WorldWideScience

Sample records for justification foreign operations

  1. Foreign Operation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Lawrence S.; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent

    Introduction and theory -- Introduction -- Theoretical approaches -- Modes of operation -- Franchising -- Licensing -- Management contracts -- International subcontracting -- Project operations -- Exports -- Alliances -- Foreign direct investment -- Strategies -- Mode switching and stretching...

  2. Foreign Operation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Lawrence S.; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent

    Introduction and theory -- Introduction -- Theoretical approaches -- Modes of operation -- Franchising -- Licensing -- Management contracts -- International subcontracting -- Project operations -- Exports -- Alliances -- Foreign direct investment -- Strategies -- Mode switching and stretching...

  3. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-09-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford.

  4. Tank farms justification for continued operations 007 Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propson, J.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-23

    This Implementation Plan (IP) provides detailed descriptions, cost estimates, and schedules of activities required to implement the controls specified in Flammable Gas/Slurry Growth Unreviewed Safety Question: Justification for Continued Operation for the Tank Farms at Hanford Site (WHC-SD-WM-JCO-007, Rev.0). This IP complies with the Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSR) Administrative Control 5.27 and WHC-IP-0842 Volume 4 Section 5.6 for such a plan.

  5. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between descript......The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...

  6. Justification for Continued Operation of the SRS Saltstone Facility (Z-Area)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, W.A.

    1999-01-20

    Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (Z-Area) are a part of the Defense Waste Processing Facilities (DWPF). Z-Area facilities are just one segment of an integrated waste management and disposal system located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The bases for the Justification of Continuing Operations (JCO) of the Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (Z-Area) at SRS are provided.

  7. Hypothetical Justifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Lahno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A basic conviction in moral non-cognitivism is: only hypothetical norms may be justified. Hartmut Kliemt argues for a moderate variant: there are only hypothetical justifications of norms whether the norms are hypothetical or categorical in kind. In this paper the concept of 'hypothetical justification' is analyzed. It is argued that hypothetical justifications are not of the kind that we should look for in normative ethics.

  8. 49 CFR 387.321 - Operations in foreign commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operations in foreign commerce. 387.321 Section 387.321 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... Carriers and Property Brokers § 387.321 Operations in foreign commerce. No motor carrier may operate in...

  9. Dynamics of Foreign Operations Modes and Their Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    Companies’ choice of foreign operation modes (FOM) has been a core subject of international business studies basically from its beginning (Hymer, 1960 [1976]; Root, 1964). A halfcentury of research has brought us a set of established perspectives on companies’ foreign operation mode choices...

  10. Flammable gas/slurry growth unreviewed safety question:justification for continued operation for the tank farms at the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) provides a basis for continued operation in 176 high level waste tanks, double contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks, 244-AR Vault, 242-S and 242-T Evaporators and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs) relative to flammable gas hazards. Required controls are specified.

  11. Effectiveness of Foreign Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    inclusion of pictures, maps, graphics, and any other works incorporated into this manuscript. A work of the United States Government is not subject to...Assistance FMF Foreign Military Financing FMS Foreign Military Sales IMET International Military Education and Training JP Joint Publication NMS...time for the next term. Japanese and American military personnel rescued over 25,000 people from the affected area.2 The Japanese Defense Minister

  12. Justification of Financial Safety Analysis Approach in Cargo-and-Passenger Ferry Operations Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yelena V. Kirillova; Yekaterina S. Meleshenko

    2014-01-01

    .... At the same time, when managing the production activity of the ferry operators and, in particular, when analysing the ferry operation the indicator of its financial safety factor is of great importance...

  13. Member State Foreign Policy towards EU Military Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2015-01-01

    suggest that another operation in CAR may be underway shortly. The EU’s military endeavours are particularly interesting to this enquiry, as they suggest a radical change in the cohort of member states’ foreign policy towards the Union, which until the turn of the Millennium had been considered by its MS......, amongst others, as a predominantly ‘civilian power’. The significance of such a change merits a chapter that delves deeper into MS foreign policy specifically related to EU military operations.The rationale for this research is to further unpack intra-EU foreign policy and its effect on the external...

  14. FOREIGN EXPERIENCE IN INTERNET INSURANCE OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tlusta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current state and characteristics of the relationship between the insurance entities in the implementation of online insurance in foreign countries. Studied the basic conditions and development trends of the Internet insurance market in the process of informatization of insurance companies. The basic concept of interaction between the subjects of the insurance market through the website were noticed. The study reveals the necessity and expediency of using new approaches of the acquisition of insurance services via Internet. The problems of implementation and development of online insurance remains valid for all countries, regardless of the state of the insurance market and the financial market as a whole.

  15. Personnel Security during Joint Operations with Foreign Military Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    century society into the twenty-first century encounters a number of obstacles. Illiteracy and innumeracy rates are high, and repressive social values are...Operations with Foreign Military Forces Feature quickly degraded into executions for social infractions like blasphemy. Repression soon followed, and the...the Soviets inherited. Objective: Why Do They Hate Us? This article addresses the primary issue of the dramatic increase in the number of insider

  16. 77 FR 41371 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators... INFORMATION: I. Abstract Form BE-9, Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States, obtains quarterly data from U.S. offices, agents, or other representatives of foreign airline operators...

  17. 78 FR 6067 - BE-37: Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues and Expenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC006 BE-37: Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues and... public that it is conducting a mandatory survey titled Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues... survey is intended to collect information on U.S. airline operators' foreign revenues and expenses. How...

  18. Discursive Justification and Skepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerken, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I consider how a general epistemic norm of action that I have proposed in earlier work should be specified in order to govern certain types of acts: assertive speech acts. More specifically, I argue that the epistemic norm of assertion is structurally similar to the epistemic norm...... of action. First, I argue that the notion of warrant operative in the epistemic norm of a central type of assertion is an internalist one that I call ‘discursive justification.’ This type of warrant is internalist insofar as it requires that the agent is capable of articulating reasons for her belief....... The idea, roughly, is that when one asserts that p, one is supposed to be in a position to give reasons for believing that p. Bonjour’s reliable clairvoyant Norman, for example, is not in an epistemic position to make assertions regarding the president’s whereabouts—even if Norman knows the president...

  19. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress January 1983. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 2. Budget Activity 7: Central Supply & Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    7AD-A126� OEPARTMENT OF THE .. NAY JUSTIFICATION OF ESTIMATES FOR I/ FSCAL YEAR 1984 SAUU OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER A( S D NAVY) WASHINGTON DC...DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY JUSTIFICATION OF ESTIMATES FOR FSCAL YEAR 1984 SU.U) 0OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER I NAVY WASHINGTON DC JAN 83UNCLASFE F/0 5/1 N

  20. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking...

  1. 26 CFR 1.954-7 - Increase in qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in qualified investments in foreign... § 1.954-7 Increase in qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations. (a) Determination of investments at close of taxable year—(1) In general. Under section 954(g), the increase in...

  2. 78 FR 5167 - BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC003 BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues... Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States (BE-9). This mandatory survey is..., agents, or other representatives of foreign airline operators that transport passengers or freight and...

  3. Luther and Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2017-01-01

    In this article I treat of Luther's doctrine on justification as it came out in different ways in seminal texts between 1518-1538, all represented in new and highly recommendable commented translations in The Annotated Luther, vol. 2: Word and Faith, Fortress Press 2015.......In this article I treat of Luther's doctrine on justification as it came out in different ways in seminal texts between 1518-1538, all represented in new and highly recommendable commented translations in The Annotated Luther, vol. 2: Word and Faith, Fortress Press 2015....

  4. Business-Level Strategy for the Foreign Commercial Banks operating within Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasool Khan, Mohamed Rizal

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategic positioning and use of Porter’s (1980) generic strategy framework within the foreign commercial banks operating in Malaysia. It was found that two distinct strategic groups were formed by the foreign commercial banks. Performance analysis conducted suggests that banks with clearer strategic direction managed to outperform its peers in its strategic group. Furthermore, the performance of one strategic group was significantly lower than that of the second.

  5. Alston's Concept of Justification

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The controversy between "internalism" and "externalism" is one of the most heated in epistemology. At stake is what confers justification (or warrant) or on what converts true belief into knowledge. Although most epistemologists are epistemic internalists or externalists, a few purport to reconcile these apparently disparate epistemic positions. Most notable of these synthesizers is William Alston. He argues that to be justified in believing that p is for that belief to be based on some acces...

  6. Justification and Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymanek Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In her paper “Argumentation theory and the conception of epistemic justification”, Lilian Bermejo-Luque presents a critique of deductivism in argumentation theory, as well as her own concept of epistemic justification inspired by the views of Stephen Toulmin. Reading this paper induced me to reflect on the mutual relation between the notions of justification and argumentation. In this work I would like to first draw the reader’s attention to a few issues which seem debatable to me, or which I find worth presenting from a slightly different point of view than that of Lilian Bermejo-Luque. I agree that deductivism is not suitable for a general theory of evaluation of arguments although the critique of deductivism presented by the Author appears as not fully adequate to me. Then I proceed to presenting my doubts about the “conception of justification as a proper outcome of good argumentation” presented in the work. I need to emphasise that due to a broad range of topics addressed by me in this short paper, the description of some of them will be neither fully precise nor exhaustive.

  7. Identifying Special Operations as a Distinct Foreign Policy Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anton Asklund

    2017-01-01

    This chapter briefly discusses political premises for the question asked and secondly provides a condensed research review that relate to the question. The author discusses questions on civilian control and the advancement of special operations and finds it specifically important for SOF to be able...... to clarify and explain what special operations strategic qualities exactly are. The author then elaborates on specific elements of special operations with a point of departure in the “cognitive maps of SOF” as formulated in the research question. The author recommends that in order to influence policy...... on special operations, it is essential to have insight into the instrument’s capabilities and limitations, as this provides the prerequisites for sound contextual strategic analysis....

  8. Selecting Foreign Languages for United States Army Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    Portugal 170,000,000 7 RUSSIAN [RUS] Russia 170,000,000 8 JAPANESE [JPN] Japan 125,000,000 9 GERMAN, STANDARD [GER] Germany 98,000,000 10 CHINESE, WU...took place (Birtle 2004, Ch 2). Operations in Mexico, Cuba, Russia , and the Philippines are examples of US expeditionary forces deployed to areas...Department of the Army civilians, and retirees. The programs available are free of charge and are for either beginners or people seeking to increase or

  9. Foreign Language Short Course: Special Operations Clinical Research Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklein-Kemplin, Kate; Bowling, F

    When we do not know a language, we are at the mercy of an interpreter. The same is true for research: Special Operations Forces (SOF) clinicians not actively involved in research initiatives may rely on scientific interpreters, so it is important to speak some of the language personally. For any clinician, using evidence in practice requires a working knowledge of how that evidence was generated from research, which requires an understanding of research science language. Here we review common basics of research science to reinforce concepts and elements of experimental and nonexperimental research. 2017.

  10. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  11. Theoretical Justification of Regulating International Trade and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The theory of comparative advantage has been advocated to justify the immense benefits that ... of international trade, and the operating rules and systems require periodic analysis and justification.

  12. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  13. 17 CFR 270.3a-5 - Exemption for subsidiaries organized to finance the operations of domestic or foreign companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organized to finance the operations of domestic or foreign companies. 270.3a-5 Section 270.3a-5 Commodity..., INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-5 Exemption for subsidiaries organized to finance the operations of domestic or foreign companies. (a) A finance subsidiary will not be considered an investment company...

  14. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  15. Retained foreign bodies: a serious threat in the Indian operation room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G; Bigelow, Jc

    2014-01-01

    Retained foreign bodies (RFBs) are a surgical complication resulting from foreign materials accidently left in a patient's body. This review attempts to give an overview of different types of RFBs, problems related to them and their management after the surgical operation. The internet was searched using the Google and Google scholar. In addition, relevant electronic journals from the University's library such as Entrez (including PubMed and PubMed central), Since Direct, Scirus, NIH.gov, Medknow.com, Medscape.com, Scopus, MedHelp.org, Cochrane library, WebMD.com, and World Health Organization Hinari. It shows that the major reasons of RFBs are emergency surgical operation with unplanned changes, patient high body mass index, and poor communication. To prevent this textile material should be radiopaque marked and must be counted once at the start and twice at the conclusion of all surgical procedures. If the count is incorrect, then radiography or manually re-exploration should be performed. Ultrasonography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and radio frequency identification are also used in the proper identification of RFBs. Safety practice should be robust and simple enough to protect patient under the most chaotic of circumstances. Proper communication among the personnel participating in surgery aimed at preventing this medical negligence would help in mitigating such errors. Finally, the surgeon should not only follow the standard recommended procedure, but also report cases of RFBs.

  16. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985 Submitted to Congress February 1984. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 2. Budget Activity 7. Central Supply and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    and technical deficiencies for the PHMs, a new class of high-speed missile-carrying hydrofoils . 2. Inputs/Outputs A. Surf. Cmbt...following schedule shows the funding plan by type of operation: Air Water Noise Solid Waste Pesticides Ecology Baseline Surveys ADp Support

  17. 77 FR 42945 - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 570(e) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of July 11, 2012 Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 570(e) of the... of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the function and authority specified in section 570(e) of the Foreign Operations,...

  18. Foreign Affairs Information System (FAIS) Early Operational Capability (EOC) network security criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-12

    The Joint Center for Information Security Technology (JCIST) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, under an interagency agreement between the Department of State (DOS) and the Department of Energy (DOE), has been tasked with the security certification testing of the Foreign Affairs Information system (FAIS) Early Operational Capability (EOC) software. The basis for this certification is the FAIS (EOC) Security Requirements Allocation (SRA) document. This document defines the security requirements for the FAIS EOC software. Security certification of the FAIS system is the responsibility of the Office of Information Systems Security, Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS/ST/ISS). The overall FAIS EOC certification will be completed in two general steps. First, a test of a stand-alone FAIS EOC system against the SRA requirements which is currently in progress. Second is a test of all FAIS network system interfaces against the SRA requirements as expanded to adequately address the network security issues. This accumulation of requirements is referred to as the FAIS EOC Network Security Criteria. 5 refs.

  19. CORRELATES OF EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION WITH PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM IN FOREIGN MNC BPOs OPERATING IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERALD MONIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an empirical study of five foreign MNC BPO firms operating in India, ranked among the top 100 by the International Association of Outsourcing Professionals (IAOP for the year 2009. The data was collected using quantitative methods from 163 employees constituting 1% of the population under study. The level of satisfaction among the respondents towards the performance appraisal system is at 69.94 per cent. Regression analysis, using a significance level of 5 per cent, shows that three of the variables used in the study are significantly influencing the satisfaction and all these three significant variables are positively associated with satisfaction and all other variables have emerged as the insignificant variables. All the variables used in our study collectively account for 42.6 per cent of the satisfaction. The factor analysis has identified four factors: the variables of factor one contribute 34.786 per cent variation, followed by 12.788 per cent, 11.961 per cent and 8.389 per cent variation being contributed by factor two, three and four respectively.

  20. 16 CFR 240.15 - Cost justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost justification. 240.15 Section 240.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.15 Cost justification. It is no defense to...

  1. Special Operations Forces Language and Culture Needs Assessment: Foreign Language Proficiency Bonus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    Assessment Project collected current-state information about language usage , proficiency, training, and policy issues (e.g., Foreign Language Proficiency...immersion opportunities o Definition: Provided with more opportunities to participate in immersion training  “More immersion availabilties to enhance

  2. Justification for a Standardised Zoological Nomenclature: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justification for a Standardised Zoological Nomenclature: The Fascinating World of Animal Common Names. ... Ghana Journal of Science ... by the beginning of the 19th century, became the final authority on naming animals worldwide.

  3. Exploring the Application of Capital Facility Investment Justification Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Karić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades now, the models for identifying and quantifying the level of risk of investment projects and investment justification evaluation have been the subject of investigation by members of professional and research communities. It is important to quantify the level of risk because by evaluating investment justification in terms of the risks involved, the decision-maker (investor is able to choose from available alternatives the one that will achieve the most favourable ratio of expected profit to the assumed risk. In this way, the economic entity can raise its productivity, profitability and the quality of business operation in general. The aim of this paper was to investigate the extent to which medium and large companies have been using modern methods of investment justification evaluation in their decision-making process and determine the level of quality of the application of the selected methods in practice. The study was conducted on a sample of medium and large enterprises in the eastern Croatia during 2011 and 2012, and it was established that despite the fact that a large number of modern investment project profitability and risk assessment models have been developed, the level of their application in practice is not high enough. The analyzed investment proposals included only basic methods of capital budgeting without risk assessment. Hence, it was concluded that individual investors were presented with low-quality and incomplete investment justification evaluation results on the basis of which the decisions of key importance for the development of the economic entity as a whole were made. This paper aims to underline the need for financial managers to get informed and educate themselves about contemporary investment project profitability and risk assessment models as well as the need to create educational programmes and computer solutions that will encourage key people in companies to acquire new knowledge and apply modern

  4. Corporate governance in banks operating in Serbia with the majority foreign capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance attached to successful corporate governance in banks derives primarily from the importance that the banks have in the financial and economic system of the country. Namely, banks are the only legally authorized depositing institutions and as such are the main generators of savings and financing for the needs of economy by supplying it with the working capital, in view of a relatively small share that the capital market has in the economic system. During many years of sanctions, isolation and bombardment, our companies have remained without working capital. In addition, the advent of foreign investments often does not imply that the parent companies are providing sufficient working capital, but this capital must be provided from the domestic banks. What derives from such a role of banks is their immediate responsibility for proper allocation of free funds to the economy and their best deployment.

  5. Ultimate justification: Wittgenstein and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J

    1995-02-01

    Decisions must be justified. In medical ethics various grounds are given to justify decisions, but ultimate justification seems illusory and little considered. The philosopher Wittgenstein discusses the problem of ultimate justification in the context of general philosophy. His comments, nevertheless, are pertinent to ethics. From a discussion of Wittgensteinian notions, such as 'bedrock', the idea that 'ultimate' justification is grounded in human nature as such is derived. This discussion is relevant to medical ethics in at least five ways: it shows generally what type of certainty there is in practical ethics; it seems to imply some objective foundation to our ethical judgements; it squares with our experience of making ethical decisions; it shows something of the nature of moral arguments; and, finally, it has implications for teaching medicine and ethics.

  6. Justification and radiology: some ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology.

  7. 12 CFR 211.30 - Criteria for evaluating U.S. operations of foreign banks not subject to consolidated supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bank's overall financial condition; (9) The managerial resources of the foreign bank, including the... the foreign bank generally and its role in the banking system in its home country; (12) The...

  8. Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he a...

  9. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  10. Organizing for Disaster: Improving U.S. Foreign Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    responded to the complex emergency in Somalia with an airlift of food in July 1992 and with Operation Restore Hope in December, when the situation continued...Unpublished Masters Thesis. AFIT/ GMO /ENS/ 01E/5. Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: 2001. Hinson, David R

  11. Psychological Operations Exploitation of Foreign Internal Defense in order to Develop Enduring Strategic Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Bi -Lateral Training activities that support the Geographic Combatant Commands (GCC’s) Theater Security Cooperation programs.47 The preponderance of...and conduct cohesive bi -lateral operations while also forging an enduring opportunity with global partners. All of the experts agree that SFODA is the...observations), methods of research (e.g., experiments, ethnography), and related philosophical issues (e.g., ontology , epistemology, axiology).73

  12. Combat Literacy: Creating a Command Climate With Greater Appreciation for the Operational Role of Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    helps soldiers overcome the tendency to assume that “smart” people speak English in any country – allowing them to appreciate communication...functioning outside of the English language to achieve operational objectives. In assessing how well the U.S. military is doing, one finds a... pronunciation tips on an iPod, the avenues for acquiring language are manifold and diverse in their intent.41 Elaborate language learning efforts

  13. Working class conservatism: a system justification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T

    2017-08-12

    Working class conservatism is a perennial issue in social science, but researchers have struggled to provide an adequate characterization. In social psychology, the question has too often been framed in 'either/or' terms of whether the disadvantaged are more or less likely to support the status quo than the advantaged. This is a crude rendering of the issue obscuring the fact that even if most working class voters are not conservative, millions are-and conservatives could not win elections without their support. System justification theory highlights epistemic, existential, and relational needs to reduce uncertainty, threat, and social discord that are shared by everyone-and that promote conservative attitudes. I summarize qualitative and quantitative evidence of system justification among the disadvantaged and consider prospects for more constructive political activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [ETHICAL PRINCIPALS AND A POSTERIORI JUSTIFICATIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Monica

    2015-12-01

    It is difficult to conceive that the human being, while being the same everywhere, could be cared for in such different ways in other societies. Anthropologists acknowledge that the diversity of cultures implies a diversity of moral values, thus that in a multicultural society the individual could draw upon different moral frames to justify the peculiarities of her/his demand of care. But how could we determine what is the moral frame that catalyzes behaviour while all we can record are a posteriori justifications of actions? In most multicultural societies where several moralframes coexist, there is an implicit hierarchy between ethical systems derived from a hierarchy of power which falsifies these a posteriori justifications. Moreover anthropologists often fail to acknowledge that individual behaviour does not always reflect individual values, but is more often the result of negotiations between the moralframes available in society and her/his own desires and personal experience. This is certainly due to the difficulty to account for a dynamic and complex interplay of moral values that cannot be analysed as a system. The impact of individual experience on the way individuals give or receive care could also be only weakly linked to a moral system even when this reference comes up explicitly in the a posteriori justifications.

  15. A grid to facilitate physics staffing justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eric E

    2009-12-03

    Justification of clinical physics staffing levels is difficult due to the lack of direction as how to equate clinical needs with the staffing levels and competency required. When a physicist negotiates staffing requests to administration, she/he often refers to American College of Radiology staffing level suggestions, and resources such as the Abt studies. This approach is often met with questions as to how to fairly derive the time it takes to perform tasks. The result is often insufficient and/or inexperienced staff handling complex and cumbersome tasks. We undertook development of a staffing justification grid to equate the clinical needs to the quantity and quality of staffing required. The first step is using the Abt study, customized to the clinical setting, to derive time per task multiplied by the anticipated number of such tasks. Inclusion of vacation, meeting, and developmental time may be incorporated along with allocated time for education and administration. This is followed by mapping the tasks to the level of competency/experience needed. For example, in an academic setting the faculty appointment levels correlate with experience. Non-staff personnel, such as IMRT QA technicians or clerical staff, should also be part of the equation. By using the staffing justification grid, we derived strong documentation to justify a substantial budget increase. The grid also proved useful when our clinical demands changed. Justification for physics staffing can be significantly strengthened with a properly developed data-based time and work analysis. A staffing grid is presented, along with a development methodology that facilitated our justification. Though our grid is for a large academic facility, the methodology can be extended to a non-academic setting, and to a smaller scale. This grid method not only equates the clinical needs with the quantity of staffing, but can also help generate the personnel budget, based on the type of staff and personnel required

  16. Justification of parameters and selection of equipment for laboratory researches of a rammer's operating element dynamics in a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil products storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzin, A. V.; Gruzin, V. V.; Shalay, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The development of technology for a directional soil compaction of tank foundations for oil and oil products storage is a relevant problem which solution will enable simultaneously provide required operational characteristics of a soil foundation and reduce time and material costs to prepare the foundation. The impact dynamics of rammers' operating elements on the soil foundation is planned to specify in the course of laboratory studies. A specialized technique is developed to justify the parameters and select the equipment for laboratory researches. The usage of this technique enabled us to calculate dimensions of the models, of a test bench and specifications of the recording equipment, and a lighting system. The necessary equipment for laboratory studies was selected. Preliminary laboratory tests were carried out. The estimate of accuracy for planned laboratory studies was given.

  17. The System Justification Conundrum : Re-Examining the Cognitive Dissonance Basis for System Justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owuamalam, Chuma K.; Rubin, Mark; Spears, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In a landmark 1994 publication in the British Journal of Social Psychology, Jost and Banaji proposed the existence of a novel, fundamental system justification motive that drives social behaviors. More specifically, they proposed (a) that people have an epistemic need to support social hierarchies a

  18. The System Justification Conundrum : Re-Examining the Cognitive Dissonance Basis for System Justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owuamalam, Chuma K.; Rubin, Mark; Spears, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In a landmark 1994 publication in the British Journal of Social Psychology, Jost and Banaji proposed the existence of a novel, fundamental system justification motive that drives social behaviors. More specifically, they proposed (a) that people have an epistemic need to support social hierarchies

  19. Cost Justification for Investing in LEED Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparkling, Anthony E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability, or “green” building, has been examined across disciplines and continues to be at the forefront of global organizations’ and governments’ commitment to promote energy and environmental stewardship. As it relates to construction, this term has been defined and developed by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC. This Green Building certification body has developed a green building rating system for building construction, referred to as LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. The practice of constructing building facilities that meet LEED certification standards implies the overall goal of “meeting our building needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” (WCED, 1987. The objective of this study is to determine key cost justifications informing the pursuit of LEED certification, and to ascertain the level of satisfaction of owners as to the value of LEED. The study comprises 30 LEED-certified buildings that are owner occupied, and a survey to determine which cost justifications associated with LEED construction participants favored.

  20. Analysis and Accounting of Hedging of a Net Investment in a Foreign Operation Process in the concept of Turkish Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Öztürk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in line with developments in the financial markets, financial instruments developed rapidly. As a result of this development, how to classify financial instruments, recognition of these principles has become important. As a result of the every day increase in types of financial instruments, financial risks have emerged. Especially after the end of the Bretton Woods system that based on fixed exchange rates in 1970’s, entities faced the financial risk. IAS 39 gathered financial risks faced by businesses in the financial markets in three groups. These risks are risk arising from financial instruments at fair value and risk arising from cash flows and risk arising from the net investment in a foreign operation. Preventing from the risk arising from the net investment in a foreign operation hedge that composes the subject of this study and also one type of prevention from financial risk, is explained in Turkish Accounting Standards TAS 21 and TAS 39. The implementation section of this study, one of the varieties of hedging, hedge accounting is an example of a net investment in a foreign operation. Example implementation is divided into three sections. In the first part, the increase and decreases at the exchange rates that arised from the position in which the entity made investment does not make forward contracts arised exchange rates are shown. In the second part of our application, the accounting records related to forward contract made for preventing from net investment risk are shown, and how the forward contract prevent the entity from net investment risk is explained. In the final part of the implementation, the disposal of the net investment in a foreign country and it’s results are shown.

  1. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  2. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  3. Justifications and Excuses in the Economic Analysis of Tort Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In the economic analysis of tort law, scant attention is paid to justifications and excuses. An injurer invoking a justification argues that he did not act wrongfully. Excuses imply that the injurer acted wrongfully, but that his act cannot be imputed to him. If torts are descr

  4. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  5. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  6. Missed duodenal web with foreign body impaction in an operated case of midgut malrotation with Down′s syndrome - A diagnosis delayed by endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushnakumar Kesan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available "Always look for duodenal obstruction in a case of malrotation", this dictum has to be followed. The patient was operated for midgut malrotation at day 2 of life followed by foreign body removal by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at 2 years of age. We report atwo and half year male child with Down′s syndrome who presented to us with history suggestive of recurrent upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction. During surgery a post sphincteric duodenum web was confirmed and foreign body (berry seed which had impacted proximal to it was removed. The web was excised and the duodenum, split longitudinally, sutured transversely. The postoperative course was uneventful and patient is asymptomatic at follow up. This case illustrates that diagnosis was delayed for 2΍ years after initial presentation in early neonatal age.

  7. 77 FR 40790 - Republic of Tunisia Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 232 Republic of Tunisia Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Department of State, Foreign... conditions applicable to loan guarantees issued for the benefit of the Republic of Tunisia pursuant to the..., acting on behalf of the Republic of Tunisia (the ``Borrower''). The loan guarantees shall insure...

  8. Foreign investment to be attracted into railway construction and operation%中国吸引外资参与铁路建设与运营

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ According to Chinese railway officials in Beijing, China's railways will open wider to foreign investment this year. The railway freight transport market has officially opened to foreign investment. While allowing sino-foreign joint ventures in freight transport, China will employ measures in favour of foreign investment in railway construction.

  9. Management's performance justification and failure to meet earnings thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Aerts, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We examine the intensity of management's performance justification as a remedial narrative impression management device, by investigating the association between behavioural earnings thresholds and causal language intensity on earnings-related outcomes in annual management commentary reports. Not me

  10. Dimensions of Justice and Justification in EU and Transnational Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin-Karnell, Ester; Kjær, Poul F.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction to this special issue presents and explains the main idea behind each contribution to this collection of papers. Specifically, this special issue explores a grammar of justice and justification through political theory, legal and sociological perspectives, and discusses...

  11. 国外电信运营商大数据应用及启示%Big Data Application and Revelation of Foreign Telecom Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雪菲

    2015-01-01

    Based on case analysis on big data application of foreign telecom operators, the feasible business mode of big data at present was generalized. It was pointed out that domestic telecom operators should apply big data to construction of “smart city” to accomplish transformation.%通过对国外电信运营商大数据应用案例的分析,归纳出当前时代背景下可行的大数据商业模式,指出国内电信运营商可着重应用大数据助力“智慧城市”建设,实现自身转型。

  12. Complementary stereotyping of ethnic minorities predicts system justification in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Winiewski, M.; Bilewicz, Michal; Bukowski, M.; Jost, John T.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of complementary stereotyping of ethnic minorities in Poland and its relationship to system justification. Using results from a nationally representative survey we test the hypothesis that complementary stereotypes—according to which ethnic minorities are seen as possessing distinctive, offsetting strengths and weaknesses—would be associated with system justification among Polish majority citizens. For four minorities, results indicated that stereotyping them as ...

  13. Foreign Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Lee W.

    2006-01-01

    The admirable ideal of "total" immersion in a foreign culture privileges students who plan early on for foreign study, establish early language fluency and elect majors and activities that make it easier to leave campus. Other students often find that they lack the language skills to qualify for many foreign programs or are unable to reconcile…

  14. The Operation Mechanisms of External Quality Assurance Frameworks of Foreign Higher Education and Implications for Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mengquan; Chang, Kai; Gong, Le

    2016-01-01

    The higher education quality evaluation and assurance frameworks and their operating mechanisms of countries such as the United Kingdom, France, and the United States show that higher education systems, traditional culture, and social background all impact quality assurance operating mechanisms. A model analysis of these higher education quality…

  15. Foreign Firms Partner Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ There is an important strategic adjustment occurring on the part of foreign dairy companies seeking to capitalize on the China market. Rather than going it alone,with local partnerships little more than an entry mechanism,global giants such as Danone,Arla, and Fonterra are taking advantage of the country's more relaxed foreign investment rules by upping their stakes in established local firms and expanding the role they play in business and industrial operations.

