnormal shell growth, laterally, changing the typical flattened shape of clams into a more "rounded" form. This characteristic was more visible in the anterior margins of valves than posteriorly, and mainly observed in clams exposed to TBT at 50 ng l(-1) (as Sn).

  19. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesher, Melissa S

    2015-06-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with months of severe widespread musculoskeletal pain. He was profoundly fatigued and unable to attend school. Laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, inflammatory markers, and thyroid function, was unrevealing. Physical examination was also normal except for multiple tender points. The patient was diagnosed with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome and referred for multidisciplinary treatment including physical therapy, exercise, and counseling, and his daily functioning gradually improves. Juvenile fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome that often severely limits patients' activities and can impede normal adolescent development. Effective treatment requires an understanding of the biologic, psychologic, and social factors contributing to the perpetuation of chronic pain. The author reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, and treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia. Medications, particularly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, can be useful adjuncts to therapy. However, multimodal pain management including intensive physical therapy, exercise, counseling, and sleep hygiene is most effective in treating fibromyalgia.

  20. Juvenile age estimation from facial images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eilidh; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Age determination from images can be of vital importance, particularly in cases involving suspected child sexual abuse (CSA). It is imperative to determine if an individual depicted in such an image is indeed a child, with a more concise age often sought, as this may affect the severity of offender sentencing. The aims of this study were to establish the accuracy of visual age estimation of the juvenile face in children aged between 0 and 16years and to determine if varying levels of exposure to children affected an individual's ability to assess age from the face. An online questionnaire consisting of 30 juvenile face images was created using SurveyMonkey®. The overall results suggested poor accuracy for visual age estimation of juvenile faces. The age, sex, occupation and number of children of the participants did not affect the ability to estimate age from facial images. Similarly, the sex and age of the juvenile faces did not appear to affect the accuracy of age estimation. When specific age groups are considered, sex may have an influence on age estimation, with female faces being aged more accurately in the younger age groups and male faces more accurate after the age of 11years, however this is based on a small sample. This study suggests that the accuracy of juvenile age estimation from the face alone is poor using simple visual assessment of images. Further research is required to determine exactly how age is assessed from a facial image, if there are indicators, or features in particular that lead to over- or under-estimation of juvenile age.

  1. Juvenile dermatomyositis in a Nigerian girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa. PMID:24706700

  2. Posttraumatic stress among youths in juvenile detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Derek; Thompson, Sanna J; Sanford, Julia

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 1.8 million juveniles were arrested in the United States for delinquency in 2009. Previous studies indicate high rates of exposure to traumatic events and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms for these youths. This study examined PTS in a sample of 170 youths in juvenile detention. The results of this study reveal higher rates of PTS symptoms (21%) compared to national rates (6%). The data also suggest youths suffering from more PTS symptoms also report higher depression, anxiety, anger, family relationship worries, thought problems, and attention problems. These factors provide a direction for continued practice targeting these youths.

  3. [HLA antigens in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumba, I V; Sochnev, A M; Kukaĭne, E M; Burshteĭn, A M; Benevolenskaia, L I

    1990-01-01

    Antigens of I class HLA system (locus A and B) were investigated in 67 patients of Latvian nationality suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Associations of HLA antigens with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis partially coincided with the ones revealed earlier. Typing established an increased incidence of antigen B27 (p less than 0.01) and gaplotype A2, B40 (p less than 0.01). Antigen B15 possessed a protective action with respect to JRA. Interlocus combinations demonstrated a closer association with the disease than a single antigen. The authors also revealed markers of various clinico-anatomical variants of JRA.

  4. Metabolic responses to hypoglycemia in juvenile diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Krarup, T;

    1980-01-01

    Glucagon and metabolic responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were studied in seven juvenile diabetics, age 31 +/- 2 years (mean and S.E.M.), duration of diabetes 17 +/- 3 years, with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (decreased beat-to-beat variation in heart rate during hyperventilation and...... in both patient groups. Metabolic responses to hypoglycemia were also similar in the two patient groups. In conclusion, diabetic autonomic neuropathy has no effect on glucagon and metabolic responses to hypoglycemia in juvenile, insulin-treated diabetics....

  5. Juvenil Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emin YANIK et al.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an uncommon skin disease characterized by follicularkeratotic papules, erythemato-squamous plaques and palmoplantar keratoderma. Etyology isunknown. A 8 years-old boy presented with a 15 days history of scaly patches and plaques withfollicular papules involving his scalp and face. However he had palmoplantar keratoderma onhis hands and feet. Based upon clinical and histopatological findings, he was diagnosed asJuvenile PRP. Acitretin was initiated for therapy. We presented our case because of its rarity.

  6. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Marialda Höfling P.; Amaral,Elisabete; PAI, Hong Jin; Daniela Terumi Y. Tsai; LOTITO, Ana Paola N; Leone,Claudio; Silva, Clovis Artur

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever a utilização da acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia) submetidos a, pelo menos, 11 sessões semanais de acupuntura. As avaliações antes e após acupuntura incluíram dados demográficos, características da dor musculoesquelética, número de pontos dolorosos (NPD), escala visual analógica (EVA) de dor, algiometria e índice miálgico (IM). D...

  7. Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents: Profiles of Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Melissa H.; Cummings, Jack A.; McKinney, Robert

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study of resiliency profiles of male and female juvenile offenders committed to a juvenile correctional facility was conducted. The goal of the present study was to examine juvenile offenders' positive characteristics (e.g., adaptability, optimism, self-efficacy, tolerance of differences). To assess positive characteristics and…

  8. Programa Shortstop: A Culturally Focused Juvenile Intervention for Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Ruan, Karen; Duenas, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Culturally sensitive juvenile delinquency and substance abuse interventions are relatively limited and unavailable to many first-time Hispanic juvenile offenders. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a culturally focused juvenile and substance abuse intervention program for first time Hispanic youth offenders. The intent of…

  9. Increased Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. van Hattem; L.A.A. Brosens; S.Y. Marks; A.N.A. Milne; S. van Eeden; C.A. Iacobuzio-Donahue; A. Ristimäki; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims: Gastrointestinal juvenile polyps may occur in juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) or sporadically. JPS is an autosomal-dominant condition caused by a germline defect in SMAD4 or BMPR1A in 50% to 60% of cases, and is characterized by multiple juvenile polyps, predominantly in the col

  10. Chronic Juvenile Delinquency and the "Suppression Effect": An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark; Norman, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Notes that fear of apprehension and punishment have been reported to suppress juvenile crime. Discusses suppression effect in regard to the correlates of chronic juvenile delinquency and exploratory evidence that youth who commit large volume of crime do not fear sanctions imposed by juvenile court any more than youth who commit only one offense…

  11. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikanza, Ian C

    2002-01-01

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is the most common childhood chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease. The therapeutic approach to JRA has, to date, been casual and based on extensions of clinical experiences gained in the management of adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The physiology of inflammation has been systemically studied and this has led to the identification of specific therapeutic targets and the development of novel approaches to the management of JRA. The classical treatments of the disease such as methotrexate, sodium aurothiomalate and sulfasalazine, are not always effective in controlling RA and JRA. This has necessitated the development of novel agents for treating RA, most of which are biological in nature and are targeted at specific sites of the inflammatory cascades. These biological therapeutic strategies in RA have proved successful and are being applied in the management of JRA. These developments have been facilitated by the advances in molecular biology which have heralded the advent of biodrugs (recombinant proteins) and gene therapy, in which specific genes can be introduced locally to enhance in vivo gene expression or suppress gene(s) of interest with a view to down-regulating inflammation. Some of these biodrugs, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha), monoclonal antibodies (infliximab, adalimumab), TNF soluble receptor constructs (etanercept) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) have been tested and shown to be effective in RA. Etanercept has now been licensed for JRA. Clinical trials of infliximab in JRA are planned. Studies show that the clinical effects are transient, necessitating repeated treatments and the risk of vaccination effects. Anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta and interferon-beta (IFN-beta) are undergoing clinical trials. Many of these agents have to be administered parenterally and production costs are very high; thus, there is a need

  12. The challenges of the first migration: movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Eggers, Ute; Flack, Andrea; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, we examined the patterns and potential causes of age-related differences in fall migration properties of white storks by comparing first-year juveniles and adults. We compared juvenile and adult parameters of movement, behaviour and energy expenditure (estimated from overall dynamic body acceleration) and placed this in the context of the juveniles' lower survival rate. Juveniles used flapping flight vs. soaring flight 23% more than adults and were estimated to expend 14% more energy during flight. Juveniles did not compensate for their higher flight costs by increased refuelling or resting during migration. When juveniles and adults migrated together in the same flock, the juvenile flew mostly behind the adult and was left behind when they separated. Juveniles showed greater improvement in flight efficiency throughout migration compared to adults which appears crucial because juveniles exhibiting higher flight costs suffered increased mortality. Our findings demonstrate the conflict between the juveniles' inferior flight skills and their urge to keep up with mixed adult-juvenile flocks. We suggest that increased flight costs are an important proximate cause of juvenile mortality in white storks and likely in other soaring migrants and that natural selection is operating on juvenile variation in flight efficiency.

  13. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  14. Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2010: Selected Findings. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report Series. Bulletin NCJ 241134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Sarah; Sickmund, Melissa; Sladky, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This bulletin is part of the "Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report Series." The "National Report" offers a comprehensive statistical overview of the problems of juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and the response of the juvenile justice system. During each interim year, the bulletins in the "National…

  15. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Ethnic monitoring and social control: Descriptions from juveniles in juvenile care institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Basic, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has emphasized the institutional racism in total institutions. Researchers have highlighted the importance of narratives but have not focused on narratives about ethnic monitoring and social control. This article tries to fill this gap by analysing stories related to descriptions of ethnic monitoring and social control as told by juveniles of non-Swedish ethnicity in Swedish juvenile care institutions. A juvenile’s ethnicity was highlighted by drawing attention to the staff’...

  17. Preliminary configuration identification and immuno-enhancing activity of Haliotis discus hannai Ino visceral glycoprotein%皱纹盘鲍脏器糖蛋白结构的初步鉴定及其免疫活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包郁明; 侯虎; 乔若瑾; 陶宇; 李志皓; 李八方

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析鉴定皱纹盘鲍脏器糖蛋白AGP-Ⅲ初级结构并探讨脏器糖蛋白粗品AGP的免疫活性.方法 采用高效液相色谱法、氨基酸组成分析法、红外光谱法、β-消除反应对AGP-Ⅲ进行初步分析;建立小鼠免疫低下模型,探讨AGP不同剂量对小鼠免疫功能的调节作用.结果 AGP-Ⅲ的单糖组成有岩藻糖、半乳糖、氨基葡萄、甘露糖、氨基半乳糖、木糖、葡萄糖和鼠李糖.AGP-Ⅲ含有17种氨基酸,缬氨酸含量最高,其次为谷氨酸、甘氨酸.AGP-Ⅲ中存在糖蛋白的特征吸收峰及β折叠结构,糖肽键类型为O-糖肽键,糖苷键类型为吡喃型.AGP中、高剂量组能显著提高免疫低下小鼠的细胞免疫和非特异性免疫功能.结论 AGP-Ⅲ有糖蛋白的特征结构,AGP在适宜剂量条件下可提高小鼠的免疫能力.%Objective The configuration analysis and immuno-enhancing activity of purified Haliotis discus hannai Ino visceral glycoprotein AGP-Ⅲ were investigated in this study. Methods Methods of HPLC, amino acids analysis, IR analysis,β-elimination reaction were used. Results Monosaccharide compositions of AGP-Ⅲ were Man, GlcNac, Rha, GalNAc, Glc, Gal, Xyl and Fuc. Seventeen kinds of amino acids were determined in AGP- III , and it was rich in Val, Glu and Gly. AGP- HI shared with a typical absorption property of glycoprotein in a pyranose β-glycosidic and Oglycoside linkage. The medium dosage (50 mg · kg-1) and high dosage (100 mg · kg-1) of AGP could promote immuological function both in celluar and non-specific immunity in immunodepression mice. Conclusion AGP-Ⅲ had typical configuration of glycoprotein and the Haliotis discus hannai Ino visceral glycoprotein could enhance the immunity of mice.

