WorldWideScience

Sample records for justifying text writing

  1. Classroom Writing Tasks and Students' Analytic Text-Based Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Correnti, Richard; Wang, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards emphasize students writing analytically in response to texts. Questions remain about the nature of instruction that develops students' text-based writing skills. In the present study, we examined the role that writing task quality plays in students' mastery of analytic text-based writing. Text-based writing tasks…

  2. Text Writing at an Undergraduate College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David G.

    Strategies for writing a text are offered by a college professor on the basis of his own experience of writing a text on social psychology. Suggestions are given on creating an efficient office environment, researching the topic, and drafting the manuscript. One way to improve efficiency is to compress teaching into a few days, leaving the…

  3. "The Polishing Cloth": Student Writing Creates Writing Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Sarah L.

    The concept of using good student writing to inspire more good student writing, of using a text to create the next year's text is a vital process that demonstrates DeKalb College's emphasis on individual student instruction and recognition. "The Polishing Cloth" is a collection of the best student essays from English composition,…

  4. Mining Texts in Reading to Write.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stuart

    1992-01-01

    Proposes a set of strategies for connecting reading and writing, placing the discussion in the context of other pedagogical approaches designed to exploit the relationship between reading and writing. Explores ways in which students employ the strategies involved in "mining" a text--reconstructing context, inferring or imposing structure, and…

  5. Being Brave: Writing Environmental Education Research Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Burt, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Explores some of the headwork that goes into textwork in environmental education research. Reflects upon some of the institutional and epistemological issues associated with writing social science research texts. (Contains 26 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. The Texts and Contexts of Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Edward

    1988-01-01

    Uses case studies of intensive writing courses in government, history, and computer science to explain the differences between the disciplinary contexts for writing, and to help tutors in their work with students from those disciplines. (RS)

  7. Source Text Borrowing in an Integrated Reading/Writing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigle, Sara Cushing; Parker, Keisha

    2012-01-01

    Source-based writing is becoming more common in tests of academic English, in part to make tests more reflective of authentic academic writing. However, the concern has been raised that over-reliance on language from the source texts in essays may mask gaps in proficiency and thus lead to an inaccurate assessment of writing skill. In this paper,…

  8. Gradually Releasing Responsibility to Students Writing Persuasive Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Sylvia; Landon-Hays, Melanie; Martin-Rivas, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The emphasis on improving writing instruction, especially the writing of non-narrative texts, may lead some teachers to seek effective ways to teach students. The IMSCI model, a scaffolded model for writing instruction, is useful for planning effective instruction. This article describes a research project conducted in a 4th grade classroom…

  9. Effectiveness of Systemic Text Analysis in EFL Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Tovar, Ender

    2016-01-01

    This action research study investigates the effectiveness of a model based on the theory of systemic text analysis for the teaching of EFL writing. Employing students' pieces of writing and a teachers' survey as data collection instruments, the writing performance of a group of monolingual intermediate level adult students enrolled on a private…

  10. Reading, Writing, and Publishing Digital Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Randall; Higgins, Kyle

    2003-01-01

    This article explores current state-of-the-art technologies available for reading, writing, and publishing, including electronic books (ebooks), electronic libraries, and electronic journals. Instructional design, best practices for improving reading skills using ebooks, and copyright issues are discussed. Vignettes offer a positive scenario for…

  11. Reading, Writing, and Publishing Digital Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Randall; Higgins, Kyle

    2003-01-01

    This article explores current state-of-the-art technologies available for reading, writing, and publishing, including electronic books (ebooks), electronic libraries, and electronic journals. Instructional design, best practices for improving reading skills using ebooks, and copyright issues are discussed. Vignettes offer a positive scenario for…

  12. REFORMULATION, TEXT MODELING, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF EFL ACADEMIC WRITING

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    Teguh Sulistyo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly investigates the benefits of the implementation of Reformulation and Text Modelling in an EFL writing setting. Reformulation and Text Modeling (henceforth RTM is intended to help EFL students understand better how to write academic texts to make their texts sound as nativelike as possible. Therefore, RTM was implemented in a writing class in which 35 students participated as the respondents of the study. They were treated with RTM and their essays were then analyzed to examine the effects of the implementation of RTM on their writing products. Besides, this study investigated further the students’ perception towards RTM in EFL writing settings. The findings of this study proved that RTM is beneficial to improve students’ writing performances and students have positive perceptions on RTM. The implications of the findings for language learning are also discussed.

  13. Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Leijten, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process. Paper presentation at ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  14. Review: Current writing: Text and reception in Southern Africa

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    A. L. Combrink

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Current writing: Text and reception in Southern Africa. (Published by the University of Natal under the joint editorship of Margaret Lenta, Michael Chapman, Margaret Daymond and Johan U. Jacobs. Volume 1, 1989 - editor: Margaret Lenta

  15. Reading, Writing, and Parsing Text Files Using C++ (Updated)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Reading , Writing, and Parsing Text Files Using C++ (Updated) by Robert J Yager ARL-TN-0642 October 2014...return it to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TN-0642 October 2014 Reading , Writing, and...

  16. An Automatic Text-Analysis Project for EFL Writing Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Hsien-Chin

    1992-01-01

    A year-long project to develop an automatic English grammar text-analysis for Chinese students in Taiwan to help writing revision processes is described. The project analyzed 135 writing samples, developed an electronic dictionary, and researched error analysis, linguistic analysis, and natural language processing in computational linguistics.…

  17. Viewpoints: Cultures, Text Models, and the Activity of Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.; Purves, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Raises three issues concerning the activity of writing and its relation to texts and cultures: (1) knowledge as the basis for the activity of writing, (2) the varying nature of the activity itself and how that activity is shaped by context, and (3) the perceived nature of the written work in a given culture. (HOD)

  18. College English Writing Instruction from the Perspective of Text Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 张金鹏

    2016-01-01

    This paper is designed to explore whether the theory of text linguistics, especially the knowledge of cohesion, co-herence and cohesive devices could be applied in college English writing teaching to help improve students’writing abilities. Besides, the author puts forward some suggestions for both English teachers and learners.

  19. Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Leijten, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, July). Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process. Paper presented at the meeting of EARLI SIG Writing, Porto, Portugal.

  20. The text plan concept: contributions to the writing planning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Tinoco Cabral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Students - at different levels, ranging from early grades up to PhD - face problems both on comprehension and text production. This paper focuses on the text plan concept according to the DTA (Discourse Text Analysis approach, i.e., a principle of organization that allows students to put into practice the production intention as well as to arrange text information while producing; being responsible for the text compositional structure (Adam, 2008. The study analyzes the relation between text plan and the writing planning process, in which the first one provides the second with theoretical support. In order to develop such research, the study covers some issues related to the reading skill, analyzes an argumentative text as per its textual plan, and presents some reflections on the writing process, focusing on the relation between textual plan and the writing planning process.

  1. TEXT WRITING IN SMALL CHILDREN: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSCRIPTION AND COMPOSITION

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    BEATRIZ DIUK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The work studies the relationship between word writing and text production skills in children of 1st year of BasicGeneral Education. In the frame of the cognitive psychology, the differences observed between performance inthese tasks are attributed to the difficulties in both the composition and the transcription processes. These processeswere assessed by oral and written retelling of a story test. The results showed that children performance was worsein the text production task than in the word- writing task. This difference can no be attributed to the compositionprocess, since the children evidenced good discursive skills in the oral task. The transcription skills could explain thedifferent performance in these tasks.

  2. Writing social psychology: fictional things and unpopulated texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, Michael

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the author's position on the question how to write social psychology. It reflects the author's long-term interest in rhetoric and his more recent concerns about the writing of social scientists. The author argues that social psychologists tend to produce unpopulated texts, writing about 'fictional things' rather than people. Social psychologists assume that their technical terms are more precise than ordinary language terms. The author contests this assumption. He suggests that when it comes to describing human actions, ordinary language on the whole tends to be more precise. The paper analyses why this should be the case, drawing on ideas from linguistics and Vaihinger's notion of fictions. The author presents examples to show how psychological writers, by using passives and nominals, can omit information about the agents of action and the nature of the actions that they are performing. Although their texts may appear impressively technical, they can, in fact, be highly imprecise. Moreover, social psychologists, by using this nominal style of writing, tend to write about processes as if they were things and then attribute actions to these things. In so doing, they create 'fictional things', which they treat as if they were real things. The author offers six recommendations for writing in simpler, clearer ways.

  3. Rewriting and Paraphrasing Source Texts in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study is based on interviews with 48 students and 27 instructors in a North American university and explores whether students and professors across faculties share the same views on the use of paraphrased, summarized, and translated texts in four examples of L2 student writing. Participants' comments centered on whether the paraphrases…

  4. Teaching for Writing Expository Responses to Narrative Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Sunday; Quiroa, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this "teaching tips" article is to describe practical classroom instruction that helps elementary students write expository responses to narrative texts. It focuses on the importance of scaffolded, interactive discussions comprised of a combination of teacher think alouds and similar student responses before, during, and after…

  5. WHY MUSLIM STUDENTS PLAGIARIZE IN WRITING ENGLISH TEXTS

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    Wakhid Nashruddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reasons for copy-pasting someone else’s works has attracted attention from many sides that copy-pasting activities, or more popular with term plagiarism, have been considered as a threat for academic life. It also happens at the case of muslim students, in which Islam teaches the students to be honest and not to steal from others. For understanding why it happens, this exploration is conducted. The students of English Department of IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon have to write many of their assignments in English. The result of my observations, the quality of the students’ writing is not good enough. One of the cases found is the copy-paste works, or plagiarism. Using interviews instrument, I try to figure out why students of English Department of IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon. There are at least three reasons behind why students act plagiarism; ignorance on the quotation and citation rules, poor writing skills, and the need of instant writing result. This paper tries to explore these reasons. Keywords: copy-paste, plagiarism, writing in English

  6. Effects of audience awareness on procedural text writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koichi; Matsushima, Kazutoshi

    2006-08-01

    Effects of audience awareness were examined. Some participants acted as writers and the others acted as readers. Writers wrote a text describing a geometrical figure. Readers read the text and tried to draw the figure according to the description. In Exp. 1, audience awareness was manipulated among undergraduate students, 11 men and 34 women. Writers in the high audience-awareness condition spent more time planning and writing texts than writers in the low audience-awareness condition. Texts in the high audience-awareness condition consisted of more letters and sentences with descriptions elaborating the texts. In Exp. 2, prototype texts were constructed based on the results of Exp. 1. Undergraduate students, 11 men and 47 women, who read the prototype text in the high audience-awareness condition could draw the figure more accurately. In Exp. 3, effects of feedback from readers were examined. Ninth-grade students, 22 boys and 34 girls, participated as writers and 7th-grade students, 22 boys and 34 girls, participated as readers. Merely being told to attend to an audience did not improve the quality of texts written by 9th-grade students. However, feedback from the readers who were 7th-grade students was effective. Writers could revise the texts appropriately according to feedback and improve the quality of texts. In addition, the experience of revising the text according to feedback transferred to later writing. Educational implications of the results are discussed.

  7. Wiki-mediated Writing: design, media, writing strategies and feedback in online text production

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    Sylvana Sofkova Hashemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bringing social media arenas, such as wikis, into the classroom invites teaching approaches that engage students in authentic, participatory and creative writing processes. This case study examines the online text production of primary school students in a wiki environment and how the key functionalities for commentary, discussion, logging skills of text and multimodal expression are utilized in practice to develop writing. Exploring the design of assignments and analysing the nature of final texts, writing strategies and feedback reveals an iterative process of writing dominated by strategies of expanding texts with new information and occasional surface editing. The students composed individual narratives on selected themes augmented by drawings, images, speaking avatars and video clips. Feedback was mainly provided by the teachers in the form of encouraging comments and corrective revisions directly in the students’ texts. Peer response was rare, in one project taking the form of discussion posts. Revising indicating increased language awareness was observed among second language learners. Overall, the study demonstrates a tension between instructional design, the affordances of the writing arena and the space for creativity when engaging students in advanced, participatory and reflective composing and revising of texts.

  8. Using Mentor Texts to Teach Writing in Science and Social Studies

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    Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how the research-based practice of using mentor texts can support students' writing within their subject areas. Specifically, this article examines the writing demands of the Common Core Writing Standards and how using mentor texts helps teachers meet these writing standards. We share guiding principles for using mentor…

  9. Assessing writing ability in primary education: on the evaluation of text quality and text complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Hiske Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Writing is a complex ability, and measuring writing ability is a notoriously complex task. The assessment of writing ability is complicated by the multi-faceted nature of this productive language ability on one hand, and the difficulty of evaluating writing performances on the other hand. In this di

  10. Assessing writing ability in primary education: on the evaluation of text quality and text complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Hiske

    2014-01-01

    Writing is a complex ability, and measuring writing ability is a notoriously complex task. The assessment of writing ability is complicated by the multi-faceted nature of this productive language ability on one hand, and the difficulty of evaluating writing performances on the other hand. In this

  11. The Function of Text in a Dialogic Writing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprone, Joseph J.

    Focusing on recent composition theory, this paper offers suggestions for writing teachers in applying concepts of dialogic discourse directly to the pedagogy of the college writing course. The first section of the paper addresses the influence of the social constructionist work on interpretation theory by Richard Rorty, Clifford Geertz, and…

  12. Mining Texts in Reading to Write. Occasional Paper No. 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stuart

    Reading and writing are commonly seen as parallel processes of composing meaning, employing similar cognitive and linguistic strategies. Research has begun to examine ways in which knowledge of content and strategies contribute to the construction of meaning in reading and writing. The metaphor of mining can provide a useful and descriptive means…

  13. COMBINING PRODUCT AND PROCESS-BASED APPROACHES TO TEACHING WRITING DISCUSSION TEXTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vina Agustiana

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the activities of teaching-learning writing discussion texts when product and process-based approach combination is implemented in EFL writing classroom, the effects of applying the writing approach on EFL students’ writing skill, and the students’ attitude toward the implementation of writing approach in the classroom. It uses a mixed-methods through applying an embedded design by involving 24 second-grade students of a private university in West Java, Indonesia. There we...

  14. Doing Number 5: From Process to Cultural Texts in an Urban Writing Classroom.

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    Blake, Brett Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    States the importance of content in the process writing classroom. Demonstrates with "cultural texts" (texts about the daily realities of the students on topics of domesticity and family, violence, evolving sexuality, and future aspirations) that not only how children write, but also what they write about, is of critical importance in helping them…

  15. Exploring the Role of Reformulations and a Model Text in EFL Students' Writing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luxin; Zhang, Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of reformulation and model text in a three-stage writing task (composing-comparison-revising) in an EFL writing class in a Beijing university. The study documented 10 university students' writing performance from the composing (Stage 1) and comparing (Stage 2, where students compare their own text to a…

  16. Pause Time Patterns in Writing Narrative and Expository Texts by Children and Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, J.G. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Beijsterveldt, E.M. van

    2008-01-01

    How do beginning and skilled writers compose a text in the course of time? To gain insight into the temporal aspects of planning and translating activities during writing, this article examined writing in real time and analyzed pause time patterns in writing in relation to linguistic characteristics

  17. Hybrid Texts: Fifth Graders, Rap Music, and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianakis, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Consistent with a sociocritical frame and the analytic tools of hybridity theory, this article explicates how urban fifth-grade children made language hybrids using rap and poetry to participate in classroom literacy. Ethnographic data from a yearlong study illustrate two key findings. First, standards-based and canon-driven writing models…

  18. Why Are Some Texts Good and Others Not? Relationship between Text Quality and Management of the Writing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Caroline; Olive, Thierry; Passerault, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether text quality is related to online management of the writing processes. Experiment 1 focused on the relationship between online management and text quality in narrative and argumentative texts. Experiment 2 investigated how this relationship might be affected by a goal emphasizing text quality. In both experiments,…

  19. COMIC STRIPS:A STUDY ON THE TEACHING OF WRITING NARRATIVE TEXTS TO INDONESIAN EFL STUDENTS

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    Fika Megawati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Comic strips are proposed in the teaching of writing not only because of their appealing forms, but also due to their salient features as media to present content, organization and grammatical aspects of narrative texts. This study investigates the implementation of comic strips in teaching writing through a collaborative classroom action research at MAN Bangil. The procedures included planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The results show that teaching writing using comic strips through Process-Genre Based Approach (PGBA could successfully improve students’ ability in writing. The findings also reveal that comic strips’ effective implementation requires proper stories as well as sufficient teacher’s guidance during the writing process.

  20. Learning history by composing synthesis texts: Effects of an instructional programme on learning, reading and writing processes, and text quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Martínez; M. Mateos; E. Martín; G. Rijlaarsdam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve learning from texts via strategies that train students how to process synthesis texts. Processing such texts requires goal-oriented interaction between reading and writing activities. The participants were 62 sixth-grade students, 33 in the experimental an

  1. Mentor Texts and the Coding of Academic Writing Structures: A Functional Approach

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    Wilder Yesid Escobar Alméciga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present pedagogical experience was to address the English language writing needs of university-level students pursuing a degree in bilingual education with an emphasis in the teaching of English. Using mentor texts and coding academic writing structures, an instructional design was developed to directly address the shortcomings presented through a triangulated needs analysis. Through promoting awareness of international standards of writing as well as fostering an understanding of the inherent structures of academic texts, a methodology intended to increase academic writing proficiency was explored. The study suggests that mentor texts and the coding of academic writing structures can have a positive impact on the production of students’ academic writing.

  2. COMIC STRIPS:A STUDY ON THE TEACHING OF WRITING NARRATIVE TEXTS TO INDONESIAN EFL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Fika Megawati; Mirjam Anugerahwati

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are proposed in the teaching of writing not only because of their appealing forms, but also due to their salient features as media to present content, organization and grammatical aspects of narrative texts. This study investigates the implementation of comic strips in teaching writing through a collaborative classroom action research at MAN Bangil. The procedures included planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The results show that teaching writing using comic strips...

  3. A Tale of Two Texts: Tracking Developments in Learner Writing

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    Cullip, Peter F.

    2009-01-01

    This case study analyses two written texts produced by an ESL learner either side of a five-week genre-based teaching intervention. The second text was judged to be of a much higher quality by two independent markers in a previous study. The question arising is: what exactly has improved? The analytical tools of systemic functional linguistics are…

  4. Beyond the Single Text: Nurturing Young Children's Interest in Reading and Writing for Multiple Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Carol A.; Milewicz, Elizabeth J.; Smolkin, Laura B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes children's early use of oral and written language for different purposes. Advocates fostering early appreciation of a variety of texts to cultivate children's disposition to read and write for enjoyment, information, and communication. Presents ideas for using the talking, reading, and writing done every day by young children to develop…

  5. Comic Strips: A Study on the Teaching of Writing Narrative Texts to Indonesian EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Fika; Anugerahwati, Mirjam

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are proposed in the teaching of writing not only because of their appealing forms, but also due to their salient features as media to present content, organization and grammatical aspects of narrative texts. This study investigates the implementation of comic strips in teaching writing through a collaborative classroom action research…

  6. Managing the Written Text: The Beginning of Punctuation in Children's Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Emilia; Pontecorvo, Clotilde

    1999-01-01

    Studied the use of punctuation in children's early writings in connection with organization of the text. Collected 134 stories of second graders written in Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian. Children tried to make sense of writing conventions, including the use of punctuation, and some tried to distinguish the functions of punctuation marks. (SLD)

  7. Comic Strips: A Study on the Teaching of Writing Narrative Texts to Indonesian EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Fika; Anugerahwati, Mirjam

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are proposed in the teaching of writing not only because of their appealing forms, but also due to their salient features as media to present content, organization and grammatical aspects of narrative texts. This study investigates the implementation of comic strips in teaching writing through a collaborative classroom action research…

  8. Mentor Texts and the Coding of Academic Writing Structures: A Functional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar Alméciga, Wilder Yesid; Evans, Reid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present pedagogical experience was to address the English language writing needs of university-level students pursuing a degree in bilingual education with an emphasis in the teaching of English. Using mentor texts and coding academic writing structures, an instructional design was developed to directly address the shortcomings…

  9. Leveraging Digital Mentor Texts to Write Like a Digital Writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werderich, Donna E.; Manderino, Michael; Godinez, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an approach to reading like a digital writer to support adolescents' narrative writing in digital formats. By providing digital mentor texts for students to read like digital writers, a more comprehensive and perhaps deeper understanding of digital writing and the memoir genre can emerge.

  10. The Woven Body: Embodying Text in Performance Art and the Writing Center

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    Rifenburg, J. Michael; Allgood, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on Lindsey Allgood's scripts, journal entries, and images of a specific participatory performance piece she executed, we argue for seeing performance art as a form of embodied text. Such an assertion is particularly pertinent for postsecondary writing center praxis as it allows for the mindful intersections of the body and writing during…

  11. Writing in first and second language: empirical studies on text quality and writing processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about writing proficiency among students of secondary education. Due to globalization, the ability to express oneself in a language other than the first language (L1) is increasingly becoming a condition for educational success. In The Netherlands, this ‘other’ or second language (L2)

  12. Writing processes, text quality, and task effects; empirical studies in first and second language writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weijen, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834068

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to advance our understanding of the writing process by linking process and product characteristics to each other. The underlying question was: how does the way in which writers use different cognitive activities, such as planning, generating ideas, and

  13. Writing in first and second language: empirical studies on text quality and writing processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about writing proficiency among students of secondary education. Due to globalization, the ability to express oneself in a language other than the first language (L1) is increasingly becoming a condition for educational success. In The Netherlands, this ‘other’ or second language (L2)

  14. Writing processes, text quality, and task effects; empirical studies in first and second language writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weijen, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to advance our understanding of the writing process by linking process and product characteristics to each other. The underlying question was: how does the way in which writers use different cognitive activities, such as planning, generating ideas, and formulating

  15. Writing for the Instant Messaging and Text Messaging Generation: Using New Literacies to Support Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Sheelah M.

    2010-01-01

    Writing, for adolescents who live in an age of digital communication, has taken on new importance and plays a prominent role in the way they socialize, share information, and structure communication. New literacies expand the literacy realm by considering the skills needed to function using media other than the printed page. Internet resources can…

  16. Developing Environment–Based Materials to Teach Writing in Recount Texts

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    Fauziah Ratna Hapsari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The tenth graders of State Senior High School 2 Semarang had problems to write their experiences. Unfortunately the existing materials were not appropriate to facilitate the learners to write recount texts. Hence, this study would like to develop environment – based materials to teach writing recount texts. It was inspired by the previous studies held by Gürsoy (2010 and Hauschild (2012. The materials were expected to improve learners’ writing competence of recount texts by applying topics which learners found in their daily lives, that is, environmental education. This study employed Research and Development design adapted from Borg and Gall (2003. The study found that applying the environment – based materials to teach writing recount texts gained positive effects. Moreover, the test of effectiveness reported significant improvement. The average score of pre-test was 48.94 and of post-test was 81.61. Therefore, English teachers are suggested to employ the materials. It is also necessary to conduct further studies to gain more positive effects toward teaching and learning process and to improve the learners’ writing competence. Keywords: Teaching writing; recount text; environment – based materials; contextual teaching and learningCopyright © 2015 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  17. Developing Environment–Based Materials to Teach Writing in Recount Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Ratna Hapsari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The tenth graders of State Senior High School 2 Semarang had problems to write their experiences. Unfortunately the existing materials were not appropriate to facilitate the learners to write recount texts. Hence, this study would like to develop environment – based materials to teach writing recount texts. It was inspired by the previous studies held by Gürsoy (2010 and Hauschild (2012. The materials were expected to improve learners’ writing competence of recount texts by applying topics which learners found in their daily lives, that is, environmental education. This study employed Research and Development design adapted from Borg and Gall (2003. The study found that applying the environment – based materials to teach writing recount texts gained positive effects. Moreover, the test of effectiveness reported significant improvement. The average score of pre-test was 48.94 and of post-test was 81.61. Therefore, English teachers are suggested to employ the materials. It is also necessary to conduct further studies to gain more positive effects toward teaching and learning process and to improve the learners’ writing competence. Keywords: Teaching writing; recount text; environment – based materials; contextual teaching and learningCopyright © 2015 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  18. Understanding Teachers' Writing: Authority in Talk and Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Anne Elrod; Zuidema, Leah A.; Fredricksen, James

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore how teachers who make their work public through talk and texts may find their composing complicated by issues of authority. These public composing acts include drafting articles, preparing workshop presentations, authoring op-ed pieces and letters to the editor, developing book manuscripts--creating any of the spoken…

  19. COMBINING PRODUCT AND PROCESS-BASED APPROACHES TO TEACHING WRITING DISCUSSION TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vina Agustiana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the activities of teaching-learning writing discussion texts when product and process-based approach combination is implemented in EFL writing classroom, the effects of applying the writing approach on EFL students’ writing skill, and the students’ attitude toward the implementation of writing approach in the classroom. It uses a mixed-methods through applying an embedded design by involving 24 second-grade students of a private university in West Java, Indonesia. There were four instruments used, namely field notes, videotapes, students’ tests (pre-test and post-test, and questionnaires. The findings show that the students were actively involved in class when the teacher applied the writing approach in writing classroom. There was also the improvement in the students’ writing skill based on the result taken from the students’ tests since the level of significance (two-tailed in paired t-test is less than the alpha (0.000<0.05. Qualitatively, the improvements were also found in generic features, textual language, and syntactical language aspects. In addition, the students showed highly positive attitude (4.35 average score toward the implementation of the approach in the classroom.

  20. Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa - Vol 21, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa - Vol 21, No 1-2 (2009). Journal Home ... “…to remember is like starting to see”: South African life stories today · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Current Issue Atom logo

  1. An Investigation of Verticality in Tertiary Students’ Academic Writing Texts: A Systemic Functional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasemaca T. Ledua Alifereti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study, identifies, discusses and recommends specific linguistic features that can be explored by Non-Native English (NNE students studying at the University of the South Pacific (USP in Fiji to improve their academic writing texts. Firstly, the status of academic writing in relation to NNE speakers both globally and in Fiji is discussed. Secondly, two concepts ‘abstract and metaphorical’ mentioned to be lacking in USP student texts are described followed by an explanation of how the two concepts are acquired if viewed from three different perspectives. Thirdly, previous studies conducted that had explored the importance of building verticality in writing are presented. Although a number of studies have explored verticality, there are no records to show how it is represented in circumstantial elements. Next the Transitivity system which is the theoretical framework adopted by the study is discussed with a particular emphasis on Relational processes. It is claimed that abstract and metaphorical relations are made in Relational processes. Moreover, certain linguistic features closely associated with verticality are identified to elicit data. Additionally results are presented and discussed according to research questions asked. Findings prove that indeed circumstances are mostly incongruently realized in Relational clauses. In order to build verticality in tertiary students’ academic writing texts, one has to be able to understand abstract and metaphorical concepts and how they are linguistically realized in writing texts.Keywords: horizontal and vertical knowledge structures, abstract and metaphorical concepts, grammatical metaphor,  nominalization, rankshifted clauses

  2. Assessing Students' Skills at Writing Analytically in Response to Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correnti, Richard; Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Hamilton, Laura; Wang, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of writing analytically in response to texts, there are few assessments measuring students' mastery of this skill. This manuscript describes the development of a response-to-text assessment (RTA) intended for use in research. In a subsequent validity investigation we examined whether the RTA distinguished among…

  3. Genres and Registers of Student Report Writing: An SFL Perspective on Texts and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    Academic literacies research has tended to focus on writers in context, while systemic functional linguistic research has tended to focus on texts in context. While literacy practices and written texts may be usefully analysed independently, this paper describes how an investigation of genres of academic writing in the BAWE (British Academic…

  4. Making sense with multimedia. A text theoretical study of a digital format integrating writing and video

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    Martin Engebretsen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital text formats that allow a close interaction between writing and video represent new possibilities and challenges for the communication of educational content. What are the premises for functional and appropriate communication through web-based, multimedial text formats?This article explores the digital writing-video format from a structural, theoretical perspective. To begin with, the two media’s respective characteristics are discussed and compared as carriers of complex signs. Thereafter, the focus is upon how writing and video elements can be accommodated to web media. Finally, the article discusses the conditions for optimal co-ordination and interaction between the two media types within the framework of an integrated design. A design example is presented.

  5. Text-Based Writing of Low-Skilled Postsecondary Students: Relation to Comprehension, Self-Efficacy and Teacher Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Dolores; Lauterbach, Mark; Raufman, Julia; Kalamkarian, Hoori Santikian

    2017-01-01

    Summarization and persuasive writing are important in postsecondary education and often require the use of source text. However, students entering college with low literacy skills often find this type of writing difficult. The present study compared predictors of performance on text-based summarization and persuasive writing in a sample of…

  6. THE EFFECTS OF AUTHENTIC MATERIALS ON STUDENTS’ WRITING OF PROCEDURAL TEXT

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    Zulida Arifa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to find whether there was a significant difference between the students taught using authentic materials and the students taught using non-authentic materials on the students’ writing score. The quasi-experimental design was applied in this study. The population was all the tenth year students at MAN Model Palangka Raya. The samples were determined using purposive sampling. The samples were XA as the experiment group and XB as the control group. The collected data were obtained from test and documentation. The main data were analyzed using ttest formula and SPSS 17.0. The results showed that the mean of pre-test score in experiment group was 59.76 and the mean of post-test score was 72.9. The value difference of both means was 13.14. The mean of pre-test score in control group was 53.8 and the mean of post-test score was 58. The value difference of both means was 4.2. It means that teaching writing procedural text using authentic materials was more effective than teaching writing procedural text using non-authentic materials because the authentic materials taught was appropriate with the level of students’ ability in this study. Keywords: authentic material, writing ability, procedural text.

  7. Making a CASE: Improving Use of Text Evidence in Students' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Elaine; Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Correnti, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Recent English Language Arts standards emphasize teaching students to use text evidence to support their claims and opinions; yet, students often struggle to do so effectively in their writing. To help students develop this skill, clearer understanding of what effective evidence use entails and targeted feedback to guide students' writing…

  8. Analysis of Nature of Science Included in Recent Popular Writing Using Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; McComas, William F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in popular science writing to determine whether it could serve supplementary resource for teaching NOS and to evaluate the accuracy of text mining and classification as a viable research tool in science education research. Four groups of documents published from 2001 to 2010 were…

  9. Globally Minded Text Production: Bilingual, Expository Writing of Italian Adolescents Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzak, Robin L.; Arfé, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated micro- and macrostructural text features, and the impact of language-specific skills, on the bilingual, persuasive writing of 41 high school students learning English in Italy. Participants composed persuasive essays on 2 topics, each in Italian and English, and completed spelling and sentence generation tasks in both…

  10. Teachers' Talk on Students' Writing: Negotiating Students' Texts in Interdisciplinary Teacher Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helstad, Kristin; Lund, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how a team of teachers in a Norwegian upper secondary school responds to, negotiates, and evaluates students' writing in and across different disciplines. The purpose is to identify discourse strategies and professional development as the teachers discuss students' texts, and to explore how the teachers develop a shared…

  11. The Effects of Word Prediction and Text-to-Speech on the Writing Process of Translating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the combination of word prediction and text-to-speech software on the writing process of translating. Participants for this study included 10 elementary and middle school students who had a diagnosis of disorder of written expression. A modified multiple case series was used to collect data…

  12. The Effects of Goal Instructions and Text on the Generation of Counterarguments During Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Michael E.; Kardash, Carol Anne M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated ways of encouraging students to consider more counterarguments when writing argumentative texts. One hundred eighty-four undergraduates wrote essays on TV violence. In Experiment 1, students given specific goals generated more counterarguments and rebuttals than controls. In Experiment 2, some participants were provided…

  13. Write between the lines: Electronic outlining and the organization of text ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Broekkamp, Hein; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Broekkamp, H., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Write between the lines: Electronic outlining and the organization of text ideas. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2107-2116. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.1006.1015

  14. Exploring the Inconsistent Labels and Definitions of Texts Used in Informational Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Naomi M.; Liang, Lauren Aimonette

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the various labels and definitions given for texts used for informational reading and writing and the confusion caused by the inconsistency of terms. An EBSCO search on articles published from 2006 to 2011 in the three largest literacy-related professional organizations' journals produced a total of 59 articles.…

  15. Approaches to the Writing of Greek in Late Antique Latin Texts

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    Aaron Pelttari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Greek words in manuscripts of Augustine and of Ausonius suggests that late Latin writers employed transliteration, rather than writing Greek letters, more often than has been thought, both for familiar loan-words in Latin and for words perceived as still Greek.

  16. Exploring the Inconsistent Labels and Definitions of Texts Used in Informational Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Naomi M.; Liang, Lauren Aimonette

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the various labels and definitions given for texts used for informational reading and writing and the confusion caused by the inconsistency of terms. An EBSCO search on articles published from 2006 to 2011 in the three largest literacy-related professional organizations' journals produced a total of 59 articles.…

  17. Combining Multiple Measures of Students' Opportunities to Develop Analytic, Text-Based Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correnti, Richard; Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Hamilton, Laura S.; Wang, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Guided by evidence that teachers contribute to student achievement outcomes, researchers have been reexamining how to study instruction and the classroom opportunities teachers create for students. We describe our experience measuring students' opportunities to develop analytic, text-based writing skills. Utilizing multiple methods of data…

  18. Analysis of Nature of Science Included in Recent Popular Writing Using Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; McComas, William F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in popular science writing to determine whether it could serve supplementary resource for teaching NOS and to evaluate the accuracy of text mining and classification as a viable research tool in science education research. Four groups of documents published from 2001 to 2010 were…

  19. Adolescents and Texts: Raw Writing--A Critical Support for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred W.; Gue, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Writing plays an important role in adolescent literacy development, but school writing is often too rigid to accommodate their personal needs, not allowing them to write for different purposes and different audiences. Studies of writing generally focus on learning to write or writing to learn. Using a sociocultural lens, the authors focused on…

  20. Developmental Relations between Reading and Writing at the Word, Sentence and Text Levels: A Latent Change Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2014-05-01

    Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence and text levels. Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways (reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading) and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included 316 boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4. Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts. Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level.

  1. THE USE OF SCAFFOLDING TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE THE STUDENTS’ COMPETENCE IN WRITING GENRE-BASED TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulatsih

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dalam menulis teks yang bersifat genre-based, para mahasiswa masih mengalami kesulitan, khususnya tentang bagaimana mengembangkan ide, membangun sturktur tematik yang benar, dan menggunakan cirri lexico-grammar pada teks. Untuk mengatasi masalah itu the scaffolding technique dibutuhkan dalam kelas Writing. Teknik itu diberikan untuk membantu para mahasiswa menulis sebuah teks, termasuk, persiapan, presentasi dan refleksi. 25 mahasiswa Fakultas Bahasa & Sastra, Dian Nuswantoro, dipilih untuk diberi pengarahan dan diminta untuk menulis teks genre-based dalam bahasa Inggris. Siklusnya diulang tiga kali. Hasilnya menunjukkan peningkatan yang signifikan pada kompetensi menulis teks yang bersifat genre-based itu.   Keywords    :    Genre-Based Writing, Scaffolding Technique, Students’ competence, Texts, Teaching.