  16. Justification of application of new types of fastening of slopes of hydraulic engineering constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyvalov Anatoly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the analysis of various types of fastenings of the soil slopes which have found broad application in the hydrotechnical construction practice for the last 10-15 years. It is noted that, generally, new types of fastenings represent composite materials made of concrete, metal and polymers. Experience shows that producers of the construction materials used in bank protection designs seek to recommend them for the solution of a wide range of tasks, at the same time it isn’t always founded. The authors, on the basis of the analysis of experience with the types of fastenings and also modern domestic and foreign recommendations about their design and construction, offer a technique of justification of new types of fastenings of slopes of hydraulic engineering constructions. The use of concrete filled geotextile mats in bank protection is brought out as a practical realization of the represented technique.

  17. Leaders' use of moral justifications increases policy support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zant, Alex B; Moore, Don A

    2015-06-01

    Leaders must choose how to justify their organization's actions to stakeholders. We differentiate moral frames, or justifications based on moral values, from pragmatic frames, or justifications based on practical costs and benefits. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we found that moral policy frames elicited more support than pragmatic frames across a variety of scenarios. This effect was mediated by the perception that leaders who offer moral justifications possess relatively greater moral character. In Experiment 2, we found that perceptions of a leader's private motives had a stronger influence on policy support than did the leader's public stance. Experiment 3 demonstrated that, irrespective of how a policy was framed, people were most supportive of a policy championed by a leader high in moral character. In Experiment 4, we documented an additional benefit of moral policy frames: They allow leaders to mitigate the moral outrage generated by reneging on a policy.

  18. Justification of staff positions in a tightening marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, C

    1988-01-01

    Recend economic and political changes in the health care environment have made justification of both new and vacant staff positions increasingly difficult. Occupational therapy managers have been forced with balancing higher program costs with reduced reimbursement. As a result, requests to increase or refill positions are closely scrutinized. Managers must be able to develop staff justifications utilizing program, productivity, wst, revenue and reimbursement projections based on viable marketing surveys. This paer resents guidelines for development of a marketing survey. &a& and rogram options based on the results of such a survey are examine ! and discussed. A staffing justification proposal is included which demonstrates an effective method whtch can use to develop dynamic programs and services to ensure continued growth of the profession of occupational therapy.nd=yes&

  19. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  20. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  1. Foreign Tour Operators and Travel Agents Knowledge of a Potential Tourism Destination: The Vojvodina Region of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mulec

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vojvodina is an autonomous region of Serbia, and has the potential tobecome a successful tourism destination. Twenty years of changes haveelapsed since the disintegration of Yugoslavia, and destination plannersin Vojvodina are now looking to accommodate visitors and generateservice related jobs. The method for collecting data was through surveyresponses from those in the travel industry. The objective for conductingthis research is to analyze the knowledge and awareness of the developingdestination of Vojvodina. From here, it is possible to get a senseof the region’s awareness, and role tour operators and travel agents actas opinion makers in promoting destinations to their clientele. Resultssuggest that Vojvodina is not known as a tourism destination amongforeign travel experts; furthermore, this would suggest that their clientelebase is not informed of this region of Serbia as a tourism destination.Although not known, this is better than having a negative image.With a non-image, tour operators and travel agents then have the abilityto creatively market and promote an image that will generate furtherawareness of the Vojvodina region as an emerging tourism destination.

  2. In between St. Augustine and Luther: Grace and justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The view presented in this study emphasized grace as a cause of spiritual strength and justification of man. In understanding the deep meaning and nature of grace, this paper analyzes the formations given on the subject by two great minds, St. Augustine and Martin Luther. Because of the great influence of their work on the theology of grace and justification, this paper attempts to seek whether man’s understanding and belief of prudence would mean nothing at all, that any good that he will perform on his behalf would do nothing for his own justification. Thus it raises the question on the purpose of man’s freedom if his proprium is nothing and that divine prudence is the source of everything good. This led to the idea that grace is the primary energy source of man to make good, not by his own, but by divine prudence to obtain justification. Therefore, in this sense there is nothing good in man.

  3. Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2010-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions of e...

  4. Maintaining Legitimacy: Controversies, Orders of Worth and Public Justifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patriotta, G.; Gond, J.-P.; Schultz, F.

    2011-01-01

    We build on Boltanski and Thévenot's theory of justification to account for the ways in which different stakeholder groups actively engage with discourses and objects to maintain the legitimacy of institutions that are relevant to their activity. We use this framework to analyse a controversy emergi

  5. Dewey's Ethical Justification for Public Deliberation Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John

    2013-01-01

    Interpretations of John Dewey's political theory grasp his respect for public deliberation, but typically overlook his ethical justification for democracy. Dewey gave two primary reasons why democracy is superior to other forms of government. First, a public educated in the tools of social intelligence can be more effective at managing their…

  6. ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…

  7. Confirmation and justification. A commentary on Shogenji's measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David

    2012-01-01

    So far no known measure of confirmation of a hypothesis by evidence has satisfied a minimal requirement concerning thresholds of acceptance. In contrast, Shogenji's new measure of justification (Shogenji, Synthese, this number 2009) does the trick. As we show, it is ordinally equivalent to the most

  8. Multi-agent Justification Logic : communication and evidence elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renne, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a logic combining , a framework for reasoning about multi-agent communication, with a new multi-agent version of , a framework for reasoning about evidence and justification. This novel combination incorporates a new kind of that cleanly meshes with the multi-agent communications

  9. Choosing a Strategy for Return-on-Investment Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshay, Wellesley R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concept of human capital, including how it is linked to strategic analysis and how it relates to four alternative models for return-on-investment (ROI). Discusses how to choose the best model for ROI justification of training or other human performance technology (HPT) interventions. (AEF)

  10. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  11. 41 CFR 109-26.501-52 - Justification for purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Justification for purchase. 109-26.501-52 Section 109-26.501-52 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... purchase. (a) Requisitions for additions to the passenger motor vehicle fleet must contain adequate...

  12. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  13. Adolescents' and Mothers' Evaluations of Justifications for Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1991-01-01

    Used vignettes and self-reports to examine adolescents' and mothers' reasoning about family conflicts. Found that mothers and adolescents differentially evaluated reasons for parental requests and adolescent noncompliance. They also differed in their judgments of the likelihood of particular justifications succeeding or leading to conflict. (BC)

  14. Kierkegaard, Justification and the Integrity of Christian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    The doctrine of justification is frequently interpreted in a manner that excludes our active involvement in the drama of salvation. This reading has a detrimental effect on Christian education concerned to enable the learner's attentive, reasonable and responsible understanding of the Gospel. Taking its lead from Kierkegaard's account of…

  15. [Information analytical support of the US Armed Forces Medical Service at the theater of operations (review of foreign online publications)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, A A; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Kuvakin, V I

    2013-05-01

    The current article is dedicated to the modern state of information analytical support of the US Armed Forces Medical Service at the theater of operations. It is shown that at the present time for that purpose it is employed the Joint Theater Medical Information Program (TMIP) which integrates all medically significant information in a single system. The described program covers the whole evacuation chain, specifically, wounded registration on the battle field, treatment conduction at the stages of evacuation, including the aeromobile evacuation, treatment and rehabilitation at specialized establishments in the United States, subsequent veteran care after retirement. It also provides paperless documents circulation and telemedicine needs, takes into consideration the certain Armed Forces components peculiarities, satisfies the information analytical requirements of the commanding body of the medical service. The main TMIP subprograms are introduced, namely: AHLTA, TMDS, MSAT, TMIP-M, MMM, TC2, NCAT, and the basic providing and supporting unit DHIMS is described. Finally, it is mentioned that currently the TMIP project starts to be used not only on the battlefield but at the garrisons as well and it is supposed that it will gradually expand to the entire national health care system.

  16. The Behavioral Bias of Foreign Debt Usage in Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    Euro (forward contract) or borrows in US dollars (foreign debt) instead of borrowing in Euro makes no difference in foreign exchange exposure terms. Accordingly, Géczy et al. (1997) note that foreign debt can act as a hedge of foreign revenues and displace the need to hedge with derivatives. We analyze......We investigate the behavioral bias in the use of debt denominated in foreign currency (foreign debt) in managing foreign exchange risks. From a strictly financial (rational) point of view foreign debt and derivates are close substitutes. Whether e.g. a European firm sells forward US dollars against...... foreign exchange risk management in medium-sized, non-financial firms in Denmark and find a behavioral bias in the use of foreign debt. Among the firms that are internationally involved (operating revenues, costs and/or assets in foreign currency), on average a quarter of the financial debt is denominated...

  17. Justification doctrine in the prohibition on torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggott, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the legacy of a justification doctrine evident in early international jurisprudence that set the threshold for treatment prohibited under international law as torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment [hereafter the prohibition], excusing from its reach deliberately inflicted, potentially severe, suffering proportionately inflicted for a legitimate purpose. Debates over a 'threshold' at which point the prohibition engages, or at which point 'inhumane' treatment reaches a level sufficient to be deemed 'torture', typically invoke an implicit 'severity' threshold. This paper is not primarily concerned with severity or the instrumentality of any 'severity threshold' either in engaging the prohibition or in distinguishing categories of prohibited treatment. Neither is the article concerned directly with the legal distinction between categories of prohibited treatment (i.e. the distinction between 'torture', other 'inhuman', or even any subcategory 'degrading' treatment). Rather the article focuses on the distinction between (i) treatment prohibited, as either torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading, and (ii) treatment prima facie 'justified'. What the article looks at is the operation of a 'justification' threshold in triggering the prohibition, one that understands 'justified' treatment as never reaching the level of, or never amounting to inhuman, cruel or degrading treatment under the prohibition. The article interprets the current prohibition on torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment as one on 'unjustified' inflicted suffering, suggesting that the notion of 'justifiability' active in this definition is problematic in encouraging arguments seeking to circumvent the protection afforded under the prohibition. In the absence of a clearly defined notion of the 'victim', or circumscribed class afforded protection, this paper both identifies and addresses a correlation between (i) a broadly inclusive contextual scope for

  18. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  19. Enterprise imaging: planning and business justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrin, David; Hou, Stephanie W

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate financial performance, academic radiology departments most often measure examination volume and general technical and professional expenses. Although these metrics are not standardized, their frequency of use reflects that productivity and financial health are high priorities for academic radiology departments across the United States. In this article, we discuss both of these topics, in the context of projects to expand services, particularly those with an information technology (IT) component. First, we discuss several informatics innovations that increase productivity or expand service. Second, we explain core financial analysis concepts applicable to radiology departments. Third, we discuss the unique challenge of evaluating a potential IT project for an academic radiology department, when intangible benefits are difficult to quantify. Financial models are only one of several components used for guidance in strategic decisions, but are crucial to building a business case that justifies the initial or capital investment as well as startup and ongoing operational expenses. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ideology and gender: observers' system justification and targets' gender as interactive predictors of citizenship expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaburu, Dan S; Harris, T Brad; Smith, Troy A

    2014-01-01

    We integrate system justification and social role theory to explain how observers' system justification and target employees' gender interact to predict observers' expectations of targets' sportsmanship citizenship behaviors. In contrast with social role theory predictions, observers did not expect greater levels of sportsmanship from women compared to men. Yet observers expected more sportsmanship from women (a) when observers were ideologically motivated by gender-specific beliefs (gender-specific system justification; Study 1) and (b) when system justification was cued experimentally (Study 2). A heretofore-unexamined aspect, observers' ideology, modifies their expectations of sportsmanship citizenship across target genders. This has implications for system justification, social role, and organizational citizenship theoretical perspectives.

  1. National Survey on Justification of CT-examinations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Leitz, Wolfram; Richter, Sven

    2009-02-15

    All examinations in diagnostic radiology shall be justified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of the patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the degree of justification for CT-examinations in Sweden. Referrals for all examinations performed during one day were retrospectively evaluated by a group of physicians. The study was designed and conducted by a project group lead by prof. Haakan Jorulf. The authors of this report have derived the results and conclusions on the basis of the data and are responsible for the content of this report. The principle result was that approximately 20 % of all examinations were not justified. The degree of justification varied strongly with organ examined, moderately with prescriber affiliation and weakly with geographical region. If unjustified examinations could be avoided a large dose reduction for the population would be achieved. This study shows that there is a need for improvements and the authority will continue to work with this issue

  2. Mathematical justification of the Aharonov-Bohm hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Cesar R

    2008-01-01

    It is presented, in the framework of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, a justification of the usual Aharonov-Bohm hamiltonian (with solenoid of radius greater than zero). This is obtained by way of increasing sequences of finitely long solenoids together with a natural impermeability procedure; further, both limits commute. Such rigorous limits are in the strong resolvent sense and in both $\\R^2$ and $\\R^3$ spaces.

  3. THE CLINICAL ANALYSIS ON 76 CASES OF OPERATION OF TRACHEOBRONCHIAL FOREIGN BODY IN CHILDREN'S TRACHEA%小儿气管支气管异物手术76例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万明; 林世龙; 赵晓

    2011-01-01

    [目的]对76例小儿气管、支气管异物手术进行临床分析,以期提高诊治率.[方法]回顾分析2008年1月~2010年1月间收治的76例小儿气管、支气管异物的临床资料,对患儿年龄、性别、异物种类、诊断及手术进行分析.[结果] 75例患儿均经支气管镜一次成功取出异物,1例因术中异物上端支气管黏膜肿胀阻塞支气管未找到异物,经抗炎3d后再次手术取出.气管、支气管异物主要发生于1-3岁小儿,男孩发病高于女孩,花生和葵花籽是最常见的异物.1例气管异物患儿到医院时已出现心跳呼吸停止,经抢救无效死亡,未计入住院病例.[结论]明确的异物吸入史是诊断的重要依据,多层CT加三维重建有助于确定异物的有无及部位,及时诊断、尽早行支气管镜检查取异物是治疗的关键.预防小儿气管、支气管异物的发生主要依靠加强对有小儿的家长们宣传气管异物的相关知识,防止5岁以下小儿进食花生、瓜子类食物.%[Objective] To analyze the operation of the tracheobronchial foreign body in children's trachea, and improve the rate of the diagnosis and treatment. [Methods] Form Jan. 2008 to Jan. 2010, the clinical date of 76 cases with tracheobronchial foreign body in children's trachea were analyzed. The age, sex, and foreign body range were analyzed. [Results] 75 cases were successfully taken out by operation. 1 case was no found foreign body because of bronchial mucosa with obstruction and distention. After 3 days-anti-inflammatory therapy, the foreign body was removed. The tracheobronchial foreign body was happened 1-3 children. The incidence among boys was higher than girls. Peanut and sunflower seed were the most common foreign body. 1 case died for respiratory arrest, and the patient was excluded. [Conclusion] Clear foreign body history is an important basis for diagnosis. Spiral CT and three-dimensional reconstruction can define the site of foreign body and

  4. Preparing a business justification for going electronic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A Orlando; Luyckx, Michael P

    2002-01-01

    demands based on your mission may include education and research. The investigation of options is probably the most time consuming portion of the analysis. It is in this stage where the system architecture is drafted. Important contributions must be solicited from your information technology division, radiologists and other physicians, hospital administration and any other service where the use of imaging technology information is required and beneficial. Vendors and consultants can be extremely valuable in generating workflow diagrams, which include imaging acquisition components and imaging display components. A request for proposal (RFP) may facilitate this step. A detailed inventory of imaging equipment, imaging equipment locations and use, imaging equipment DICOM compatibility, imaging equipment upgrade requirements, reading locations and user locations must be obtained and confirmed. It is a good idea to take a careful inventory of your resources during the process of investigating system architecture and financial options. An often-ignored issue is the human resource allocation that is required to implement, maintain and upgrade the system. These costs must be estimated and included in the financial analysis. Further, to predict the finances of your operation in the future, a solid understanding of your center's historical financial data is required. This will enable you to make legitimate and reasonable financial calculations using incremental volumes. The radiology center must formulate and articulate discrete clinical and business goals for the transition to a digital environment that are consistent with the institutional or enterprise mission. Once goals are set, it is possible to generate a strategic plan. It is necessary to establish individual accountability for all aspects of the planning and implementation process. A realistic timetable should be implemented. Keep in mind that this is a dynamic process; technology is rapidly changing, as are clinical

  5. 国外教师组织的目标诉求及其实现%Goals and Operational Strategies of Foreign Teachers’ Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁红蕾

    2014-01-01

    Foreign teachers’ organizations have three main functions:firstly , the economic aspects of protection function;secondly,the management or policies of the participating function;thirdly,the professional self-discipline and service function related to teachers of academic and sevices . Therefore,goals of teachers’ organizations often focus on safeguarding the interests of teachers ,promoting teacher professional standards and social status , participating in and influencing the educational policy-making and other aspects . Teachers ’ organizations in the future will play a more important role ,and those goals will be achieved through diversified development,cooperational development and other operational strategies.%国外教师组织在发展过程中具有三大功能:一是经济性方面的保护功能;二是管理或政策方面的参与功能;三是教师学术和服务有关的专业自律与服务功能。与之相适应,其目标诉求主要集中于维护教师权益、促进教师专业发展、提升教师专业水平和社会地位、参与并影响教育政策制定等方面。国外教师组织在未来将扮演更加重要的角色,其通过多元发展、合作发展等运行策略来实现自己的目标。

  6. Foreign correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, John Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of foreign news, its history, transformation and indeed its future have not been much studied. The scholarly community often calls attention to journalism's shortcomings covering the world, yet the topic has not been systematically examined across countries or over time. The need to redress this neglect and the desire to assess the impact of new media technologies on the future of journalism - including foreign correspondence - provide the motivation for this stimulating, exciting and thought-provoking book. While the old economic models supporting news have crumbled in

  7. Perceived value congruence and attitudes toward international relations and foreign policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetherell, Geoffrey; Benson, Or'Shaundra; Reyna, Christine; Brandt, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Much of the justification for granting foreign aid is to support nations and international policies promoting one's national values. However, little to no research has examined how perceptions of similarity between nations, especially value similarity, drive feelings toward other nations and policy

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...

  9. A Bayesian Justification for Random Sampling in Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Meeden

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the usual Bayesian approach to survey sampling the sampling design, plays a minimal role, at best. Although a close relationship between exchangeable prior distributions and simple random sampling has been noted; how to formally integrate simple random sampling into the Bayesian paradigm is not clear. Recently it has been argued that the sampling design can be thought of as part of a Bayesian's prior distribution. We will show here that under this scenario simple random sample can be given a Bayesian justification in survey sampling.

  10. Foreign grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program, a national research grants program, offers opportunities for support of research in Burma, Guinea, India, and Pakistan in astrophysics and earth sciences; anthropology, archeology, and related disciplines; systematic and environmental biology; and museum programs.Grants in the local currencies of the countries are awarded to U.S. institutions for research by senior scientists; collaborative programs involving host country institutions are welcome. Awards are determined on the basis of competitive scholarly review.

  11. Exploring ethical justification for self-demand amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, Floris

    2006-01-01

    Self-demand amputees are persons who need to have one or more healthy limbs or digits amputated to fit the way they see themselves. They want to rid themselves of a limb that they believe does not belong to their body-identity. The obsessive desire to have appendages surgically removed to fit an alternative body-image is medically and ethically controversial. My purpose in this paper is to provide a number of normative and professional ethical perspectives on whether or not it is possible to justify surgery for self-demand amputees. In doing so I proceed dialogically, moving between empirical context and normative theory, revealing the taken for granted normative assumptions (what I call the natural attitude--a technical term borrowed from phenomenology) that provide ethical limits to justifying the treatment of self-demand amputees. While I critically examine both Kantian responses against as well as Utilitarian responses for amputation on demand, I conclude that neither normative tradition can fully incorporate an understanding of what it is like to be a self-demand amputee. Since neither theory can justify the apparent non-rational desire of amputation on demand, ethical justification, I argue, falls short of the recognition that there may be a problem. To end, I introduce a meta-ethical idea, "the struggle for recognition," opening up the theoretical possibility of a hermeneutics of recognition before ethical justification that may be more sensitive to the problem of radical embodied difference exemplified by self-demand amputees.

  12. Foreign Views

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    When the Fourth Session of the 11th National People’s Congress was held on March 5-14 and drew the nation’s attention, expats in Beijing also followed the meeting. Beijing Review reporter Liu Xinlian interviewed foreign nationals completing their master’s degrees in public administration at School of Public Policy and Management of Tsinghua University about the government work report delivered by Premier Wen Jiabao and the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) approved at the session.

  13. Analysis of the Paternalistic Justification of an Agenda Setting Public Health Policy: The Case of Tobacco Plain Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses the paternalistic justification of the world's first mandatory tobacco plain packaging policy, which came into force in Australia in 2012. The policy is setting international precedence, with a range of developed and developing countries planning and implementing similar policies. Understanding the paternalistic dimension of the policy is therefore of imminent international importance. The policy meets important ethical benchmarks such as respect for citizens' self-interests and protection of others against harm. However, plain packaging faces a number of ethical challenges: the policy is a controversial type of paternalism; it runs partially against the harm principle; and it fails to meet key operational criteria.

  14. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyun Tan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  15. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Wenwen; Liang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose, we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  16. 30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is in an economic viability and relief... Required Reports § 203.85 What is in an economic viability and relief justification report? This report... economic viability and relief justification report must contain the following items for an oil and...

  17. Justification as a Teaching and Learning Practice: Its (Potential) Multifacted Role in Middle Grades Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Megan E.; Bartlo, Joanna; Thanheiser, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Justification is a core mathematics practice. Although the purposes of justification in the mathematician community have been studied extensively, we know relatively little about its role in K-12 classrooms. This paper documents the range of purposes identified by 12 middle grades teachers who were working actively to incorporate justification…

  18. Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.

  19. Business Reporting: How Transparency becomes a Justification Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper contributes to the discussion of the present status and future scenarios of business reporting by conducting a thorough review and analysis of state-of-the-art of the authoritative business reporting literature and also a set of specifically formulated models for voluntary reporting...... through linking disclosure to value creation is emphasized. As transparency is in the eye of the beholder, the process of developing corporate reporting practices must be concerned with reaching a common understanding and agreement between producers and consumers of such disclosures. Transparency...... is perceived as both a key objective and outcome of comprehensive business reporting. However, the concept of transparency seems to be an empty concept merely constituting a justification mechanism for actual behaviour, i.e. that disclosure instead is driven by the signalling value for the individual company...

  20. System justification and the defense of committed relationship ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martin V; Kay, Aaron C; Holmes, John G; Napier, Jaime L

    2011-08-01

    A consequential ideology in Western society is the uncontested belief that a committed relationship is the most important adult relationship and that almost all people want to marry or seriously couple (DePaulo & Morris, 2005). In the present article, we investigated the extent to which the system justification motive may contribute to the adoption of this ideology. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined whether a heightened motive to maintain the status quo would increase defense of committed relationship values. In Study 3, we examined the reverse association, that is, whether a threat to committed relationship ideology would also affect sociopolitical system endorsement. As past research has found that the justification of political systems depends upon how much these systems are perceived as controlling, in Study 4 we tested whether the defense of the system of committed relationships would also increase when framed as controlling. Results from Studies 1-4 were consistent with our hypotheses, but only for men. In Study 5, using cross-cultural data, we sought to replicate these findings correlationally and probe for a cause of the gender effect. Results from more than 33,000 respondents indicated a relationship (for men) between defense of the sociopolitical system and defense of marriage in countries where the traditional advantages of men over women were most threatened. In Studies 6 and 7, we investigated when this gender difference disappears. Results revealed that when we measured (Study 6) or manipulated (Study 7) personal relationship identity rather than relationship ideology, effects also emerge for women.

  1. Bohai Prominent for Cooperation with Foreign Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Qingbing; Wang Zhan; Du Genqi

    1997-01-01

    @@ Bohai Oilfields started to cooperate with foreign firms earlier than other oil fields. From 1980 up to now, Bohai Oilfields has signed 14 petroleum cooperation contracts with 18 foreign oil firms from Japan, France, the United States and Britain. The total investment for cooperative exploration and development is nearly $1.5 billion. In addition, Bohai Oilfields,taking various forms for cooperation, has formed a number of specialized joint ventures for offshore operation in partnership with foreign technical companies.

  2. Liberal democracy and nuclear despotism: two ethical foreign policy dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Doyle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critical analysis of John Rawls's justification of liberal democratic nuclear deterrence in the post-Cold War era as found in The Law of Peoples. Rawls's justification overlooked how nuclear-armed liberal democracies are ensnared in two intransigent ethical dilemmas: one in which the mandate to secure liberal constitutionalism requires both the preservation and violation of important constitutional provisions in domestic affairs, and the other in which this same mandate requires both the preservation and violation of the liberal commitment to international legal arrangements and to the rule of law generally. On this view, the choice to violate constitutional provisions and international legal arrangements is evidence of nuclear despotism. Moreover, this choice does not imply that the ethical foreign policy dilemmas were resolved. Instead, it implies that the dilemmas force liberal democratic governments into implementing ethically paradoxical policy outcomes.

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract ... blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the ... or computed tomography (CT). top of page How is the procedure performed? There are a number of ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ... good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While foreign body removal procedures are safe and ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... soft tissues. About 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through ... account for about 80 percent of foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed ...

  7. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985 Submitted to Congress February 1984. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 3. Budget Activity 3. Intelligence & Communications. Budget Activity 8. Training, Medical & OGPA. Budget Activity 9. Administration & Assoc Acts. Budget Activity 10. Support to Other Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    el ectricity generating plants, purchased steam and hot water, heat plants, utility distribucion systems, waste systems, air conditioning and...operation of vehicles/other transportation equipment, port services (includes navigational assistance to ships, operation of service craft, degaussing...One-Time FY 1984 Costs (-22) 1) Reduction in transportation of things assncirated with establishment of three new NAVOCEANCOMTEi S -13 3 - 54

  8. Prototypical argumentative patterns in a legal context: The role of pragmatic argumentation in the justification of judicial decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.T. Feteris

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution the prototypical argumentative patterns are discussed in which pragmatic argumentation is used in the context of legal justification in hard cases. First, the function and implementation of pragmatic argumentation in prototypical argumentative patterns in legal justification are

  9. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  10. A RAISE Specification Framework and Justification assistant for the Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Xia, Yong

    1998-01-01

    . The goal of our work is two-fold:(1) to extend RSL with real-time features, and (2) to provide a specification language and tools support (e.g. a syntax and type checker, a justification assistant, etc.) for DC. A first step towards this goal, could be to combine DC and RSL achieving the power of both.......So far, we have encoded DC in RSL and set up a proof assistant tool to verify (encoded) DC formulas using the RAISE Justification tools. This paper first introduces a RAISE specification framework for DC, and then explains how the justification assistant is set up....

  11. Justification of criticism of the international financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đonlagić Dženan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As more than half a century has passed since the establishment of the international financial institutions (IMF, World Bank, this paper analyzes the opinion that these institutions have not accomplished their mission. They generally admit that they have not succeeded in the activities that they set out to accomplish, a propos of gathering funds for countries faced with economic gaps and helping them to maintain long term economic growth and development. We show that these financial institutions have done nothing to reduce poverty and financial disparities, to increase their own transparency, responsibility and management, especially with the public participation of developing countries, or to create a more effective loans system. In this paper the main goal of research is to explore the arguments pro and contra the strategic effect, policy, and working methodology of the international financial institutions in view of finding a solution to the global financial crisis and global prevalent financial problems, and also to consider the reasons for the justification or otherwise of their being part of the global financial system.

  12. Research on Development Mode of Foreign Competitive Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjiang, Zhou; Bin, Zong; Xianwu, Wu

    Adopting literature material method, survey and comparative method, the paper studies foreign competitive basketball, foreign competitive basketball on behalf of the State management system model, competitive basketball reserve personnel training and development mode system. Rely on different powers of the foreign competitive basketball from amateur to professional development; different modes of foreign competitive basketball management system; foreign competitive basketball back-up personnel training mode, the model on school training in America and other countries, mainly the club training mode in European countries; foreign model of development of competitive basketball, different from social guidance, in the combination operation mode of market regulation and government administrative intervention.

  13. Operational Use of the US Army Reserve in Foreign Disaster Relief to Support the United States Government’s Strategic Use of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    in military operations over the last two decades are foundational for the USAR’s institutional agility and flexibility. Reservists are also...Assistance and Disaster Response A Monograph by MAJ Kelly J. Pajak United States Army Reserve School of Advanced Military ...PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Advanced Operational Arts Studies Fellowship, Advanced Military

  14. 高职院校中外合作办学模式和运行机制的探究%On Sino-foreign Cooperative Running Mode and Operating Mechanism in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进

    2012-01-01

    随着经济的全球化,高等教育也开始了全球化,高职院校中外合作办学逐渐兴起。以大连职业技术学院与澳大利亚霍姆斯格兰政府理工学院合作办学实践为例,结合其他高职院校合作办学经验,在剖析当前我国高职中外合作办学存在问题的基础上,提出高职中外合作办学的有效模式、运行机制和发展建议。%With the globalization of economy higher education has begun globalization.Sino-foreign cooperative running is rising in higher vocational colleges.Taking the cooperative running practice as an example between Dalian Vocational Technical College and Holmesglen Institute in Australia,this paper combines the cooperative running experience from other higher vocational colleges.On the basis of analyzing the existing problems of Sino-foreign cooperative running in our country at present,it puts forward the effective mode,operating mechanism and developing suggestion of this cooperative running.

  15. Multi-National Corporation′s Risk Management of the Foreign Exchange Funds Centralized-Operation%跨国公司外汇资金集中运营风险管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志明; 周敏辉

    2014-01-01

    As the 18th CPC report said:Chinese companies should expand overseas presence at a faster pace, enhance their opera-tion in an international environment, and develop a number of world-class multinational corporations. We should take steady steps to make interest rates and the RMB exchange rate more market-based and ensure financial stability. The State Administration of Foreign Exchange issued a″Management Regulations of Foreign Exchange Funds from Multi-National Corporation (Trial)″on April 25, 2014, so that multi-national corporations can take advantage of both domestic and international markets, coordinate the use of funds, deploy resources effectively, and guard against foreign exchange risk more effectively. Currently, the foreign exchange funds centralized-op-eration pilot of multi-national corporations has been carried out in recent years, and made obvious benefits. But it needs further dis-cussion.%党的十八大报告指出:加快走出去步伐,增强企业国际化经营能力,培育一批世界水平的跨国公司。稳步推进利率和汇率市场化改革,维护金融稳定。2014年4月25日,国家外管局印发了《跨国公司外汇资金集中运营管理规定(试行)》,使跨国公司能充分利用国际国内两个市场,统筹资金使用,高效配置资源,更能有效防范外汇风险。当前,跨国公司外汇资金集中运营试点已经进行了近三年,取得的效益有目共睹,但跨国公司施行外汇资金集中运营的风险却需要进一步探究。

  16. An Ethical Foreign Policy? Globalism as a Threat to the US National Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Daghrir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An ethical foreign policy can have no objectives other than those that are of service to its own people. An unethical foreign policy, however, may pursue objectives that enhance the nation as a power, seeking dominance for its own sake, for the honor, glory and wealth of the state or a minority within the state, or spreading its ideology out of missionary fervor. The mainstream wisdom in the United States is that the US foreign policy agendas are virtuous and ethical, since they are oriented mainly towards the protection and enhancement of the American ‘National Interest’. Nevertheless, the orthodox perception among many foreign observers is that the American foreign policy is by no means ethical, since it is oriented exclusively towards the promotion of the Americans’ interests at the expense of the rest of the world. My thesis is that the US foreign policy is unethical and anti-democratic mainly because it is causing a lot of harm to the American taxpayers’ interests. I esteem that the American people are the real permanent victims of their country’s globalist stance. This article is based on an argumentative criticism of the mainstream American perception of U.S. foreign policy as well as a criticism of the foreign observers’ perception of American foreign policy. In a nutshell, this article tries to highlight the unethical nature of the American foreign policy with a focus on the complex justifications for such an undemocratic globalist agenda.