  18. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currently...

  19. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  20. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; W. Cossermelli

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography.

  1. Family Disruption and Delinquency. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Rivera, Craig; Huizinga, David; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    At study sites in Rochester (New York), Denver (Colorado) and Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), three research teams studying the impact of family disruption on juvenile delinquency have interviewed approximately 4,000 participants at regular intervals for a decade, recording their lives in detail. Findings to date indicate that preventing delinquency…

  2. Childhood ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-05-12

    May 12, 2012 ... years old of age. We describe a case ... Juvenile granulosa cell tumour a subtype of ovarian stro- mal cell ... A more serious estrogen effects can occur in various end ... usually behave in a benign manner despite having histo-.

  3. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in juvenile chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, L; Horst, G; Limburg, P; deGraeffMeeder, ER; Kuis, W; Kallenberg, C

    1997-01-01

    Objective, To evaluate the diagnostic significance of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) by assessing the prevalence of ANCA in juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) (n = 93) of either oligoarticular, polyarticular, or systemic onset. To investigate the prevalence of ANCA in other diseases of c

  4. Biologisk terapi ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has undergone marked changes. There is substantial evidence that inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) like etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab show significant efficacy when standard therapy fails, and long-ter...

  5. Smerte og smertemestring ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels; Thastum, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Pain is one of the primary symptoms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA patients have reduced pain tolerance and pain threshold compared to healthy controls. In children with JIA the greater use of coping strategies such as problem-solving, positive self-statements and distraction consist...

  6. Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Thyrotoxicosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, R. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hansen, D.

    2015-01-01

    . Additional data were collected on children diagnosed with GD in 2008-2012. Results: In total, 237 patients with juvenile thyrotoxicosis (JT) were identified. The overall IR in 1998-2012 was 1.58/100,000 person-years and has increased significantly from 0.79/100,000 person-years in 1982-1988 (p

  7. Predictors of juveniles' noncompliance with probation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeMoyer, Amanda; Goldstein, Naomi E S; McKitten, Rhonda L; Prelic, Ana; Ebbecke, Jenna; Foster, Erika; Burkard, Casey

    2014-12-01

    Probation is the most common disposition for adjudicated youth, but little is known about which specific requirements are commonly imposed on juveniles, the requirements with which juveniles most often fail to comply, and how certain youth characteristics and/or imposed requirements might relate to probation noncompliance. An investigation of 120 archived files of youth represented by an urban public defender's office identified 29 probation requirements imposed on youth and 18 requirements with which youth commonly failed to comply. Results revealed that 52% of youth failed to comply with at least one probation requirement; prior probation noncompliance and race were both significantly associated with noncompliance in the examined probation disposition. In addition, the probability of probation noncompliance was significantly higher when youth received either of two substance-related probation requirements: drug tests or drug and alcohol counseling. Such results may prompt further investigation of juvenile probation-related predictors, identify areas of need for clinical service provision to foster successful completion of probation requirements, and help identify areas of potential biases among juvenile court personnel.

  8. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography. Images PMID:1444631

  9. The human microbiome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Anouk; ter Haar, Nienke M.; de Roock, Sytze; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The

  10. Alteracioness cognitivas en familias con Parkinson juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Lopera Restrepo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Neurociencias de la Universidad de Antioquia reportó por primera vez en Colombia cuatro familias afecatas por la Enfermedad de Parkinson Familiar Juvenil portadoras de la mutación G736A en el gen Parkin.

  11. Metamorphosis: How Missouri Rehabilitates Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Juveniles convicted of serious offenses usually end up in large correctional facilities that focus on punishment--not rehabilitation. The state of Missouri, however, has found a better way to help end the cycle of crime: by creating a network of small facilities that provide therapy and educational opportunities, it has dramatically reduced…

  12. The human microbiome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Anouk; ter Haar, Nienke M.; de Roock, Sytze; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The

  13. Autoimmune hepatitis and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, M. E. J.; Porta, G.; Fiorot, F. J.; Campos, L. M. A.; Sallum, A. M. E.; Silva, C. A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are both autoimmune disorders that are rare in children and have a widespread clinical manifestation. A few case reports have shown a JSLE-AIH associated disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first study that simultaneousl

  14. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (TERMINOLOGICALAND CLASSIFICATION ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Kuzmina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the data of home and foreign literature and on the long-term experience of pediatric rheumatologists, terminologic and classification aspects of Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA are presented. Approaches to developing of diagnostic and classification of JRA criteria in future are described.

  15. Evaluating juvenile detainees' Miranda misconceptions: The discriminant validity of the Juvenile Miranda Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Allyson J; Rogers, Richard; Williams, Margot M; Drogin, Eric Y

    2017-05-01

    Most juvenile arrestees in custodial settings waive their Miranda rights almost immediately, and many then provide incriminating statements, if not outright confessions. Forensic practitioners are then asked to provide retrospective determinations regarding whether these waivers were effectuated knowingly, voluntarily, and intelligently. At present, the forensic assessment instrument for juvenile Miranda issues consists of the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments (MRCI)-which as its name implies-focuses mostly on Miranda comprehension with a de-emphasis of Miranda reasoning. In partially addressing this gap, the current study investigated the clinical utility of the Juvenile Miranda Quiz (JMQ) for evaluating key Miranda misconceptions, a critically important component of Miranda reasoning. Using data from 201 juvenile detainees, we evaluated the JMQ's discriminability with regards to cognitive variables and MRCI scales. Many moderate effect sizes in the predicted direction were found for the JMQ Primary Total and Juvenile Total scores. Finally, these detainees were tested using a mock crime scenario with a representative Miranda warning plus a brief interrogation to evaluate whether they would waive their rights, and if so, whether they would confess. Using Miranda measures to predict problematic outcomes (i.e., impaired waivers followed by confessions), the JMQ Juvenile Total proved the most successful. These findings are discussed within the context of the "intelligent" prong of Miranda waivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eutsler, Eric P. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Horton, Daniel B. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Wilmington, DE (United States); Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Finkel, Terri [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Orlando, FL (United States); Averill, Lauren W. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  17. 热加工条件对鲍鱼腹足部分加工特性的影响%The effect of thermal processing on the partial properties of abalone meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖桂华; 朱蓓薇; 董秀萍; 陈雪娇; 陈昭

    2012-01-01

    The mass, textural properties, sensory scores and denaturation ratio of myofibrillar protein were measured after abalone meat was subjected to thermal processing at 60, 70, 80, 85, 90 and 100 ℃ for 0. 5-14 h respectively. The results showed that obvious changes of mass, textural properties, sensory scores and denaturation ratio of myofibrillar protein were observed as the temperature increased and the heating time prolonged. The denaturation rate of myofibrillar protein decreased rapidly and stabilized above 90%. The abalone meat with high quality could be obtained at 80 ℃.%分别在60、70、80、85、90和100℃下对鲍鱼腹足热加工0.5~14 h,考察了热加工条件对其质量、质构特性、感官特性以及肌原纤维蛋白变性率的影响.结果表明,随着热加工温度的升高和时间的延长,鲍鱼腹足的质量逐渐降低;其质构和感官特性先变好后变差,且温度越高,随时间的变化越明显;其肌原纤维蛋白变性率迅速升高,且升至90%后趋于平稳.在80℃左右加热,鲍鱼腹足的质量损失少,质构特性和感官特性都较好,品质较高,可加工时间较长.

  18. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.;

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  19. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil Acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil Acupuncture in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialda Höfling P. Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a utilização da acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia submetidos a, pelo menos, 11 sessões semanais de acupuntura. As avaliações antes e após acupuntura incluíram dados demográficos, características da dor musculoesquelética, número de pontos dolorosos (NPD, escala visual analógica (EVA de dor, algiometria e índice miálgico (IM. Durante o estudo, os pacientes puderam usar analgésicos, amitriptilina e foram orientados a praticar atividade física aeróbica. Os resultados antes e após acupuntura foram comparados pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: Dos 38 pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil acompanhados em oito anos consecutivos, 13 tinham todas as informações nos prontuários e nas fichas de acupuntura e foram avaliados. Destes 13, sete obtiveram melhora nos três parâmetros analisados (número de pontos dolorosos, EVA de dor e IM. As medianas do número de pontos dolorosos e da EVA de dor foram significativamente maiores antes do tratamento quando comparados ao final do tratamento com as sessões de acupuntura [14 (11-18 versus 10 (0-15, p=0,005; 6 (2-10 versus 3 (0-10, p=0,045; respectivamente]. Em contraste, a mediana do IM foi significativamente menor antes do tratamento [3,4 (2,49-4,39 versus 4,2 (2,71-5,99, p=0,02]. Nenhum dos pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil apresentou eventos adversos associados à acupuntura. CONCLUSÕES: Acupuntura é uma modalidade de Medicina Tradicional Chinesa que pode ser utilizada nos pacientes pediátricos com fibromialgia. Futuros estudos controlados serão necessários.OBJETIVO: Describir el uso de acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo realizado en pacientes con fibromialgia juvenil (criterios del Colegio Americano de Reumatología sometidos a al menos 11 sesiones

  20. The impact of schools on juvenile substance initiation and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Mach, Traci; Clapp, John D

    2004-06-01

    We use data from the two rounds of the NLSY97 and the corresponding QED data to examine the effectiveness of school endowments and curricula in targeting juvenile use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. Our results support the notion that schools matter in reducing juvenile involvement in substance use. Higher discretionary dollars per pupil are linked to reduced rates of juvenile initiation and repetitive use rates of cigarettes and marijuana. Additionally, school curricula, as indicated by the implementation of year round classes and some innovative and after-school programs--such as gifted and talented, attendance monitoring, homework hotline, international baccalaureate, extended-day, and mentoring, programs, affect both juvenile initiation to tobacco and alcohol use and juvenile repetitive use of tobacco and alcohol. In particular, we find that juvenile initiation to cigarette use is approximately between 2 percentage points and 3 percentage points lower among youths attending schools with gifted and talented and international baccalaureate programs. In addition, juvenile repetitive cigarette use is approximately 54%, 52%, and 48% lower among youths attending schools offering year round classes, international baccalaureate, and twenty-first century programs, respectively. Finally, juvenile initiation to alcohol use and juvenile repetitive use of alcohol are approximately 3% and 20% lower, respectively, among youths in schools offering gifted and talented programs. In sum, while these programs are not implemented to address substance use problems among the student body, we find that the implementation of these programs is often accompanied by a reduction in juvenile initiation and repetitive substance use.

  1. THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JosA Luis de la Cuesta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available 1. Relevant legal framework regulating criminal proceedings against juvenile offenders. 2. Age thresholds of criminal responsibility and liability to prosecution. 3. Specialized agencies. 3.1. Judges specialization. 3.2. Prosecutor\\'s specialization. 3.3. Specialization required for any, other figure acting in the proceedings. 3.4. Social services (or similar agencies involved in the proceedings. 4. Early definition of the proceedings. 5. Personality assessment procedures. 6. Mediation. 7. Personal liberty. 8. Safeguards for the protection of minors. 8.1. Affective and/or psychological assistance. 8.2. Preventing the disclosure of the juvenile offender\\'s identity. 8.3. Other measures. 9. Final remarks.

  2. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and lymphoedema: lymphangiographic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmit, P.; Brunelle, F. [Service de Radiopediatrie, Groupe Hospitalier Necker-Enfants-Malades, Paris (France); Prieur, A.M. [Unite Fonctionnelle de Rhumatologie Infantile, Groupe Hospitalier Necker-Enfants-Malades, Paris (France)

    1999-05-01

    We report a 5{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old boy with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and lower-limb lymphoedema. US, MRI and lymphangiography were performed. Based on the lymphangiographic study, we propose a pathogenesis based on obstruction of normal superficial lymphatic vessels in the affected limb. This is discussed with other pathogenetic factors proposed in the 16 previously reported cases of lymphoedema complicating JRA. (orig.) With 3 figs., 5 refs.

  3. El rock como conformador de identidades juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián de Garay

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza la relación entre el rock y las identidades juveniles, a partir del abordaje de cinco “estilos” que se pueden identificar como constitutivos de éstas identidades. Ellos son: la jerga, la estética, las producciones culturales, los no-lugares y el territorio. Finaliza el artículo señalando algunos hitos importantes de la culturarockera en la ciudad de México.