  2. Deconstruction the end of writing: 'Everything is a text, there is nothing outside context'

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    Gavin P. Hendricks

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I read Derrida�s critique of the �sign� over against the challenges of the metaphysics of presence as featured in Western theology and philosophy. Derrida argues that logocentric interpretive interest in theology and philosophy is widely held and contradict by the West, as this somehow reveals the Western belief of the metaphysics of presence. He argues that the idea of metaphysics of presence which is strongly held in Christianity and Judaism is somehow privileged speech (Logos over against writing which is seen as death and alienated from existential and transcendental reality. Derrida focuses on the reading of Saussure and how presence has been perceived over against writing in Western discourse in terms of the interpretation from Plato to Rousseau. Derrida prefers to deconstruct presence, which is perceived in Western theology and philosophy as truth and the ideal moment of pure, unmediated firstness. This article focuses on the reading of the work of Saussure, who has been greatly influential in the study of oral traditions, verbal arts and the interpretive interest of the sign. For Derrida writing has been suppressed by Western discourse for almost 400 years, as speech has been privileged over writing. The function of deconstruction is to deconstruct the binary opposition between speech and writing. Derrida provides clear examples of his deconstructive activity, which turns the text in traces of more text in opposing speech as unmediated firstness of presence. Derrida�s critique of speech hopes to expose the dishonesty and false consciousness in a Western interpretive discourse that suppressed writing and perceived speech as presence. This relation is both oppositional and hierarchical, with writing as secondariness understood as a fall or lapse from firstness. For Derrida, �there is nothing outside of the text�. In the original French, Derrida wrote: �Il n�y a pas de hors-texte� [There is no outside-text

  3. The effects of using authentic texts in German language teaching on writing skills and vocabulary knowledge

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    Stipančević Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the use of modern textbooks and teaching materials in German language teaching, school and university students continue to have difficulty in applying their knowledge of the language and in understanding authentic language. Even after studying German at school for as long as eight years, students are frequently unable to apply their knowledge of the language in written and oral communication. One of the major problems and shortcomings of German language teaching is that learners of German, unlike learners of English, are not exposed to authentic language input, which is important for stimulating subconscious, and therefore more rapid and efficient, language acquisition. The aim of our research was to assess the effects of using authentic texts in German language teaching on students' writing skills and vocabulary knowledge. An experimental study was conducted at the Novi Sad Faculty of Philosophy in the period October 2014 - June 2015 among students of an elective A2 level German language course. The findings indicate that the use of authentic texts in teaching has positive effects both on writing skills and on vocabulary knowledge. The results obtained from the experimental student group suggest a need for greater use of authentic texts in German language teaching, with the aim of developing language competences as well as tolerance and openness towards the foreign and the different, which is not always possible when using textbook texts.

  4. The write content: a guide for revising and grading texts and manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpey-Murray, K; Dally, D

    1989-01-01

    Your writing should reflect the way you think and work and should, therefore, be in accordance with the requirements of the scientific method. The WRITE CONTENT lists nine desirable features of scientific writing along with descriptions of how they are facilitated in the writing process. Assembled in checklist form, these features become the criteria that can guide composition and evaluation.

  5. Yes, There Are Texts in This Writing Class! The New Synthesis of Composition and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Susan M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews five composition textbooks, assessing their attempts to integrate the reading and writing processes through literature and composition. Examines the textbooks' theoretical instantiation and notes their lack of success in achieving the reading/writing connection. (MM)

  6. Writing Assessment and the Revolution in Digital Texts and Technologies. Language & Literacy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Writing and the teaching of writing is changing at a rapid pace. How can educators understand writing assessment "as" and "with" technology in the 21st-century classroom? Michael Neal contends that new technologies are neither the problem nor the solution. Instead, educators need to tap into digital resources only inasmuch as they promote writing…

  7. Model texts in an advanced academic writing curriculum: Unravelling an instructional strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firssova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of learning from models in the context of post-graduate academic writing. Two questions were pursued: whether studying model writings supports mature students in writing in a new genre and whether integrating additional scaffolds in such models has added valu

  8. Write between the lines: Electronic outlining and the organization of text ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, M.R.J.; Brand-Gruwel, S.; Broekkamp, H.; Kirschner, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Writing is an important, complex skill which could be enhanced through the effective use of writing tools that are incorporated in word processors. The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of (repeated) electronic outlining on the quality of students’ writing products and perceived

  9. Model texts in an advanced academic writing curriculum: Unravelling an instructional strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firssova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of learning from models in the context of post-graduate academic writing. Two questions were pursued: whether studying model writings supports mature students in writing in a new genre and whether integrating additional scaffolds in such models has added valu

  10. Model texts in an advanced academic writing curriculum: Unravelling an instructional strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Firssova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of learning from models in the context of post-graduate academic writing. Two questions were pursued: whether studying model writings supports mature students in writing in a new genre and whether integrating additional scaffolds in such models has added value

  11. Write between the lines: Electronic outlining and the organization of text ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, M.R.J.; Brand-Gruwel, S.; Broekkamp, H.; Kirschner, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Writing is an important, complex skill which could be enhanced through the effective use of writing tools that are incorporated in word processors. The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of (repeated) electronic outlining on the quality of students’ writing products and perceived

  12. Effects of Note-Taking and Extended Writing on Expository Text Comprehension: Who Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Michael; Graham, Steve; Rigby-Wills, Hope; Ganson, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Writing may be an especially useful tool for improving the reading comprehension of lower performing readers and students with disabilities. However, it is reasonable to expect that students with poor writing skills in particular, may actually be less adept at using writing to improve their reading skills, and may not be able to do so without…

  13. CONTAMINATION AS A NEW WRITING ERROR IN INDONESIAN PHILOLOGY FROM SUNDANESE: A TEXT CRITICISM TOWARDS WAWACAN PADMASARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlan Saefuddin,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the complexity of distinctly undepicted contamination in a depiction of the forms of writing errors will be observed. Furthermore, it must be examined how the contamination in a complex network of writing error is. The material studied in this research is Wawacan Padmasari manuscript which is from Indonesia manuscript from Sundanese. The primary data is manuscript A and the secondary data is manuscipt B and C as a compared one. The basic approach to examine the problem of contamination is through text criticism using comparative – analytical approach. The contamination in the primary data is criticized (identified and corrected analytically through comparison with the secondary data. Contamination as a separated category isa writing combination error from several types of writing error and language feature. Contamination is divided into two sub-categories: singular and plural. Singular contamination is a combination of language features with the result that erroneous writing form without the combination of more than an error is created. Plural contamination is a combination of several forms of writing error. Contamination have a complex relation with the other writing error forms as a relation of combination. Through contamination, complex network of writing error can be depicted more comprehensive.

  14. Adolescents’ Awareness of Environmental Care: Experiences when Writing Short Descriptive Texts in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo Urrutia Lorena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Today it is necessary to approach environmental topics with students in an interdisciplinary manner to mitigate the environmental damages that the Earth is suffering. In this paper we report an actionresearch and innovation study aimed at sensitizing students with respect to the care and preservation of the environment through the writing of short descriptive texts in English. The study had four stages: motivation, knowledge of ecological vocabulary, production of sentences and paragraphs, construction of short descriptive texts with the help of guidance questions and their publication in the school newspaper. The findings show that the procedure used in class promotes interdisciplinary work around environmental topics as well as the development of writing skills.

    Hoy en día, es necesario abordar temas ambientales con los estudiantes, de manera interdisciplinaria, para mitigar los daños ambientales que está sufriendo la tierra. En este artículo reportamos un estudio de investigación-acción e innovación que buscó sensibilizar a los estudiantes acerca del cuidado y la preservación del medio ambiente mediante la escritura de breves textos descriptivos en inglés. El estudio tuvo cinco etapas: motivación; conocimiento de vocabulario ecológico; producción de frases y párrafos; construcción de breves textos descriptivos –con la ayuda de preguntas orientadoras–, y la publicación de los textos en el periódico escolar. Los resultados muestran que el proceso empleado en clase promueve el trabajo interdisciplinario en torno a temas ecológicos, así como el desarrollo de habilidades escriturales.

  15. Literacy and Academic Texts: Writing Control in the Colombian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Maldonado García

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article of reflection proposes an archaeological reading of a file made up of corpus of published research in Spanish and governmental documents, published in the last decade, that analyze the written production in the Colombian higher education (ES and that are marked by two discourses in Tension: studies of cognitive language and cultural-linguistic studies. Through the archaeological reading of Foucauldian court, the emergence of two controversial scenarios is shown. First stage: the Academic Literacy (AA discourse, in the beginning, was closer to the psycho-cognitive perspective and the literacy approach closer to the cultural perspective; however, with the passing of the days, both recognize the importance of cultural and cognitive and nourish each other, thus generating an opacity and a discursive fusion. Second, these two discourses created a robust investigative field, composed of networks and groups, which denounced the writers' incompetence of Colombian teachers and then control the evaluation of writing.

  16. Lexical bundles in an advanced INTOCSU writing class and engineering texts: A functional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquraishi, Mohammed Abdulrahman

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the functions of lexical bundles in two corpora: a corpus of engineering academic texts and a corpus of IEP advanced writing class texts. This study is concerned with the nature of formulaic language in Pathway IEPs and engineering texts, and whether those types of texts show similar or distinctive formulaic functions. Moreover, the study looked into lexical bundles found in an engineering 1.26 million-word corpus and an ESL 65000-word corpus using a concordancing program. The study then analyzed the functions of those lexical bundles and compared them statistically using chi-square tests. Additionally, the results of this investigation showed 236 unique frequent lexical bundles in the engineering corpus and 37 bundles in the pathway corpus. Also, the study identified several differences between the density and functions of lexical bundles in the two corpora. These differences were evident in the distribution of functions of lexical bundles and the minimal overlap of lexical bundles found in the two corpora. The results of this study call for more attention to formulaic language at ESP and EAP programs.

  17. Using Realia to Teach Physically Disabled Students in Writing Descriptive Texts

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    Noorma Fitriana M. Zain

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This case study is focused on teaching descriptive texts by using realia. The writer took the 8th grade students of SMPLB Negeri Ungaran as the subjects of the study. The aim of this research is to know the implementation of teaching descriptive texts that cover parts, qualities, and characteristics of the objects. This study was carried out around four meetings. In each meeting, the researcher observed the situation of the class and the setudents’ activities in that classroom. The data collection method used in the research was observation, interview, and documentation. In implementating the research, the researcher found several problems and difficulties in teaching learning processes. One of them is that, the teaching physically disabled students are not easy. It has to be slowly because the students’ ability in writing the lesson is limited. The other problem comes from the teacher him/herself that never uses media or tools to teach physically disabled students. It is a matter of fact that teaching physically  disabled students needs media to make them easily understand the learning materials. One of the media that could be used is realia. From this research it is expected that the problems could be solved and a new paradigm in teaching descriptive texts for disabled students could be considered.

  18. Modeling Writing Development: Contribution of Transcription and Self-Regulation to Portuguese Students' Text Generation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpo, Teresa; Alves, Rui A.

    2013-01-01

    Writing is a complex activity that requires transcription and self-regulation. We used multiple-group structural equation modeling to test the contribution of transcription (handwriting and spelling), planning, revision, and self-efficacy to writing quality at 2 developmental points (Grades 4-6 vs. 7-9). In Grades 4-6, the model explained 76% of…

  19. Web-Based Collaborative Writing in L2 Contexts: Methodological Insights from Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Soobin; Warschauer, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The increasingly widespread use of social software (e.g., Wikis, Google Docs) in second language (L2) settings has brought a renewed attention to collaborative writing. Although the current methodological approaches to examining collaborative writing are valuable to understand L2 students' interactional patterns or perceived experiences, they can…

  20. The Impact of Text Genre on Iranian Intermediate EFL Students' Writing Errors: An Error Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqimipour, Kourosh; Shahrokhi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at analyzing writing errors caused by the interference of the Persian language, regarded as the first language (L1), in three writing genres, namely narration, description, and comparison/contrast by Iranian EFL students. 65 English paragraphs written by the participants, who were at the intermediate level based on their…

  1. Concept mapping and text writing as learning tools in problem-oriented learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürstenau, B.; Kneppers, L.; Dekker, R.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.; Vanhaer, J.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies we investigated whether concept mapping or summary writing better support students while learning from authentic problems in the field of business. We interpret concept mapping and summary writing as elaboration tools aiming at helping students to understand new information, and to in

  2. Thai EFL Students' Writing Errors in Different Text Types: The Interference of the First Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharapunyawong, Somchai; Usaha, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing writing errors caused by the interference of the Thai language, regarded as the first language (L1), in three writing genres, namely narration, description, and comparison/contrast. 120 English paragraphs written by 40 second year English major students were analyzed by using Error Analysis (EA).The results revealed…

  3. EFL Arab Learners' Peer Revision of Writing in a Facebook Group: Contributions to Written Texts and Sense of Online Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Saeed, Murad Abdu

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated peer writing revision among English as foreign language (EFL) Arab students in a Facebook group. Specifically, it aimed to identify the text revisions made by the learners and to determine their contributions to the learners' written texts and sense of online community outside the college classroom context.…

  4. Personal Readings and Public Texts Book Blogs and Online Writing about Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Steiner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The blogging culture has become an important and integrated part of the book trade and has influenced the publishing, marketing and distribution of literature in North America and in many European countries. However, it is unclear how this potential agency among bloggers operates, and thus far most research has concerned politics, media systems and larger social structures. The present article is a study of the Swedish book blogs during the autumn of 2009 and an attempt to address a small, but significant, part of the Internet influence. The relationship between books and digital technology is complicated and manifold, but it is clear that the Internet has changed how people access books, how they read and how they communicate with others about their reading. Here, the position of the amateur is one that will be discussed in detail in terms of professionalism, strategies and hierarchies. Another issue that will be addressed is the connections between the book bloggers and the book trade, especially the publishers and their marketing departments. The book bloggers operate in a social realm, despite the fact that their writing is personal, and have to be understood in their social, economic and literary context. The Swedish book blogs will be analysed with the help of readerresponse theory, sociology of literature and a book historical perspective on the dissemination of literature.

  5. Interacting with Text: The Role of Dialogue in Learning to Read and Write

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. R. Martin; David Rose

    2007-01-01

    English language teachers in China are expressing growing interest in the model of language provided by systemic functional linguistics and genre theory. This paper offers further insights into the methods developed in this framework, for teaching reading and writing in school and academic contexts. These methods involve carefully planned interactions between teachers and students, that enable all students in a class to successfully practise skills in academic reading and writing. The paper outlines the models of language and language learning that underpin the methods, and illustrates the kinds of classroom interactions used for writing and reading. It concludes with a discussion of the implications of these methods for language teaching in China.

  6. Justifying Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…

  7. Writing skill enhancement when creating narrative texts through the use of collaborative writing and the Storybird Web 2.0 tool*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeison Edgardo Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is presenting how the use of Collaborative Writing (CW through Storybird, a web 2.0 tool which promotes the creation of stories collaboratively, led two groups of learners to improve certain specific aspects of their writing skill. Both groups, the former one with fifteen students and the latter one with ten students, were about to complete a two-year general English course at Instituto de Lenguas de la Universidad Distrital (ILUD in Bogotá, Colombia. Although their English language proficiency was expected to be at an upper-intermediate level (B2 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR, their writing skill was below average. Two pedagogical interventions were performed at two diferent times, the first one from October to November 2010, and the second one from March to April 2011. Pre and posttests, focus groups, surveys and reflective journals were used and data was analyzed following coding procedures. The findings revealed that the CW supported with Storybird encouraged learners to create narrative texts and their positive attitude towards the production of stories increased. Moreover, an improvement in learners’ vocabulary and increased attempts to use complex language forms to write were noticeable.

  8. Impact of Text-Mining and Imitating Strategies on Lexical Richness, Lexical Diversity and General Success in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çepni, Sevcan Bayraktar; Demirel, Elif Tokdemir

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the impact of "text mining and imitating" strategies on lexical richness, lexical diversity and general success of students in their compositions in second language writing. The participants were 98 students studying their first year in Karadeniz Technical University in English Language and Literature…

  9. Two Portfolio Systems: EFL Students' Perceptions of Writing Ability, Text Improvement, and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ricky

    2013-01-01

    Research into portfolio assessment ("PA") typically describes teachers' development and implementation of different portfolio models in their respective teaching contexts, however, not much attention is paid to student perceptions of the portfolio approach or its impact on the learning of writing. To this end, this study aims to…

  10. Two Portfolio Systems: EFL Students' Perceptions of Writing Ability, Text Improvement, and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ricky

    2013-01-01

    Research into portfolio assessment ("PA") typically describes teachers' development and implementation of different portfolio models in their respective teaching contexts, however, not much attention is paid to student perceptions of the portfolio approach or its impact on the learning of writing. To this end, this study aims to…

  11. "The Text Opened My Eyes": A Book Club on Teaching Writing to ELLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Elena; Ellerbe, Marcie; Cherner, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study looked at a book club for US teachers in public schools focused on teaching writing to English language learners (ELLs). To guide the study, the central research questions were: (1) What are teachers' perceptions about a book club professional development experience?; and (2) How are teachers' views about second language…

  12. Time, Space, and Text in the Elementary School Digital Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kathy A.; Exley, Beryl

    2014-01-01

    Theorists of multiliteracies, social semiotics, and the New Literacy Studies have drawn attention to the potential changing nature of writing and literacy in the context of networked communications. This article reports findings from a design-based research project in Year 4 classrooms (students aged 8.5-10 years) in a low socioeconomic status…

  13. Text-based plagiarism in scientific writing: what Chinese supervisors think about copying and how to reduce it in students' writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-06-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or textual copying, typically in the form of replicating or patchwriting sentences in a row from sources, seems to be an issue of growing concern among scientific journal editors. Editors have emphasized that senior authors (typically supervisors of science students) should take the responsibility for educating novices against text-based plagiarism. To address a research gap in the literature as to how scientist supervisors perceive the issue of textual copying and what they do in educating their students, this paper reports an interview study with 14 supervisors at a research-oriented Chinese university. The study throws light on the potentiality of senior authors mentoring novices in English as an Additional Language (EAL) contexts and has implications for the efforts that can be made in the wider scientific community to support scientists in writing against text-based plagiarism.

  14. Justifying departures from progressivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Steensig, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    -going activity. Some of the actions that altså prefaces can also be prefaced by phrases like ‘you know’ or ‘I mean’, which seem to do at least some of the work that altså does, but altså is used more frequently and across a wider range of actions. In our discussion, we raise the possibility that the usefulness......This chapter investigates the use of the Danish particle altså in turn-initial position. Turn-initial altså can be employed for prefacing a wide range of actions, including self- and other-initiated repair, questions, second stories and answers to both yes/no and wh-questions. We show that across...... these actions, participants in interaction produce altså to indicate (1) that the action they will produce departs from progressivity, (2) that it will expand on something prior, (3) that the departure is, therefore, justified, and (4) that it will contribute to reinstalling the progression of the larger on...

  15. Say More and Be More Coherent: How Text Elaboration and Cohesion Can Increase Writing Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines links between essay quality and text elaboration and text cohesion. For this study, 35 students wrote two essays (on two different prompts) and for each, were given 15 minutes to elaborate on their original text. An expert in discourse comprehension then modified the original and elaborated essays to increase cohesion,…

  16. Towards evidence-based writing decisions: The Knowledge Base Comprehensible Text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentz, Leo; Pander Maat, Henk; Sanders, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper introduces the Knowledge Base Comprehensible Text, a digital resource containing 702 studies on comprehension and usability of text and discourse, published between 1980 and 2010. The paper explains which publications were included in the knowledge base, how they were collected,

  17. Grammaire de texte et apprentissage de l'ecrit (Textual Grammar and the Teaching of Writing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Marie-Paule

    1985-01-01

    Textual grammar provides a means of examining the relationship between the sentence and the text as a whole, and it is in that context that the problems of learning a second language become clear and that it becomes important for the teacher to understand how the text functions so as to impart it to students. (MSE)

  18. Adolescent Students' Reading during Writing Behaviors and Relationships with Text Quality: An Eyetracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Scott F.; Quinlan, Thomas; Harbaugh, Allen G.

    2010-01-01

    This study employed eyetracking technology to investigate adolescent students' reading processes as they composed and to explore relationships between these reading processes and text quality. A sample of 32 adolescent students composed narrative and expository texts while eyetracking equipment recorded their eye movements. Eye movements upon a…

  19. Grammaire de texte et apprentissage de l'ecrit (Textual Grammar and the Teaching of Writing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Marie-Paule

    1985-01-01

    Textual grammar provides a means of examining the relationship between the sentence and the text as a whole, and it is in that context that the problems of learning a second language become clear and that it becomes important for the teacher to understand how the text functions so as to impart it to students. (MSE)

  20. Interpreting Visual Texts: Use of an Analytic Rubric to Evaluate Student Responses to Writing Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundeen, Todd H.; O'Neil, Kathleen; Fanselow, Stephanie A.

    2017-01-01

    Younger students' visual texts are statements and stories conveyed through drawings or other artwork and often convey meaning beyond the child's capability to communicate with written expression. Although opportunities for expression through drawing are routinely offered to children in the initial and middle stages of early childhood literacy…

  1. El texto expositivo y su escritura The expository text and its writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Álvarez Angulo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trabaja las regularidades lingüístico-textuales de los textos expositivos escritos en español. Inicialmente, señala el concepto de género expositivo y los subtipos textuales que lo integran, atendiendo a criterios de carácter funcional; también analiza las características de las estructuras más frecuentes, describiendo las regularidades textuales en los niveles: paratexto, texto, párrafo, frase, oración y léxico. Finalmente, propone una secuencia didáctica que facilita los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje de dicho género.This article deals with the textual and linguistic regularities from expository texts written in Spanish. First of all, it draws attention to the concepts of the expository gender, and the textual sub-types to which they are part, taking into account functional criteria at its base; it also analyzes the characteristics of the most frequent structures, describing the textual regularities at para-textual, textual, phrasal, sentential, and lexical levels. Finally, it proposes a pedagogical sequence that promotes the teaching and learning processes of this text gender.

  2. Ethnography as Method, Methodology, and "Deep Theorizing" Closing the Gap between Text and Context in Academic Writing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    This article critically explores the value of ethnography for enhancing context-sensitive approaches to the study of academic writing. Drawing on data from two longitudinal studies, student writing in the United Kingdom and professional academic writing in Hungary, Slovakia, Spain, and Portugal, the author illustrates the different contributions…

  3. From regular text to artistic writing and artworks: Fourier statistics of images with low and high aesthetic appeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eMelmer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatial characteristics of letters and their influence on readability and letter identification have been intensely studied during the last decades. There have been few studies, however, on statistical image properties that reflect more global aspects of text, for example properties that may relate to its aesthetic appeal. It has been shown that natural scenes and a large variety of visual artworks possess a scale-invariant Fourier power spectrum that falls off linearly with increasing frequency in log-log plots. We asked whether images of text share this property. As expected, the Fourier spectrum of images of regular typed or handwritten text is highly anisotropic, i.e. the spectral image properties in vertical, horizontal and oblique orientations differ. Moreover, the spatial frequency spectra of text images are not scale invariant in any direction. The decline is shallower in the low-frequency part of the spectrum for text than for aesthetic artworks, whereas, in the high-frequency part, it is steeper. These results indicate that, in general, images of regular text contain less global structure (low spatial frequencies relative to fine detail (high spatial frequencies than images of aesthetics artworks. Moreover, we studied images of text with artistic claim (ornate print and calligraphy and ornamental art. For some measures, these images assume average values intermediate between regular text and aesthetic artworks. Finally, to answer the question of whether the statistical properties measured by us are universal amongst humans or are subject to intercultural differences, we compared images from three different cultural backgrounds (Western, East Asian and Arabic. Results for different categories (regular text, aesthetic writing, ornamental art and fine art were similar across cultures.

  4. From regular text to artistic writing and artworks: Fourier statistics of images with low and high aesthetic appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melmer, Tamara; Amirshahi, Seyed A; Koch, Michael; Denzler, Joachim; Redies, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The spatial characteristics of letters and their influence on readability and letter identification have been intensely studied during the last decades. There have been few studies, however, on statistical image properties that reflect more global aspects of text, for example properties that may relate to its aesthetic appeal. It has been shown that natural scenes and a large variety of visual artworks possess a scale-invariant Fourier power spectrum that falls off linearly with increasing frequency in log-log plots. We asked whether images of text share this property. As expected, the Fourier spectrum of images of regular typed or handwritten text is highly anisotropic, i.e., the spectral image properties in vertical, horizontal, and oblique orientations differ. Moreover, the spatial frequency spectra of text images are not scale-invariant in any direction. The decline is shallower in the low-frequency part of the spectrum for text than for aesthetic artworks, whereas, in the high-frequency part, it is steeper. These results indicate that, in general, images of regular text contain less global structure (low spatial frequencies) relative to fine detail (high spatial frequencies) than images of aesthetics artworks. Moreover, we studied images of text with artistic claim (ornate print and calligraphy) and ornamental art. For some measures, these images assume average values intermediate between regular text and aesthetic artworks. Finally, to answer the question of whether the statistical properties measured by us are universal amongst humans or are subject to intercultural differences, we compared images from three different cultural backgrounds (Western, East Asian, and Arabic). Results for different categories (regular text, aesthetic writing, ornamental art, and fine art) were similar across cultures.

  5. E-governance justified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Akotam Agangiba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology today has become an indispensable part in our lives, gaining wide application in human activities. This is due to the fact that, its use is less expensive, more secure, and allows speedy information transmission and access. It serves as a good base for the development and success of today’s relatively young technologies. It has relieved people of manual day-to-day activities in such areas as businesses organizations, transport industry, teaching and research, banking, broadcasting, entertainment amongst other. This paper takes an overview study of e-governance, one of the most demanding applications of information and communication technology for public services. The paper summarizes the concept of e-governance, its major essence and some ongoing e-governance activities in some parts of the world.

  6. Is Sport Nationalism Justifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez Triviño

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.

  7. Is Sport Nationalism Justifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez Triviño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.

  8. Justifier l’injustifiable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Jouanjan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Le « droit » tient aussi dans les discours qu’on tient sur lui, notamment les discours des juristes. L’analyse des discours des juristes engagés du Troisième Reich fait ressortir un schéma général de justification, un principe grammatical génératif de ces discours qu’on peut qualifier de « décisionnisme substantiel ». Le positivisme juridique, parce qu’abstrait et « juif », fut désigné comme l’ennemi principal de la science du « droit » nazi, une « science » qui ne pouvait se concevoir elle-même que comme politique. En analysant la construction idéologico-juridique de l’État total, la destruction de la notion de droits subjectifs, la substitution au concept de personnalité juridique d’une notion « concrète » de l’« être-membre-de-la-communauté », puis en montrant le fonctionnement de ces discours dans la pratique, la présente contribution met en évidence la double logique de l’incorporation et de l’incarnation à l’œuvre dans la science nazie du droit, une « science » dont Carl Schmitt fait la « théorie » en 1934 à travers la « pensée de l’ordre concret ».

  9. Teaching Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Z.; Kostka, I.; Mott-Smith, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of "Teaching Writing" draw on their years of teaching and their knowledge of theory and research to present major concepts in teaching L2 writing. These concepts encompass how cultural differences affect the writing class, planning instruction, text-based writing, writing strategies, modeling, and responding to student…

  10. DEVELOPING SKILLS OF COMPOSING A PARAGRAPH AS A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT OF AN ENGLISH-LANGUAGE WRITTEN TEXT WHEN TEACHING WRITING TO LANGUAGE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Odegova, Nataliya

    2016-01-01

    In the article the author explores the concept of paragraph as a means of logically structuring a written text; outlines the principles of arranging a body paragraph; examines the functions of a topic sentence, supporting sentences and a concluding one; identifies the specific skills of writing a paragraph; offers a set of activities aimed at mastering the specified skills in the context of developing English-language competence in writing. The suggested sequence of activities presupposes ste...

  11. Raising process-genre awareness in Chinese Tertiary EFL con-text:Introducing the Purdue Online Writing Lab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Bingqian

    2015-01-01

    Writing is always regarded as a purposeful way of communicating to an imaginary other.It is necessary to adhere to the author’s purpose and make sure that it is effective,instead of pro-viding only meaningless chunks of sentences to discourage readers.However,it’s worth no-ticing that the‘invisible reader’has (a) purpose(s) too.Writing is a process of the author try-ing to negotiate with the readers by following certain genre-specific restrictions.This focus has been well captured by an online writing workshop-the Purdue Online Writing Lab,which manifests a novel perspective to view writing as a process constrained within a specific genre.With the advancement of computers and internet,the Computer Aided Language Teaching method (CALL),as presented in this article,can foreground prominence of writing principles and motivate students to learn and write creatively.Suggested use of the workshop as such is provided at the end of this paper.

  12. Raising process-genre awareness in Chinese Tertiary EFL con-text: Introducing the Purdue Online Writing Lab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du; Bingqian

    2015-01-01

    Writing is always regarded as a purposeful way of communicating to an imaginary other.It is necessary to adhere to the author’s purpose and make sure that it is effective,instead of pro-viding only meaningless chunks of sentences to discourage readers.However,it’s worth no-ticing that the‘invisible reader’has(a)purpose(s)too.Writing is a process of the author try-ing to negotiate with the readers by following certain genrespecific restrictions.This focus has been well captured by an online writing workshop-the Purdue Online Writing Lab,which manifests a novel perspective to view writing as a process constrained within a specific genre.With the advancement of computers and internet,the Computer Aided Language Teaching method(CALL),as presented in this article,can foreground prominence of writing principles and motivate students to learn and write creatively.Suggested use of the workshop as such is provided at the end of this paper.

  13. Professional training in creative writing is associated with enhanced fronto-striatal activity in a literary text continuation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, K; Kessler, F; Neumann, N; Ortheil, H-J; Lotze, M

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore brain activities associated with creativity and expertise in literary writing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we applied a real-life neuroscientific setting that consisted of different writing phases (brainstorming and creative writing; reading and copying as control conditions) to well-selected expert writers and to an inexperienced control group. During creative writing, experts showed cerebral activation in a predominantly left-hemispheric fronto-parieto-temporal network. When compared to inexperienced writers, experts showed increased left caudate nucleus and left dorsolateral and superior medial prefrontal cortex activation. In contrast, less experienced participants recruited increasingly bilateral visual areas. During creative writing activation in the right cuneus showed positive association with the creativity index in expert writers. High experience in creative writing seems to be associated with a network of prefrontal (mPFC and DLPFC) and basal ganglia (caudate) activation. In addition, our findings suggest that high verbal creativity specific to literary writing increases activation in the right cuneus associated with increased resources obtained for reading processes.

  14. Writing your thesis Paul Oliver Writing your thesis Publisher: Sage No. of pages: 208 £16.99 0761942998 0761942998 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    So you need to write a thesis and want some succinct, practical guidance. You don't want to plough through hundreds of pages or follow up a list of references to other material. Both of these activities use up your precious study time and divert your attention from the subject material of the thesis.

  15. The Process of Writing a Text by Using Cooperative Learning El proceso de escribir un texto por medio del uso del aprendizaje cooperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Aldana

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This research project was carried out in order to get ninth graders of the departamental school “El Tequendama” involved in their writing tasks and to improve their writing skills, following the process that a professional writer enables students to write cooperatively and reduces their writing anxiety. Cooperative writing enables the participation of students with a mixture of proficiency level, thus providing greater opportunities to make achievements and therefore greater opportunities to be more deeply involved in their writing tasks.Este proyecto de investigación se llevó a cabo con el propósito de lograr que los estudiantes de noveno grado del colegio departamental “El Tequendama” se comprometieran con sus actividades de escritura y mejoraran sus habilidades escriturales. El reproducir el proceso que un escritor realiza permite a los estudiantes escribir cooperativamente y reduce la ansiedad provocada por el acto de escribir. La escritura cooperativa potencia la participación de estudiantes con niveles bajos de dominio, brindándoles mayores oportunidades de lograr mejores resultados y por tanto mayores oportunidades de comprometerse con sus actividades de escritura.

  16. A Randomized Experiment of a Cognitive Strategies Approach to Text-Based Analytical Writing for Mainstreamed Latino English Language Learners in Grades 6 to 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, James S.; Olson, Carol Booth; Scarcella, Robin; Kramer, Jason; Pearson, Matthew; van Dyk, David; Collins, Penny; Land, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports Year 1 findings from a multisite cluster randomized controlled trial of a cognitive strategies approach to teaching text-based analytical writing for mainstreamed Latino English language learners (ELLs) in 9 middle schools and 6 high schools. There were 103 English teachers stratified by school and grade and then randomly…

  17. University writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Zabalza Beraza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

  18. A randomized experiment of a cognitive strategies approach to text-based analytical writing for mainstreamed Latino English language learners in grades 6-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, James Sangil; Olson, Carol B.; Scarcella , Robin; Kramer, Jason; Pearson, Matthew; van Dyk, David; Collins, Penny; Land, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports year 1 findings from a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial of a cognitive strategies approach to teaching text-based analytical writing for mainstreamed Latino English Language learners (ELLs) in 9 middle schools and 6 high schools. 103 English teachers were stratified by school and grade and then randomly assigned to the Pathway Project professional development intervention or control group. The Pathway Project trains teachers to use a pretest on-demand writi...

  19. Contexte et conditions pour une réelle production d’écrits en ALAO CALL and writing: context and conditions for a real text production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mangenot

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available La thèse soutenue dans cet article est qu’il est possible de mettre en place un apprentissage de la production écrite assisté par ordinateur fondé prioritairement sur l’activité scripturale des apprenants et non sur la transmission de connaissances sur les textes ; ce sont alors des "gammes d’écriture" (du nom du logiciel utilisé qui sont proposées aux apprenants, activités plus simples que la production d’un texte entier, destinées à faire pratiquer l’écriture, bien sûr, mais également à faire repérer certains ressorts textuels. L’expérimentation décrite en appui à cette thèse s’est prolongée durant un semestre avec un groupe d’une vingtaine d’étudiants de français langue étrangère ; elle relève de la didactique des langues et de l’ALAO, avec des fondements théoriques en psychologie et en linguistique textuelle.This paper assumes the possibility of implementing a computer assisted writing pedagogy based on the writer’s activity instead of just presenting knowledge about texts. The writer engages in different writing activities, for instance with Gammes d’écriture, the software used in the experiment presented in this paper. These activities are easier than the production of a whole text and they aim both at training writing and at making conscious of certain textual features. The experiment presented in this paper was conducted with twenty students of French as a foreign language and lasted for one semester. The theoretical background is cognitive psychology, text linguistics and CALL.