  17. ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC PROBLEMS FOR LINEARLY ELASTICSHELLS JUSTIFICATION OF EQUATIONS FOR DYNAMIC FLEXURAL SHELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖黎明

    2001-01-01

    Under certain conditions, starting from the three-dimensional dynamic equations of elastic shells the author gives the justification of dynamic equations of flexural shells by means of themethod of asymptotic analysis.

  18. 19 CFR 10.257 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Textile Articles § 10.257 Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment. (a... article in question, such as purchase orders, invoices, bills of lading and other shipping documents,...

  19. [Justification of violence as a mediator between exposure to violence and aggressive behavior in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mediating role of the justification of violence schema in the relationship between exposure to violence and reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. We differentiated between direct and indirect exposure in four contexts: home, neighborhood, school and TV. A total of 675 children, aged between 8 and 12 years, participated in the study. They answered questionnaires about exposure to violence, justification of violence, and proactive and reactive aggressive behavior in two waves six months apart. The results showed that witnessing violence at home and on TV predicted aggressive behavior, and this relationship was mediated by the justification of violence. Victimization in all contexts predicted aggressive behavior and this relationship was generally mediated by the justification of violence.

  20. 14 CFR 105.49 - Foreign parachutists and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... packed by the foreign parachutist making the next parachute jump with that parachute, a certificated... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Parachute Equipment and Packing § 105.49 Foreign parachutists and equipment. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and...

  1. US defensive operations against Libya and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. Markup before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H. Res. 424 and H. Res 440, May 1, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The House Foreign Affairs Committee met to mark up two resolutions: H. Res. 424 and H. Res. 440. H. Res. 424 thanks the United Kingdom for its assistance in the April 14, 1986 operation against Libya. Despite objections to the raid and to including the British, as well as questions about the quality of the US response and about the President's compliance with the Constitution and the War Powers Resolution, the resolution passed. H. Res. 440 expresses sympathy to the victims of the Chernobyl accident and asks the Soviet Union to relax restrictions on communications and the transfer of whatever technology and assistance will be helpful. It also criticizes the Soviet handling of information about the accident. An amendment strengthened the wording of the criticism, and the resolution passed. The report includes the committee discussion and the tests of the two resolutions.

  2. Stripped of illusions? Exploring system justification processes in capitalist and post-Communist societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Jost, John T

    2014-02-01

    Sociologists and political scientists have often observed that citizens of Central and Eastern Europe express high levels of disillusionment with their social, economic and political systems, in comparison with citizens of Western capitalist societies. In this review, we analyze system legitimation and delegitimation in post-Communist societies from a social psychological perspective. We draw on system justification theory, which seeks to understand how, when and why people do (and do not) defend, bolster and justify existing social systems. We review some of the major tenets and findings of the theory and compare research on system-justifying beliefs and ideologies in traditionally Capitalist and post-Communist countries to determine: (1) whether there are robust differences in the degree of system justification in post-Communist and Capitalist societies, and (2) the extent to which hypotheses derived from system justification theory receive support in the post-Communist context. To this end, we summarize research findings from over 20 countries and cite previously unpublished data from a public opinion survey conducted in Poland. Our analysis confirms that there are lower levels of system justification in post-Communist countries. At the same time, we find that system justification possesses similar social and psychological antecedents, manifestations and consequences in the two types of societies. We offer potential explanations for these somewhat complicated patterns of results and conclude by addressing implications for theory and research on system justification and system change (or transition). © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

      The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show that the th......  The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...

  4. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement.

  5. JUSTIFICATION OF THE MAIN PARAMETERS FOR HPP’S SUCTION PIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal’zannikov Mikhail Ivanovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic turbine suction pipes at hydropower plants (HPPs play an important role for providing high power indices of HPP operation. At the same time for channel type HPPs with vertical reactive hydraulic turbines curved large size suction tubes are used and this leads to great costs for their installation. That is why the significance of economic analysis for justification of the size of such suction pipes is underlined. Minimally possible sizes of curved pipes (height and length are determined by hydraulic turbine normal operation requirements and are given in reference books. Nevertheless often such conditions arise when the correction of their size leading to their enlargement becomes inevitable. In particular, when there are rocks at a small depth below of the project position of the foundation slab it is feasible to increase a suction pipe’s height to place the foundation concrete on the strong rock. Or if it is necessary to make a motorway at the downstream side of a channel HPP lengthening of a suction pipe appears sensible. In such cases economic calculations are necessary on feasibility of suction pipe size change proposals. The use of an integral effect technique for such an analysis is proposed. The article provides a criterion for economic efficiency of the given technique. In conformity with it the calculations for a hydraulic turbine with 9 m diameter under acting head of 24 m are made. The calculation results are presented as graphs of dependencies of integral effect on varying parameters. The analysis of the results shows that a parameter being changed (suction pipe lengthening has a distinct optimal value, which in the investigated variants is 2.5...3.0 m. Herewith a maximal value of economically justified hydrogenerator suction pipe lengthening satisfying the criterion adopted is in the range of 7.5...8.0 m. It is also shown that the value of the integral effect depends significantly on electric energy tariffs and the

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove ... the foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x-ray ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the ... may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or CT scan to locate and remove the object. Tell your ...

  8. ForeignAssistance.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — ForeignAssistance.gov provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  9. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove ... the foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x-ray ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... surrounding tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is ... air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common equipment for identifying and removing foreign bodies from ...

  12. Foreign Investment Expanded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paid-in foreign direct investment in China totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year on year Foreign investment in China has continued robust growth despite the new corporate income tax poli- cies. Figures from the National Bureau of Statistics show that paid-in foreign direct investment(FDI)(excluding investment from foreign financial institutions)totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year

  13. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  14. Opportunities and threats of WTO membership of Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that after Ukraine joined WTO there were some rather significant reductions of tariff rates for Ukrainian products and liberalisation of access to the world markets, at the same time the internal Ukrainian market became more open for imported products. The article studies specific features and changes in the high-technology products market after Ukraine joined WTO. It analyses dynamics of volumes and specific weight of the world export-import of high-technology products and the structure of the world export and import of high technology products, including by individual countries and groups. The article makes a conclusion about a weak high-technology component of the Ukrainian export. It studies the structure of export of high-technology products of EU, CU and Ukraine. It shows that in order to develop the high-technology products market Ukraine needs to develop foreign trade with EU countries and also to continue co-operation with CU countries, in particular, with Russia. The article shows that the aerospace industry products takes the biggest specific weight in the export of high-technology products of Ukraine. It considers prospects of development of civil aircraft production in the world and Ukraine under the modern conditions. It analyses strengths and weaknesses of the aircraft construction industry and also threats and opportunities for aircraft construction of Ukraine due to external environment influence. The article shows that Ukraine cannot keep national aircraft building on its own, that is why it is necessary to develop close co-operation both with Russian enterprises and with the countries of the Western Europe. It offers recommendations on

  15. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is followed by a foreign capital outflow which at the end will destabilize the balance of external payments and will overall result in no favorable effect upon the economy of their countries.

  16. Closing the Knowledge Gap in Foreign Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie A.; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    The study explores how firms close their knowledge gaps in relation to business environments of foreign markets. Potential determinants are derived from traditional internationalization process theory as well as more recent literature on organizational learning processes, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building on these two literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primary data of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggests that factors considered essential in traditional internationalization process theory...

  17. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    that the theoretical relationship between foreign aid and FDI is indeterminate. Aid may raise the marginal productivity of capital by financing complementary inputs, such as public infrastructure projects and human capital investment. However, aid may also crowd out productive private investments if it comes......  The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...... in the shape of physical capital transfers. We therefore turn to an empirical analysis of the relationship between FDI and disaggregated aid flows. Our results strongly support the hypotheses that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in foreign capital while aid invested in physical capital crowds out...

  18. From mirror self-recognition to the looking-glass self: exploring the Justification Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Leigh S

    2005-01-01

    In his Tree of Knowledge (ToK) System, Henriques (2003) posits that the human ego or "self" has evolved because human beings are the only animals that have had to justify their behavior to others. This essay provides evidence for this Justification Hypothesis (JH) from everyday life sociology, starting with the work of George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley, and focuses on research related to the concept of the "looking-glass self." Special emphasis is given to the pragmatics of speech acts, the presentation of self in interaction rituals, the accounts given by actors in justification of their actions, and the role of social norms and conformity in the large-scale justification systems commonly called "culture."

  19. On Engster's care-justification of the specialness thesis about healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Benedict

    2016-06-07

    To say health is 'special' is to say that it has a moral significance that differentiates it from other goods (cars, say or radios) and, as a matter of justice, warrants distributing it separately. In this essay, I critique a new justification for the specialness thesis about healthcare (STHC) recently put forth by Engster. I argue that, regrettably, Engster's justification of STHC ultimately fails and fails on much the same grounds as have previous justifications of STHC. However, I also argue that Engster's argument still adds something valuable to the debate around STHC insofar as it reminds us that the moral significance of healthcare may be wider than simply its effect on the incidence of disability and disease: one further reason we may think healthcare is morally significant is because it concerns the treatment and care of those who are already unwell.

  20. Appealing to the crowd: ethical justifications in Canadian medical crowdfunding campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Mathers, Annalise; Chow-White, Peter

    2017-01-30

    Medical crowdfunding is growing in terms of the number of active campaigns, amount of funding raised and public visibility. Little is known about how campaigners appeal to potential donors outside of anecdotal evidence collected in news reports on specific medical crowdfunding campaigns. This paper offers a first step towards addressing this knowledge gap by examining medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients. Using 80 medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients, we analyse how Canadians justify to others that they ought to contribute to funding their health needs. We find the justifications campaigners tend to fall into three themes: personal connections, depth of need and giving back. We further discuss how these appeals can understood in terms of ethical justifications for giving and how these justifications should be assessed in light of the academic literature on ethical concerns raised by medical crowdfunding.

  1. Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign- exclusively Exhibition Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign-exclusively Exhibition Corporations In Feb, Ministry of Commerce issued its 1st decree on temporary regulation for foreign-investing corporations; the regulation allows foreign investors to set up foreign-investing convention & exhibition corporations exclusively or through cooperation with other Chinese corporations, enterprises or organizations. With legal protection on their regulatory management and legal rights, these foreign-investing corporations are in the charge of Department of Foreign Investment Administration, Ministry of Commerce.

  2. [Decree No. 91-272 of 12 March 1991 establishing the operation of the consultative committee for the control of immigration and foreigners in French Polynesia created by Article 4V of Act No. 90-612 of 12 July 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-14

    This Decree sets forth rules on the operation, composition, and administration of the Consultative Committee for the Control of Immigration and Foreigners in French Polynesia. The Committee consists of eight members, half representatives of the French Government and half representatives of the Government of French Polynesia, and is presided over by the High Commissioner and the President of the Government of French Polynesia, or their representatives. The Committee is to be consulted on questions relating to the control of immigration and foreigners, including the issuance of visas for stays in French Polynesia exceeding 3 months. It is authorized to make recommendations on measures to control immigration and foreigners, including recommendations on applications for permission to stay in French Polynesia. The deliberations of the Committee are private, and information contained in applications or files that it examines is confidential. Further provisions of the Decree deal with meetings, witnesses, and decisions of the Government of French Polynesia with respect to the recommendations of the Committee.

  3. CHALLENGES FOR FOREIGN TEACHERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengJing

    2004-01-01

    The learner differences and contrasts between the two cultures involved are important aspects that influence foreign language teaching and learning. The foreign teacher as an outsider of the learner's native culture, inevitably faces quite a few challenges. With the focus on the self-esteem, character types, and motivation of the learner, the paper analyses how these factors influence the foreign teacher's teaching. Relevant solutions are also proposed.

  4. Foreign Controlled Companies in the Czech Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drahomíra Dubská

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes infl ux of foreign direct investment into the Czech Republic from the territorial point of view and partly from the perspective of receiving branches. However, it is primarily focused on impacts of this infl ux, i.e. creation of an institutional sub-sector of foreign controlled companies. They operate mainlyin the sector of non-fi nancial corporations and dominate in sector of fi nancial institutions in the Czech Republic. This analysis is concentrated on the weight of foreign controlled companies on the performance and income characteristics of these two sectors and Czech economy as a whole, as well. Development of output, intermediate consumption and gross value added is used for non-financial foreign controlled companies as the performance characteristics and then profi ts and paid-out wages as the income characteristics. Problem oftaxes paid by these companies to the state budget is mentioned and development of their investment in fixed assets, as well. Financial foreign controlled companies are viewed in terms of their proportion of total assets, loans and deposits, capital and reserves and capital adequacy ratio. Finally, impact of foreign direct investment on employment and gross value added in branches of economy is analyzed and double-tracking in industry is identified. Conclusion summarizes benefits and negative effects of the foreign controlled companies in the Czech Republic within their existing presence in 1995–2009.

  5. Justifying the Justification Hypothesis: scientific-humanism, Equilintegration (EI) Theory, and the Beliefs, Events, and Values Inventory (BEVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, Craig N

    2005-01-01

    The Justification Hypothesis (JH; Henriques, 2003) is a basic, general, and macro-level construct that is highly compelling. However, it needs greater specification (i.e., justification) regarding what it is, how it might be operationalized and measured, and what it does and does not predict in the real world. In the present analysis, the act of "justification" is conceptualized as the ongoing attempt to convince self and/or others that one's beliefs and values, which is to say one's "version of reality" or VOR, is correct, defensible, and good. In addressing these issues, this paper is divided into two complementary parts: (a) consideration of justification dynamics and exemplars from a scientific-humanist perspective and (b) an examination of how justification systems and processes have been studied vis-a-vis research and theory on beliefs and values as well as an extant model--Equilintegration (EI) Theory--and method--the Beliefs, Events, and Values Inventory (BEVI).

  6. Young Children's Ideas about the Nature, Causes, Justification, and Alleviation of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A.; Neitzel, Carin

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-four 8-year-old boys and girls from urban and rural settings and representing different races and socioeconomic status backgrounds responded to questions about the nature, causes, justification, and alleviation of poverty. Much of what the children said indicated that they had not yet internalized prevailing adult norms and values about the…

  7. Chinese Children's Justifications for Sharing Resources: Why Do We Have to Share?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mun

    2011-01-01

    Gilligan argued that Kohlberg's justice-based stage theory of morality reflects only one type of morality and does not consider people's tendency to use care-based moral judgements. This study examines Chinese children's tendency to use justice-based and care-based justifications for moral reasoning. Children's attitudes to conforming to the…

  8. Justification of diagnostic medical exposures: some practical issues. Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, J; Guleria, R; Craven, C; Horton, P; Järvinen, H; Mayo, J; O'reilly, G; Picano, E; Remedios, D; Le Heron, J; Rehani, M; Holmberg, O; Czarwinski, R

    2012-05-01

    The Radiation Protection of Patients Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerned about the effectiveness of justification of diagnostic medical exposures. Recent published work and the report of an initial IAEA consultation in the area gave grounds for such concerns. There is a significant level of inappropriate usage, and, in some cases, a poor level of awareness of dose and risk among some key groups involved. This article aims to address this. The IAEA convened a second group of experts in November 2008 to review practical and achievable actions that might lead to more effective justification. This report summarises the matters that this group considered and the outcome of their deliberations. There is a need for improved communication, both within professions and between professionals on one hand, and between professionals and the patients/public on the other. Coupled with this, the issue of consent to imaging procedures was revisited. The need for good evidence-based referral guidelines or criteria of acceptability was emphasised, as was the need for their global adaptation and dissemination. Clinical audit was regarded as a key tool in ensuring that justification becomes an effective, transparent and accountable part of normal radiological practice. In summary, justification would be facilitated by the "3 As": awareness, appropriateness and audit.

  9. The ethical justification for the use of animals in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostomitsopoulos N.G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all the benefits, the use of animals in biomedical research is still a subject of debate with respect to its true value. The sensitivity of the community and the interest of scientists who work in the field of laboratory animal science and welfare have clearly demonstrated that the use of animals in biomedical research must be conducted under specific scientific, legal and ethical rules. The ethical justification of a research project starts from its initial designing phase until its completion and the review of the obtained results. Justification of the necessity of the project and the need to use animals in the interests of human or animal health, the importance of conducting a pilot study and a systematic review of previously published animal research on the topic, and the availability of the proper facilities, equipment and personnel are the main issues of concern in the ethical review of a research project. The ethical justification of the proposed project by the scientists themselves involves team-work, and should be a sustainable rather than a one-off procedure. This justification reflects the interest and the responsibility of scientists to reduce the number of animals, refine the procedures, and possibly replace animals in their research projects. The end-results of the ethical review process will be the creation of a trust relationship between scientists and society. .

  10. Authority and Moral Reasons: Parenting Style and Children's Perceptions of Adult Rule Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    The style of parenting of 100 children (mean age 11 years, 5 months) was established according to Baumrind's typology. Children were asked to indicate what they thought an adult would say to justify a moral rule in five different scenarios. Results indicated that parenting style did not relate to the number of justifications that children thought…

  11. Authority and Moral Reasons: Parenting Style and Children's Perceptions of Adult Rule Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    The style of parenting of 100 children (mean age 11 years, 5 months) was established according to Baumrind's typology. Children were asked to indicate what they thought an adult would say to justify a moral rule in five different scenarios. Results indicated that parenting style did not relate to the number of justifications that children thought…

  12. 75 FR 34273 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-003, Public Disclosure of Justification and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... (c) (i.e., other than competitive procedures) to require public availability of the justification and... members of the intelligence community regards the potential security threat from publication of even... the sensitive but unclassified nature of the intelligence business. If this new requirement cannot...

  13. 75 FR 53269 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY 2010, Public Law 111-84. Section 811 addresses requirements for the justification and approval of sole-source contracts over $20 million under the 8(a) small business development... business under the Small Business Administration's 8(a) business development program, including...

  14. Reactions to group devaluation and social inequality: A comparison of social identity and system justification predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuma Kevin Owuamalam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available System justification theory (SJT proposes that support for social inequality should be stronger among members of devalued groups than among members of higher status groups; that embracing the system in this way soothes anger and leads to a withdrawal of support for social change; and that these effects should occur when group interest is weak. We compared these SJT predictions with identity management and hope for group advancement accounts that we deduced from social identity theory (SIT and that suggest that both system justification and support for social change will be significant when group interest is strong. Consistent with the SIT-based accounts, Study 1 (N = 116, Malaysia, Mage =19.09 years showed that strong identifiers were more concerned about their ingroup’s reputation than weak identifiers, and that this concern increased system justification but only before an outgroup audience to whom a need to present one’s group in good light is normally strong. Study 2 (N = 375, Australia, Mage = 23.59 years conceptually replicated Study 1’s results and further revealed that strong identifiers justified the system due to the hope that their ingroup status would improve in the future. Finally, Study 3 (N = 132, Germany, Mage = 20.34 years revealed that system justification soothed anger and reduced support for social protest but only when group interest was strong (not weak. We did not find evidence in support of SJT predictions.

  15. Details and justifications for the MAP concept specification for acceleration above 63 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-02-28

    The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) requires a concept specification for each of the accelerator systems. The Muon accelerators will bring the beam energy from a total energy of 63 GeV to the maximum energy that will fit on the Fermilab site. Justifications and supporting references are included, providing more detail than will appear in the concept specification itself.

  16. Researching Justification Texts of a First Instance Court from Assignment to Results and Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langbroek, Philip; van der Linden - Smith, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Court decisions are reasoned to legitimize them. Lay people seem to understand little of the work of the courts. One of the questions for court administrators and judges is: for whom do judges write their judgments? Is it possible to analyze judicial justification texts with a view to the audiences

  17. Researching Justification Texts of a First Instance Court from Assignment to Results and Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langbroek, Philip; van der Linden - Smith, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Court decisions are reasoned to legitimize them. Lay people seem to understand little of the work of the courts. One of the questions for court administrators and judges is: for whom do judges write their judgments? Is it possible to analyze judicial justification texts with a view to the audiences

  18. American Sterilization: The Racist Justifications for Sterilization in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor Price

    2016-01-01

    An investigative analysis into anthropometrics, sterilization, eugenics, and other forms of scientific racism used to justify white supremacy and racial thought in the 19th and 20th centuries in the United States. The Tuskegee syphilis study, Darwinistic ideals, and neo-Lamarckian thoughts are critically analyzed as justifications for institutional racism.

  19. Legitimacy, democracy and public justification: Rawls' political liberalism versus Gaus' justificatory liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Public justification-based accounts of liberal legitimacy rely on the idea that a polity’s basic structure should, in some sense, be acceptable to its citizens. In this paper I discuss the prospects of that approach through the lens of Gerald Gaus’ critique of John Rawls’ paradigmatic account of

  20. EPRI PWR Safety and Relief Valve Test Program: test condition justification report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosler, J.

    1982-12-01

    In response to NUREG 0737, Item II.D.1.A requirements, several safety and relief valve designs were tested by EPRI under PWR utility sponsorship. Justification that the inlet fluid conditions under which these valve designs were tested are representative of those expected in participating domestic PWR units during FSAR, Extended High Pressure Injection, and Cold Overpressurization events is presented.

  1. Verification or Proof: Justification of Pythagoras' Theorem in Chinese Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongjin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents key findings of my research on the approaches to justification by investigating how a sample of teachers in Hong Kong and Shanghai taught the topic Pythagoras theorem. In this study, 8 Hong Kong videos taken from TIMSS 1999 Video Study and 11 Shanghai videos videotaped by the researcher comprised the database. It was found that…

  2. Defense Contracting: DOD’s Use of Class Justifications for Sole-Source Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-16

    under these class justifications included: • The Army’s Counter Narco -Terrorism Program covered technology development and application, training... Narco -Terrorism Program $0 – no cost modification one responsible source Counter Narco - Terrorism Army Counter Narcotics Transnational Threats...Project Not identifiable one responsible source Counter Narco - Terrorism Air Force Local Exchange Services (dial tone) $3 Unusual and

  3. A Reply on Behalf of the Relativist to Mark Mason's Justification of Universal Ethical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Mark Mason, in his "A Justification, After the Postmodern Turn, of Universal Ethical Principles and Educational Ideals" Educational Philosophy and Theory, 37 (2005), attempts to justify transcultural multiculturalism. In this paper I argue that he fails to refute moral relativism, and that multiculturalism as he interprets it is not morally…

  4. 19 CFR 10.824 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications and Determinations § 10.824 Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment. (a) Verification. A claim for preferential... preferential treatment. 10.824 Section 10.824 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...

  5. 19 CFR 10.470 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications and Determinations § 10.470 Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment. (a) Verification. A claim for preferential... preferential treatment. 10.470 Section 10.470 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...

  6. 19 CFR 10.550 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications and Determinations § 10.550 Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment. (a) Verification. A claim for preferential... preferential treatment. 10.550 Section 10.550 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 19 CFR 10.616 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications and Determinations § 10.616 Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment... preferential tariff treatment. 10.616 Section 10.616 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER...

  8. 19 CFR 10.784 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications and Determinations § 10.784 Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment. (a) Verification. A claim for preferential... preferential treatment. 10.784 Section 10.784 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...

  9. Students' Reported Justifications for Their Representational Choices in Linear Function Problems: An Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo Nistal, Ana; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-six secondary school students aged 14-16 were interviewed while they chose between a table, a graph or a formula to solve three linear function problems. The justifications for their choices were classified as (1) task-related if they explicitly mentioned the to-be-solved problem, (2) subject-related if students mentioned their own…

  10. THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION OF EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION LAW OF DISTANCES BETWEEN STOPS OF CITY PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbachov, P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigation of relation bitween the trip distance on stops location on the route between places of attraction. Theoretical justification of the use fulness of exponential distribution with the shift parameter for describing the trip distance between stops is given.

  11. 75 FR 15413 - Approval for Processing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 196, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Personal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... & Electronics (Personal Navigation Devices), Fort Worth, Texas Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade...) adopts the following Order: Whereas, ATC Logistics & Electronics, an operator of Foreign-Trade Zone...

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 768 - Evidence of Foreign Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing of an item in a foreign country (e.g., an advertisement in the media of the foreign country that..., including where possible the make and model of the item and its observed operating characteristics;...

  13. Department of the Army Justification of Estimates for FY 1991 Submitted to Congress January 1990. Operation and Maintenance, Army Justification Book. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    O ~ 0 ~ 0~ 0~ C)4 N 1 ~OJ 0 0 04U .1 U IxC) ix 0 # 4 u :4 ) Cjz U z E- 0 C) zUL 0S. z 0 C4. <~~4 q4 O)J . E- CZ. .6 to .4 0 - - (440 a ’V0. &Z. C...4 CO U41 .0 $4~-~C a) 4- 4 a OHq s. (D-4 ) -r ~ - .04) bo 0T m . r u HaZ ~I.C fA 0 a) *4tV. V) -4J C -~4 4 -4*-. ~>0 t VH~,- PQ UU a. a) E-’v ~ E

  14. Validating justifications in preschool girls' and boys' friendship group talk: implications for linguistic and socio-cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyratzis, Amy; Ross, Tamara Shuqum; Koymen, S Bahar

    2010-01-01

    Children are believed to construct their causal theories through talk and interaction, but with the exception of a few studies, little or nothing is known about how young children justify and build theories of the world together with same-age peers through naturally occurring interaction, Children's sensitivity to when a pair or group of interlocutors who interact frequently together feel that a justification is needed, is an index of developing pragmatic competence (Goetz & Shatz, 1999) and may be influenced by interactive goals and gender identity positioning. Studies suggest that salient contexts for justifications for young children are disagreement and control (e.g. Veneziano & Sinclair, 1995) but researchers have been less recognizant of 'situations in which partners verbally assist in the construction of justifications as a means to maintain contact or create solidarity' (Goetz & Shatz, 1999: 722) as contexts for justifications. The present study examined the spontaneously produced justification constructions in the naturally occurring free play of five friendship groups of preschool-aged children (aged from 3 ; 6 to 5 ; 4), in terms of the motivating context of the justification, marking of the causal relationship with a connective, and causal theories accessed in the talk. Partner expansion (validating justifications) was a salient motivating context for justifications, especially in the talk of friendship groups of girls, and seemed to privilege greater marking of the causal relationship with a connective and less arbitrary reasoning. One group of girls varied their use of validating justifications depending on the theme of play. Results are discussed in terms of the implications of use of validating justifications for children's causal theory building with peers, linguistic development, and pragmatic development.

  15. Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    results on the problema of C 2 asaociated with joint operations. Analysis of the current U.S./Soviet balance in commiand and control indicates the...theory, and feasibility of non-invasive technology for monitoring cumulative exposure to chemicals such as alcohol , organo- phosphates, drugs of abuse...kidney function; evaluation of effects of alcohol on drug metabolism in the liver; characterization of cardiac performance under stressful conditions

  16. WHAT ABOUT FOREIGN LANGUAGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARTNER, JUDITH; AND OTHERS

    THE IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IS STRESSED IN A BRIEF BROCHURE DESIGNED FOR STUDENTS OF ALL LEVELS, PARENTS, TEACHERS, COUNSELORS, AND ADMINISTRATORS. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ON WHEN TO BEGIN A LANGUAGE, THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING ABLE TO SPEAK A LANGUAGE, USES FOR A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT HOME, LANGUAGE JOB OPPORTUNITIES, AND LANGUAGE…

  17. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    New procedures will help facilitate mergers and acquisitions by foreign companies in China The State Council,or China’s cabinet,said in a February statement that China will establish a ministerial panel to review foreign firms’ attempts to buy,or merge with,domestic companies.The committee, led by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of

  18. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ New procedures will help facilitate mergers and acquisitions by foreign companies in China The State Council, or China's cabinet, said in a February statement that China will establish a ministerial panel to review foreign firms' attempts to buy, or merge with, domestic companies.

  19. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    BusinessWeek recently published an article reporting that China is becoming hostile to foreign capital and that China's policy on foreign investment will change to reflect that attitude. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, explains China's position in an article posted on People's Daily Online.

  20. [Foreign immigration in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Yoldi, I

    1997-01-01

    This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.

  1. FOREIGN ECONOMIC AFFAIRS INTERNATIONALIZATION BY FRANCHISING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena POPESCU DUDUIALĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, franchise is the way to do business at the fastest pace in the world. More than 600,000 franchise business activities are spread all over the American continent generating sales of one trillion dollars. Over 40% of the US retail trade in products and services are achieved by franchises. A new franchise opens somewhere in the US every 12 minutes. Franchise is surely the success story of this decade. Romania is represented on this list by 171 franchise networks, with brands originating from 21 countries and the turnover was 800,000,000 Euros at the end of 2008, enevenly distributed by sectors of activity. It is interesting to note that although the industry networks are only 3.5% oof th total networks, they contribute with 43.6% in the turnover obtained in franchise system. Therefore, franchising can and should be a successful attempt both for the franchised and franchisers, for those who are driven by ethics, passion, vision and innovation, for those who want to franchise or develop the franchise network.

  2. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis.......'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  3. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...

  4. 14 CFR 91.711 - Special rules for foreign civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special rules for foreign civil aircraft. 91.711 Section 91.711 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of...

  5. JUSTIFICATION OF RATIONAL KINEMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MOLDING VIBRATING TABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Anofriev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the efficient ways to obtain castings of complex shape is lost foam casting (LFC in the evacuated molds (containers. Upgrading the quality of this casting method requires improvement of molding techniques. The molding process involves layer-by-layer vibratory compaction of sand in the containers. Most of the lines of LFC sections are equipped with vibrating tables with inertia oscillators driven by induction motors, operating at nominal speed. A promising way of improving the molding technique is the rational setting of the following parameters of vibrating table: vibration displacement, velocity and acceleration. These parameters are determined by the elastic-mass characteristics of the system «vibrating table – mold» and perturbing forces created by inertia oscillators. The aim of the study is to determine the rational range of setting the parameters of oscillators at which the qualitative layer-by-layer compaction of the molding sand in the mold takes place. Methodology. The efficiency criterion for setting characteristics of the vibrating table there were taken the values of averaged accelerations of 6.5 – 7.5 m/s2 corresponding to maximum compaction degree of dry molding sand and the range of acceleration values 9 – 9.5 m/s2 for giving the sand «pseudo-yielding». For the study it was developed a mathematical model of oscillations of the movable part of vibrating table with two types of casting containers for steady and transient operation modes. Findings. In the process of research of the mold oscillations it was calculated the natural frequencies of oscillations at different elastic-mass characteristics of the system using a mathematical model. It was constructed the frequency response of displacements and accelerations of the moving part of the table with container filled with molding sand layer-by-layer. Originality. The author proposes a method of determining the range of frequency setting of inertial

  6. [Foreign Body in Esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeki, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    An esophageal foreign body is the term for a foreign body in the esophagus. The 2 age groups most prone to this condition are children age 9 and under (and especially toddlers age 4 and under) and elderly individuals age 70 and over. A foreign body often lodges where the esophagus is most constricted. In toddlers, the foreign body is often currency or coins or a toy. In adults, the body is often a piece of fish, dentures, a piece of meat, a pin or needle, or a drug in its blister pack packaging. In children, an esophageal foreign body is treated by fluoroscopically guided removal of the body with a balloon catheter or magnetic catheter or removal of the body via endoscopy or direct esophagoscopy under general anesthesia. In adults, the best choice for treating an esophageal foreign body is removing the body with an endoscope but there are instances where surgery is performed because the body is hard to remove endoscopically, a puncture has occurred, or empyema or mediastinitis has developed. This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment of an esophageal foreign body.