  4. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re-evaluated...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  5. De las bandas a las culturas juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Feixa

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an exposition about the processes of elaboration oftheoretical concepts and methodological schemes of five ofthe princi-pal theoretical methodological paradigms thatstudygangsand juveni-le cultures in western contemporary societies. These processes oftheoretical methodological elaboration are derived from the resul-ting empirical data based on participatory observation, analysis andrellection about the conducts displayedby theadolescents as membersof a larger society.

  6. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Nabil J.; Naffaa, Lena N.; Haddad, Maurice C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 113-6044, Beirut (Lebanon); Shabb, Nina S. [Department of Pathology, American University of Beirut - Medical Center, P.O. Box 113-6044, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2002-07-01

    We describe the CT findings in four patients and the MR imaging in one patient with juvenile ossifying fibroma. Three lesions involved the maxillary sinus and extended to the surrounding structures; one lesion was confined to the maxillary bone. CT scan revealed well-defined, expansile lesions with variable amount of calcifications. On MRI one lesion had intermediate signal intensity with significant contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  7. Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yuen Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.

  8. Do Juvenile Curfew Laws Reduce Underage Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Elyse R.; Jernigan, David H.; Miller, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although not originally enacted to deter the problem of underage drinking in the United States, one set of laws that may influence this behavior is juvenile curfew laws. This research asked the following: (a) What is the effect of enacting a juvenile curfew law on youth drinking, and (b) do demographic variables moderate the relation between juvenile curfew law enactment and drinking? This study examined the effect of juvenile curfew laws on underage drinking, using data from 46 U.S. cities from 1991 to 2005. Method: In 2014, we compiled a data set containing alcohol and curfew law data by zip code. It included 63,081 minors (ages 12–17 years) from 1,081 zip codes. We used difference-in-difference regressions to analyze the data. Results: The effect of the enactment of a curfew law on the likelihood of consuming alcohol in the past year or past 30 days or of heavy episodic drinking in the past 2 weeks was not significant when compared with cities without curfew laws during the same periods. Although the likelihood of consuming alcohol over the past year differed depending on an individual’s characteristics (e.g., race/ethnicity, age, and gender), none of the interaction terms between these characteristics and curfew laws were significant. Conclusions: Curfew laws appear to have a non-significant effect on youth drinking, but these results are unclear without more knowledge as to where and when youth are drinking both before and after the enactment of curfew laws and how these laws are being enforced. PMID:27340963

  9. Clinical presentation of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruocco Heloísa H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation a group of patients with juvenile onset of Huntington disease. METHOD: All patients were interviewed following a structured clinical questioner. Patients were genotyped for the trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeat in the Huntington Disease gene. High resolution brain MRI was performed in all patients. RESULTS: We identified 4 patients with juvenile onset of disease among 50 patients with Huntington disease followed prospectively in our Neurogenetics clinic. Age at onset varied from 3 to 13 years, there were 2 boys, and 3 patients had a paternal inheritance of the disease. Expanded Huntington disease allele sizes varied from 41 to 69 trinucleotide repeats. The early onset patients presented with rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, dysarthria, seizures and ataxia. MRI showed severe volume loss of caudate and putamen nuclei (p=0.001 and reduced cerebral and cerebellum volumes (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: 8% of Huntington disease patients seen in our clinic had juvenile onset of the disease. They did not present with typical chorea as seen in adult onset Huntington disease. There was a predominance of rigidity and bradykinesia. Two other important clinical features were seizures and ataxia, which related with the imaging findings of early cortical atrophy and cerebellum volume loss.

  10. JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is 0.86 per 1000 children. Subcutaneous nodules have been reported in 5% to 10% of children with JIA. Approximately 90% of patients with RA and subc utaneous nodules test positive for rheumatoid factor (RF, and approximately 40% o f all RF-seropositive patients with RA have subcutaneous nodules, whereas only 6% in volvement is seen in seronegative cases. We hereby report a case of atypical Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA in a 6 year old, female child with joint pain & myalgia along with subcutaneous nodules over the dorsum of feet, hands and elbows. Joint pain initial ly involving the left ankle, slowly progressed to involve the knee, shoulder, wrist, metacar pophalangeal and interphalangeal joints over a period of one year. Joint involvement was not symmetric. RF was Negative. Fundoscopy examination was normal. Histopathological examinat ion revealed a central zone of Fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by epithelioid h istiocytes and occasional lymphocytes. Differential diagnosis of Rheumatoid Nodule (R N or Subcutaneous Granuloma Annulare (SGA or Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum was made. In light of clinicopathological findings, both SGA and NLD were ruled out a nd the diagnosis of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis presenting as RF-negative polyarthritis was made.

  11. Habitat selection by juvenile Mojave Desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian D; Halstead, Brian J.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Peaden, J. Mark; Buhlmann, Kurt A.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Nafus, Melia G.

    2016-01-01

    Growing pressure to develop public lands for renewable energy production places several protected species at increased risk of habitat loss. One example is the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), a species often at the center of conflicts over public land development. For this species and others on public lands, a better understanding of their habitat needs can help minimize negative impacts and facilitate protection or restoration of habitat. We used radio-telemetry to track 46 neonate and juvenile tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert, California, USA, to quantify habitat at tortoise locations and paired random points to assess habitat selection. Tortoise locations near burrows were more likely to be under canopy cover and had greater coverage of perennial plants (especially creosote [Larrea tridentata]), more coverage by washes, a greater number of small-mammal burrows, and fewer white bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) than random points. Active tortoise locations away from burrows were closer to washes and perennial plants than were random points. Our results can help planners locate juvenile tortoises and avoid impacts to habitat critical for this life stage. Additionally, our results provide targets for habitat protection and restoration and suggest that diverse and abundant small-mammal populations and the availability of creosote bush are vital for juvenile desert tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert.

  12. Criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non sex offenders: an explorative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph; Mali, Bas R F; Bullens, Ruud A R; Vermeiren, Robert R

    2007-10-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders committed their first offense in 1996 and were followed for 7 years. Results showed that violent sex offenders and violent non-sex offenders cannot be considered a homogeneous group because of different background characteristics and criminal profiles. Sex and violent offenses often constitute a small part of a broader criminal pattern. Further research is necessary to reveal in more detail the developmental and criminological patterns of violent and sexual delinquency. Treatment and intervention programs may benefit from this.

  13. Protection of juveniles: Victims of abuse and neglect in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to analyses of the protection of juveniles - victims of abuse and neglect in criminal legal system of the Republic of Serbia. Particular attention is paid to of criminal acts against sexual integrity and family life of juveniles. The position of juveniles as witnesses in the criminal procedure has been viewed from the aspect of specify and vulnerability of the child, as well as through terms of secondary and tertiary victimization of minor as a victim.

  14. Giant Bilateral Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the Breast in Prepubescent Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery.

  15. New Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Iris Findings in Juvenile Xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Zeba A; Chen, Teresa C

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 12-month-old girl presenting with heterochromia, hyphema, and elevated intraocular pressure. This case demonstrates new ultrasound biomicroscopy iris findings of a generalized bumpy iris contour, suggesting diffuse heterogeneous involvement. This imaging finding has not been previously described. Untreated, iris juvenile xanthogranuloma may lead to corneal blood staining, glaucoma, and amblyopia. An understanding of the full range of ultrasound features of juvenile xanthogranuloma expands our appreciation for the clinical findings in this condition.

  16. Penalty responsibility of juveniles in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić-Pavlović Nikolina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The youngest members of organized society, more intensive than ever enter the circle of those whose behavior is deviant. Juvenile delinquency is a social problem, which recently experienced an expansion in all modern countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska. Considering the fact that juvenile delinquency includes lighter criminal conducts, such as, for example misdemeanors, in this paper a position of juveniles when they are a perpetrators of misdemeanors will be analyzed. Also, the paper will statistically show the number of misdemeanors in the field of public peace and order that juveniles conducted in the Republic of Srpska in the period 2004-2009.

  17. Eliminating the Competency Presumption in Juvenile Delinquency Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katner, David R

    2015-01-01

    The legal presumption used in virtually all juvenile delinquency cases in the U.S. is that all juveniles are competent to stand trial. This Article calls for the elimination of that legal presumption, which is historically based on the Dusky v. United States decision and in the adult criminal justice system. The recent decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court recognize the developmental and organic brain differences between adults and juveniles. Current research demonstrates a higher frequency rate of incompetence based on intellectual deficiencies among children when compared with adults found to be not legally competent to stand trial. By eliminating the competency presumption for juveniles in both delinquency and adult criminal proceedings, the party seeking an adjudication would be responsible for establishing that the accused juvenile is in fact, competent to stand trial. Foreign jurisdictions in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America have long required higher thresholds--at least fourteen years of age--for holding juveniles accountable for criminal misconduct, none of them presuming that juveniles are competent to go to trial. In the alternative, by expanding the factors currently in use for determination of juvenile competency by adding developmental immaturity and mental illness, juvenile justice systems could identify the reduction of recidivist offending as the primary systemic objective.

  18. Food resource utilization by juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua : a mechanism potentially influencing recruitment success at the demersal juvenile stage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; St. John, Michael; Böttcher, U.

    1997-01-01

    those reported to be consumed by juveniles in other areas. The apparent overlap in food resource utilization among the different size groups of demersal juveniles observed in this study suggests that in years with low prey abundance, or high abundance of pelagic juveniles, strong intra......Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected during surveys in the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea) in autumn 1994. Stomach contents were examined for prey composition in order to evaluate the potential importance of the pelagic and demersal habitats for recruitment success....... Juvenile cod less than 40 mm fed exclusively on pelagic prey such as copepods and cladocerans. Between 40 and 50 mm the juveniles began to consume benthic prey such as mysids and amphipods; however, copepods were still the dominant food organisms. Between 50 and 70 mm the dominant prey items consumed were...

  19. Growth of juvenile shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros fed with squid and mussel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Small juveniles of both sexes and females of large juveniles of Metapenaeus monoceros attained faster growth with squid diet. Males of large juveniles registered better growth with mussel diet. No significant difference was observed in moult weights...

  20. 78 FR 42109 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...: Juvenile Justice Reform and Reinvestment Initiative Stakeholder Survey Under OMB's Partnership Fund ACTION: 60 Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile...-3649, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs,...

  1. 77 FR 70473 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (Revision of a Currently..., Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the following...

  2. 78 FR 40189 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile Residential Facility Census (Extension, Without Change, of a... Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the...

  3. 78 FR 66383 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile Justice Reform and Reinvestment... (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will...

  4. The challenges of the first migration : movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S.; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, ...

  5. Comparison of the localization of tetrodotoxin between wild pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with tetrodotoxin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kogen; Takatani, Tomohiro; Nakayasu, Junichi; Yamazaki, Hideki; Sakiyama, Kazutaka; Ikeda, Koichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Sakakura, Yoshitaka

    2013-09-01

    To reveal the accumulation profile of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles, we compared the localization of TTX in various tissues among wild juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with or without TTX administration using immunohistochemical technique with anti-TTX monoclonal antibody. Immuno-positive reaction was observed in hepatic tissue, basal cell of skin and olfactory, olfactory epithelium, optic nerve and brain (optic tectum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata) of wild juveniles (body length: BL, 4.7-9.4 cm). TTX was detected in the same tissues as wild juveniles and epithelial cell layer of intestine of hatchery-reared juveniles (BL, 5.0-5.3 cm) to which TTX was orally administrated. No positive reaction was observed from the tissues of hatchery-reared juveniles without TTX administration. These results suggest that orally administrated TTX to the non-toxic cultured juveniles is accumulated in the same manner of wild juveniles. In addition, our study revealed that pufferfish accumulates TTX in the central nervous system.