  20. 教育技术学视野中的写作文本分析%Overview of Writing Text Analysis in the Area of Educational Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴龙; 周序; 何克抗

    2012-01-01

      Reading and writing are two important ways for mother tongue learning. Currently, international research has been richer on reading than writing. Both 'micro' and 'macro' analysis paradigms of writing text have been followed in area of writing research. 'Micro' analysis paradigm focuses on the common language performance, while 'macro' analysis paradigm focuses on the narrative structure. Based on in-depth analysis of these paradigms above, this study suggests that both have their breakthroughs and limitations in research content, methods and results. Construction of new writing text analysis paradigm with methodological features is a new perspective for the in-depth analysis of the inherent differences of individual writings, as well as a way to explore mother tongue learning principles and orientations of language learning research in the future. This study suggests that new writing text analysis paradigm should be built from three aspects:Firstly, content analysis framework should be established by combining the micro, meso and macro analysis;Secondly, according to characteristics of language output, the research methods should be explored that correspond with the content analysis framework and orient to expansibility;Thirdly, language use being the center, special principles of individual language use should be discovered in order to provide more in-depth and thorough theoretical explanations for the teaching and learning of writing.%  对于母语学习而言,阅读和写作是落实语言运用的两条主要途径。目前国内外关于阅读的研究较多,但对于写作的研究相对滞后。写作研究主要有微观和宏观两种写作文本分析范式,微观分析范式侧重通用语言表现,宏观分析范式侧重叙事结构,二者在研究内容、研究手段和研究结果三方面既有突破,又有局限。构建具有教育技术学特征的新型写作文本分析范式是深度分析个体写作内在差异的

  1. PROCESS WRITING: SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL WRITERS; DISCOVERING WRITING BEHAVIOURS

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    Ismail Baroudy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful and unsuccessful strategies practically complied with in the act of writing have been so far experimentally tapped and scholastically rehearsed by several authors. In this study, a complementary task using a questionnaire worked out to comprehensively specify and cover almost all types of writing behaviours has been inquisitively manipulated. By analysing and inspecting the findings elicited from student-writers’ response sheets, successful and unsuccessful writing strategies are then contrastively identified, categorised and demonstrated. Based on the awareness accomplished, writing teachers’ consciousness will be raised and boosted, thus, helping their poor student-writers justifiably quit their debilitative habits and adopt instead, facilitative ones, those competent writers implement while writing. In the questionnaire, the student-writers would reflect upon their creeping experience and pass informative judgements about their own strategies. Student-writers will respond to fact-finding statements regarding five writing components delineated as rehearsing, drafting, revising, student-writers’ role and the role of instructional materials

  2. "I Will Write to You with My Eyes": Reflective Text and Image Journals in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland-Russell, Tara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a case study into students' perspectives on the use of "cahiers", reflective text and image journals. Narrative interviews and document analysis reveal that "cahiers" can be used effectively to engage students in course content and learning processes. Recent work in transformative learning…

  3. The Iranian Academicians' Strategies in Writing English Papers

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    Marziyeh Nekoueizadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Academicians are identified with their papers and expertise in writing scholarly articles, either for promotion or for satisfying their prestige. Iranian academic members are expected to win a justifiable stance by the quality and quantity of their publications and presentations. Regrettably through pervious studying about second language writing, any studies haven’t been dedicated to the style of writing articles, which are used by academic members. Former studies on second language writing indicate that style in academic paper writing is most likely ignored. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of mind translation strategy among Iranian academic members for expressing their own opinion through writing second language academic papers. The present paper has based its hypothesis on three levels of strategies, effective in writing academic papers, namely: 1-Do Iranian academicians follow specific strategies in writing their academic papers? 2-What role does translation play as a strategy in their writing academic papers? 3-Do they feel a need for a strategy shift in their academic paper writing? Data elicited based on survey and corpora analysis in form of CBDTS- on micro and macro levels, are put into matrices and their analyses are supportive of academicians’ reliance on different types of mental translation use and their shift toward authentic writing after receiving feedback from their reviewers.Keywords: CBDTS, micro level, macro level, mental translation, strategy shift

  4. Writing Concepts in Chinese Writing Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Wang,Xia

    1994-01-01

    Since Kaplan hypothesized English writing as direct and Oriental writing as circular in 1966, much research has been done in contrastive rhetoric. However, few studies have compared English writing and Asian writing in its original text or compared rhetoric across cultures. In addition, what causes Asian students to write differently from English speakers remains an arguable issue. In response to this debate, the researcher focuses on how Chinese writing instruction can cause negative interfe...

  5. The Impact of Promoting Transcription on Early Text Production: Effects on Bursts and Pauses, Levels of Written Language, and Writing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rui A.; Limpo, Teresa; Fidalgo, Raquel; Carvalhais, Lénia; Pereira, Luísa Álvares; Castro, São Luís

    2016-01-01

    Writing development seems heavily dependent upon the automatization of transcription. This study aimed to further investigate the link between transcription and writing by examining the effects of promoting handwriting and spelling skills on a comprehensive set of writing measures (viz., bursts and pauses, levels of written language, and writing…

  6. Blending the principles of Suggestopedia and thetheory of Speech Acts in writing suggestopedicdidactic texts, with reference to German andZulu scripts

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    R.H. Bodenstein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests that language teachers who use the suggestopedic method should write their own texts that comply with suggestopedic principles. This is imperative because of the lack of material that can be acquired and used in such courses. Writing their own scripts also enables teachers to identify with their materials and brings much reward and personal growth. Guidelines for the writing and setting up of these texts are provided The text should embody the philosophic and didactic .framework of suggestopedia. It should also be presented as a didactic play wherein the language components to be learned are presented in the form of new scenes in a continuous drama text. Traditional beliefs about level of complexity of the language suitable for beginners' courses are considered unfounded Suggestopedic scripts therefore contain complex, 'reallife' language .from the outset, starting with the language needed to make contact with native target language speakers. The main guideline for the organisation and structuring of the text is that it should mirror authentic communicative situations. The paper therefore argues that suggestopedic scripts should be written according to the lists of language jUnctions (or speech acts and topic areas required for the so-called 'threshold level' of language competence. The paper concludes with examples .from a German and a Zulu text to illustrate the didactic and structural principles and guidelines that were outlined in the article.Die artikel voer aan dat taalonderwysers wat die suggestopediese metode gebruik, self tekste behoort te skryf wat strook met die suggestopediese beginsels. Die gebrek aan geskikte materiaal op die mark noodsaak hulle om dit te doen. Wanneer onderwysers hulle eie tekste skryj beteken dit egter ook dat hulle met die onderrigmateriaal kan identifiseer. Dit kan professioneellonend wees en persoonlike groei teweeg bring. Riglyne vir die skryf en ontwerp van sulke tekste word verskaf Die

  7. Estrategias para apoyar la escritura de textos narrativos Estratégias de apoio à escrita de textos narrativos Strategies to support the writing of narrative texts

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    Solanlly Ochoa-Angrino

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre desarrollo metacognitivo presenta tempranas capacidades autorregulatorias en niños pequeños; sin embargo, en la escritura de textos narrativos se ha encontrado que los niños presentan escasa o superficial regulación en la revisión y corrección de sus textos cuando no son guiados por los adultos. Este artículo tiene como objetivo describir y explicar una intervención psicológica educativa que promueve la escritura autorregulada de textos narrativos en estudiantes de básica primaria. Se describen paso a paso la intervención y el rol de estudiantes y profesores durante la misma. Se concluye que la escritura es un proceso constructivo y recursivo, que se enriquece durante la interacción con otros y que a través de la enseñanza de estrategias metacognitivas, los docentes pueden contribuir al desarrollo de la escritura autorregulada.A pesquisa sobre o desenvolvimento metacognitivo apresenta habilidades precoces de auto-regulação em crianças pequenas; mas na escrita de textos narrativos, as crianças têm pouca regulamentação, ou superficial, na revisão e a correção de seus textos quando eles não são guiados por adultos. Este artigo descreve e explica uma intervenção psicológico-educativa que promove a escrita auto-regulada de textos narrativos em escolares do Ensino Primário. Ele descreve passo a passo a intervenção e o papel dos alunos e professores durante esta. Nós concluímos que a escrita é um processo construtivo e recursivo, enriquecido durante a interação com os outros. Mediante o ensino de estratégias metacognitivas, os professores podem ajudar a desenvolver a escrita auto-regulada.Research on metacognitive development shows evidence of self-regulatory capabilities in small children. However, when writing narrative texts, children display limited or only superficial regulation in terms of revising and correcting their written work when not guided by adults. The purpose of this article

  8. Reflection text authoring in the consumer space to write%反思文本创作中的消费空间书写

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2013-01-01

      文本创作中的空间是一个相对封闭并提供人物活动的场景,它更多地具有符号意义并负载了丰富的社会内涵,这一空间包含了乡村空间、都市空间和另类空间三类。随着消费文化的影响,从消费主义视角去审视文本空间,会发现文本中对空间的塑造以及受众的“接受”暗合了视觉、欲望、感官、身份、夸示性、一次性等消费社会的特点,存在文本内外人物与受众的双重消费。文本中这种大同小异甚至雷同的消费空间书写,不得不引起我们反思文学的消费性写作,从而在批判中重建文学空间。%The space in text-writing is relatively closed, in which the characters are presented. It is of more symbolic significance and embodiment of social connotation. To be specific, it includes rural space, urban space and alternative space. Form the perspective of consumerism, it is found that the space in text and the reception of the audience coincide with the consumer society’s features, such as vision, desire, sense organ, identity, exaggeration, disposability, etc. There is a double consumption within the text with the text outside the characters and the audience. The constructions of consumption space in text-writing are similar, even identical to one another, which causes us to reflect on the consumptive literature and how to critically reestablish literary space.

  9. Learner corpora, corpora of professional translations and creative writing in a course on translation of general texts: an action research project

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    María Teresa Sánchez Nieto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a small action research project conducted in a course on translation of general texts from German into Spanish. The project methodology combines creative writing techniques with those of data-driven learning put forward by Johns (1991 for foreign language learning and applied by Laviosa (2014, in press to translator training, as well as with the methods of corpus use for learning to translate proposed by Marco and Van Lawick (2009. The aim of the project is threefold: (i raising the students’ awareness on the possibility of interference between German and Spanish past tenses when translating narrative sequences; (ii allowing the students practicing data-driven learning about translation issues, and (iii observing if these interventions bring about a qualitative change in their translation performance, specifically in the decrease of interference when translating narrative sequences with past tenses from German into Spanish. In the paper, special attention will be paid to the theoretical basis of the project, as well as to the methodological decisions involved in its design.

  10. Keyboarding Compared with Handwriting on a High-Stakes Writing Assessment: Student Choice of Composing Medium, Raters' Perceptions, and Text Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whithaus, Carl; Harrison, Scott B.; Midyette, Jeb

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of keyboarding versus handwriting in a high-stakes writing assessment. Conclusions are based on data collected from a pilot project to move Old Dominion University's Exit Exam of Writing Proficiency from a handwritten format into a dual-option format (i.e., the students may choose to handwrite or keyboard the…

  11. 童话引路快乐习作--中年级童话类课文读写结合策略%Happy Writing according to Fairy Tale---Fairy-grade Classes in Reading and Writing Texts Combination Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞佼

    2014-01-01

    小学语文教材中的童话具有独特的文本魅力,深受学生喜爱,更是学生积累语言、学习语言的范本。中年级习作教学应充分发挥童话课文的特殊功能,引领学生在读写结合的尝试中,感受童话表达美,涵养语言生命力;感受童话想象美,培养丰沛想象力;感受童话意蕴美,锻炼个性思维能力,为学生搭建乐于习作的平台,更好地激发学生的习作热情。%The primary language textbooks fairy tale has a unique charm of text,loved by students very much,it is the template language for students to accumulate language acquisition. Grade teaching assignments should give full play to the special features fairy tale text ,leading students to experience the fairy tale express beauty,conservation language vitality in an attempt to combine reading and writing;feelings fairy imagine beauty,culture abundant imagination; fairy implication feel beautiful,personalized exercise force thinking,to build a platform for students happy assignments and stimulate students’ assignments enthusiasm better.

  12. Are entry criteria for cataract surgery justified?

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    Daniel Böhringer

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The German Ophthalmological Society (GOS recently proposed surgical entry criteria, i.e. 300 cataract surgeries. We herein correlate the surgical hands-on experience with the risk of posterior capsule ruptures in order to assess whether this number is appropriate. METHODS: We identified all cataract operations that had been performed at the University Eye Hospital Freiburg since 1995. For each surgeon, we assigned a running number to his/her procedures in the order they had been performed. Thereafter, we excluded all combined procedures and the second eyes. We then selected the 5475 surgical reports between November 2008 and November 2012 for detailed review. We additionally classified each surgery into low- vs. high- à priori risk for posterior capsule ruptures. We fitted a multifactorial logistic regression model to assess the GOS recommendation of 300 surgeries under supervision. In the low-risk group, we additionally visualized the 'typical' learning curve by plotting the posterior capsule ruptures against the respective rank numbers. RESULTS: The odds ratio for posterior capsule ruptures of 'learning-mode' (one of the respective surgeon's 300 first procedures vs. the non-learning-mode was 3.8 (p<0.0001. By contrast, classification into the low-risk group lowered the risk of posterior capsule ruptures three fold (p<0.0001. According to the low-risk plot, the surgeons started with a complication rate of 4% and continuously improved towards 0.5% after 1500 operations. Thereafter, the rate increased again and stabilized around one percent. CONCLUSION: The learning curve with respect to posterior capsule ruptures is surprisingly flat. The GOS entry criterion of 300 cataract procedures is therefore most likely justified. Careful selection of low-risk patients for the training surgeons may help in reducing the rate of posterior capsule ruptures during training.

  13. The Self-Justifying Desire for Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2004-01-01

    In Happiness, Tabensky equates the notion of happiness to Aristotelian eudaimonia. I shall claim that doing so amounts to equating two concepts that moderns cannot conceptually equate, namely, the good for a person and the good person or good life. In §2 I examine the way in which Tabensky deals...... with this issue and claim that his idea of happiness is as problematic for us moderns as is any translation of the notion of eudaimonia in terms of happiness. Naturally, if happiness understood as eudaimonia is ambiguous, so will be the notion of a desire for happiness, which we find at the core of Tabensky......'s whole project. In §3 I shall be concerned with another aspect of the desire for happiness; namely, its alleged self-justifying nature. I will attempt to undermine the idea that this desire is self-justifying by undermining the criterion on which Tabensky takes self-justifiability to rest, i.e. its...

  14. Práticas de produção textual no MSN Messenger: ressignificando a escrita colaborativa Text production practices on MSN: redifining collaborative writing

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    Petrilson Alan Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo articular as práticas de escrita escolarese as tecnologias da comunicação e da informação disponibilizadas na Internet, buscando, com isso, possibilitar um repensar e uma redefinição dos modelos de produção textual com os quais a escola ainda opera. Na tentativa de explorar tal relação, propomos a realização de um trabalho que aponte como o uso de alguns gêneros digitais do ciberespaço, como o MSN Messenger, contribuem para a construção de práticas colaborativas de escrita de alunos do ensino médio. Para tanto, tomaremos como base teórica os construtos bakhtinianos de gêneros do discurso e na teoria situada de gênero (ERICKSON, 1997; Yates; Orlikowski; Rennecker, 1997; SHEPHERD; WATTERS, 1999; Devitt, 2000 para dar conta do comportamento dos gêneros digitais. Trata-se de uma pesquisa empírica realizada com dezesseis aprendizes e um professor do ensino médio de uma escola estadual localizada no município de Campinas _ SP. Os alunos criaram um site para a divulgação de um jornal digital e, para produzir os textos que são expostos nesse jornal, eles fazem uso do e-mail e do MSN Messenger. Como proposta de análise multimodal da produção textual desses aprendizes na Internet, tomaremos como base as metafunções semióticas nos níveis apresentacional, orientacional e organizacional, propostas por Lemke (1995, 1998a, 1998b, como dispositivos teórico-analíticos dos dados gerados a partir dos registros dos diversos modos com que os alunos constroem sentidos ao aprenderem e desenvolverem seus textos de forma colaborativa a partir do uso dos gêneros digitais.The objective of this paper is to articulate school writing practices and the new communication and information technology from the Internet, by searching a way of rethinking and redefining the text production patterns with which schools still deal. In order to explore such relationship, we propose a paper which points out how the use of

  15. On Three Ways to Justify Religious Beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brümmer, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the ways in which revealed theology, natural theology and philosophical theology justify religious belief. Revealed theology does so with an appeal to revelation and natural theology with an appeal to reason and perception. It is argued that both are inadequate. Philosophical the

  16. Writing Nature

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    Kristin Asdal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies is interested in how nature, in different versions and forms, is invited into our studies, analyses, and stories. How is it that we “write nature”? How is it that we provide space for, and actually describe the actors, agents, or surroundings, in our stories and analyses? The articles in the issue each deal with different understandings of both the practices of writing and the introduction of various natures into these. In this introduction to the issue the editors engage with actor-network theory as a material semiotic resource for writing nature. We propose to foreground actor-network theory as a writing tool, at the expense of actor-network theory as a distinct vocabulary. In doing this and pointing out the semiotic origins to material-semiotics we also want to problematize a clear-cut material approach to writing nature.

  17. Can drug patents be morally justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterckx, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a few elements of an answer to the question to what extent drug patents can be morally justified. Justifications based on natural rights, distributive justice and utilitarian arguments are discussed and criticized. The author recognizes the potential of the patents to benefit society but argues that the system is currently evolving in the wrong direction, particularly in the field of drugs. More than a third of the world's population has no access to essential drugs. The working of the patent system is an important determinant of access to drugs. This paper argues that drug patents are not easily justified and that the 'architecture' of the patent system should be rethought in view of its mission of benefiting society.

  18. Value-Based Argumentation for Justifying Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    Compliance is often achieved 'by design' through a coherent system of controls consisting of information systems and procedures . This system-based control requires a new approach to auditing in which companies must demonstrate to the regulator that they are 'in control'. They must determine the relevance of a regulation for their business, justify which set of control measures they have taken to comply with it, and demonstrate that the control measures are operationally effective. In this paper we show how value-based argumentation theory can be applied to the compliance domain. Corporate values motivate the selection of control measures (actions) which aim to fulfill control objectives, i.e. adopted norms (goals). In particular, we show how to formalize the dialogue in which companies justify their compliance decisions to regulators using value-based argumentation. The approach is illustrated by a case study of the safety and security measures adopted in the context of EU customs regulation.

  19. Justifying clinical trials for porcine islet xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Cara E; Korbutt, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Edmonton Protocol encouraged a great deal of optimism that a cell-based cure for type I diabetes could be achieved. However, donor organ shortages prevent islet transplantation from being a widespread solution as the supply cannot possibly equal the demand. Porcine islet xenotransplantation has the potential to address these shortages, and recent preclinical and clinical trials show promising scientific support. Consequently, it is important to consider whether the current science meets the ethical requirements for moving toward clinical trials. Despite the potential risks and the scientific unknowns that remain to be investigated, there is optimism regarding the xenotransplantation of some types of tissue, and enough evidence has been gathered to ethically justify clinical trials for the most safe and advanced area of research, porcine islet transplantation. Researchers must make a concerted effort to maintain a positive image for xenotransplantation, as a few well-publicized failed trials could irrevocably damage public perception of xenotransplantation. Because all of society carries the burden of risk, it is important that the public be involved in the decision to proceed. As new information from preclinical and clinical trials develops, policy decisions should be frequently updated. If at any point evidence shows that islet xenotransplantation is unsafe, then clinical trials will no longer be justified and they should be halted. However, as of now, the expected benefit of an unlimited supply of islets, combined with adequate informed consent, justifies clinical trials for islet xenotransplantation.

  20. MATERIAL, EDUCATIONAL, AND IDEOLOGICAL CHALLENGES OF TEACHING EFL WRITING AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

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    Ilona Leki

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of literature on teaching English writing focuses primarily on English dominant contexts. The particular situation of writing instruction in non-English dominant countries has received insufficient attention, especially in light of some of the claims for the role of writing coming from the "center" countries. English language teachers, particularly those teaching in non-English dominant countries, who give substantial attention in their courses to teaching writing in English face a number of challenges. This article discusses two main categories of challenges. In the first group are challenges writing teachers face daily, such as class size, time constraints, accommodating local needs, and coping with problems connected to lack of both teacher experience in teaching L2 writing and student training in L1 writing. In the second group are challenges of a more ideological nature that are perhaps less obvious but more powerful and far-reaching, including the need to justify the large investment required on the part of institutions and individuals in order to teach L2 writing, the right to resist center imposed materials and methods, the need for dialogue with students about the role of writing in their lives, and the need to make L2 writing enhance learner options rather than limit them so that for learners, writing in L2 becomes not a pointless additional burden but a powerful means of accomplishing personal goals.

  1. Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory

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    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.

  2. Promises of Coherence, Weak Content, and Strong Organization: An Analysis of the Student Texts (Reading-to-Write Report No. 3). Technical Report No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantz, Margaret J.

    This study is the third in a series of reports of the Reading-to-Write Project, a collaborative study of students' cognitive processes at one critical point of entry into academic performance. This part of the study examines the problem that teachers have in judging whether textual signals that students use to indicate a persuasive analysis of…

  3. How Do Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders and Writing Learning Disabilities Differ from Their Nonlabeled Peers in the Ability to Compose Texts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Celestino; Grünke, Matthias; González-Castro, Paloma; García, Trinidad; Álvarez-García, David

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the productivity and the process of written composition in students with and without disabilities between 8 and 16 years of age. Participants were assigned to four groups as follows: (a) 59 with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and writing learning disabilities (WLD), (b) 40 with ADHD, (c)…

  4. Images of Writing and the Writing Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Hermansson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article uses a discursive lens to illuminate how writing and the writing child is constructed in different texts since the nineteenth century. The concept ‘image’ is used as an analytical tool to gain perspective on dominant ideas about children as writers and their educational writing practices. These images are produced in educational practices, theories of writing, societal conceptions and didactic models, which together are referred to as a formation. The article ends by reflecting upon what consequences may be seen if taking a critical child perspective. The article provides an analysis against which writing teachers, teacher educators and researchers can gain a perspective on dominant ideas about young writers and their educational writing practices.Abstract: This article uses a discursive lens to illuminate how writing and the writing child is constructed in different texts since the nineteenth century. The concept 'image' is used as an analytical tool to gain perspective on dominant ideas about children as writers and their educational writing practices. These images are produced in educational practices, theories of writing, societal conceptions and didactic models, which together are referred to as a formation. The article ends by reflecting upon what consequences may be seen if taking a critical child perspective. The article provides an analysis against which writing teachers, teacher educators and researchers can gain a perspective on dominant ideas about young writers and their educational writing practices.

  5. Do L2 French or L2 English learners write better L3 German texts? The in-fluence of prior foreign language study on L3 German writing skills: the GaE/F Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Bartelheimer

    2017-04-01

    in such written language and how their occurrence can be explained. Finally the aim is to examine the issue whether the prior learning of French or English, respectively, is more useful for developing German writing skills. For several years the Division of Linguistics and Multilingualism at the Technische Universität Darmstadt and preparatory course instructors have been collecting a corpus of authentic university-level written texts that, at present, consists of approximately 160 samples. Because the project is currently at its very beginning, a pilot study has to be carried out to identify possibly significant features for the comparison of written texts (i.e. connectors, parataxis/hypotaxis, word formation, sentence structure etc. and to develop research tools for future investigations.   Viele Menschen, die Deutsch als Zweit- oder Fremdsprache lernen, haben bereits Englisch oder Französisch als Vorfremdsprache erlernt. Dies gilt insbesondere für Studierende aus Ländern, in denen neben anderen Sprachen Englisch oder Französisch Amtssprachen bzw. Unterrichtssprachen sind. So kamen z.B. 2014 von den rund 219.000 nichtdeutschen Studierenden an deutschen Hochschulen rund 38.000 aus China oder Indien (L2 Englisch und 11.000 aus Kamerun oder Marokko (L2 Französisch (vgl. DAAD 2015: 14-15. DaF/DaZ-Lehrkräfte der Technischen Universität Darmstadt berichten von ihrer Erfahrung, dass Studierende mit Französisch als Vorfremdsprache vor Deutsch bessere deutschsprachige Texte schreiben als ihre Kommiliton/innen mit Englisch vor Deutsch. Die Mehrsprachigkeitsforschung hat den Einfluss vorher erlernter Fremdsprachen auf das Erlernen weiterer Sprachen in vielerlei Hinsicht erforscht. Hier spielen einerseits Aspekte auf individueller Ebene eine Rolle: das Sammeln von Erfahrungen, die Entwicklung individueller Lernstrategien und die Entstehung persönlicher Motivation. Andererseits beeinflussen Aspekte auf sprachlich-struktureller bzw. sprachlich-kultureller Ebene das

  6. Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? / ¿Una creencia verdadera justificada es conocimiento?

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    Edmund L. Gettier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [ES] En este breve trabajo, se presenta una edición bilingüe de Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? (1963, de Edmund L. Gettier, donde se presentan contraejemplos a la definición de «conocimiento» como «creencia verdadera justificada». [ES] In this brief text, a bilingual edition of Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?, (1963 by Edmund L. Gettier, some counterexamples are presented to the definition of «knowledge» as «justified true belief».

  7. Scaffolding Advanced Writing through Writing Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Salehpour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mastering writing has always proved an almost insurmountable barrier to EFL learners. In an attempt to alleviate problems advanced EFL learners have with writing, this study aimed at investigating the effect of scaffolded instruction through writing frames constructed from extended prefabricated lexical bundles. 40 female advanced English students, selected out of a population of 65, were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The participants of both groups were assigned a writing pre-test prior to any instruction, and a writing post-test following the twenty-session scaffolded instruction in both groups. The results revealed that the participants in the experimental group outperformed their counterparts in the control group as a result of the writing frames they were provided with. Overall, it is concluded that scaffolded instruction through writing frames can be a useful means of helping advanced students to improve their writing quality.

  8. Taxonomy of literature to justify data governance as a pre-requisite for information governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olaitan, O

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available is devoted to data governance. This study chronicles extant literature to justify the position that data governance should be a prerequisite for information governance within organisations. The study argues that an information governance policy which is based...

  9. Writing to learn writing skills - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, António S. C.

    2012-05-01

    The paper describes a case study in which the main objective is to understand how engineering students can improve their writing skills, regarding spelling and syntax, when taught specifically on these issues. The methodology Writing To Learn is applied in two courses and, making use of the written texts, the students' writing skills are assessed and evaluated. In one course, writing skills are taught and assessed and in the other they are only assessed. The comparison allows conclusions on the success of teaching writing skills, the influence of text styles and the differences between basic and advanced writing skills. It was found that writing skills were successfully taught, particularly with regard to basic writing skills. Advanced writing errors are twice as common as basic writing errors. Schematic writing styles favour a reduced number of writing errors.

  10. Legislative Prohibitions on wearing a headscarf: Are they justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Osman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A headscarf, a simple piece of cloth that covers the head, is a controversial garment that carries various connotations and meanings. While it may be accepted as just another item of clothing when worn by non-Muslim women, it is often the subject of much controversy when worn by Muslim women. In recent years the headscarf has been described as a symbol of Islam's oppression of women and simultaneously of terrorism. As the debate regarding the acceptability of the headscarf in the modern world continues, an increasing number of states have legislated to ban the wearing of the headscarf. This article critically examines the reasons underlying these bans and argues that these prohibitions are not justified. It does this by first analysing the place of the headscarf in Islam, its religious basis and its significance to Muslim women. It argues that the headscarf is more than just a mere religious symbol and that Muslim women wear the headscarf as a matter of religious obligation. The headscarf is considered to be an important religious practice protected by the right to freedom of religion. Thereafter the article examines legislative bans on the headscarf in France, Turkey and Switzerland in order to identify the most popular justifications advanced by states and courts for banning the headscarf. It critically evaluates the justifications for protecting secularism, preventing coercion, promoting equality and curbing religious extremism, and disputes that the reasons put forward by states and accepted by courts justify banning the headscarf. It thereafter explores how South African courts would respond to a headscarf ban and argues that schools and employers should accommodate the headscarf. While Muslim women may not have an absolute right to wear the headscarf, there has thus far been no justifiable reason for banning the headscarf.

  11. Using Writing Templates as Materials to Improve Writing Skills in EFL Classes: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Selçuk AKDEMİR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed at revealing the findings of an experimental study in which writing templates were used as writing materials to improve writing skills in intermediate (B1 EFL classes as well as reviewing the concepts writing skills, second language writing and writing templates. The study was conducted with 50 students, aged 20-23, of a public university in Turkey. In Writing and Speaking in English II class writing templates were used as writing materials during 12 weeks. The students were asked to fulfil tasks asking them to use some basic writing types for B1 level such as formal and informal letter writing, CV writing, writing business e-mails etc. before and after the study. It was concluded that writing templates can be used as writing materials to improve intermediate (B1 EFL classes.Keywords: Writing, writing templates, L2 writing.

  12. A mudança léxico-gramatical em propostas de redação de vestibular The lexical-grammatical change in the writing of instructional texts for university entrance exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Gadelha Bernardino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar as propostas de redação do vestibular da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC, referentes aos anos acadêmicos de 1990/1 e 2007, com o intuito de detectar os traços linguísticos indicadores de uma mudança nesses textos. Baseamos nossa interpretação na Análise Crítica do Discurso, em especial, na contribuição teórica de Norman Fairclough (2001 que discute a respeito das influências ideológicas para a formação discursiva, bem como para sua transformação. Nosso corpus constitui-se por 71 propostas de redação, as quais foram submetidas a uma análise dividida em dois níveis textuais: léxico e gramática. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que houve mudanças significativas em ambos os níveis.This research has the objective of analyzing writing instructional texts for the entrance exams of the Federal University of Ceará, Brazil, in what refers to the years of 1990/1 and 2007. Our aim was to identify which linguistic aspects may be responsible for changes in these writing instructional texts. We based our work on the Discourse Critical Analysis (FAIRCLOUGH, 2001 that regards the ideological influences for the discursive formation, as well as for its transformation. Our sequence corpus is constituted by 71 writing instructional texts which were submitted to an analysis divided into two textual levels: lexicon and grammar. The obtained results demonstrate that there were significant changes in both levels.

  13. Meditation on the meaning of the possible place, writing, and thinking back to the future, the text is as experience, composted by literary interstices of the geographical-political compose of the geometries of thought. Keywords: thinking geometries; literature; possible place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marandola Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Meditation on the meaning of the possible place, writing, and thinking back to the future, the text is as experience, composted by literary interstices of the geographical-political compose of the geometries of thought. t

  14. Writing old age Julia Johnson Writing old age (Ed) The Centre for Policy on Ageing and The Open University 87 pp £10 1 90109 755 2 1901097552 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    This book is a set of quirky but interesting papers on how ageing is seen in fiction and other forms of creative writing. Each of the five papers has a distinct and perhaps narrow focus and because of this there may be little appeal to some readers. There is one paper on the poem about the old woman, which has been called Kate (also known as Crabbit Old Woman or Open Your Eyes). This traces the origins and impact of this poem and the poem written in response, sometimes known as The Nurse's Reply. There isa paper on fiction written about residential care and there is then a paper about images of ageing in 1920s fiction followed by one onthe novels of Stanley Middleton. The final paper, and the one I found most appealing, was an account of conversations between Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir in 1974, and a later publication by de Beauvoir. This paper introduces the method of age autobiography.

  15. Coesão textual na escrita de um grupo de adultos surdos usuários da língua de sinais Brasileira Text cohesion in writing of a group of deaf adults users of Brazilian sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Oliveira Crepaldi de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: investigar a coesão textual em produções escritas por quatro adultos surdos usuários da Língua de Sinais Brasileira alfabetizados, integrantes de um grupo de discussão nessa língua, sobre o tema violência, coordenado por uma intérprete fluente. Verificar a possível interferência da Libras na escrita em português. MÉTODOS: após terem participado de sessões de discussão sobre o tema violência, cada participante produziu um texto relacionado a algum tipo de violência. Seus textos foram analisados qualitativamente em termos de sua coesão. RESULTADOS: os textos produzidos faziam referência a situações de violência simbólica. O estudo dos textos evidenciou presença de coesão textual sequencial e referencial em todos os textos, embora comprometida. Houve interferência da Libras nas redações. Observou-se que os textos, por si sós, são difíceis de serem compreendidos sem a interação direta com o participante. Apesar da dificuldade na compreensão da língua escrita, que é diferente da estrutura da língua de sinais, o estudo evidenciou que esses surdos podem construir textos com sentido e coesão. CONCLUSÃO: a produção escrita dos surdos pesquisados apresenta coesão, porém com interferência da Libras, o que prejudica, em alguns casos, a compreensão por parte do leitor. Quanto menor a coesão textual, maior a necessidade de explicações do autor sobre o que quis dizer com seu texto.PURPOSE: to investigate text cohesion in written productions of four deaf male adults using Brazilian Sign Language (Libras and write in Portuguese. Participants integrate a discussion group on violence using that language coordinated by a fluent interpreter. The study also verifies possible interference of Libras on writing in Portuguese. METHODS: after a few sessions, a discussing the theme violence, each deaf participant wrote a text on a violence situation. These texts were analyzed qualitatively as for their cohesion

  16. The Quality of French Minority Students' Fictional Texts: A Study of the Influence of a Preferential Cognitive Style and Writing Strategy Scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Martine Odile; Langevin, Rene

    2010-01-01

    The object of this exploratory study was to test two hypotheses. The first was that a student's preferential cognitive style, sequential or simultaneous, can negatively affect the imaginative fiction texts that he or she produces. The second hypothesis was that students possessing a sequential or simultaneous preferential cognitive style would…

  17. Analysis on the Translation Strategy of The Old Man and the Sea from Hemingway’s Writing Styles-Making the Trans-lated Text Close to the Original Text%从海明威的写作风格评析《老人与海》翻译策略--使译文向原文靠拢

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙俊婷

    2015-01-01

    In translation, the original author’s writing style has an indicative function on the translator’s choice of translation standpoint. The translator’s translation standpoint will directly determine the translation strategies, and then affect the quality of translation. Therefore, the original author’s writing style plays a guiding role in the translation strategies adopted. Hemingway’s fa⁃mous telegraphic writing style and his Iceberg Theory are used incisively and vividly in The Old Man and the Sea. Thus, if the translator can follow Hemingway’s writing styles and his expectations for the original text, the translated text will be infinitely close to the original text. Moreover, the information and experience received by the translated text reader will be infinitely close to the in⁃formation and experience received by the translator (the original text reader).%在翻译活动中,原作者的写作风格对译者翻译立场的选择有指示作用,而译者所持的翻译立场直接决定其翻译时所采用的翻译策略,继而影响译文质量。因此,原作者的写作风格对译文翻译所采用的策略起着重要的导向作用。海明威著名的电报写作风格和“冰山理论”在《老人于海》写作中体现得淋漓尽致,因此,翻译《老人与海》时,译者若能遵循原作者的写作风格及其对原文的期待,译文将会无限接近原作者对原文的期待,从而使译文读者读完译文后接收到的信息及感受无限接近译者(原文读者)读完原文后所接收到的信息及感受。

  18. 美国亚裔文本中的双重“他者”书写%Writing the Double“Others”in Asian American Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绍平

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the thematic issues of literary texts by Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans and Korean Americans with Northeast Asian descent from a cross-cultural perspective. First, two terms “Asian American” and “Asian American Sensibility”are introduced. Then, focusing on identity motif, the analyses are provided from the aspects of cultural nostalgia, historical burdens and realistic predicaments so as to present the double“Others”in Chinese, Japanese and Korean American texts. Finally, the paper concludes that studying Asian American texts beneift our understanding of both Asian Americans and Northeast Asian culture under the global context.%本文以跨文化视角分析具有东北亚文化血统的美国华裔、日裔、韩裔等文学文本主旨。首先,文章介绍美国亚裔研究的两个关键词“亚裔美国人”和“亚裔美国感”。之后,围绕身份认同主题,从文化乡愁、历史负重与现实纠结等层面,探讨中日韩裔文本建构的双重“他者”。结论指出,研究美国亚裔文本有益于我们了解美国亚裔以及全球化背景下的东北亚文化。

  19. Self writing, world's writings: a clinical look toward writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Silveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is a mapping done from the meetings of people (teenagers and psychology students with their own writing. Be on your personal history or his work. The record of these meetings is done here with some theoretical tools with which we think can be a glimpse of contemporary clinical psychology written about these processes. A look that differs and deviates toward new ways of thinking about writing, especially, beyond representation. With concepts like body, ethos and self-authorship, we think these ways of thinking in contemporary writing. This can become a living space, a temporary abode for the storms of life, where it is possible the invention of the subject itself. A place of seclusion where the subject can take care of themselves (write yourself to recuperate after getting embarking on writing (authorship of the world.  