  7. Justification of computational methods to ensure information management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Due to the diversity and complexity of organizational management tasks a large enterprise, the construction of an information management system requires the establishment of interconnected complexes of means, implementing the most efficient way collect, transfer, accumulation and processing of information necessary drivers handle different ranks in the governance process. The main trends of the construction of integrated logistics management information systems can be considered: the creation of integrated data processing systems by centralizing storage and processing of data arrays; organization of computer systems to realize the time-sharing; aggregate-block principle of the integrated logistics; Use a wide range of peripheral devices with the unification of information and hardware communication. Main attention is paid to the application of the system of research of complex technical support, in particular, the definition of quality criteria for the operation of technical complex, the development of information base analysis methods of management information systems and define the requirements for technical means, as well as methods of structural synthesis of the major subsystems of integrated logistics. Thus, the aim is to study on the basis of systematic approach of integrated logistics management information system and the development of a number of methods of analysis and synthesis of complex logistics that are suitable for use in the practice of engineering systems design. The objective function of the complex logistics management information systems is the task of gathering systems, transmission and processing of specified amounts of information in the regulated time intervals with the required degree of accuracy while minimizing the reduced costs for the establishment and operation of technical complex. Achieving the objective function of the complex logistics to carry out certain organization of interaction of information

  8. 75 FR 56858 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Corporations AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations and removal of... foreign corporations from the international operation of ships or aircraft. The final regulations adopt...), 1.883-3(c) and (d), and 1.883-4(e). This information is required to enable a foreign corporation...

  9. High-Dimensional Statistical Learning: Roots, Justifications, and Potential Machineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2015-01-01

    High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical–statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject. PMID:27081307

  10. High-Dimensional Statistical Learning: Roots, Justifications, and Potential Machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2015-01-01

    High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical-statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject.

  11. Observing Planetary Rings with JWST: Science Justification and Observation Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Tiscareno, Matthew S; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N; de Pater, Imke; Hamilton, Douglas P; Hedman, Matthew M; Nicholson, Philip D; Showalter, Mark R; Tamayo, Daniel; Verbiscer, Anne J

    2014-01-01

    The rings that adorn the four giant planets are of prime importance as accessible natural laboratories for disk processes, as clues to the origin and evolution of planetary systems, and as shapers as well as detectors of their planetary environments. The retinue of small moons accompanying all known ring systems are intimately connected as both sources and products, as well as shepherds and perturbers, of the rings. Leading sources of data on ring systems include spacecraft such as Cassini and Voyager, but also space telescopes such as Hubble and Spitzer as well as ground-based telescopes. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is being prepared for launch in 2018 to begin a planned five-year mission. JWST will have the capability to observe solar system objects as close as Mars. Although most of the hardware is already designed and under construction if not completed, work continues on the development of operations guidelines and software and the completion of calibration tasks. The purpose of this white pape...

  12. Combining Theory of Institutional Logics and Theory of Justification in Understanding Ambiguous Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    I propose to understand decision making by combining theory of institutional logics (Friedland; Thornton, Ocasio & Lounsbury) and theory of justification (Boltanski and Thévenot). These two theoretical approaches are different but, at the same time, deal with the socially constructed plurality...... of the world nesting a macro-meso-micro level analysis. My argument is that both theories may learn from each other and enrich the study of ambiguous decision making. In the paper I describe, compare and combine the two theoretical approaches. I then illustrate the combined approach by a case where Chinese...... companies have located part of their business in Denmark. Finally I conclude and discuss why theory of institutional logics needs theory of justification and vice versa....

  13. Victim derogation and victim enhancement as alternate routes to system justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Aaron C; Jost, John T; Young, Sean

    2005-03-01

    Abstract-Numerous studies have documented the potential for victim-blaming attributions to justify the status quo. Recent work suggests that complementary, victim-enhancing stereotypes may also increase support for existing social arrangements. We seek to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings by proposing that victim derogation and victim enhancement are alternate routes to system justification, with the preferred route depending on the perception of a causal link between trait and outcome. Derogating "losers" (and lionizing "winners") on traits (e.g., intelligence) that are causally related to outcomes (e.g., wealth vs. poverty) serves to increase system justification, as does compensating "losers" (and downgrading "winners") on traits (e.g., physical attractiveness) that are causally unrelated to those outcomes. We provide converging evidence using system-threat and stereotype-activation paradigms.

  14. The moral justification scale: reliability and validity of a new measure of care and justice orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, L S; Baker, R C; Roll, S

    2000-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that there are limitations to Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Gilligan in particular has observed that Kohlberg's theory considers abstract principled reasoning as the highest level of moral judgment, and penalizes those who focus on the interpersonal ramifications of a moral decision. Gilligan calls these justice and care orientations. The present paper describes the development of the Moral Justification Scale, an objective measure of the two orientations. The scale consists of six vignettes, of which two are justice oriented, two are care oriented, and two are mixed, incorporating both orientations. Construct validity was evaluated by expert judges and, overall, was high. Cronbach's alpha was .75 for the Care subscale and .64 for the Justice subscale, indicating adequate internal consistency. Split-half reliabilities were as follows: Care, r = .72, p Moral Justification Scale shows promise as an easily administered, objectively scored measure of Gilligan's constructs of care and justice.

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type of ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  16. Foreign Body Extraction Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract are common. Mostly they are swallowed accidentally by children but also by adults. When round and slippery, foreign bodies cause a technical problem for removal. After several days in the stomach they are covered with mucus and extraction becomes even harder. There are various devices designed for use through the flexible endoscope for grasping foreign bodies but due to the great variety of objects, one may face a real problem while trying to remove them. We faced a challenge in a woman who underwent vertical band gastroplasty and was obstructed by a round and slippery hazelnut. We managed to remove the nut using a simple homemade device. This device is easy to make, cheap, and simple to use and maybe useful for various foreign bodies.

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to numb your throat. This eliminates the gag reflex and enables the physician to perform the examination ... chances of suffering an infection or an allergic reaction. Prompt removal of the foreign body will ensure ...

  18. Multiple foreign body granulomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panvelkar V

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of multiple foreign body granulomas occurring after mine-blast injury in a soldier is reported. Systemic steroids with antibiotics given essentially for eczematoid dermatitis produced good clinical improvement with marked resolution of granulomas.

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... especially to iodinated contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... relative or friend accompany you and drive you home afterward. Foreign bodies are typically dealt with in ...

  20. FOREIGN BANKS WELCOMED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Honoring its WTO commitments, China has begun to allow local incorporation by foreign banks, endowing them with the same status as their Chinese counterparts in an attempt to encourage diversified development in the Chinese banking sector On March 18, Wi

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... but the foreign body remains trapped in the lung. This typically occurs in children and requires removal ... the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common equipment for ...

  2. The Foreign Student Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical introduction and 313-item annotated bibliography address foreign student infrastructure, highlighting academic experiences and performance; adaptation problems; policies (institutional, industrialized nations, Third World nations); educational studies (attitudinal, behavioral, disciplinary, historical, statistical); issues (non-return,…

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like ...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. If the foreign body is ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small toys or pieces of toys and fish ... foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries can ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the esophagus, you may receive an intravenous drug to relax the esophagus and allow the object to pass through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may become lodged in the esophagus and cause pain, even though they are able to swallow. Larger ... the stomach or intestines can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without complication, and endoscopic ... be dislodged rather than removed so that they pass safely through the digestive system. top of page ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and damage to surrounding tissues. top of page What are ... will reduce chances of an infection that could damage tissue, nerves and blood vessels, block blood flow ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... examination consists of a radiographic table, one or two x-ray tubes and a television-like monitor ... to orient foreign bodies with the use of two snares. The catheter is guided into place just ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type of ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... saved. Using an ultrasound transducer to visualize the location of the object, the physician may make an ... the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of the nervous system. ... the foreign body. You will remain in the recovery room until you are completely awake and ready ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as a splinter embedded under the skin, you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or ... that gets embedded in the tissue under the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as a splinter embedded under the skin, you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or ... that gets embedded in the tissue under the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of the nervous system. ... the foreign body. You will remain in the recovery room until you are completely awake and ready ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the esophagus, you may receive an intravenous drug to relax the esophagus and allow the object to pass through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including ... Many foreign bodies, like coins and batteries, are radio-opaque, meaning that x-rays will not pass ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is located near vital structures like nerves and blood vessels, so your physician may choose to leave it ... other areas of the body, or enter your blood vessels. Removal of larger foreign bodies will ensure that ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...

  1. Unusual orbital foreign bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Retained intraorbital organic foreign bodies, particularly wooden, are commonly encountered in ophthalmologic practice. We treated two children who had sustained such injury while playing. They presented to us with non-healing sinus with purulent discharge. In one of the patients, X-rays and CT scan helped to clinch the diagnosis, whereas in the other patient diagnosis was possible by correlating history with clinical findings. Surgical exploration in both patients helped us to remove the foreign bodies. Surprisingly, both the foreign bodies were 7 cm long wooden pieces. We, however, caution that management of such cases should be conservative and that surgical exploration be done only in case of complication. From our experience, we recommend proper localisation by all possible means, blunt dissection, careful haemostasis coupled with excellent lighting and exposure in the atraumatic removal of intraorbital foreign bodies.

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the soft tissues. Commonly swallowed objects include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small toys ... of foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries ...

  3. Predictions of Actions and Their Justifications in False-Belief Tasks: The Role of Executive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putko Adam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine whether children’s ability to justify their action predictions in terms of mental states is related, in a similar way as the ability to predict actions, to such aspects of executive function (EF as executive control and working memory. An additional objective was to check whether the frequency of different types of justifications made by children in false-belief tasks is associated with aforementioned aspects of EF, as well as language. The study included 59 children aged 3-4 years. The ability to predict actions and to justify these predictions was measured with false-belief tasks. Luria’s hand-game was used to assess executive control, and the Counting and Labelling dual-task was used to assess working memory capacity. Language development was controlled using an embedded syntax test. It was found that executive control was a significant predictor of the children’s ability to justify their action predictions in terms of mental states, even when age and language were taken into account. Results also indicated a relationship between the type of justification in the false-belief task and language development. With the development of language children gradually cease to justify their action predictions in terms of current location, and they tend to construct irrelevant justifications before they begin to refer to beliefs. Data suggest that executive control, in contrast to language, is a factor which affects the development of the children’s ability to justify their action predictions only in its later phase, during a shift from irrelevant to correct justifications.

  4. Ethical Justification of Moral Norms in Scientific Research: Scientists' External Responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AKÖZER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists' moral responsibilities have become a focus for the scientific community over the postwar decades. International and regional networks of leading academic bodies have responded to a widely perceived increase in scientific fraud and the ensued loss of public trust in science during the 1980s, and initiated a discussion with a view to codifying good practice in research. While scientists' “external” responsibilities towards society and the humankind have been variously addressed, codes drafted since then mainly dwell on problems of misconduct concerning scientists' “internal” responsibilities towards science and to the scientific community. They also reflect an ethical pluralism, which declines justifying moral standards in research with reference to universal ethical principles. However, the need for such justification has been first recognized decades ago, during the Doctor's Trial in Nuremberg, where the shortcomings of the established ethos of science and the inadequacy of the Hippocratic ethics in safeguarding human rights in research had become flagrant, with the resultant Nuremberg Code of 1947 introducing a human rights perspective into Hippocratic ethics. This paper argues for the necessity of an integral ethical justification of scientists' both external and inner responsibilities, as put down or assumed by internationally acclaimed codes of conduct. Such necessity is validated by the evidence that a historical current to monopolize ethical thinking in the name of science and nullify philosophical ethics lies at the root of an anti–morality that relativized human worth and virtually legitimized human rights violations in scientific practice. Kantian ethics based on humans' absolute inner worth, and Popperian epistemology rooted in respect for truth and for humans as rational beings, pledge an ethical justification of moral norms in science so as to reinforce the latter against intrusions of anti–morality. The paper

  5. Software and hardware package for justification of safety of nuclear legacy facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Blokhin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of future fate for nuclear legacy facilities is becoming an extremely important near-term issue. This includes decommissioning options to be identified based on detailed justifications of respective designs. No general practice has been developed in Russia to address such issues, while the initial steps to this end have been made as part of the federal target program “Ensuring Nuclear and Radiation Safety for 2008 and Up to the Year 2015”. Problems arising in justification of decommissioning options for such facilities, in terms of radiation protection and safety assessments both for the public and personnel, differ greatly from tasks involved in design of new nuclear installations. The explanation is a critical shortage of information on both nuclear legacy facilities as such and on the RW they contain. Extra complexities stem from regulatory requirements to facilities of this type having changed greatly since the time these facilities were built. This puts priority on development of approaches to justification of nuclear, radiation and environmental safety. A software and hardware package, OBOYAN, has been developed to solve a great variety of tasks to be addressed as part of this problem based on a combination of software and hardware tools enabling analysis and justification of the NLS safety in their current state and in a long term. The package's key components are computational modules used to model radiation fields, radionuclide migration and distribution of contamination in water and air, as well as to estimate human doses and risks. The purpose of the study is to describe the structure and the functional capabilities of the package and to provide examples of the package application.

  6. Labour Standards as a Justification for Trade Barriers: Consumer Concerns, Protectionism and the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhshi, Samira; Kerr, William A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, justifications by producers (economic protectionism), consumers and social advocates (humanitarian motives) for including labour standards in international trade agreements are discussed. To date, little work has been undertaken to determine empirically whether low labour standards lead to trade distortions. This article provides some empirical evidence pertaining to this question. Consumer groups, social advocates and traditional vested interests such as labour unions have a...

  7. Labour Standards as a Justification for Trade Barriers: Consumer Concerns, Protectionism and the Evidence: Technical Annex

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhshi, Samira; Kerr, William A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, justifications by producers (economic protectionism), consumers and social advocates (humanitarian motives) for including labour standards in international trade agreements are discussed. To date, little work has been undertaken to determine empirically whether low labour standards lead to trade distortions. This article provides some empirical evidence pertaining to this question. Consumer groups, social advocates and traditional vested interests such as labour unions have a...

  8. Evaluation and Justification of an RFID Implementation : Pilot at IKEA Customer Distribution Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Björn; Qviberg, Ola

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this final thesis isto develop a model for justification and evaluation of RFID technology. RFID is a new, relatively untested, technology using radio signals for automatic identification of different objects. Our theoretical frame of references focuses on research about RFID and implementation iss ues, we also conducted case studies and interviews in order to learn about RFID. Most RFID installations of today are Pilots or early adopters wanting to try new technology. A lot of...

  9. ‘ SILENT’ LARYNGEAL FOREIGN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal foreign bodies in adults are rare. The foreign bodies accidentally entering the larynx are symptomatic in the form of choking , stridor or even death. We are presenting a rare case of foreign body in the larynx in a 42 year old male who was symptom free except for dysphonia. The foreign body was removed successfully under local anesthesia.

  10. Justification in clinical radiological practice: a survey among staff of five London hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalonis, M; Horrocks, J

    2012-04-01

    This study represents a survey performed among staff who, according to the Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposures) Regulations of 2000 (IRMER), are responsible for justifying radiological examinations in the UK. The aim of the survey is to map the current situation regarding knowledge of risks from X-ray exposures and the criteria used for their justification. An anonymous electronic questionnaire was emailed to 219 radiologists and radiographers of five National Health Service hospitals. The questions were designed to investigate the way the sample group defines/assesses risk and benefit when justifying medical exposures, and to test their knowledge on radiation doses, risk communication, and on relevant national legislation. The majority of the respondents are aware of the relevant legislation/guidelines. Patient's medical condition, age and sex, and alternative techniques using less or no ionising radiation are the main criteria used for justification. However, when estimating the effective dose of various examinations in chest radiograph equivalents, the majority of the responses were incorrect. Although there is good knowledge of legislation around justification of medical exposures, there seems to be a lack of knowledge on radiation doses and risks among IRMER practitioners.

  11. ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC??PROBLEMS FOR LINEARLY ELASTICSHELLS—JUSTIFICATION OF EQUATIONS???FOR DYNAMIC FLEXURAL SHELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Under certain conditions, starting from the three-dimensional dynamic equations of elastic shells the author gives the justification of dynamic equations of flexural shells by means of the method of asymptotic analysis.

  12. Joint Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-17

    Unified Task Force (UNITAF) Somalia was formed with forces from France, Italy, Canada, Belgium, Egypt , Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and the United States...military presence, open-source intelligence ( OSINT ) may be the best immediately available information to prepare US forces to operate in a foreign...country. OSINT from radio broadcasts, newspapers, and periodicals often provide tip-offs for HUMINT and other intelligence and information collection

  13. AFSC/FMA/North Pacific Observer Foreign Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) began placing observers on foreign fishing vessels operating off the northwest and Alaskan coasts of the United States...

  14. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  15. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  16. Comparative Business Failures of Foreign-Controlled Firms in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jiatao Li; Stephen Guisinger

    1991-01-01

    We explore the comparative business failures of foreign-owned or controlled firms and domestically owned firms. Original data are collected regarding foreign-controlled firms in the U.S. that filed for bankruptcy protection, were involuntarily liquidated or ceased operations mainly due to poor financial performance during the 1978-1988 period. Our results show that foreign-controlled firms fail less often than domestically owned firms. The patterns of foreign-controlled business failures and ...

  17. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...... investments), but aid may crowd out private investments when it comes in the shape of pure physical capital transfers. Empirically, we find that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in FDI, while aid invested in physical capital crowds it out. The paper shows that the composition of aid matters for its...

  18. Prepubertal vaginal discharge: Vaginoscopy to rule out foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Saniye; Karnak, İbrahim; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit; Çiftçi, Arbay Özden

    2016-01-01

    Medical records of all prepubertal patients who underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were evaluated by pediatricians prior to surgical consultation. Vaginoscopy is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. During the study period, 20 girls with persistent vaginal discharge with a mean age of 6.8 years (1-13 years) underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body. Six patients had bloody vaginal discharge and 4 had recurrent vaginal bleeding lasting for more than one month. Ten patients had purulent vaginal discharge lasting for 1-7 months. None of vaginal cultures revealed pathological bacteria or candida species. Preoperative imaging techniques revealed vaginal foreign body in one patient only. Vaginoscopy demonstrated vaginal foreign bodies in four patients. Foreign bodies were grass inflorescence, safety pin and undefined brownish particles (n=2), which may be pieces of toilet paper or feces. There was no complication related to vaginoscopy and removal of foreign body. Hymen integrity was preserved in all patients. Persistent or recurrent vaginal discharge in prepubertal girls should raise the suspect of vaginal foreign body. Continuous flow vaginoscopy is mandatory to detect and remove any vaginal foreign body. Early diagnosis would prevent complications secondary to long-standing foreign bodies.

  19. [Resident foreigners in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, A M; Pascual De Sans, A

    1994-01-01

    The authors review trends in the size of the resident foreign population in Spain over time since the 1940s. A continuing growth over time, with temporal fluctuations, is noted, with a rapid rise in immigration in the 1980s, leading to new legislation designed to control immigration in 1985-1986 and 1991. The authors note that Europeans, particularly from countries of the European Union, make up a large percentage of the foreign population, but that the number of immigrants from developing countries has increased significantly in the last 10 years.

  20. Analysis of foreign physical activity recommendations and guidelines for schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:An adequate level of physical activity is an important part of children's lifestyle. The school environment plays a significant role in the area of interventions and strategies aiming to increase the level of physical activity in children. Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyse foreign recommendations leading to an increased level of physical activity in children and young people in Czech schools. Methods: A systematic search of studies published between 1988 and 2012 in the English language was completed in library databases Medline, Sport Discus, ProQuest, PsychInfo, ERIC, Wiley InterScience using the following keywords: physical activity, guidelines, recommendations, school and youth. The studies were then classified based on abstract and full-text analyses. Using a content analysis the expert team formulated the final recommendations to increase the level of physical activity for schools in the Czech Republic (CR. Results: Out of the total number of 91 identified foreign studies, 25 met the predetermined criteria and were used as a basis for formulating the recommendations. These foreign studies included 15 papers published in USA, two in Australia, two in Great Britain, two in Canada, one in the European Union, one in New Zealand and one international paper (an international consensus of experts from 34 countries. Based on the interpretation of the evidence, its justification and final consensus of the expert team, the basic areas for the recommendations to increase the level of physical activity in schools in the CR were identified. Conclusions: An analysis of foreign recommendations to increase the level of physical activity designed for schools and school facilities is one of the possible methods of formulating domestic recommendations. This recommendation could contribute to deeper understanding of the issue of the deteriorating lifestyle of school-aged children in the CR and reflects the efforts for improvement.

  1. Foreign Policies and Foreign Exchanges for Chinese Publishing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's present foreign publishing policies Chinese Government respects and protects intellectual property rights. Chinese Government always attaches importance to the exchange and cooperation between Chinese publishing industry and that of other countries, encourages and supports Chinese publishing industry to actively introduce foreign excellent works to Chinese readers, and meanwhile, also actively advocates introduction of Chinese excellent works to foreign readers. Our persistent guideline is to support and promote exchanges between Chinese and foreign publishing industries in all fields.

  2. The moral justification behind a climate tax on beef in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkeskov, Anne; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the moral justification behind placing a tax on foods in correlation with their greenhouse gas emissions. The background is a report from 2016 by the Danish Council of Ethics promoting a national tax on the consumption of meat from ruminants as an initial step to curb the 19...... production and consumption. We discuss whether, given the anticipated effects on humans and the nature of climate change, individual consumers have a moral responsibility to change their diet and/or whether governments are justified in restricting the individual consumer’s freedom of choice through taxation...

  3. ON JUSTIFICATION OF STANDARDS FOR NATURAL RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATION IN FACING PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses issues of the population radiation protection regulatory framework development for the natural sources of radiation. Calculations for justification of standard for natural radionuclide concentration in the wide range of contemporary building materials - facing products - are formulated. The basic consideration of calculations is that implementation of these products could lead to the additional population exposure from natural sources less than 0,1 mSv/year. On the base of this assumption it is shown that effective specific activity of natural radionuclides in these products must not exceed 740 Bq/kg.

  4. A New Foreign Policy Consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the achievements of Reagan's foreign policy. Explores the question: Did Reagan reconstruct a domestic foreign policy consensus? Concludes that no consensus was reached. Analyzes Reagan's political beliefs, including his antinuclear sentiments, and examines relations between Reagan and Congress. (RW)

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of foreign ...

  6. Morality and Foreign Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)

  7. Foreign Language Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkmaier, Emma; Lange, Dale

    1967-01-01

    This review of research in foreign language instruction summarizes and interprets selected studies produced during the period 1963-66. Topics covered include the psychology of learning, comparisons o f methods, language skills, visual-auditory relationships, vocabulary, grammar, and FLES, as well as programed instruction, technological media,…

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and push the object farther down. In some cases, prompt removal of the foreign body is necessary. Common procedures include: Flexible esophagoscopy Flexible esophagoscopy is a common diagnostic examination that enables a safe and detailed visual study of the esophagus while the patient is under ...

  9. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; R. Markusen, James

    2013-01-01

    Three types of theories have been used to explain the wage premium in foreign firms: the theories of heterogeneous workers, heterogeneous learning, and heterogeneous firms. We set up a model that explicitly encompasses two of these theories, and that can illustrate the third. This unifying....... In particular, the theory of heterogeneous workers can explain up to 75 percent of the premium....

  10. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    Many papers have documented a wage premium in foreign-owned and large firms. However, there is very little formal theory in the literature and empirical analyses are typically not based on hypotheses which are rigorously derived from theory. This paper contributes to the theory-empirics gap by de...

  11. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...

  12. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; R. Markusen, James

    2013-01-01

    Three types of theories have been used to explain the wage premium in foreign firms: the theories of heterogeneous workers, heterogeneous learning, and heterogeneous firms. We set up a model that explicitly encompasses two of these theories, and that can illustrate the third. This unifying framew...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and push the object farther down. In some cases, prompt removal of the foreign body is necessary. Common procedures include: Flexible esophagoscopy Flexible esophagoscopy is a common diagnostic examination that enables a safe and detailed visual study of the esophagus while the patient is under ...

  14. Unpacking Dimensions of Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Goerzen, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    While recent research has pointed to the importance of regional strategy and the ‘interregional liability of foreignness,’ critics have pointed out that this argument obscures important differences within regions as well as the similarities across them. Bridging these diverging viewpoints, our re...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the type of foreign body and how it was introduced. If it was swallowed, you may undergo a direct examination ... and esophagus or an x-ray examination. If it is lodged in a soft tissue, such as ...

  16. Learning Foreign Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, John

    2003-01-01

    Two hypotheses have recently been put forward to account for listeners' ability to distinguish and learn contrasts between speech sounds in foreign languages. First, Best's Perceptual Assimilation Model and Flege's Speech Learning Model both predict that the ease with which a listener can tell one non-native phoneme from another varies directly…

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foreign bodies. You might require stitches or other treatments to close the wound, and your caregiver may give you antibiotics if the wound has a high risk of infection. You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foreign bodies. You might require stitches or other treatments to close the wound, and your caregiver may give you antibiotics if the wound has a high risk of infection. You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be inhaled into the airway, swallowed or lodged in the throat or stomach, or embedded in the soft tissues. About 80 percent of foreign ... an x-ray examination. If it is lodged in a soft tissue, such as a splinter embedded ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depend on the type of foreign body and nature of the symptoms. You should inform your physician of any medications being taken and if there are any allergies, especially to iodinated contrast materials . Also inform your doctor about recent illnesses or ...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body ... to locate and remove the object. Tell your doctor if there’s a possibility you are pregnant and ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the type of foreign body and how it was introduced. If it was swallowed, you may undergo a direct examination ... and esophagus or an x-ray examination. If it is lodged in a soft tissue, such as ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to guide the foreign body removal procedure. After you are positioned on the examination table, the radiologist or sonographer will apply some warm water-based gel on your skin and then place the transducer firmly against your ...

  4. Lens siderosis resulting from a small intralenticular metallic foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah, Mehul A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of lens siderosis with an undetectable intraocular foreign body by imaging. An 8-year-old boy presented with diminution of vision in the left eye since 3 months. His parents gave a preceding uncertain history of a foreign body injury to his left eye 3 months ago while playing. Presenting visual acuity in the left eye was perception of hand movements. Slit-lamp examination revealed a total white cataract with brownish-pigmented spots on the anterior capsule of the lens, but no intraocular foreign body was found. There was also no evidence of an intraocular foreign body on ultrasonography. Patient underwent cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. During the operation, a small (2×1×1 mm in size intralenticular foreign body of metal material was found and removed carefully with a magnet. The patient regained 20/30 vision after surgery.

  5. The Comparative Analysis on the Trade Import and Export, Cross-border Payment and Foreign Exchange Settlement and Sales and Issues about Financial Operations%贸易进出口、跨境收付和结售汇的对比分析及财务运作问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张硕

    2015-01-01

    在全球经济金融形势复杂变化、人民币汇率双向波动趋势加剧的背景下,涉外企业面临着的经营环境更趋复杂。企业通过财务运作规避风险(或获取收益)的需求不断扩大,同时也加大了贸易货物流与资金流的不匹配程度。本文利用“跨境资金流动全因素分析框架”,对比分析新疆货物贸易项下海关进出口、跨境收付和银行结售汇数据的差异性,并对数据缺口进行解释,以此反映涉外企业财务运作的具体行为,为外汇“主体监管”提供支持。%Under the background that the situation of the global economy and finance is more complex and the trend of the two-way fluctuation of RMB foreign exchange rate has intensified, the business environment faced by foreign-related enterprises is more complex. The demand that enterprises evade risks or get benefits through the financial operations is growing which increases the mismatch degree of the trade goods flow and cash flow. By means of“total factors analysis framework of cross-border capital flow”, the paper comparatively analyzes the differences of the customs import and export, cross-border payment and foreign exchange settle-ment and sales of banks under the trade in goods in Xinjiang, and explains the data gaps to reflect the specific behaviors of the finan-cial operations of foreign-related enterprises for providing the support for foreign exchange subject supervision.

  6. Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2006 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Assistance Connie Veillette 7-7127 cveillette@crs.loc.gov Microenterprise Curt Tarnoff 7-7656 ctarnoff@crs.loc.gov Middle East Assistance Jeremy...Eastern Europe (SEED Act), microenterprise programs, and the Peace Corps. exchange organizations. This title also appropriates resources for international...capacity building — $214 million, House (+$15 million from FY2005); ! Microenterprise — $200 million in both bills (same as FY2005); ! American Schools and

  7. Foreign Diplomats Help the Disabled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Charity sate stalls set up by foreign envoys were the most popular stands at this year’s fundraising charity fair, an event initiated by Mme. Zhou Hanqiong, wife of Vice Premier and former minister of foreign affairs Qian Qichen. The fundraising activity has been held annually since 1996, thanks to the support of foreign diplomats in

  8. Orthopedic approach to foreign body stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Alemdar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although foreign body injuries are quite common, there are an insufficient number of publications on this matter. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with foreign body injuries, and to determine the treatment algorithm. Methods: A total of 97 patients were evaluated, including 53 men and 44 women. Ninety-one patients underwent surgery, and six patients were treated conservatively. Surgery was performed in the operating room in all cases. To ensure that the foreign body was removed, fluoroscopic control was completed during and after the procedure. Antibiotics were administered routinely to all patients, and the need for tetanus prophylaxis was evaluated in each patient. Results: The mean age of the patients was 16.5 (range: 2-58 years. Regarding the type of foreign body, there was injury due to: a needle in 65 patients, glass in 14, wood in 7, iron spit in 1, iron bar in 1, pieces of metal in 3, and other foreign bodies were found in 6 patients. There were 25 injuries of the upper extremity, and 72 of the lower extremity. The time of admission to the hospital after the injury ranged from 1 day to 3 years. Obvious signs of infection were detected in 10 patients. There were no complications after the follow-up of patients who were treated conservatively. Conclusion: Foreign body penetration is a severe injury that may cause significant problems when ignored. Treatment algorithms prepared according to the type of injury would guide the most appropriate approach to these injuries. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 443-448

  9. Foreign Remittances, Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Imports and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research paper focuses on establishing a relationship between external determinants and economic growth of Pakistan economy. Empirical analyses are carried out with time series econometric techniques using data over the period of 1977-2013. The main finding is that external determinants such as foreign remittances, foreign direct investment, and foreign imports matter from a growth perspective. Foreign remittances and foreign direct investment have a significant positive role in the growth process of Pakistan economy. Furthermore, it is found that foreign imports have adversely influenced the economic growth of Pakistan. The study recommends that policy makers shall take appropriate steps to increase the inflow of both foreign remittances and foreign direct investment in order to achieve the long run economic growth.

  10. Justifications and self-organization as determinants of recycling behavior. The case of used batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, Ralf; Bernasconi, Petra; Smieszek, Timo; Loukopoulos, Peter; Scholz, Roland W. [Chair of Environmental Sciences: Natural and Social Science Interface, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (ETH Zuerich), Universitaetsstrasse 22, ETH Zentrum CHN J76.3, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-06-15

    Much previous research on recycling behavior has drawn heavily on models of personal and perceived social norms, as well as of personal attitudes, to explain recycling behavior. Although such models have received empirical support, the issue concerning discrepancies between norms, personal attitudes and an individual's behavior is yet to be resolved. Using battery recycling in Switzerland as a case in point, the present questionnaire-based research examines via regression analyses the relationship between self-reported recycling behavior and socio-demographic variables, attitudes towards ecologically positive waste disposal, trust in waste disposal authorities, specific knowledge concerning recycling, justifications for not participating in the recycling scheme, self-organization of recycling behavior, and level of battery consumption. It was found that recycling knowledge, self-organization of recycling, and disagreement with justifications for non-recycling were positively related to recycling behavior, while attitudes towards ecological waste disposal and trust in waste disposal authorities were not directly related to respondents' self-reported battery recycling behavior. On the basis of these results, with reference to Sykes and Matza's Neutralization theory [Sykes GM, Matza D. Techniques of neutralization: a theory of delinquency. Am Sociol Rev 1957:22(6):664-70] a contextualized model of recycling behavior is proposed. This model is able to account for inconsistencies between personal attitudes and perceived social norms, and has practical implications for the design of public intervention strategies for enhancing participation in the recycling. (author)

  11. Can the NICE "end-of-life premium" be given a coherent ethical justification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard

    2013-12-01

    In 2009 the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) announced that its health technology appraisal committees would henceforth give special additional weight to health gains from life-extending end-of-life treatments. This was a response to mounting concern from NICE's stakeholders that effective new drugs for end-stage cancer often fail NICE's standard test of cost effectiveness. This change of policy may be justifiable on procedural grounds as the result of a democratic political process responding to stakeholder concerns. However, according to the "accountability for reasonableness" framework proposed by the philosopher Norman Daniels and endorsed by NICE, there also needs to be transparency about the substantive ethical grounds for public health care resource allocation decisions. In that spirit, I analyze eleven potentially relevant justifications for the NICE "end-of-life premium," drawn from the economics and philosophy literature: (1) rule of rescue, (2) fair chances, (3) ex post willingness to pay, (4) caring externality, (5) financial protection, (6) symbolic value, (7) diminishing marginal value of future life years, (8) concentration of benefits, (9) dread, (10) time to set your affairs in order, and (11) severity of illness. I conclude that none of them yields a coherent ethical justification for the NICE end-of-life premium.

  12. The application of Dempster-Shafer theory demonstrated with justification provided by legal evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn P. Curley

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In forecasting and decision making, people can and often do represent a degree of belief in some proposition. At least two separate constructs capture such degrees of belief: likelihoods capturing evidential balance and support capturing evidential weight. This paper explores the weight or justification that evidence affords propositions, with subjects communicating using a belief function in hypothetical legal situations, where justification is a relevant goal. Subjects evaluated the impact of sets of 1--3 pieces of evidence, varying in complexity, within a hypothetical legal situation. The study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this evidential weight measure as an alternative or complement to the more-studied probability measure. Subjects' responses indicated that weight and likelihood were distinguished; that subjects' evidential weight tended toward single elements in a targeted fashion; and, that there were identifiable individual differences in reactions to conflicting evidence. Specifically, most subjects reacted to conflicting evidence that supported disjoint sets of suspects with continued support in the implicated sets, although an identifiable minority reacted by pulling back their support, expressing indecisiveness. Such individuals would likely require a greater amount of evidence than the others to counteract this tendency in support. Thus, the study identifies the value of understanding evidential weight as distinct from likelihood, informs our understanding of the psychology of individuals' judgments of evidential weight, and furthers the application and meaningfulness of belief functions as a communication language.

  13. Justification by faith in Luther’s thought and today: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ribeiro Caldas Filho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As the fifth centenary of the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century approaches, it reminds us of the person and work of Martin Luther. Perhaps the main aspect of the reforming program of Luther has been his comprehension of the doctrine of justification by faith, understood as the foundation of the theology of the Reformation. However, since the end of the late 20th century this doctrine has been reframed, due the work of Biblical scholars, such as James Dunn and N. Thomas Wright, who identify themselves with the so called “New Perspective on Paul” (NPP. This essay intends to show, succinctly, the general contours of Luther’s understanding of the subject, as well as the reaction of the Council of Trent of 1545, the Lutheran-Roman Catholic Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification of 1999 and the recent debate on the NPP. In summary, regardless of any consideration of the merits the NPP, the text shall show the relevance of Luther’s thought for today. 

  14. Radiological Justification for and Optimization of Nuclear Medicine Practices in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Il

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear medicine is a rapidly growing discipline that employs advanced novel hybrid techniques that provide unique anatomical and functional information, as well as targets for molecular therapy. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in the attention paid to medical radiation exposure. A radiological justification for the practice of nuclear medicine has been implemented mainly through referral guidelines based on research results such as prospective randomized clinical trials. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends diagnostic reference levels as a practical mechanism to optimize medical radiation exposure in order to be commensurate with the medical purpose. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine has been implementing radiological optimization through a survey of the protocols on how each hospital determines the dose of administration of each radiopharmaceutical. In the case of nuclear medicine, radiation exposure of caregivers and comforters of patients discharged after administration of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can occur; therefore, optimization has been implemented through written instructions for patients, based on international recommendations. The development of patient-radiation-dose monitoring software, and a national registry and management system of patient-radiation-dose is needed to implement radiological optimization through diagnostic reference levels. This management system must work in agreement with the "Institute for Quality Management of Nuclear Medicine", and must take into account the medical reality of Korea, such as low medicine fee, in order to implement reasonable radiological justification and optimization.

  15. Foreign exchange transaction exposure of enterprises in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogićević Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises involved in international business face transaction exposure to foreign exchange risk. This type of exposure occurs when an enterprise trades, borrows, or lеnds in foreign currency. Transaction exposure has a direct effect on an enterprise’s financial position and profitability. It is one of the three forms of exposure to exchange rate fluctuations, the other two being translation exposure and operating exposure. The aim of this paper is to assess the transaction exposure of enterprises in Serbia operating internationally. In addition to identifying and measuring transaction exposure, this paper explores the practical importance that enterprises in Serbia attach to management of this type of foreign exchange risk. We do not find significant differences between domestic and foreign enterprises in their choice of the type of foreign exchange risk exposure to manage. Although transaction exposure is the most managed type of foreign exchange risk, research has shown that, compared to foreign businesses, Serbian enterprises do not use sufficient protective measures to minimize the negative impact of this type of exposure on their cash flows and profitability. We expected that there would be a statistically significant dependence between the volume of enterprises’ foreign currency transactions and the level of applied transaction exposure management practices. However, the results of our research, based on a sample of enterprises in Serbia operating internationally, show that transaction exposure management practices can be influenced by factors other than the level of an enterprise’s foreign currency transactions, such as the enterprise’s country of origin.

  16. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...... of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure...... created by foreign sales activities....

  17. Yabancı Sermaye ve Türkiye'de Elektronik, Kimya ve Toprak Sektörlerinde Faaliyet Gösteren Yatırım Ortaklıklarının Performanslarının İncelenmesi = Study of the Foreign Capital and the Performance of the Joint Ventures That Operate in The Electronical, Chemical and Cement Sectors in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol EREN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Firms have started to cooperate with other firms due to globalization and rapidly increasing competition. They can have quick access to the most recent technology and different markets by cooperating with other firms. Thus by increasing their cross-border operations, multinational companies prefer to establish joint ventures. Joint ventures are the forms of cooperation that is widely used by multinational firms. In Turkey, Foreign Capital Law (No : 6224 has been enacted on January, 18th, 1954. This law has been enacted to encourage foreign capital investments. Even though, it is quite liberal, the amount of foreign capital inflow is not at a desirable level. Therefore, it is necessary and very important to research the reasons for the inadequacy in foreign capital inflows to Turkey. In this paper, the performance of joint ventures in electronic, chemistry and cement sectors are studied. The joint ventures in which the foreign partner has an equity share of less than ninety percent are included in the scope of the study.

  18. My Two Foreign Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐苗

    2006-01-01

    @@ Our former foreign teacher is a young man who comes from England.He is a reserved person who does not talk very much to strangers, does not show much emotion, and seldom gets excited.He always enters our classroom with a bottle of water and a single book in his hand, he likes wearing T-shirt and jeans, which looks very easy-going but neat1.

  19. Foreign Internal Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    basis for today’s FID doctrine. d. In recent times, the United States has provided the same type of NA in El Salvador, Colombia , Kuwait, the...transfers and related services have reached enormous dimensions and involve most of the world’s nations, either as a seller /provider or buyer...measures and consideration of the following: (1) Street or organized crime. (2) Foreign intelligence services. (3) Local populace animosity

  20. [Treatment for penetrating wound caused by metallic intraocular foreign body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaru, M; Şerban, Ramona; Baltă, F

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating wounds with intraocular foreign body are ophthalmologic emergencies due to their severity and complexity and may require multiple surgeries for final resolution. 30-years-old patient with penetrating wound and metallic intraocular foreign body in the posterior vitreous requires successive operations for IOFB extraction, lensectomy, posterior vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and then silicone oil extraction with final visual acuity 0, 4 PH.

  1. 17 CFR 270.17f-7 - Custody of investment company assets with a foreign securities depository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Assets must be withdrawn from the depository as soon as reasonably practicable. (b) Definitions. The terms Foreign Assets, Fund, Qualified Foreign Bank, Registered Canadian Fund, and U.S. Bank have... for the central handling of securities as defined in § 270.17f-4 that: (i) Acts as or operates a...

  2. 78 FR 28190 - Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water Heaters); Louisville, Kentucky On January 7, 2013, GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C in Louisville, Kentucky, submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones...

  3. Effects of Job Alternatives, Extrinsic Rewards, and Behavioral Commitment on Attitude toward the Organization: A Field Test of the Insufficient Justification Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Lawler, John

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the results of a test of the insufficient justification prediction of an interaction between behavioral commitment and sufficiency of justification influencing organizational attitudes in a field setting using data collected by others for other purposes. (Author)

  4. "Because I Am Worth It" : A Theoretical Framework and Empirical Review of a Justification-Based Account of Self-Regulation Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witt Huberts, Jessie C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315033770; Evers, Catharine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/280594232; De Ridder, Denise T D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulation failure is often explained as being overwhelmed by impulse. The present article proposes a novel pathway, presenting a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure. With justification we refer to making excuses for one's discr

  5. 41 CFR 102-5.95 - Is the comfort and/or convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize home-to-work transportation? 102-5...-to-Work Transportation § 102-5.95 Is the comfort and/or convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize home-to-work transportation? No, the comfort and/or convenience of...

  6. Inducing Attitude Change toward Online Gaming among Adolescent Players Based on Dissonance Theory: The Role of Threats and Justification of Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The negative impact of online gaming on adolescents has received much attention. The question of how to reduce their pathological use of online gaming is a critical issue. Based on the concept of external justification in dissonance theory, this experimental study aimed to examine whether severity of threat and justification of effort would impact…

  7. Young Children's Moral Judgments, Justifications, and Emotion Attributions in Peer Relationship Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Ball, Courtney L

    2017-06-06

    Children (n = 160, 4- to 9-year-olds; Mage  = 6.23 years, SD = 1.46) judged, justified, attributed emotions, and rated intent for hypothetical physical harm, psychological harm, and resource distribution transgressions against close friends, acquaintances, disliked peers, or bullies. Transgressions against bullies were judged more acceptable than against friends and disliked peers and less deserving of punishment than against acquaintances and disliked peers. Transgressions against friends were judged least intended and resulting in more negative emotions for transgressors; actors transgressing against disliked peers, as compared to bullies or acquaintances, were happy victimizers. Across relationships, children viewed moral transgressions as wrong independent of rules and authority, based primarily on welfare and fairness justifications. Peer context colors but does not fundamentally change moral evaluations. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Codex dietary fibre definition - Justification for inclusion of carbohydrates from 3 to 9 degrees of polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Sardá, Fabiana Andréa Hoffmann; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2013-10-01

    The main controversy about the DF definition, adopted by the commission of Codex Alimentarius, refers to the inclusion of carbohydrates of 3-9 degrees of polymerisation (DP), decision which may be made individually by the authorities of each country. Due to the possibility of having two definitions and the negative impact it would cause over the harmonisation of nutritional information, a bibliographic review was carried, from 2009 to 2011, aiming to gather justifications for the inclusion of carbohydrates of 3-9 DP in the definition. The current review presents scientific bases that are directed to three topics: physiological aspects; repercussion over the analytical method; and impact on consumers and other users. The decision of including unavailable carbohydrates of 3-9 DP in the definition of DF may cause effective global harmonisation in the nutritional labelling, considering that the main goal is to help consumers choose healthy foods.

  9. Knowledge, innate concepts, and the justification for the belief in god

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimelahi Abdolmajid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The epistemological approach of evidentialism maintains that a belief must have sufficient evidence in order to be rationally justified. The belief in God is no exception and, hence, it too must pass the litmus test of evidence as a measure of its rational justification. But what counts as evidence? Responding to this question and identifying the nature of the evidence that can be used to justify belief has become a point of contention between philosophers. While some evidentialists have denied the possibility of evidence for the belief in God, others have attacked the very basis of the evidentialist claim by promoting belief in God without evidence. The following paper briefly describes these two currents and culminates by discussing the notion of innate concepts and presential knowledge as proposed by Mulla Sadra. According to the authors, this type of presential knowledge can be included as 'evidence' even from the evidentialist point of view which does not limit evidence to conceptual knowledge.

  10. Beyond Territory: Revisiting the Normative Justification of Self-Government in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janique Dubois

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The association of sovereignty with control over territory is being challenged both internally and externally in modern societies. Demands for political autonomy from sub-state minorities undermine the natural link between nation, state and territory from within, while the movement of capital, goods and information across borders contests the relationship between these concepts from without. Scholars of international relations, law, philosophy and political science have already suggested that the sovereignty of nation-states is under attack; however, scant attention has been paid to the way in which changes in the relation between nation, state, and territory affect the normative weight associated with each of these concepts in discussions about sovereignty and self-government. The objectives of this article is to examine the way in which nation, state, sovereignty, and territory are addressed in normative justifications of indigenous self-government and to better understand how these notions are being treated in its implementation.

  11. Justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernysh Iryna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study and justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis policy of the state in the tourist industry. The article justifies and proves expediency of the use of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry. The article marks out the scientific problem of identification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry by scientists, provides the composition and specifies the characteristics of principles of the anti-crisis state policy, and justifies functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry; proves the necessity of identification of principles and functions when developing conceptual grounds of the anti-crisis state policy and establishes their interrelation and interdependence during realisation of the relevant concept.

  12. THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION OF THE CONCEPT OF INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS PROCESSES IN THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina G. Garanina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains theoretical and practical justification of the concept of innovative development of business processes based on the information analysis of the company’s infrastructure under the conditions of building a common information space. This study focuses on the supporting business processes update, on the documented information processing based on the state-of-the-art information technology solutions in particularly.The factors preventing an enterprise to build a common information space are highlighted in this study. The functional set of the management areas is examined and the degree of state-of-the-art information technology utilization to support the company’s process areas is analyzed. It is proposed to overcome the identified barriers through the automation of the company’s process areas and innovative development of supporting business processes of documented information processing by using modern information technology resources.

  13. Justification of the complex Langevin method with the gauge cooling procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Keitaro; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been remarkable progress in the complex Langevin method, which aims at solving the complex action problem by complexifying the dynamical variables in the original path integral. In particular, a new technique called the gauge cooling was introduced and the full QCD simulation at finite density has been made possible in the high temperature (deconfined) phase or with heavy quarks. Here we provide a rigorous justification of the complex Langevin method including the gauge cooling procedure. We first show that the gauge cooling can be formulated as an extra term in the complex Langevin equation involving a gauge transformation parameter, which is chosen appropriately as a function of the configuration before cooling. The probability distribution of the complexified dynamical variables is modified by this extra term. However, this modification is shown not to affect the Fokker-Planck equation for the corresponding complex weight as far as observables are restricted to gauge invariant ones. Thus...

  14. Western Interventions in Current Wars: Political Justification and Civil Society´s Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Bueno Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, it seems to be an agreement in Western countries in favor of values included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. On the other hand, Western countries initiate or intervene in armed conflicts outside their territories, which implies actions contrary to such values. This article examines this apparent contradiction: it describes briefly the international context of contemporary conflicts and it refers to the just-war tradition in order to analyze both the position of the Charter of the United Nations and the justifications given by Western countries. Moreover, the arguments used by the US and the Spanish Governments to justify their interventions in the Afghanistan (2001 and Iraq (2008 wars, and the responses of civil society are considered.

  15. Quality assurance in digital dental radiography--justification and dose reduction in dental and maxillofacial radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstern, F; Geibel, M-A

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of quality assurance requirements for digital dental radiography in routine clinical practice. The results should be discussed by radiation protection authorities in the context of the relevant legal requirements and current debates on radiation protection. Two hundred digital dental radiographs were randomly selected from the digital database of the Department of Dentistry's Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Ulm University, and evaluated for various aspects of image quality and compliance with radiographic documentation requirements. The dental films were prepared by different radiology assistants (RAs) using one of two digital intraoral radiographic systems: Sirona Heliodent DS, 60 kV, focal spot size: 0.7 mm (group A) or KaVo Gendex 765 DC, 65 kV, focal spot size: 0.4 mm (group B). Radiographic justification was documented in 70.5% of cases, and the radiographic findings in 76.5%. Both variables were documented in the patient records as well as in the software in 14% of cases. Clinical documentation of the required information (name of the responsible dentist and radiology assistant, date, patient name, department, tube voltage, tube current, exposure time, type of radiograph, film size, department and serial number of the dental radiograph) was 100% complete in all cases. Moreover, the department certified according to DIN ISO 9001:2008 specifications demonstrated complete clinical documentation of radiographic justifications and radiographic findings. The entire dentition was visible on 83% of the digital films. The visible area corresponded to the target region on 85.7% of the digital dental radiographs. Seven to 8.5% of the images were classified as "hypometric" or "hypermetric". This study indicates that improvements in radiology training and continuing education fordentists and dental staff performing x-ray examinations are needed to ensure consistent high quality of digital dental radiography. Implementation of

  16. [Pharmacy as a means of propagating the Lutherian doctrine of justification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Fritz

    2003-09-01

    Pharmacy serving to propagate the Lutherian doctrine of justification: "Christus as a pharmacist" is an interconfessional, but confessionally differentiated symbolic motif (Sinnbildmotiv) of Christian folklore art in German-speaking countries. The article investigates the sociocultural conditions and prerequisites (German bible translation, religion and confession, piety, pharmacy, chymiatry, chemistry, apothecary training and status) for transfering the old metaphor and idea of Christ as a physician to the new vision of Christ as a apothecary who prepares and dispenses his heavenly medicine all by himself. In the early 17th century (especially in the 1610's) these requirements were fulfilled, so that the oldest known witness to this motif transfer (picturing the so-called Heilandsruf of Matthew 11, 28), a genre picture of 1619, will be the first pictural version of this motif in general. It was created by the protestant Painter Mich(a)el Herr of Nuremberg. In the abstract and reduced form of a devotional picture this motif then became widespread in churches and vicarages, in monasteries and their apothecaries as well as in private houses (with small altars: Herrgottswinkel). The oldest yet known examples are works from around 1630. For the first time during the Thirty Year's War, it served in this form for propagating the Lutherian justification doctrine (now referring to Jesaja 55, 1), saying that the belief in Christ is enough to be released from all sins (sola fide). Around 1650, as a reaction to that, a catholic version of the devotional picture was created, claiming and picturing that in contrast eucharist is the highest and real, healing medium' of Christ to redemption. All pictures of this version avoid quoting Jesaja 55, 1, whereas all protestant pictures quote this verse from the Bible word-for-word.

  17. North American Foreign Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Noonan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of so-called “foreign fighters” is in no way new the past thirty-plus years has shown a marked increase in the numbers of individuals traveling abroad to fight in civil conflicts in the Muslim world. The crisis in Syria (2011-present has created a massive influx of such individuals going to fight. Of particular concern in western capitals has been the numbers of individuals from those countries that have gone to fight in that conflict which has since crossed the border into neighboring Iraq with the establishment of the socalled “Islamic State” and threatens to broaden the conflict into a larger regional sectarian conflagration. While the numbers of such participants from Western Europe have been greater than those who have gone from the United States and Canada there are legitimate concerns in both Washington, DC, and Ottawa about American and Canadian citizens who have gone—or attempted to go—to fight there and in other locales such as the Maghreb and Somalia. The analysis here will provide some background on the foreign fighter phenomenon, discuss the foreign fighter flow model, explore the issue from both Canadian and US perspectives to include providing details of some original research categorizing the characteristics of a small sample of US and Canadian fighters and those who attempted to go and fight, discuss how both governments have attempted to deal with the issue, and offer some policy prescription for dealing with this issue that is of importance to both international security writ large and domestic security in the US and Canada.

  18. Longstanding Endobronchial Foreign Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Trisolini

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many circumstances in which the diagnosis of endobronchial inhalation of a foreign body (FB can be missed. Generally, in such cases, within weeks or at most months from the event, clinical bronchopulmonary symptoms develop which allow a correct diagnosis to be made and significant complications to be avoided. We report the case of a patient in whom an endobronchial FB remained undiagnosed, because of lack of symptoms, for almost three years, and then caused signifiicant complications before being identified and removed. Problems related to diagnosis and therapy are discussed.

  19. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  20. Foreign language didactics: Identity questions

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Píšová

    2011-01-01

    The efforts to emancipate foreign language didactics have been an ongoingand non-linear process launched in our country in the 50s of the previous century.Its key aspects may be presented as foreign language didactics identity questions.These include explicit delineation of the object and methodology of foreign languagedidactics on the basis of developmental analysis, current state of knowledge andtrends/approaches to the discipline. The issues related to the full-fledged scientificstatus of ...

  1. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  2. Examining self-justifications for unsafe sex as a technique of AIDS education: the importance of personal relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, R S; Rosenthal, D A

    1998-04-01

    In an earlier study, we found that sexual risk-taking in gay men was reduced by getting them to evaluate the self-justifications for having unsafe sex which they had used on a specific occasion when they 'slipped up' (broke their safe sex rules by having unprotected anal intercourse). This study investigated whether the earlier finding occurred simply because recalling vividly a specific encounter in which a slip-up took place brought the men's risk-taking home to them very strongly and whether the intervention would still work if translated into posters suitable for the mass media. Gay men (n=92) who had slipped up kept diaries of their sexual behaviour for 16 weeks. After 4 weeks, they were allocated to one of 3 conditions: Specific Encounter (detailed reconstruction of a slip-up, but without any questions about self-justifications); Posters (examination of posters, specially designed for the study, that focused on self-justifications); and Control (no intervention). All 3 groups slipped up to the same extent in the post-intervention period. The results for the Specific Encounter group indicate that the earlier finding is not attributable to the alternative explanation above, while those for the Posters group suggest the importance of ensuring personal 'ownership' of the self-justifications presented. Implications for AIDS education are discussed.

  3. The Politics of Justification : Party Competition and Welfare-State Retrenchment in Denmark and the Netherlands from 1982 to 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green-Pedersen, Christoffer

    2002-01-01

    The Politics of Justification onderzoekt de bezuinigingen op de sociale zekerheid die plaatsvonden in Nederland en Denemarken in de periode 1982-1998. Het korten op sociale voorzieningen ligt politiek uiterst gevoelig, maar toch snijden regeringen in hun uitgaven. Green-Pedersen bepleit dat regering

  4. The Epistemic Understanding of Justification of Deduction%演绎证成的认知解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓华

    2012-01-01

    Deduction needs justification, which just likes putting the science mansion based on logic reason on a volcanic crater and having the danger of breakup at any time. After giving a brief analysis of justification of deduction, this paper puts forward that the justification of deduction is in essence a problem of logical om- niscience from cognitive agent aspect. The paper defends the foundation of science mansion, because deduction needs justification just from cognitive agent not deduction itself.%演绎也是需要证成的,这如同把所有以逻辑推理为基础的科学大厦放置在一个火山口上,随时有崩溃的危险。论文在对各种演绎证成进行评判的基础上,从认知主体的角度分析,认为演绎证成其实也是一个逻辑全能问题,演绎证成在认知主体层面上才需要辩护,从而维护科学大厦的基础。

  5. Theoretical justification of space-mapping-based modeling utilizing a database and on-demand parameter extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical justification of a recently introduced surrogate modeling methodology based on space mapping that relies on an available data base and on-demand parameter extraction. Fine model data, the so-called base set, is assumed available in the region of interest. To evaluate the ...

  6. The Future Justification to Adopt Governance System at the Jordan Universities from the Perspective of Educational Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Nair, Natheer Sihan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal the future justification to adopt governance system at the Jordanian Universities from the perspective of educational experts. The study society was the academic staff in the field of education at Al-Balqa Applied University and Jordan University, at the first semester of the academic year 2013-2014. The study…

  7. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...... of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure...

  8. AN UNUSUAL RECTAL FOREIGN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rectal foreign bodies are common, but foreign body made of glass with uneven sharp distal end and complicated with hypovolemic shock is very rare. It is very challenging to be removed by laparotomy and poses extra difficulty in emergency. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 45-year-old man with complains of rectal foreign body and bleeding per rectum reported in emergency room. On examination patient was in hypovolemic shock and continuous bleeding through anal opening. Emergency laparotomy was per-formed and foreign body was retrieved successfully. DISCUSSION: Rectal foreign body made of glass with uneven sharp distal end towards distal end of rectum is very rare. Retrieval of these foreign bodies will be very difficult, especially for the emergency cases that are complicated with hypovolemic shock. Emergency laparotomy can be successfully performed to stop the bleeding and minimize rectal and anal canal trauma. To the best of our knowledge, such rectal foreign body has been rarely reported. CONCLUSION: Rectal foreign body with uneven sharp edges towards anal opening are difficult to retrieve trough transanal route. Hypovolemic shock due to bleeding and rectal perforation is major complications of these foreign bodies. Emergency laparotomy should be done in these cases.

  9. Closing the Knowledge Gap in Foreign Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie A.; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    The study explores how firms close their knowledge gaps in relation to business environments of foreign markets. Potential determinants are derived from traditional internationalization process theory as well as more recent literature on organizational learning processes, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building on these two literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primary data of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggests that factors considered essential in traditional internationalization process theory......, such as experiential learning, explains only a very limited part of perceived knowledge gaps. When factors pertaining to the concepts of absorptive capacity and superstitious learning are added, the explanatory power improves significantly. Apparently, our understanding of firms' internationalization processes can...

  10. Improving Operational Suitability through better Requirements and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    Test and Evaluation IPS Integrated Program Summary JMSNS Justification for Major System New Start JSOR Joint Service Operational Requirement LRU Line...Operational Requirement ( JSOR ). Eight of the 15 need-statements have resulted in operational systems that are now in the field; an additional three...SONs, and JSORs . With one netable exception, the need-statements were reviewed solely for research purposes to identify problem areas and to stimulate

  11. Removal of Intralenticular Magnetic Foreign Bodies with Intraocular Magnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiwen Luo; Zhenfang Wang; Xiaofeng Lin; Shuying Hu

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the possibility of conservation of the lens after removal of intralenticular magnetic foreign bodies with intraocular magnet.Methods: Intralenticular magnetic foreign bodies of 15 patients were removed by using an intraocular magnet. The lens of each injury eye was conserved. Follow-up observation of these cases ranged from one to four years.Results: The intralenticular magnetic foreign bodies of 15 patients were successfully removed.The lens of each injury eye was conserved and the transparence of the lens was properly maintained. Sizes of these foreign bodies were measured, ranging from 0.3 mm to 3mm in diameter. The follow-up observation showed that the corrected visual acuity of 14 cases was not changed after operation.Conclusions: The intraocular magnet is very helpful for removal of magnetic foreign bodies from the transparent lens. This magnet allows removing of the foreign body by the surgeon and no damage to the lens was induced during the operation. Thus, maintenance of visual acuity of most of the patients can be achieved.

  12. Foreign exchange risk management in multinationals : an empirical investigation on China, Japan and US

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lei; Ma, Niannian

    2007-01-01

    Companies especially multinational companies are now exposed to risks caused by unexpected movements in exchange rate. The management of foreign exchange risk has become essential for the survival of companies in today’s volatile financial markets. This paper reviews the traditional types of exchange rate risk faced by firms, namely translation, transaction and operating risk, presents measurement and management method for foreign exchange exposure and objectives of foreign exchange managemen...

  13. Seeking competitive advantage in an emergent open economy: foreign direct investment in Chinese industry

    OpenAIRE

    I Eng; Lin, Y

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we explore how foreign investors penetrate China's reforming economy and seek to build a competitive edge for their operations in local and international markets. Basing our study on a comparative analysis of the locational, sectoral, and organizational characteristics and performance variation of industrial firms invested by overseas Chinese and other foreign capital, we posit that effective manipulation of state action holds a key to the economic success of foreign-invested fi...

  14. FOREIGN EXCHANGE INTERVENTION AND THE POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE: A PANEL DATA ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    By combining expansionary open market operations with sales of foreign exchange, the central bank can expand the monetary base without depreciating the exchange rate. Thus, if there is a monetary political business cycle, sales of foreign exchange are especially likely before elections. Our panel data analysis for up to 158 countries in 1975-2001 supports this hypothesis. Foreign exchange reserves relative to trend GDP depend negatively on the pre-election index regardless of the exchange rat...

  15. Seeking competitive advantage in an emergent open economy: foreign direct investment in Chinese industry

    OpenAIRE

    I Eng; Lin, Y

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we explore how foreign investors penetrate China's reforming economy and seek to build a competitive edge for their operations in local and international markets. Basing our study on a comparative analysis of the locational, sectoral, and organizational characteristics and performance variation of industrial firms invested by overseas Chinese and other foreign capital, we posit that effective manipulation of state action holds a key to the economic success of foreign-invested fi...

  16. Diagnosis and management of an intra-articular foreign body in the foot.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulhall, K J

    2002-10-01

    We describe a case of a small intra-articular foreign body in the foot presenting 48 hours following injury, which at operation showed early evidence of septic arthritis. It is essential to accurately localise periarticular foreign bodies in the foot and proceed to arthrotomy and debridement in all cases where there is radiological or clinical evidence to suggest intra-articular retention of a foreign body.

  17. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  18. Foreign Banks: Trends and Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; van Horen, N.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, foreign banks have become much more important in domestic financial intermediation, heightening the need to understand their behavior. We introduce a new, comprehensive database, made publicly available, on bank ownership (including the home country of foreign banks) for 5

  19. Foreign workers in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Lim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global age many people cross national borders in search of better work and more wages. According to IOM, more than 100 000 000 workers leave their homeland and migrate to another country for this reason. Europe and North America have already experienced increase in foreign labor for many decades but nowadays, it is very common to see foreign laborers in Asian countries. As the number of foreign laborers rapidly increased, however, so did many social problems in relation to these workers. No country is safe from or immune to such social problems in regards to the foreign workers especially with a much easier and more efficient transportation system. In case of South Korea, the history of foreign labor may not be as long as other nations but as of 2007, it boasts of more than 250 000 foreign laborers and is thus facing just as many social problems as well. In order to investigate such social issues, this article explores the history of foreign laborers and their current situation in South Korea. Furthermore, this artticle examines both internal and external factors which may have caused exponential growth of foreign labor market in South Korea in the past decade.

  20. Foreign language didactics: Identity questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Píšová

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to emancipate foreign language didactics have been an ongoingand non-linear process launched in our country in the 50s of the previous century.Its key aspects may be presented as foreign language didactics identity questions.These include explicit delineation of the object and methodology of foreign languagedidactics on the basis of developmental analysis, current state of knowledge andtrends/approaches to the discipline. The issues related to the full-fledged scientificstatus of foreign language didactics are discussed both on a domain-general level(questions relevant for the whole field of subject didactics and on a domain-specificlevel (foreign language didactics specific questions.

  1. Researches on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴均霞

    2013-01-01

      Foreign language anxiety is one of the factors of affecting foreign language achievement. It is negatively associated with language skill learning. This article will show some researches on foreign language anxiety from certain aspects.

  2. Researching Justification Texts of a First Instance Court: from Assignment to Results and Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Langbroek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Court decisions are reasoned to legitimize them. Lay people seem to understand little of the work of the courts. One of the questions for court administrators and judges is: for whom do judges write their judgments? Is it possible to analyze judicial justification texts with a view to the audiences they address? We answered that question by developing a methodology for the analysis of judgment justification texts, investigating judicial writing behavior. This paper focuses on the methodological hurdles we had to take and the mistakes we made and had to correct. Research reports in all articles on socio-legal research offer a positive and linear description of the research. This article wants to show that trial and error during the research process were inevitable and maybe could have been avoided if we would have had more experience with this type of research. We hope students and other researchers may profit from our experience. Las decisiones judiciales se razonan para legitimarlas. Los profanos en la materia parecen entender poco de la labor de los tribunales. Una de las preguntas a administradores de tribunales y jueces es: ¿para quién redactan los jueces sus sentencias? ¿Es posible analizar los textos de justificación judiciales desde la perspectiva del público a quien se dirigen? Hemos respondido a esta pregunta mediante el desarrollo de una metodología para el análisis de textos de justificación judiciales, investigando el comportamiento de la escritura judicial. Este artículo se centra en los obstáculos metodológicos que tuvimos que sortear y los errores que cometimos y tuvimos que corregir. Los informes de investigación en todos los artículos de investigación sociojurídica ofrecen una descripción positiva y lineal de la investigación. Este artículo quiere demostrar que la prueba y el error eran inevitables durante el proceso de investigación eran inevitables, y podrían haberse evitado si hubiéramos tenido mayor

  3. A JUSTIFICAÇÃO POR CONSENSO SOBREPOSTO EM JOHN RAWLS JOHN RAWLS' OVERLAPPING CONSENSUS JUSTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Coitinho Silveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é estabelecer algumas considerações sobre o papel da categoria de consenso sobreposto na teoria da justiça como eqüidade de John Rawls nas obras Political Liberalism (Lecture IV, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement (§ 11 e Replay to Habermas (§ 2, com a intenção de identificar um modelo pragmático de justificação em um âmbito público, compreendendo os princípios de justiça para a estrutura básica da sociedade como um mínimo social que visa a garantia da estabilidade e legitimidade, assegurando critérios públicos para a determinação dos principais  acordos constitucionais, econômicos e sociais. Com a afirmação dos valores políticos de razoabilidade e reciprocidade, identificar-se-á um modelo pragmatista universalista de justificação com base em um intuicionismo mitigado.The aim of this article is to raise some considerations about the role of category of the overlapping consensus in John Rawls’s theory of justice as fairness in Political Liberalism (Lecture IV, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement (§ 11 and Replay to Habermas (§ 2, with a view to identifying a pragmatical justification model in a public scope, understanding the principles of justice for the basic structure of society as a social minimum that aims at the guarantee of the stability and legitimacy, assuring public criteria for the determination of the principal constitution, economic and social arrangements. With affirmation of the political values of the reasonableness and reciprocity, I’ll identify a pragmatical-universalist justification model with basis in a mitigated intuitionism.

  4. The Transitional Justice Models and the Justifications of Means of Dealing with the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Krotoszynski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of transitional justice measures can be fully understood only when one takes into account the values, rationales and justifications that lie at the roots of various ways of dealing with past wrongs. Seeing transitional justice as an ontologically complex structure, the article aims to relate the legal instruments that concentrate on past abusers to the axiological layer of settling accounts with the past. In order to do so, three basic models of transitional justice – a retribution model, a historical clarification model and a thick line model – all based on the measures implemented during democratic change, are presented. Then, with the use of a classic division between consequentialist and deontological argumentation, the article describes transitional justice justifications. Next, the values emblematic for each of the models are identified. Finally, the article proposes a structure of transitional justice moral reasoning that may guide transitional decision-making process on the axiological level. El desarrollo de medidas de justicia transicional sólo puede entenderse en su totalidad cuando se tienen en cuenta los valores, razones y justificaciones que subyacen en las raíces de las diversas maneras de tratar con los errores del pasado. Al ver la justicia transicional como una estructura ontológicamente compleja, el artículo pretende relacionar los instrumentos jurídicos que se concentran en los agresores del pasado con la capa axiológica de ajustar cuentas con el pasado. Para conseguirlo, se presentan tres modelos básicos de justicia transicional -un modelo de retribución, un modelo de esclarecimiento histórico y un modelo de línea gruesa-, todos basados en las medidas aplicadas durante un cambio democrático. Seguidamente, el artículo describe las justificaciones de la justicia transicional, con el uso de una división clásica entre argumentación consecuencialista y deontológica. A continuación, se

  5. A Comparative Study on Chinese and Foreign Facilities of Agricultural Machinery and Operation Equipments%中外设施农业机械及作业装备的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东; 刘永超; 罗维飞

    2014-01-01

    With more than 20 years of development, significant progress has been made in national agricultural infrastructure , but compared with the advanced agricultural machinery in foreign countries,there is still a large gap, both the yield of the comprehensive benefit and the comprehensive research level of single or comprehensive technology, are far behind Japan, Netherlands and South Korea and other developed countries. How to fully digest other countries' experience, introduce advanced scientific and technological achievements at home and abroad, improve the overall level of agricultural machinery in our country, is a quite important step for our country to transform from a big agricultural country to a powerful one.%经过二十多年的发展,我国的农业设施虽然取得了显著的进步,但是和国外先进的农业机械设备相比还是存在着很大的差距,无论是综合效益的发挥,还是单项或者综合技术的研究水平,都远远落后于日本、荷兰以及韩国等发达国家。如何充分的吸引他国经验,引进国内外先进科技成果,提高我国农业机械的整体水平,是我国从农业大国转变为农业强国的重要一步。

  6. CNOOC Active Player in Foreign Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Successful CACT cooperation The crude oil production from the cooperative oil fields of CACT Group in Huizhou was accumulated to400 million barrels on November 28, 2006, a remarkable achievement carried into the development history of CNOOC. Founded in 1984 under the oil contracts and joint operation agreement, CACT Group is an international consortium led by CNOOC with participation of three other famous international oil companies -Agip, Chevron and Texaco. CNOOC owns a 51 percent stake in the joint venture while the three foreign companies aggregately hold the remaining 49 percent.

  7. Survey of foreign graduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In the 1983 American Institute of Physics (AIP) Graduate Student Survey, the issue of foreign versus national students in U.S. graduate programs was explored. In the past decade, the number of entering graduate students from foreign nations in American universities has risen from about 600 to about 1100, an increase from 23% in 1973 to 40% in 1983 of all entering physics graduate students in the United States. There are more than 10,000 graduate students in physics in the United StatesThe benefits, or lack thereof, of having foreign graduate students raises a number of philosophical points. Like all students, foreign students learn from academic programs; but at high competitive levels, they contribute as well. The essence of growth in any academic program is described by the creativity supplied by ever incoming students. In an academically competitive system the question of foreign students displacing U.S. students in graduate programs has no definition. On the other hand, what about the graduate job market after graduation? Some would point to the return of foreign graduates to their homeland as an example of U.S. education efforts not benefitting U.S. society, at least directly. Others worry about foreign graduates flooding the U.S. job market.

  8. Strategizing of Foreign Firms in China : An institution-based perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Zhang (Xueyuan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractChina has been assuming a prominent position in the world economy and one of the most attractive destinations for FDI. However, the popular press often points to institutional voids and difficulties that foreign firms face in operation. How foreign firms strategize in China, therefore, b

  9. 75 FR 64248 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 196 ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting) Fort Worth, TX Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of... following Order: Whereas, ATC Logistics & Electronics (ATCLE), an operator of Foreign-Trade Zone 196, has... procedures within FTZ 196 on behalf of ATC Logistics & Electronics, as described in the application...

  10. 12 CFR 211.23 - Nonbanking activities of foreign banking organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonbanking activities of foreign banking organizations. 211.23 Section 211.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking Organizations § 211.23...

  11. Strategizing of Foreign Firms in China : An institution-based perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Zhang (Xueyuan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractChina has been assuming a prominent position in the world economy and one of the most attractive destinations for FDI. However, the popular press often points to institutional voids and difficulties that foreign firms face in operation. How foreign firms strategize in China, therefore, b

  12. Strategizing of Foreign Firms in China : An institution-based perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Zhang (Xueyuan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractChina has been assuming a prominent position in the world economy and one of the most attractive destinations for FDI. However, the popular press often points to institutional voids and difficulties that foreign firms face in operation. How foreign firms strategize in China, therefore,

  13. 76 FR 10328 - Approval of Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 134, Volkswagen Group of America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 134, Volkswagen Group of America Chattanooga Operations, LLC (Motor Vehicles), Chattanooga, TN Pursuant to its authority under the... of FTZ 134, has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Volkswagen Group of America...

  14. Ethics of radiological risk governance: justice of justification as a central concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskens, G

    2016-06-01

    Due to the specific character of the radiological risk, judgements on whether the use of nuclear technology would be justified in society have to consider knowledge-related uncertainties and value pluralism. The justice of justification not only informs the right of the potentially affected to participate in decision making, but also implies the responsibility of concerned actors to give account of the way they rationalise their own position, interests, hopes, hypotheses, beliefs, and concerns in knowledge generation and decision making. This paper characterises the evaluation of whether the use of nuclear technology would be justified in society as a 'complex social problem', and reflects on what it would imply to deal with its complexity fairly. Based on this assessment, the paper proposes 'reflexivity' and 'intellectual solidarity' as ethical attitudes or virtues for all concerned actors, to be understood from a specific 'ethics of care' perspective 'bound in complexity'. Consequently, it argues that there is a need for an 'interactive' understanding of ethics in order to give ethical attitudes or virtues a practical meaning in a sociopolitical context, and draws conclusions for the case of radiological risk governance.

  15. Dental cone beam computed tomography: justification for use in planning oral implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Reinhilde; Quirynen, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Intra-oral and panoramic radiographs are most frequently used in oral health care. Yet, the inherent nature of jaws and teeth renders three-dimensional diagnosis essential, especially in relation to oral surgery. Nowadays, this can be accomplished by dental cone beam computed tomography, which provides high-quality images at low radiation doses and low costs. Nonetheless, the effective dose ranges of cone beam computed tomography machines may easily vary from 10 to 1000 μSv, this being equivalent to two to 200 panoramic radiographs, even for similar presurgical indications. Moreover, the diagnostic image quality varies massively among available machines and parameter settings. Apart from the radiodiagnostic possibilities, dental cone beam computed tomography may offer a vast therapeutic potential, including opportunities for surgical guidance and further prosthetic rehabilitation via computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing solutions. These additional options may definitely explain part of the success of cone beam computed tomography for oral implant placement. In conclusion, dental cone beam computed tomography imaging could be justified for oral implant-related diagnosis, planning and transfer to surgical and further prosthetic treatment, but guidelines for justification and cone beam computed tomography optimization remain mandatory.

  16. Do ethnicity and polygyny contribute to justification of men beating women in Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Tuoyire, Derek Anamaale

    2016-01-01

    Violence against intimate partners threatens public health and social cohesion, and its prevalence could increase with an attitude of justification of such violence. The objective of this article was to use religion and ethnicity as proxies for culture to examine Ghanaian women's acceptance of being beaten. We employed descriptive and binary logistic regression statistics applied to Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data collected in 2011 in Ghana. With a weighted sample of 10,627 women, the findings revealed that more than half (59.83%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 57.41%, 62.2%) of the respondents justified at least one form of intimate partner violence (IPV) or another and being a Mole-Dagbani (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.41; 95%; CI = 1.05, 1.90) and/or in a polygamous marriage/union (AOR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.420) were significant risk factors for justifying IPV. Activism in promoting IPV-free communities has to be group-specific to reach those in need of interventions.

  17. QFT justification of the κ-framework using the electroweak chiral Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchalla, Gerhard; Cata, Oscar; Celis, Alejandro; Krause, Claudius [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, D-80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We consider the electroweak chiral Lagrangian as effective field theory (EFT) for the Standard Model at the electroweak scale v. This EFT describes the phenomenology of the Standard Model with generalized Higgs couplings in a consistent way. This is motivated by (but not restricted to) a new, strongly-coupled sector responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. After a brief discussion of the systematics of the effective expansion, I present its application to current LHC Higgs data. I show how the leading effects are related to the κ-framework that is currently used by the experiments at the LHC. The κ-framework was introduced as a pure phenomenological signal-strength parametrization and is criticized as being inconsistent with quantum field theory. I will show that the latter is not the case and present a justification of the κ-framework using the leading order analysis of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian. It is therefore well defined and can straightforwardly be extended to higher orders within the EFT. I also present a fit of the chiral Lagrangian to the LHC Higgs data.

  18. Mortality Salience, System Justification, and Candidate Evaluations in the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sterling

    Full Text Available Experiments conducted during the 2004 and 2008 U.S. presidential elections suggested that mortality salience primes increased support for President George W. Bush and Senator John McCain, respectively. Some interpreted these results as reflecting "conservative shift" following exposure to threat, whereas others emphasized preferences for "charismatic" leadership following exposure to death primes. To assess both hypotheses in the context of a new election cycle featuring a liberal incumbent who was considered to be charismatic, we conducted four experiments shortly before the 2012 election involving President Barack Obama and Governor Mitt Romney. Contrary to earlier studies, there was little evidence that mortality salience, either by itself or in interaction with political orientation, affected overall candidate ratings or voting intentions. However, a significant interaction between mortality salience and system justification in some studies indicated a more circumscribed effect. The failure to "replicate" previous results in the context of this election may be attributable to disagreement among participants as to which of the candidates better represented the societal status quo.

  19. Toxicity of Atorvastatin on Pancreas Mitochondria: A Justification for Increased Risk of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighara, Melina; Amirsheardost, Zahra; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Salimi, Ahmad; Seydi, Enayatollah; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-02-01

    Statins (including atorvastatin) are a widely used class of drugs, and like all medications, they have a potential for adverse effects. Recently, it has been shown that statins also exert side effects on the pancreas. In vitro studies have suggested that this class of drugs induced a reduction in insulin secretion. Also, the use of statins is associated with a raised risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but the mechanisms underlying statin-induced diabetes are poorly known. Literature data indicate that several statins are able to induce apoptosis signalling. This study was designed to examine the mechanism of atorvastatin on mitochondria obtained from rat pancreas. In our study, mitochondria were obtained from the pancreas and then exposed to atorvastatin and vehicle to investigate probable toxic effects. The results showed that atorvastatin (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 μM) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial swelling, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, the orchestrating factor for mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signalling. Atorvastatin also reduced the ATP levels. These results propose that the toxicity of atorvastatin on pancreas mitochondria is a key point for drug-induced apoptotic cell loss in the pancreas and therefore a justification for increased risk of DM. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  20. Justification and Persuasion about Cloning: Arguments in Hwang's Paper and Journalistic Reported Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar; Federico-Agraso, Marta

    2009-05-01

    We examine the argumentative structure of Hwang et al.’s (2004) paper about human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, or ‘therapeutic cloning’), contrasted with four Journalistic Reported Versions (JRV) of it, and with students’ summaries of one JRV. As the evaluation of evidence is one of the critical features of argumentation (Jiménez-Aleixandre 2008), the analysis focuses on the use of evidence, drawing from instruments to analyze written argumentation (Kelly et al. 2008) and from studies about the structure of empirical research reports (Swales 2001). The objectives are: 1) To examine the use of evidence and the argumentative structure of Hwang et al.’s Science, 303: 1669-1674 (2004) original paper in terms of the criteria: a) pertinence of the evidence presented to the claims; b) sufficiency of the evidence for the purpose of supporting the claims; and c) coordination of the evidence across epistemic levels. 2) To explore how the structure of Hwang’s paper translates into the JRV and into university students’ perceptions about the evidence supporting the claims. The argumentative structure of Hwang’s paper is such that its apparently ostensible main claim about NT constitutes a justification for a second claim about its therapeutic applications, for which no evidence is offered. However, this second claim receives prominent treatment in the JRV and in the students’ summaries. Implications for promoting critical reading in the classroom are discussed.

  1. The argument for justification of the complex Langevin method and the condition for correct convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Keitaro; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    The complex Langevin method is a promising approach to the complex-action problem based on a fictitious time evolution of complexified dynamical variables under the influence of a Gaussian noise. Although it is known to have a restricted range of applicability, the use of gauge cooling made it applicable to various interesting cases including finite density QCD in certain parameter regions. In this paper we revisit the argument for justification of the method. Starting with a finite Langevin step-size $\\epsilon$, we find that the $\\epsilon\\rightarrow 0$ limit is actually subtle, although the previous argument used a continuous Langevin time from the outset. We also point out a subtlety in the use of time-evolved observables, which play a crucial role in the argument. This subtlety appears when the probability of the drift term is not suppressed exponentially at large magnitude. We claim that the failures of the method previously considered to occur for different reasons should be understood in this way. Using...

  2. Humanity and Justice in Global Health: Problems with Venkatapuram's Justification of the Global Health Duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollar, Eszter; Laukötter, Sebastian; Buyx, Alena

    2016-01-01

    One of the most ambitious and sophisticated recent approaches to provide a theory of global health justice is Sridhar Venkatapuram's recent work. In this commentary, we first outline the core idea of Venkatapuram's approach to global health justice. We then argue that one of the most important elements of the account, Venkatapuram's basis of global health duties, is either too weak or assumed implicitly without a robust justification. The more explicit grounding of the duty to protect and promote health capabilities is based on Martha Nussbaum's version of the capability approach. We argue that this foundation gives rise to humanitarian duties rather than duties of justice proper. Venkatapuram's second argument from the social determinants of health thesis is instead a stronger candidate for grounding duties of justice. However, as a justificatory argument, it is only alluded to and has not yet been spelled out sufficiently. We offer plausible justificatory steps to fill this gap and draw some implications for global health action. We believe this both strengthens Venkatapuram's approach and serves to broaden the basis for future action in the area of global health.

  3. Argument for justification of the complex Langevin method and the condition for correct convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keitaro; Nishimura, Jun; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-12-01

    The complex Langevin method is a promising approach to the complex-action problem based on a fictitious time evolution of complexified dynamical variables under the influence of a Gaussian noise. Although it is known to have a restricted range of applicability, the use of gauge cooling made it applicable to various interesting cases including finite density QCD in certain parameter regions. In this paper we revisit the argument for justification of the method. In particular, we point out a subtlety in the use of time-evolved observables, which play a crucial role in the previous argument. This requires that the probability of the drift term should fall off exponentially or faster at large magnitude. We argue that this is actually a necessary and sufficient condition for the method to be justified. Using two simple examples, we show that our condition tells us clearly whether the results obtained by the method are trustable or not. We also discuss a new possibility for the gauge cooling, which can reduce the magnitude of the drift term directly.

  4. Mortality Salience, System Justification, and Candidate Evaluations in the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joanna; Jost, John T; Shrout, Patrick E

    2016-01-01

    Experiments conducted during the 2004 and 2008 U.S. presidential elections suggested that mortality salience primes increased support for President George W. Bush and Senator John McCain, respectively. Some interpreted these results as reflecting "conservative shift" following exposure to threat, whereas others emphasized preferences for "charismatic" leadership following exposure to death primes. To assess both hypotheses in the context of a new election cycle featuring a liberal incumbent who was considered to be charismatic, we conducted four experiments shortly before the 2012 election involving President Barack Obama and Governor Mitt Romney. Contrary to earlier studies, there was little evidence that mortality salience, either by itself or in interaction with political orientation, affected overall candidate ratings or voting intentions. However, a significant interaction between mortality salience and system justification in some studies indicated a more circumscribed effect. The failure to "replicate" previous results in the context of this election may be attributable to disagreement among participants as to which of the candidates better represented the societal status quo.

  5. Queen Christina's moral claim on the living: justification of a tenacious moral intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, Malin; Helgesson, Gert; Höglund, Anna T; Hansson, Mats G

    2007-09-01

    In the long-running debate on the interest of the dead, Joan C. Callahan argues against such interests and although Søren Holm for practical reasons is prepared to consider posthumous interests, he does not see any moral basis to support such interests. He argues that the whole question is irresolvable, yet finds privacy interests where Tutankhamen is concerned. Callahan argues that there can be reasons to hold on to the fiction that there are posthumous interests, namely if it is comforting for the living and instrumental for society. Thus, despite arguing against the position that the dead have any interests or for any moral basis for such interests, these "interests" are still taken into consideration in the end. This shows the unsatisfactory basis of their positions and indicates the tenacity of the moral intuition that the dead can have moral claims on the living. One example of a posthumous interest is the interest in one's good name. Here we argue that it is an interest of moral significance. This implies that if individuals restrict use of their sample when they are still alive, those restrictions apply after their death. Further, it implies that one should be concerned with the reputation of historic persons. Research that defeats these interests calls for justification. We have suggested two lines of thinking along which such a discussion could go: investigating the truth-value of the good name and the relevance of bringing it into possible disrepute.

  6. Domestic and Foreign Banks’ Profitability: Differences and Their Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AZAM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to analyze and compare the profitability of domestic (Public & Private and foreign banks operating in the Pakistan Banking market between 2004 and 2010 on quarterly basis. Total 36 Commercial Banks of Pakistani Industry have represented our sample. To control for the effect of bank ownership on performance, we split the sample into three categories: (1 domestic banks with Government Control, (2 domestic banks with Private control, and (3 foreign banks. This study also finds that foreign banks are more profitable than all domestic banks regardless of their ownership structure by applying regression analysis. This may suggest that it is better for a multinational bank to establish a subsidiary/branch rather than acquiring an “existing player” in the host country. We also found that domestic and foreign banks have different profitability determinants, i.e. factors that are important in shaping domestic banks’ profitability are not necessary important for the foreign banks and vice versa. Empirical results show that foreign banks are less affected by the macroeconomic factors of the host country than domestic banks and they have a higher profitability margin in Pakistan.

  7. Pragmatics and Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fei-fei

    2013-01-01

    Pragmatics has gotten more and more attention since its decades’long history. As a branch of studying linguistics, the studying of pragmatics is focusing on how to understanding and using language in special context, and to achieve the purpose that using foreign language to communicate. Pragmatics makes a new road to solve this problem. This paper is focusing on the rela-tionship between pragmatics and foreign language teaching, the using and the enlightenment. Then we can get more methods to improve the foreign language teaching.

  8. Pragmatics and Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建英

    2014-01-01

    pragmatics has gotten more and more attention since its decades’ long history.As a branch of studying linguistics, the studying of Pragmatics is focusing on how to understanding and using language in special context, and to achieve the purpose that using foreign language to communicate.Pragmatics makes a new road to solve this problem.This paper is focusing on the relationship between pragmatics and foreign language teaching, the using and the enlightenment.Then we can get more methods to improve the foreign language teaching.

  9. Uncommon, undeclared oesophageal foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenroye, M I; Osukoya, A T

    2012-01-01

    We report two cases of unusual and undeclared oesophageal foreign bodies. A small double-rounded calabash or bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria, stuffed with traditional medicine designed to acquire spiritual power. A whole tricotyledonous kola nut Cola nitida also designed to make medicine to gain love from a woman after passing it out in stool. Each case presented with a sudden onset of total dysphagia and history of ingestion of foreign bodies was not volunteered by any despite direct questioning. Plain radiograph of the neck and chest in either case did not reveal presence of foreign body. Both were successfully removed through rigid oesophagoscopy.

  10. Justifying direct discrimination: an analysis of the scope for a general justification defence in cases of direct sex discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, E. R.

    2000-01-01

    The prospect of a justification defence in cases of direct sex discrimination is universally criticised by academic commentators on the ground that it would subvert the goal of equality that underlies sex discrimination and equal treatment legislation. At the outset the thesis examines the differences between the sexes, how these differences can be used to explain the distinction between direct and indirect sex discrimination and considers various concepts of equality. Building...

  11. Ring fencing Volcker’s Rule? : The Liikanen Report and justifications for ring fencing and separate legal entities revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne, Ojo

    2014-01-01

    The predecessor paper to this publication, “Volcker/Vickers Hybrid”: The Liikanen Report and Justifications For Ring Fencing and Separate Legal Entities, considered the merits, objectives and cost-benefit attributes of respective models associated with the Vickers Report, Liikanen Report and Volckers Rule – by way of reference to the degree of separation of legal entities or banking activities involved, as well as whether an outright ban or prohibition on proprietary trading is involved. ...

  12. Joint Operations. Change 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-13

    Egypt , Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and the United States, as well as other nations. On 9 December 1992, under UN auspices, US special operations forces and...collection to produce the most accurate intelligence products. (2) Where there is little USG or US military presence, open-source intelligence ( OSINT ) may...be the best immediately available information to prepare US forces to operate in a foreign country. OSINT from radio broadcasts, newspapers, and

  13. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  14. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it back and forth over the area of interest until the desired images are captured. There is ... operating suite, post-procedural hospitalization and greater complication rates than those experienced with other techniques. In spite ...

  16. JUSTIFICATION OF THE RATIONAL NUMBER OF THE CENTERS OF TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, THEIR GEOGRAPHY AND NOMENCLATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to calculate number of the centers of transplantation according to real requirement of the population and a donor resource, to prove their geography and the nomenclature, providing with donor organs. Methods and results. The analysis and comparison of statistical data on population, number of the centers of transplantation, their transplant activity in Russia and abroad are made. Calculation of number of the centers of transplantation is carried out and justification of their geography is offered. The analysis of statistical data on hospitals in the Russia is made, calculation of a rational number of donor hospitals according to need for a donor resource is carried out. Justification of transplant coordination in territorial subjects of the Russia, in federal districts is offered. Justification of the nomenclature of the centers of transplantation and donor hospitals is offered.Conclusion. Settlement data on a rational number of the centers of transplantation, their geography and the nomenclature, providing with the donor organs, suitable developments for planning of the hi-tech medical care in territorial subjects of the Russia are obtained. 

  17. JUSTIFICATION FOR THE SUBJECT OF CONGRUENCE AND SIMILARITY IN THE CONTEXT OF DAILY LIFE AND CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Dündar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine prospective elementary mathematics teachers’ conceptual knowledge level for congruence and similarity in triangles subject and to examine their ability to represent the knowledge, to associate the knowledge with daily life, and to justify and solve the geometry problems about this subject. The study is designed in a characteristic pattern. Total of 46 prospective elementary mathematics teachers were selected using purposive sampling method. The instruments used to collect data in this study are: GJP (Geometry Justification Problems, GCKQ (Geometry Conceptual Knowledge Questions and GQDLE (Geometry Questions of Daily Life Examples. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics method. The results of the study show that 1 the prospective teachers are successful in geometry conceptual knowledge questions but had difficulty in the justification problems; 2 there is a relationship between the theoretical knowledge levels and the argument standards of the prospective teachers; 3 the prospective teachers had difficulty in the daily life examples of congruence and similarity in triangles subject. Keywords: Congruence and Similarity, Justification, Conceptual Knowledge, Daily Life Association DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3256.35-54

  18. 33 CFR 157.216 - Required documents: Foreign tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.216 Required documents... the United States unless the vessel has on board— (1) The Dedicated Clean Ballast Tank Operations... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required documents: Foreign...

  19. China's Foreign Investment Develops Stably

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In 2006, with the promotion of economic globalization and the rapid development of Chinese economy, the foreign investment of Chinese companies got further accelerated and promoted the fast, coordinated, healthy development of national economy.

  20. Cuba's Revolutionary Foreign Policy Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcos Rodriguez Costa

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the invitation of Cui Liru, President of China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR), Cuban Deputy Foreign Minister Marcos Rodriguez Costa paid a visit to CICIR on November 13, 2006. Following are the contents of his speech in CICIR.

  1. Foreign body in the heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-min; ZHU Hong-yu; WANG Zhen-long; XU Zhao-hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ As an emergency, a foreign body in the heart should generally be removed as early as possible by surgical or non-surgical procedures in order to avoid any complications. Early treatment typically results in a better prognosis.

  2. Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. ... 39. Thomas SH, Goodloe JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. ...

  3. Foreign body in the nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... 168. Thomas SH, Goodloe JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. ...

  4. First Changchun Foreigners Sports Meet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The first Changchun Foreigners Sports Meet came to a successful close on June 3 after five days of fierce but friendly competition,in which participants showed that they attached great importance to participation and friendship.

  5. A system justification view of sexual violence: legitimizing gender inequality and reduced moral outrage are connected to greater rape myth acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Rape is a pervasive social problem that causes serious physical and psychological repercussions. Rape victims' recovery is often complicated by the public's failure to believe the victim and restore justice. This study applied system justification theory to examine whether the justification of gender inequality is related to moral outrage (an emotional precursor to corrective action) and rape myth acceptance; we also examined whether rape myth acceptance is associated with moral outrage at injustice. Results showed that gender-specific system justification correlated with less moral outrage at human suffering as well as greater rape myth acceptance. The relationships between these variables were similar for men and for women, a finding that suggests that rape myths are system justifying for women. When we controlled for gender-specific system justification, rape myth acceptance correlated with less moral outrage. Results are discussed in the context of how legitimizing ideologies reduce moral outrage at injustice and perpetuate a system of sexual violence.

  6. Overseas Contingency Operations Funding: Background and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    123.2 billion in related State Department and Foreign Operations appropriations, the DOD, Department of State (DOS), and U.S. Agency for International ...Foreign Operations, and Related Programs USAID United States Agency for International Development USD(I) Under Secretary of Defense (Intelligence...appropriated $1.6 trillion for war- related operational costs of the DOD since the terror attacks of September 11, 2001. When combined with an estimated

  7. Computational Linguistics in Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Documentation Exploitation (DOCEX) system is able to distill useful intelligence from multilingual sources eight to ten times faster than traditional...examine and analyze all multilingual speech and text that is available in the information space; allow any user—be it primarily an operational and...personnel and monolingual English-speaking analysts in response to direct or implicit requests.24 Foreign-to-English Translation Goals for foreign

  8. Seismic justification of free standing spent fuel storage racks: experimental versus computed behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champomier, F.P. [FRAMATOME, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Peron, J.Y. [ATEA, 44 - Carquefou (France)

    2001-07-01

    Most spent fuel storage racks now designed for nuclear power plants are of the free standing type. They consist in a series of independent modules of varying size (typically, 2 m long and wide and 5 m high) immersed in water but simply left standing on the bottom of the spent fuel storage pool. The ever increasing need for additional storage room leads power plants to wish to have compact modules positioned as close to each other as possible. The reduced clearance is essentially limited by the possible interaction of a module with its neighbors in case of a seismic event. In fact, during an earthquake, it is anticipated that each module may have a complex and different movement relative to the pool floor: sliding, uplifting, rocking may occur depending on various parameters related to module geometry and load and seismic excitation. Minimum clearance between modules is to be defined and justified. Two approaches are possible: each module may be demonstrated to stay wide from its neighbors or to impact them with no significant resulting damage. Though experimental work is sometimes possible, it certainly cannot be routinely or systematically envisaged. Thus, approaches to evaluation and justification basically rely on numerical simulation of the problem. Actually, the entire calculation scheme is often repeated a large number of times with varying parameters (seismic input in the three directions, friction coefficients, fuel loading characteristics, etc.) for additional treatment and confidence. The object of this paper is to provide some insight on the kind of information one can reasonably expect to obtain from such studies. (author)

  9. Is there adequate empirical justification for radically revising the personality disorders section for DSM-5?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark

    2012-10-01

    The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders (PDs) Work Group has recommended a reformulation of the PD section. In the present review I examined the empirical support for the Work Group's criticisms of the DSM-IV approach that were central to the justification for radically changing the diagnostic criteria. The Work Group indicated that comorbidity among the DSM-IV PDs is excessive, and to reduce comorbidity they recommended deleting five PDs. The studies they cited demonstrating high levels of comorbidity were of samples of psychiatric patients. A review of the epidemiological literature shows that comorbidity rates are much lower than in patient samples, and this challenges the proposition that high comorbidity is due to the diagnostic criteria. Moreover, the empirical support for the exclusion of some disorders over others is lacking. The Work Group noted that the diagnostic stability of the PDs is modest. However, modest levels of diagnostic stability may be largely attributable to methodological factors such test-retest unreliability, state effects, regression to the mean, and measurement error due to repeated assessments, rather than a reflection of inadequacies of the diagnostic system. Thus, modest stability is likely to be found in any approach toward diagnosing PDs. The present review therefore suggests that several of the core problems linked to the DSM-IV approach toward diagnosing PDs are more likely due to methodological factors than inadequacies of the criteria themselves. The Work Group's recommendation to delete five PDs is inconsistent with the explicit guidelines established for making revisions for DSM-5 which specify that for a disorder to be deleted there should be a thorough review of that disorder's clinical utility and validity.

  10. Foreign investment multinational companies and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    There is no universal answer on the question whether foreign investments stimulate economic development. The positive effect of foreign direct investments will follow when the investments is carried out under normal conditions of competition. That means, above all, low barriers for foreign trade and the low level of restrictions for foreign owned companies. In such circumstances, multinational corporations can assist the economies of penetration to make its businesses more efficient. Foreign ...

  11. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...

  12. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...

  13. A Rarely Seen Complication After Strabismus Surgery: Forgotten Foreign Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Karaca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male patient operated for esotropia 10 months ago presented to our clinic with the complaint of swelling and stinging on the right upper eyelid. Physical examination revealed a yellowish foreign body (cellulose sponge at the lateral fornix, which induced localized papillary reaction on eyelid conjunctiva and vascularization on bulbar conjunctiva. The foreign body was removed and medical treatment was initiated. Foreign body surrounded with giant cells was reported on histopathologic examination. Although cellulose sponge is not routinely used in strabismus surgery, it may be used especially in some hemorrhagic cases. It is important to control the field and to remove all materials from the eye at the end of the surgery. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 78-9

  14. TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TO FOREIGNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Claudia Horea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English as a foreign language requires very different approaches if we consider the recipients of the didactic process. Concerning the practical aspects of the primary task of a language instructor, namely teaching, skills of all sorts are required in order to be able to use best methods and most appropriate resources and up to date materials and devices. Moreover, to teach students of your own mother tongue is one very distinct thing from teaching foreigners. These two categories, namely students of the same mother tongue as their teacher and foreigners, have two things in common, namely: first, they are the subjects on whom the activity of teaching English is to be applied and second, this language is not their native tongue. These facts can thus be reduced to one idea: addressing to recipients of EFL teaching. Still, there is a big difference between teaching the first category mentioned, those who have the same mother tongue as the teacher and teaching the second category, foreigners, to whom not even the vaguest hints can be provided in other language than English. There comes a new challenge, an extra endeavour for an even more special approach. This study undertakes to present some of the distinctions entailed at the level of teaching methods and to parallel the diverse methodological approaches for the two situations presented. Are the four skills that language acquisition assumes to be taught distinctly and shall the approaches in each particular situation differ from one case to the other or not too much? It takes some distinct features to be or, better saying, to become a teacher of languages; and to teach English as foreign language to foreigners is a new development within this typology, a diverse dimension. New levels of character traits are instinctively reached by instructors in order to better cope, unconsciously, psychologically and emotionally, with the upgraded’ challenges.

  15. Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate various factors that influence consumers’ intention of buying foreign products. The data were collected by means of self-structured questionnaires from a total of 260 Bangladeshi consumers residing in the two major cities of the country, Dhaka and Chittagong. At the initial stage, statistical analyses, particularly descriptive analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis, were conducted using SPSS, after which structural equation modeling was run by using AMOS. The findings have established that brand image and quality of foreign products carry significant positive influence on purchase intention of foreign products. However, religiosity leaves a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of foreign products. Furthermore, findings have also revealed that the image of the country of origin carries a significant positive effect on brand image but ethnocentrism carries a significant negative effect on perceptions about the quality of foreign products in their purchase intention. The major contribution of the current study is that it focuses on Bangladesh, as there is a vacuum in contemporary literature on this topic in the context of Bangladeshi consumers. The findings derived from the study could facilitate marketers in the creation of effective marketing strategies and at the same time are also valuable for academicians as well as consumers at large.

  16. EUROPEANIZATION OF ROMANIAN FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Popescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses various aspects of the Europeanization of Romanian foreign policy: elite socialization, bureaucratic reorganization, institutional and policy adaptation to the requirements and exigencies of EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP, projection of national interests onto CFSP agenda and decisions. There is very little written in the literature on the subject of Romanian foreign policy Europeanization. From this standpoint this article fills a gap and indicates an area of research in need to be explored. The paper is using a series of Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA documents related to its organizational changes as well as a number of interviews with diplomats. It is trying to test in the case of Romania a few relevant theses written by significant authors with reference to the Europeanization of other Member States. It draws a number of conclusions – most of them confirming important theses on Europeanization. It ends by remarking the uneven character and the short length of the Romanian foreign policy Europeanization.

  17. Foreign bodies in the torax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćerimagić Zenaida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metallic foreign bodies in the lung could be recognized using radiography. Non-metallic foreign bodies make difficulties because they are not as dense as metals. The aim of this report was to present the case of nonmetallic foreign bodies in the lung. Case report. A soldier of the Federation Army of Bosnia and Hertzegovina, injured in the explosion in 1998 was presented. The soldier was subjected to thoracic drainage and surgery tretment of the wound. After one year, the pulmologist treated him with tuberculostatics because of hemoptysis and pulmonary infiltration shown by a radiogram. This therapy had no effects, and the pulmologist presented this case to the thoracic surgeon who made thoracotomy removing a piece of wood (13 × 2 × 0.7 cm, 20 different-size pieces of wood, and a piece of textile from the lung. Conclusion. Patients with penetrating explosive lung injuries without metallic foreign bodies shown by a radiogram, with complications as hemoptisis, lung abscess, bronchiectasis, obstruction of the bronchus, chronic pneumonia should be subjected to thoracotomy for removing suspected foreign bodies without resecting the lung.

  18. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival probabil......Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival...... probability. On average exit risk for domestic companies is 2.3 times higher than for foreign companies. First movers like Siemens, Philips, Kodak, Ford, GM or Goodyear have been active in the country for almost a century. Relative foreign survival increases with company age. However, the foreign survival...

  19. Mathematical justification of a nonlinear integral-differential equation for the propagation of spherical flames; Justification mathematique d'une equation integro-differentielle non lineaire pour un modele de flamme spherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, C.; Wolanski, N. [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Roquejoffre, J.M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, UFR-MIG, UMR CNRS 5640, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2002-04-01

    This Note is devoted to the justification of an asymptotic model for quasisteady three-dimensional spherical flames proposed by G. Joulin. The paper derives, by means of a three-scale matched asymptotic expansion, starting from the classical thermo-diffusive model with high activation energies, an integral-differential equation for the flame radius. In the derivation, it is essential for the Lewis number - i.e., the ratio between thermal and molecular diffusion - to be strictly less than unity. In this Note, we give the main ideas of a rigorous proof of the validity of this model, under the additional restriction that the Lewis number is close to 1. (authors)

  20. Justification for the development of a bending magnet beamline at sector 10 at the APS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division

    2006-09-18

    The long-planned and much-needed merger of EnviroCAT into the Materials Research Collaborative Access Team (MR-CAT) will provide dedicated state-of-the-art facilities that are critical to research on a broad range of issues in environmental sciences. These CATs will focus on developing a bending magnet (BM) beamline for x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and micro x-ray analysis of environmental samples through integration with existing insertion device (ID) capabilities in XAFS, micro x-ray analysis, and x-ray scattering. In addition, the expanded MR-CAT will serve as the hub of personnel and laboratory infrastructure support for molecular environmental science and biogeochemical science at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). In conjunction with the merger of EnviroCAT into MR-CAT, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will become a member institution of MR-CAT, joining the present members (University of Notre Dame, Illinois Institute of Technology, University of Florida, British Petroleum, and Argonne's Chemical Engineering and Biosciences Division). The motivation for blending capabilities meeting the needs of EnviroCAT users into the MR-CAT facilities is the explosion of synchrotron-radiation-based research in the field known as molecular environmental science (MES). This research is driven largely by the need to remediate contaminated environmental materials and to understand the scientific foundations that govern contaminant transport in the environment. Synchrotron radiation is playing a crucial role in solving environmental science problems by offering x-ray-based analytical techniques for detailed molecular- and atomic-level studies of these systems. This document focuses on the scientific justification for developing a specific type of BM beamline capability at Sector 10 for XAFS and micro x-ray analysis to support the growing MES community. However, the modification of Sector 10 will meet other future needs by providing (1) an existing

  1. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI): Presentation and Justification of the NEFI Science Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Gutman, G.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Qi, J.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2004, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) - an interdisciplinary program of internationally-supported Earth systems and science research - has addressed large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental changes over Northern Eurasia and their impact on the Global Earth system. With more than 1500 peer-reviewed journal publications and 40 books to its credit, NEESPI's activities resulted in significant scientific outreach. This created a new research realm through self-organization of NEESPI scientists in a broad research network, accumulation of knowledge while developing new tools (observations, models, and collaborative networks) and producing new, exciting results that can be applied to directly support decision-making for societal needs. At the Synthesis NEESPI Workshop in Prague, Czechia (April 9-12, 2015) it was decided to shift gradually the foci of regional studies in Northern Eurasia towards applications with the following major Science Question: "What dynamic and interactive change(s) will affect societal well-being, activities, and health, and what might be the mitigation and adaptation strategies that could support sustainable development and decision-making activities in Northern Eurasia?". To answer this question requires a stronger socio-economic component in the ongoing and future regional studies focused on sustainable societal development under changing climatic and environmental conditions. The NEESPI Research Team has reorganized itself into "Northern Eurasia Future Initiative" (NEFI) and began development of the NEFI Programmatic White Paper released at http://neespi.org in June 2016. Presentation will provide justification of the new NEFI research foci and approach examples addressing them. The societal challenges, particularly the socio-economic challenges are the top priority in most of them. Throughout the NEESP Initiative duration, support for it studies has been provided by

  2. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  3. Unusual Foreign Body of Pancreas: Surgical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Deen Yadav

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Context The foreign ingestion is common occurrence but migration to pancreas is rare entity. Most of foreign bodies passspontaneously through the anus but about 1% can perforate the wall of stomach or duodenum to reach solid organ.Pancreatic foreign body can results in fatal complication. Pancreatic foreign body can be removed endoscopically orsurgically. Case report We are reporting a case of successful removal of pancreatic foreign body (sewing needle by surgery. Conclusion Pancreatic foreign body is a uncommon entity and surgical removal is warranted in majority of cases.

  4. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  5. Foreign Body Aspiration in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Atkinson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old morbidly obese African American gravida 1, with a history of severe asthma complicated by multiple inpatient admissions, presents at 30 weeks gestation with a foreign body in her left main stem bronchus. After a failed bronchoscopy postpartum, the patient slipped into respiratory failure and was subsequently intubated, spending two weeks in the intensive care unit. After two more attempts of trying to retrieve the foreign object from her lung via bronchoscopy, she eventually contracted a postobstructive pneumonia and underwent a left lower lung lobectomy for curative treatment.

  6. Employment effects of foreign acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    that the employment of skilled labor increasesmore than that of less-skilled labor. Our results indicate that the positive employment effects are more pronounced in acquired non-MNEs than in Swedish MNEs. Furthermore, we observe shifts in skill intensities toward higher shares of skilled labor in non-MNEs taken over......This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems...

  7. Creativity in foreign language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ševečková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing creativity in foreign language teaching provides students with the opportunity to effectively build language skills as well as increasing their motivation for learning. Practical examples are given using folklore materials (songs, tales, etc. in learning Russian, as well as contemporary materials reflecting the culture of Russian speaking countries (films, poems, etc.. As well as increasing their ability in the target foreign language students also acquire factual information (realia through creative language games. In this paper we describe recent findings in the field and propose possible directions for future research.

  8. Operational health physics training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-01

    The initial four sections treat basic information concerning atomic structure and other useful physical quantities, natural radioactivity, the properties of {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, x rays and neutrons, and the concepts and units of radiation dosimetry (including SI units). Section 5 deals with biological effects and the risks associated with radiation exposure. Background radiation and man-made sources are discussed next. The basic recommendations of the ICRP concerning dose limitations: justification, optimization (ALARA concepts and applications) and dose limits are covered in Section seven. Section eight is an expanded version of shielding, and the internal dosimetry discussion has been extensively revised to reflect the concepts contained in the MIRD methodology and ICRP 30. The remaining sections discuss the operational health physics approach to monitoring radiation. Individual sections include radiation detection principles, instrument operation and counting statistics, health physics instruments and personnel monitoring devices. The last five sections deal with the nature of, operation principles of, health physics aspects of, and monitoring approaches to air sampling, reactors, nuclear safety, gloveboxes and hot cells, accelerators and x ray sources. Decontamination, waste disposal and transportation of radionuclides are added topics. Several appendices containing constants, symbols, selected mathematical topics, and the Chart of the Nuclides, and an index have been included.

  9. Neglect of the foreign invisible: Historiography and the navigation of conflicting sensibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2015-05-01

    This essay is intended first as a contribution to historiography, and only second as a contribution to the history of developmental psychology. It is therefore a discussion--primarily--of the doing of the history of psychology, rather than of its content. Briefly put: American psychology, including its associated approaches to the history of psychology, is not adequately equipped to benefit fully from the contributions of foreign scholars. To make the resulting argument clear, two archive-driven microhistories are reviewed, contrasted, augmented with new archival research, and synthesized: Yeh Hsueh's (2004) examination of the nomination process at Harvard University that led to the awarding of an honorary doctorate to Jean Piaget in 1936, and Marc Ratcliff and Paloma Borella's (2013) examination-just recently published in French-of a similar process that resulted in Piaget's hiring at Geneva in 1929 and his eventual promotion in 1940. Comparing the authors' different approaches to similar content then affords this article's larger argument: we need to broaden our sensibilities so we can see high-quality foreign contributions for what they are. Several interesting insights result if we do. Among them: although Piaget's theory is today mistakenly criticized for being asocial, and this serves as justification for countering his early works with Vygotsky's posthumous critique, it emerges from these archival studies that Piaget may have in fact chosen to present himself and his work as nonsociological (when this was not the case) for reasons unrelated to his intellectual project. Such examples then broaden the discussion of "neglect of the foreign invisible" to include suppression--even censorship (by self or other)--which in turn reflects the primary problem afforded by internationalization: by what standards are we to judge the contributions of "foreigners" into "our" discipline? (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. [Working conditions and professional risk for operational personnel of energy facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, N Kh; Ilyukhin, N E; Rusin, M N; Krasnoshchekova, V N

    2013-01-01

    Features of working conditions and a state of health of operation personnel of the network companies of power industry were studied for the purpose of justification and introduction of preventive actions for the decrease in influence of factors of professional risk.

  11. Emotional Reactions and Moral Judgment: the Effects of Morally Challenging Interactions in Military Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.C.; Schut, M; Verweij, D.E.M.; Vermetten, H.G.J.M.; Giebels, E.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the association between different types of morally challenging interactions during military deployment and response strategies (e.g., moral justification), as well as the mediating role of moral emotions. Interviews with Dutch servicemen who participated in military operations (e

  12. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and ship...

  13. Theoretical justification of indicators system to estimate the regional stability level considering its development peculiarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granovska Lyudmyla Mykolayivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical analysis of the indicators system concept, observes in details such components of this system as society, nature, economy. The general indicators of social, ecological, and economic system development are considered. It has been found that indicators are the indexes system of ecological, economical, and social development and give the possibility to analyze and control the implementation of areas sustainable development statement. The system of indicators, which characterize the level of the region stability on the basis of domestic and foreign experience considering region peculiarities, has been improved. At that, the regional peculiarities of both the natural and resource potential and the economical activity impact on the natural and resource potential have been taken into account.

  14. System Justification's Opposite Effects on Psychological Well-Being: Testing a Moderated Mediation Model in a Gay Men and Lesbian Sample in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes-Correa, Joaquín

    2016-08-12

    Those who adhere to system justifying beliefs benefit from a palliative function that buffers negative effects on psychological well-being. This has been consistently observed for high-status groups, whereas for members of low-status groups, it remains rather unclear whether system justification exerts a positive or a negative effect. This study tested the palliative effect of system justification on symptoms of anxiety-depression in a gay men and lesbian sample (N = 467) in Chile. Results from moderated mediation analyses revealed that system justification beliefs buffer symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, system justification enhances anxious and depressive symptoms through internalized homonegativity; this mediation effect was significant for gay men. We pose that justifying the social order comprises two contradictory functions: system justification as a coping source, and otherwise, as source of distress under conditions of in-group derogation, posing a threat to well-being among members of low-status groups (as observed in gay and lesbian individuals). Implications of the opposing effects, and gender differences are further discussed in this study.

  15. Enlightenment From Motivation In Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2015-01-01

    This paper selects one of classifications of motivation in foreign language learning,that is,instrumental and integrative motivation.By analyzing such a distinction,it hopes to direct foreign language teaching in China.

  16. Language pedagogy: foreign language teachers’ professional skills

    OpenAIRE

    Коряковцева, Н.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks into foreign language teacher education in plurilingual and pluricultural context; defines the notion and focuses on the characteristics of skills in language pedagogy as part of foreign language teacher professional competence.

  17. LANGUAGE PEDAGOGY: FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Коряковцева, Н.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks into foreign language teacher education in plurilingual and pluricultural context; defines the notion and focuses on the characteristics of skills in language pedagogy as part of foreign language teacher professional competence.

  18. MOFCOM Released Report on China Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On May 17, 2007, the Report on China Foreign Trade was released by MOFCOM, which reviewed China's foreign trade development and characteristic in 2006 and in the first quarter in 2007, and preview its future development in 2007.

  19. Opening the door for foreign banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2004-01-01

    Will central government's tightening policy bring further opportunities to foreign banks?And with less capital available for lending,how much ground will domestic banks lose to their foreign-invested competitors?

  20. Foreign Banks Set Sights on Housing Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Having cleared all the hurdles to enter the market, locally incorporated foreign banks declare their intentions to dive into the personal housing loan business in China A battle is brewing between domestic and locally incorporated foreign banks over the

  1. Foreign Purchases and Investment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Foreign capital first entered China's real estate market in the late 1980s. Right now, under the expectations of a rise in the value of RMB,this sector has seen increasing interest from foreign purchasers and investors.

  2. Foreign Service Retirement and Disability System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Service Retirement and Disability System (FSRDS) is the Foreign Service equivalent to the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) as described in 5 U.S.C....

  3. The Evolution of China's Foreign Trade Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wenhao

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1.Introduction Since China started the reform of foreign trade system in 1978,the foreign trade laws and regulations have developed from scratch or from a limited amount,gradually with the step of reform.

  4. Return Migration of Foreign Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Wang, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Using administrative panel data, this paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the return of recent foreign students in the Netherlands. We focus on how individual labour market changes and marriage formation influence their decision to leave. Our model allows for correlated unobserved h

  5. Irans Foreign and Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI). March 17, 2016. 55 For detailed information on Iran-Kuwait relations , see CRS Report RS21513, Kuwait...pipeline-plans. 124 For detail on India’s foreign policy and relations with the United States, see CRS Report R42823, India -U.S. Security Relations ...45 India

  6. Culture in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire

    2013-01-01

    In foreign language education, the teaching of culture remains a hotly debated issue. What is culture? What is its relation to language? Which and whose culture should be taught? What role should the learners' culture play in the acquisition of knowledge of the target culture? How can we avoid essentializing cultures and teaching stereotypes? And…

  7. Authorizing the Foreign Language Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, Hiram H.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews current practices in foreign-language teaching in light of Bourdieu's theories of language and power to show how failing to assess discursive intent prevents students from understanding strategic use of language. Bordieu's model is then proposed as the basis for pedagogy that authorizes students to use their existing cognitive skills in…

  8. Anxiety in foreign language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英

    2012-01-01

    Among the affective emotional variables in foreign language learning and teaching, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for affective language learning. In this paper, the author comes up with some solutions in dealing with different types of anxiety. The author believes the facilitative anxiety may benefit a lot in language teaching and learning.

  9. Neurology of Foreign Language Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    This state-of-the art paper focuses on the poorly explored issue of foreign language aptitude, attempting to present the latest developments in this field and reconceptualizations of the construct from the perspective of neuroscience. In accordance with this goal, it first discusses general directions in neurolinguistic research on foreign…

  10. Return migration of foreign students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Wang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Using unique administrative micro panel data, this paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the return of recent foreign students in The Netherlands. The life course experiences of these students in the host, both on the labour market and in marriage formation, impact their decision to

  11. Immigration Facts on Foreign Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Neil G.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. policymakers have put forth various immigration reform proposals to improve retention of foreign students obtaining advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) from American universities. These students are considered particularly desirable because they, like their American counterparts, offer the types of…

  12. Foreign language education of seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Határ Ctibor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is of a theoretical-conceptual nature and is a partial outcome of the research project VEGA MŠVVaŠ SR and SAV no. 1/0176/15. It deals with one of the problems currently faced by educational theory and practice, i.e. the foreign language education of seniors. The trend is typical for many EU member states, since it results from the needs of a modern society. In addition to strategic documents, programs and legislation which binds the Slovak Republic to create conditions for lifelong education, including foreign language education, the authors are more closely preoccupied with specificities and possibilities of the language education of seniors, which are explained on a comparative basis with the language education of children and youth. Even though in literature one can find results of many substantial empirical research projects devoted to foreign language education of children and youth, research into the education of adults and seniors in the area of foreign languages falls behind considerably. A sufficient platform for the methodology of language education of adults and seniors in Slovakia has not been created either, if compared with the methodology of language education of younger age categories. This shortcoming is often quite noticeable in practice. The study attempts to pay adequate attention to the analysis of selected teaching styles specific for adult and senior age as well as teaching methods which may be used in the language education of seniors.

  13. Overlooked retained intraocular foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić-Zečević Antoaneta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The most common cause for litigation against ophthalmologists in a trauma case is a missed intraocular foreign body (IOFB. IOFBs cause internal eye damage, but some will come to rest in the posterior segment of the eye. Case report. We presented a 57-year-old male who was referred to the ophthalmologist due to decreased visual acuity in his left eye. Slit lamp examination of his left eye showed no pathological findings. Goldmann contact lens examination showed IOFB which was lying in the vitreous body in the inferior-temporal region. Retinal rupture was noticed at 7 o’clock. The optical coherence tomography (OCT examination was performed and it showed atrophic macular area as well as decreased peripapillar retinal fiber layers thickness. Ultrasound showed the IOFB in vitreous body cavity. History revealed that the patient had an accidental trauma, 48 years ago, when an old bomb from World War II (WWII exploded. Due to the decrease in visual acuity and fibrosis of the vitreous body surgical intervention was performed on his left eye (phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, pars plana vitrectomy and instrumental extraction of foreign body. Conclusion. The intraocular foreign body (IOFB was asymptomatic for 48 years. Symptoms depend on material and localization of the foreign body and the type of injury.

  14. Foreign bodies ingestion: what responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Serafino; Massoni, Francesco; Schiffino, Luigi; Pelosi, Marcello; Salesi, Marialucia

    2014-03-01

    The ingestion of foreign bodies is one of the most important and difficult emergencies for a physician to diagnose. Accidental ingestion is more common in children, in patients with dental implants, in individuals with mental disability and in drug users. Voluntary ingestion is found in patients who are psychologically unstable, in prisoners or those who attempt suicide. Foreign bodies may be divided into food as fish bones, chicken bones, food bolus, meat, etc. or real foreign bodies such as orthodontic implants, needles, pins, glass, coins, etc. The authors present a case of management, from the medicolegal point of view, of a female patient age 80, who complained, for some weeks of modest pain in the left iliac fossa, and afterwards the endoscopy showed a toothpick into the wall of the sigmoid colon. Assessed of the clinical status of the patient presented severe cardiac comorbidities so that before processing the patient to a second resolutive endoscopy, it was necessary to obtain the hemodynamic stability. However the management of cases of accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is particularly difficult. Medical errors can arise from the very first contact with the patient resulting in delays in appropriate treatment. The doctor to avoid compromising its position on medical liability, must use all the knowledge and diligence known by the art and science of medicine.

  15. Foreign Language Classroom Discourse Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-li

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews some works done to classroom discourse analysis and summaries some peculiarities of foreign lan-guage classroom discourse. Some strategies are proposed for the teachers to activate students into communicative teaching activ-ities in classroom for the purpose of improving college English teaching and learning.

  16. Foreign material in postoperative adhesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Luijendijk; D.C.D. de Lange (Diederik); C.C. Wauters; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J.J. Duron; J.L. Pailler; B.R. Camprodon; L. Holmdahl; H.J. van Geldorp; J. Jeekel (Hans)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The authors determined the prevalence of foreign body granulomas in intra-abdominal adhesions in patients with a history of abdominal surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional, multicenter, multinational study, adult patients with a hist

  17. Cultural Challenges for Foreign Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2009-01-01

    As an educator and linguist, I often feel that foreign teachers of English as a Second Language(ESL) misunderstand their Chinese students. Clearly, throughout history, around the globe, there has always existed the teacher-student relationship. It is an archetypal human

  18. Linguistics and Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽

    2014-01-01

    This paper tries to elaborate on the general influences of some basic linguistic theories on the teaching of English as a foreign language. Meanwhile, it further makes a systematic analysis of how language teachers can draw benefit from different branches of linguistics.

  19. A Magnet for Foreign Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAJIV; KUMAR; JHA

    2011-01-01

    In the last couple of years,China has moved to a different level in attracting foreign students,becoming one of the top six nations to host international students.New data show there are as many international students in China as there are in

  20. Business Ethics And Social Responsibility Strategies For Foreign Subsidiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yezdi H. Godiwalla

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Multinational corporations (MNC operate in multiple, diverse and complex global environments, making it not only interesting but challenging to pursue business ethics and social responsibility strategies.  They have to formulate and execute business ethics and social responsibility strategies to suit the culturally diverse and differing operating conditions of the countries in which they operate.  The culturally generated social mores and values are vastly different in an MNC’s multiple country environments.  The peoples of different countries have different expectations of what should be the foreign corporation’s performance of business ethics and social responsibility.

  1. Cultural Factors And Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟成新

    2010-01-01

    Foreign language teaching has many purposes,one of the important purposes of the foreign language teaching lies in training students tO develop the ability of communication in foreign language.In recent years,several syllabuses put emphasis on training communication ability.However,during the foreign language teaching,we often only focus on the basic skills,such as reading,speaking,listening and writing.

  2. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, K. S

    2007-12-15

    This study approaches the international trends related to nuclear non-proliferation in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the trend of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Second, this study analyzes the trend of international nuclear organizations, which includes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a central body of development of nuclear technology and international nuclear diplomacy, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), a intergovernmental organization to consist of a group of nuclear advanced countries. Third, this study analyzes the trends of the U.S.'s nuclear foreign policies, particularly nuclear non-proliferation. Fourth, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran as they cause serious concerns to a international society.

  3. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in developed economies. In the economies in which they operate, they bring capital, technology transfer, improve the national reputation and influence the other companies to invest in this countries, they provide a substantial source of revenue for the government and always improve the balance of payments in the host country.

  4. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in developed economies. In the economies in which they operate, they bring capital, technology transfer, improve the national reputation and influence the other companies to invest in this countries, they provide a substantial source of revenue for the government and always improve the balance of payments in the host country.

  5. Microfinance Participation, Control Over Resources, and Justification of IPV: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta

    2016-04-13

    A high percentage of men and women are purported to justify intimate partner violence (IPV) in countries that are steeped in patriarchy even in the presence of programs such as microfinance that aim to address gender equity. This article examines two assertions that emerge from the literature on microfinance and its potential for positive outcomes for women who participate in it: (a) Microfinance participation is associated with reduced justification of IPV, and (b) microfinance participants with control over their own resources are less likely to justify IPV when compared with microfinance participants who do not have control over their resources. Couples data from a nationally representative survey, the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, were used in the present study. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were conducted to reveal that (a) microfinance participation was not associated with justification of IPV and that (b) women who participated in microfinance were less likely to justify IPV when they had no control over their resources. Implications for practitioners and policymakers are discussed.

  6. Types of Adolescent Male Dating Violence Against Women, Self-Esteem, and Justification of Dominance and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Aguado, Maria Jose; Martinez, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    The recognition of the seriousness of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the need to prevent it has led to the study of its inception in relationships established in adolescence. This study uses latent class analysis to establish a typology of male adolescents based on self-reports of violence against a girl in dating relationships. The participants were 4,147 boys in Spain aged 14 to 18 years from a probabilistic sample. Four discrete, identifiable groups were derived based on 12 indicators of emotional abuse, intimidation, coercion, threats, physical violence, and violence transmitted via communication technologies. The first group consists of non-violent adolescent boys. A second group comprises those boys who isolate and control their partners. Boys who exert only medium-level emotional abuse form the third group, whereas the fourth is formed by teenage boys who frequently engage in all types of violence. Compared with the non-violent adolescents in a multinomial logistic regression, the other groups show lower self-esteem and display a greater justification of male dominance and IPV against women; greater justification of aggression in conflict resolution; they have also received more dominance and violence messages from adults in their family environment; and they perceive IPV behaviors against women as abuse of lesser importance.

  7. JUSTIFICATION OF THE EXISTENCE OF PREPARATORY GROUPS IN SPECIAL SCOOLS FOR CHILDREN LIGHTLY HANDICAPPED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta ANDONAKIS

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Researches about child’s intellectual development in the psychology has started in the 19th century and the first step has been made by Tiedemann in “ Observation of the development of the mental abilities of the children”. His work caused a great interest in the circles of doctors and psychologists. Their interpretation of intelligence was different, but the most acceptable is the performance of complicated activities for getting knowledge and skills and getting over the obstacles in the development of the person”.The social ability do not correspond with the intelligence. The two aspects are tested and a complete picture of their functioning can be seen. The developmental principle is determined from general to the separate as functionally connected.In the period when a child does not accept the higher level of intelligence and thinking , in relation to which are effectuated by sense-motor activities, than we say that a child is mentally handicapped. The widest approach of the educational system should be treated as a functional, institutional and organizational, that takes part in the realization of the social aims and tasks.Not getting into viewing of the curriculum's and programs for preparatory groups in the preeducational period, we may say that the justification for the existence of these group in the regular schools, is maturation of the perceptive motor coordination and learning. With the maturing the function of the "ego" is increasing.As a child adapts better he can learn better, and the maturity comes sooner. In this way these groups are justified.Mentally handicapped child has not the opportunity to attend an organized prepared education which provides:-forming of the speech, self-control, which can be achieved in the process of learning through a direct contact with other children;· regulation of the lateralization through re-education of the psycho-motor abilities, and in general neuro-motor experienced maturation

  8. Justification of the solvent choice for the industrial amizon substance production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Georgiyants

    2014-08-01

    solvents as the most similar in their properties and acceptable cost, we considered for possible use in industrial amizone production. In the first phase the solubility of the intermediate (Bink and amizone in these solvents were studied. It was found that substance was very slightly soluble in cold organic solvents and was easily soluble in boiling. Water adding to these solvents in various ratios significantly improved solubility, and the best solubility, as expected, had water. To justify the choice of solvents for the first and second stage of the synthesis and crystallization an experimental study of the efficacy of using ethanol, acetone and 2-propanol in various processes of synthesis was done. Thus the yield of final product was evaluated and the amount of associated impurities before and after crystallization was measured. It was proved that at the synthesis stage it is expedient to use 2-propanol and as crystallization solvent – ethanol. CONCLUSIONS 1. Experimental studies for the justification for the choice of solvent for the industrial synthesis of isonicotinic acid benzylamide iodomethylate substance considering QbD concepts and classes of toxic solvents were done. 2. It was established that in the synthesis is optimal to use 2-propanol and for crystallization - ethanol.

  9. Technical justification for a request to reclassify the former CCC/USDA facility at Canada, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-12-21

    Contamination in groundwater at Canada, Kansas, was discovered in 1997, during limited private well sampling near former grain storage facilities of the Commodity Credit Corporation, U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). Subsequent investigations by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) confirmed carbon tetrachloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater above the respective maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of 5.0 {micro}g/L and 10.0 mg/L. The KDHE investigations identified both the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility and a private grain storage facility as likely sources for the carbon tetrachloride contamination. The CCC/USDA funded extension of a rural water district line to provide a permanent alternate water supply, and the KDHE has conducted long-term monitoring under the State Water Plan. This document presents an analysis of the available information for the Canada site, acquired in previous investigations and the long-term KDHE monitoring. This analysis forms the technical justification for a request to reclassify the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility at Canada as a site requiring no further action under the Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) between the KDHE and the USDA's Farm Service Agency. The KDHE's long-term water level monitoring results indicate a consistent groundwater flow direction to the east-southeast. Consequently, the wells with the highest overall concentrations of carbon tetrachloride are downgradient from the private grain storage facility but not downgradient from the former CCC/USDA facility. The KDHE criterion for reclassification of a site is that contamination there should not pose an unacceptable risk, on the basis of analytical results for four consecutive, equally timed, sequenced sampling episodes over a period of no less than two years. In seven KDHE sampling events over a period of six years (2001-2007), the concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in the monitoring well on the former

  10. Thermodynamic Justification for the Ni/Al/Ni Joint Formation by a Diffusion Brazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Wolczynski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A theoretical model for the joint formation was developed for the diffusion brazing. The phenomena of dissolution and solidification were included into the model. A thermodynamic justification for the isothermal soldering occurrence in meta-stable conditions was developed. It involved the application of the criterion of higher temperature of the solid / liquid (s/l interface. The dissolution of the filler metal in the substrate was described by the solute concentration within the dissolution zone (liquid film situated at the substrate surface. The selection of the  parameter was justified by the Thermocalc calculation of the Ni-Al phase diagram for meta-stable equilibrium. According to the model assumptions, the solidification was accompanied by undercooled peritectic reactions resulting in formation of the intermetallic phases. The average Al – solute concentration measured across a given Al3Ni2/Al3Ni/Al3Ni2 joint confirmed that the solute concentration was conserved within the joint sub-layers. The Ni-Al phase diagram for meta-stable equilibrium referred to the solidification was also calculated by means of the Thermocalc Software. It allowed to locate the solidification path, s/l interface path and redistribution path onto the mentioned diagram. Superposition of both calculated phase

  11. 17 CFR 270.3a-6 - Foreign banks and foreign insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... be construed to include within the definition of foreign bank a common or collective trust or other... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign banks and foreign... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-6 Foreign banks and...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2760 - Foreign material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2760 Section 51.2760 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2760 Foreign material. Foreign material means...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2738 - Foreign material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2738 Section 51.2738 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2738 Foreign material. Foreign material means pieces or loose particles of any substance other than peanut kernels or skins. ...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2607 - Foreign material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign material. 193.2607 Section 193.2607 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2607 Foreign material. (a) The presence of foreign material...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2123 - Foreign material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2123 Section 51.2123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2123 Foreign material. Foreign material means...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2718 - Foreign material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2718 Section 51.2718 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled Runner Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2718 Foreign material. Foreign material means...

  17. 12 CFR 614.4900 - Foreign exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... speculative futures transactions by eligible borrowers in foreign currencies. The bank may engage, on behalf... overnight positions, by currency. (2) Maturity distribution, by currency, of foreign currency assets... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign exchange. 614.4900 Section...

  18. 76 FR 22633 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... exposure to retail forex transactions or any other foreign exchange risk. Section 48.12--Authorization to... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 48 RIN 1557-AD42 Retail Foreign Exchange... engage in off-exchange transactions in foreign currency with retail customers. The proposed rule also...

  19. Guidelines for Foreign Language Lesson Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Examines lesson planning in light of recent research and discussion of foreign language learning and teaching. Aims to give beginning teachers a sense of the recent history of the teaching of foreign languages in North America and the theoretical foundation of the communicative approach to foreign language teaching. (Author/VWL)

  20. 77 FR 34788 - Surrogate Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BF47 Surrogate Foreign Corporations AGENCY: Internal... regulations regarding whether a foreign corporation is treated as a surrogate foreign corporation. The final ] regulations affect certain domestic corporations and partnerships (and certain parties related thereto),...

  1. Incidental Foreign Language Acquisition from Media Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, An H.

    2010-01-01

    A number of experimental studies have demonstrated the incidental acquisition of a foreign language by children and adolescents when watching foreign language television. While such experiments can only establish short-term effects, this article investigates the extent to which children's foreign language skills benefit from their long-term…

  2. Revisiting Problems with Foreign Language Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Anna; Kormos, Judit

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated three of the issues recently raised in connection with the traditional concept of foreign language aptitude: the relationship between foreign language aptitude and working memory and phonological short-term memory capacity, the role of foreign language aptitude in predicting success in the framework of focus-on-form foreign…

  3. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms....

  4. The Distinctive Role of Foreign Debt in Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Hansen, Marianna Andryeyeva; Muradoglu, Yaz Gulnur

    Finance theory suggests that a positive (long) foreign exchange exposure can be offset by debt denominated in foreign currency (“foreign debt”) and empirical studies confirm that foreign debt is used for hedging purposes. We use detailed exposure information on a sample of medium-sized nonfinancial...... (foreign assets and foreign subsidiaries). Thus, the practical hedging application of foreign debt is generally not in accordance with an economic exposure framework but does make sense from a balance sheet approach. Our study distinguishes itself by employing detailed exposure information at the firm...... firms and show that in its practical hedging application, foreign debt is used distinctively different from derivatives (e.g. forward contracts). While the use of derivatives is associated with flow measures (foreign sales revenue), the use of foreign debt is solely associated with stock measures...

  5. The available lexicon: A tool for selecting appropriate vocabulary to teach a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manuel Ávila Muñoz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide foreign language professionals with a sound methodology for selecting a suitable lexicon apropos of their students’ level in the language. The justification of said selection is, herein, rooted in a cognitive argument: If we are able to observe the manner in which words are organized within the mind, we will be better able to select the words needed for the natural process of communication. After analyzing over lists of lexical availability compiled by previous analyses, this study puts forth a glossary filtered by way of an objective procedure based on the mathematical concept known as Fuzzy Expected Value. I begin first by rigorously defining the concept of lexical availability and then thoroughly examining and explaining the manner in which I have obtained the results. Next, I employ the cognitive theory of prototypes to expound upon the organizational apparatus which arranges words within speakers’ minds. Subsequently, and in accordance with objective criteria, a lexical selection is proposed. To end, I contemplate and muse upon the significance of a program that would enable us to identify the most appropriate vocabulary according to the students’ level of linguistic competence. In order to further substantiate this study, it will be juxtaposed with the specific notions outlined by the curriculum of The Cervantes Institute. Moreover, it will relate to the teaching levels proposed by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL and Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR.

  6. Clinton administration forging population-foreign policy links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sherbinin, A

    1994-12-01

    In the US, the Clinton administration has renewed the link between global population and national security issues. These so-called "soft security issues" receive attention from the Under-Secretary of State for Global Affairs, Tim Wirth, and the senior director of the Global Environmental Affairs branch of the National Security Council, Eileen Claussen. Wirth and Claussen draft the US response to soft security issues such as environmental security, refugee and migration movements, political instability, and religious and ethnic conflict as well as the other nonmilitary threats of illegal drug trafficking, terrorism, and international organized crime. Population was first considered a foreign policy concern in the 1960s. By 1965, President Johnson decided that the US would provide family planning supplies and technical assistance to any country which asked for help. The initial justification for assuming a leading role in developing innovative population strategies for less developed countries was a humanitarian desire to forward economic development, the self-interest of maintaining access to resources, and concern that rapid growth produced more communists. Today the US remains concerned about resource access and economic development and is also wary of spill-over environmental effects, economic migration, diminished US trade opportunities, political asylum seekers and refugees, and increasing demand for US peacekeepers. It is also believed that rapid population growth leads to political destabilization. Critics of these views blame the development difficulties of less developed countries on poor governing decisions (inadequate institutions, trade barriers, or indifference). Women's reproductive rights advocates fear that using security as a rationale for population assistance could lead to restrictions on women's rights to choose the number and spacing of births. Despite such objections, the belief that population growth is an underlying problem in imploding

  7. 78 FR 55057 - Authorization of Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 123E, Vestas Nacelles America, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Authorization of Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 123E, Vestas..., Vestas Nacelles America, Inc., operator of Subzone 123E in Brighton, Denver, Pueblo, and...

  8. Provisions on the Administration of Foreign Exchange in Domestic Securities Investments of Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In accordance with the Regulations on the Foreign Exchange Administration of the People's Republic of China and the Measures for the Administration of Domestic Securities Investment by Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors,the State Administration of Foreign Exchange has formulated the Provisions on the Administration of Foreign Exchange in Domestic Securities Investments of Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors,which came into effect on the date of its promulgation.

  9. Overcoming the Inherent Sources of Liability of Foreignness : Measuring and Compensating the Disadvantage of Being Foreign

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The established theories on the performance of the foreign firm in host country markets raise a puzzle: on the one hand, foreign ventures may be more likely to possess certain advantages that could help them outperform local competitors. On the other hand, foreign ventures suffer a disadvantage stemming from their unfamiliarity with the host market conditions, so-called liability of foreignness. Thus, certain questions arise about the severity of the foreigners disadvantage and the use of com...

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY DETERMINANTS OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN ISLAMIC BANKS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Muda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is conducted to compare the determinants of profitability of the domestic and foreign Islamic banks operating in Malaysia. The Generalized Least Square (GLS is employed with unbalanced panel data on seventeen Islamic banks, using quarterly data for the period of 2007 to 2010. In order to find out the differences in the profitability determinants, the sample of banks is divided into two sub-samples (domestic and foreign. The results reveal that domestic Islamic banks are more profitable than foreign Islamic banks. The results also show that the profitability determinants of domestic banks are different from those of foreign banks. The overhead expenses, loans, efficiency, gross domestic product growth rate and bank size have a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability, in which case applicable to the domestic banks only. In turn, the gross domestic product per capita has a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability of only the foreign banks. The study finds that, deposits, capital and reserves, inflation and banks’ age have a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability of both domestic and foreign banks. Meanwhile, liquidity and concentration are not able to explain the variability of domestic and foreign Islamic banks’ profitability. The findings indicate that the profitability of domestic banks is affected by the global financial crisis while, the profitability of foreign banks is not affected.

  11. 26 CFR 1.954-1 - Foreign base company income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign base company income. 1.954-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.954-1 Foreign base company income. (a) In... foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation. Foreign base company income is...

  12. Chinese and Foreign Experts Interested in Underground Gas Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ To promote the oil technological exchange between China and the international community, the China-Canada Alberta Petroleum Center sponsored a three-day workshop on natural gas storage technology at PetroChina Dagang Oil Field Company from August 26 to 28.A total of more than 70 Chinese and foreign experts exchanged views and opinions on design,construction, operation and management of natural gas storage tanks.

  13. The Export Intensity of Foreign Affiliates in Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2007-01-01

    of their affiliates. We find that labour intensity and foreign control are the main explanatory variables for the export intensity of the affiliates. Given the overall rise in export intensity over the period of investigation, our findings suggest that export-platform FDI has become a more important mode...... of organization for multinational enterprises (MNEs) as Poland has evolved into a relatively stable economic environment where MNEs feel comfortable basing their regional operations.    ...

  14. Methods in Teaching of Foreign Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Teodora BIRIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to give an overview over the different types of methods of German lessons, where German considered as a foreign language. These methods describe the complex ways of using those as teaching-/study-methods taught German as a foreign language in foreign language teaching environment, as opposed to the teaching of “old” languages such as Greek and Latin is. The different approaches extend the scientific study of methods of derivation and concepts in the context of developing foreign language education and language teaching research. As with the “how” teaching and learning of foreign languages should be in the foreground for themselves.

  15. Perceptions of operators as well as domestic and foreign guests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research in Hospitality Management is co-published by NISC (Pty) Ltd and Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group ... railway, finance, postal service, human resource, and education ..... of brand equity specifically derived from the hotel industry.

  16. Applying Culture to Military Operations: A Review of Foreign Militaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    perspective on cultural awareness as a consequence of its own indigenous Maori culture. During initial or basic training, the military examines its own...organizational culture. Two of the services, the New Zealand Army and Navy, utilize elements of the Maori culture in order to establish a common...experience within the island nations and their own Maori culture and language has some commonalities. For missions in less familiar surroundings, the NZDF

  17. Foreign Command of US Forces in Combined Theatre Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Russell and Jeannette E. Muther , A History of the United Nations h (Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution 1958), p. 55, footnote 27. China’s UN...York: Praeger Publishers, 1992), p. 16. 12 Richard (New York: The Free Press, 1973), pp. 15-16. 13 See for example Werner J. Feld, Robert S. Jordan...unaccustomed to outsiders." Richard Pyle, ’"Desert Storm IL Saudi Commander Blasts Schwarzkopf Autobiography," Associated Press (New York: October 20

  18. Congressional Presentation for Foreign Operations, Fiscal Year 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    cooperation with the U.S. on narcotics issues. In the case of Mexico, Presidents Clinton and Zedillo signed the U.S.-Mexico Alliance Against Drugs...the U.S. illegally. In May, the President signed a declaration on migration with President Zedillo that will ease U.S.-Mexican immigration tensions...assistance funding will support a Mexican counternarcotics program that has been given priority attention by President Zedillo . U.S. assistance will

  19. Retained Foreign Bodies: A Serious Threat in the Indian Operation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Jan-Feb 2014 | Vol 4 | Issue 1 |. Address for .... causes severe injury in the abdomen of the patient. According to the ..... Pakistani women die after forceps removed, 2006. Available from: ...

  20. Perceptions of operators as well as domestic and foreign guests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    under a management contract with the Hong Kong Peninsula. Group, which marked .... product or service to a firm and/or to that firm's customers”. (Aaker, 1991, p. 15). ..... brands influence top- and bottom-line revenues as well as overall asset ...

  1. Role of Air Force Special Operations in Foreign Internal Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    0 AD-A271 991 0 TIC U r E -• 93-27105 ViroV.,I II publicl~ll 16, I1, i: i ",, .r , - !A Role ofArFoc pcil peain inFreg ItrnlDees JOH R. MOLO 11 6j...can detract from the menta.’ legitimacy of the state. The Salvadoran The necessity to maintain the fragile Organizacion DemocratIca Nacionallsta

  2. The Right to Self-Defence in International Law as a Justification for Crossing Borders: The Turkey-PKK Case within the Borders of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebaz Khdir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available International law grants states an inherent right to self-defence. States can exercise this right whenever they face armed attack. However, any country wishing to exercise its right to self-defence must fully consider all the restrictions on this right. The right to self-defence can permit the use of force within the borders of the victim state or on the territory of another state from where the attack is carried out. Accordingly, states may respond to any attack by the armed forces of another state or irregular armed groups that use the territory of other states for their attacks. Turkey is a country with a huge population of Kurdish inhabitants. The Kurds possess distinct origins, history, language, culture and a historical link to their land. Thus, they qualify as a people. For much of their history they have peacefully sought to assert their rights; however, Turkey denied those rights to the extent that the formation of the PKK in 1978 became amove of last resort. When the PKK started demanding Kurdish right to self-determination, Turkey launched military operations against it in self-defence. During the 1980s and 1990s, the PKK established camps in Iraq. On several occasions it withdrew its forces there as part of peace negotiations with the Turkish government. Turkey crossed the Iraqi borders and attacked the camps as part of a state policy to fight the PKK outside its borders. The PKK subsequently handed over the camps to other groups, which never posed any military threat to Turkey, but Turkish forces continued to cross the border into Iraq. This article examines the right of Turkey to use force within the borders of Iraq under the justification of self-defence.

  3. Removal of a giant nonmagnetic intraocular foreign body using micro alligator forceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shenzhi; Wan, Guangming; Li, Xiujuan; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Zhu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    To introduce a new method for removal of a giant nonmagnetic intraocular foreign body using micro alligator forceps. Eleven patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy and lensectomy. The micro alligator forceps were used to grasp and extract the giant nonmagnetic intraocular foreign body through a sclerocorneal tunnel. All patients underwent surgical removal of the intraocular foreign body successfully without any intraoperative complications. The alligator forceps were operational in the intraocular environment and effective in surgical maneuvers. There was no accidental slippage during the procedures. Micro alligator forceps are a feasible option for removal of giant nonmagnetic intraocular foreign body during vitreoretinal surgery and offer advances in terms of operating stability and surgical safety. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Clinical observation of electromagnet in vitrectomy for irregular intraocular magnetic foreign body removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hui Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To analyze the therapeutics effect of electromagnet in vitrectomy for irregular intraocular magnetic foreign body removal.METHODS:Clinical data of 60 cases(60 eyesfrom January 2012 to December 2013 with intraocular magnetic foreign bodies were retrospective analyzed. Thirty eyes underwent vitrectomy only, and electromagnet was applied in the other 30 eyes underwent vitrectomy. The success rate and complications in and after operations were compared between the two groups.RESULTS:Twenty-eight(93%patients had their foreign bodies removed successfully at the first time in electromagnet group and twenty(67%patients in vitrectomy group,there was statistic significant difference(χ2=5.333,P=0.021. Fewer complications happened in and after operations when electromagnet was used.CONCLUSION:The application of electromagnet shows advantage in vitrectomy for irregular intraocular magnetic foreign body removal and it deserves promotion.

  5. Hepatic abscess induced by foreign body: Case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sofia A Santos; Jo(a)o R Deus; Sara CF Alberto; Elsa Cruz; Eduardo Pires; Tomás Figueira; (E)lia Coimbra; José Estevez; Mário Oliveira; Luís Novais

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic abscess due to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract caused by ingested foreign bodies is uncommon.Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult as patients are often unaware of the foreign body ingestion and symptoms and imagiology are usually non-specific. The authors report a case of 62-year-old woman who was admitted with fever and abdominal pain. Further investigation revealed hepatic abscess, without resolution despite antibiotic therapy. A liver abscess resulting from perforation and intra-hepatic migration of a bone coming from the pilorum was diagnosed by surgery. The literature concerning foreign body-induced perforation of the gastrointestinal tract complicated by liver abscess is reviewed.

  6. Foreign body in children?s airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassol Vitor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and the results of bronchoscopic treatment of children due to foreign body aspiration in a university hospital. METHOD: Time series of children who underwent bronchoscopies for foreign bodies aspirated into the airway between March 1993 and July 2002. Each patient was analyzed for age, sex, initial clinical diagnosis, nature and location of the foreign body, duration of symptoms between aspiration and bronchoscopy, radiological findings, results of bronchoscopic removal, complications of bronchoscopy and presence of foreign bodies in the airways. RESULTS: Thirty-four children, 20 (59% boys, ages ranging from nine months to nine years (median = 23 months. In 32 (94% children the foreign body was removed by rigid bronchoscope, and two resulted in thoracotomy. Foreign bodies were more frequent in children under three years of age (66%. A clinical history of foreign body inhalation was obtained in 27 (80% cases. Most of the foreign bodies removed were organic (65% and more frequently found in the right bronchial tree (59%. Foreign bodies were removed within 24 hours in 18 (53% cases. The most frequent radiographic findings were: unilateral air trapping, atelectasis and radiopac foreign body. Major bronchoscopy complications occurred in seven children (22%, and there were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: More attention is necessary to the respiratory symptoms of aspirations, mainly in boys at early ages, with clinical history and compatible radiological findings. Most foreign bodies removed were of organic nature. In this case series, therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy was effective with few complications.

  7. PRAGMATICS and FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海珍

    2007-01-01

    This paper intends to discuss the research of pragmatics' influence on foreign language teaching.It divides into four parts, mainly deals with relationship between pragmatics and teaching.Pragmatics directs what to teach and selects which syllabus.Also, it directs how to teach(weather the student-centred or teacher-centred, use what techniques and so on).Pragmatics directs teaching, while teaching experiences is the practical material for pragmatics research.This paper also gives a deep discussion about Pragmatic context and cultural pragmatics which is an important factor in the study of pragmatics and foreign language teaching.This presentation intends to provide an overview on the roles that research in pragmatics should be playing that could be viewed as necessary adjusted focus in its research domain.

  8. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a cor...... cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return.......We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  9. Esophagial Foreign Body in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Metin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal foreign bodies (OYC are common in children and prevention and timely treatment is not a current problem that can cause serious morbidity and mortality. In the United States, depending on\\' OYC people a year die of approximately 1500-1600 . Gastrointestinal esophageal stricture at the narrowest point of destination, and contains in itself three. First stenosis at the level of the cricoid cartilage, the second stenosis, nearby the left main bronchus crosses the diaphragm and passes in the region and third place. This is due to the properties of 28-ie 68% esophageal foreign bodies are seen in the digestive tract. OYC anticipated or hidden for a long time the clinical diagnosis can be difficult and serious complications. OYC the removal of rigid esophagoscopy under general anesthesia is a safe and effective method. OYC the early diagnosis and treatment is very important for the prevention of life-threatening complications

  10. Foreign female immigrants in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Fakiolas, Rossetos

    2000-01-01

    Strong push, pull and network formation factors account for the over 600,000 foreign immigrants, mostly economic and with irregular status, who have been since the early 1990s in Greece, a traditionally emigration country. Over a quarter of them are females who have come alone, marking the new trend in female migration. And like their male counterparts, they find jobs due to their wage and job flexibility. The recent Greek policy to regularise irregular or undocumented immigrants (UI), that i...

  11. Culture and Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程欣

    2008-01-01

    Culture teaching has been considered to be a very important element in foreign language teaching.Since English has become an international language,this paper mainly talks about the relationship between culture and English teaching.There are three parts in this paper: I. The role of culture in English teaching;Ⅱ.Culture teaching methods in the English classroom;Ⅲ.A danger in teaching cultures in English class.

  12. "Foreign Mothers" of Chinese Orphans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Since Shanghai opened to the outside, a large number of foreign wives have lived there. They have organized a charitable association which has attracted people’s attention. They donate money and material goods to the Shanghai Children’s Welfare House, as well as contributing their maternal love to the Chinese orphans. Every week, no matter whether it is raining or windy, they visit, holding the children in their arms and feeding them. Some of them

  13. Culture and Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xuhong

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that cross -cultural communication between Chinese and Foreigners often runs into trouble. Some factors which block communication lie in culture - governed structures of language. In view of the fact that the cultural messages are reflected in people' s daily use of language, culture dements should not be overlooked in FLT. This paper attempts to explore the ways of including culture teaching in the language classroom.

  14. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  15. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  16. Exploiting Information and Communication Technologies in Teaching a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculescu Brândușa-Oana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Education has to constantly adapt and renew itself in order to be compatible with the technology-dominated world we live in. There has been heated debate over the introduction of information and communication technology (ICT in the educational process. The ICT, especially in foreign language teaching, has become the researchers’ focus of attention in the last two decades. Today’s armed forces require highly-skilled military personnel to be digitally literate and to have well-developed cultural awareness, intercultural communication ability and critical thinking competence. In this context, foreign language classes in the military higher education system should become an environment in which language, culture and civilisation encounters may be facilitated and enhanced by ICT, promoting the acquisition of knowledge and skills demanded by the exercise of roles that the armed forces have in the international theatres of operations. This paper aims at examining the necessity of introducing ICT in foreign language teaching, pointing to the numerous advantages of using these new technologies. The paper also discusses the new role and skills of the teacher in the context of exploiting the various resources provided by the ICT. In addition, we mention some of the modalities in which ICT can be put to good use in developing the cadets’ foreign language skills.

  17. The Characteristics of Foreign Direct Investments in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pero PETROVIĆ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The international movement of capital takes place in three main forms,namely: international mobility of credit capital, portfolio investments and foreign direct investments. Foreign direct investments(Greenfield investments today are considered as the most desirableform of international capital. They represent such type ofcapital investment in the company through which ownership controlover the company is being acquired. Direct investment of capital canbe made in the existing company(modernization, expansion, etc.abroad,or in the construction of a new capacities("Greenfield investment". In both cases the capital owner decides where to invest capital, how to organize production, takes care of the conditions of placements,the financial results of operations and the like, but alsobears the risk of doing business. Therefore,foreign direct investmentscarry the highest business risk, but also bring the most revenue orprofit.Foreign direct investments(FDIplay a key role in economicdevelopment. When it comes to the exporting countries, export of capital allows increased use of capacities, expansion of markets andnew technology development, and essentially comes down to profit maximization,especially in medium and long term. When it comes toimporting countries, import of capital provides an additional accumulation, transfer of new technologies and know-­‐how without needto purchase a license, higher exports, the ability to finance new investments which affects the growth of employment,income, laborproductivity, increase of budget revenues and other effects. Thepaper analyzes the main characteristics of FDI in Serbia.

  18. Evaluation of Foreign Investment in Power Plants using Real Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Moritoshi; Zhou, Yicheng

    This paper proposes new methods for evaluating foreign investment in power plants under market uncertainty using a real options approach. We suppose a thermal power plant project in a deregulated electricity market. One of our proposed methods is that we calculate the cash flow generated by the project in a reference year using actual market data to incorporate periodic characteristics of energy prices into a yearly cash flow model. We make the stochastic yearly cash flow model with the initial value which is the cash flow in the reference year, and certain trend and volatility. Then we calculate the real options value (ROV) of the project which has abandonment options using the yearly cash flow model. Another our proposed method is that we evaluate foreign currency/domestic currency exchange rate risk by representing ROV in foreign currency as yearly pay off and exchanging it to ROV in domestic currency using a stochastic exchange rate model. We analyze the effect of the heat rate and operation and maintenance costs of the power plant on ROV, and evaluate exchange rate risk through numerical examples. Our proposed method will be useful for the risk management of foreign investment in power plants.

  19. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand...

  20. An Interview with Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi on the ASEAN-Plus Foreign Ministers' Meetings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On July 23,2011,Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi gave an interview to a group of Chinese journalists after attending the ASEAN-plus foreign ministers' meetings.The transcript of the interview is as follows:Q:What is your take on the just concluded ASEAN-plus foreign ministers' meetings?A:At the invitation of Indonesian Foreign Minister Marry Natalegawa,I attended the ASEAN-China Foreign Ministers' Meeting,ASEAN-Plus-Three (China,Japan and the ROK),or "APT" Foreign Ministers' Meeting.East Asia Summit (EAS) Foreign Minister' Consultation and the 18th ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) Foreign Ministers' Meeting.I had in-depth exchange of views with other participating foreign ministers on China-ASEAN relations,East Asian cooperation and international and regional issues of shared interest.