  6. Tropical tree rings reveal preferential survival of fast-growing juveniles and increased juvenile growth rates over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Brienen, Roel J W; Soliz-Gamboa, Claudia C; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2010-02-01

    Long-term juvenile growth patterns of tropical trees were studied to test two hypotheses: fast-growing juvenile trees have a higher chance of reaching the canopy ('juvenile selection effect'); and tree growth has increased over time ('historical growth increase'). Tree-ring analysis was applied to test these hypotheses for five tree species from three moist forest sites in Bolivia, using samples from 459 individuals. Basal area increment was calculated from ring widths, for trees rings formed by small juveniles. Thus, extant adult trees in these species have had higher juvenile growth rates than extant juvenile trees. By contrast, rings formed by somewhat larger juveniles in four species showed the opposite pattern: a historical growth increase. For most size classes of > 10 cm diameter none of the patterns was found. Fast juvenile growth may be essential to enable tropical trees to reach the forest canopy, especially for small juvenile trees in the dark forest understorey. The historical growth increase requires cautious interpretation, but may be partially attributable to CO(2) fertilization.

  7. Juvenile Justice in Australia 2009-10. Juvenile Justice Series. Number 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalders, Rachel; Morgan, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, the state and territory governments are responsible for dealing with young people who are involved in crime. One major aspect of the juvenile justice system is the supervision of children and young people who have committed or are alleged to have committed an offence. This report presents information on the young people under…

  8. Predictors of Support for Juvenile Sex Offender Registration: Educated Individuals Recognize the Flaws of Juvenile Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Margaret C.; Smith, Amy C.; Sekely, Ady; Farnum, Katlyn S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated demographic predictors of support for juvenile sex offender registration policies, including education level, gender, political orientation, and age. Participants were 168 individuals recruited from public places in a Midwest community (45% women; M age = 42). In line with hypotheses, as education level increased, support for…

  9. Gold nephropathy in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Shuler, S E

    1979-01-01

    A 2-year-old girl was treated with gold salts for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment had to be discontinued when persistent proteinuria was detected. As this case report indicates, close monitoring of the urine is mandatory during treatment with gold salts to detect early signs of toxicity: hematuria followed by casts and then proteinuria as therapy is continued. Histologic examination with electron microscopy will help to differentiate the different forms of gold toxicity. When the findings are consistent with gold-induced renal involvement, therapy should be discontinued. The gold nephropathy usually resolves in time, with no permanent renal damage.

  10. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the paediatric perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Alison [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Department of Adolescent Rheumatology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); McDonagh, Janet E. [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Institute of Child Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Paediatric rheumatology is a relatively new specialty that has developed rapidly over the last 30 years. There have been major advances, which have included improvements in the classification and management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The former has led to enhanced international collaboration with disease registries, multicentre research and the development of new therapeutic agents. This has resulted in improved disease control and remission induction in many. There is, however, still significant morbidity associated with JIA during childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and challenges for the future include early identification of those with a poorer prognosis, appropriate administration of safe therapies and optimizing outcomes as young people move through adolescence into adulthood. (orig.)

  11. Massive juvenile angiomatosis of maxilla and mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiomatosis is a complex vascular malformation of infancy and childhood consisting of proliferating blood vessels with accompanying mature fat, fibrous tissue, lymphatic′s and nerves, which may involve skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle and occasionally bone. It is extremely rare and benign, but a clinically extensive vascular lesion of soft-tissue, which usually becomes symptomatic during childhood or adolescence. We report a rare case of massive juvenile angiomatosis of maxilla and mandible in a 15-year-old male patient.

  12. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçal, Naci; Gülçelik, Nevzat; Yildiz, Kadriye; Mungan, Sevdegül; Kutlu, Necmettin

    2005-07-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis ( JHF ) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures, and bone lesions. The skin lesions may consist of multiple large tumors, commonly on the scalp and around the neck, and small pearly, pink papules and plaques on the trunk, chin, ears, and around the nostrils. Here, we report a 2-year-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hyperplasia. The lesions were totally excised and clinicopathological diagnosis was JHF.

  13. Managing juvenile Huntington’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Quarrell, Oliver W. J.; Nance, Martha A.; Nopoulos, Peggy; Paulsen, Jane S.; Smith, Jonathan A.; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a well-recognized progressive neurodegenerative disorder that follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Onset is insidious and can occur at almost any age, but most commonly the diagnosis is made between the ages of 35 and 55 years. Onset ≤20 years of age is classified as juvenile HD (JHD). This age-based definition is arbitrary but remains convenient. There is overlap between the clinical pathological and genetic features seen in JHD and more traditio...

  14. Cranial juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena López, Cristina; Bollar Zabala, Alicia; Úrculo Bareño, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma (JPOF) is a fibroosseous tumor that arises in the craniofacial bones in young people. This lesion usually originates in the jaw, orbit, and ethmoid complex but can also be associated with the skull base and calvaria. Diagnosis must be made based on observing typical radiological and histopathological features. Although JPOF is a rare pathological entity, neurosurgeons must consider this odontogenic lesion in the differential diagnosis of skull masses given the lesion's aggressive behavior and locally invasive growth. Treatment must be gross-total resection. In the following article, the authors present a case of cranial JPOF and discuss various aspects of this entity.

  15. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a clinical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J

    2000-02-01

    The chronic arthritides in childhood remain a poorly understood group of conditions. Their classification has been a source of much confusion over the years with differences in terminology between Europe and North America. A significant step forward in paediatric rheumatology has been the recent development of an internationally agreed classification system which uses the overall term juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The various subtypes of JIA and their clinical features are described, together with an overview of their differential diagnosis, complications and outcomes. An outline of current management strategies is given and potential future developments highlighted.

  16. CYCLOSPORIN A IN THERAPY FOR JUVENILE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Fedorov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes approaches to using cyclosporin A (CsA in juvenile arthritis (JA. It shows the benefits of combination basic therapy with CsA and methotrexate included into a treatment regimen mainly for systemic JA and JA involving the eye (uveitis versus monotherapy with the above drugs. Attention is drawn to that the oral dose of glucocorticoids may be decreased when CsA is incorporated into the treatment regimen. CsA is shown to be of value as the drug of choice for the therapy of such a menacing complication of systemic JA as the macrophage activation syndrome

  17. Drying kinetics and mathematical modeling of abalone during the hot-air drying process%鲍鱼热风干燥动力学及干燥过程数学模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾敏; 丛海花; 薛长湖; 薛勇; 孙兆敏; 李金章

    2012-01-01

    研究了鲍鱼在不同热风干燥温度下的干燥动力学特点,并构建了干燥过程的数学模型。热风干燥温度选取60、65、70、75、80℃;风速恒定为1m/s。干燥方法采取间歇干燥,分两个阶段进行。利用理论模型—扩散模型,和常见经验模型—Newton模型、Henderson and Pabis模型、Logaritmic模型、Two-terms模型、Page模型及Modified Page模型,对鲍鱼干燥过程的两个阶段分别进行描述。实验结果表明:鲍鱼热风干燥只经历降速阶段,水分扩散在鲍鱼干燥的过程中起主导作用。通过对实验数据进行统计分析,得到适合鲍鱼热风干燥的模型为Page模型(第一阶段干燥)和Two-terms模型(第二阶段干燥),模型的预测值与实际值比较吻合(Page模型r2〉0.999,s〈1%;Two-terms模型r2〉0.997,s〈2%),可以用来描述鲍鱼的热风干燥过程。%The drying dynamics characteristics and drying model of abalone were studied and constructed respectively,using a hot air dryer at five levels of drying air temperatures in the range of 60~80℃,and a fixed air flow velocity,1m/s.The drying process was intermittent,divided into two stages,during which the drying behaviors of abalone were estimated respectively by mechanistic and empirical models:the diffusion model,Newton model,Henderson and Pabis model,Logaritmic model,Two-terms model,Page model,and Modified Page model.It could be seen that the drying process of abalone only contained deceleration stage and the removal of moisture from the material was governed by diffusion phenomenon.Among the models,the Page model and the Two-terms models were found to be the most suitable(Page model:r20.999,s1%;Two-terms model:r20.997,s2%) for predicting moisture ratio of the product in the first and second stage of the drying process.

  18. Polipose juvenil: relato de 2 casos Juvenile polyposis: case two report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A Polipose Juvenil é uma afecção rara e faz parte do grupo das poliposes hamartomatosas familiares (PHF. É uma síndrome autossômica dominante que pode ser desencadeada por mutações no gene SMAD4/DPC4 (que codifica um sinalizador intermediário de TGF-b. Caracteriza-se pelo aparecimento de 10 ou mais pólipos hamartomatosos (juvenis no trato gastrintestinal, predominando no cólon. Costuma manifestar-se entre 4 e 14 anos de idade. Alguns pólipos adquirem focos adenomatosos apesar da natureza hamartomatosa das lesões e há chance de malignização. Relato de 2 casos de pacientes portadores de Polipose Juvenil colônica associada a focos de adenoma com displasia e revisão da literatura.Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome is a rare disease and is included in the Hamartomatous Familial Polyposis's (HFP group. It's an autosomal dominant syndrome which can be determinated by SMAD4/DPC4 germline mutations (which codifies an intermediary mediator of TGF-b. It's characterized by 10 or more hamartomatous polyps (juveniles throughout the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the colon. The symptoms usually appears between the ages of 4 and 14 years old. Some polyps can acquire adenomatous changes despite the lesion's hamartomatous nature and there's chance of colorectum malignization. Case report of two patients with Juvenile Polyposis coli associated to adenomatous changes with dysplasia and literature review.

  19. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  20. The Challenges in Providing Needed Transition Programming to Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, John S.; Bohac, Paul D.; Wade, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The transition to and from juvenile justice settings is a complex and challenging process. Effectively preparing juvenile justice personnel to address the transition needs of incarcerated students is an essential aspect of reducing the negative effects of the school-to-prison pipeline. This article examines program and professional development…

  1. Psychiatric Disorders of Youth in Detention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin examines the prevalence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders among youth at the Cook County (Illinois) Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, by gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Drawing on research conducted by the Northwestern Juvenile Project, this bulletin finds that nearly two-thirds of males and three-quarters of females studied…

  2. Treatment for Juveniles Who Sexually Offend in a Southwestern State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikomi, Philip A.; Harris-Wyatt, Georgetta; Doucet, Geraldine; Rodney, H. Elaine

    2009-01-01

    A 25-item questionnaire was mailed to sex offender treatment providers from counties with 60 or more reported juvenile sex offenders in a Southwestern state to determine the most effective treatment for juvenile sex offenders. Results indicated that cognitive behavioral therapy was the most successful reported approach to treatment with an average…

  3. Juvenile female sex offenders: Offender and offence characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all research on juvenile sex offending pertains to adolescent males. This study comprises all female juveniles convicted for sexual offences in the Netherlands between 1993 and 2008 (N = 66). From analysis of their court files and their criminal records, these female offenders are described i

  4. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. 0.57 Section 0.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney...

  5. Family and Community Perceptions of Quality in Juvenile Justice Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber, Katherine; Streeter, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    The conceptualization and empirical assessment of service quality in juvenile justice remains limited. There are few reports on programmatic attempts to assess satisfaction in juvenile justice programs or attempts to include what constitutes quality of service from multiple customer perspectives. This article describes a potential model, the Gap…

  6. The Effects of Computerized Information Systems on Juvenile Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Gary L.