  20. Writing with Phineas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative writing strategy when you are alone. It is the story of how I came to bring Phineas, the protagonist in A. S. Byatt’s The Biographer’s Tale, into my writing process as a third voice in my dialogue with my data. It is a self-reflective text that shows how co......” are slippery and not easily “pieced together.” Phineas writes about his struggles, and so do I. Through co-writing with Phineas, I gradually found a voice of experience, which helped me to transforming my ethnographic data into research texts....

  1. 7 CFR 48.7 - Evidence to justify dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence to justify dumping. 48.7 Section 48.7... Dumping § 48.7 Evidence to justify dumping. Any person, receiving produce in interstate commerce or in the..., prior to such destroying, abandoning, discarding or dumping, obtain a dumping certificate or...

  2. Writing Feature Articles with Intermediate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Denise N.

    2010-01-01

    Students need regular opportunities to write expository text. However, focusing on report writing often leaves students without strong examples to study or analyze to guide and grow their own writing. Writing and studying feature articles, meant to inform and explain, can become an alternative to report writing, as they can easily be located in…

  3. Gastric carcinoma: when is palliative gastrectomy justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Scheidbach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is frequently diagnosed with an advanced stage of non-curable tumor growth characterized by infiltration of the gastric serosa, peritoneal tumor spread and/or metastases within lymph nodes and liver. Currently, there is a controversy on the value of palliative resection with regard to the safety and benefit to the patient outcome. Based on the available literature, this overview summarizes the various aspects and interprets the limited data on the palliative resection of gastric carcinoma. It turns out that the available study results may indicate potential for an improved quality of life and a prolongation of survival if an acceptable morbidity and mortality are present.

  4. Adolescents' Awareness of Environmental Care: Experiences when Writing Short Descriptive Texts in English Concientización de los adolescentes sobre el cuidado ambiental: experiencias al escribir textos descriptivos cortos en inglés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Jaramillo Urrutia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today it is necessary to approach environmental topics with students in an interdisciplinary manner to mitigate the environmental damages that the Earth is suffering. In this paper we report an action-research and innovation study aimed at sensitizing students with respect to the care and preservation of the environment through the writing of short descriptive texts in English. The study had four stages: motivation, knowledge of ecological vocabulary, production of sentences and paragraphs, construction of short descriptive texts with the help of guidance questions and their publication in the school newspaper. The findings show that the procedure used in class promotes interdisciplinary work around environmental topics as well as the development of writing skills.Hoy en día, es necesario abordar temas ambientales con los estudiantes, de manera interdisciplinaria, para mitigar los daños ambientales que está sufriendo la tierra. En este artículo reportamos un estudio de investigación-acción e innovación que buscó sensibilizar a los estudiantes acerca del cuidado y la preservación del medio ambiente mediante la escritura de breves textos descriptivos en inglés. El estudio tuvo cinco etapas: motivación; conocimiento de vocabulario ecológico; producción de frases y párrafos; construcción de breves textos descriptivos -con la ayuda de preguntas orientadoras-, y la publicación de los textos en el periódico escolar. Los resultados muestran que el proceso empleado en clase promueve el trabajo interdisciplinario en torno a temas ecológicos, así como el desarrollo de habilidades escriturales.

  5. Passionate Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte

    With care of writing as a method of inquiry, this paper engages in academic writing such as responsible knowledge development drawing on emotion, thought and reason. The aim of the paper is to better understand emancipatory knowledge development. Bodily experiences and responses shape academic...... writing and there are possibilities for responsible academic writing in that iterative process. I propose that academic writing can be seen as possibilities of passionate as well as passive writing....

  6. Communicative Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭燕

    2016-01-01

    Writing, like all other aspects of language , is communicative.Communicative writing takes an important part in English learn-ing.Communicative writing assignments train students to turn personal observations into impersonal prose , avoid value judgments unwelcome in the sciences, and write with economy and precision .In the English language classroom , however, writing often lacks this.Why?There are lots of reasons , as there are lots of ways to make the writing we do with students more communicative .

  7. Knowing What to Write

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Mark; Galbraith, David

    1999-01-01

    Knowing What to Write brings together new and recent research and theory exploring the cognitive processes involved in retrieving, ordering and creating knowledge during text production. Contributions from cognitive psychology, text linguistics, psycholinguistics, and computer science combine to pro

  8. The Writings-ology Foundation and Its Application of Breakthrough Point in Interpreting Text%文本解读切入点的文章学基础及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付煜

    2011-01-01

    文章学对文章的源流、内容、形式等方面有不断深入的研究,以这些研究成果为基础,选择有关文章内容或形式方面的知识点作为切入点来解读各类文本,有利于我们透彻地理解文本的一个或几个方面。在新课程改革背景下,这种选点切入式的文本解读能使读者对文本常读常新,从而促进语文课堂阅读教学效率的提高。%We have been studying the origin,contents and forms in writings.Basing on the results of these studies,we select a breakthrough point to understand the various texts.It is helpful for us to understand one or several aspects of texts.In the background of new curriculum reform,breakthrough point in interpreting texts can make readers understand the texts thoroughly,so as to improve the reading teaching efficiency in Chinese class.

  9. Theoretical Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sorting has brought the analyst to the point of pent-up pressure to write: to see the months of work actualized in a “piece.” But this is only a personal pressure. The goal of grounded theory methodology, above all is to offer the results to the public, usually through one or more publications. We will focus on writing for publication, which is the most frequent way that the analyst can tell how people are “buying” what really matters in sociology, or in other fields.Both feedback on and use of publications will be the best evaluation of the analyst’s grounded theory. It will be his main source or criticism, constructive critique, and frequently of career rewards. In any case, he has to write to expand his audience beyond the limited number of close colleagues and students. Unless there is a publication, his work will be relegated to limited discussion, classroom presentation, or even private fantasy. The rigor and value of grounded theory work deserves publication. And many analysts have a stake in effecting wider publics, which makes their substantive grounded theory count.

  10. Justifying knowledge, justifying method, taking action: epistemologies, methodologies, and methods in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M; Little, Miles

    2007-12-01

    In this article, the authors clarify a framework for qualitative research, in particular for evaluating its quality, founded on epistemology, methodology, and method. They define these elements and discuss their respective contributions and interrelationships. Epistemology determines and is made visible through method, particularly in the participant- researcher relationship, measures of research quality, and form, voice, and representation in analysis and writing. Epistemology guides methodological choices and is axiological. Methodology shapes and is shaped by research objectives, questions, and study design. Methodologies can prescribe choices of method, resonate with particular academic disciplines, and encourage or discourage the use and/or development of theory. Method is constrained by and makes visible methodological and epistemic choices. If we define good quality qualitative research as research that attends to all three elements and demonstrates internal consistency between them, standardized checklists can be transcended and innovation and diversity in qualitative research practice facilitated.

  11. Essence of Academic Writing

    OpenAIRE

    依田, 博; Hiroshi, YODA; 京都文教大学人間学部現代社会学科; KYOTO BUNKYO UNIVERSITY Department of Social Design Studies

    2012-01-01

    This essay is an academic writing skills text for teachers who teach any field of social sciences, and guide university students in an academic writing. This type of guidance is not an easy process at universities, because of the lack of it prior to tertiary education in Japan. Many books on how to write an academic essay have been published by various authors. These are difficult for most students who have not used to read academic essays, and not been trained how to write them. Therefore, t...

  12. Writing Inspired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  13. Teaching Writing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaououi,Merbouh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing learners’ writing skills has been of concern for a long time in education. Students studying English in our educational institutions have been found to face problems mainly in writing, making them unable to cope with the institution’s literacy expectations. However, these students may be able to develop writing skills significantly with positive instructional attitudes towards the errors they make and awareness on the teachers’ part of learner problems. That is why they should improve classroom writing instruction to address the serious problem of students writing difficult. Teaching strategies has shown a dramatic effect on the quality of students’ writing. Strategy instruction involves explicitly and systematically teaching steps necessary to use strategies independently. The following table will explain the above ideas.

  14. The Write Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Scarcella, Robin; Matuchniak, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Expectations for high-level academic writing, especially in the Common Core era, have never been higher. Middle school and high school students are being asked to do close readings of complex texts and then respond in writing using academic discourse. This is a challenging task for many students, but perhaps none as great as for English language…

  15. Children's Advertisement Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

  16. Children's Advertisement Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

  17. Justifying genetics as a possible legal defence to criminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justifying genetics as a possible legal defence to criminal responsibility in Nigeria. ... on the relationship between nature and nurture (genes versus environment). ... who commit murder due to one psychotic or hereditary mental disorders end ...

  18. Screening for foot problems in children: is this practice justifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Angela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Podiatry screening of children is a common practice, which occurs largely without adequate data to support the need for such activity. Such programs may be either formalised, or more ad hoc in nature, depending upon the use of guidelines or existing models. Although often not used, the well-established criteria for assessing the merits of screening programs can greatly increase the understanding as to whether such practices are actually worthwhile. This review examines the purpose of community health screening in the Australian context, as occurs for tuberculosis, breast, cervical and prostate cancers, and then examines podiatry screening practices for children with reference to the criteria of the World Health Organisation (WHO. Topically, the issue of paediatric foot posture forms the focus of this review, as it presents with great frequency to a range of clinicians. Comparison is made with developmental dysplasia of the hip, in which instance the WHO criteria are well met. Considering that the burden of the condition being screened for must be demonstrable, and that early identification must be found to be beneficial, in order to justify a screening program, there is no sound support for either continuing or establishing podiatry screenings for children.

  19. Calculation-experimental method justifies the life of wagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валерія Сергіївна Воропай

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article proposed a method to evaluate the technical state of tank wagons operating in chemical industry. An algorithm for evaluation the technical state of tank wagons was developed, that makes it possible on the basis of diagnosis and analysis of current condition to justify a further period of operation. The complex of works on testing the tanks and mathematical models for calculations of the design strength and reliability were proposed. The article is devoted to solving the problem of effective exploitation of the working fleet of tank wagons. Opportunities for further exploitation of cars, the complex of works on the assessment of their technical state and the calculation of the resources have been proposed in the article. Engineering research of the chemical industries park has reduced the shortage of the rolling stock for transportation of ammonia. The analysis of the chassis numerous faults and the main elements of tank wagons supporting structure after 20 years of exploitation was made. The algorithm of determining the residual life of the specialized tank wagons operating in an industrial plant has been proposed. The procedure for resource conservation of tank wagons carrying cargo under high pressure was first proposed. The improved procedure for identifying residual life proposed in the article has both theoretical and practical importance

  20. Justifying Definitions in Mathematics---Going Beyond Lakatos

    OpenAIRE

    Werndl, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the actual practice of justifying definitions in mathematics. First, I introduce the main account of this issue, namely Lakatos's proof-generated definitions. Based on a case study of definitions of randomness in ergodic theory, I identify three other common ways of justifying definitions: natural-world-justification, condition-justification and redundancy-justification. Also, I clarify the interrelationships between the different kinds of justification. Finally, I point ...

  1. Writing to Learn Writing Skills--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Antonio S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes a case study in which the main objective is to understand how engineering students can improve their writing skills, regarding spelling and syntax, when taught specifically on these issues. The methodology Writing To Learn is applied in two courses and, making use of the written texts, the students' writing skills are assessed…

  2. Writing to Learn Writing Skills--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Antonio S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes a case study in which the main objective is to understand how engineering students can improve their writing skills, regarding spelling and syntax, when taught specifically on these issues. The methodology Writing To Learn is applied in two courses and, making use of the written texts, the students' writing skills are assessed…

  3. Problems in Ethnographic Text Writing--On Works and Lives:The Anthropologist as Author%民族志文本的写作问题1--读格尔兹《论著与生活》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淑红

    2014-01-01

    《论著与生活:人类学家作为作者》是格尔兹出版于1988年的一本稍微晚近的关于人类学民族志文本写作的书,这本书的中文版在2013年由中国人民大学出版社出版。文章主要就格尔兹在书中所谈的民族志作为一种写作以及由此带来的作者是什么,作品是什么,“作者-功能”是如何实现的等问题进行梳理和总结,并且把格尔兹的这本书放到特定的历史背景中,指出格尔兹其实是对后现代“写文化”论争的一种回应,他们观点有分歧但其实都是对“阐释学科”的进一步探索。%Works and Lives:The Anthropologist as Author is a later book of Geertz about Anthropology Ethno-graphic text writing. The Chinese version of this book is published by Renmin university of China publishing house in 2013.This article mainly review and summarize about ethnography, as a kind of writing and the prob-lem it brought such as what is author, what is the work, The“author-function”is how to implement. This arti-cle put the book in the specific historical background and point that it is a response to the postmodern“writ-ing culture”argument. They have different opinions, but they are both further explorations on“Interpretation of the discipline”.

  4. The Effect of the Process Writing Approach on Writing Success and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Nihat

    2014-01-01

    The process writing approach treats writing not as a completed product but as a process. Writing studies are carried out as a part of the process before the written text is completed. This approach focuses on the student in writing lessons, and the teacher only acts as a guide. The process writing approach involves activities occurring during the…

  5. Text as Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woal, Michael; Corn, Marcia Lynn

    As electronically mediated communication becomes more prevalent, print is regaining the original pictorial qualities which graphemes (written signs) lost when primitive pictographs (or picture writing) and ideographs (simplified graphemes used to communicate ideas as well as to represent objects) evolved into first written, then printed, texts of…

  6. Compatriot partiality and cosmopolitan justice: Can we justify compatriot partiality within the cosmopolitan framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle Bascara

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an alternative way in which compatriot partiality could be justified within the framework of global distributive justice. Philosophers who argue that compatriot partiality is similar to racial partiality capture something correct about compatriot partiality. However, the analogy should not lead us to comprehensively reject compatriot partiality. We can justify compatriot partiality on the same grounds that liberation movements and affirmative action have been justified. Hence, given cosmopolitan demands of justice, special consideration for the economic well-being of your nation as a whole is justified if and only if the country it identifies is an oppressed developing nation in an unjust global order.This justification is incomplete. We also need to say why Person A, qua national of Country A, is justified in helping her compatriots in Country A over similarly or slightly more oppressed non-compatriots in Country B. I argue that Person A’s partiality towards her compatriots admits further vindication because it is part of an oppressed group’s project of self-emancipation, which is preferable to paternalistic emancipation.Finally, I identify three benefits in my justification for compatriot partiality. First, I do not offer a blanket justification for all forms of compatriot partiality. Partiality between members of oppressed groups is only a temporary effective measure designed to level an unlevel playing field. Second, because history attests that sovereign republics could arise as a collective response to colonial oppression, justifying compatriot partiality on the grounds that I have identified is conducive to the development of sovereignty and even democracy in poor countries, thereby avoiding problems of infringement that many humanitarian poverty alleviation efforts encounter. Finally, my justification for compatriot partiality complies with the implicit cosmopolitan commitment to the realizability of global justice

  7. Book Review: Stop, Write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.

  8. Performance of Fourth-Grade Students in the 2012 NAEP Computer-Based Writing Pilot Assessment: Scores, Text Length, and Use of Editing Tools. Working Paper Series. NCES 2015-119

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sheida; Kim, Young Yee; Chen, Jing; Liu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether or not fourth-graders could fully demonstrate their writing skills on the computer and factors associated with their performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) computer-based writing assessment. The results suggest that high-performing fourth-graders (those who scored in the upper 20 percent…

  9. Writing Effective Paragraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Messuri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking a methodical approach to constructing paragraphs can improve clarity and organization in medical writing. This article describes a typical model for paragraph structure, explains the significance of coherence and cohesion, and recommends revision strategies.

  10. Justifying Definitions in Mathematics---Going Beyond Lakatos

    CERN Document Server

    Werndl, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the actual practice of justifying definitions in mathematics. First, I introduce the main account of this issue, namely Lakatos's proof-generated definitions. Based on a case study of definitions of randomness in ergodic theory, I identify three other common ways of justifying definitions: natural-world-justification, condition-justification and redundancy-justification. Also, I clarify the interrelationships between the different kinds of justification. Finally, I point out how Lakatos's ideas are limited: they fail to show that various kinds of justification can be found and can be reasonable, and they fail to acknowledge the interplay between the different kinds of justification.

  11. Writing in EFL teachers’ education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild Elisabeth Lund

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The national guidelines for teachers’ education in Norway state that EFL students should be able to work with two different dimensions of writing in their future classrooms. Learners are expected to develop their writing skills (learn to write, and they should use writing as a tool in the language learning process (write to learn. The teacher students should also be able to demonstrate good writing skills themselves. The guidelines do not, however, specify the kind of work students should do in order to meet these objectives. Thus, it is up to those who offer EFL courses to interpret the guidelines and decide how students’ work with writing will happen. The present article discusses the decisions that are made at thirteen institutions where English is offered as part of the integrated teacher training program for grades five to ten. My data are the requirements related to writing in local syllabuses, and the obligatory writing assignments that students have been given. The investigation shows that writing is a central element in the students’ work. However, the required writing functions primarily as a vehicle to ensure proper study progression and to provide a basis for assessment. In this way, it can be said to meet the institutions’ and the course instructors’ needs more than the students’ needs. The article calls for a pedagogy that is geared more towards helping students develop their writing skills and their ability to cater for work with writing in their future classrooms.

  12. Academic writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  13. Career writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rob Poell; dr. Frans Meijers; Mijke Post; Reinekke Lengelle

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether creative, expressive, and reflective writing contributes to the formation of a narrative career identity that offers students in higher education a sense of meaning and direction. The contents of writing done by students who participated in 2 two-day writing courses b

  14. Technical report writing today

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Daniel G

    2014-01-01

    "Technical Report Writing Today" provides thorough coverage of technical writing basics, techniques, and applications. Through a practical focus with varied examples and exercises, students internalize the skills necessary to produce clear and effective documents and reports. Project worksheets help students organize their thoughts and prepare for assignments, and focus boxes highlight key information and recent developments in technical communication. Extensive individual and collaborative exercises expose students to different kinds of technical writing problems and solutions. Annotated student examples - more than 100 in all - illustrate different writing styles and approaches to problems. Numerous short and long examples throughout the text demonstrate solutions for handling writing assignments in current career situations. The four-color artwork in the chapter on creating visuals keeps pace with contemporary workplace capabilities. The Tenth Edition offers the latest information on using electronic resum...

  15. Escribir textos argumentativos desde el inicio de la escolaridad. Un análisis de textos producidos a partir de una secuencia didáctica Writing argumentative texts since the beginning of school. An analysis of written texts produced with a didactic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Sanchez Abchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza los textos argumentativos escritos por alumnos de 3° grado de primaria, de Córdoba (Argentina, producidos a partir de una secuencia didáctica para el aprendizaje del género "carta de solicitud". El estudio explora, además, el impacto del dispositivo didáctico en el desempeño de los alumnos. Para el diseño del instrumento y el análisis de las producciones nos basamos en los principios del interaccionismo sociodiscursivo (Bronckart, 2004. Los resultados mostraron que los niños avanzaban en la situación comunicativa, la planificación y el formato de la carta y mejoraban sus capacidades argumentativas. Se discuten, por último, las implicancias pedagógicas del trabajo.This work analyzes written argumentative texts produced by children from 3rd year of primary education from Córdoba (Argentina, in the frame of the application of a didactic sequence, designed to write formal request letters. The study examines, as well, the impact of the sequence in the children's performance. The elaboration of the instrument and the analyses of the productions were based on the principles of the Socio-discursive Interactionism (Bronckart, 2004. The results showed that the children improved their argumentative skills and progressed in their comprehension of the communicative situation, the planification process and the formal conventions of the letter. The pedagogical implications are discussed.

  16. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  17. Reading an ESL Writer’s Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kei Matsuda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on reading as a central act of communication in the tutorial session. Writing center tutors without extensive experience reading writing by second language writers may have difficulty getting past the many differences in surface-level features, organization, and rhetorical moves. After exploring some of the sources of these differences in writing, the authors present strategies that writing tutors can use to work effectively with second language writers.

  18. Investigation into How Managers Justify Investments in IT Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Richmond Ikechukwu

    2012-01-01

    Organization leaders are dependent on information technology for corporate productivity; however, senior managers have expressed concerns about insufficient benefits from information technology investments. The problem researched was to understand how midsized businesses justify investments in information technology infrastructure. The purpose of…

  19. Connections between Generalizing and Justifying: Students' Reasoning with Linear Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Amy B.

    2007-01-01

    Research investigating algebra students' abilities to generalize and justify suggests that they experience difficulty in creating and using appropriate generalizations and proofs. Although the field has documented students' errors, less is known about what students do understand to be general and convincing. This study examines the ways in which…

  20. Nurturing towards Wisdom: Justifying Music in the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimonen, Marja

    2008-01-01

    This essay considers the music curriculum from a philosophical perspective, focusing on the tension between freedom (personal autonomy) and discipline (moral and ethical principles). The approach could be characterized as hermeneutical: the aim is to deepen our understanding through discussing the basic arguments for justifying the inclusion of…

  1. Lay denial of knowledge for justified true beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A

    2013-12-01

    Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Small-Business Computing: Is Software Piracy Justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, A. Richard

    1983-01-01

    Presents several different perspectives on the copying of computer software (discs, tapes, etc.) in an attempt to determine whether such infringement of copyright, often called "software piracy," can ever be justified. Implications for both the hardware and software firms and the users are also discussed. (EAO)

  3. We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Krashen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982.

  4. TRAVEL WRITING: AN APPLICATION OF WRITING WORKSHOP TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’S CREATIVE WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayudias Margawati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Writing is often assumed as uneasy skill to either learn or teach. For students, they find it difficult to develop ideas in writing. On the other hand, teachers, many of them, only ready with the materials but confuse with the appropriate ways to teach. This paper intends to describe and discuss a method of teaching writing namely writing workshop to improve students’ writing skill through travel writing. Writing workshop proposed by Calkins that consists of mini lesson, work time, peer conferring and/or response groups, share sessions, and publication celebration is applied in writing class for methodological purposes. In mini lesson, teacher offers something to the class that is meant to introduce a writing strategy done at the beginning of the workshop. During work time point, students start their new piece of writing. Teacher moves among students conferring with them while checking their works. Peer conferences or response groups provide a forum for students to talk about works in progress. When students work in group, one of them could arrange his/ her group needs during the work time. A share session may be varied, one possible way is each group shares their process of writing to other students. At the end of writing class, student writers come together to publish and/ or celebrate their final work. The publication could be in the form of portfolio, students’ diary, blog, or others. Travel writing genre is chosen as it could develop students’ creativity in describing/ narrating their own stories during, let say holiday or things they used to see on the way home weekly or monthly. Furthermore, travel writing as the product of creative writing teaches the readers of values, characteristics, and way of life. Last but not least, a professional writing teacher should set the writing workshop components in variety ways to achieve effective running-class.

  5. SOME THOUGHTS ON WRITING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Writing is one of the central pillars of language learning and should be of major interest and concern to teachers, students and researchers. This paper is intended to be a plea for writing and explores issues regarding instruction and evaluation of writing skills of nonnative speaker students. It examines expectations of nonnative speakers writing quality and performance on writing proficiency exams, as well. Finally, it is trying to ring a bell about this skill that has been neglected in spite of its importance when it comes to foreign language acquisition

  6. Writing Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Helena Rykov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Communicating about music therapy is problematic because discursive language fails to convey the nonverbal, embodied essence of experience. I explore the emergence of this problem in the music therapy literature. I discuss the scholarship of phenomenological writing. I provide examples of nondiscursive music therapy writing. I introduce the genre of poetic inquiry.

    Poetry is the most musical form of language. Poetry and music, linked throughout history, share many characteristics. It makes sense that we use poetry to write about music therapy.

    Writing is a crucial skill for music therapy professionals who must produce various notes, proposals, and reports. Writing poetically is a diminished stance compared to discursive prose writing. It is understandable that representing music therapy in experimental, tentative, and creative texts is risky. I invite music therapists to aspire towards poetry when writing music therapy to better address nonverbal, embodied, music therapy essence. I address this invitation to all writers of music therapy: undergraduate and graduate students, clinicians, and researchers.

  7. Selected writings

    CERN Document Server

    Galilei, Galileo

    2012-01-01

    'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

  8. The science writing tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhart, Arthur L.

    This is a two-part dissertation. The primary part is the text of a science-based composition rhetoric and reader called The Science Writing Tool. This textbook has seven chapters dealing with topics in Science Rhetoric. Each chapter includes a variety of examples of science writing, discussion questions, writing assignments, and instructional resources. The purpose of this text is to introduce lower-division college science majors to the role that rhetoric and communication plays in the conduct of Science, and how these skills contribute to a successful career in Science. The text is designed as a "tool kit," for use by an instructor constructing a science-based composition course or a writing-intensive Science course. The second part of this part of this dissertation reports on student reactions to draft portions of The Science Writing Tool text. In this report, students of English Composition II at Northern Virginia Community College-Annandale were surveyed about their attitudes toward course materials and topics included. The findings were used to revise and expand The Science Writing Tool.

  9. Alternative Techniques for Teaching Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihindun arumi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Writing as one of language skill is often considered very difficult. It is due to the fact that writing needs to produce and organize ideas using appropriate vocabulary, language use, paragraph organization, and mechanism. It also needs to turn the ideas into a readable text and for foreign language learners, they should also transfer ideas from their native language into target language (foreign language. It raises any problems for them to create a good text. Moreover, the situation in the class does not always supportthem in which the techniques of the teacher in teaching writing is boring and monotonous, do not give enough attention to help students explore their writing skills. So that they attend the writing class only for procedural formality.Thus, it is considered important to elaborate various techniques to build nice classroom atmosphere as well as to improve students’ writing skills.

  10. Estimation of increased regional income that emanates from economically justified road construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the possible development benefits than can emanate from economically justified road construction projects. It shows how the once-off increase in regional income resulting from investment in road construction projects, and the recurring additional regional income resulting from the use of new or improved roads can be estimated. The difference is shown that exists between a cost-benefit analysis (to determine how economically justified a project is and a regional economic income analysis (to estimate the general economic benefits that will be developed by investment in and usage of a road. Procedures are proposed through which the once-off and recurring increases in regional income can be estimated by using multiplier and accelerator analyses respectively. Finally guidelines are supplied on the appropriate usage of input variables in the calculation of the regional income multiplier.

  11. We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Krashen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper. My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper.

  12. Positive Expectations: A Reflective Tale on the Teaching of Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolly Ockerstrom, PhD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A case study on the teaching of writing, this paper discusses what motivates students in a freshman writing course to complete increasingly difficult writing assignments. The study provides a glimpse into how one class of freshman students developed positive expectations for writing a paper about a difficult poem by helping each other map strategies for reading and writing.

  13. Adolescents' Awareness of Environmental Care: Experiences When Writing Short Descriptive Texts in English (Concientización de los adolescentes sobre el cuidado ambiental: experiencias al escribir textos descriptivos cortos en inglés)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Urrutia, Lorena; Medina Gutiérrez, Ana Stella

    2011-01-01

    Today it is necessary to approach environmental topics with students in an interdisciplinary manner to mitigate the environmental damages that the Earth is suffering. In this paper we report an action-research and innovation study aimed at sensitizing students with respect to the care and preservation of the environment through the writing of…

  14. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  15. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  16. From a writing lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mafra Ney Reinhardt

    Full Text Available Beginning with Jacques Derrida's interpolation of the celebrated chapter A Writing Lesson by Claude Lévi-Strauss's, and James Clifford critique of the ethnographic text, the authors of this essay reflect on the written dimension of the ethnographic métier.

  17. WRITING TONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction In teaching writing, people usually pay attention to grammatical problems from sentence structure to articles. They also pay attention to spelling, capitalisation, punctuation and the choice of words. These are essential-but so is the tone of the writing. In this article, I’d like to present some ideas about tone. Tone

  18. Career writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Frans Meijers; Reinekke Lengelle

    2015-01-01

    Career Writing is a narrative approach to qualitative career assessment whereby client (or student) groups use creative, reflective, and expressive forms of writing to foster an internal dialogue about career. It is intended to help individuals construct a career identity by uncovering life themes,

  19. Is Process Writing the 'Write Stuff'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jess; Fleischman, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of writing instruction and process writing are discussed. The process writing approach has a significant impact on the U.S. education and hence, the principles of process writing provide guidance to teachers on potentially effective instructional practices.

  20. Mathematical writing

    CERN Document Server

    Vivaldi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student.   The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition.   Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...

  1. Academic Writing : Examples from BUV

    OpenAIRE

    Engdahl, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    This guide is an introduction to academic writing that describes features of scientific writing that are recommended for students in Teacher Education Programmes and in Child and Youth Studies. It includes a style guide, how to structure your text, and an APA Publication Manual for referencing, as well as guides for writing an outline for a study, advice for serving as opponent(s) and respondent(s) and an agenda for a thesis/examining seminar.

  2. Discourses of writing and learning to write.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanic, Rosalind

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of theory and research about writing and writing pedagogy, identifying six discourses – configurations of beliefs and practices in relation to the teaching of writing. It introduces and explains a framework for the analysis of educational data about writing pedagogy in which the connections are drawn across views of language, views of writing, views of learning to write, approaches to the teaching of writing, and approaches to the assessment of writing. The...

  3. Cost-justifying usability an update for the internet age

    CERN Document Server

    Bias, Randolph G; Bias, Randolph G

    2005-01-01

    You just know that an improvement of the user interface will reap rewards, but how do you justify the expense and the labor and the time-guarantee a robust ROI!-ahead of time? How do you decide how much of an investment should be funded? And what is the best way to sell usability to others? In this completely revised and new edition, Randolph G. Bias (University of Texas at Austin, with 25 years' experience as a usability practitioner and manager) and Deborah J. Mayhew (internationally recognized usability consultant and author of two other seminal books including The Usability Enginee

  4. Is the use of sentient animals in basic research justifiable?

    OpenAIRE

    Greek Ray; Greek Jean

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Animals can be used in many ways in science and scientific research. Given that society values sentient animals and that basic research is not goal oriented, the question is raised: "Is the use of sentient animals in basic research justifiable?" We explore this in the context of funding issues, outcomes from basic research, and the position of society as a whole on using sentient animals in research that is not goal oriented. We conclude that the use of sentient animals in basic rese...

  5. 莫让语文教材成为“最熟悉的陌生人”——回归课文.挖掘高考议论文写作素材%Returning to the Texts to Accumulate NMT Argumentative Writing Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷

    2011-01-01

    In Chinese teaching, we always emphasize Chinese texts reading ability, while ignore texts are right hand of improving students' writing ability and treasure-house of accumulating NMT writing materials. This paper expounds how to return to the texts to ac%在语文教学中,我们往往比较重视语文文本的阅读能力,而忽视文本是提高学生写作能力的得力助手,更是一座可以挖掘高考写作素材的宝库。本文论述了语文教学中如何回归课文,积累写作素材。

  6. Collaborative Writing: Fostering Foreign Language and Writing Conventions Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elola Idoia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of social technologies, such as wikis and chats, has brought a renewed attention to L2 collaborative writing. Yet, a question that still remains to be answered is the extent to which learners’ writing is enhanced when using these tools. By analyzing learners’ individual and collaborative writing, this study (a explores L2 learners’ approaches to the writing task in the wikis, (b examines learners’ collaborative synchronous interactions when discussing content, structure and other aspects related to the elaboration of the writing task, and (c describes learners’ perceptions of individual and collaborative writing and their impressions of the use of social tools in the FL writing class. Analysis of the data showed that while statistically significant differences were not evident in terms of fluency, accuracy and complexity when comparing the individual and collaborative assignments, there were observable trends that inform us about how learners’ interactions with the text differ when working individually or collaboratively. Further, an analysis of learners’ approaches to collaborative writing through the use of social tools shows that wikis and chats allowed them to concentrate on writing components in a different, yet complementary, manner depending on whether they interacted in the wikis or in the chats.

  7. Teachers' orientations towards writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. McCarthey & Dumisile Mkhize

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study of 29 teachers from four states in the US investigated teachers' orientations towards writing and the influences on their beliefs. Through interviews about writing instruction, the researchers found significant differences between teachers in high and low-income schools. While teachers in high-income schools valued rhetorical style, developing voice, and reading-writing connections, teachers in low-income schools focused on grammar, mechanics and sentence structure. Teachers in high-income schools appear to be exercising more choice in curricular materials and valuing quality of writing beyond grammar and mechanics, whereas teachers in low-income schools are using specific curriculum mandated by the districts. Influences on teachers' orientations included school context, programs and materials, and assessments. The study raises concerns that students in low-income schools are missing out on authentic, challenging, and meaningful writing opportunities since the focus is on skills-based instruction. The findings point to the need for teachers to provide all students with opportunities to develop rhetorical style, voice, and reading-writing connections in addition to grammar, mechanics, and sentence structure.