    1976-01-01

    Organizational theorists alternatively hypothesized that computerized information systems (CIS) will produce no necessary changes, centralization, or decentralization in juvenile courts. This hypothesis is supported by the results of a four year study on the phenomenon. Suggestions are offered for improving the juvenile judicial system through…

  7. A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Influences on Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    This study examined influences on delinquency and recidivism using structural equation modeling. The sample comprised 199,204 individuals: 99,602 youth whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and a matched control group of 99,602 youth without juvenile records. Structural equation modeling for the…

  8. Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents: Post-Treatment Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  9. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : Post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, T.; Asscher, J.J.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U, a

  10. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1991 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital Systems Research Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This report fulfills the annual reporting requirements of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974 as amended, and describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP) efforts to carry out the broad mandates of the JJDP Act during fiscal year 1991. The report begins with an explanation of the…

  11. Practitioner Views of Priorities, Policies, and Practices in Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Shollenberger, Tracey L.; Willison, Janeen B.; Owens, Colleen E.; Butts, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Dramatic changes in juvenile justice have occurred in recent decades. One result has been the emergence of new policies and practices, many of which remain largely unexamined. One avenue for gaining insight into whether such policies and practices are needed or effective, as well as into how the juvenile justice system might be improved, is to tap…

  12. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  13. Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal…

  14. Extinguishing All Hope: Life-without-Parole for Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Sentencing juveniles to life-without-parole (JLWOP) is a practice fraught with ethical dilemmas. Through in-depth interviews with 11 men living sentences of JLWOP, their narratives of their backgrounds and experiences as juveniles were studied. Common themes were identified, and 3 general categories of cases emerged from the narratives. Ethical…

  15. IDEA-Related Professional Development in Juvenile Corrections Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Steinberg, Mary Anne; Crockett, Jean; Murphy, Kristin M.; Gaddis, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Incarcerated youth are among the least academically and behaviorally competent students in the United States. In spite of juvenile justice reform efforts, including state and federal guarantees of appropriate education, educational services in juvenile corrections (JC) schools, especially for youth with disabilities, are lacking (Houchins,…

  16. The Content Validity of Juvenile Psychopathy: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the content validity of a juvenile psychopathy measure, the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; D. R. Lynam, 1997), based on a downward translation of an adult instrument, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). The CPS was compared with two other indices of juvenile psychopathy: (a) an index derived…

  17. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  18. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  19. Serum neopterin is not increased in obese juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, Harald; Freytag, Florian; Almer, Gunter; Weghuber, Daniel; Bauer-Denk, Carmen; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Cardiovascular disease is associated with inflammation and immune activation, concentrations of immune activation markers like neopterin predict outcome in adults. Methods. Serum neopterin concentrations and early metabolic and pre-atherosclerotic symptoms were analyzed in 295 obese juveniles and 101 normal weight controls of similar age. Additionally, the influence of a 12 months weight reduction program on neopterin levels was investigated in 31 obese juveniles. Results. Intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (IMT) and the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) were increased in the obese juveniles (P juveniles (P juvenile obesity behaved considerably different from what was demonstrated in adults, levels did not correlate with metabolic and pre-atherosclerotic symptoms found in early phases although early vascular burden and chronic low grade inflammation was indicated by increased IMT and CRP. Neopterin concentrations increased after a 12 months intervention program.

  20. Factors influencing predation on juvenile ungulates and natural selection implications

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    S. M. Barber-Meyer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ungulates are generally more vulnerable to predation than are adult ungulates other than senescent individuals, not only because of their relative youth, fragility, and inexperience, but also because of congenital factors. Linnell et al.’s (Wildl. Biol. 1: 209-223 extensive review of predation on juvenile ungulates concluded that research was needed to determine the predisposition of these juveniles to predation. Since then, various characteristics that potentially predispose juvenile ungulates have emerged including blood characteristics, morphometric and other condition factors, and other factors such as birth period, the mother’s experience, and spatial and habitat aspects. To the extent that any of the physical or behavioral traits possessed by juvenile ungulates have a genetic or heritable and partly independent epigenetic component that predisposes them to predation, predators may play an important role in their natural selection. We review the possible influence of these characteristics on predisposing juvenile ungulates to predation and discuss natural selection implications and potential selection mechanisms. Although juvenile ungulates as a class are likely more vulnerable to predation than all but senescent adults, our review presents studies indicating that juveniles with certain tendencies or traits are killed more often than others. This finding suggests that successful predation on juveniles is more selective than is often assumed. Because we are unable to control for (or in some cases even measure the myriad of other possible vulnerabilities such as differences in sensory abilities, intelligence, hiding abilities, tendency to travel, etc., finding selective predation based on the relatively few differences we can measure is noteworthy and points to the significant role that predation on juveniles has in the natural selection of ungulates. Future research should compare characteristics, especially those known to

  1. [Lung is also involved in juvenile dermatomyositis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouessel, G; Thumerelle, C; Nève, V; Santangelo, T; Flammarion, S; Pruvot, I; Tillie-Leblond, I; Deschildre, A

    2014-07-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is the leading cause of chronic idiopathic inflammatory myopathy of auto-immune origin in children. Lung involvement in inflammatory myopathies is well described in adults, involving mostly interstitial lung disease, aspiration pneumonia and alveolar hypoventilation. We propose to describe its specificities in children. Pulmonary involvement may be asymptomatic and therefore must be systematically screened for. In case of clinical or functional respiratory abnormality, a chest computed tomographic (CT) scan is necessary. In children, a decrease of respiratory muscle strength seems common and should be systematically and specifically searched for by non-invasive and reproducible tests (sniff test). Interstitial lung disease usually associates restrictive functional defect, impairment of carbon monoxide diffusion and interstitial lung disease on CT scan. As in adults, the first-line treatment of juvenile dermatomyositis is based on corticosteroids. Corticosteroid resistant forms require corticosteroid bolus or adjuvant immunosuppressive drugs (methotrexate or cyclosporine). There is no consensus in pediatrics for the treatment of diffuse interstitial lung disease. Complications of treatment, including prolonged steroid therapy, are frequent and therefore a careful assessment of the treatments risk-benefit ratio is necessary, especially in growing children.

  2. El desempleo juvenil: problema de efectos perpetuos

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    Fabio José De La Hoz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo evidencia avances teóricos y empíricos respecto al análisis deldesempleo juvenil, subrayando en materia teórica argumentos relacionados con las causas de estefenómeno, tales como la dinámica poblacional juvenil, el desempleo estructural y las condicionessocioeconómicas de los países; las consecuencias, como los bajos ingresos, la exclusión social yel desarrollo de actividades delictivas, efectos que pueden prolongarse por más de diez años. Y enmateria metodológica, diferencias conceptuales para definir a un individuo “joven”, que varían depaís a país, y dependen de instituciones nacionales encargadas de la información estadística, y enalgunos casos, de las mismas condiciones económicas de los países.

  3. Frontal Sinus Development and Juvenile Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kaitlin; Ross, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Assessment of development is an important component of age estimation in juveniles. One area that has not been fully investigated as a possible aging method is the development of the frontal sinus. The frontal sinuses form when the ectocranial table of the frontal bone separates from the endocranial table forming an air pocket in the bone. The endocranial table ceases growth with the brain, while the ectocranial table is displaced anteriorly as the facial bones continue growth. In order to examine growth and the utility of the frontal sinuses for age estimation, 392 radiographs were examined (♀=159 and ♂=233) from the Juvenile Radiograph Database at North Carolina State University and the Patricia Database from Mercyhurst University. The sample included individuals who ranged in age from 0 to 18 years. Anterior view (or AP) radiographs were examined and were grouped based upon the presence or absence of the frontal sinus. Individuals were grouped into four age categories. A one-way ANOVA was performed to test whether developmental phase was related to age. Results from the ANOVA show that developmental phase is significantly related to age (P Anat Rec, 300:1609-1617, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Heterogeneidad de trayectorias laborales y temporalidades juveniles

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    María Eugenia Longo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las trayectorias laborales de los jóvenes se diversifican en función de las duraciones, las etapas y las edades en las que ocurren los acontecimientos y se alcanzan ciertos roles. Sin embargo, factores clásicos asociados al origen social o al mundo del trabajo no alcanzan para comprender la diferenciación en los modos de inserción. Este artículo propone la inclusión de las temporalidades juveniles como factor clave para la comprensión de trayectorias laborales de jóvenes. Las temporalidades juveniles sirven para observar conjuntamente los marcos temporales dominantes de la inserción y la manera en la que los mismos son vividos por los sujetos. Las mismas discuten las tesis que señalan que en Argentina los jóvenes son prisioneros de un presentismo sin proyecto o que se someten inevitablemente a un contexto laboral incierto. Cuatro tipo des temporalidades han emergido en el análisis cualitativo y longitudinal de las trayectorias : los "planificadores", los "ejecutantes", los "latentes" y los "oportunistas"

  5. Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimaz, Rolando

    2016-09-01

    Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) is a systemic inflammatory disease which has up to now been classified as a category of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. However, in this context, systemic inflammation has been associated with dysregulation of the innate immune system, suggesting that it may rather be part of the spectrum of autoinflammatory disorders. The disease is in fact unique with regard to the other JIA categories, in terms of clinical manifestations, prognosis, and response to conventional immunosuppressant therapies. It is characterized clinically by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthritis, rash, and serositis. IL-1 and IL-6 play a major role in the pathogenesis of SoJIA, and treatment with IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors has shown to be highly effective. However, complications of SoJIA, including macrophage activation syndrome, limitations in functional outcome by arthritis and long-term damage from chronic inflammation continue to be a major issue in patients' care. Recent advances on the pathogenesis and treatment have revolutionized the care and prognosis of this potentially life-threatening pediatric condition.

  6. Clinical outcome measures in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alessandro; Giancane, Gabriella; Schiappapietra, Benedetta; Davì, Sergio; Calandra, Serena; Lanni, Stefano; Ravelli, Angelo

    2016-04-18

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), as a chronic condition, is associated with significant disease- and treatment-related morbidity, thus impacting children's quality of life. In order to optimize JIA management, the paediatric rheumatologist has begun to regularly use measurements of disease activity developed, validated and endorsed by international paediatric rheumatology professional societies in an effort to monitor the disease course over time and assess the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in JIA patients.A literature review was performed to describe the main outcome measures currently used in JIA patients to determine disease activity status.The Juvenile Disease Activity Score (JADAS), in its different versions (classic JADAS, JADAS-CRP and cJADAS) and the validated definitions of disease activity and response to treatment represent an important tool for the assessment of clinically relevant changes in disease activity, leading more and more to a treat-to-target strategy, based on a tight and thorough control of the patient condition. Moreover, in recent years, increasing attention on the incorporation of patient-reported or parent-reported outcomes (PRCOs), when measuring the health state of patients with paediatric rheumatic diseases has emerged.We think that the care of JIA patients cannot be possible without taking into account clinical outcome measures and, in this regard, further work is required.

  7. Managing juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Madeleine J; Dick, Andrew D; Lee, Richard J W; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Carreño, Ester; Guly, Catherine M; Ross, Adam H

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral chronic anterior uveitis is an extra-articular feature of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Although figures vary, uveitis occurs in approximately 11%-13% of patients with this disease and is most commonly associated with the female gender, oligoarthritis, and presence of antinuclear antibodies. The disease has an insidious onset and is often asymptomatic. Managing patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis remains challenging as the disease may prove to be refractory to traditional treatment regimens. Stepwise immunomodulatory therapy is indicated, with new biologic drugs being used last in cases of refractory uveitis. Small scale studies and practice have provided the evidence to undertake randomized control trials to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapies, such as infliximab and adalimumab. These have demonstrated promising results, with further data awaited from ongoing trials for adalimumab (as SYCAMORE and ADJUVITE trials). Lower grade evidence is supporting the use of newer biologics such as rituximab, daclizumab, tocilizumab, and abatacept in those cases refractory to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy.

  8. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  9. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  10. Juvenile cellulitis in a puppy – case reportsCelulite juvenil canina – relato de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile cellulitis or juvenile sterile granulomatous lymphadenitis is a rare disorder that affects puppies between three weeks to six months years old. Clinical signs include alopecia, edema, papules, pustules and crusts especially on eyelids. Definitive diagnosis requires cytological and histological evaluation and early and aggressive therapy is recommended, once scars after recovery can be severe .The choice treatment is the high dose of corticosteroids use such as prednisone. Three animals of canine species were attended at the Veterinary Hospital Clinical Small Animal Service presenting different clinical signs. Hemogram, skin lesions and submandibular lymph nodes cytological examination was collected and analyzed. The treatment was instituted, using cephalexin (22mg/kg, twice daily up to control of secondary bacterial infection, and prednisone (2mg/kg, once a day until clinical resolution. Complete cure was obtained at the end of treatment. The aim of this work is to report three clinical cases of juvenile cellulitis in dogs. A celulite juvenil ou linfadenite granulomatosa estéril juvenil, é um distúrbio raro que acomete filhotes com idade entre três semanas a seis meses. Os sinais clínicos incluem alopecia, edema, pápulas, pústulas e crostas especialmente em pálpebras. O diagnóstico definitivo requer exames citológico e histopatológico e a terapia precoce e agressiva é preconizada, pois as cicatrizes após recuperação podem ser graves. O tratamento de escolha consiste no uso de altas doses dos glicocorticoides, como prednisona. Foram atendidos no Hospital Veterinário, três animais da espécie canina, apresentando sinais clínicos variados. Foram realizados hemograma, exame citológico das lesões de pele e dos linfonodos submandibulares. O tratamento foi instituído, utilizando-se cefalexina na dose de 22 mg/kg, duas vezes ao dia, até controle de infecção bacteriana secundária e prednisona na dose de 2mg/kg, uma vez

  11. From the Bench -- Juvenile Courts: How and Why They Have Changed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuys, Heather; Blitzman, Jay; Hibbler, William; Wakefield, Dana

    2000-01-01

    Offers four judges' perspectives on the various changes in the juvenile court system focusing on the increased violence among juveniles as having the greatest effect on the courts; includes issues such as juveniles being tried in adult courts, the need to improve juvenile courts, and the role of public interest. (CMK)

  12. Critical Factors in Mental Health Programming for Juveniles in Corrections Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lee A.; Phillips, Annie; von Dresner, Kara; Knight, Pamela D.