  8. Justify a Dedicated Radiology Coder-Reimbursement Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaikis, Melody W

    2015-01-01

    There are many opportunities to justify a dedicated staff member. We have to be able to answer the question "How does this position make money?" The bottom line is that it's crucial the facility does not forfeit appropriate reimbursement for its existing procedures. For new procedures, or equipment, this individual can also ensure cost-benefit analysis/ROI is correct for equipment and/or supply purchases. The specific opportunities vary by facility so you must determine where your potential opportunities lie. There is not one answer, but this article provides you with specific areas to evaluate. Keep in mind if you are evaluating opportunities related to specific procedures you need to utilize outpatient numbers and assume Medicare reimbursement rates so that you calculate a conservative estimate. There is nioney to be found in most hospital organizations, so take the time to identify the potential benefit for your own. You can quantify the impact of a dedicated individual based on your specific case mix, which is very useful when justifying a new position. Also, it's very important to remember, you get what you pay for-fill the new position wisely. Saving a small amount in salary may result in a large sacrifice in potential revenues.

  9. Acts of Writing: A Compilation of Six Models that Define the Processes of Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. Sharp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a developmental and flexible process. Using a prescribed process for acts of writing during instruction does not take into account individual differences of writers and generates writing instruction that is narrow, rigid, and inflexible. Preservice teachers receive limited training with theory and pedagogy for writing, which potentially leads to poor pedagogical practices with writing instruction among practicing teachers. The purpose of this article was to provide teacher educators, preservice teachers and practicing teachers of writing with a knowledge base of historical research and models that define and describe processes involved during the acts of writing

  10. Foreign Language Writing and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuri Soedjatmiko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In L1 writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose L1 is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they think in bahasa Indonesia and translate it into English. Three steps are employed. The first is by evaluating the subjects first writing draft to see whether or not they choose appropriate words, compose sentences, and put them in coherent paragraphs. Some guiding assumptions are drawn from their work on the strategies utilized to overcome writer's block. The second step is checking through open interviews. The last step sees whether or not the strategies are related to the writer's language competence as shown by the average of subjects grades in dictation, reading, writing and structure from Semester 1 to Semester 4. The findings show that strategies used whether or not translation is used are not affected by the subjects' language competence. Almost all subjects think in bahasa Indonesia and translate their thoughts into English. From the four subjects who claim to always write directly in English, only two write clearly and well-organized writing, and one of them the best of all even says that she does not hesitate to consult dictionary if necessary. This study then suggests the teaching of EFL writing in class encourage students to think in Indonesian. In writing the first draft, students should be allowed or advised to write the Indonesian expressions to maintain the flow of their writing.

  11. Foreign Language Writing and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuri Soedjatmiko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In LI writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose LI is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they think in bahasa Indonesia and translate it into English. Three steps are employed. The first is by evaluating the subjects first writing draft to see whether or not they choose appropriate words, compose sentences, and put them in coherent paragraphs. Some guiding assumptions are drawn from their work on the strategies utilized to overcome writer's block. The second step is checking through open interviews. The last step sees whether or not the strategies are related to the writer's language competence as shown by the average of subjects grades in dictation, reading, writing and structure from Semester 1 to Semester 4. The findings show that strategies used whether or not translation is used are not affected by the subjects' language competence. Almost all subjects think in bahasa Indonesia and translate their thoughts into English. From the four subjects who claim to always write directly in English, only two write clearly and well-organized writing, and one of them the best of all even says that she does not hesitate to consult dictionary if necessary. This study then suggests the teaching of EFL writing in class encourage students to think in Indonesian. In writing the first draft, students should be allowed or advised to write the Indonesian expressions to maintain the flow of their writing.

  12. Reply: New results justify open discussion of alternative models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Andrew; Stein, Seth; Weber, John; Engeln, Joseph; Mao, Aitlin; Dixon, Timothy

    A millennium ago, Jewish sages wrote that “the rivalry of scholars increases wisdom.” In contrast, Schweig et al. (Eos, this issue) demand that “great caution” be exercised in discussing alternatives to their model of high seismic hazard in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). We find this view surprising; we have no objection to their and their coworkers' extensive efforts promoting their model in a wide variety of public media, but see no reason not to explore a lower-hazard alternative based on both new data and reanalysis of data previously used to justify their model. In our view, the very purpose of collecting new data and reassessing existing data is to promote spirited testing and improvement of existing hypotheses. For New Madrid, such open reexamination seems scientifically appropriate, given the challenge of understanding intraplate earthquakes, and socially desirable because of the public policy implications.

  13. Marketing of human organs and tissues is justified and necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, J

    1989-01-01

    The bioethical guidelines now banning commerce in human body parts to be used for transplantation manifest unrealistic and arbitrary inflexibility which perpetuates and worsens the deficit in organ supply. Instead of relying on traditionally revered but now outmoded and even irrelevant bioethical maxims, formulators of the guidelines should have concentrated on a more meaningful situational adaptation to contemporary real-life circumstances. Many unexpectedly relevant and important nuances of concepts such as property, ownership, and altruism must now be taken into account. Hypothetical examples explore the morality of a universal ban by fiat and the associated problems of organ supply and demand, of cost and affordability, and of fair equity. It is difficult to justify purely altruistic organ donation today, when the health care professions and industries are frantically pursuing commercial profits. It is concluded that the ban should be scrapped in favor of a well-organized, open, and legally regulated commercial market for human organs and tissues.

  14. Text Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchastel, Philippe C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three roles of textbook illustrations--to arrest the reader's attention and arouse interest, to provide explanation and clarification of complex verbal descriptions, and to aid retention of the information presented in the text. It is recommended that illustrations be designed with their specific role(s) in mind. (EAO)

  15. Effects of Task and Rater Background on the Evaluation of ESL Student Writing: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigle, Sara Cushing; Boldt, Heather; Valsecchi, Maria Ines

    2003-01-01

    Investigates differences in the evaluation of text-responsible (TR) writing and non-text responsible writing by English-as-a-Second-Language instructors and instructors in other disciplines. TR writing requires students to demonstrate understanding of specific texts in their writing rather than writing from personal experience or using a source…

  16. Guidelines for writing an argumentative essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Egurnova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The guidelines below are intended for teachers, professors, students, and the public at large who are interested in the issues of English writing culture. They provide a detailed plan for completing the writing task–writing an argumentative essay.

  17. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  18. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  19. Cactus: Writing an Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Hartley; Spencer, Toby

    2010-01-01

    Some people became mathematics or science teachers by default. There was once such a limited range of subjects that students who could not write essays did mathematics and science. Computers changed that. Word processor software helped some people overcome huge spelling and grammar hurdles and made it easy to edit and manipulate text. Would-be…

  20. Dear Reader, Please Write!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca McMahon

    2008-01-01

    In our modern world of cellular phone calls, text messaging, and electronic mail, letter writing has become a lost art. What better way to motivate today's youth to experience the pleasure of "snail mail" than by reading a tale told through a series of such correspondence? The winning combination of a good story line and entertaining…

  1. Is tenure justified? An experimental study of faculty beliefs about tenure, promotion, and academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Williams, Wendy M; Mueller-Johnson, Katrin

    2006-12-01

    The behavioral sciences have come under attack for writings and speech that affront sensitivities. At such times, academic freedom and tenure are invoked to forestall efforts to censure and terminate jobs. We review the history and controversy surrounding academic freedom and tenure, and explore their meaning across different fields, at different institutions, and at different ranks. In a multifactoral experimental survey, 1,004 randomly selected faculty members from top-ranked institutions were asked how colleagues would typically respond when confronted with dilemmas concerning teaching, research, and wrong-doing. Full professors were perceived as being more likely to insist on having the academic freedom to teach unpopular courses, research controversial topics, and whistle-blow wrong-doing than were lower-ranked professors (even associate professors with tenure). Everyone thought that others were more likely to exercise academic freedom than they themselves were, and that promotion to full professor was a better predictor of who would exercise academic freedom than was the awarding of tenure. Few differences emerged related either to gender or type of institution, and behavioral scientists' beliefs were similar to scholars from other fields. In addition, no support was found for glib celebrations of tenure's sanctification of broadly defined academic freedoms. These findings challenge the assumption that tenure can be justified on the basis of fostering academic freedom, suggesting the need for a re-examination of the philosophical foundation and practical implications of tenure in today's academy.

  2. Student Perceptions of Scholarly Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Peganoff O'Brien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning the process of scholarly writing, including the significance of peer review, is an essential element in the preparation of students for professional practice. This descriptive research study, using Scholarship of Teaching and Learning methodology, explores one approach to teaching scholarly writing in an occupational science/occupational therapy curriculum. The writing assignment was designed to offer multiple points for feedback and revision and instructional features to reinforce learning. A survey of students [n = 169] participating in this scholarly writing project was conducted yearly to gather their perceptions of learning. The results revealed four key elements: instructional strategies are needed to support scholarly writing, students value explicit instructor feedback, a successful writing experience opens the possibility for students to write in their professional future, and students will develop the habits of a writer given structure and pedagogical considerations in the assignment construction. This experience shows students will work to achieve the expected standard for scholarship once writing is made an essential part of the course and their efforts are supported by scaffolding the assignment. Through this experience, it was also learned students need opportunities for repetition and practice to refine scholarly writing. Suggestions for future research are proposed.

  3. TEACHING WRITING THROUGHT DICTOGLOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Sari Dewi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to help students in developing their ideas in writing due to their difficulties to arrange ideas. Although they do have ideas, they cannot structure their ideas well in their papers. Several factors could cause this problem such as lack of vocabulary and knowledge or strategies in arranging ideas in papers. Another factor is unclear explanation and insufficient guidance from the teachers. Based on literature review, dictoglos can be a guide for students to develop their ideas in writing. It is a teaching technique which incorporates various activities such listening, taking notes, discussing, and reconstructing which have some standard procedures and variations.

  4. 考纲引领课文依托高效写作--山区农村初中英语写作教学有效性探讨%Exam Outline Leading,Based on the Text,Effective Writing---The Effectiveness Exploration on English Writing Teaching in the Rural Junior Middle Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓霞

    2014-01-01

    Through the exploration and practice,the writer found a set of suitable for mountainous countryside junior middle school students with their practical style teaching method,namely,“exam outline for leading,based on the text”method of teaching English writing. Then improve the students’ writing ability,and cultivate the students’ English writing accomplishment,make the junior middle school English writing teaching do better.%通过探索和实践,找到了一套适合山区农村初中生实际且具有自己风格的教学方法---“以考纲为引领、以课文为依托”的英语写作教学法,以此来提高学生的写作能力,培养学生的英语写作素养,将初中英语写作教学工作做得更好。

  5. Business plan writing for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Kenneth H; Schwartz, Richard W

    2002-08-01

    Physicians are practicing in an era in which they are often expected to write business plans in order to acquire, develop, and implement new technology or programs. This task is yet another reminder of the importance of business principles in providing quality patient care amid allocation of increasingly scarce resources. Unfortunately, few physicians receive training during medical school, residencies, or fellowships in performing such tasks. The process of writing business plans follows an established format similar to writing a consultation, in which the risks, benefits, and alternatives to a treatment option are presented. Although administrative assistance may be available in compiling business plans, it is important for physicians to understand the rationale, process, and pitfalls of business planning. Writing a business plan will serve to focus, clarify, and justify a request for scarce resources, and thus, increase its chance of success, both in terms of funding and implementation. A well-written business plan offers a plausible, coherent story of an uncertain future. Therefore, a business plan is not merely an exercise to obtain funding but also a rationale for investment that can help physicians reestablish leadership in health care.

  6. Seeing, Doing, Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rumney

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As political agendas change, the teaching of writing continues to evolve, encompassing different writing practices in an attempt to address the perceived needs for literacy in our society. This article presents the Write Here project, which aims to boost children’s social development and literacy attainment through engagement with visual art, play, and multimodal learning, delivered in both art gallery and classroom settings. The valuable knowledge gained at the end of this study was evaluated and developed further through a series of extended collaborations between professional, postgraduate and undergraduate writers, and schoolchildren and their teachers. Our findings suggest that engaging young learners with creative, playful, multimodal activities will foster their confidence and motivation to engage with the subject and, more importantly, will lead to a significant improvement in literacy attainment.

  7. Robots Learn Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a general method for robots to learn motions and corresponding semantic knowledge simultaneously. A modified ISOMAP algorithm is used to convert the sampled 6D vectors of joint angles into 2D trajectories, and the required movements for writing numbers are learned from this modified ISOMAP-based model. Using this algorithm, the knowledge models are established. Learned motion and knowledge models are stored in a 2D latent space. Gaussian Process (GP method is used to model and represent these models. Practical experiments are carried out on a humanoid robot, named ISAC, to learn the semantic representations of numbers and the movements of writing numbers through imitation and to verify the effectiveness of this framework. This framework is applied into training a humanoid robot, named ISAC. At the learning stage, ISAC not only learns the dynamics of the movement required to write the numbers, but also learns the semantic meaning of the numbers which are related to the writing movements from the same data set. Given speech commands, ISAC recognizes the words and generated corresponding motion trajectories to write the numbers. This imitation learning method is implemented on a cognitive architecture to provide robust cognitive information processing.

  8. Killing in Combat: Utilizing a Christian Perspective, When is a Soldier Justified in Taking a Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    classical teaching. Necessarily, intent versus action will be investigated and the concept of utilitarian ethics and the doctrine of double effect...19. Legally Justified Killing – Christian .............................................................79 Figure 20. Ethically Justified Killing...111 x Figure 48. Ethically Justified Hesitation on Killing – Non-Christian ..........................112 Figure 49. Hesitation

  9. A Framework for Content Area Writing: Mediators and Moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry D. Klein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing can be a tool for communicating and learning in content area subjects. This pretest-posttest quasi-experiment examined the effects of instruction in a content area writing framework on students’ text quality and ability to use writing to learn. It also examined the effects of possible moderator variables (gender, previous writing achievement and mediator variables (genre knowledge, approach to writing. A multilevel analysis was conducted with students nested within classes. Instruction significantly increased argument genre knowledge and explanation text quality, but not argument text quality, explanation genre knowledge, or learning during writing. Gender predicted previous writing achievement and posttest argument text quality, but did not interact significantly with instruction. Previous writing achievement strongly affected several posttest measures, but did not interact significantly with instruction. A path analysis supported the theory that instruction affects genre knowledge, which affects text quality, which predicts learning during writing.

  10. Justifying molecular images in cell biology textbooks: From constructions to primary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpente, Norberto

    2016-02-01

    For scientific claims to be reliable and productive they have to be justified. However, on the one hand little is known on what justification precisely means to scientists, and on the other the position held by philosophers of science on what it entails is rather limited; for justifications customarily refer to the written form (textual expressions) of scientific claims, leaving aside images, which, as many cases from the history of science show are relevant to this process. The fact that images can visually express scientific claims independently from text, plus their vast variety and origins, requires an assessment of the way they are currently justified and in turn used as sources to justify scientific claims in the case of particular scientific fields. Similarly, in view of the different nature of images, analysis is required to determine on what side of the philosophical distinction between data and phenomena these different kinds of images fall. This paper historicizes and documents a particular aspect of contemporary life sciences research: the use of the molecular image as vehicle of knowledge production in cell studies, a field that has undergone a significant shift in visual expressions from the early 1980s onwards. Focussing on textbooks as sources that have been overlooked in the historiography of contemporary biomedicine, the aim is to explore (1) whether the shift of cell studies, entailing a superseding of the optical image traditionally conceptualised as primary data, by the molecular image, corresponds with a shift of justificatory practices, and (2) to assess the role of the molecular image as primary data. This paper also explores the dual role of images as teaching resources and as resources for the construction of knowledge in cell studies especially in its relation to discovery and justification. Finally, this paper seeks to stimulate reflection on what kind of archival resources could benefit the work of present and future epistemic

  11. Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt Julia

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)

  12. Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt Julia

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)

  13. Teaching professional writing in an academic health sciences center: the Writing Center model at the Medical University of South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tom G; Ariail, Jennie; Richards-Slaughter, Shannon; Kerr, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Writing is taught as professional competency in higher education generally, but the health science education literature emphasizes writing as a pedagogical means rather than a professional end. The Medical University of South Carolina established a Writing Center in 1994 to teach professional writing. This report describes the rationale for profession-specific, graduate-level writing instruction; summarizes the Writing Center model; and reports usage data. Students have reported improvement in particular texts and said they would be better able to complete writing tasks in the future. Interventions modeled after the Writing Center and staffed with professionally trained writing teachers may provide a means to pool resources to teach writing as professional competency. The Writing Center has provided the expertise to teach professional writing without demanding curricular revision.

  14. Report Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behnke, Eric

    In a short and precise way this compendium guides how to write an Engineering Report. The compendium is primarily targeting Engineering Students in thier first and second semester but it might as well be used by students at other technical bachelor educations......In a short and precise way this compendium guides how to write an Engineering Report. The compendium is primarily targeting Engineering Students in thier first and second semester but it might as well be used by students at other technical bachelor educations...

  15. Writing about Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the proceedings from the 1980 annual conference of the Institute of Physics Education Group. The topic of discussion, "writing skills in physics," included teaching writing skills, writing requirements in industry, and writing practice makes perfect. (DS)

  16. Can foster care ever be justified for weight management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G M G; Bredow, Maria; Barton, John; Pryce, Rebekah; Shield, J P H

    2014-03-01

    Article nine of the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child states that 'Children must not be separated from their parents unless it is in the best interests of the child.' We describe the impact that placing a child into care can have on long-standing and intractable obesity when this is a component of a child safeguarding strategy. Significant weight loss was documented in a male adolescent following his placement into foster care due to emotional harm and neglect within his birth family. The child's body mass index (BMI) dropped from a peak of 45.6 to 35 over 18 months. We provide brief details of two further similar cases and outcomes. Childhood obesity is often not the sole concern during safeguarding proceedings. Removal from an 'obesogenic' home environment should be considered if failure by the parents/carers to address the obesity is a major cause for concern. It is essential that all other avenues have been explored before removing a child from his birth family. However, in certain circumstances we feel it may be justified.

  17. Out of a Writing Conference: Speaking Writing Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Widiati

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In our TEFL situation, it is simply in the classroom that we expect our students to get the language exposures as much as possible since the language is not used outside the classroom. Therefore, every opportunity in the teaching learning process should be geared towards the students' using the target language.This paper highlights how oral communication skills can be encouraged even in a writing class. With a paradigmatic change in the teaching of writing, teachers do not value only `the product' but also `the process'. When translated into the classroom, one of the features of this new paradigm, the writing process approach, is `the conference', which occurs between teacher and students as well as between students. As Mol (1992 states, writing conference provides students with immediate, meaningful responses to their writing, developing students' ability to reflect upon their own writing and the writing of others in a critical and constructive way. Looking back at our own experience in teaching writing, the conference does not only scaffold the students in the process of meaning-making but also creates an atmosphere where they are actively engaged in a `more focused' talk. This is of paramount importance since our students tend to speak in their native language even in the classroom.

  18. Effect of Genre on the Generalizability of Writing Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Renske; Béguin, Anton; Sanders, Ted; van den Bergh, Huub

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, aspects of the measurement of writing are disentangled in order to investigate the validity of inferences made on the basis of writing performance and to describe implications for the assessment of writing. To include genre as a facet in the measurement, we obtained writing scores of 12 texts in four different genres for each…

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE COMPETENCE, WRITING COMPETENCE, AND CULTURAL COMPETENCE ON PRODUCING A SUCCESSFUL WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanto Hermanto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a skill derived from a long way of learning and exercises. Different from other language skills, writing is considered the difficult language skill to acquire since it involves many aspects of linguistics, social, and writing knowledge and conventions. There are at least three important elements of writing useful to produce a good piece of composition, language competence, writing competence and cultural competence. This paper shows the influence of these three elements in order to produce good, readable, communicative, and successful writing

  20. Sample size in orthodontic randomized controlled trials: are numbers justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletsi, Despina; Pandis, Nikolaos; Fleming, Padhraig S

    2014-02-01

    Sample size calculations are advocated by the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) group to justify sample sizes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This study aimed to analyse the reporting of sample size calculations in trials published as RCTs in orthodontic speciality journals. The performance of sample size calculations was assessed and calculations verified where possible. Related aspects, including number of authors; parallel, split-mouth, or other design; single- or multi-centre study; region of publication; type of data analysis (intention-to-treat or per-protocol basis); and number of participants recruited and lost to follow-up, were considered. Of 139 RCTs identified, complete sample size calculations were reported in 41 studies (29.5 per cent). Parallel designs were typically adopted (n = 113; 81 per cent), with 80 per cent (n = 111) involving two arms and 16 per cent having three arms. Data analysis was conducted on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis in a small minority of studies (n = 18; 13 per cent). According to the calculations presented, overall, a median of 46 participants were required to demonstrate sufficient power to highlight meaningful differences (typically at a power of 80 per cent). The median number of participants recruited was 60, with a median of 4 participants being lost to follow-up. Our finding indicates good agreement between projected numbers required and those verified (median discrepancy: 5.3 per cent), although only a minority of trials (29.5 per cent) could be examined. Although sample size calculations are often reported in trials published as RCTs in orthodontic speciality journals, presentation is suboptimal and in need of significant improvement.

  1. Idea Generation in Student Writing: Computational Assessments and Links to Successful Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Muldner, Kasia; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Idea generation is an important component of most major theories of writing. However, few studies have linked idea generation in writing samples to assessments of writing quality or examined links between linguistic features in a text and idea generation. This study uses human ratings of idea generation, such as "idea fluency, idea…

  2. Differentiating Digital Writing Instruction: The Intersection of Technology, Writing Instruction, and Digital Genre Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole M.; Lambert, Claire

    2015-01-01

    U.S. adolescents' prior technology experiences and exposure to digital genres vary, but they will often write digital texts as they enter college and adulthood. We explored middle school students' digital writing instructional experience in the context of a university-based summer digital writing camp. The sixth- through eighth-grade adolescents…

  3. Writing for the World: Wikipedia as an Introduction to Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    As students move from writing personal essays to writing formal academic texts in English, they face several new challenges. Writing tasks in higher education often require students to draw upon outside sources and to adopt the styles and genres of academic discourse. They must conduct research, summarize and paraphrase, cite sources, adopt genre…

  4. Process-Product Approach to Writing: the Effect of Model Essays on EFL Learners’ Writing Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastou Gholami Pasand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing is one the most important skills in learning a foreign language. The significance of being able to write in a second or foreign language has become clearer nowadays. Accordingly, different approaches to writing such as product approach, process approach and more recently process-product approach came into existence and they have been the concern of SL/FL researchers. The aim of this study is to answer the question that whether the use of an incomplete model text in process-product approach to writing and asking the learners to complete the text rather than copying it can have a positive impact on EFL learners’ accuracy in writing. After training a number of EFL learners on using process approach, we held a two-session writing class. In the first session students wrote in the process approach, and in the second one they were given a model text to continue in the process-product approach. The writing performance of the students in these two sessions was compared in term of accuracy. Based on the students’ writing performance, we came to the conclusion that completing the model text in process-product writing can have a rather positive influence in some aspects of their writing accuracy such as punctuation, capitalization, spelling, subject-verb agreement, tense, the use of connectors, using correct pronouns and possessives. Also the results of the paired t-test indicate that using a model text to continue increased students’ writing accuracy.

  5. Does Familiarity with Text Breed Complacency or Vigilance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, Maura; Chodorow, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Proofreading one's own writing is difficult due to the overfamiliarity of one's writing, which has been claimed to conceal errors, even extraneous errors inserted by someone else (as in collaborative writing). In the present research, we examined whether increasing one's familiarity with text can indeed have a negative influence on error…

  6. Discourses of Writing and Learning to Write

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanic, Roz

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of theory and research about writing and writing pedagogy, identifying six discourses--configurations of beliefs and practices in relation to the teaching of writing. It introduces and explains a framework for the analysis of educational data about writing pedagogy in which the connections are drawn across views…

  7. The Writing Consultation: Developing Academic Writing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rowena; Thow, Morag; Moore, Sarah; Murphy, Maura

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and analyses a specific mechanism, the writing consultation, designed to help academics to prioritise, reconceptualise and improve their writing practices. It makes the case for its potential to stimulate consideration of writing practices and motivations, a possible precondition for creating time for writing in academic…

  8. Writing Plan Quality: Relevance to Writing Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Constance

    2006-01-01

    If writing matters, how can we improve it? This study investigated the nature of writing plan quality and its relationship to the ensuing writing scores. Data were drawn from the 1998 Provincial Learning Assessment Programme (PLAP) in Writing, which was administered to pupils in Grades 4, 7, and 10 across British Columbia, Canada. Common features…

  9. The Writing Consultation: Developing Academic Writing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rowena; Thow, Morag; Moore, Sarah; Murphy, Maura

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and analyses a specific mechanism, the writing consultation, designed to help academics to prioritise, reconceptualise and improve their writing practices. It makes the case for its potential to stimulate consideration of writing practices and motivations, a possible precondition for creating time for writing in academic…

  10. English Major Students’ Perceptions of Academic Writing: A Struggle between Writing to Learn and Learning to Write

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    Hasan Sağlamel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available English Major Students’ Perceptions of Academic Writing: A Struggle between Writing to Learn and Learning to Write Abstract Even though writing as a language skill takes a back seat especially with reference to the natural order hypothesis, appreciation of writing in academic settings propel learners to challenge the validity of this order. It is not surprising therefore that writing deserves a higher priority in academic settings due much to its immediate practical application in a variety of academic tasks such as examination questions, essays, research reports, dissertation thesis and so on. In line with this constant practice with writing, English majoring students are quite usually subject to production of texts in the academic essay genre and desire to position themselves in academic discourse community through following the desired academic conventions. However, a considerable number of students fail to achieve the desired proficiency; cultural variations intrude into the language classrooms and differences in meaning learners attach to the writing activities are evident, which makes it necessary to explore students’ perceptions from academic writing courses. To this end, questionnaires on students’ writing efficacy were distributed to the freshman students enrolled in Academic Writing class, and interviews were carried out to have a broader understanding of the expectations from the course. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using the SPSS and content analysis was employed to analyze the interviews.

  11. Helping Students Write Better Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber-Jimenez, Lola; Montelongo, Jose; Hernandez, Anita C.; Herter, Roberta; Hosking, David

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the vocabulary used in language arts and social studies, knowledge of expository text (text written to inform) and the language of science are required for reading and writing in science (Carrier 2005). This vocabulary, along with expository text structures, often is not taught in middle and high school classrooms, thus hindering students,…

  12. The Effect of the Thinking Traits and the Forming Text Ability on the Writing Achievement in Middle-school Students%中学生思维能力和文本形成能力对写作成绩的预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可

    2012-01-01

    通过问卷法,以801名中学生为被试,考察写作中的思维能力和文本形成能力对写作成绩的作用。结果发现:(1)中学生的思维能力和基本文书能力对写作成绩具有显著预测作用;两种写作能力中,对写作成绩具有显著预测作用的主要因素为,思维能力中的灵活性、独创性、深刻性和批判性,以及文本形成能力中的组材能力、表达能力和选材能力。(2)思维能力对中学所有年级的写作成绩具有显著预测作用,文本形成能力对初二和高一年级的写作成绩具有显著预测作用。%In order to explore the effect of the thinking traits and the ability of forming text on writing achievement, 801 students from junior and senior school completed the tests by finishing questionnaires.The result showed: (1)The thinking traits and the ability of forming text significantly predieted students' writing achievement; flexibility, originality, profundity and criticism among the thinking traits were the main influencing factors; organizing, expressing and selecting among the ability of forming text were the main influencing factors. (2)The thinking traits significantly predicted students' writing achievement in all the 6 grades, the ability of forming text significantly predicted students' writing achievement only in grade 2 of junior middle-school and grade 1 of senior middle-school.

  13. Teaching Technical Writing - Towards Technical Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm...... that used to govern what the quality of an LSP text should be as opposed to the standpoint, which I advocate. By way of summing up, I will show how a university curriculum is designed so that - upon graduation - the technical translator could also be methodological quite well suited to take on the challenge...... of technical writing....

  14. Perceptions about civil war in Central Africa: Can war be justified or solve problems?

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    Kitambala Lumbu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Civil war and ethnic violence are major problems in Central Africa and have caused the death and displacement of millions of people over the years. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of religious leaders, lecturers and students in theology at various tertiary institutions in Central Africa with regard to civil war in the region. A structured questionnaire was used to investigate participants� perceptions about and attitudes towards civil war. The questionnaire was completed by 1 364 participants who originated or lived in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC and Rwanda. The results of the study illustrated the severe effect that civil wars had on the participants or their families and further indicated that Rwandans, Tutsis and males were more inclined toward justifying wars and seeing them as solutions for problems. The role of the Church in countering these perceptions is discussed.

  15. An Investigation into the Methods of Teaching Creative English Writing

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    Anastasiia Riabokrys

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem of teaching creative writing at the English lessons. The value of writing in the process of teaching English language is revealed. The principles and peculiarities of evaluation of creative writing are analyzed. The strategy of choosing methods in teaching creative writing is identified. The benefits of creative writing for learner and teachers are considered.

  16. CULTIVATING LEARNERS’WRITING COMPETENCE IN TEACHING READING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This essay discusses the ways of cultivating learners’writing competence in teaching reading—helpinglearners get a general idea and better understand thestructure as well as the writing techniques and at thesame time arousing their interest in writing and devel-oping their writing skills.By detailed explanationthrough analysis of the relationship between readingand writing and then taking the texts in College Eng-lish as examples,an effective learning style is vividlyintroduced to learners.

  17. TEACHING WRITING IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

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    I Made Purna Wijaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at describing about teaching writing in English as a foreign Language. The reasons for teaching writing to students of English as a Foreign language include reinforcement, language development, learning style and the most importantly, writing as skill in its own right. Like many other aspects of English language teaching, the type of writing that students should do, will depend on their age, interest and level. These include writing post cards, letters of various kinds, filling in forms such as job applications, writing narrative compositions, report, newspaper and magazine article. The result showed that the students’ success of writing such matters absolutely depend on their motivations.

  18. English Learners, Writing, and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Scarcella, Robin; Matuchniak, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Adopted by 46 states, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) present a vision of what it means to be literate in the twenty-first century and call for all students, including English learners, to develop critical reading skills necessary for a deep understanding of complex texts, and critical writing skills to write about those texts. This article…

  19. English Learners, Writing, and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Scarcella, Robin; Matuchniak, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Adopted by 46 states, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) present a vision of what it means to be literate in the twenty-first century and call for all students, including English learners, to develop critical reading skills necessary for a deep understanding of complex texts, and critical writing skills to write about those texts. This article…

  20. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...... a contribution to the discussions about the role of reflection in design work and in learning situations at large. By engaging with the dialogic reflection, which is one of the four essential types of reflection, (the three others being descriptive writing, descriptive reflection and critical reflection...

  1. "Far" Transfer of Learning Outcomes from an ESL Writing Course: Can the Gap Be Bridged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed examination of learning transfer from a university English as a second language (ESL) writing course to a writing task with characteristics very different from the kind of writing done in this ESL writing course but typical of the kind of writing required in other academic courses (i.e., involving text-responsible…

  2. TRAINING OF LEARNING STRATEGIES IN WRITING ESSAY

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    Agus Edi Winarto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Writing essay is still considered difficult for English students to master. The students are expected to be able to express their ideas correctly without making any chance of messages to be misinterpreted by the readers; therefore, they have to know and use the best or the most appropriate ways to write. The purpose of writing this article is to introduce learning strategies and the possibility of training of learning strategies in writing essay to English students. The first strategy is integration of strategy with the process of writing essay: pre-writing, writing draft, and post-writing activities. The second is training learning strategies, such as memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, affective, and social strategies to students to make writing essay easier, faster, more enjoyable, more effective, and more self-directed to achieve the desired result in their writing. To get better result of improvement, the model of training of learning strategies in writing essay should be applied and developed based on the appropriateness of teachers, learners, subjects, and situations.

  3. Improving EFL argumentative writing: A dialogic critical thinking approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Fahim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ELT has traditionally practiced the teaching of argumentative writing through conventional writing instruction and as such has disregarded critical thinking, a capability essential to argumentative writing. The present study, therefore, aimed at enhancing EFL argumentative writing through the coupling of writing instruction and dialogic critical thinking. To this aim, 48 Iranian EFL learners, selected through cluster sampling, were randomly assigned to either the experimental group―receiving writing instruction in conjunction with doing tasks involving dialogic critical thinking―or the control group, only receiving writing instruction. To compare the writing performances of the two groups, a pretest prior to the treatment and a posttest after the treatment were administered, both in the form of in-class 180-word four-paragraph argumentative essays within a time limit of 30 minutes. While both groups made statistically significant improvements in writing argumentatively, the results indicated that the coalescence of writing instruction and dialogic critical thinking led to superior performances.

  4. Meditation through Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, William

    1990-01-01

    Describes using meditation to write with greater concentration, continuity, and depth, at any level of writing skill. Describes how to consciously cultivate the ability to focus, follow, and trace ideas through writing. (SR)

  5. Source-Based Tasks in Writing Independent and Integrated Essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Gholami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated writing tasks have gained considerable attention in ESL and EFL writing assessment and are frequently needed and used in academic settings and daily life. However, they are very rarely practiced and promoted in writing classes. This paper explored the effects of source-based writing practice on EFL learners’ composing abilities and investigated the probable differences between those tasks and independent writing ones in improving Iranian EFL learners’ essay writing abilities. To this end, a quasi-experimental design was implemented to gauge EFL learners’ writing improvements using a pretest-posttest layout. Twenty female learners taking a TOEFL iBT preparation course were randomly divided into an only-writing group with just independent writing instruction and essay practice, and a hybrid-writing-approach group receiving instruction and practice on independent writing plus source-based essay writing for ten sessions. Based on the findings, the participants with hybrid writing practice outperformed their counterparts in integrated essay tests. Their superior performance was not observed in the case of traditional independent writing tasks. The present study calls for incorporating more source-based writing tasks in writing courses.

  6. Comments on Students' Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liftig, Inez Fugate

    2000-01-01

    Points out the importance of teaching writing and the teacher's responsibility. Recommends providing feedback to student writings. Provides a sample student survey and responses to the feedback. (YDS)

  7. Justifying the design and selection of literacy and thinking tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Whitehead

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Criteria for the design and selection of literacy and thinking tools that allow educators to justifywhat they do are described within a wider framework of learning theory and research into bestpractice. Based on a meta-analysis of best practice, results from a three year project designedto evaluate the effectiveness of a secondary school literacy initiative in New Zealand, togetherwith recent research from cognitive and neuro-psychologists, it is argued that the design andselection of literacy and thinking tools used in elementary schools should be consistent with (iteaching focused (ii learner focused, (iii thought linked (iv neurologically consistent, (vsubject specific, (vi text linked, (vii developmentally appropriate, and (viii assessment linkedcriteria.

  8. Linguistic aspects of writing for professional purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Përgjegji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing for Professional Purposes is considered as a means of communication between professionals who belong to two communities that have different languages, but share the same knowledge or expertise. The article gives a hint on how writing for specific purposes evolved to give rise to the creation of Writing for Professional Purposes. The social, cultural and cognitive aspects are an essential part of Writing for Professional Purposes since the physical act of writing cannot be considered only a result or product of the knowledge the individual possesses but also a social and cultural act. Therefore, the social and cultural aspects of writing explains the specificities and the intricacies of the effects these aspects have on writing for it is considered as an inseparable part of social and cultural groups. On the other hand, the cognitive aspect of writing explains and emphasizes the mental activities of the individual during the decision-making process while he/she is writing planning and editing their material having in mind the audience. On the same line of reasoning, writing for professional purposes in a second language means that the writer has to consider the audience twice; first, there is an audience who shares the same knowledge or expertise and second, the audience does not have the same language. Consequently, writing in another language that is not the first language with a specific jargon as well as a specific grammatical structure brings about a lot of difficulties. Hence, writing in professional contexts in the mother tongue implies only writing in a specialized version of a language already known to the writer, but writing in a target language means that the writer has to learn the target language and the specialized version of that language.

  9. Writing Concepts in Chinese Writing Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on how Chinese writing instruction can cause negative interference for Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language students writing in English. The study shows that in Chinese writing, the main idea can be more general, as a theme, or specific, as a thesis statement. It can also come at the beginning or end of a paper, and the writer…

  10. Best practices in writing instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner

  11. La gestió del contingut en l'escriptura de textos informatius en una aula de primer cicle d'ESO | The Management of Content in the Writing of Informational Texts in a Secondary School Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Reig Gascón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El propòsit d’aquest article és determinar la incidència de les operacions de gestió de la informació, segmentació i connexió en el procés de textualització d’una composició escrita proposada a un grup d’alumnes de 2n d’ESO en el marc d’una seqüència didàctica, amb la voluntat d’assenyalar la repercussió del coneixement gramatical en els fenòmens que basteixen la textualitat. Abstract The main purpose of the present paper is to determine the impact of the operations of information management, segmentation and connection in the process of textualization of a composition written proposal to a group of 14-year-old secondary students within the framework of a teaching sequence, in order to indicate the impact of grammatical knowledge which builds up textuality.

  12. Justified Ilegality?: Controlled clientelism by the Chilean administration

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    Marcelo Moriconi Bezerra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean civil service is considered one of the most efficient in Latin America. However, different studies describe the informal institutions that operate between the Legislative Power and the bureaucracy to fill positions in the public administration. Although some of these clientelistic practices are against the law, they have been accepted and defended in both the political and scientific spheres. Legality is not considered an important value if certain indexes have a positive development. In this context, it is important to study how corruption and clientelism have been ignored, or hidden, through political discourses and technical reports about the situation of bureaucracy. All of this allows a better understanding of why after 20 years of administrative reforms there are damaging practices which negatively affect democracy that have not been eradicated.

  13. Writing and Related Problems for EFL Students

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    Hassan Edalat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available ESL students who write in English may present written material in a rhetorical and organizational mode that reflects the pattern which is valued in their native culture and rhetoric. Considering the violation of English code of writing in the writings of Iranian students, we will notice one common characteristic: They are reluctant (or ignorant of to write a unified paragraph. Their writing consists of one whole page or two. They do not divide their writing into separate paragraphs. The knowledge of the writer on any subject begins and ends as much as the time or space for writing allows with no paragraph separation. The length of sentences is extraordinary, and the position of modifiers does not seem natural according to the code of English sentence pattern. This means that elements transferred from L1 rhetoric result in a production which does not match the English language style and rhetoric, despite the fact that some students lack grammatical competence. As a result, this type of writing is labeled unacceptable, vague or erroneous by English language standards. The focus of this study is to use English major students' writings to identify the elements which violate English language pattern of writing. The sources of errors responsible for non-English language rhetoric will be classified after a short theoretical review in the literature and finally suggestions for the elimination of errors will be presented.

  14. The Teaching of EFL Writing in Indonesia

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    Ariyanti Ariyanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Writing is one of the most important aspects in English language acquisition. Teaching writing has its own challenges since there are some steps and requirements that teachers should prepare to undertake in the classroom. This article is aimed to discuss teaching and learning writing in the classroom based on theoretical conceptualisation. In addition, curriculum of teaching writing will be another important factor to consider as well as research and practice in teaching writing. Based on comparison to many theoretical concepts from various researchers, it shows that most of Indonesian students still struggle to figure out their problems of grammatical area. The biggest challenge is derived from the difference in cultural backgrounds between the students’ mother tongue and English, so it is possible to know the production of their writing does not ‘sound’ well in appropriate culture of English. Several problems also occur when the teachers have big classes to teach and the result of teaching writing to the students may be defeated. In this case, time also being a big challenge for the teachers to have the students’ writing improve because to accomplish a good composition in English, it needs complex steps such as brainstorming, prewriting, drafting, and editing. However, new techniques in teaching writing are needed to develop the students’ writing outcomes.

  15. 文本在游客地方感建构中的作用研究——基于曲阜游记的分析%Roles of Texts in the Construction of Tourists-Sense of Place:Analysis on Qufu Travel Writings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐顺英; 周尚意

    2013-01-01

    许多研究分析了游客对旅游目的地的感知水平及影响因素,但对文本在游客地方感建构中的作用研究相对较少.成功的旅游目的地营销往往借助了文艺作品、历史文献等文本,但文本在游客旅游动机产生、旅游过程和旅游后的情感积累中如何起作用,这方面尚缺乏具体的研究.该文以44篇有关曲阜的游记作为分析对象,从中找出文本在旅游三阶段中对游客地方感建构的作用.结论如下:1)旅游之前,文本是游客建立初步地方感的基础,而且著名文本能够激发游客的旅游动机;2)在旅游过程中,文本能够对游客初步地方感进行强化与修正;3)旅游后的游记类文本,能够提升游客对旅游地的情感和认同,优秀的游记类文本又可成为他人建构地方感的基础材料.因此,旅游目的地管理者应在网站上推介旅游目的地文本、增设游客观感展示区,并要加强景区解说文本的编写.%Place is a concept with subjective and objective attribute. Tourist activities in a place are the process of interaction between subject and object. Many researches analyze sense of place of tourism destinations and influence factors, but the studies are fewer on roles of texts in the tourist s sense of place construction. Successful marketing of tourist destinations often use literary and artistic works,historical documents and other texts. However, the research is ignored on how the texts play a role in generating tourism motivation, the process of tourism, emotion accumulation after traveling. This article analyzes the role of texts in the construction of tourist sense of place taking 44 Qufu travel writings as research object. We draw three conclusions: (1) Before traveling, texts are the construction foundation of tourists initial sense of place and famous texts can stimulate tourism motivation. (2) In the process of tourism,texts can consolidate and amend tourist initial sense of place. 3

  16. Writing qualitatively, or the demands of writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Max

    2006-05-01

    Have you ever said this or heard someone say this: "I have done all of my data analysis--I just have to write it down." Or, "I just have to write it up"? I will suggest that within the context of phenomenological inquiry, it is not necessarily helpful to try to assist researchers learning "how to write down" their reflections or "how to write up" their results. What should be more helpful is learning "how to write." Qualitative writing may be seen as an active struggle for understanding and recognition of the lived meanings of the lifeworld, and this writing also possesses passive and receptive rhetoric dimensions. It requires that we be attentive to other voices, to subtle significations in the way that things and others speak to us. In part, this is achieved through contact with the words of others. These words need to touch us, guide us, stir us.

  17. Writing a Movie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Helen

    2003-01-01

    Explains a reading and writing assignment called "Writing a Movie" in which students view a short film segment and write a script in which they describe the scene. Notes that this assignment uses films to develop fluency and helps students understand the reading and writing connections. Concludes that students learn to summarize a scene from film,…

  18. Ideation in mathematical writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers idea generation during the mathematical writing process. Two contrasting explanations of the creative potential in connection to writing is presented; writing as a process of setting and obtaining rhetorical goals and writing as a process of discovery. These views are then re...

  19. Examining College Writing Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncheon, Julia C.; Tierney, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing postsecondary access depends in large part on enhancing underrepresented students' writing ability, or college writing readiness. However, what exactly constitutes college-level writing is not clear-cut, complicating efforts to improve secondary preparation. This article examines recent efforts to define postsecondary writing,…

  20. The Conundrum of Classroom Writing Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Engemann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the need for reliable, valid, and fair assessment of writing performance by classroom teachers to balance large- scale literacy assessment initiatives that have taken root in most jurisdictions across Canada. While these initiatives have established a focus on writing instruction and assessment, there is a notion that large-scale assessment may not, by itself, provide an accurate reflection of students’ writing performance. It is important, therefore, for teachers to use effective assessment instruments, such as rubrics, to reliably, validly, and fairly determine how well their students write. The grading of written compositions through the use of rubrics can be effectively implemented by teachers with sufficient training whilst providing detailed student feedback. Classroom assessment of writing must therefore be coupled with professional development and teacher collaboration, which should lead to an improvement in student writing proficiency.

  1. Common extensor origin release in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis - role justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundan Cibu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of our study was to analyse the efficacy of operative management in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis of elbow. Forty patients included in this study were referred by general practitioners with a diagnosis of tennis elbow to the orthopaedic department at a district general hospital over a five year period. All had two or more steroid injections at the tender spot, without permanent relief of pain. All subsequently underwent simple fasciotomy of the extensor origin. Of forty patients thirty five had improvement in pain and function, two had persistent symptoms and three did not perceive any improvement. Twenty five had excellent, ten had well, two had fair and three had poor outcomes (recurrent problem; pain at rest and night. Two patients underwent revision surgery. Majority of the patients had improvement in pain and function following operative treatment. In this study, an extensor fasciotomy was demonstrated to be an effective treatment for refractory chronic lateral epicondylitis; however, further studies are warranted.

  2. Contemporary Methods of Social Introduction: Is the Stigmatisation justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Steffek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, individuals in search of a romantic partner have expanded their pool of alternatives by meeting others through their personal social networks. In the last few decades, however, a growing singles population, coupled with advances in technology, has promoted the utilisation and modernization of contemporary marriage market intermediaries (MMIs, including online dating sites, social networking sites, and professional matchmaking services. Importantly, these contemporary MMIs depart from more normative methods for meeting others, making their use ripe for social stigmatization, as evidenced by myriad portrayals in the popular media. The purpose of the present research was to provide an empirical exploration of the validity of the layperson stigma towards users of contemporary MMIs by assessing the extent to which users and nonusers of these various services differ on key individual characteristics relevant to relationship initiation and progression. Specifically, we surveyed 96 individuals, all of whom were attending a singles‘ happy hour, and compared users and nonusers of contemporary MMIs on several important characteristics. Although users reported going on more dates and perceived greater attractiveness in others at the event, no differences were observed in personality (i.e., the Big 5 or adult attachment classification (i.e., secure vs. insecure. Altogether, our findings suggest that users of contemporary MMIs are not socially undesirable people (or at least any more undesirable than nonusers.

  3. Writing Life 1 in Language 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Linda

    2005-01-01

    What is second language acquisition like from the learner's perspective? I examined published autobiographies authored by those who have documented their language learning journeys. One theme that recurred across the texts was Writing; a sub-theme was Writing life 1 in language 2. Some narrativists/learners described the dissonance, while others…

  4. Connecting Reading and Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanfang

    2015-01-01

    Connecting reading and writing, proposed by many scholars, is realized in this case study. The 30 participants in this study are the English majors of the third year in one School of Foreign Languages in Beijing. They are encouraged to write journals every week, based on the source text materials in their Intensive Reading class, with the final…

  5. Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bergh, van den Huub; Couzijn, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research describes the current state of the art in research on written text production. The chapters in the first part offer contributions to the creation of new theories and models for writing processes. The second part examines specific elements of the w

  6. Grammar-Guided Writing for AAC Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina

    2007-01-01

    A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest…

  7. Emergent literacy and early writing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Giuliana; Bigozzi, Lucia; Gamannossi, Beatrice Accorti; Vezzani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors aimed to assess the short- and long-term predictive power of the various components of an emergent literacy model on early writing abilities in a language with a mainly transparent orthography (Italian). Emergent literacy skills were assessed in 72 children (M age = 5.05 years, SD = +/- .03) who were followed longitudinally from preschool to the end of the first grade of primary school. Their early writing abilities (orthographic correctness in writing individual words) and their advanced writing abilities (orthographic correctness in text writing) were tested at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Multiple stepwise and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the predictive capacities of emergent literacy abilities on early and advanced writing competences. Results show that notational competence is a strong predictor of early writing skills and that phonological competence only has an effect insofar as it is integrated with notational competence. Emergent literacy competences do not significantly predict orthographic errors in advanced text writing. This research allows for reconsideration of the importance of phonological awareness and gives a central role to notational competence in predicting early writing competence.

  8. Oxidative stress and antioxidants for idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia: Is it justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress contributes to defective spermatogenesis and the poor quality of sperm associated with idiopathic male factor infertility. The aim of this study was to review the current literature on the effects of various types of antioxidant supplements in patients to improve fertilization and pregnancy rates in subfertile males with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (iOAT. Review of recent publications through PubMed and the Cochrane database. Oxidative stress is implicated in impaired spermatogenesis leading to the poor semen parameters and increased DNA damage and apoptosis in iOAT. Strategies to modulate the level of oxidative stress within the male reproductive tract include the use of oral antioxidant compounds to reinforce the body′s defence against oxidative damage. In our evaluation, carnitines were considered the most established pharmacotherapeutic agent to treat iOAT, as evidence and data concerning carnitine supplementation have been shown to be most consistent and relevant to the population of interest. Other therapies, such as combined vitamin E and C therapy, are still considered controversial as vitamin C can act as a pro-oxidant in certain instances and the results of randomized controlled trials have failed to show significant benefit to sperm parameters and pregnancy rates. There is a need for further investigation with randomized controlled studies to confirm the efficacy and safety of antioxidant supplementation in the medical treatment of idiopathic male infertility as well as the need to determine the dosage required to improve semen parameters, fertilization rates and pregnancy outcomes in iOAT.

  9. Filling Toolboxes: Empowering Young Researchers with Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Anna H.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing awareness that reading and writing informational texts are important skills for functioning successfully in our current society. Informational texts provide purposeful and authentic reasons for reading and writing while enhancing children's vocabulary knowledge and content understanding. This article describes The Tools…

  10. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Immunization remains one of the most important public health ... In line with the aforementioned, the report of World Health Organization and the earlier ... The study subjects were not required to write but just to tick the appropriate ...

  11. Approaches to teaching writing

    OpenAIRE

    Curry, Mary Jane; Hewings, Ann

    2003-01-01

    About the book: Student academic writing is at the heart of teaching and learning in higher education. Students are assessed largely by what they write, and need to learn both general academic conventions as well as disciplinary writing requirements in order to be successful in higher education.\\ud Teaching Academic Writing is a 'toolkit' designed to help higher education lecturers and tutors teach writing to their students. Containing a range of diverse teaching strategies, the book offers b...

  12. Writing for different disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Coffin, Caroline; Hewings, Ann

    2003-01-01

    About the book: Student academic writing is at the heart of teaching and learning in higher education. Students are assessed largely by what they write, and need to learn both general academic conventions as well as disciplinary writing requirements in order to be successful in higher education.\\ud Teaching Academic Writing is a 'toolkit' designed to help higher education lecturers and tutors teach writing to their students. Containing a range of diverse teaching strategies, the book offers b...

  13. Opening Mathematics Texts: Resisting the Seduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David

    2012-01-01

    This analysis of the writing in a grade 7 mathematics textbook distinguishes between closed texts and open texts, which acknowledge multiple possibilities. I use tools that have recently been applied in mathematics contexts, focussing on grammatical features that include personal pronouns, modality, and types of imperatives, as well as on…

  14. The Patchwork Text in Teaching Greek Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the rewards and challenges of using the Patchwork Text to teach Greek Tragedy to Cambridge University English final-year students. The article uses close reading of the students' texts, analysis and reflection to discuss both the products and the process of Patchwork writing. (Author/AEF)

  15. Poetic Texts in Polish Heritage Language Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gąsienica Byrcyn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of poetic texts in heritage Polish composition classes offers a resourceful, motivating, and original way of learning the language and culture, primarily by mastering writing skills and understanding Poland’s rich and complex culture. Moreover, poetic texts give an aesthetical beauty and moral values, and the students discover universal truths during their readings and discussions. A chosen poem, such as Adam Mickiewicz’s “Lelije” (Lilies, Teofil Lenartowicz’s “Złoty kubek” (A Golden Cup, or Bolesław Leśmian’s “Urszula Kochanowska” (Ursula Kochanowska, is presented in class for listening exercises, reading, recitation, discussion, and especially creative writing. The students are introduced to the captivating genre of poetry and learn about the cultural and historical content of this work. Then, they write their poem or a composition on the introduced theme. The assessment consists of the student’s originality, the content of the paper, the organization of the paper, and the employment of correct grammatical sentence structure and vocabulary. Consequently, poetic texts immersed in Polish intertextual space are open and may be read in many ways, beyond their initial context, presenting many fascinating interpretations and offering many intellectual attractions. A poem is an excellent learning source for the creativity stage in the art of writing, transmuting elements of the past Polish culture and literature in modern language classes. Students write their own intriguing stories, focusing on their knowledge of the language, and using resourcefulness and creativity.

  16. A Proposed Arabic Handwritten Text Normalization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Abu-Ain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Text normalization is an important technique in document image analysis and recognition. It consists of many preprocessing stages, which include slope correction, text padding, skew correction, and straight the writing line. In this side, text normalization has an important role in many procedures such as text segmentation, feature extraction and characters recognition. In the present article, a new method for text baseline detection, straightening, and slant correction for Arabic handwritten texts is proposed. The method comprises a set of sequential steps: first components segmentation is done followed by components text thinning; then, the direction features of the skeletons are extracted, and the candidate baseline regions are determined. After that, selection of the correct baseline region is done, and finally, the baselines of all components are aligned with the writing line.  The experiments are conducted on IFN/ENIT benchmark Arabic dataset. The results show that the proposed method has a promising and encouraging performance.

  17. Out/Performing in the Academy: Writing "The Breast Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    This paper tells the multi-layered story of how the author came to write a theatre script about breasts as part of her research. She frames this writing as 'border-work' as she plays at the edges of academic and fictional writing. In this paper ideas from Barthes and Cixous are interleaved with extracts from the author's own texts and with her…

  18. Designing a Website to Support Students' Academic Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg, Eva Svärdemo; Ståhle, Ylva; Engdahl, Ingrid; Knutes-Nyqvist, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Academic writing skills are crucial when students, e.g., in teacher education programs, write their undergraduate theses. A multi-modal web-based and self-regulated learning resource on academic writing was developed, using texts, hypertext, moving images, podcasts and templates. A study, using surveys and a focus group, showed that students used…

  19. Which level of model complexity is justified by your data? A Bayesian answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöniger, Anneli; Illman, Walter; Wöhling, Thomas; Nowak, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    When judging the plausibility and utility of a subsurface flow or transport model, the question of justifiability arises: which level of model complexity can still be justified by the available calibration data? Although it is common sense that more data are needed to reasonably constrain the parameter space of a more complex model, there is a lack of tools that can objectively quantify model justifiability as a function of the available data. We propose an approach to determine model justifiability in the context of comparing alternative conceptual models. Our approach rests on Bayesian model averaging (BMA). BMA yields posterior model probabilities that point the modeler to an optimal trade-off between model performance in reproducing a given calibration data set and model complexity. To find out which level of complexity can be justified by the available data, we disentangle the complexity component of the trade-off from its performance counterpart. Technically, we remove the performance component from the BMA analysis by replacing the actually observed data values with potential measurement values as predicted by the models. Our proposed analysis results in a "model confusion matrix". Based on this matrix, the modeler can identify the maximum level of model complexity that could possibly be justified by the available amount and type of data. As a side product, model (dis-)similarity is revealed. We have applied the model justifiability analysis to a case of aquifer characterization via hydraulic tomography. Four models of vastly different complexity have been proposed to represent the heterogeneity in hydraulic conductivity of a sandbox aquifer, ranging from a homogeneous medium to geostatistical random fields. We have used drawdown data from two to six pumping tests to condition the models and to determine model justifiability as a function of data set size. Our test case shows that a geostatistical parameterization scheme requires a substantial amount of

  20. Is routine antenatal venereal disease research laboratory test still justified? Nigerian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwosu BO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Betrand O Nwosu,1 George U Eleje,1 Amaka L Obi-Nwosu,2 Ita F Ahiarakwem,3 Comfort N Akujobi,4 Chukwudi C Egwuatu,4 Chukwudumebi O Onyiuke5 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Family Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria; 3Department of Medical Microbiology, Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Imo State, Nigeria; 4Department of Medical Microbiology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 5Department of Medical Microbiology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, NigeriaObjective: To determine the seroreactivity of pregnant women to syphilis in order to justify the need for routine antenatal syphilis screening.Methods: A multicenter retrospective analysis of routine antenatal venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL test results between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2012 at three specialist care hospitals in south-east Nigeria was done. A reactive VDRL result is subjected for confirmation using Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay test. Analysis was by Epi Info 2008 version 3.5.1 and Stata/IC version 10.Results: Adequate records were available regarding 2,156 patients and were thus reviewed. The mean age of the women was 27.4 years (±3.34, and mean gestational age was 26.4 weeks (±6.36. Only 15 cases (0.70% were seropositive to VDRL. Confirmatory T. pallidum hemagglutination assay was positive in 4 of the 15 cases, giving an overall prevalence of 0.19% and a false-positive rate of 73.3%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of syphilis in relation to maternal age and parity (P>0.05.Conclusion: While the prevalence of syphilis is extremely low in the antenatal care population at the three specialist care hospitals in south-east Nigeria, false-positive rate is high and prevalence did not significantly vary with maternal age or

  1. Can context justify an ethical double standard for clinical research in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landes Megan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of clinical research deserves special caution so as to safeguard the rights of participating individuals. While the international community has agreed on ethical standards for the design of research, these frameworks still remain open to interpretation, revision and debate. Recently a breach in the consensus of how to apply these ethical standards to research in developing countries has occurred, notably beginning with the 1994 placebo-controlled trials to reduce maternal to child transmission of HIV-1 in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. The design of these trials sparked intense debate with the inclusion of a placebo-control group despite the existence of a 'gold standard' and trial supporters grounded their justifications of the trial design on the context of scarcity in resource-poor settings. Discussion These 'contextual' apologetics are arguably an ethical loophole inherent in current bioethical methodology. However, this convenient appropriation of 'contextual' analysis simply fails to acknowledge the underpinnings of feminist ethical analysis upon which it must stand. A more rigorous analysis of the political, social, and economic structures pertaining to the global context of developing countries reveals that the bioethical principles of beneficence and justice fail to be met in this trial design. Conclusion Within this broader, and theoretically necessary, understanding of context, it becomes impossible to justify an ethical double standard for research in developing countries.

  2. Sustaining Composition: Studying Content-Based, Ecological, and Economical Sustainability of Open-Source Textbooks through "Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Writing programs in institutions of higher education work to prepare students for real-world writing within any field of study. The composition of "Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing" offers an open-source text for students, teachers, and policy-makers at all levels. Exposure to an open space for learning encourages access to information,…

  3. Summary Report: DoD Information Technology Contracts Awarded Without Competition Were Generally Justified

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    GENERAL AUDITOR GENERAL , DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUBJECT: Summary Report : DoD Information Technology Contracts Awarded Without Competition Were...E M B E R 9 , 2 0 1 5 Summary Report : DoD Information Technology Contracts Awarded Without Competition Were Generally Justified Report No... Generally Justified ( Report No. DODIG-2015-167) We are providing the enclosed charts for your information and use. Contracting personnel at the Army, Navy

  4. What We Need to Notice While Writing English Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景然; 经昱

    2008-01-01

    @@ Introduction Many English learners often askquestions like: ' How could my essay textsucceed in conveying meaning to the rea-der?.' and ' Why my brilliant essays aredeclined by my teacher and even degradedin CET6?' The answer, in my opinion, isconcealed in the comment of the teacher:'excellent content but not well functioning'.

  5. What We Need to Notice While Writing English Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景然; 经昱

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Many English learners often askquestions like: ’ How could my essay textsucceed in conveying meaning to the rea-der?’ and ’ Why my brilliant essays aredeclined by my teacher and even degradedin CET6?’ The answer, in my opinion, isconcealed in the comment of the teacher: ’

  6. Asynchronous Group Review of EFL Writing: Interactions and Text Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Murad Abdu; Ghazali, Kamila

    2017-01-01

    The current paper reports an empirical study of asynchronous online group review of argumentative essays among nine English as foreign language (EFL) Arab university learners joining English in their first, second, and third years at the institution. In investigating online interactions, commenting patterns, and how the students facilitate text…

  7. Academic Writing, Genres and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the underlying genres of philosophy focusing especially on their pedagogical forms to emphasize the materiality and historicity of genres, texts and writing. It focuses briefly on the history of the essay and its relation to the journal within the wider history of scientific communication, and comments on the standardized forms…

  8. The dynamics of narrative writing in primary grade children: Writing process factors predict story quality

    OpenAIRE

    Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Wenche A; Helland, Turid

    2015-01-01

    In this study of third grade school children, we investigated the association between writing process measures recorded with key stroke logging and the final written product. Moreover, we examined the cognitive predictors of writing process and product measures. Analyses of key strokes showed that while most children spontaneously made local online revisions while writing, few revised previously written text. Children with good reading and spelling abilities made more online revisions than th...

  9. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  10. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  11. Interviewing and Writing: methodologies for words rooted in dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Navas Alves de Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on case studies from a consolidated work in dance research, this article presents examples, description, context, propositions and discussion on dance interviews and dance writings, suggesting methodologies for questioning artists and specific procedures for writing about dance, such as the use of master-questions or stick-questions and alternate-writings or writings in between, in order to expand the debate on contemporary performing arts and their methods, in a contribution to the specificity of this field.

  12. A Brief Study of Scoring in Chinese Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofi Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A writing test is a comprehensive test. It not only tests students' vocabulary, grammar, usage of language elements, but also tests their constructional ability, analytical ability, expressional ability, logical reasoning, on a variety of stylistic mastery. This paper tries to describe and summarize the problems on Chinese writing as second language learning with the theories of writing evaluation and the writing evaluation of research results.  

  13. Collaborative writing: Tools and tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eapen Bell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of technical writing is done by groups of experts and various web based applications have made this collaboration easy. Email exchange of word processor documents with tracked changes used to be the standard technique for collaborative writing. However web based tools like Google docs and Spreadsheets have made the process fast and efficient. Various versioning tools and synchronous editors are available for those who need additional functionality. Having a group leader who decides the scheduling, communication and conflict resolving protocols is important for successful collaboration.

  14. Humor in the teaching of writing: A microethnographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F. Hempelmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the content of a critical thinking and writing course, along with similar courses derived from it, designed around the topic of humor and culminating in a microethnographic investigation of humor in students’ lives. The aims of the paper are threefold: to offer a general rationale for using humor in the writing classroom; to illustrate different types of potentials and dangers of such an approach; and to suggest extensions of the findings to the second-language writing classroom. The paper offers texts, writing prompts, and activities for instructors teaching classes that focus on the writing process in a first or second language.

  15. Writing a clinical research paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajao Oluwole

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-known unwritten law in institutions of higher learning is that of "Publish or perish". The duties of a University teacher, in order of priority are teaching, research and service. Reasons for writing clinical research papers are to get promoted, to get research grants and to make known, one′s findings in order to improve patients′ care. Writing papers is also a means of delivering continuous education, therefore publication is essential for any one pursuing an academic career. Research papers can be in the form of case reports, retrospective studies, prospective studies and laboratory or animal research. Two popular formats of writing papers are: The Vancouver Style and the Harvard System.

  16. Journal Writing for Life Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy M. Epple

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Journal writing can be a creative adjunct to psychotherapy. This article will describe a qualitative study of the experiences of journal writers. Each participant’s narrative illustrates the integration of Winnicott’s transitional phenomena, Freeman’s four stages of epiphanies, and Kegan’s adult developmental stages through journal writing. The central findings of this research are that the experience of the participants can be identified in the following three categories: therapeutic experience,meditative experience, and a transformative experience. Journal writing can be adapted by psychotherapists, as an adjunct to therapy, to aid clients in elaborating their stories, listening within, identifying epiphanies, and moving forward in the change process.This article will present a case study of one of the narratives from this research.

  17. Yoruba Writing: Standards and Trends

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    Tèmítọ́pẹ́ Olúmúyìwá Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of Yorùbá orthography. The first effort at standardizing Yorùbá writing system came in 1875, and there has been a great deal of refinements and orthographies since. Specifically, a great rush of activity in standardizing written Yorùbá came in the years after independence when effort to introduce the teaching of Nigerian languages in schools and the application of those languages to official activities. The present standards were established in 1974, however, there remains a great deal of contention over writing conventions-spelling, grammar, the use of tone marks. The paper explores examples from journalism, religious writing, education and literature, and advertising to demonstrate ongoing deviations from the approved orthography.

  18. Does Specific Instruction during Collecting from Several Sources Affect the Quality of the Written Text Product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Annemarie; Proske, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Although academic writing is a complex interplay of comprehending and producing text the aspect of collecting information from source texts is hardly addressed in writing research. This study examined the impact of instructions supporting the collection process on writing quality, as well as the role of prior motivation and computer experience.…

  19. La guerre en Irak peut-elle être justifiée comme un cas d’intervention humanitaire?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Courtois

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Most current criticisms against the intervention in Iraq have tackled the two justifications articulated by the members of the coalition:(1 that the United States had to neutralize the threats that Iraq generated for their own security and to the political stability in the Middle Eastand (2 that the war in Iraq can be justified as a necessary stage in the war against international terrorism. The principal objection against justification (1 is that it was, and remains, unfounded. Against justification (2, many have replied that the intervention in Iraq had no connection,or at best had merely an indirect connection, with the fight against terrorism. In a recent text,Fernando Tesón claims that the American intervention in Iraq can nevertheless be morally justified as a case of humanitarian intervention. By “humanitarian intervention”, one must understand a coercive action taken by a state or a group of states inside the sphere of jurisdiction of an independent political community, without the permission of the latter, in order to preventor to end a massive violation of individual rights perpetrated against innocent persons which are not co-nationals inside this political community. I argue in this article that the American intervention in Iraq does not satisfy the conditions of a legitimate humanitarian intervention, as opposed to what Fernando Tesón claims.

  20. Improving the 5th Formers’ Continuous Writing Skills through the Creative Writing Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Ram Murugiah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a complex task. The development of students’ writing skill depends on the teacher’s teaching strategy and also the materials used in the writing lesson. In the present study, the effectiveness of a creative writing module was examined that was designed to improve the writing skill of a group of excellent students. It was added with explicit teaching strategies. The selected group of students were students who were in the excellent group but lacked creativity and vocabulary in their writing. The creative writing module was designed to help these students. Students’ improvement was observed through observation in the classrooms during the lessons and through writing task as well as interviews. Two observations were made. One was before the creative writing project was started and another after the completion of the entire task of the module. The interview was carried out to learn about the students’ perception of the module and how do they find the module has helped them.  The result of the research showed that students have shown a great level of improvement in their writing skills. The outcome of this present study could be useful to assist language instructors in helping proficient learners to undergo a more effective second language learning experience.

  1. Speech Genres in Writing Cognitive Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambaugh, R. Neal

    This paper reports on the analysis of an instructional text on the basis of M. Bakhtin's (1986) notion of speech genres, which is used to theorize the different influences on the writing of an instructional text. Speech genres are used to reveal the multiple voices inherent in any text: the writer's, the reader's, and the text's. The…

  2. La Segmentazione Grafica della Scrittura di una Storia Conosciuta. Uno Studio Descrittivo su 450 Testi di Bambini dai 6 agli 8 Anni (Graphic Segmentation of the Writing of a Familiar Story. A Descriptive Study of 450 Texts of Children from 6 to 8 Years Old).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Clotilde; Di Eduardo, Roberta

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how children in the early grades of elementary school divide words while writing. The subjects were 450 Italian children belonging either to upper-middle-class or lower-middle-class families who were asked to write the familiar story of "Little Red Riding Hood." (CFM)

  3. The Impact of Project Work and the Writing Process Method on Writing Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Díaz Ramírez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the outcomes of an investigation whose main goal was to implement the methodology of project work and a process approach in order to improve writing production in an English class of Colombian university students since their diagnostic tests showed that their written production had the lowest score. Based on data collected, four factors were developed in the process of learning to write when project work and the writing process method are implemented: accuracy, fluency, integrative language skills, and a positive perception towards writing.

  4. Problems with Peer Response of Writing-as-a-Process Approach in an EFL Writing Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Widiati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of reflection on personal experience in teaching writing using the process approach at the Department of English, State University of Malang, Indonesia. It firstly describes the current practice of teaching writing courses at the Department. Following this, ESL writing literature is explored to show how process approaches have been accepted in ESL composition. Then, the paper discusses some problems in teaching writing at the Department using the approach, referring more specifically to peer response activities. Finally, it offers a pedagogic proposal in the form of training strategies for peer response through classroom action research.

  5. Cognitive Processes in Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2009-01-01

    Writing has become one of important topic to discuss in the new age.Its theories could be generally learnt,but its nature needs to handle in specific contents.In another words,every one who can write must generate his/her thinking or cognitive processes.Because writing thinking is to do meaningful activities,how to solove writing problems could be managed through cognitive process.

  6. Writing A Research Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Cennetkusu, Nazmiye Gürel

    2012-01-01

    Writing a research paper in English as a foreign language for the first time is a challenging task for many international doctoral students. This study explores the challenges experienced and strategies utilized during the academic socialization process through research paper writing and within the framework of sociocultural theory. The results indicate that limited experience in research paper writing and personal writing style with cultural influence are the most challenging aspects. The ut...

  7. The Effect of Creative Writing Activities on the Story Writing Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temizkan, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of creative writing activities on the skill of university students in writing story genre text. Unequaled control group model which is half experimental is used in this research. 1/A section (experimental group) of standard class and 1/B section (control group) of evening class from Turkish…

  8. The Effect of Process Writing Activities on the Writing Skills of Prospective Turkish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilidüzgün, Sükran

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Writing an essay is a most difficult creative work and consequently requires detailed instruction. There are in fact two types of instruction that contribute to the development of writing skills: Reading activities analysing texts in content and schematic structure to find out how they are composed and process writing…

  9. Articulating Breath: Writing Charcot's Hysteric with "Performance Writing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The overlap between the visual and textual in practice research provides an opportunity to explore ways of presenting knowledge through "performance writin". The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a performance writing practice can be incorporated into and shape research writing. This text uses descriptions of Jean-Martin…

  10. Knowledge, Writing, and Language Outcomes for a Reading Comprehension and Writing Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Linda H.; Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miller, Carol A.; Glutting, J. James

    2013-01-01

    Many students struggle with gaining knowledge and writing about content text material and therefore require effective intervention. In a randomized controlled trial study, 77 low-achieving fourth-grade students received reading comprehension instruction or reading comprehension plus writing instruction or were assigned to a no-treatment control.…

  11. Democratizing Academic Writing: A Revision of an Experience of Writing an Autoethnographic Dissertation in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I revise my experience of writing an autoethnographic (Ellis, 2004) dissertation in the field of family therapy as a Colombian mestiza. I discuss how I grappled with my writing, and, in the process, stumbled into matters of democratizing texts. I problematize male-dominant academic standards, telling of the tensions when maneuvering…

  12. Physicians and strikes: can a walkout over the malpractice crisis be ethically justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2004-01-01

    Malpractice insurance rates have created a crisis in American medicine. Rates are rising and reimbursements are not keeping pace. In response, physicians in the states hardest hit by this crisis are feeling compelled to take political action, and the current action of choice seems to be physician strikes. While the malpractice insurance crisis is acknowledged to be severe, does it justify the extreme action of a physician walkout? Should physicians engage in this type of collective action, and what are the costs to patients and the profession when such action is taken? I will offer three related arguments against physician strikes that constitute a prima facie prohibition against such action: first, strikes are intended to cause harm to patients; second, strikes are an affront to the physician-patient relationship; and, third, strikes risk decreasing the public's respect for the medical profession. As with any prima facie obligation, there are justifying conditions that may override the moral prohibition, but I will argue that the current malpractice crisis does not rise to the level of such a justifying condition. While the malpractice crisis demands and justifies a political response on the part of the nation's physicians, strikes and slow-downs are not an ethically justified means to the legitimate end of controlling insurance costs.