    2006-01-01

    Juveniles with mental health and other specialized needs are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, and while juvenile corrections have not historically provided standardized and evidence-based mental health services for its incarcerated youth, the demand is evident. The reality is that juveniles with serious mental illness are committed…

  13. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  14. Maternal touch moderates sex differences in juvenile social play behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N Edelmann

    Full Text Available Additional somatosensory contact of preterm human infants improves a variety of developmental assessment scores, but less is known about its lasting consequences. In rodents, maternal contact may influence the programming of juvenile social play behavior. Therefore, we used a paradigm where we can control the levels of somatosensory contact associated with maternal care. We find that additional somatosensory contact of offspring can have lasting consequences on juvenile social play behavior in a sex-dependent manner. Specifically, additional somatosensory stimuli reduced male social play behavior, but did not change female play behavior. We then examined if this additional infant contact altered some neurobiological substrates associated with play within the juvenile amygdala. Control males had lower levels of 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels contrasted to females; however, similar to its sex-dependent effect on juvenile social play, males that received additional somatosensory contact had higher serotonin 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels than control males. No difference was found in females. As serotonin signaling typically opposes juvenile play behavior, these data suggest that maternal touch can program lasting differences in juvenile social play and 5HT2a receptors mRNA levels within the juvenile amygdala.

  15. Maternal touch moderates sex differences in juvenile social play behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Michelle N; Demers, Catherine H; Auger, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Additional somatosensory contact of preterm human infants improves a variety of developmental assessment scores, but less is known about its lasting consequences. In rodents, maternal contact may influence the programming of juvenile social play behavior. Therefore, we used a paradigm where we can control the levels of somatosensory contact associated with maternal care. We find that additional somatosensory contact of offspring can have lasting consequences on juvenile social play behavior in a sex-dependent manner. Specifically, additional somatosensory stimuli reduced male social play behavior, but did not change female play behavior. We then examined if this additional infant contact altered some neurobiological substrates associated with play within the juvenile amygdala. Control males had lower levels of 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels contrasted to females; however, similar to its sex-dependent effect on juvenile social play, males that received additional somatosensory contact had higher serotonin 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels than control males. No difference was found in females. As serotonin signaling typically opposes juvenile play behavior, these data suggest that maternal touch can program lasting differences in juvenile social play and 5HT2a receptors mRNA levels within the juvenile amygdala.

  16. Few juvenile auditory perceptual skills correlate with adult performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarro, Emma C; Sanes, Dan H

    2014-02-01

    Measures of human mental development suggest that behavioral skills displayed during early life can predict an individual's subsequent cognitive performance. Support for this draws from longitudinal studies that reveal compelling within-subject correlations during childhood. If this idea applies across the life span, then correlations in performance should persist into adulthood. Here, we address this prediction in juvenile and adult gerbils by evaluating within-subject measures of auditory learning and perception. Animals were trained and tested as juveniles on either an amplitude modulation (AM) or a frequency modulation (FM) detection task. Measures of learning and perception obtained from juveniles were then compared to similar measures obtained when each subject was tested in adulthood on either the same task or the untrained task. For animals trained and tested on the AM detection task as juveniles and adults, there was no correlation between juvenile and adult learning metrics, or perceptual sensitivity. For animals trained and tested on FM detection as juveniles, we observed a significant relationship to their adult performance. Juveniles that performed the best on FM detection were the poorest at AM detection, and the best at FM detection, when tested as adults. Thus, across-age correlations for sensory and cognitive measures, obtained during development and in adulthood, depend heavily on the specific type of developmental experience and the outcome measure.

  17. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

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    van Wijk Anton PH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO. The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4 referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents, and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample. However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6% and violent recidivism (32.1%. Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary.

  18. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  19. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T.; Wolff, Kevin T.

    2017-01-01

    While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13) were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention. PMID:28212340

  20. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Baglivio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13 were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention.

  1. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed.

  2. FINES Y DETERMINACIÓN DE LAS SANCIONES PENALES JUVENILES

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffer Sotomayor, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    El artículo refiere los contenidos sobre los fines y la determinación de las sanciones penales juveniles. Se inicia con el elemento caracterizador del modelo de justicia responsabilizador penal juvenil. Presenta el dilema entre la prevención general y la prevención especial y el rol que desempeña el principio educativo, como finalidad primordial. Se presentan los principales criterios que debe considerar un juez al momento de determinar una sanción penal juvenil.

  3. Entre champetuos, pupys y harcoretos: Identidades juveniles en santa marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Giraldo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe las principales articulaciones de las identidades juveniles en la ciudad de Santa Marta, en el Caribe colombiano. Para ello, contrasta las más relevantes figuras en el espectro de las experiencias y subjetividades juveniles en sus estrechas relaciones con diferentes géneros musicales. Se evidencia, entonces, que en las identidades juveniles se pueden diferenciar unas figuras hegemónicas (champetuo, pupy, yuquero de unas alternativas (harcoreto,electrónico.

  4. The case of juvenile polygraphy as a clinical ethics dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Polygraph interrogations are used by half of all surveyed juvenile sex offender (JSO) treatment programs in the United States. This is a distinctive and controversial practice that is rarely if ever used with other juvenile delinquent populations, and that is rarely used or is banned from JSO treatment programs in other countries. Clinical polygraphy is an ethically sensitive issue because it involves mental health therapists in involuntary coercive interrogations of minors. This article reviews core mental health professional ethics principles for juveniles. JSO polygraphy is used as an illustrative issue for applying human rights principles to a practice in light of its benefits, risks, and available alternatives.

  5. Hypoglycemia and hemostatic parameters in juvenile-onset diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Nielsen, J D;

    1980-01-01

    Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous infusion of insulin in six juvenile-onset diabetic subjects. Hemostatic parameters were assessed before insulin infusion and 0, 1, and 2 h after discontinuation of insulin infusion. The onset of hypoglycemia coincided with an enhancement of ADP-induced plat......Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous infusion of insulin in six juvenile-onset diabetic subjects. Hemostatic parameters were assessed before insulin infusion and 0, 1, and 2 h after discontinuation of insulin infusion. The onset of hypoglycemia coincided with an enhancement of ADP...... potentially lead to intravascular coagulation in juvenile-onset diabetic patients....

  6. Features of trust in other people in juvenile offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Astanina N.B.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a comparative study of trust in other people in juvenile offender and law-abiding teens. The study involved 113 young offenders (from detention center for juvenile offenders, special closed schools, juvenile correctional facilities of Voronezh and Lipetsk regions) and 106 law-abiding teens, 13 to 18 years old. We identified the types of trust in other people in the two groups of adolescents. We analyzed the specifics of trust in other people in the group of ...

  7. Alteraciones de la afectividad en delincuentes juveniles privados de libertad

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Remuzgo, Salvador

    2002-01-01

    La delincuencia juvenil ha interesado al saber científico desde siempre, y son muchos los autores y escuelas de todos los ámbitos del conocimiento que han intentado dar explicaciones sobre el origen de dicho comportamiento desadaptado, sin embargo, parece claro que esta tareas no parece fácil pues en la delincuencia juvenil están implicados una multitud de factores que ... hacen muy compleja su explicación. Esta complejidad se agrava cuando intentamos estudiar al delincuente juvenil sometido ...

  8. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presenting as bilateral breast masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edison, Michele N.; Letter, Haley P. [Florida Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); O' Dell, M.C. [University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Scherer, Kurt; Williams, Jennifer L. [Florida Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); Florida State University, College of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    An 8-year-old girl presented with bilateral breast masses and was subsequently diagnosed with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome that typically presents in boys younger than 3 years of age with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and skin findings. Bilateral breast masses in a child are rare and, as such, present a diagnostic dilemma due to the relative paucity of cases in the literature. We present a case of granulocytic sarcoma of the breasts in a patient with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The authors hope that increased reporting and research regarding pediatric breast masses will help create awareness for such cases. (orig.)

  9. Caring for juveniles with mental disorders in adult corrections facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Cheryl D

    2017-02-01

    Although juveniles have developmental, educational, healthcare, and rehabilitation needs that differ from adults, thousands of them have been confined in adult corrections facilities in the past 30 years. This manuscript will review how and why juveniles end up in adult corrections facilities, who they are, their rehabilitative needs, and how they differ from adults in corrections facilities and youths in the juvenile justice system. The importance of providing developmentally-informed mental health services to youths in adult corrections facilities is examined, along with barriers to traditional adolescent psychiatric practice. Recommendations for future directions in adolescent psychiatric care are presented.

  10. Mediation involving a juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cwalina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes issues concerning mediatory proceedings regarding juvenile court cases in Poland. It was based on original master’s dissertation entitled “Mediation as a form of protection of the juvenile against stigma”. Mediation is most often defined as a voluntary attempt to resolve the conflict and to reach an agreement as it regards the compensation, in presence of impartial and neutral mediator. By contrast with court cases, mediation’s aim is not to point out who is right, but to find a solution of conflict, satisfactory to all parties. Fundamental aim of mediation within juvenile cases is educational and reformatory influence.

  11. Landmark learning by juvenile salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuring, Whitney L; Mathis, Alicia

    2014-10-01

    Learning to use a landmark as a beacon to locate resources is one of the simplest forms of spatial learning. We tested whether landmark learning occurs in a semifossorial salamander that migrates annually to breeding ponds as adults. Juvenile spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) were tested in square containers with a plastic feeding dish in each corner, and a piece of earthworm was placed in one randomly-chosen dish. For landmark-trained salamanders, a rock was placed beside the dish containing the prey. For control salamanders, the rock was placed beside a randomly selected feeding dish. Each salamander was trained once every 2 days for 30 days. Significantly more landmark-trained salamanders than control salamanders entered the landmark area first, and landmark-trained individuals had faster latencies to enter the landmark area and longer stay-times. These results suggest that spotted salamanders are able to locate resources by associating their positions with landmarks.

  12. IMPACTUL PRESEI ASUPRA DELICVENŢEI JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CIOBANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lucrarea în cauză e un rezultat al unui studiu asupra schimbărilor comportamentale ale adolescenţilor, influenţate de unele materiale publicistice. Departe de intenţia de a reveni la cenzura de altădată, autorul pledează pentru o auto-cenzură, pentru o autoexigenţă în procesul de creaţie, pentru o responsabilitate sporită pentru cuvântul scris sau rostit.THE IMPACT OF MEDIA ON THE JUVENILE DELINQUENCYThis writing is a result of a study of teenager’s behavior changes influenced by journalistic work. The author is not militating for the past censorship, but he pleads for an autocensorship, for an auto exigency during the creation process, for a high responsibility for written word or for the spoken one.