  13. Assess Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Terri; Konrad, Moira; Alber-Morgan, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    Determining what constitutes good writing is difficult, though many say they know it when they see it. Although this approach may have support in the literature, there are other efficient and valid ways to assess students' writing. To obtain a complete picture of a student's writing skills, it is important that teachers take a balanced approach to…

  14. Writing as Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagelski, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the National Commission on Writing released "The Neglected "R,"" its report on the state of writing instruction in the nation's schools. The report identified an apparent paradox: writing, which the Commission defines as an essential skill for the many that has helped transform the world, is nevertheless increasingly…

  15. Reading/Writing Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melanie

    In the past, students and teachers alike viewed reading and writing instruction as two separate entities. Reading and writing instruction was often characterized by linear and behaviorist theories and methods, with students rarely coming away from their schooling experience with confidence in and respect for their own writing. To both read and…

  16. On Writing and Handwriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Writing is often considered secondary to the spoken language, as it is only coded sound-by-sound. But other scholars have demonstrated that writing is similar to "arithmetic": a cognitive structuring, a shift to the meta-level ("for the eye"). "Handwriting" (referred to here as the cursive writing in the sense of…

  17. Writing, Technology and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Amanda; Arafeh, Sousan; Smith, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Teenagers' lives are filled with writing. All teens write for school, and 93% of teens say they write for their own pleasure. Most notably, the vast majority of teens have eagerly embraced written communication with their peers as they share messages on their social network pages, in emails and instant messages online, and through fast-paced thumb…

  18. Process Writing Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Christopher J.

    This checklist is designed to help develop writing strategies for English language learners (ELLs), focusing on a variety of linguistic strategies inherent in the writing process. It provides them with a graphical representation of the cognitive process involved in complex writing, promoting self-assessment strategies and integrating oral…

  19. Writing and Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Magasic, Coleen

    2012-01-01

    Writing activities are a sure way to assess and enhance students' science literacy. Sometimes the author's students use technical writing to communicate their lab experiences, just as practicing scientists do. Other times, they use creative writing to make connections to the topics they're learning. This article describes both types of writing…

  20. The Writing Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Kelly Gallagher writes that "wide swaths of students are not developing their writing skills--skills we know to be foundational to their literate lives." In this article, he explains how school districts can go about developing students' writing skills in all content-area classrooms. He highlights five reasons why students should write…

  1. ENHANCING WRITING ABILITY THROUGH IDEA LISTING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zaini Miftah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at developing the Idea Listing Technique (ILT to enhance the students‟ writing ability. The Classroom Action Research was applied in this study. The subjects of the study were 31 students, the students taking the course of Writing II, of the third semester of English Department of one State Islamic College at Palangka Raya, Indonesia, in the 2012/2013 academic year. The findings show that the implementation of ILT can enhance the students‟ ability in writing expository paragraph. It is indicated by the enhancements of the percentage of the students achieving the score greater than or equal to C (60-69, and of the percentage of their involvement in the writing activities during the implementation of ILT in Cycle I and II. Thus, the enhancement of the students‟ ability in writing expository paragraph can be reached but it should follow the appropriate procedures of the implementation of ILT having been developed.

  2. Materials for Assessing the Writing Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nimehchisalem

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the issues of concern in writing scale development in English as Second Language (ESL settings with an intention to provide a useful guide for researchers or writing teachers who wish to develop or adapt valid, reliable and efficient writing scales considering their present assessment situations. With a brief discussion on the rationale behind writing scales, the author considers the process of scale development by breaking it into three phases of design, operationalization and administration. The issues discussed in the first phase include analyzing the samples, deciding on the type of scale and ensuring the validity of its design. Phase two encompasses setting the scale criteria, operationalization of definitions, setting a numerical value, assigning an appropriate weight for each trait, accounting for validity and reliability. The final phase comprises recommendations on how a writing scale should be used.

  3. A Survey of Writing Instruction in Adult ESL Programs: Are Teaching Practices Meeting Adult Learner Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rebeca; Peyton, Joy Kreeft; Schaetzel, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Recent legislation and education standards focus on the importance of developing students' academic and professional writing skills. Research on the teaching of writing has articulated the types of texts and features of writing that students need to produce to succeed. At the same time, studies of writing in adult education have found that limited…

  4. Modeling the Process of Summary Writing of Chinese Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiuliang

    2016-01-01

    In language learning contexts, writing tasks that involve reading of source texts are often used to elicit more authentic integrative language use. Thus, interests in researching these read-to-write tasks in general and as assessment tasks keep growing. This study examined and modeled the process of summary writing as a read-to-write integrated…

  5. What Do We Mean by Writing Fluency and How Can It Be Validly Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Fluency is an essential component in writing ability and development. Writing fluency research is important to researchers and teachers interested in facilitating students' written text production and in assessing writing. This calls for reaching a better understanding of writing fluency and how it should be measured. Although fluency is the…

  6. The Interactional Approach to The Teaching Of Writing and Its Implications for Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Amin Lestari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a language skill which is relatively difficult to acquire. A number of efforts have been made to develop the students’ writing skill, among others is by applying different approaches to the teaching of writing. This article discusses the interactional approach to the teaching of writing and its implications for second language acquisition.

  7. The Interactional Approach to the Teaching of Writing and Its Implications for Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Amin Lestari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a language skill which is relatively difficult to acquire. A number of efforts have been made to develop the students' writing skill, among others is by applying different approaches to the teaching of writing. This article discusses the interactional approach to the teaching of writing and its implications for second language acquisition.  

  8. Crafting Creative Nonfiction: From Close Reading to Close Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollins, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    A process writing project in a third-grade classroom explored the idea of using nonfiction mentor texts to assist students in writing their own creative informational texts about animals. By looking at author craft and structure during close reading activities with nonfiction Twin Texts, students were taught how to emulate these techniques in…

  9. Using Turnitin to Provide Feedback on L2 Writers' Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Ilka; Maliborska, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Second language (L2) writing instructors have varying tools at their disposal for providing feedback on students' writing, including ones that enable them to provide written and audio feedback in electronic form. One tool that has been underexplored is Turnitin, a widely used software program that matches electronic text to a wide range of…

  10. Intellectual Property Rights and Responsibilities: The State and the Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinsky, John

    1990-01-01

    Draws from literary and theoretical works to discuss the idea of written text as intellectual property. Examines the legal, economic, and moral issues surrounding books and writing. Reviews concepts of liability, imitation, plagiarism, property rights, and, in particular, the historical and contemporary responsibilities incurred in writing. (DMM)

  11. A Customizable Text Classifier for Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-liang Zhang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Text mining deals with complex and unstructured texts. Usually a particular collection of texts that is specified to one or more domains is necessary. We have developed a customizable text classifier for users to mine the collection automatically. It derives from the sentence category of the HNC theory and corresponding techniques. It can start with a few texts, and it can adjust automatically or be adjusted by user. The user can also control the number of domains chosen and decide the standard with which to choose the texts based on demand and abundance of materials. The performance of the classifier varies with the user's choice.

  12. Using tracking software for writing instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sane M. Yagi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a complex skill that is hard to teach. Although the written product is what is often evaluated in the context of language teaching, the process of giving thought to linguistic form is fascinating. For almost forty years, language teachers have found it more effective to help learners in the writing process than in the written product; it is there that they could find sources of writing problems. Despite all controversy evoked by post-process approaches with respect to process writing, information technology has lately offered tools that can shed new light on how writing takes place. Software that can record keyboard, mouse, and screen activities is capable of unraveling mysteries of the writing process. Technology has given teachers and learners the option of examining the writing process as it unfolds, enabling them to diagnose strategy as well as wording problems, thus empowering teachers to guide learners individually in how to think about each of their trouble spots in the context of a specific product of writing. With these advances in information technology, metacognitive awareness and strategy training begin to acquire new dimensions of meaning. Technology lays open aspects of the writing process, offering unprecedented insight into creative text production as well. This paper attempts to explain how tracking software can influence writing instruction. It briefly examines the process and post-process approaches to assess their viability, explains the concept of tracking software, proposes methodology needed for the adoption of this technology, and then discusses the pedagogical implications of these issues.

  13. Is routine thromboprophylaxis justified among Indian patients sustaining major orthopedic trauma? A systematic review

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    Ramesh K Sen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is one of the most common preventable cause of morbidity and mortality after trauma. Though most of the western countries have their guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in these patients, India still does not have these. The increasing detection of VTE among Indian population, lack of awareness, underestimation of the risk, and fear of bleeding complications after chemical prophylaxis have made deep vein thrombosis (DVT a serious problem, hence a standard guideline for thromboprophylaxis after trauma is essential. The present review article discusses the incidence of DVT and role of thromboprophylaxis in Indian patients who have sustained major orthopedic trauma. A thorough search of ′PubMed′ and ′Google Scholar′ revealed 10 studies regarding venous thromboembolism in Indian patients after major orthopedic trauma surgery (hip or proximal femur fracture and spine injury. Most of these studies have evaluated venous thromboembolism in patients of arthroplasty and trauma. The incidence, risk factors, diagnosis and management of VTE in the subgroup of trauma patients (1049 patients were separately evaluated after segregating them from the arthroplasty patients. Except two studies, which were based on spinal injury, all other studies recommended screening/ thromboprophylaxis in posttraumatic conditions in the Indian population. Color Doppler was used as common diagnostic or screening tool in most of the studies (eight studies, 722 patients. The incidence of VTE among thromboprophylaxis-receiving group was found to be 8% (10/125, whereas it was much higher (14.49%, 40/276 in patients not receiving any form of prophylaxis. Indian patients have definite risk of venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic trauma (except spinal injury, and thromboprophylaxis either by chemical or mechanical methods seems to be justified in them.

  14. Are sample sizes clear and justified in RCTs published in dental journals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Koletsi

    Full Text Available Sample size calculations are advocated by the CONSORT group to justify sample sizes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs. The aim of this study was primarily to evaluate the reporting of sample size calculations, to establish the accuracy of these calculations in dental RCTs and to explore potential predictors associated with adequate reporting. Electronic searching was undertaken in eight leading specific and general dental journals. Replication of sample size calculations was undertaken where possible. Assumed variances or odds for control and intervention groups were also compared against those observed. The relationship between parameters including journal type, number of authors, trial design, involvement of methodologist, single-/multi-center study and region and year of publication, and the accuracy of sample size reporting was assessed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Of 413 RCTs identified, sufficient information to allow replication of sample size calculations was provided in only 121 studies (29.3%. Recalculations demonstrated an overall median overestimation of sample size of 15.2% after provisions for losses to follow-up. There was evidence that journal, methodologist involvement (OR = 1.97, CI: 1.10, 3.53, multi-center settings (OR = 1.86, CI: 1.01, 3.43 and time since publication (OR = 1.24, CI: 1.12, 1.38 were significant predictors of adequate description of sample size assumptions. Among journals JCP had the highest odds of adequately reporting sufficient data to permit sample size recalculation, followed by AJODO and JDR, with 61% (OR = 0.39, CI: 0.19, 0.80 and 66% (OR = 0.34, CI: 0.15, 0.75 lower odds, respectively. Both assumed variances and odds were found to underestimate the observed values. Presentation of sample size calculations in the dental literature is suboptimal; incorrect assumptions may have a bearing on the power of RCTs.

  15. Evaluating Text-to-Speech Synthesizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Walcir; Smith, George; Fuentes, Cesar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Text-To-Speech (TTS) synthesizers have piqued the interest of researchers for their potential to enhance the L2 acquisition of writing (Kirstein, 2006), vocabulary and reading (Proctor, Dalton, & Grisham, 2007) and pronunciation (Cardoso, Collins, & White, 2012; Soler-Urzua, 2011). Despite their proven effectiveness, there is a need for…

  16. Assessing Assessment Texts: Where Is Planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fives, Helenrose; Barnes, Nicole; Dacey, Charity; Gillis, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a content analysis of 27 assessment textbooks to determine how assessment planning was framed in texts for preservice teachers. We identified eight assessment planning themes: alignment, assessment purpose and types, reliability and validity, writing goals and objectives, planning specific assessments, unpacking, overall assessment…

  17. What can measures of text comprehension tell us about creative text production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Lisanne T.; de Koning, Bjorn; van Wesel, F.; Boonstra, Marije; van der Schoot, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the level of text comprehension is dependent on the situatedness and sensory richness of a child's mental representation formed during reading. This study investigated whether these factors involved in text comprehension also serve a functional role in writing a narrati

  18. Applying self-regulated strategy development model of instruction to teach writing skill: Effects on writing performance and writing motivation of EFL learners

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    Mansoor Fahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effect of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD, an instructional model to teach writing, on writing performance and writing motivation of EFL learners. To this end, 30 pre-intermediate EFL writers received a ten-session self-regulatory strategy development instruction on persuasive writing with specific focus on planning, goal-setting, monitoring, and evaluating. Several instruments including persuasive probes together with a validated Writing Motivation Questionnaire were utilized to collect data. The comparison of pretest and posttest scores on different measures revealed that SRSD instructional model resulted in improved writing performance of EFL learners. Moreover, the results of data analysis indicated an increase in the motivation of participants as regards foreign language writing.

  19. Beyond Conflict and Spoilt Identities: How Rwandan Leaders Justify a Single Recategorization Model for Post-Conflict Reconciliation

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    Sigrun Marie Moss

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1994, the Rwandan government has attempted to remove the division of the population into the ‘ethnic’ identities Hutu, Tutsi and Twa and instead make the shared Rwandan identity salient. This paper explores how leaders justify the single recategorization model, based on nine in-depth semi-structured interviews with Rwandan national leaders (politicians and bureaucrats tasked with leading unity implementation conducted in Rwanda over three months in 2011/2012. Thematic analysis revealed this was done through a meta-narrative focusing on the shared Rwandan identity. Three frames were found in use to “sell” this narrative where ethnic identities are presented as a an alien construction; b which was used to the disadvantage of the people; and c non-essential social constructs. The material demonstrates the identity entrepreneurship behind the single recategorization approach: the definition of the category boundaries, the category content, and the strategies for controlling and overcoming alternative narratives. Rwandan identity is presented as essential and legitimate, and as offering a potential way for people to escape spoilt subordinate identities. The interviewed leaders insist Rwandans are all one, and that the single recategorization is the right path for Rwanda, but this approach has been criticised for increasing rather than decreasing intergroup conflict due to social identity threat. The Rwandan case offers a rare opportunity to explore leaders’ own narratives and framing of these ‘ethnic’ identities to justify the single recategorization approach.

  20. A Counter-Proposal for Process: Toward the Development of Online Writing Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation advances an alternate vision for research and teaching in rhetoric and composition studies that centers on the development of online writing archives. To justify the need for this alternate vision, it assesses the limitations of the field's predominant research and teaching program: process theory. More specifically, it examines…

  1. Data on NAEP 2011 writing assessment prior computer use

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    Tamara P. Tate

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains information based on the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress in Writing Restricted-Use Data, available from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES Pub. No. 2014476. https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/researchcenter/datatools.aspx. The data include the statistical relationships between survey reports of teachers and students regarding prior use of computers and other technology and writing achievement levels on the 2011 computer-based NAEP writing assessment. This data article accompanies “The Effects of Prior Computer Use on Computer-Based Writing: The 2011 NAEP Writing Assessment” [1].

  2. Composing and Compositing: Integrated Digital Writing and Academic Pedagogy

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    Jamie ‘Skye’ Bianco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Offering theoretical and practical criticism of the conventions of first-year university writing instruction in the United States, Bianco suggests that writing pedagogy incorporate various digital and new media modes of writing into the teaching of composition. The essay asserts that compositional digital platforms are already used prolifically and socially by young writers and that the affective charge of integrated digital writing, or multi-and hyper-media compositing, might be productively crossed with academic knowledge production. Illustrations of three classroom examples draw out the critique and proposed digital revision of university writing pedagogies.

  3. Monsivais Writes the (Bicentennial

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    Amber Workman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite his participation in many of the festivities and events related to the (Bicentennial, CarlosMonsiváis was one of the most direct critics of the commemorations of the initiation of MexicanIndependence and the Mexican Revolution. However, in his literary chronicles to date, many ofthe author’s disagreements do not appear; instead, these writings show two general tendencies:1 the tendency to postpone the (Bicentennial to another year or transform the festivities intocelebrations of something else; and 2 the tendency to mask the author’s own preferences, thatis, to not take sides in his chronicles on the commemorations. The article inserts Monsiváis’schronicles into a “tradition” of “commemoratory chronicling” and suggests some possible reasonsfor their somewhat unusual treatment of Mexico’s (bicentennial celebrations.

  4. Writing Through: Practising Translation

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    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  5. The Effectiveness of Collaborative Writing Strategy (CWS in Writing Lesson Regarded to The Students’ Creativity

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    Kiky Soraya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out what appropriate methods to be usedin writing lesson seen from the students’ creativity especially for studentswho have high creativityand low creativity. This study used quasi experimental research. The population of the research was the eighth grade of a Junior High School in Wonosari in the academic year of 2013/2014. The sampling technique used was cluster random sampling. The sample in this study was 64 students covering 32 students of E as experimental class and 32 students of C as control class. The data or the students’ writing scores were analyzed in terms of their frequency distribution, normality, homogeneity, then ANOVA and Tuckey tests to test the research hypotheses. Based on the result, the research findings are: CWS is more effective than MWS in writing lesson; the high creativity students produced better writing rather than the low creativity student; and the interaction of teaching methods and the students’ creativity is existing in this writing lesson. In short, Collaborative Writing Strategy (CWS is effective to teach writing for the eighth grade of a Junior High School in Wonosari, Gunungkidul. Then, the research result implies that it is better for the teachers to apply CWS in teaching and learning process of writing, to improve the students’ writing achievement, CWS needs to be used in the classroom activities, then future research can conduct the similar research with different sample and different students’ condition.

  6. Writing Competitions as a New Research Method

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    Raija Warkentin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to introduce the international audience to writing competitions as a data collection method. Although commonly used in Finland this method is less known elsewhere. The article will use a Canada-wide writing competition on the Finnish-Canadian sauna as an example of this method. It compares and contrasts the method to two other more commonly used methods, interviewing and auto-ethnography. The advantages, disadvantages and challenges of this method are described and discussed. According to the author, a writing competition is a fast way of gathering a large amount of data from a wide geographical area.

  7. The Value of Understanding Students’ Prior Writing Experience in Teaching Undergraduate Science Writing

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    Jumani Clarke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available How should undergraduate science students’ writing be understood when it does not meet the conventions of scientific writing? Studies have shown that the writing that students produce in their course work on tasks that imitate authentic scientific writing practices often do not match the tone, vocabulary and grammatical choices made by professional scientists. However, from the perspective of looking at the students’ word and grammar choices alone, it is not easy to understand why students make their particular and varied word and grammar choices and how those choices can be related to their understanding of the goals and discourses that are typical of science practices. Studying the writing of four first year earth and geographical sciences students on a science faculty’s alternative access program, from an assignment in a course that introduced them to the research article, it seems that the students persist with the social purposes of their various school writing practices in attempting their new university writing tasks. It is this variety in the social purposes of the writing that the students continue to draw on in university that can explain some of the ways in which student writing does not meet even the broadest writing conventions of the discourses of science. Yet it seems that some of the social purposes and the related writing practices of some students can help them transition their writing more easily into a form that has the usual characteristics of a typical science genre. Therefore, understanding the social purposes that students bring with them can be crucial to successfully introducing them to the discourses of science and showing them how the social purposes of scientific practice can be served in a genre such as the research article. 

  8. Mirror man: a case of skilled deliberate mirror writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Robert D; De Lucia, Natascia; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Mirror writing is a striking behaviour that is common in children and can reemerge in adults following brain damage. Skilled deliberate mirror writing has also been reported, but only anecdotally. We provide the first quantitative study of skilled deliberate mirror writing. K.B. can write forward or backward, vertically upright or inverted, with the hands acting alone or simultaneously. K.B. is predominantly left handed, but writes habitually with his right hand. Of his writing formats, his left hand mirror writing is by far the most similar in style to his normal handwriting. When writing bimanually, he performs better when his two hands make mirror-symmetrical movements to write opposite scripts than if they move in the same direction to write similar scripts. He has no special facility for reading mirrored text. These features are consistent with prior anecdotal cases and support a motor basis for K.B.'s ability, according to which his skilled mirror writing results from the left hand execution of a low-level motor program for a right hand abductive writing action. Our methods offer a novel framework for investigating the sharing of motor representations across effectors.

  9. Product Writing: In or Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智慧

    2007-01-01

    Product writing, as a major writing instruction approach, has fallen from favour with Chinese English teachers in college since the "trend" of process writing. Through an overview of the succession of process writing to product writing, the paper examined several problems of process approach found both abroad and at home, and pointed out the essential value of the seemingly out-of-date approach, product writing, which will not be achieved by process writing in some specific contexts.

  10. Justifying Blame: why free will matters and why it does not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.S.K. Sie (Maureen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis book shows why we can justify blaming people for their wrong actions even if free will turns out not to exist. Contrary to most contemporary philosophizing about this issue, we do this not by denying that free will is relevant to considerations about personal desert. Instead we reco

  11. Influenza Vaccination in dutch Nursing Homes: is tacit consent morally justified?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.; Hoven, M.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Efficient procedures for obtaining informed (proxy) consent may contribute to high influenza vaccination rates in nursing homes. Yet are such procedures justified? This study’s objective was to gain insight in informed consent policies in Dutch nursing homes; to assess how these may affe

  12. Intervention in Countries with Unsustainable Energy Policies: Is it Ever Justifiable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    This paper explores whether it is ever justifiable for the international community to forcibly intervene in countries that have unsustainable energy policies. The literature on obligations to future generations suggests, philosophically, that intervention might be justified under certain circumstances. Additionally, the world community has intervened in the affairs of other countries for humanitarian reasons, such as in Kosovo, Somalia, and Haiti. However, intervention to deal with serious energy problems is a qualitatively different and more difficult problem. A simple risk analysis framework is used to organize the discussion about possible conditions for justifiable intervention. If the probability of deaths resulting from unsustainable energy policies is very large, if the energy problem can be attributed to a relatively small number of countries, and if the risk of intervention is acceptable (i.e., the number of deaths due to intervention is relatively small), then intervention may be justifiable. Without further analysis and successful solution of several vexing theoretical questions, it cannot be stated whether unsustainable energy policies being pursued by countries at the beginning of the 21st century meet the criteria for forcible intervention by the international community.

  13. "Teach Your Children Well": Arguing in Favor of Pedagogically Justifiable Hospitality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Ferdinand J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a sequel to the paper which I delivered at last year's BCES conference in Sofia. Making use of hermeneutic phenomenology and constructive interpretivism as methodological apparatus, I challenge the pedagogic justifiability of the fashionable notion of religious tolerance. I suggest that we need, instead, to reflect "de…

  14. The Luckless and the Doomed: Contractualism on Justified Risk-Imposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sune Hannibal

    2017-01-01

    Several authors have argued that contractualism faces a dilemma when it comes to justifying risks generated by socially valuable activities. At the heart of the matter is the question of whether contractualists should adopt an ex post or an ex ante perspective when assessing whether an action...

  15. Context Based Inferences in Research Methodology: The Role of Culture in Justifying Knowledge Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Colin W.; Mason, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on work in epistemology and the philosophy of science, this paper seeks to provide very general reasons for why a comparative perspective needs to be applied to the inferential procedures of research methodologies where these concern the issue of justifying knowledge claims. In particular, the paper explores the role of culture on a number…

  16. Are Score Comparisons across Language Proficiency Test Batteries Justified?: An IELTS-TOEFL Comparability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geranpayeh, Ardeshir

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted to determine if comparisons between scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing Service (IELTS) are justifiable. The test scores of 216 Iranian graduate students who took the TOEFL and IELTS, as well as the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Higher…

  17. Writing: Grammatical Adequacy and Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Mann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper discusses through a quantitative approach different text genres and through a qualitative approach, opinion essays written by students from the Portuguese Language Tutoring Project, with the purpose of engaging the learner so that he can enjoy the production process becoming the agent of his own learning. Given the performance of students, identified through corpus analysis, we found that the writings enabled the tutors to employ new methodological actions for teaching several genres, vocabulary and grammar skills. The analysis resulted in the finding of a greater involvement of the students in the proposed activities and a better linguistic performance at the end of this data collection.Keywords: Portuguese Language Tutoring, Writing, Speech Genre.

  18. GUIDED USE OF WRITING PROMPTS TO IMPROVE ACADEMIC WRITING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marcela Trigos Carrillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical data supporting the hypothesis that the systematic and guided use of academic writing prompts is a successful instructional strategy to improve the academic writing in Spanish of college students, mainly during their first semesters. A combined methodology, with pre- and post-tests, was used in this research project conducted from July 2009 to June 2010. The participants were freshmen students of different disciplines of the Human Sciences in a private university in Bogota, Colombia. The aim of this research project was twofold. First, it sought to identify the difficulties students faced in the writing process of academic texts when they are related to real communicative contexts. Second, it involved the design and application of the guided and systematic use of writing prompts for academic writing in a sequence called "The Cognitive Pedagogical Model of Writing for Higher Education". The results show empirical evidence supporting the use of writing prompts designed with specific academic purposes to improve the academic writing level of college students in their first stages of study. However, further research is needed to consolidate the results presented here.

  19. Academic Writing Retreat: A Time for Rejuvenated and Focused Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggerty, Elizabeth A.; Atkinson, Terry S.; Faulconer, Johna L.; Griffith, Robin R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of a three-day academic writing retreat on the writing lives of four female university faculty members. Goals of the retreat included rejuvenating their writing lives, focusing their research agendas, improving their writing, and engaging in concentrated blocks of writing and collaborative…

  20. Academic Writing Retreat: A Time for Rejuvenated and Focused Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggerty, Elizabeth A.; Atkinson, Terry S.; Faulconer, Johna L.; Griffith, Robin R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of a three-day academic writing retreat on the writing lives of four female university faculty members. Goals of the retreat included rejuvenating their writing lives, focusing their research agendas, improving their writing, and engaging in concentrated blocks of writing and collaborative…

  1. Writing 3D patterns of microvessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juodkazis S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Saulius JuodkazisCentre for Micro-Photonics, Swinburne University of Technology and Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: The laser polymerization capabilities of biocompatible and cross-linkable materials using direct laser writing are discussed.Purpose: Cross-disciplinary highlight of synergy between medical applications and laser microfabrication.Keywords: laser microstructuring of materials, femtosecond laser fabrication, direct write, scaffolds, tissue engineeringView original paper by Wang and colleagues.

  2. Does Good Writing Mean Good Reading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    in writing guides. This suggests that, in themselves, the supposed problem constructions are not inherently problematic to understand. Therefore, factors previously put forward as important, such as the information structure of texts and the image the sender wishes to project, should be what influences...... the choice of constructions rather than simplified rules such as “Avoid passives!”. The implications of this finding for writing guides and for company and institutional language policies are discussed....

  3. a discussion on the balance between composing and communicating in l2writing teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王原森

    2011-01-01

    writing is a complicate process,especially for l2 learners.this paper mainly refers to two essential features in students' written texts:composing and communicating.the discussion will be done along with three main stages of writing:prewriting,while-writing and post-writing on how second language teachers could balance the two factors and finally improve students'writing.

  4. Writing, subject and knowing: the case of university teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Blezio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing, as an intimate and singular gesture, evidences a peculiar relationship between subject and knowing. In the teaching situations, it works as the remains of the unrepeatable event. In the dynamics of knowing-knowledge, what is wrote is situated on the side of re-signification, which is always provisional, and writing would be in the path from de-signification towards re-signification. In this movement, the function of writing is unique: there is something that can only be learnt by writing and not reading. At university, through the academic texts, it is built – or, better said, acquired – the position of the researcher, though the academic text drives to the functioning of science. Writing convokes certain knowing and leaves a testimony of that knowing; but knowing is always unknown, or lack of knowledge.Writing is an act of implication that always confronts with castration.

  5. Write Like This: Teaching Real-World Writing through Modeling & Mentor Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    If you want to learn how to shoot a basketball, you begin by carefully observing someone who knows how to shoot a basketball. If you want to be a writer, you begin by carefully observing the work of accomplished writers. Recognizing the importance that modeling plays in the learning process, high school English teacher Kelly Gallagher shares how…

  6. Reappraisal writing relieves social anxiety and may be accompanied by changes in frontal alpha asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely reported that expressive writing can improve mental and physical health. However, to date, the neural correlates of expressive writing have not been reported. The current study examined the neural electrical correlates of expressive writing in a reappraisal approach. Three groups of participants were required to give a public speech. Before speaking, the reappraisal writing group was asked to write about the current stressful task in a reappraisal manner. The irrelevant writing group was asked to write about their weekly plan, and the non-writing group did not write anything. It was found that following the experimental writing manipulation, both reappraisal and irrelevant writing conditions decreased self-reported anxiety levels. But when re-exposed to the stressful situation, participants in the irrelevant writing group showed increased anxiety levels, while anxiety levels remained lower in the reappraisal group. During the experimental writing manipulation period, participants in the reappraisal group had lower frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. However, following re-exposure to stress, participants in the reappraisal group showed higher frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. Self-reported anxiety and frontal alpha asymmetry of the non-writing condition did not change significantly across these different stages. It is noteworthy that expressive writing in a reappraisal style seems not to be a fast-acting treatment but may instead take effect in the long run.

  7. Text Maps: Helping Students Navigate Informational Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that a text map is an instructional approach designed to help students gain fluency in reading content area materials. Discusses how the goal is to teach students about the important features of the material and how the maps can be used to build new understandings. Presents the procedures for preparing and using a text map. (SG)

  8. A produção de contra-argumentos na escrita infantil Counterargument in children’s writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Leitão

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sobre a produção de textos argumentativos mostram que antecipar contra-argumentos e reagir a estes é uma das principais dificuldades na escrita deste tipo de texto. Este estudo investigou a habilidade de 157 crianças (segunda, quarta e sétima séries gerarem contra-argumentos nos textos que produziam. Observou-se que, embora contra-argumentos apareçam ocasionalmente nos escritos da segunda série, só a partir da quarta essa presença se torna sistemática. Progressos relacionados à idade e escolaridade foram também registrados quanto ao número de contra-argumentos examinados num mesmo texto. A estrutura global dos textos produzidos (narrativo vs. opinativo e o tema discutido não parecem ter afetado a produção de contra-argumentos pelas crianças, embora efeitos destes fatores tenham sido notados sobre o número de idéias usadas pelas mesmas para justificarem suas própria posições. Na discussão destes resultados examina-se o papel de fatores pragmáticos no desenvolvimento de contra-argumentos em textos escritos.Studies on argumentative text writing have shown that anticipating counterargument and reacting to them is one of the hardest demands of argumentative writing. The present study focused on second, fourth, and seventh graders’ ability to generate counterarguments in their writings. The results showed that, although counterarguments appear in some of the second graders’ writings, it is only after the fourth grade that their presence is systematically observed in children’s writing. Age- and schooling-related effects were also noted on the number of counterarguments examined per text. The global structure of the texts produced (a narrative vs. an opinion text did not affect the production of counterargument by children, although a main effect of such factors was noted on the number of ideas children used to justify their own views. The role of pragmatic factors in the development of counterargument in

  9. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...... of the essays fails to recognise problems of sport-biography. Indeed, several focus explicitly on exemplifications of these problems and as such the book raises important questions for writing in a variety of sporting and educational disciplines....

  10. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...... dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...

  11. A Lacanian Reading of the Two Novels The Scarlet Letter And Private Memoirs And Confessions of A Justified Sinner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Yazdanpanahi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two novels The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner and The Scarlet Letter written by James Hogg and Nathaniel Hawthorn from the perspective of Jacques Lacan theories: the mirror stage, the-name-of-the-father and desire. The mirror stage refers to historical value and an essential libidinal relationship with the body-image. The-name-of-the-father is defined as the prohibitive role of the father as the one who lays down the incest taboo in the Oedipus complex. Meanwhile, desire is neither the appetite for satisfaction, nor the demand for love, but the difference that results from the subtraction of the first from the second.

  12. The protection of fundamental rights in the Netherlands and South Africa compared: can the many differences be justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G van der Schyff

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This contribution considers the protection of fundamental rights in the Netherlands and South Africa. Both countries strive to be constitutional democracies that respect basic rights. But both countries go about this aim in very different ways. These different paths to constitutionalism are compared, as well as the reasons for these differences and whether it can be said that these differences are justifiable. This is done by comparing the character of the rights guaranteed in the Dutch and South African legal orders, the sources of these rights and the locus or centre of protection in both systems. The conclusion is reached that no single or perfect route to attaining the desired protection of fundamental rights exists, but that one should always enquire as to the state of individual freedom and the right to make free political choices in measuring the worth of a system's protection of rights.

  13. INSIGHTS ON WRITING AS EXPERIENCE AND LEARNING IN DISTANCE EDUCANTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Oliveira Salgueiro de Moura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the writing as a way to contribute to learning processes in distance education. With this intention, it approaches the writing while experience as a process of conversation, a stir emotion which becomes language and generate structural changes, created by the conviviality of writing space and treat this process as autonomous and creative. Endless are the possibilities of the contexts of writing, but in this research the focus of analysis is the writings of the teacher-students of Specialization in Information and Communication Technologies in Education, which takes place by distance. It is used Qualitative Textual Analysis as a way to evidence the experience with writing of the teacher-students and is composed a metatext in which the encounters of those writings with the comprehensions woven by the authors are identified from the theoretical support that enables the explanatory argument of the analysis.