  13. Marcadores de inmunorrespuesta en la periodontitis juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Pérez Borrego,

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La periodontitis juvenil es una enfermedad del periodonto propia de adolescentes y adultos jóvenes, afecta principalmente los primeros molares y los incisivos y se caracteriza por la pérdida severa del hueso alveolar alrededor de dientes permanentes sin correspondencia entre la rapidez y severidad de la destrucción con los factores locales. En la causa de la enfermedad se citan factores genéticos, infecciosos e inmunológicos. Estudiamos algunos marcadores de inmunorrespuesta en 6 adolescentes que acudieron a nuestro servicio con el diagnóstico de periodontitis juvenil, además de su valoración clínica y radiológica. Ambos sexos se afectaron por igual, la movilidad dentaria y el sangramiento al sondeo fueron los hallazgos clínicos más relevantes y el índice de higiene bucal fue adecuado en todos los casos. No encontramos homogeneidad en las alteraciones inmunológicas, pero todos los pacientes estuvieron afectados en más de un marcador. Predominaron las alteraciones funcionales de linfocitos T en los estudios celulares. La hipogammaglobulinemia y la IgM elevada fueron las alteraciones más frecuentes en la inmunidad de anticuerpos. Se señala la dificultad que aún existe para explicar la patogenia de la enfermedad basándose solamente en un único factor de riesgo, así como la importancia de la valoración individual de cada enfermo.Juvenile periodontitis is a disease of the periodontium inherent to adolescents and young adults, affecting mainly the first molars and incisives and characterized by the severe loss of the alveolar bone sorrounding the permanent teeth with no correspondance between the celerity and severity of the destruction and the local factors. Genetic, infectious and immunological factors are considereed as the causes of the disease. Some immunoresponse markers were studied in 6 adolescents that were seen at our service with the diagnosis of juvenile periodontitis in addition to their clinical and radiological

  14. Representaciones sociales juveniles sobre la democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Díaz Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo da cuenta de una parte de los resultados obtenidos en la investigación “representaciones sociales juveniles sobre la democracia y la multiculturalidad”. Se desarrolló desde la perspectiva metodológica de la Investigación Acción Participante, proceso dentro del cual, se aplicó un cuestionario conformado por nueve preguntas, divididas en tres bloques temáticos que permitieron conocer las representaciones sociales de un grupo de veinticinco jóvenes, sobre la democracia –aspecto que se reporta en este texto– la ciudadanía y la multiculturalidad a partir de tres dimensiones: significado, vivencias y condiciones de la democracia.

  15. Anterior uveitis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1977-10-01

    The ocular and systemic characteristics of 160 patients with anterior uveitis and seronegative juvenile rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed. Chronic uveitis occurred in 131 patients, 76% of whom were girls. Both eyes were involved in 70% of the cases. Band keratopathy occurred in 41% of the eyes, cataract in 42%, and secondary glaucoma in 19%. Only 11 patients had uveitis before the onset of arthritis. Notable correlations included a pauciarticular onset of arthritis in 95% of the patients, and positive tests for antinuclear antibody in 82%. Of 29 patients with acute anterior uveitis, 27 were boys. The inflammation responded well to therapy, and serious complications did not occur. At follow-up 21 patients had typical ankylosing spondylitis, and five had sacroiliitis. The incidence of positive results of tests for HLA-B27 antigen was 94%.

  16. Screening for uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1989-03-01

    Three hundred and fifteen patients with anterior uveitis associated with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) were studied in order to identify the various risk factors for uveitis. Girls were more susceptible to uveitis than boys by a ratio of 3:1. In 94% of cases the uveitis was diagnosed after the development of arthritis. The risk of uveitis was small after seven or more years had elapsed from the onset of arthritis. Patients with pauciarticular onset JCA had the highest risk of uveitis and systemic onset patients the least risk. The presence of circulating antinuclear antibody was also an important marker for an increased risk of uveitis. A regimen for routine screening of patients is suggested.

  17. The Genomic Landscape of Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiffany Y.; Gelston, Laura C.; Wang, Yong-Dong; Mazor, Tali; Esquivel, Emilio; Yu, Ariel; Seepo, Sara; Olsen, Scott; Rosenberg, Mara; Archambeault, Sophie L.; Abusin, Ghada; Beckman, Kyle; Brown, Patrick A.; Briones, Michael; Carcamo, Benjamin; Cooper, Todd; Dahl, Gary V.; Emanuel, Peter D.; Fluchel, Mark N.; Goyal, Rakesh K.; Hayashi, Robert J.; Hitzler, Johann; Hugge, Christopher; Liu, Y. Lucy; Messinger, Yoav H.; Mahoney, Donald H.; Monteleone, Philip; Nemecek, Eneida R.; Roehrs, Philip A.; Schore, Reuven J.; Stine, Kimo C.; Takemoto, Clifford M.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Costello, Joseph F.; Olshen, Adam B.; Stewart, Chip; Li, Yongjin; Ma, Jing; Gerbing, Robert B.; Alonzo, Todd A.; Getz, Gad; Gruber, Tanja; Golub, Todd; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Loh, Mignon L.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) of childhood with a poor prognosis. Mutations in NF1, NRAS, KRAS, PTPN11 and CBL occur in 85% of patients, yet there are currently no risk stratification algorithms capable of predicting which patients will be refractory to conventional treatment and therefore be candidates for experimental therapies. In addition, there have been few other molecular pathways identified aside from the Ras/MAPK pathway to serve as the basis for such novel therapeutic strategies. We therefore sought to genomically characterize serial samples from patients at diagnosis through relapse and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia in order to expand our knowledge of the mutational spectrum in JMML. We identified recurrent mutations in genes involved in signal transduction, gene splicing, the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and transcription. Importantly, the number of somatic alterations present at diagnosis appears to be the major determinant of outcome. PMID:26457647

  18. Clinical Orofacial Examination in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Peter; Twilt, Marinka; Spiegel, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    review. The level of evidence for the 5 recommendations was derived primarily from descriptive studies, such as cross-sectional and case-control studies. CONCLUSION: Five recommendations are proposed for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA to improve the clinical practice and aid standardized......OBJECTIVE: To develop international consensus-based recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), for use in clinical practice and research. METHODS: Using a sequential phased approach, a multidisciplinary task force developed and evaluated...... a set of recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA. Phase 1: A Delphi survey was conducted among 40 expert physicians and dentists with the aim of identifying and ranking the importance of items for inclusion. Phase 2: The task force developed consensus about the domains...

  19. A case of juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayli, Savaş; Uncu, Sibel; Alpay, Köksal; Yildiz, Kadriye; Cimşit, Gülseren; Bahadir, Sevgi

    2006-04-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare, autosomally-recessive disease characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, joint contractures, gingival hypertrophy and osteolytic bone lesions. Its onset is in infancy or early childhood. The most commonly affected sites are the nose, chin, ears, scalp, back and knees. The accumulation of an amorphous, hyaline material is typical in the skin and the other organs. Herein, we report a 14-month-old boy who presented with confluent pink papules on the paranasal folds and the chin, and nodular lesions on the periauricular and perianal regions. He had gingival hypertrophy and contractures of the shoulders, knees and elbows. He also had third-degree consanguineous parents. Histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of JHF with the presence of increased numbers of fibroblasts embedded in a hyalinized connective tissue stroma.

  20. Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the proximal nail fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Iorizzo, Matilde; Tosti, Antonella

    2003-01-01

    An 18-month-old Caucasian boy presented with a firm 0.5 mm nodule, pink-red in color, with a yellow hue and some telangiectases on the surface, localized on the right thumbnail. The nodule involved all of the proximal nail fold and covered the proximal third of the nail. Pathology showed a dense dermal infiltrate of histiocytes, some of which had foamy nuclei, and multinucleated Touton giant cells. The lesion progressively decreased in size and had completely disappeared after 3 years. Periodic follow-up was important not only to monitor evolution of the juvenile xanthogranuloma, but also to avoid excessive growth of the lesion with possible definitive nail matrix damage.

  1. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Timothy E

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common epilepsy syndrome that begins most frequently in the early teenage years. It is officially classified as a type of idiopathic generalized epilepsy and is often under-recognized or misdiagnosed. This syndrome has a strong genetic component with multiple gene mutations being associated with the clinical presentation. Based upon genetic associations, there may be multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms for the disorder; the pathophysiology has not been clearly defined. A diagnosis of JME is made using the clinical history and EEG findings. Valproic acid is the primary antiepileptic drug (AED) used for JME, but some newer AEDs may be effective alternatives. Selection of an appropriate AED is essential to the proper management of JME, because of the possibility of exacerbation of seizures by some AEDs and the adverse effect profiles of effective drugs. It is important for clinicians to understand JME to correctly diagnose and manage patients with this syndrome.

  2. Chemical Evolution of the Juvenile Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Wasserburg, G J

    2009-01-01

    Only massive stars contribute to the chemical evolution of the juvenile universe corresponding to [Fe/H]-0.32. Recent observations show that there are stars with [Sr/Fe]<-2 and [Fe/H]<-3. This proves that the two-component model is not correct and that a third component is necessary to explain the observations. This leads to a simple three-component model including low-mass and normal SNe II and hypernovae (HNe), which gives a good description of essentially all the data for stars with [Fe/H]<-1.5. We conclude that HNe are more important than normal SNe II in the chemical evolution of the low-A elements, in sharp distinction to earlier models. (Abridged)

  3. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  4. [Solitary and congenital juvenile xanthogranuloma: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarte, Leticia; Stefano, Paola C; Bocian, Marcela; Solernou, Verónica; Pierini, Adrián Martín; Cervini, Andrea Bettina

    2017-02-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a bening pathology and it represents the most common form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is characterized by the presence of papules or firm nodules of a pinkish or yellow-brownish nature, which mainly compromise the skin and, exceptionally, other organs. It is a self-limited entity having a spontaneous regression during the first five years of life. We report the case of a one-month-old patient who presented a congenital tumor in the abdomen, whose histopathology showed the presence of multinucleated giant Touton cells, which are typical of this pathology. We emphasize the rare occurrence of this type of lesion and the importance of the multiple differential diagnosis to be taken into account due to the age of the patient and the characteristics of the lesion.

  5. Cytokines in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, H; Schauenstein, K

    1998-06-01

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), unlike rheumatoid arthritis of adulthood (RA), is a heterogenous disease comprising at least five subtypes that differ in clinical course and prognosis, and require different therapeutical approaches. As compared to RA, the production of local and systemic cytokines in JRA have not yet been as extensively investigated. In this article we review the available literature on cytokine expression in serum and synovial fluid in all five different subtypes of JRA. Even though the data are still fragmentary, the evidence so far suggests that the determination of serum cytokines yields relevant information as to clinical subtype and inflammatory activity of the disease. Furthermore, the cytokine data suggest that the pathogenesis of JRA may even by more heterogenous than defined by the clinical subtypes. Finally, future directions of research in this area are proposed, and-based on the latest results-arguments for (anti)cytokine therapies in JRA are critically discussed.

  6. GANGGUAN PERTUMBUHAN MANDIBULA PADA JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Puspitawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA is a systemic disease on childhood, which has chronic arthritis as its most prominent manifestation. One very common complication of JRA is growth disturbance. JRA involving temporomandibular joint usually result in mandibular growth retardation which eventually can lead to micrognathia, retrognathia, malocclusion and other mandibulofacial developmental aberrations. Factors considered to be the cause of these growth and developmental disturbances are: congenital, the disease's direct effect on the condyle, functional deficiency of the temporomandibular joint, duration, age of disease onset and type of the JRA and corticosteroid therapy. However, the mechanism for the mandibulofacial growth and developmental aberrations due to JRA are not fully understood. This literature review will discuss the hypotheses concerning mechanisms of those growth and developmental disturbances, especially based on clinical and radiographic studies on JRA cases.

  7. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other ill...

  8. Detecting age-structured effects in growth performance of coral reef fish juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Mellin, Camille; Galzin, R.; Ponton, Dominique; Vigliola, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The growth performance of coral reef fish juveniles collected in different habitats is often used as a proxy for habitat quality for juveniles. However, back-calculated growth trajectories of juveniles may be age-structured, for instance, because of potential differences in initial offspring size and/or quality or size-selective mortality. A novel approach is proposed to isolate growth performance of coral reef fish juveniles from potential age-based factors. Juveniles of Chromis viridis (Pom...

  9. 皱纹盘鲍消化腺细胞类型和分泌产物%THE CELL TYPES AND SECRETION OF THE DIGESTIVE GLAND IN HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI INO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔龙波; 刘传琳; 刘迅; 陆瑶华

    2001-01-01

    对皱纹盘鲍消化腺进行了组织学、组织化学、超微结构及酶活性测定等研究。消化腺由消化细胞和嗜碱性细胞组成。消化细胞能内吞腺管腔内的外源性物质,细胞内充满大量与异噬功能有关的囊泡。消化细胞具有内吞和细胞内消化、分泌、贮存等功能。嗜碱性细胞含有发达的粗面内质网以及许多含铁的折光小体,具有分泌和贮存金属离子的功能。消化腺还呈现多种水解酶活性。%Histology, histochemistry, ultrastructure and activity of some hydrolytical enzymes of the digestive gland of Haliotis discus hannai Ino have been studied.The gland consists of two types of cells, digestive cells and basophilic cells. The digestive cells are capable of ingesting exogenous material from the lumen of the tubule, and contain a number of vesicles concerning with the heterophagic function of the cells. The vesicles exhibit considerable variation in size and appearance in different regions of the cells. Those in the apical and sub-apical regions of the cells, which are considered as heterophagosomes, are involved in accumulation of the ingested material. Those in the mid-regions, regarded as heterolysosomes, give a positive reaction to tests for acid phosphatase and non-specific esterase. They concern with intracellular digestion of the ingested material. The vesicles in the basal regions, considered as residual bodies, are involved in accumulation of undigested and indigestible residues. The digestive cells secrete proteinase. Numerous lipid globules in the cells show that the digestive cells can reserve food material. The basophilic cells are characterized by the possession of a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and many refractile spherules which give a intense reaction to test for iron. The cells also secrete proteinase. The refractile spherules which contain metals may serve a detoxification function. The tests for enzymatic activity in vitro show

  10. Evidence that marine reserves enhance resilience to climatic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Saenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Greenley, Ashley; Vazquez, Leonardo; Espinoza Montes, Jose Antonio; Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection.

  11. Evidence that marine reserves enhance resilience to climatic impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection.

  12. Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Saenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Greenley, Ashley; Vazquez, Leonardo; Espinoza Montes, Jose Antonio; Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection. PMID:22855690

  13. Acute respiratory failure in 3 children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Britt; Hellebostad, Marit; Ifversen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare hematopoietic stem cell disease in children with features of both myelodysplasia and myeloproliferation. Extramedullary involvement has been reported and pulmonary involvement secondary to leukemic infiltration is an initial manifestation, which may resu...

  14. Juvenile Salmonid Pathogen Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  15. Cardiac involvement in adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, TThomas W; Diederichsen, L. P.; Lundberg, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) include the main subgroups polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), inclusion body myositis (IBM) and juvenile DM ( JDM). The mentioned subgroups are characterised by inflammation of skeletal muscles leading to muscle weakness and other organs can also...

  16. SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey, Surface Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey: Station Information and Surface Data. Surveys have been conducted along the central California coast in May/June...

  17. Effects of water velocity on activity of juvenile striped bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, R.R.; Griffith, J.S.; Coutant, C.C.

    1976-07-01

    The swimming activity of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum) 8 to 80 mm long was investigated in a test chamber simulating, on a small scale, a fixed-screen cooling water intake structure. As water velocity increased from 0 to 30 cm/sec area and distance traveled by juvenile bass 10 to 80 mm long decreased. However, as water velocity increased from 0 to 3 cm/sec the area and distance covered by larval bass increased. The presence of food increased the activity of larval bass, but decreased the activity of juveniles. Area ranged by striped bass at test velocities ranging from 0 to 30 cm/sec increased in proportion to body length. Juvenile striped bass tested at acclimation temperatures between 20 and 5/sup 0/C experienced a 30% reduction of activity. Activity was also reduced as temperature increased from 20 to 30/sup 0/C.

  18. SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey, CTD Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey: CTD Data. Surveys have been conducted along the central California coast in May/June every year since 1983. In...

  19. Juvenile Salmon Scale Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  20. Juvenile Salmonid IGF-I Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  1. Juvenile Salmonid Genetic Stock Identification Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  2. Juvenile Salmonid Trophic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  3. Juvenile Salmonid Parasite Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  4. Juvenile Salmonid Otolith Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  5. Delusional and psychotic disorders in juvenile myotonic dystrophy type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Delphine; Willekens, Diane; de Die-Smulders, Christine; Frijns, Jean-Pierre; Steyaert, Jean

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the clinically derived hypothesis of a relatively high incidence of delusional and psychotic disorders in adolescents with juvenile Myotonic Dystrophy type-1 (DM1). Twenty-seven subjects of age 16-25 with juvenile DM1 and their parents were invited to have a clinical psychiatric interview, and to complete an ASEBA behavior checklist (YSR, ASR, CBCL, and ABCL). We diagnosed a Delusional Disorder in 19% of our patients and a Psychotic Disorder not otherwise specified in another 19%. These two groups of patients had a significantly worse level of clinically defined general functioning. It is clinically relevant to investigate in patients with juvenile DM the symptom of delusions and the presence of a delusional and psychotic disorder, and to consider the presence of juvenile DM in youngsters presenting with such a thought disorder. These disorders compromise the general functioning of the subjects and are often to some extent treatable. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Psychological characteristics of juvenile offenders with personal immaturity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E.G. Dozortseva; A.A. Fedonkina

    2013-01-01

    .... We describe the prevalence of personal immaturity among juvenile offenders. We analyze individual psychological characteristics specific to the minors with personal immaturity and characterize the phenomenon of personal immaturity itself...

  7. Juvenile Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Specimens Collected from 1991-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile swordfish caught throughout the Pacific Ocean collected by Hawaii longline observers, aboard the Thomas Cromwell research vessel, and donated by various...

  8. Acute Respiratory Failure in 3 Children With Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Britt; Hellebostad, Marit; Ifversen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare hematopoietic stem cell disease in children with features of both myelodysplasia and myeloproliferation. Extramedullary involvement has been reported and pulmonary involvement secondary to leukemic infiltration is an initial manifestation, which may result...

  9. Juvenile Polyps in Denmark From 1995 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Brusgaard, Klaus;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile polyps in the large bowel are rare but the most common type of polyp in children. The prevalence and incidence are unknown, and few studies exist on the occurrence in adults. They are considered not to harbor any malignant potential unless they are part of the hereditary...... juvenile polyposis syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the demographics of juvenile polyps in Denmark in a 20-year period from 1995 to 2015 in both adults and children. This is the first report on the occurrence, anatomic localization, and reoccurrence of these polyps in a whole population. DESIGN: Data...... from all of the patients who had been diagnosed with 1 or more juvenile polyp from January 1, 1995, until December 31, 2014, were obtained. SETTINGS: The study was conducted based on patients registered in the nationwide pathological register in Denmark, the Danish Pathology Data Bank. PATIENTS: We...

  10. Juvenile delinquency in Russia: Ccriminal justice, trends, key issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, as well as in international statistical surveys, we can rarely find more detailed information on juvenile delinquency in the Russian Federation, as well as on the criminal reaction towards juvenile offenders. Due to the turbulent conditions and great social turmoil which took place in the last few decades in this country, there should be a greater interest in the problem of juvenile delinquency. For Serbia, the experience of the Russian Federation could be especially important if one bears in mind that our country is still going through a transition, population stratification and through economic crisis, and also that Serbia and the Russian Federation share some cultural and religious similarities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present, in the summary way, the basic features of juvenile delinquency and the criminal justice system, and thereby build a basis for future research and comparison.

  11. Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Sociological Appraisal. ... This paper discussed the emergence of the Child's Right act in Nigeria in ... of children and young persons who found themselves on the justice corridor.

  12. The Relationship between Family Functions and Juvenile Delinquency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 3, No 5 (2009) > ... Most of the studies done on Juvenile delinquency have paid little or no attention to ... This study was carried out in Nakuru town Municipality on former street children on rehabilitation in three homes.

  13. Bite force and temporomandibular disorder in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenneberg, B; Kjellberg, H; Kiliaridis, S

    1995-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functional condition of the stomatognathic system in children suffering from juvenile chronic arthritis, with respect to bite force and temporomandibular disorder in relation to radiographic abnormalities of the mandibular condyle, occlusal factors and systemic disease parameters. Thirty-five children with juvenile chronic arthritis were compared to 89 healthy children with an Angle Class I occlusion and 62 children with an Angle Class II malocclusion. Subjective symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorder and radiographic mandibular condylar changes were more common in children with juvenile chronic arthritis than in the two comparison groups. Maximal molar and incisal bite forces and maximal molar bite force endurance times were also significantly reduced in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. It is concluded that the differences between the groups are caused mainly by the systemic inflammatory disease itself, but a functional influence of weakened masticatory muscles cannot be excluded.

  14. Needs and Achievements of the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for juvenile offenders; nonetheless, those studies were more focused on recidivism than on the mechanisms associated with criminal perpetration. The current study explores the role of juvenile justice involvement and detention measures in a set of psychological, social, and criminal behavior characteristics in early adulthood. Seventy-five young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010-2011 and 240 young adults from the community filled out our protocol in 2014-2015. Young adults with juvenile justice involvement showed worse psychological, social, and criminal outcomes than those from community. Detention appears to be related to the number of deviant friends, delinquency, and school achievement in early adulthood. Our findings are in line with the labeling and deviant peer contagion theories and establish the main areas of interventions that affect the identified needs. A set of policy implications is provided.

  15. Culturas juveniles en tono de mujer. Hip hop en Medellin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garces Montoya, Angela

    2011-01-01

    El articulo hace parte de la investigacion "Mediaciones musicales juveniles", donde se indaga por la apropiacion de medios de comunicacion alternativos que les permite a los y las jovenes configurar...

  16. American juvenile justice system: history in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Aaron; Segal, Roland; Boden, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The original theory behind separating juvenile offenders from adult offenders was to provide care and direction for youngsters instead of isolation and punishment. This idea took hold in the 19th century and became mainstream by the early 20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, public concern grew because of a perceived lack of effectiveness and lack of rights. The Supreme Court made a series of rulings solidifying juvenile rights including the right to receive notice of charges, the right to have an attorney and the right to have charges proven beyond a reasonable doubt. In the 1980s, the public view was that the juvenile court system was too lenient and that juvenile crimes were on the rise. In the 1990s, many states passed punitive laws, including mandatory sentencing and blanket transfers to adult courts for certain crimes. As a result, the pendulum is now swinging back toward the middle from rehabilitation toward punishment.

  17. Measurements and Counts for Larval and Juvenile Pseudopentaceros Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Armorhead (Pseudopentaceros wheeleri) larvae and juveniles were collected in the vicinity of the Northwest and Southeast Hancock Seamounts During 1984 and 1985....

  18. HIV-Risk Reduction with Juvenile Offenders on Probation

    OpenAIRE

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Udell, Wadiya

    2014-01-01

    Youth involved in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV as a result of high rates of sexual risk taking, substance use, mental health problems and sexually transmitted infections. Yet few HIV prevention programs exist for young offenders. This pilot study examined change in juvenile offenders’ sexual activity, drug/alcohol use, HIV testing and counseling, and theoretical mediators of risk taking following participation in PHAT Life, an HIV-prevention progr...

  19. [Unusual presentation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Prieto, M; Carbonero Celis, M J; Cuadrado Caballero, M C

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of autoimmune hepatitis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis is very rare. This is the case of an 18 month old female patient whose first sign of disease was torticollis due to an underlying atlanto-axial subluxation. Three months later, bilateral knee arthritis developed and she was diagnosed with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Throughout the disease a persistent elevation of liver enzymes was noted, combined with positive antinuclear antibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia, reaching the diagnosis of concomitant autoimmune hepatitis.

  20. Paracoccidioidomycosis: acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Camargo, Rosangela Maria Pires; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    The authors report aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type, in a 19-year-old female patient. Paracoccidioidomycosis, juvenile type, classically occurs in young patients, both sexes, with lymphoma-like aspects as initial presentation. However, following the natural history of the disease the lymph nodes assume patterns of infectious disease, as an abscess and fistulae. Systemic dissemination of the disease can occur and lethality and morbidity are significant in this clinical presentation. PMID:27438214