  14. Delimiting a Theory of Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, John Soren

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on how to define "writing" that can account for the interplay between spoken and written expressions, among other things. Specific sections discuss the definition of "writing," the concept of writing and the future development of writing, "integrational semiology," closing in on writing or excluding its more recent developments, and a…

  15. The translated text as re-textualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Carlos Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All texts seem to be, in one way or another, dependent upon other texts, but a translated text is dependent upon one particular text in a very peculiar way. When writing a normal text the writer is in principle free to organise a set of words, clauses and paragraphs, according to his or her intentions and abilities. Yet we all know that this liberty is more apparent than real, since our memory of previous texts, as well as the cultural norms we have internalised, restrict, as a rule, many of our textual movements. The translator, however, works under different conditions. The text he or she writes will be based on a message that already exists in a textual form in another language. The original text constrains the new text in a number of ways. The most inmediate one is that in order to be recognised as a translation, the translator’s text must have a great degree of similarity with its original counterpart. In translation studies this similarity is currently labelled equivalence.

  16. Le processus de révision et l'écriture informatisée – Description des utilisations du traitement de texte par des élèves du secondaire au Québec Writing with technologies: uses of word processors by Quebec (Canada students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Grégoire

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Les TIC modifient substantiellement l'acte scriptural : en influençant les processus cognitifs chez les scripteurs, elles libèrent des ressources cognitives (Daiute, 1983 ; Jonassen, 1999. Pourtant, malgré cette influence, les scripteurs informatisés se contentent souvent d'apporter des modifications de surface à leurs textes (Faigley & Witte, 1981 ; Figueredo & Varnhagen, 2006. Nous avons donc voulu décrire comment les TIC interviennent réellement dans le processus cognitif de révision. Pour y parvenir, nous avons procédé selon une approche qualitative, fondée sur l'observation de scripteurs informatisés (N = 11. Nous avons analysé le type d'interaction qu'ils entretiennent avec le correcteur d'orthographe ; de plus, nous avons analysé les verbalisations concurrentes à la tâche ainsi qu'une série d'entrevues de groupe. De façon générale, nous avons constaté une utilisation somme toute limitée des outils informatiques, que les scripteurs n'arrivent pas à exploiter pleinement. Le manque d'habiletés au clavier et au traitement de texte pourrait constituer une entrave à une utilisation plus rentable des TIC.ICT have greatly changed the art of writing. Through their influence on the cognitive processes, they have liberated writers' cognitive resources (Daiute, 1983; Jonassen, 1999. Despite these possibilities, however, computer writers often make only superficial changes when revising their compositions (Faigley & Witte, 1981; Figueredo & Varnhagen, 2006. We therefore wanted to describe how ICT actually intervene in the cognitive revision process. We used a qualitative approach based on observations of computer writers (N = 11. We analyzed their use of the spell check function as well as their verbalizations concurrent with the task and a series of group interviews. In general, we found that the writers made only limited use of the computer tools at their disposal, and did not exploit their full potential. Poor

  17. Reading, Writing, and Research: A Writing Center in the IMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitel, Vonna J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of making the writing center part of the instructional media center in schools and provides some questions to consider in setting up a writing center. Offers three examples of popular writing assignments. (MG)

  18. The extensive writing. Teaching writing in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cassany Comas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the distinction between intensive and extensive reading, we introduce the extensive written tasks to promote the following learning objectives: 1 bringing writing closer to the learner’s personal life; 2 practicing the epistemic and communicative language functions; 3 giving the learner full responsibility for the creative act; 4 facilitating the development of cognitive processes, and 5 developing habits of written production in a variety of situations. As a consequence, extensive writing assignments produce longer texts, last longer, are self-directed by the learner-author, treat interdisciplinary topics and are not in the textbook. These tasks markedly differ from the more frequent written exercises in the classroom, which are teacher-led, contain shorter texts, work on executive or instrumental functions, and their correction is focused on spelling and grammar. We propose several educational tools in order to develop this type of tasks: portfolios (to save drafts, corrections and final versions of each text, formats (such as reading logs, lecture notes and laboratory protocols and contexts (common communicative tasks. We also discuss some basic parameters of extensive tasks, such as the length of the text, the use of several working sessions for text production, the practice of composition processes and the use of peer review, in pairs or teams.

  19. A Guide Text or Many Texts? "That is the Question”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado de Valencia Sonia

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of supplementary materials in the classroom has always been an essential part of the teaching and learning process. To restrict our teaching to the scope of one single textbook means to stand behind the advances of knowledge, in any area and context. Young learners appreciate any new and varied support that expands their knowledge of the world: diaries, letters, panels, free texts, magazines, short stories, poems or literary excerpts, and articles taken from Internet are materials that will allow learnersto share more and work more collaboratively. In this article we are going to deal with some of these materials, with the criteria to select, adapt, and create them that may be of interest to the learner and that may promote reading and writing processes. Since no text can entirely satisfy the needs of students and teachers, the creativity of both parties will be necessary to improve the quality of teaching through the adequate use and adaptation of supplementary materials.

  20. EFL Students’ Writing Strategies in Saudi Arabian ESP Writing Classes: Perspectives on Learning Strategies in Self-access Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alnufaie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was part of a PhD research to explore the writing strategies of 121 second-year undergraduate Saudi student writers who are studying English as a foreign language and for specific purposes in one of the Saudi industrial colleges: Jubail Industrial College (JIC. The writing strategies under investigation had been classified into two categories (process-oriented writing strategies and product-oriented writing strategies based on their instructional philosophies. A strategy questionnaire was designed to collect data. Although JIC writing classes were assumed to be product-oriented as reported by the majority of the participants’ description of their teachers’ writing approach, the results showed that almost all of the participants (95.9% were mixing the two kinds of strategies. More surprisingly, the top five writing strategies used by the participants were process-oriented.

  1. Students’ Attitude on The Use of Facebook And Blog In Writing Class and Their Writing Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Rifai

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Article aims to investigate the relationship between students’ attitudes on the use of Facebook and blog as learning tools in writing class. Two groups of students were made as experimental and control group. The experimental group used Facebook and blog in as learning tools for thirteen sessions while the control group only used Binusmaya, local multi channel learning. It was assumed that Facebook and blog would be able to help students in three level of writing mastery: the vocabulary, the accuracy and the fluency in writing. Students’ attitudes were gathered through survey and the results compared to their final test scores. The result shows that students’ lack of enthusiasm was in line with students’ level of achievement in writing and that Facebook and blog did not give significant influence on improving students’ writing competence.   

  2. LUDIC WRITING: CHALLENGES IN GAMIFYING ENGLISH CREATIVE WRITING CLASS FOR TECHNOPRENEURIAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SF. Luthfie Arguby Purnomo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper, first of three research parts, attempts to describe the challenges English Letters at IAIN (Institut Agama Islam Negeri/State Islamic Institute Surakarta faced in implementing gamification for technopreneurial purposes in regard to the transformation of a creative writing class into a ludic writing class, a gamification infused writing class. The challenges revealed are story-game script adaptation, integration portion, and monetization. Specific problems occur on each challenge. Story-game script adaptation exposes three problems namely (1 conditional branching system (2 visualization (3 copyrighted material issues (4 and writing mechanics adaptation. Integration portion challenge displays a problem on the insufficient alloted time for gamifying the creative writing class. Monetization challenge indicates three problems namely (1 the inexistence of monetization team, (2 the inexistence of institutional regulation for monetization management by study programs, (3 responses to gaming trends. Responding to these problems, solutions specifically designed based on the nature of the problems are implemented.

  3. Personal Narratives: A Pedagogical Proposal to Stimulate Language Students’ Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Orlando Salamanca González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a public university in Tunja (Colombia, undergraduate language students mentioned that writing was important and yet, they kept at a distance from it due to its requirements. The aim of this pedagogical intervention was to find a strategy to encourage students to write and, more importantly, to feel an identity with their texts. For this pedagogical intervention, students were required to write narratives that allowed them to portray their experiences using the target language and to look for the most accurate words and descriptions. From a pedagogical perspective, writing the narratives provided the teacher with the possibility of knowing his students better and to feel an affiliation towards them.

  4. Writing for the web composing, coding, and constructing web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Applen, JD

    2013-01-01

    Writing for the Web unites theory, technology, and practice to explore writing and hypertext for website creation. It integrates such key topics as XHTML/CSS coding, writing (prose) for the Web, the rhetorical needs of the audience, theories of hypertext, usability and architecture, and the basics of web site design and technology. Presenting information in digestible parts, this text enables students to write and construct realistic and manageable Web sites with a strong theoretical understanding of how online texts communicate to audiences. Key features of the book

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF L2 WRITING PROCESS AND WRITING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Abas, Imelda Hermilinda; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd

    2017-01-01

    English for second language writing has developed greatly, from product oriented approach to process oriented approach. This implies that the focus of L2 writing has shifted from the final product of writing to the process of writing. Because of its own rules and conventions, writing skill is considered difficult to learn in a short period of time. Although it is a difficult skill, writing is essential for second language learners’ academic success. Second language researchers are still tryin...

  6. Relationships between Writing Motivation, Writing Activity, and Writing Performance: Effects of Grade, Sex, and Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troia, Gary A.; Harbaugh, Allen G.; Shankland, Rebecca K.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Lawrence, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    A convenience sample of 618 children and adolescents in grades 4 through 10, excluding grade 8, were asked to complete a writing motivation and activity scale and to provide a timed narrative writing sample to permit an examination of the relationships between writing motivation, writing activity, writing performance, and the student…

  7. Investigation of Writing Strategies, Writing Apprehension, and Writing Achievement among Saudi EFL-Major Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Asmari, AbdulRahman

    2013-01-01

    The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students' writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the…

  8. Professional Writing in the English Classroom: Professional Collaborative Writing--Teaching, Writing, and Learning--Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jonathan; Zuidema, Leah

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors report the importance of teaching students about collaborative writing. When teachers are effective in helping students to learn processes for collaborative writing, everyone involved needs to speak, listen, write, and read about how to write well and what makes writing good. Students are forced to "go meta"…

  9. Application of 'writing for healing' in premedical humanities education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jae Yu; Yeh, Byung Il

    2012-09-01

    There has been a recent tendency to attach special importance to writing education. Books on 'writing to heal' are being written in or translated into Korean. According to these texts, writing is a valuable tool for internal healing, depending on the mode of application. Writing can have positive effects and give hope to an individual or group, but it can also be a source of frustration and despair. Based on the distinct effects of writing, we cannot overemphasize the significance of writing education. Writing is generally taught during a premedical course that targets students who will eventually practice medicine. Many reports have examined immorality in medical students and health care providers, which is a reason that writing education is important for medical systems. 'Writing for Healing' is open to freshmen at Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine. The aim of this subject is to help students identify and acknowledge internal diseases to lead a healthier life and eventually become positive and responsible health care providers. However, in addition to the vague definition of what 'healing' is, the concept of 'writing for healing' has not been defined. This paper attempts to define the concept of 'writing for healing' and considers what influences it can have on a humanities curriculum in medical colleges.

  10. Creative Writing Assignments in a Second Language Course: A Way to Engage Less Motivated Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Arshavskaya, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a case for using creative writing in a second language course. Creative writing increases students’ enthusiasm for writing skills development and supports students’ creativity, which is a fundamental aspect of education. In order to engage less motivated students, a series of creative writing assignments was implemented in a second language writing course. This study presents the rationale for the use of creative writing grounded in critical pedagogy and the context of instruction. Data collection focused on the content of students’ writing and their attitudes towards creative writing and critical pedagogy. The results show that all the participating students found the assignment both enjoyable and beneficial for the development of their writing ability. However, the students’ perceptions of critical pedagogy varied. The author argues for greater employment of creative writing in second language courses in the future.

  11. Assessment of agreement between general practitioners and radiologists as to whether a radiation exposure is justified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingsa, R; Finlay, D B L; Robinson, G D; Liddicoat, A J

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess agreement between General Practitioners (GPs) and Consultant Radiologists as to whether a radiation exposure is justified and whether a request conforms to the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines. Three GPs and three Consultant Radiologists were asked to review 100 requests for plain film imaging from GPs and to state whether the request justified a radiation exposure and whether the request conformed to RCR guidelines. It was discovered that there is greater agreement between radiologists than between GPs; this is a consistent pattern. The best agreement was between two Consultant Radiologists using the RCR guidelines. The poorest was between GPs using the request form details. It is suggested that the guidelines should be symptom-based to improve efficacy.

  12. Routine X-ray of the chest is not justified in staging of cutaneous melanoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjorup, Caroline Asirvatham; Hendel, Helle Westergren; Pilegaard, Rita Kaae

    2016-01-01

    value was 8%, and the negative predictive value was 100%. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that CXR cannot be justified in the initial staging of cutaneous melanoma patients. The guideline for the treatment of melanoma in Denmark is under revision: The use of CXR has been omitted. FUNDING: This study......INTRODUCTION: The incidence of cutaneous melanoma is increasing in Denmark and worldwide. However, the prevalence of distant metastases at the time of diagnosis has decreased to 1%. We therefore questioned the value of routine preoperative chest X-ray (CXR) for staging asymptomatic melanoma...... patients and hypothesised that routine CXR is not justified. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on patients undergoing wide local excision and sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous melanoma in the period from 2010 to 2014. RESULTS: A total of 603 patients were included. The mean time of follow...

  13. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

  14. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

  15. The Effect of Dialogue Journal Writing on EFL Students' Writing Skill

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    Ali Gholami Mehrdad

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the role writing plays in learning a foreign language, many students do not show much interest in taking an active part in writing classes (Myint, 1997. Thus different activities have been proposed to motivate students to write one of which is dialogue journal writing, and the present work tries to investigate the possible effect(s of such activity on writing ability of a group of English students at Islamic Azad University- Hamedan branch. To do this, 50 students obtaining 1 and 2 on the TWE scale on the structure section of a TOEFL test were selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. After some introductory sessions, the students were asked to write paragraphs on a weekly schedule and hand them in to be corrected. In the experimental group the students were, furthermore, asked to keep journals and hand them in. After 4 months, the students in both groups took part in a writing exam in which they had to write two paragraphs on the topics given. The comparison of the means at p

  16. Writing Across the Curriculum: Strategies to Improve the Writing Skills of Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Sharon J; Turner, Kathleen M; Derouin, Anne L; Hueckel, Rémi M; Leonardelli, Adrianne K; Oermann, Marilyn H

    2015-11-04

    Writing across the curriculum (WAC) is a strategy in which writing instruction occurs in classes outside of composition, literature, and other English courses. This literature review was conducted to identify and synthesize the peer-reviewed literature about WAC in nursing education. The team performed searches of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL Plus With Full Text, and ERIC for articles published between January 2003 and April 2014. A combination of Medical Subject Heading terms (or equivalent) and keywords were used to create the database search strategies. There were 48 articles that discussed WAC. Most of the papers described writing courses in nursing programs, strategies to teach writing to nursing students, and writing activities or assignments within nursing courses. High-level evidence examining the impact of writing strategies and exercises in courses and occurring across the curriculum was lacking. Only 18 (37.5%) of these papers were evaluative; most of the databased articles were either author observations or perceptions of changes in students' writing ability, or low-level research studies. Strategies, assignments, and courses intended to promote writing skills of nursing students were documented in this literature review; however, further evaluation is needed to determine which are most effective. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Effect of Dialogue Journal Writing on EFL Learners' Descriptive Writing Performance: A Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabbagh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to evaluate the effect of dialogue journal writing on writing performance as well as its different sub-components, namely content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics (Following Polio, 2013. Participants were 84 EFL intermediate learners who were selected based on their performance on Oxford Quick Placement Test (2004 and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. While the participants in the control group took part in descriptive writing pre and post-tests only, their counterparts in experimental group were asked to write 3 journals a week for about 6 months in the period between the pre- and post-tests. The instructor of the experimental group provided feedback to each journal entry mostly on its content and message to which the participants replied in a dialogic manner. Results of independent sample t-test located a significant difference between the experimental and control group regarding the overall writing performance, as well as the sub-components of content, organization, and vocabulary in the post-test. However, the obtained results did not reveal a significant effect of dialogue journal writing on language use and mechanics of writing performance. The results which promise implications for writing instructors, curriculum developers, and material designers are fully discussed.

  18. Reading, writing and systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    Aim This paper offers a discussion of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review. Background Although increasingly popular, systematic review has engendered a critique of the claims made for it as a more objective method for summing up research findings than other kinds of reviews. Discussion An alternative understanding of systematic review is as a highly subjective, albeit disciplined, engagement between resisting readers and resistant texts. Reviewers of research exemplify the resisting reader when they exclude reports on grounds of relevance, quality, or methodological difference. Research reports exemplify resistant texts as they do not simply yield their findings, but rather must be made docile to review. These acts of resistance make systematic review possible, but challenge claims of its greater capacity to control bias. Conclusion An understanding of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review still holds truth and objectivity as regulative ideals, but is aware of the reading and writing practices that both enable and challenge those ideals. PMID:18721156

  19. Should she be granted asylum? Examining the justifiability of the persecution criterion and nexus clause in asylum law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Wirth Nogradi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current international asylum regime recognizes only persecuted persons as rightful asylum applicants. The Geneva Convention and Protocol enumerate specific grounds upon which persecution is recognized. Claimants who cannot demonstrate a real risk of persecution based on one of the recognized grounds are unlikely to be granted asylum. This paper aims to relate real-world practices to normative theories, asking whether the Convention’s restricted preference towards persecuted persons is normatively justified. I intend to show that the justifications of the persecution criterion also apply to grounds currently lacking recognition. My main concern will be persecution on the grounds of gender.The first section introduces the dominant standpoints in theories of asylum, which give different answers to the question of who should be granted asylum, based on different normative considerations. Humanitarian theories base their claims on the factual neediness of asylum-seekers, holding that whoever is in grave danger of harm or deprivation should be granted asylum. Political theories base their justifications on conceptions of legitimacy and membership, holding that whoever has been denied membership in their original state should be granted asylum. Under political theories, Matthew Price’s theory will be discussed, which provides a normative justification of the currently recognized persecution criterion. The second section provides a descriptive definition of persecution based on Kuosmanen (2014, and evaluates the normative relevance of the different elements of this definition based on the theories presented previously. The third section is devoted to the examination of the normative justifiability of the nexus clause’s exclusive list of the bases (grounds upon which persons might be persecuted. The section argues that while the clause does not recognize that persecution might be based on gender, in fact many women experience harms based on

  20. LITERACY SENSES: WRITING IN VESTIBULAR (ENTRANCE EXAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Wilson da Costa Coelho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to pose a reflection on explicit or underlying literacy practices in a literacy event such as the Brazilian university entrance exams (vestibular using, as an object of study, the essays written during that event. We aim to understand the educated writing culture, or Brazilian literacy, in its very extreme, that is, the end of High School, based on Bakhtin’s theory of enunciation. Despite pedagogical measures focused on elaborate (argumentative writing in view of college assessment exams and ENEM (National High School Exam, we know how unsatisfactory its results still are, in terms of the school literacy practices, which still remains to be sufficiently reflected on. It is also worth highlighting that we understand writing (school writing more as a set of social practices than as a set of skills alone.

  1. Teaching on Chinese Writing in Binus University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Feng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Combination of practice teaching Chinese as a foreign language in BINUS University, this article takes the Chinese writing teaching as an example, and analyses “as the student core, as the fun concept” writing modes. Firstly, serious explain: increasing the vitality of classroom teaching, using multimedia methods to make students get interested in; Secondly, article practice: making the written expression be the basis and revealing true feelings as commander, constantly pursue the aesthetic article; Thirdly, feedback and communion: using Facebook, Binusmaya, Binusblog, Chinese newspapers and other channels of interaction to communicate between teachers and students. Through the three steps, we could select the theme which students loved, create a relaxed atmosphere in the writing class, and then the students will be pleasure of writing gradually. 

  2. Enhancing Students’ Understanding in Calculus Trough Writing

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    Noraini Idris

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using writing activities on students’ understanding and achievement in Calculus. The design of this study was quasi-experimental. The subjects of this study consisted of two secondary schools in one of the states in Malaysia. Each school was assigned one intact class of Form Four to be the experimental group and another one intact class as the control. The experimental group learned mathematics by using the writing activities for five weeks, while the control group learned mathematics by using traditional whole-class instruction. A 20-item Calculus Achievement test was designed with reliability .87. The findings showed that the experimental group exhibited significantly greater improvement on calculus achievement. The students showed positive reaction towards the use of writing. Findings of this study provide information to schools to take advantage of writing activities to promote understanding.

  3. Differences in process and process-product relations in L2 writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weijen, D.; van den Bergh, H.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Sanders, T.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether writers vary how they write under influence of the changing task situation when writing in a second language (L2) and, if so, whether differences in the way they write are related to variations in text quality. Twenty first year students wrote four texts each in their L2

  4. Differences in process and process-product relations in L2 writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weijen, D.; van den Bergh, H.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Sanders, T.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether writers vary how they write under influence of the changing task situation when writing in a second language (L2) and, if so, whether differences in the way they write are related to variations in text quality. Twenty first year students wrote four texts each in their L2

  5. From Pop-Up Books to Shakespeare: Writing as Problem Solving across the Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that experts and beginners use qualitatively different writing processes when given the same text to write. Throughout their writing, experts tend to create a network of executive, structural, and content problems that they continually refine and coordinate as they bring the text to fruition. Novices, in contrast, tend to focus…

  6. "Why Am I Paraphrasing?": Undergraduate ESL Writers' Engagement with Source-Based Academic Writing and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvela, Alan; Du, Qian

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common and vital areas of coverage in second language (L2) writing instruction is writing from sources, that is, the process of reading source text material and transferring content from that reading to writing. Research as well as everyday practice in the classroom has long shown that working with source texts is one of the most…

  7. CULTURAL TRANSFER IN EFL WRITING: A LOOK AT CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC ON ENGLISH AND INDONESIAN

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    Esther Kuntjara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in contrastive rhetoric since Kaplan's (1966 article have indicated the need of looking at L2 writing from different perspective by considering factors such as L2 learners' historical background in L1 writing, the development in their writing process, and the genres before we come to analyze the texts. By following such approaches, this study wants to see if there has been any cultural transfer in L2 writing of Indonesian writers. However, this has led to the probing of Indonesian L1 writing as well. This study again suggests the complexity of rhetoric in writing.

  8. CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING APPROACH TO TEACHING WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Satriani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article reports a study on the implementation of contextual teaching and learning approach to teaching English writing to second graders of a Junior High Shool in Bandung. The study aims to investigate the strategies of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL (as adapted from Crawford, 2001 and the advantages of using CTL approach. The study employed a qualitative case study research design. The data were obtained from several instruments, namely class observations, students’ interview and students’ writing products which were then analyzed using writing assessment criteria taken from Rose (2007, as cited by Emilia, 2011, p. 151. The findings revealed that the teaching writing program was successful to improve students’ recount writing skill. Specifically, they showed some improvement on schematic structure, grammar roles, and graphic features. Moreover, the data from observation, interview, and documentation of students’ text showed some benefits of CTL. These include: (1 engaging students in the writing activity; (2 increasing students’ motivation to participate actively in the writing class; (3 helping students to construct their writing; (4 helping students to solve their problems; (5 providing ways for students to discuss or interact with their friends; and (6 helping the students to summarize and reflect the lesson. Based on these findings, it is recommended that CTL be implemented in teaching writing.   Keywords: contextual teaching and learning, teaching writing

  9. Medical writing, revising and editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The globalization of science makes medical writing, editing and revision a rapidly growing field of linguistic study and practice. Medical science texts are written according to uniform, general guidelines and medical genres have become highly conventionalized in terms of structure and linguistic...... form. Medical editing often takes the form of peer review and mainly addresses issues of contents and overall validity. Medical revision incorporates the checking of the macrostructure and the microstructure of the text, its language and style and its suitability for the target reader or client...

  10. Medical writing, revising and editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The globalization of science makes medical writing, editing and revision a rapidly growing field of linguistic study and practice. Medical science texts are written according to uniform, general guidelines and medical genres have become highly conventionalized in terms of structure and linguistic...... form. Medical editing often takes the form of peer review and mainly addresses issues of contents and overall validity. Medical revision incorporates the checking of the macrostructure and the microstructure of the text, its language and style and its suitability for the target reader or client...

  11. Conversation Analysis and Orality in Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marcuschi (1977 points out that orality is an important topic to be developed in the classroom. Lamentably, however, it has been left aside, because teachers and those responsible for education do not consider it as an important feature to be emphasized in the mother tongue teaching. The main reason is the focus given to the language teaching in Brazilian schools: the school is supposed to teach writing, and how to write well. Despite the advances of Linguistic studies on speaking and writing; despite the contributions of Sociolinguistics and Conversation Analysis; and despite the overcoming of prejudices, especially on the strict distinction between the two modes, there is still a long way to go. Thus, it is beneficial to bring up a discussion on speaking and writing. After several years of Marcuschi´s findings (1977, textbook authors, teachers, researchers and those responsible for the Portuguese language teaching have another theoretical approach. Nonetheless, in practice, there is still a lot to be accomplished since writing continues to be the focus of the Portuguese language teaching in Brazilian schools. It seems that most of the teachers know the theory, but they experience difficulties when it comes to the practices of everyday school life. This paper aims to analyze oral marks or effects of orality in written literary texts, more precisely in dialogues produced. These analyzes will aid us in giving subsidies to a Portuguese teacher, so that he/she can work consistently and productively. To illustrate our observations, we have chosen fragments of chronicles written by Brazilian writer Luís Fernando Verissimo, published in three of his works: Comédias para se ler na escola, Sexo na cabeça e Amor Veríssimo.

  12. Psychologie des discours et didactique des textes (Psychology of Discourse and the Teaching of Texts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronckart, Jean-Paul, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This collection of articles on the nature of discourse and writing instruction include: "Une demarche de psychologie de discours; quelques aspects introductifs" ("An Application of Discourse Psychology; Introductory Thoughts") (Jean-Paul Bronckart); "Les procedes de prise en charge enonciative dans trois genres de texts expositifs" ("The Processes…

  13. Writing Against Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    , inspired by Lila Abu-Lughod’s seminal article ‘writing against culture’ (1991), the paper outline some strategies of ‘writing against integration’ in a humble first attempt to reinstall a difference between emic and etic discourses, so that academic analysis can regain a critical potential....

  14. Situated University, Situated Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that teaching as a situated, civic activity must be a core intellectual activity in the engaged metropolitan university. Situated writing provides the key pedagogy for the Chicago Civic Leadership Certificate Program at the University of Illinois at Chicago, an engaged public research university. The role of writing, or…

  15. Writing with Mentors (DVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Lynne; Cappelli, Rose

    2010-01-01

    When learning how to write well, there is nothing more powerful than examining the work of the writers we admire. Real writers need mentors--those writers who inspire us and demonstrate through their style and craft how we, too, can be successful writers. In "Writing with Mentors", Lynne Dorfman and Rose Cappelli, authors of "Mentor…

  16. The Cybernetic Writing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kelly Fisher

    This paper looks at the role of a Writing Program Administrator, and applies the idea of a cybernetic system to the administration of the program. In this cybernetic model, the Writing Program Administrator (WPA) works as both a problem solver and problem causer, with the responsibility of keeping the program in proper balance. A cybernetic…

  17. Writing History in Exile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Berger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    WRITING HISTORY IN EXILE * Stefan Berger and Antoon De Baets, Reflections on Exile Historiography 11 * Antoon De Baets, Plutarch’s Thesis : the Contribution of Refugee Historians to Historical Writing (1945-2015) 27 * Peter Burke, Silver Lining : on Some Intellectual Benefits of Exile 39 * Ragnar

  18. Thoughts on Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俐

    2006-01-01

    There is no one answer to the question of how to teach writing.But there are as many as there are for the teachers' teaching styles or learners' learning style.The ultimate purpose of teaching is to enable the students to achieve communicative competence, especially grammatical and discourse competence in writing.

  19. Writing that Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Kenneth; Raphaelson, Joel

    Intended for use by nonprofessional writers who must use the written word to communicate and get results, this book offers practical suggestions on how to write business letters, memos, sales and fund raising letters, plans, and reports. The book covers general principles of good writing and emphasizes the importance of editing. In addition, it…

  20. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether dem

  1. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether dem

  2. Strengthening Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Julie R.; Petrucelli, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Underprepared students often need assistance building writing skills and maintaining confidence in their abilities and potential. The authors share the philosophy, pedagogy, and experience of freshman developmental education and the writing center at a four-year, private, not-for-profit urban college. They describe high-impact educational…

  3. Writing to Be Read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael

    Of the various unrelated approaches used in advanced college composition courses, one has proved especially successful in encouraging professionalism in student writers: an approach in which students are required to write for and submit their work to professional publications. When students write articles, they deal with many rhetorical modes and…

  4. Writing for Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2016-01-01

    writing means getting your readers to understand and remember your message and leave the reading experience changed. The challenge is to make what you write resonate with an audience’s reservoir of experiential knowledge. If the words do not connect to anything tangible, interest can be quickly lost....

  5. Dream and Creative Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨公建

    2015-01-01

    Freud asserts that the unconscious will express its suppressed wishes and desires. The unconscious will then redirect andreshape these concealed wishes into acceptable social activities, presenting them in the form of images or symbols in our dreams and/or our writings. Dream is the unconscious which promotes the creative writing.

  6. On Writing "Salvador."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses, in poetic form, the writing of the play "Salvador" from the perspective of the author. Explains her thoughts about writing for children, including didactic relationships with children, didactic functions of art, and how adults teachers try to create a sterilized, lifeless, good-thinking, and artificial world for children when they are…

  7. Paperless Writing Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Uses an asynchronous computer network to conduct an experimental college writing class. Examines how paperless technology alters student-mentor relationships and encourages coaching and practice more than conventional classrooms. Analyzes how on-screen equality influences teacher and peer evaluations of student writing. Includes breakdown of time…

  8. Writing History in Exile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Berger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    WRITING HISTORY IN EXILE * Stefan Berger and Antoon De Baets, Reflections on Exile Historiography 11 * Antoon De Baets, Plutarch’s Thesis : the Contribution of Refugee Historians to Historical Writing (1945-2015) 27 * Peter Burke, Silver Lining : on Some Intellectual Benefits of Exile 39 * Ragnar Bj

  9. Activities for Writing Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Sharon M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes some of the writing stimuli used to help middle school teacher candidates with their own un-learning as they gain more confidence and insight about authentic writing. Encourages teachers to trust the process and muster the courage they will eventually need to model literacy in their own classrooms. (SG)

  10. Teaching Reading through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Marjatta

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a teaching method called reading through writing (RtW), based on the use of computers rather than handwriting. The pupils use the computers in pairs and decide themselves what they will write about. The use of this method is studied via a questionnaire to 22 teachers and via seven Master's and two Bachelor's theses,…

  11. Plying at Poetic Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobine, Gary R.

    Creative writing is not a magical art from magic wands, but an everyday practice in the hands of steady writers. Creative writing calls, above all, for self-discipline. Along with intellectual and emotional stamina, a poetic writer needs sensory awareness. The writer also forms a mysterious sixth sense--intuition. In search of the good words, the…

  12. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether

  13. Bilateral primary writing tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Jimenez; Cabrera-Valdivia; Orti-Pareja; Gasalla; Tallon-Barranco; Zurdo

    1998-11-01

    Primary writing tremor is a task-specific tremor that is considered to be unilateral. We report a 59-year-old man with a 5-year history of a typical primary writing tremor in the right hand who developed similar symptoms in the left hand. Copyright 1998 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  14. Let's Write a Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, T. E.

    Some problems of writing scripts for radio and/or television are discussed, with examples provided to illustrate the rules. Writing both fictional scripts and documentaries are considered. Notes are also included to help the freelance writer who wishes to sell his work. (RH)

  15. Writing as Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Piana, Gabriel M.; Endo, George T.

    This proposal for a longitudinal experimental study with a treatment intervention focuses on the process of writing as revision. Revision refers to the process which occurs prior to and throughout the writing of a work, rather than the final editing. According to this process, the writer goes through five stages: preconceptions concerning style…

  16. Writing Beyond the Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küster, Marc Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    abstractThe ability to write, hence to preserve and share arbitrary words and thoughts, was one of the most important breakthroughs in the history of mankind. It laid the technological basis for what we perceive today as culture, science and, in good part, economy. Nonetheless, writing can encompass

  17. Most antidepressant use in primary care is justified; results of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Piek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a common illness, often treated in primary care. Many studies have reported undertreatment with antidepressants in primary care. Recently, some studies also reported overtreatment with antidepressants. The present study was designed to assess whether treatment with antidepressants in primary care is in accordance with current guidelines, with a special focus on overtreatment. METHODOLOGY: We used baseline data of primary care respondents from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA (n = 1610. Seventy-nine patients with treatment in secondary care were excluded. We assessed justification for treatment with antidepressant according to the Dutch primary care guidelines for depression and for anxiety disorders. Use of antidepressants was based on drug-container inspection or, if unavailable, on self-report. Results were recalculated to the original population of primary care patients from which the participants in NESDA were selected (n = 10,677. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 1531 included primary care patients, 199 (13% used an antidepressant, of whom 188 (94.5% (possibly justified. After recalculating these numbers to the original population (n = 10,677, we found 908 (95% CI 823 to 994 antidepressant users. Forty-nine (95% CI 20 to 78 of them (5.4% had no current justification for an antidepressant, but 27 of them (54.5% had a justified reason for an antidepressant at some earlier point in their life. CONCLUSIONS: We found that overtreatment with antidepressants in primary care is not a frequent problem. Too long continuation of treatment seems to explain the largest proportion of overtreatment as opposed to inappropriate initiation of treatment.

  18. Life Writing After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A watershed moment of the twentieth century, the end of empire saw upheavals to global power structures and national identities. However, decolonisation profoundly affected individual subjectivities too. Life Writing After Empire examines how people around the globe have made sense of the post......-imperial condition through the practice of life writing in its multifarious expressions, from auto/biography through travel writing to oral history and photography. Through interdisciplinary approaches that draw on literature and history alike, the contributors explore how we might approach these genres differently...... in order to understand how individual life writing reflects broader societal changes. From far-flung corners of the former British Empire, people have turned to life writing to manage painful or nostalgic memories, as well as to think about the past and future of the nation anew through the personal...

  19. Disciplinary writing: contributions to the portuguese language teaching in undergraduate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Maria da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aimed: (1 to describe a proposal for the teaching of writing in undergraduate courses guided by theoretical and methodological principles that underlie the approach of Writing in the Disciplines and (2 to identify and analyze the undergraduate students’ perceptions on the implementation of this type of methodology for teaching writing. For this, we applied a questionnaire to students of Computer Sciences who attended to the discipline Reading and Text Production (RTP, offered for different undergraduate courses at a public university in the interior of Paraiba. The statements of these students point to the recognition that it is necessary to teach writing at university; that this teaching should be specific; that one of the factors contributing to the process of appropriation of academic texts is the practice of writing them; and that the students can be a learning agent, by indicating to the teacher of RTP specific texts in their area.

  20. Monolingual Accounting Dictionaries for EFL Text Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading....... of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL...