WorldWideScience

Sample records for justification foreign operations

  1. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...... descriptive interests and normative ethics is unsustainable in European Union (EU) foreign policy. What are needed are normative justifications that can help inform political choices about foreign policy in the EU's democratic political order. In other words, what are the un-national normative justifications...

  2. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford

  3. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-09-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford.

  4. Simulator justifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, B.T.

    1990-01-01

    For several years, the authors have been convinced by overwhelming evidence that dynamic simulators are justified for many applications where acceptance has been slow. They speculate as to why this situation has existed and list many benefits that accrue to those who use simulators for training and other purposes. This paper along may be sufficient to convince a receptive approval chain of the value of simulator ownership. It is intended primarily as an aid and supporting document for those who find it necessary to build a detailed justification for a specific simulator acquisition. The purchase of a simulator requires justification. For new military aircraft and for spacecraft, a simulator for training and performance evaluation is virtually assumed, value having been proven many times over. for commercial aircraft, safety is the overwhelming justification. For nuclear power plants, government regulations require operators to be licensed by examination on a certified simulator. For other applications, including air traffic control, biomedical, communications, electronic power transmission and distribution, emergency engineering and management, fossil power plants, gaming land vehicles, manufacturing, maintenance, marine vehicles, process plants, weapons, etc

  5. 49 CFR 387.321 - Operations in foreign commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operations in foreign commerce. 387.321 Section 387.321 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... Carriers and Property Brokers § 387.321 Operations in foreign commerce. No motor carrier may operate in the...

  6. Dynamics of Foreign Operations Modes and Their Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    Companies’ choice of foreign operation modes (FOM) has been a core subject of international business studies basically from its beginning (Hymer, 1960 [1976]; Root, 1964). A halfcentury of research has brought us a set of established perspectives on companies’ foreign operation mode choices...

  7. Member State Foreign Policy towards EU Military Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade the European Union has undertaken military operations in Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, twice in the Democratic Republic of Congo, jointly in the Central African Republic and Chad, both in and off the coast of Somalia and most recently in Mali. Ongoing discussions in Brussels...... suggest that another operation in CAR may be underway shortly. The EU’s military endeavours are particularly interesting to this enquiry, as they suggest a radical change in the cohort of member states’ foreign policy towards the Union, which until the turn of the Millennium had been considered by its MS......, amongst others, as a predominantly ‘civilian power’. The significance of such a change merits a chapter that delves deeper into MS foreign policy specifically related to EU military operations.The rationale for this research is to further unpack intra-EU foreign policy and its effect on the external...

  8. Analytical and experimental justification of safe operation of fuel loads of VVER reactors at Rovno NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.; Zagrebelny, L.

    2011-01-01

    The main task during the nuclear fuel operation us ensuring of the larger fuel burnup and as a result - reduction of the fuel constituent in the electricity production cost. The neutron-physic calculations are performed using the qualified codes BIPR-7A and PERMAK developed by Kurchatov Institute. The limits for calculated parameters are set by the Ukrainian regulations. Calculation results are documented in reports subject for independent expert review requested by the regulatory authority. In this report the following item have presented: 1) metrological check and calibration of measuring channels; 2) fuel cycles at Rivne NPP; 3) determination of experimental values of thermal-physic and neutron-physic parameters; 4) ICIS equipment check, execution of the program confirming correct connection of the temperature and neutron flux monitoring sensors; 5) monitoring of the core TPh and NPh parameters in all operating modes; 6) monitoring of the fuel condition in the core and 7) FE leak tightness monitoring at the operating reactor

  9. 77 FR 41371 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... policy questions related to foreign airline operators' revenues and expenses in the United States. There... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Economic Analysis Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...

  10. 77 FR 42945 - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 570(e) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Certain Functions Under Section 570(e) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs... the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law...

  11. Operational characteristics, strategies and performance of foreign and demestic banks in India

    OpenAIRE

    Keshari, Pradeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper has tried to examine the relative characteristics and performance of foreign and domestic banks operating in India. A comparison of their characteristics undoubtedly suggest that foreign banks as a group differ significantly from domestic banks. It was also found that foreign banks enjoyed higher profitability than the domestic banks. The higher profitability of the former was a reflection of their particular operational characteristics, strategies and the favourable attitude of t...

  12. Accidents in the operation of nuclear power stations. Action for damages against foreign operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, K.

    1986-01-01

    On the occasion of a lecture evening of the Leo Goodman Library in Munich questions of civil liability of foreign reactor operators in cases of nuclear accidents were discussed by participants of various universities. Special subjects were i.a. problems of civil procedural and insurance law, absolute liability according to sec. 25 Atomic Energy Act as well as questions of applicable law. (WG) [de

  13. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking...

  14. Retained Foreign Bodies: A Serious Threat in the Indian Operation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    report cases of RFBs. Keywords: Medical negligence, Radiography, Retained foreign bodies. Review Article ... different technology used to reduce medical errors was included in this review. ..... body mimicking a spinal mass. Eur Spine J 2006 ...

  15. Justification of medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditto, M.

    2009-01-01

    Justification of practices using ionising radiation is one of the principles of radiation protection, in addition to optimisation and limitation of dose. This contribution overviews the legal und practical implementation of the principle of justification of medical exposures taking into account the Austrian situation in particular. (orig.)

  16. Survey of foreign reactor operator qualifications, training, and staffing requirements. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, M.L.; DiSalvo, R.; Merschoff, E.

    1982-05-01

    The report is a compilation of the data obtained from a survey of foreign nuclear power plant operator requirements. Included among the considerations are: (1) shift staffing; (2) operator eligibility; (3) operator training programs; (4) operator licensing or certification; and (5) operator retraining. The data obtained from this survey are presented in matrix form and contrasted with U.S. requirements

  17. 26 CFR 1.172-9 - Election with respect to portion of net operating loss attributable to foreign expropriation loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operating loss attributable to foreign expropriation loss. 1.172-9 Section 1.172-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... operating loss attributable to foreign expropriation loss. (a) In general. If a taxpayer has a net operating loss for a taxable year ending after December 31, 1958, and if the foreign expropriation loss for such...

  18. Post-operative intracranial foreign body granuloma: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djindjian, M.; Brugieres, P.; Razavi-Encha, F.; Allegret, C.; Poirier, J.; Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil

    1987-01-01

    The authors report and discuss some clinical, radiological, histological and ultrastructural aspects of an intracranial foreign body granuloma. This granuloma, which simulated a cavernoma, was due to a surgical swab forgotten during a previous neurosurgical evacuation of an intracerebral hematoma. (orig.)

  19. Categorisation of waste streams arising from the operation of a low active waste incinerator and justification of discharge practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Waste streams arising from the low active waste incinerator at Harwell are described, and the radiological impact of each exposure pathway discussed. The waste streams to be considered are: (i) discharge of scrubber liquors after effluent treatment to the river Thames; (ii) disposal of incinerator ash; and (iii) discharge of airborne gaseous effluents to the atmosphere. Doses to the collective population and critical groups as a result of the operation of the incinerator are assessed and an attempt made to justify the incineration practice by consideration of the radiological impact and monetary costs associated with alternative disposal methods. (author)

  20. Business-Level Strategy for the Foreign Commercial Banks operating within Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasool Khan, Mohamed Rizal

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategic positioning and use of Porter’s (1980) generic strategy framework within the foreign commercial banks operating in Malaysia. It was found that two distinct strategic groups were formed by the foreign commercial banks. Performance analysis conducted suggests that banks with clearer strategic direction managed to outperform its peers in its strategic group. Furthermore, the performance of one strategic group was significantly lower than that of the second.

  1. Identifying Special Operations as a Distinct Foreign Policy Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anton Asklund

    2017-01-01

    to clarify and explain what special operations strategic qualities exactly are. The author then elaborates on specific elements of special operations with a point of departure in the “cognitive maps of SOF” as formulated in the research question. The author recommends that in order to influence policy...... on special operations, it is essential to have insight into the instrument’s capabilities and limitations, as this provides the prerequisites for sound contextual strategic analysis....

  2. Institutional Justification in Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Christian; Schultz, Friederike

    consensus. It extents research on framing in mass communication by applying institutional theory and Boltanski and Thévenot’s (2006) theory on justification in order to explain how the success and failure of proposed interpretations depend on the mobilization of accepted social institutions to justify...

  3. Hofstede cultural indexes and their impact on leadership styles in foreign companies operating in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Ortiz Rivera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between “national culture” (cultural dimensions and leadership styles displayed by managers in foreign companies operating in Puerto Rico. In this study, the independent variable was “national culture” and the national culture index (Geert Hofstede, 1980 served as indicator. In contrast, leadership styles were the dependent variable measured using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ (Bass and Avolio, 2004. Findings indicate that, overall, “national culture” resulted as a significant variation in transactional and transformational leadership styles employed by managers working in foreign companies operating in Puerto Rico.

  4. Justification: theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of justification implies that a specific decision as to the relative merits of benefits and costs and detriment be made whenever: (1) a new practice is introduced that involves an indirect or direct increase in radiation exposure; or (2) an existing practice affecting radiation exposure is modified; or (3) an increase in radiation protection of an existing practice is to be considered. Such decisions are imprecise and involve intangible values. ICRP has, however, developed a mathematical model to express the structure of such decisions. The utility of this model for making the key paramters of justification decisions visible is explored in this paper in two ways. First, the structure of the model and its implications are explored in the abstract. Secondly, several specific applications are studied to determine if the model has utility in structuring application decisions, and the extent to which conclusions can be evolved in a meaningful, visible manner. (author)

  5. CONFLICTS IN THE STRATEGIC BUSINESS NETWORK OPERATING IN THE FOREIGN MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Hauke-Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Conflicts are an integral part of every business-to-business co-operation. Enterprise’s activities in the international markets require from the company to take measures to resolve the conflict so as to prevent the negative impact on relationships and further cooperation. This article adopts the strategic network approach to analyze the conflicts and their impact on relationships in a network operating in a foreign market. Conflicts that occur between the two parties involved in a strategic b...

  6. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

  7. Values, Watersheds and Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    concerning HOW. Together, this also hold potentials of achieving multiple benefits and action promoting resilience and liveability in urban landscapes. One way of approaching the value disputes is by asking if some conception of the common good in case of HOW can be justified at the same time...... as the plurality and diversity of values are recognised. Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot ́s concept of a plurality of regimes of justification -conflicting but also enabling compromise gives an affirmative answer to this question which is exemplified in the final parts of the paper....

  8. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  9. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service overview for operational monitoring of current crop conditions and production forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, J.

    2016-12-01

    The presentation will discuss the current status of the International Production Assessment Division of the USDA ForeignAgricultural Service for operational monitoring and forecasting of current crop conditions, and anticipated productionchanges to produce monthly, multi-source consensus reports on global crop conditions including the use of Earthobservations (EO) from satellite and in situ sources.United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) International Production AssessmentDivision (IPAD) deals exclusively with global crop production forecasting and agricultural analysis in support of the USDAWorld Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) lockup process and contributions to the World Agricultural Supply DemandEstimates (WASE) report. Analysts are responsible for discrete regions or countries and conduct in-depth long-termresearch into national agricultural statistics, farming systems, climatic, environmental, and economic factors affectingcrop production. IPAD analysts become highly valued cross-commodity specialists over time, and are routinely soughtout for specialized analyses to support governmental studies. IPAD is responsible for grain, oilseed, and cotton analysison a global basis. IPAD is unique in the tools it uses to analyze crop conditions around the world, including customweather analysis software and databases, satellite imagery and value-added image interpretation products. It alsoincorporates all traditional agricultural intelligence resources into its forecasting program, to make the fullest use ofavailable information in its operational commodity forecasts and analysis. International travel and training play animportant role in learning about foreign agricultural production systems and in developing analyst knowledge andcapabilities.

  10. CONFLICTS IN THE STRATEGIC BUSINESS NETWORK OPERATING IN THE FOREIGN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Hauke-Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are an integral part of every business-to-business co-operation. Enterprise’s activities in the international markets require from the company to take measures to resolve the conflict so as to prevent the negative impact on relationships and further cooperation. This article adopts the strategic network approach to analyze the conflicts and their impact on relationships in a network operating in a foreign market. Conflicts that occur between the two parties involved in a strategic business network also affect other cooperating entities and thereby influence the whole relationship. It is therefore important for the strategic business leader to take action to achieve the positive effects of a conflict situation. The article presents the main sources of conflict present in the literature and the actions that can be taken by the leader of the strategic business network in the foreign market in order to obtain positive effects of conflicts. It also highlights the elements that contribute to reducing the negative impact of conflicts and strengthen relationships in the strategic business network in the foreign market.

  11. CONDOR OPERATION: STATE TERRORISM IN SOUTH CONE AND THE HEGEMONIC ROLE OF THE US

    OpenAIRE

    RAÍSA GOMES DE OLIVEIRA

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Operation Condor, which was the union among the military dictatorships of Latin America, as well as the historical context of the influence of American foreign policy for Latin America. The proposal is to analyze what were the political and ideological justifications of military regimes that led to this operation under United States influence.

  12. MEMORY OPERATION AND ATTENTION CONCENTRATION FEATURES OF BUILDING PROFESSIONALLY ORIENTED FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGIES IN PERSPECTIVE PROGRAMMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Семеряк

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Memory operation and attention concentration features of building professionally oriented foreign language communicative strategies in perspective programmers have been analyzed in the article. The features of functioning and role of short-term, sensory, operational, long-term, semantic memory in the process of building foreign language professionally oriented communicative strategies in students majoring in programming have been in the spotlight of the author’s attention. Special conditions for successful memorizing of studying material by students have been identified. In the course of the pilot study it has been proven that active methods of teaching / learning enchance high concentration and makes it possible to activate long-term memory and, as a result, reflect necessary studying material in it. The impact of concentration on the efficiency of building professionally oriented foreign language communicative strategies in perspective programmers has been grounded. Mechanisms of concentration of students majoring in programming on studying activity have been analyzed.

  13. U.S. Department of Energy operational experience with shipments of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messick, Charles E.; Massey, Charles D.; Mustin, Tracy P.

    1998-01-01

    On May 13, 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision on a Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. The goal of the long-term policy is to recover enriched uranium exported from the United States, while giving foreign research reactor operators sufficient time to develop their own long-term solutions for storage and disposal of spent fuel. The spent fuel accepted by the U.S. DOE under the policy must be out of the research reactors by May 12, 2006 and returned to the United States by May 12, 2009. (author)

  14. CORRELATES OF EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION WITH PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM IN FOREIGN MNC BPOs OPERATING IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERALD MONIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an empirical study of five foreign MNC BPO firms operating in India, ranked among the top 100 by the International Association of Outsourcing Professionals (IAOP for the year 2009. The data was collected using quantitative methods from 163 employees constituting 1% of the population under study. The level of satisfaction among the respondents towards the performance appraisal system is at 69.94 per cent. Regression analysis, using a significance level of 5 per cent, shows that three of the variables used in the study are significantly influencing the satisfaction and all these three significant variables are positively associated with satisfaction and all other variables have emerged as the insignificant variables. All the variables used in our study collectively account for 42.6 per cent of the satisfaction. The factor analysis has identified four factors: the variables of factor one contribute 34.786 per cent variation, followed by 12.788 per cent, 11.961 per cent and 8.389 per cent variation being contributed by factor two, three and four respectively.

  15. Actualization of Payments for Foreign Economic Operations in the Context of Eurointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirey Oksana S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The legislative and regulatory framework of currency regulation and the main vectors for effecting settlements on currency transactions at the stage of Ukraine’s integration into the EU are examined. The state bodies of regulation of foreign economic activity in Ukraine and their main powers for ensuring the effectiveness of the activities of economic entities are considered. The main ways of increasing the potential of foreign economic activity regarding currency regulation in Ukraine with the purpose of creating favorable conditions for the protection of subjects of foreign economic activity are defined. The expediency of liberalization in the system of currency regulation and control is justified. It is pointed out that the documentary provision of currency settlements is inadequate. The order of application of penal sanctions for infringement of the currency legislation is defined.

  16. 26 CFR 1.955A-4 - Election as to date of determining qualified investment in foreign base company shipping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporation sells, exchanges, or otherwise disposes of all or part of his stock in such controlled foreign..., exchange, or other disposition, then, with respect to the stock so sold, exchanged, or disposed of, the... investment in foreign base company shipping operations. 1.955A-4 Section 1.955A-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...

  17. Operation Unified Response: A Case Study of the Military’s Role in Foreign Disaster Relief Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    disease danger was exacerbated by the introduction of cholera into post-earthquake Haiti, likely by Nepalese United Nation aiel workers, which caused... Mexico ," MSNBC; 5 September 2007.· U.S. Agency for International Development Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, Fact Sheet #25, Fiscal Year...March 2011. 29 47 Matt Gutman, "Haiti: As Cholera Spreads, Frustration Builds," ABC News; 18 November 2010. 48 LTC James Ware (US Army, Retired

  18. Stereotypes as justifications of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Christian S; Bahns, Angela J; Warner, Ruth; Schaller, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Three experiments investigate how stereotypes form as justifications for prejudice. The authors created novel content-free prejudices toward unfamiliar social groups using either subliminal (Experiment 1, N = 79) or supraliminal (Experiment 2, N = 105; Experiment 3, N = 130) affective conditioning and measured the consequent endorsement of stereotypes about the groups. Following the stereotype content model, analyses focused on the extent to which stereotypes connoted warmth or competence. Results from all three experiments revealed effects on the warmth dimension but not on the competence dimension: Groups associated with negative affect were stereotyped as comparatively cold (but not comparatively incompetent). These results provide the first evidence that-in the absence of information, interaction, or history of behavioral discrimination-stereotypes develop to justify prejudice.

  19. 12 CFR 211.30 - Criteria for evaluating U.S. operations of foreign banks not subject to consolidated supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bank's overall financial condition; (9) The managerial resources of the foreign bank, including the... the foreign bank generally and its role in the banking system in its home country; (12) The foreign...

  20. 16 CFR 240.15 - Cost justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost justification. 240.15 Section 240.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.15 Cost justification. It is no defense to a...

  1. Competing Foreign Policy Visions: Rhetorical Hybrids after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Mary E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines ways in which two very different political actors, George Bush and Bill Clinton, attempted to construct a new foreign policy consensus by blending the rhetorical forms of the Cold War with other foreign policy metaphors. Argues that these hybrids have not proven persuasive as justifications for American actions in foreign policy. (SR)

  2. FINANCIAL AND LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATES ON BANK EXTERNAL TRADING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Papazov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The term "currency" has different meanings but is usually defined as any means of payment that is not in local currency units. The ratio between the foreign currency and local currency units results into exchange rate. When arranging payment transactions abroad, local entities - natural and legal persons must exchange their national currency in advance for the currency of the country in which they are due or in another currency commonly accepted as an international payment. Under this regime, the national currency is quoted in relation to another currency, that is exchange rate.

  3. Corrosion and indices of operating reliability of steam-water circuits of foreign NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.

    1983-01-01

    Corrosion failures in circuits of foreign NPPs are considered. According to American statistics there are more corrosion failures in two-circuit NPPs than in NPPs with one circuit. Steam generators mostly suffer from ''corrosion denting''. Lately pitting corrosion becomes a potentially serious problem. Steam generator vertical tubes are maiply subjected to this corrosion type. Attention is drawn to intercrystalline corrosion. The causes of corrosion are described. The problem of optimization of structural materials is discussed to reduce corrosion failures as well as other methods of decreasing corrosion failures. Organization of nondestructive testing, increased requirements to water and steam purity are of great importance

  4. The Illusion of Argument Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew; Keil, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Argumentation is an important way to reach new understanding. Strongly caring about an issue, which is often evident when dealing with controversial issues, has been shown to lead to biases in argumentation. We suggest that people are not well calibrated in assessing their ability to justify a position through argumentation, an effect we call the illusion of argument justification. Furthermore we find that caring about the issue further clouds this introspection. We first show this illusion by measuring the difference between ratings before and after producing an argument for one’s own position. The strength of the illusion is predicted by the strength of care for a given issue (Study 1). The tacit influences of framing and priming do not override the effects of emotional investment in a topic (Study 2). However, explicitly considering counterarguments removes the effect of care when initially assessing the ability to justify a position (Study 3). Finally, we consider our findings in light of other recent research and discuss the potential benefits of group reasoning. PMID:23506085

  5. Corporate governance in banks operating in Serbia with the majority foreign capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance attached to successful corporate governance in banks derives primarily from the importance that the banks have in the financial and economic system of the country. Namely, banks are the only legally authorized depositing institutions and as such are the main generators of savings and financing for the needs of economy by supplying it with the working capital, in view of a relatively small share that the capital market has in the economic system. During many years of sanctions, isolation and bombardment, our companies have remained without working capital. In addition, the advent of foreign investments often does not imply that the parent companies are providing sufficient working capital, but this capital must be provided from the domestic banks. What derives from such a role of banks is their immediate responsibility for proper allocation of free funds to the economy and their best deployment.

  6. Justification: How to get referring physicians involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remedios, D.

    2011-01-01

    Barriers to involvement of clinicians in the process of justification include an already overloaded knowledge base, lack of time, inconsistent guidance and disproportionate patient expectations. Strategies to improve referring physicians' input include education, use of imaging referral guidelines, clinical audit and regulation. This article discusses and reviews evidence for approaches to encourage greater participation in justification by clinicians. Approaches are best summarised by 'Awareness, appropriateness and audit'. (authors)

  7. Justification and optimization in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.

    1980-01-01

    Two requirements of the system recommended by the ICRP for radiation protection are discussed: 1) justification of practices involving radiation exposures and 2) optimization of the level of protection for such practices. The ICRP recommended the use of cost-benefit analysis in justification and optimization. The application of cost-benefit analysis and the quantification of the radiation detriment are also discussed. (H.K.)

  8. Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Request. Summary Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    SERVICES AND DEFENSE AGENCIES INTRODUCTION Services and Defense Agencies HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget request organizes, trains...DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS INTRODUCTION Special Topics HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget... MANGEMENT 2-48 DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS FINANCIAL MANGEMENT 2-49 While DoD has made progress in

  9. Quantitative Justification for Project Authorization to Proceed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Norikazu

    2002-01-01

    Every decision to give the Authorization To Proceed (ATP) for development is made after enough study on the balancing of necessary cost and the benefit from the mission. People are aware that the risk incurred by the development must be also taken into consideration for the decision. However, these studies remain the qualitative descriptions except cost estimation so far (1). Recognizing risk is a quantity, which has the unit of the value (2,3), we can derive a simple inequality, which is useful for the justification for the project ATP. The inequality is a necessary condition that mission value must be larger than the summation of cost and risk. The value of mission is the conversion from all of the benefit from the successful mission to monetary value. Cost includes all of the necessary expense for development and operation. Risk is the expectation of loss, which includes not only direct loss but also indirect loss incurred by the mission failure. The concept of utility should be considered not only in the mission value but also in the loss. The probability of mission failure, which is one of two components of risk, is the degree of belief in the postulate that the mission will end in failure. The concept of probability necessary for risk evaluation is not limit of relative frequency but degree of belief, which is the original meaning of the probability (3). There is the celebrated Laplace's Rule of Succession (4) with respect to this degree of belief probability. There was severe controversy on the Rule because of his equal distribution assumption. However, not assuming equal distribution where no information is available, by recognizing that equal distribution is the expression for no information, we can derive his Rule naturally (5,6). The inequality, which gives the basis for the justification for ATP, is also useful for the midterm decision for project continuation when it is fairly prolonged against the initial schedule. To show the use of this inequality

  10. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 129 - Application for Operations Specifications by Foreign Air Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Operations. State whether the operation proposed is day or night, visual flight rules, instrument flight...). Sec. IV. Communications facilities. List all communication facilities to be used by the applicant in... English language to a degree necessary to enable them to properly communicate with Airport Traffic Control...

  11. Sharing organs with foreign nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Rebecca; Wright, Linda

    2011-03-01

    Organs for transplantation are an absolute scarcity throughout the world, and many countries do not offer transplantation. Developed countries with transplant programs receive requests to list foreign nationals for transplantation. Any national standard deserves justification by a thorough exploration of the issues. In this article, the issues regarding organ transplantation for foreign nationals in Canada are explored. Currently Canada has no policy on listing foreign nationals for transplantation. Three topics are reviewed: (1) arguments for and against the transplantation of organs from deceased donors to foreign nationals, (2) relevant legislation and position statements, and (3) relevant practices in other countries. Finally, practical policy options are suggested. This article's analysis of the issues will provide guidance for health care professionals and policy makers in Canada and developed countries exploring listing foreign nationals for transplantation.

  12. Exploring the Application of Capital Facility Investment Justification Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Karić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades now, the models for identifying and quantifying the level of risk of investment projects and investment justification evaluation have been the subject of investigation by members of professional and research communities. It is important to quantify the level of risk because by evaluating investment justification in terms of the risks involved, the decision-maker (investor is able to choose from available alternatives the one that will achieve the most favourable ratio of expected profit to the assumed risk. In this way, the economic entity can raise its productivity, profitability and the quality of business operation in general. The aim of this paper was to investigate the extent to which medium and large companies have been using modern methods of investment justification evaluation in their decision-making process and determine the level of quality of the application of the selected methods in practice. The study was conducted on a sample of medium and large enterprises in the eastern Croatia during 2011 and 2012, and it was established that despite the fact that a large number of modern investment project profitability and risk assessment models have been developed, the level of their application in practice is not high enough. The analyzed investment proposals included only basic methods of capital budgeting without risk assessment. Hence, it was concluded that individual investors were presented with low-quality and incomplete investment justification evaluation results on the basis of which the decisions of key importance for the development of the economic entity as a whole were made. This paper aims to underline the need for financial managers to get informed and educate themselves about contemporary investment project profitability and risk assessment models as well as the need to create educational programmes and computer solutions that will encourage key people in companies to acquire new knowledge and apply modern

  13. Ultimate justification: Wittgenstein and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J

    1995-02-01

    Decisions must be justified. In medical ethics various grounds are given to justify decisions, but ultimate justification seems illusory and little considered. The philosopher Wittgenstein discusses the problem of ultimate justification in the context of general philosophy. His comments, nevertheless, are pertinent to ethics. From a discussion of Wittgensteinian notions, such as 'bedrock', the idea that 'ultimate' justification is grounded in human nature as such is derived. This discussion is relevant to medical ethics in at least five ways: it shows generally what type of certainty there is in practical ethics; it seems to imply some objective foundation to our ethical judgements; it squares with our experience of making ethical decisions; it shows something of the nature of moral arguments; and, finally, it has implications for teaching medicine and ethics.

  14. Guidance and justification in particularistic ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlbom, U

    2000-10-01

    This paper argues that, contrary to a common line of criticism followed by scholars such as Helga Kuhse, a particularistic version of virtue ethics properly elaborated, can provide sound moral guidance and a satisfactory account for moral justification of our opinions regarding, for instance, health care practice. In the first part of the paper, three criteria for comparing normative theories with respect to action-guiding power are outlined, and it is argued that the presented particularistic version of virtue ethics actually can provide more guidance than the universalistic theories followed by Kuhse and others. In the second part of the paper it is claimed that universalist normative theories have serious problems accounting for the role that moral principles are supposed to play in the justification, of moral opinions, whereas the present version of virtue ethics accommodates a plausible alternative idea of justification without invoking moral principles or eschewing objectivity.

  15. PFPF canister counter for foreign plutonium (PCAS-3) hardware operations and procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Kroncke, K.E.; Miller, M.C.; Takahashi, S.; Seki, S.; Inose, S.; Yamamoto, T.

    1993-01-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of plutonium powder contained in tall storage canisters. The counter was designed for installation in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility fabrication plant. Each canister contains from one to five cans of PuO 2 . The neutron counter measures the spontaneous-fission rate from the plutonium and, when this is combined with the plutonium isotopic ratios, the plutonium mass is determined. The system can accommodate plutonium loadings up to 12 kg, with 10 kg being a typical loading. Software has been developed to permit the continuous operation of the system in an unattended mode. Authentication techniques have been developed for the system. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications

  16. Justification and radiology: Some ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sia, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology. (authors)

  17. Justification and radiology: some ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology.

  18. Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he...

  19. 13 CFR 130.460 - Budget justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget justification. 130.460 Section 130.460 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT...) Cost principles. Principles for determining allowable costs are contained in OMB Circulars A-21 (cost...

  20. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  1. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  2. International Competition for Foreign Multinational Investment,

    OpenAIRE

    Jan I. Haaland; Ian Wooton

    1998-01-01

    We examine the economic justification for providing investment subsidies to foreign-owned multinationals. These provide employment opportunities and generate demand for domestic intermediate inputs, produced by domestic workers with increasing returns to scale. Offering subsidies to multinationals may be in the national interest if the investment raises the net value of domestic production. When agglomerative forces are sufficiently strong, a subsidy that attracts the first foreign firm may i...

  3. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.; Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  4. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G. [Radiation Protection Consul tant, Brighton (United Kingdom); Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  5. Justification of radiographic examinations: What are the key issues?

    OpenAIRE

    Vom, Jason; Williams, Imelda

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Justification of radiographic examinations is the practice of evaluating requested radiological examinations to assess for clinical merit and appropriateness based on clinical notes and patient information. This implies that justification in radiography requires the evaluation of requested examinations, the justification of exposures being applied and determining whether patients fit the recommended criteria for the procedure. Medico?legal requirements by the professional registratio...

  6. Cost justification of chiller replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.J.; Baumer, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    We often hear of products with paybacks that are too good to be true. Just a few weeks ago,a client received a recommendation from a national service company's local office. In the letter the company recommended that open-quotes due to the age and condition of the boiler ... that the school consider replacing the boiler... The cost for the new boiler can usually be recovered by lower fuel bills in 2 to 3 yearsclose quotes. This was for an installation in Southeast Texas where the boiler is only used 4 to 5 months per year. Analysis show the above claims to be nonsense. A new boiler would cost about $47,000 installed. Current total gas bills for the facility are $15,630 per year. They would have to shutoff the gas to the facility to have a three year payback. In fact, only two-thirds of the gas is used to heat the facility so we have only $10, 000 to write off against the new boiler. How much will the greater efficiency save? A 30% savings due to greater efficiency produces $3,000 per year in gas savings to offset the $47,000 cost, a 16 year payback. And much of the efficiency savings can be realized by adjusting the existing boiler. In another care a client wanted to investigate replacement of a twenty year old chiller plant with more efficient equipment. We investigated the project and determined that the payback would be greater than ten years. They did not operate the equipment during the summer and at less than 50% of capacity the balance of the year

  7. Working class conservatism: a system justification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T

    2017-12-01

    Working class conservatism is a perennial issue in social science, but researchers have struggled to provide an adequate characterization. In social psychology, the question has too often been framed in 'either/or' terms of whether the disadvantaged are more or less likely to support the status quo than the advantaged. This is a crude rendering of the issue obscuring the fact that even if most working class voters are not conservative, millions are-and conservatives could not win elections without their support. System justification theory highlights epistemic, existential, and relational needs to reduce uncertainty, threat, and social discord that are shared by everyone-and that promote conservative attitudes. I summarize qualitative and quantitative evidence of system justification among the disadvantaged and consider prospects for more constructive political activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  9. [ETHICAL PRINCIPALS AND A POSTERIORI JUSTIFICATIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Monica

    2015-12-01

    It is difficult to conceive that the human being, while being the same everywhere, could be cared for in such different ways in other societies. Anthropologists acknowledge that the diversity of cultures implies a diversity of moral values, thus that in a multicultural society the individual could draw upon different moral frames to justify the peculiarities of her/his demand of care. But how could we determine what is the moral frame that catalyzes behaviour while all we can record are a posteriori justifications of actions? In most multicultural societies where several moralframes coexist, there is an implicit hierarchy between ethical systems derived from a hierarchy of power which falsifies these a posteriori justifications. Moreover anthropologists often fail to acknowledge that individual behaviour does not always reflect individual values, but is more often the result of negotiations between the moralframes available in society and her/his own desires and personal experience. This is certainly due to the difficulty to account for a dynamic and complex interplay of moral values that cannot be analysed as a system. The impact of individual experience on the way individuals give or receive care could also be only weakly linked to a moral system even when this reference comes up explicitly in the a posteriori justifications.

  10. Analysis and Accounting of Hedging of a Net Investment in a Foreign Operation Process in the concept of Turkish Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Öztürk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in line with developments in the financial markets, financial instruments developed rapidly. As a result of this development, how to classify financial instruments, recognition of these principles has become important. As a result of the every day increase in types of financial instruments, financial risks have emerged. Especially after the end of the Bretton Woods system that based on fixed exchange rates in 1970’s, entities faced the financial risk. IAS 39 gathered financial risks faced by businesses in the financial markets in three groups. These risks are risk arising from financial instruments at fair value and risk arising from cash flows and risk arising from the net investment in a foreign operation. Preventing from the risk arising from the net investment in a foreign operation hedge that composes the subject of this study and also one type of prevention from financial risk, is explained in Turkish Accounting Standards TAS 21 and TAS 39. The implementation section of this study, one of the varieties of hedging, hedge accounting is an example of a net investment in a foreign operation. Example implementation is divided into three sections. In the first part, the increase and decreases at the exchange rates that arised from the position in which the entity made investment does not make forward contracts arised exchange rates are shown. In the second part of our application, the accounting records related to forward contract made for preventing from net investment risk are shown, and how the forward contract prevent the entity from net investment risk is explained. In the final part of the implementation, the disposal of the net investment in a foreign country and it’s results are shown.

  11. The ethical justification of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wyk, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This study pamphlet deals with the questions of ethics, nuclear power and the ethical justification of nuclear power. Nuclear power is not only used for warfare but also in a peaceful way. Ethical questions deal with the use of nuclear weapons. Firstly, a broad discussion of the different types of ethics is given. Secondly, the peaceful uses of nuclear power, such as nuclear power plants, are discussed. In the last place the application of nuclear power in warfare and its disadvantages are discussed. The author came to the conclusion that the use of nuclear power in warfare is in contrary with all Christian ethics

  12. Justification of parameters and selection of equipment for laboratory researches of a rammer's operating element dynamics in a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil products storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzin, A. V.; Gruzin, V. V.; Shalay, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The development of technology for a directional soil compaction of tank foundations for oil and oil products storage is a relevant problem which solution will enable simultaneously provide required operational characteristics of a soil foundation and reduce time and material costs to prepare the foundation. The impact dynamics of rammers' operating elements on the soil foundation is planned to specify in the course of laboratory studies. A specialized technique is developed to justify the parameters and select the equipment for laboratory researches. The usage of this technique enabled us to calculate dimensions of the models, of a test bench and specifications of the recording equipment, and a lighting system. The necessary equipment for laboratory studies was selected. Preliminary laboratory tests were carried out. The estimate of accuracy for planned laboratory studies was given.

  13. The System Justification Conundrum : Re-Examining the Cognitive Dissonance Basis for System Justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owuamalam, Chuma K.; Rubin, Mark; Spears, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In a landmark 1994 publication in the British Journal of Social Psychology, Jost and Banaji proposed the existence of a novel, fundamental system justification motive that drives social behaviors. More specifically, they proposed (a) that people have an epistemic need to support social hierarchies

  14. The justification of a medical exposure - Who does it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, P.J.; Hardwick, J.; McHugh, K.

    2001-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the use of ionising radiation in medical exposures must be justified, but it has often been difficult to determine who makes that justification, and who is responsible for it. New legislation introduced in the UK following the European Union Medical Exposures Directive makes it necessary to ensure that justification takes place and to ensure that the individuals responsible for it are identified and are adequately trained. This paper presents an approach to justification which minimises the need for extra training by focussing responsibility for justification on professionals who have gained sufficient knowledge as part of their specialisation. By acknowledging the role of radiographers in the justification process and allowing them flexibility in their judgement, it is proposed that the justification process will become more robust and should screen out inappropriate referrals more effectively. (author)

  15. Foreign material exclusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Moreno, J.; Folguera Mateo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Foreign material is any element that is not part of the system as it has been designed. For example dirt, loose parts, wires, chips, etc. that may affect the operation of the system or component. (Author)

  16. BRAND ATTRACTION: OPERATIVE DIGITAL MARKETING STRATEGIES AND TACTICAL APPLICATIONS FOR THE RECRUITMENT OF POTENTIAL FOREIGN FIGHTERS IN GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicentiu Cosmin VLAD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign fighters (FF, that is, all those people who leave their countries of origin or residence to participate in a foreign armed conflict are strongly attracted by the terrorist groups, which by their symbols and propaganda can be considered as genuine brands; their mission is to restore archaic Islam as the only possible choice and the only alternative to preserving Western values. To achieve this, it was necessary to build a strong brand to represent the founding and fundamental values of Islam, a brand that could influence the common feelings of the resurrection of Islam. In this article, we intend to explore new strategic approaches to digital marketing and tactical applications to develop a brand and new product, alternately to the more developed and more desirable terrorist group format.

  17. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 Submitted to Congress January 1987. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 1. Budget Activity 1. Strategic Forces Budget Activity 2. General Purpose Forces Budget Activity 4. Airlift and Sealift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    166 174 170 167 Config Change Rqsts 45 54 53 52 Config Audits 20 26 26 25 Manual Change Rqsts 516 500 489 477 Work Years 91 90 90 90 7) Noise Reduction... manual methods. 771 ’ 1 1-50 3442f/7 Activity Group: Space Systems Operations (cont’d) AMOUNT C. Other Program Growth in FY 1989 (878) 1) Space...P+WS htp ~ h Na vy lr,(j Ma? itf’ to a nri rt. r 1’r f 1, Pri y t, i lu, iwe, a t ion, t a t H % ;, i rndi t 04 l I r k 4, PMfi , . j(I l j ,’Ř

  18. Selected Foreign Counterparts of U.S. Army Ground Combat Systems and Implications for Combat Operations and Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    responsibility is to defeat other nations’ combat formations on the battlefield. In order to accomplish this, nations indigenously develop, maintain, and improve...defeat other nations’ combat formations on the battlefield. In order to accomplish this, nations indigenously develop, maintain, and improve a variety...catastrophic kill. A number of foreign tracked IFVs mount either hard kill 13 or soft kill 14 APS and the Army is presently examining both non

  19. Curative effect of Sodium hyaluronate and bFGF eye drops after corneal rust foreign body removal operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xia Li1

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the combined effect of Sodium hyaluronate eye drops and recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGFeye drops on cornea epithelial repair after corneal rust foreign body extraction. METHODS: Alinety-eight cases(98 eyesof corneal rust foreign body patients were randomly distributed to combined treatment group(49 cases, 49 eyesand control group(49 cases, 49 eyes. Hyaluronate eye drops, recombinant bFGF eye drops and levofloxacin hydrochloride were applied in combined treatment group after corneal foreign body extraction. Recombinant bFGF eye drops and levofloxacin hydrochloride were applied in control group. Corneal fluorescein stain, cornea epithelial repair and local symptoms were examined thrice weekly for 2 weeks. RESULTS: General effective rate of treatment in combined group reach 96%, significantly higher than that in control group(88%, PCONCLUSION: Combined application of sodium hyaluronate eye drops and recombinant bFGF eye drops can prominently improve cornea epithelial repair after corneal lesion with proven effectiveness and safety.

  20. The Ethics for Justification of Radiological Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    There has been a steady and continuing interest in ethical issues in radiation protection for a number of years. The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) has produced a Code of Ethics which was adopted at its last General assembly. Many RP Societies have similar Codes. However, the trend now is the application of ethics to more practical day to day matters. This paper will concentrate of the application of ethics in the field of Justification in Radiation Protection in Medicine. A description of basic ethical concepts will be given, together with some discussion of the application of ethics to the proposed new recommendations from the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP). The paper will conclude with a more detailed discussion of the ethical process of requesting radiological procedures, particularly in line with European Commission Regulations (Directives) and how they can and should be applied locally. To assist participants, an extensive list of references is appended here

  1. Justification and quality control in radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalen, A. van

    1989-01-01

    The role of the radiodiagnostician in justification of x-ray examination is discussed. Under the final responsibility of the radio-diagnostician the more common examinations are performed by laboratory assistants. A justification judgement before by the radio-diagnostician does not take place. In case of complicated examinations often previous consultation between radio-diagnostician and clinician is necessary. The fast development of new techniques like CT, echography and MRI has as result that the modern radio-diagnostician develops more and more into a imaging-specialist. In the consultation with the clinician he advises about the optimal diagnostics for a certain patient, taking optimally into account the risks of x-radiation. The justifying role of the radio-diagnostician depends further upon the relation with the requiring physician. In general the inter-collegial consultation is assumed to be sufficient within the hospitals, however the feedback to general practitioners seems to be improvable in some cases. With regard to quality assurance it is remarked that the quality of the examination may not be endangered by a too strong emphasis upon radiation reduction. Aspects like education level, protocol learning, dose limits, degressive tariffs, information-transfer, radiation passport, analysis between 'blue' ton, centralization of x-ray examination and quality of apparatus, are discussed. From the Government primarily a constraint setting policy is expected, in which rule-giving with respect to quality of education and apparatus is highly important. A stimulation of inter-collegial consulting may be expected, in particular in financial sense. A permission policy has to be managed, which ensures centralization of apparatus and centrally performance of x-ray examination as much as possible. Finally warning is given for the effects of excessive fear for radiation which causes refraining of medical necessary examination. The various risk have to be weighed up

  2. Social Justification of Risks, an Ethical Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, M.

    2005-01-01

    The expert culture needs more ethical reflection in a risk based society. In order to improve transparency goals in a more democratic decision-making process, the contributions of several types of expertise must be gathered in a trans-disciplinary approach. In Belgium, the involvement of the population in the nuclear waste management projects at local level MONA and Stola is seen as a positive support for building social consensus and as a main channel for communication with laymen. At global level, the role of experts in the editing of safety standard and radiation protection guidance stresses the importance of giving more attention to peer review both from scientific side as from society interests. Within European decommissioning policy we see clear needs for comparisons and justification, especially in fund management on the long term. This could help the population to fill the gap between complex issues and legitimated demands for information. Questioning the mandate of experts and reviewing their contribution will help making explicit basic issues that deal with more social concern for future cost of energy, environmental protection and possible scenarios of energy supply. The governance approach addressed to future generations asks for more social justification from scientists, experts and politicians. This requires specific efforts to build up sustainable platforms of dialogue on controversial topics. The objectives of work performed by SCK-CEN are to support ethical considerations in different reflection groups; to enhance transparency within the communication processes; to favour social review in decision-making processes dealing with expert culture analyses and to suggest more involvement to improve democratic attitudes in techno-scientific reflexion

  3. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  4. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  5. R. S. Peters' "The Justification of Education" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2012-01-01

    In his 1973 paper "The Justification of Education" R. S. Peters aspired to give a non-instrumental justification of education. Ever since, his so-called "transcendental argument" has been under attack and most critics conclude that it does not work. They have, however, thrown the baby away with the bathwater, when they furthermore concluded that…

  6. Justification of radiographic examinations: What are the key issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom, Jason; Williams, Imelda

    2017-09-01

    Justification of radiographic examinations is the practice of evaluating requested radiological examinations to assess for clinical merit and appropriateness based on clinical notes and patient information. This implies that justification in radiography requires the evaluation of requested examinations, the justification of exposures being applied and determining whether patients fit the recommended criteria for the procedure. Medico-legal requirements by the professional registration body, the Medical Radiation Practice Board of Australia (MRPBA), identify justification as an advocated and obligatory practice for radiographers. Yet, justification remains an inconsistent practice implemented amongst Australian radiographers. This review aims to identify associated barriers inhibiting the consistent practice of justification and the hesitance by radiographers in practicing justification responsibilities. It also recommends a change in workplace culture which encourages radiographers to accept a more autonomous role that cultivates critical thinking, reflection and research-informed decision making as justification will ultimately benefit patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  7. System justification: A motivational process with implications for social conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jost, J. T.; Liviatan, I.; van der Toorn, J.; Ledgerwood, A.; Mandisodza, A.; Nosek, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    According to system justification theory, people are motivated to defend and legitimize the social systems that affect them. In this chapter, we review 15 years of theory and empirical research demonstrating the motivational underpinnings of system justification processes. We begin by explaining why

  8. Justification for an Increase in Authorized Operating Power at HFIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primm, Trent; Ilas, Germina

    2011-01-01

    Using verified and validated reactor physics methods coupled to a currently accepted thermal hydraulic analysis methodology, onset of incipient boiling power agrees well with the currently-accepted safety basis value. The MCNP-based methodology is acceptable for scoping studies of LEU fuel conversion. A balance-of-plant assessment would have to be conducted to determine if the power up-rate to 100 MW could be supported for LEU fuel. While analyses performed 45 years ago have been shown to be in agreement with today s methods, there is an advantage to the current methodology in that people working at HFIR today can explain/justify/defend the safety analyses rather than relying solely on documentation.

  9. Justification of the hybrid nuclear medicine examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcheva-Tsacheva, Marina B.

    2015-01-01

    The annual frequency of nuclear medicine examinations is increasing worldwide. This is partly a consequence of the recently introduced single photon emission tomography, combined with computed tomography, and positron emission tomography, combined with computed tomography, techniques, which combine functional, metabolic and morphological information important for the diagnosis of many diseases. However, since the effective radiation dose is the sum of the dose of two components, the hybrid examinations result in increased patient exposure. Accordingly, their justification becomes mandatory. It starts with their clinical importance-the opportunity to resolve a clinical problem decisive for patients' management. Knowledge of the indications, contraindications and the examinations' limitations is the responsibility of the nuclear medicine physician, as well as the choice of the most adequate examination and protocol. In conclusion, the cost and the accessibility of the examinations should not be the principal consideration as opposed to the diagnostic value and the exposure. Flexible protocols and algorithms should be used for hybrid nuclear medicine examinations. (authors)

  10. Innovative Methods in Strategic Planning of Foreign Economic Activity of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyna Yakubiv

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the external conditions of business in Ukraine, European integration vector of the country development, and possibilities of import/export operations facilitate foreign trade. Modern methods of strategic management and strategic diagnostics should be developed in line with international requirements and needs of managers in Ukraine and partners abroad. Therefore substantiation of innovation trends for enterprise development strategies on the international arena as a constituent of stable economy is important and necessary. The purpose of this article is to define innovative approaches to planning, development and implementation of strategies and to develop a comprehensive diagnosis of the strategic potential of foreign economic activity. During the research, the following methods: logical abstraction, modeling, PEST-analysis, systems analysis, graphic. The main results of the study are: 1 disclosure of the features of the construction of strategic management in international business; 2 analysis of European and American practices of strategic management of foreign economic activity of enterprises; 3 study of algorithmic scheme of strategic management in the Ukraine; 4 justification of methods of three-level system of strategic analysis using matrix methods of assessment; 5 the classification of the main methods of matrix analysis within groups: macro, meso, macro level; 6 a comprehensive diagnosis of the strategic potential of foreign economic activity of enterprises in Ukraine. The study proved the main areas of innovation and strategic principles of international management and comprehensive methodology for strategic planning matrix based on innovative methods.

  11. The Operation Mechanisms of External Quality Assurance Frameworks of Foreign Higher Education and Implications for Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mengquan; Chang, Kai; Gong, Le

    2016-01-01

    The higher education quality evaluation and assurance frameworks and their operating mechanisms of countries such as the United Kingdom, France, and the United States show that higher education systems, traditional culture, and social background all impact quality assurance operating mechanisms. A model analysis of these higher education quality…

  12. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  13. The Behavioral Bias of Foreign Debt Usage in Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    We investigate the behavioral bias in the use of debt denominated in foreign currency (foreign debt) in managing foreign exchange risks. From a strictly financial (rational) point of view foreign debt and derivates are close substitutes. Whether e.g. a European firm sells forward US dollars against...... foreign exchange risk management in medium-sized, non-financial firms in Denmark and find a behavioral bias in the use of foreign debt. Among the firms that are internationally involved (operating revenues, costs and/or assets in foreign currency), on average a quarter of the financial debt is denominated...... in foreign currency. The use / non-use of foreign debt is positively related to a number of internationality measures but most significantly to the existence of subsidiaries abroad whereas the degree of usage is particularly related to the magnitude of foreign operating assets. The use of foreign debt...

  14. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  15. Justification and Optimization in Clinical Practice. Chapter 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandborg, M. [Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden); Båth, M. [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg (Sweden); Järvinen, H. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Faulkner, K. [North East Strategic Health Authority, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    All medical exposures must be subject to the principles of justification and optimization of radiological protection, which are common to all practices dealing with potential exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. Justification of medical exposures requires that all medical imaging exposures must show a sufficient net benefit when balanced against possible detriment that the examination might cause. For patients undergoing medical diagnosis or treatment, there are different levels of justification (see Section 23.2). The practice involving exposure to radiation must be justified in principle through the endorsement of relevant professional societies, as matters of effective medical practice will be central to this judgement. Also, each procedure should be subject to a further, case by case, justification by both the referring clinician who is responsible for the management of the patient and the radiologist who selects the most appropriate imaging examination to answer the referrer’s question.

  16. Dispute Resolution and Technology: Revisiting the Justification of Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Koulu, Riikka

    2016-01-01

    This study, Dispute Resolution and Technology: Revisiting the Justification of Conflict Management, belongs to the fields of procedural law, legal theory and law and technology studies. In this study the changes in dispute resolution caused by technology are evaluated. The overarching research question of this study is how does implementing technology to dispute resolution challenge the justification of law as a legitimised mode of violence? Before answering such an abstract research question...

  17. Justification and the Role of Technology and Algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frush, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Justification of the use of ionizing radiation is one of the pillars of radiation protection, including in medical practice. While there are often clear justifications for performing diagnostic imaging examinations, there are many situations in which justification is more arguable. Determining what is justified is an extremely complicated aspect of medical practice as it potentially involves multiple health care providers, with varying levels of experience, anecdotal based decision making and a broad variety of other forces. It is beyond the intent of this paper to fully dissect this aspect of justification in medical imaging. However, there are tools that are becoming available for improving evidence based medicine, including decision rules, practice guidelines and appropriateness criteria, and point-of-care decision support. Many of these advancements are becoming embedded in electronic health care systems. The following material will present background information, define some of the terminology involved in ‘algorithms’ for improving justification, address the current status, provide some of the challenges in implementing models for improved justification of medical imaging, and present some of the current needs. (author)

  18. Set Up for Failure: The Use of US Security Force Assistance to Prepare Foreign Security Forces for Traditional Combat Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-17

    troops. 69 Ibid., 129. 29 to resist. This is a tension with respect to traditional combat operations; where urgency is high, the preservation...or peace prior to December 1941.”83 MacArthur was known to have a sense of his own infallibility, was confident that he could solve any problem...mind, that end-state changed, and neither army was afforded the time to reach that new end-state. The notion of urgency potentially requiring the

  19. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  1. Justification in radiation protection: a study on screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.; Law, J.

    2002-01-01

    Justification was defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in publication 26 as no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit. ICRP have subsequently refined this definition. In ICRP 60 justification is defined as no practice involving exposures to radiation should be adopted unless it produces sufficient benefit to the exposed individual or to society to offset the detriment it causes. (The justification of a practice). The European Commission have included justification in the recent medical exposures directive. This Directive distinguishes between individual medical exposures and medical practices. Justification is defined in the Medical Exposures Directive as showing a sufficient net benefit weighing the total potential diagnostic or therapeutic benefits it produces, including the direct health benefits to an individual and the benefits to society, against the individual detriment that the exposure might cause. Detriment is defined in the Medical Exposures Directive as clinically observable deleterious effects that are expressed in individuals or their descendants, the appearance of which is either immediate or delayed and, in the latter case, implies a probability, rather than a certainty, of appearance

  2. Event data collection and database development during plant shutdown and low power operations at domestic and foreign reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. Y.; Park, J. H.; Han, S. J.; Im, H. K.; Jang, S. C.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce conservatism and to obtain completeness for Low Power and ShutDown(LPSD) PSA of nuclear plants, total of 625 event data have collected during shutdown and low power operations which have occurred during about 30 years at nuclear power plants of USA and European countries including 2 domestic events. To utilize efficiently these event data, a database program which is called LEDB (Low power and shutdown Event Database) was developed and all the event data collected were inserted in that program. By reviewing and analyzing these event data various way, a lot of very useful insights and ideas for preventing similar events from reoccurrence in domestic nuclear power plants can be obtained

  3. FOREIGN CURRENCY RISK HEDGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela SUDACEVSCHI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the traditional types of exchange rate risk faced by firms and some of principal methods of exchange risk management that a company which make foreign currency operations can use. Foreign currency risk management involves both assessing the risk faced by the companies and adopting measures for the risk hedging or reduce the damage it may cause. The damages result from the company’s unfavorable difference between the exchange rates of the currencies in which the transactions are made.

  4. Justification of working out of combine harvesters technological certificate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Chepurin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of grain crops productivity in the main grain growing regions of Siberian Federal District is presented. Major factors shoud be considered at justification of a class of combine harvesters for their effective operation in various climatic and working conditions. loading efficiency of a combine thresher depends on productivity and operating width of windrowers or headers at straight-cutting and windrowing. A tailings maintenance in the threshed grain heap influences on the harvester capacity. Certificate capacity of combines of a class of 5-12 kg/s at the 1.5 percent admissible level of losses behind a combine thresher is depending on the tailings maintenance in the threshed grain heap. In accordance to analysis the capacity of combines of any class of the classical design increases by 1.45 times at reduction of a straw content from 1.5 to 0.7 relative to standard indicators, and decreases by 1.16 times at increase of this parameter to 2.3. The combine of a class of 7 kg/s is completely loaded when pickup threshing by harvesters with a operating width of 20; 16 and 12 m at a speed of movement 7.2; 9.0 and 12.0 km/h respectively. The combine of a class of 10 kg/s at crop productivity of 1.8 t/ha will be completely loaded when pickup threshing if the operating width is 20 m and the speed equals 12 km/h, and at the width of 16 m speed has to make 13 km/h. The content of the technological certificate by the example of use of combines of a class of 7 kg/s (GS-07 and 10 kg/s (GS-10 is proved. The algorithm of determination of the movement speed is presented. Its use provides certificate loading of a thresher when threshing of grain crops with different productivity at straight-cutting and windrowing.

  5. Foreign correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, John Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of foreign news, its history, transformation and indeed its future have not been much studied. The scholarly community often calls attention to journalism's shortcomings covering the world, yet the topic has not been systematically examined across countries or over time. The need to redress this neglect and the desire to assess the impact of new media technologies on the future of journalism - including foreign correspondence - provide the motivation for this stimulating, exciting and thought-provoking book. While the old economic models supporting news have crumbled in

  6. Components of foreign object management as

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Yu. Gordopolov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the components of foreign economic activity as objects of accounting and management, and analysis of current legislation and scientific literature that allowed classification form shapes and types of foreign economic activities that contribute to the planning process in the enterprise, as well as building an effective system of management and accounting, economic analysis and internal control. As part of the classification described basic forms, types of foreign trade, especially their implementation and legal regulation. On the basis of basic forms and types of foreign trade, set a number of problems conceptual-categorical apparatus applicable law. A nine treatments categories–operations of foreign economic activity of fixing specific legal acts. Operations of foreign economic activity (import transactions, export transactions, international transactions, securities, credit and foreign payment transactions, foreign rental operations, international leasing, foreign exchange transactions, foreign investments and operations associated with the joint activity identified as about objects accounting in foreign trade and is divided according to types of business entities (operating, financial and investment.

  7. General Services Administration: FY 1998 Congressional Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-20

    APPROPRIATIONS: Consumer Information Center CIC GSA InSite STATEMENT OF DAVID J. BARRAM ACTING ADMINISTRATOR, GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION BEFORE THE...When I tell people about change at GSA, they sometimes give me a strange look, perhaps thinking that "this poor guy from California believes that a...in every area in which we operate. I think three impulses drive us toward change. First, we believe the customer is king. We’re learning what that

  8. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error. 5 references, 2 figures

  9. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error

  10. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  11. In between St. Augustine and Luther: Grace and justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The view presented in this study emphasized grace as a cause of spiritual strength and justification of man. In understanding the deep meaning and nature of grace, this paper analyzes the formations given on the subject by two great minds, St. Augustine and Martin Luther. Because of the great influence of their work on the theology of grace and justification, this paper attempts to seek whether man’s understanding and belief of prudence would mean nothing at all, that any good that he will perform on his behalf would do nothing for his own justification. Thus it raises the question on the purpose of man’s freedom if his proprium is nothing and that divine prudence is the source of everything good. This led to the idea that grace is the primary energy source of man to make good, not by his own, but by divine prudence to obtain justification. Therefore, in this sense there is nothing good in man.

  12. Dewey's Ethical Justification for Public Deliberation Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John

    2013-01-01

    Interpretations of John Dewey's political theory grasp his respect for public deliberation, but typically overlook his ethical justification for democracy. Dewey gave two primary reasons why democracy is superior to other forms of government. First, a public educated in the tools of social intelligence can be more effective at managing their…

  13. Lower Pay for Women's Coaches: Refuting Some Common Justifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph P.

    1995-01-01

    The two standard justifications for different salaries paid to male and female coaches under 1963 and 1964 civil rights/equal pay legislation must fail under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which independently prohibits gender discrimination in employment and mandates equal athletic opportunity for female students. Some suggestions…

  14. Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2010-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions...

  15. First steps in the computation of root justifications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available in section 3. The method is based on the notion of root justifications which we define and discuss. The approach we describe is applicable to a wide class of DLs. We don’t provide a comprehensive formal introduction to DLs, but rather point the reader...

  16. Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…

  17. What Provides Justification for Cheating : Producing or Observing Counterfactuals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassarak, C.; Leib, M.; Mischkowski, D.; Strang, S.; Glöckner, A.; Shalvi, S.

    2017-01-01

    When people can profit financially by lying, they do so to the extent to which they can justify their lies. One type of justification is the observation and production of desirable counterfactual information. Here, we disentangle observing and producing of desired counterfactuals and test whether

  18. Kierkegaard, Justification and the Integrity of Christian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    The doctrine of justification is frequently interpreted in a manner that excludes our active involvement in the drama of salvation. This reading has a detrimental effect on Christian education concerned to enable the learner's attentive, reasonable and responsible understanding of the Gospel. Taking its lead from Kierkegaard's account of…

  19. ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…

  20. ICT Student Teachers’ Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Alakurt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers’ judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason’s (1986 four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents technique (CIT - a qualitative research approach- and the data were gathered via a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was conducted face-toface with an in-person interview. Participants were 35 ICT student teachers from the Faculty of Educational Science at Ankara University. The associations between different categorical variables were analysed with Fisher’s exact test. Open-ended questions were analysed through content analysis. The findings revealed that gender does not affect the ethical judgments and justifications of ICT student teachers. Furthermore the same reasons and justifications were reported by ICT student teachers who have taken course in ethic and those who have not taken the course. Moreover, out of the four issues considered in this study, accessibility was found as the most controversial issue. In addition to that it was observed that a number of ICT student teachers do not attain the right justifications due to the lack of knowledge on copyrights, intellectual property and the policies of web sites

  1. Justification for measurement equation: a fundamental issue in theoretical metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander V. Prokopov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A review and a critical analysis of the specialized literature on justification for the measurement equation and an estimation of a methodical error (uncertainty of the measurement result are presented in the paper, and some prospects for solving of the issue are discussed herein.

  2. Justification for measurement equation: a fundamental issue in theoretical metrology

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander V. Prokopov

    2013-01-01

    A review and a critical analysis of the specialized literature on justification for the measurement equation and an estimation of a methodical error (uncertainty) of the measurement result are presented in the paper, and some prospects for solving of the issue are discussed herein.

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...

  4. Justification, optimization and classification of exposure situations in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrabalek, P.

    2017-01-01

    negligible; - Emergency or safety exposure situations, such as the name of the model, are considered when the source of radiation is dangerously deviating from the normal mode of operation or when there is an unforeseen occurrence of radioactive and / or excessive emission of radiation that threatens workers public; - Existing or subsistent exposure situations, in our conditions most radon in used family houses, but can be landfills after the mining of radioactive minerals, in other countries, such as Belarus, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Japan, large areas contaminated by radioactivity from overcome nuclear accidents. In all exposure situations, the radiation protection instruments or principles are adequately applied. Justification, optimization and individual dose limits. (author)

  5. Enterprise imaging: planning and business justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrin, David; Hou, Stephanie W

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate financial performance, academic radiology departments most often measure examination volume and general technical and professional expenses. Although these metrics are not standardized, their frequency of use reflects that productivity and financial health are high priorities for academic radiology departments across the United States. In this article, we discuss both of these topics, in the context of projects to expand services, particularly those with an information technology (IT) component. First, we discuss several informatics innovations that increase productivity or expand service. Second, we explain core financial analysis concepts applicable to radiology departments. Third, we discuss the unique challenge of evaluating a potential IT project for an academic radiology department, when intangible benefits are difficult to quantify. Financial models are only one of several components used for guidance in strategic decisions, but are crucial to building a business case that justifies the initial or capital investment as well as startup and ongoing operational expenses. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparing a business justification for going electronic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A Orlando; Luyckx, Michael P

    2002-01-01

    demands based on your mission may include education and research. The investigation of options is probably the most time consuming portion of the analysis. It is in this stage where the system architecture is drafted. Important contributions must be solicited from your information technology division, radiologists and other physicians, hospital administration and any other service where the use of imaging technology information is required and beneficial. Vendors and consultants can be extremely valuable in generating workflow diagrams, which include imaging acquisition components and imaging display components. A request for proposal (RFP) may facilitate this step. A detailed inventory of imaging equipment, imaging equipment locations and use, imaging equipment DICOM compatibility, imaging equipment upgrade requirements, reading locations and user locations must be obtained and confirmed. It is a good idea to take a careful inventory of your resources during the process of investigating system architecture and financial options. An often-ignored issue is the human resource allocation that is required to implement, maintain and upgrade the system. These costs must be estimated and included in the financial analysis. Further, to predict the finances of your operation in the future, a solid understanding of your center's historical financial data is required. This will enable you to make legitimate and reasonable financial calculations using incremental volumes. The radiology center must formulate and articulate discrete clinical and business goals for the transition to a digital environment that are consistent with the institutional or enterprise mission. Once goals are set, it is possible to generate a strategic plan. It is necessary to establish individual accountability for all aspects of the planning and implementation process. A realistic timetable should be implemented. Keep in mind that this is a dynamic process; technology is rapidly changing, as are clinical

  7. National Survey on Justification of CT-examinations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Leitz, Wolfram; Richter, Sven

    2009-02-15

    All examinations in diagnostic radiology shall be justified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of the patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the degree of justification for CT-examinations in Sweden. Referrals for all examinations performed during one day were retrospectively evaluated by a group of physicians. The study was designed and conducted by a project group lead by prof. Haakan Jorulf. The authors of this report have derived the results and conclusions on the basis of the data and are responsible for the content of this report. The principle result was that approximately 20 % of all examinations were not justified. The degree of justification varied strongly with organ examined, moderately with prescriber affiliation and weakly with geographical region. If unjustified examinations could be avoided a large dose reduction for the population would be achieved. This study shows that there is a need for improvements and the authority will continue to work with this issue

  8. National Survey on Justification of CT-examinations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, Anja; Leitz, Wolfram; Richter, Sven

    2009-02-01

    All examinations in diagnostic radiology shall be justified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of the patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the degree of justification for CT-examinations in Sweden. Referrals for all examinations performed during one day were retrospectively evaluated by a group of physicians. The study was designed and conducted by a project group lead by prof. Haakan Jorulf. The authors of this report have derived the results and conclusions on the basis of the data and are responsible for the content of this report. The principle result was that approximately 20 % of all examinations were not justified. The degree of justification varied strongly with organ examined, moderately with prescriber affiliation and weakly with geographical region. If unjustified examinations could be avoided a large dose reduction for the population would be achieved. This study shows that there is a need for improvements and the authority will continue to work with this issue

  9. Design and economic justification of group blanks application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Todić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the manufacturing process planning, blanks are either selected or designed, respectively forms of input material for the manufacture of products. Reviewed in this paper are three types of group blanks: group castings, group forgings manufactured by closed die forging and free forging, and group blanks manufactured by pressing melted metal in casts. The paper also presents requisites for design and evaluation of economic justification of group blanks application.

  10. The justification principle applied to Computed tomography exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado Tejeda, A.; Mora Machado, R. de la; Garcia Moreira, T.; Hing Perdomo, J.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of imaging technologies and the installation of more sophisticated equipment in radiology services, such as multi-slice CT scanners have consequently increased the number of treated patients, as well as the collective doses to population. Radiation doses received from CT exams are higher than those received in conventional radiology. The optimal use of CT equipment, considering optimized techniques, and the justification of examinations, are imperative in order to minimize the undesirable effects of radiation. In this paper we do set out to the assessment of justification criteria applied for CT exams in a Cuban Hospital. The justification of prescribed tests by physicians was analyzed, assessing its incidence depending on the kind of studies and percentage (%) of positive and negative cases. The study was carried out in a Clinical Surgical Hospital in Havana City. This hospital has installed a Shimadzu SCT-7800TC helical single-slice device. The sample is made up of 81 patients, between 24 and 80 years old, both men and women. For all of them the pathology that causes the order of the exam as well as the existence of other previous tests, were considered. As a result of the assessment, the 56.8% of all cases turned out to be positives; the 55.5% only confirmed the pathologies and the 1.23% produced new evidences. On the other hand, the remaining 43.2% were negatives noting that the 65.3% of the patients there were not previous imaging tests. Skull exam was the most incidences compiling the 67.7% of cases, and it was the headache the most frequent clinical problem to perform the 41.1%. In terms of justification, the evaluation of prescriptions evidenced that CT exams were not justified in 43.2% of cases. As part of this last group, it was also found that 46.9% of clinical studies were negative. (author)

  11. Epistemic Beliefs about Justification Employed by Physics Students and Faculty in Two Different Problem Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çağlayan Mercan, Fatih

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the epistemic beliefs about justification employed by physics undergraduate and graduate students and faculty in the context of solving a standard classical physics problem and a frontier physics problem. Data were collected by a think-aloud problem solving session followed by a semi-structured interview conducted with 50 participants, 10 participants at freshmen, seniors, masters, PhD, and faculty levels. Seven modes of justification were identified and used for exploring the relationships between each justification mode and problem context, and expertise level. The data showed that justification modes were not mutually exclusive and many respondents combined different modes in their responses in both problem contexts. Success on solving the standard classical physics problem was not related to any of the justification modes and was independent of expertise level. The strength of the association across the problem contexts for the authoritative, rational, and empirical justification modes fell in the medium range and for the modeling justification mode fell in the large range of practical significance. Expertise level was not related with the empirical and religious justification modes. The strength of the association between the expertise level and the authoritative, rational, experiential, and relativistic justification modes fell in the medium range, and the modeling justification mode fell in the large range of practical significance. The results provide support for the importance of context for the epistemic beliefs about justification and are discussed in terms of the implications for teaching and learning science.

  12. Cost analysis and cost justification of automated data processing in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, G E

    1983-03-01

    Prospective cost analysis of alternative data processing systems can be facilitated by proper selection of the costs to be analyzed and realistic appraisal of the effect on staffing. When comparing projects with dissimilar cash flows, techniques such as analysis of net present value can be helpful in identifying financial benefits. Confidence and accuracy in prospective analyses will increase as more retrospective studies are published. Several accounts now in the literature describe long-term experience with turnkey laboratory information systems. Acknowledging the difficulty in longitudinal studies, they all report favorable effects on labor costs and recovery of lost charges. Enthusiasm is also expressed for the many intangible benefits of the systems. Several trends suggest that cost justification and cost effectiveness will be more easily demonstrated in the future. These are the rapidly decreasing cost of hardware (with corresponding reduction in service costs) and the entry into the market of additional systems designed for medium to small hospitals. The effect of broadening the sales base may be lower software prices. Finally, operational and executive data management and reporting are destined to become the premier extensions of the LIS for cost justification. Aptly applied, these facilities can promote understanding of costs, control of costs, and greater efficiency in providing laboratory services.

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ... good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While foreign body removal procedures are safe and ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract ... blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ...

  15. A Bayesian Justification for Random Sampling in Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Meeden

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the usual Bayesian approach to survey sampling the sampling design, plays a minimal role, at best. Although a close relationship between exchangeable prior distributions and simple random sampling has been noted; how to formally integrate simple random sampling into the Bayesian paradigm is not clear. Recently it has been argued that the sampling design can be thought of as part of a Bayesian's prior distribution. We will show here that under this scenario simple random sample can be given a Bayesian justification in survey sampling.

  16. Business Reporting: How Transparency becomes a Justification Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    through linking disclosure to value creation is emphasized. As transparency is in the eye of the beholder, the process of developing corporate reporting practices must be concerned with reaching a common understanding and agreement between producers and consumers of such disclosures. Transparency...... is perceived as both a key objective and outcome of comprehensive business reporting. However, the concept of transparency seems to be an empty concept merely constituting a justification mechanism for actual behaviour, i.e. that disclosure instead is driven by the signalling value for the individual company...

  17. Justifications on social ineaqualities. Notes on the Salvadoran case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lungo Rodríguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This note presents the theoretical and methodological guidelines of my phd dissertation, which is under preparation. My concern is about cultural aspects that underlie social inequalities in contemporary El Salvador. Currently, this country is characterized by the primacy of neoliberal acumulation model, the rise of an unprecedented democracy, processes of reconcentration of capital and the persistence of high levels of social exclusion. Specifically, I study the justification of inequalities from the case of the “elite” middle classes in El Salvador. This research is inscribed whitin the sociological debates on the cultural aspects after reproduction of stratification and inequality.

  18. Foreign Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Hoz, Alejandro; Díaz, Eduardo; Feinstein, Max Moses

    2017-05-01

    In a large Colombian teaching hospital, a fifty-five-year-old woman complaining of stomach pain is examined by a foreign-exchange medical student from the United States. Speaking in Spanish, the student elicits a medical history that suggests a possible recurrence of gallstones, but nothing further. Upon discussing the patient's case in private with the attending physician, the student is shocked to learn that the patient is suffering from terminal, metastatic gastric cancer but is unaware of her diagnosis. The attending physician explains that the patient's husband instructed the health care providers not to tell the patient what her diagnosis is. The medical student feels uncomfortable withholding the diagnosis from the patient. The thought of disclosure feels equally uncomfortable, however, as it would mean contradicting the instructions of the attending physician at the host hospital as well as violating what the student suspects, but is not sure, may be acceptable medical practice in Colombia. How should the medical student proceed? © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  19. Case Study on Justification: High Intensity Discharge Lamps. Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    High intensity discharge lamps produce bright white light of a high intensity in an energy efficient manner. These lamps are typically used in large numbers in public and professional settings such as shops, warehouses, hotels and offices. They are also used in outdoor applications to illuminate streets, buildings, statues, flags and gardens and further as architectural lighting. They also have applications associated with film projection in cinemas, manufacture of semiconductors, fluorescence endoscopy and microscopy, schlieren photography, hologram projection, ultraviolet curing, sky beamers and car headlights. Some types of high intensity discharge lamp, as well as certain other consumer products for lighting, contain radioactive substances for functional reasons. The radionuclides that are typically incorporated into high intensity discharge lamps are 85 Kr and 232 Th. Given the wide range of uses, specific decisions on justification may be required for different applications. A small number of safety assessments for high intensity discharge lamps have been carried out and published. No published decisions at the national level specifically addressing the justification of the use of high intensity discharge lamps have been identified

  20. Exploring ethical justification for self-demand amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, Floris

    2006-01-01

    Self-demand amputees are persons who need to have one or more healthy limbs or digits amputated to fit the way they see themselves. They want to rid themselves of a limb that they believe does not belong to their body-identity. The obsessive desire to have appendages surgically removed to fit an alternative body-image is medically and ethically controversial. My purpose in this paper is to provide a number of normative and professional ethical perspectives on whether or not it is possible to justify surgery for self-demand amputees. In doing so I proceed dialogically, moving between empirical context and normative theory, revealing the taken for granted normative assumptions (what I call the natural attitude--a technical term borrowed from phenomenology) that provide ethical limits to justifying the treatment of self-demand amputees. While I critically examine both Kantian responses against as well as Utilitarian responses for amputation on demand, I conclude that neither normative tradition can fully incorporate an understanding of what it is like to be a self-demand amputee. Since neither theory can justify the apparent non-rational desire of amputation on demand, ethical justification, I argue, falls short of the recognition that there may be a problem. To end, I introduce a meta-ethical idea, "the struggle for recognition," opening up the theoretical possibility of a hermeneutics of recognition before ethical justification that may be more sensitive to the problem of radical embodied difference exemplified by self-demand amputees.

  1. Justification and authority in institutional review board decision letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin T; Gleason, Katharine A; Joffe, Steven

    2017-12-01

    While ethnographic study has described the discussions that occur during human subjects research ethics review, investigators have minimal access to the interactions of ethics oversight committees. They instead receive letters stipulating changes to their proposed studies. Ethics committee letters are central to the practice of research ethics: they change the nature of research, alter the knowledge it produces, and in doing so construct what ethical research is and how it is pursued. However, these letters have rarely been objects of analysis. Accordingly, we conducted a qualitative analysis of letters written by American institutional review boards (IRBs) overseeing biomedical and health behavioral research. We sought to clarify how IRBs exercise their authority by assessing the frequency with which they provided reasons for their stipulations as well as the nature of these reasons. We found that IRBs frequently do not justify their stipulations; rather, they often leave ethical or regulatory concerns implicit or frame their comments as boilerplate language replacements, procedural instructions, or demands for missing information. When they do provide justifications, their rationales exhibit substantial variability in explicitness and clarity. These rhetorical tendencies indicate that the authority of IRBs is grounded primarily in their role as bureaucratic gatekeepers. We conclude by suggesting that greater attention to justification could help shift the basis of the IRB-researcher relationship from compliance to mutual accountability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Fresh whole blood transfusions in coalition military, foreign national, and enemy combatant patients during Operation Iraqi Freedom at a U.S. combat support hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Philip C; Perkins, Jeremy G; Grathwohl, Kurt W; Repine, Thomas; Beekley, Alec C; Sebesta, James; Jenkins, Donald; Azarow, Kenneth; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    United States military doctrine permits the use of fresh whole blood (FWB), donated by U.S. military personnel on site, for casualties with life-threatening injuries at combat support hospitals. U.S. Military Medical Department policy dictates that all patients treated at military facilities during combat (coalition military personnel, foreign nationals, and enemy combatants) are to be treated equally. The objectives of this study were to describe admission vital signs and laboratory values and injury location for patients transfused with FWB, and to determine if FWB was employed equally among all patient personnel categories at a combat support hospital. This retrospective cohort study evaluated admission vital signs and laboratory values, injury location, and personnel category for all patients receiving FWB at a U.S. Army combat support hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, between January and December 2004. Eighty-seven patients received 545 units of FWB. Upon admission, the average (+/-S.D.) heart rate was 144 bpm (+/-25); systolic blood pressure, 106 mmHg (+/-33); base deficit, 9 (+/-6.5); hemoglobin, 9.0 g/dl (+/-2.6); platelet concentration, 81.9 x 10(3)/mm(3) (+/-81); international normalized ratio (INR), 2.0 (+/-1.1); and temperature 95.7 degrees F (+/-2.6). The percentages of intensive care patients who received FWB by personnel category were as follows: coalition soldiers, 51/592 (8.6%); foreign nationals, 25/347 (7.2%); and enemy combatants, 11/128 (8.5% (p = 0.38). The amount of FWB transfused by personnel category was as follows: coalition soldier, 4 units (1-35); foreign national, 4 units (1-36); and enemy combatant, 4 units (1-11) (p = 0.9). Fresh whole blood was used for anemic, acidemic, hypothermic, coagulopathic patients with life-threatening traumatic injuries in hemorrhagic shock, and it was transfused in equal percentages and amounts for coalition soldiers, foreign nationals, and enemy combatants.

  3. Justification and Rationality from the perspective of the Dual System Theory of Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan García-Campos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption in epistemology is that there is an important connection between the notions of justification and rationality. However, this connection is unclear since there is no consensus about what rationality is or what a “correct” notion of justification would be. The purpose of this paper is to explain how the dual system theory of reasoning can build a “bridge” between justification and rationality. We argue that the dual system theory of reasoning supports, to a certainextent, an externalist notion of justification and a consequentialist view of rationality.

  4. Liberal democracy and nuclear despotism: two ethical foreign policy dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Doyle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critical analysis of John Rawls's justification of liberal democratic nuclear deterrence in the post-Cold War era as found in The Law of Peoples. Rawls's justification overlooked how nuclear-armed liberal democracies are ensnared in two intransigent ethical dilemmas: one in which the mandate to secure liberal constitutionalism requires both the preservation and violation of important constitutional provisions in domestic affairs, and the other in which this same mandate requires both the preservation and violation of the liberal commitment to international legal arrangements and to the rule of law generally. On this view, the choice to violate constitutional provisions and international legal arrangements is evidence of nuclear despotism. Moreover, this choice does not imply that the ethical foreign policy dilemmas were resolved. Instead, it implies that the dilemmas force liberal democratic governments into implementing ethically paradoxical policy outcomes.

  5. Research on Development Mode of Foreign Competitive Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjiang, Zhou; Bin, Zong; Xianwu, Wu

    Adopting literature material method, survey and comparative method, the paper studies foreign competitive basketball, foreign competitive basketball on behalf of the State management system model, competitive basketball reserve personnel training and development mode system. Rely on different powers of the foreign competitive basketball from amateur to professional development; different modes of foreign competitive basketball management system; foreign competitive basketball back-up personnel training mode, the model on school training in America and other countries, mainly the club training mode in European countries; foreign model of development of competitive basketball, different from social guidance, in the combination operation mode of market regulation and government administrative intervention.

  6. Economic Justification of Patents and Exceptions to Patentability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The present article is the conclusion of a review of economic justifications for patent rights conducted with the objective of determining whether such arguments are per se capable of sustaining the existence of a different patentability regime for inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic...... methods (art.53 (c) European Patent Convention). It starts by exploring the normative background and summarily describes the different types of claims allowed under the current legal framework and their differences. The following sections will describe and apply the main economic arguments sustaining...... patent rights inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. These reasoning will be later confronted with contra-arguments. This piece will finalize with the formulation of conclusions extracted from the previous debate, inter-alia that economic reasoning does not per se sustain...

  7. Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.

  8. System justification and the defense of committed relationship ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martin V; Kay, Aaron C; Holmes, John G; Napier, Jaime L

    2011-08-01

    A consequential ideology in Western society is the uncontested belief that a committed relationship is the most important adult relationship and that almost all people want to marry or seriously couple (DePaulo & Morris, 2005). In the present article, we investigated the extent to which the system justification motive may contribute to the adoption of this ideology. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined whether a heightened motive to maintain the status quo would increase defense of committed relationship values. In Study 3, we examined the reverse association, that is, whether a threat to committed relationship ideology would also affect sociopolitical system endorsement. As past research has found that the justification of political systems depends upon how much these systems are perceived as controlling, in Study 4 we tested whether the defense of the system of committed relationships would also increase when framed as controlling. Results from Studies 1-4 were consistent with our hypotheses, but only for men. In Study 5, using cross-cultural data, we sought to replicate these findings correlationally and probe for a cause of the gender effect. Results from more than 33,000 respondents indicated a relationship (for men) between defense of the sociopolitical system and defense of marriage in countries where the traditional advantages of men over women were most threatened. In Studies 6 and 7, we investigated when this gender difference disappears. Results revealed that when we measured (Study 6) or manipulated (Study 7) personal relationship identity rather than relationship ideology, effects also emerge for women.

  9. Investigating the Development of Chinese Oral Explanation and Justification in Singapore Primary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Explanation and justification require cognitive ability which selects and organises relevant information in a logical way, and linguistic ability which enables speakers to encode the information with linguistic knowledge. This study aims to investigate the development of Chinese oral explanation and justification in Singapore primary students. The…

  10. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Wenwen; Liang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose, we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  11. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyun Tan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  12. "Should We Kill the Grey Squirrels?" A Study Exploring Students' Justifications and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evagorou, Maria; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar; Osborne, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A problem that is still unexplored in the field of socioscientific issues (SSI) and that was explored in this study is how different students decide upon a SSI they are discussing, how their justifications change during the instruction and how they use (or not) the evidence from the learning environment to support their justifications. For the…

  13. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement

  14. ForeignAssistance.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — ForeignAssistance.gov provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. When your physician suspects that a blunt foreign body is stuck in the esophagus, you ... tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the digestive tract by ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foreign objects that have been ingested through the mouth or airway or introduced into the soft tissues. ... through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can leak into the bowel and cause mercury poisoning. Magnetic toys can obstruct the bowel when they ... soft tissue foreign body, contact your physician immediately. Treatment will depend on the type of foreign body ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  19. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... able to view the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in ... helps dilate, or widen, the esophagus. This helps advance the foreign body into the stomach, from where ...

  1. An Ethical Foreign Policy? Globalism as a Threat to the US National Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Daghrir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An ethical foreign policy can have no objectives other than those that are of service to its own people. An unethical foreign policy, however, may pursue objectives that enhance the nation as a power, seeking dominance for its own sake, for the honor, glory and wealth of the state or a minority within the state, or spreading its ideology out of missionary fervor. The mainstream wisdom in the United States is that the US foreign policy agendas are virtuous and ethical, since they are oriented mainly towards the protection and enhancement of the American ‘National Interest’. Nevertheless, the orthodox perception among many foreign observers is that the American foreign policy is by no means ethical, since it is oriented exclusively towards the promotion of the Americans’ interests at the expense of the rest of the world. My thesis is that the US foreign policy is unethical and anti-democratic mainly because it is causing a lot of harm to the American taxpayers’ interests. I esteem that the American people are the real permanent victims of their country’s globalist stance. This article is based on an argumentative criticism of the mainstream American perception of U.S. foreign policy as well as a criticism of the foreign observers’ perception of American foreign policy. In a nutshell, this article tries to highlight the unethical nature of the American foreign policy with a focus on the complex justifications for such an undemocratic globalist agenda.

  2. TITLE: OTIC FOREIGN BODIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.O.A. Ogunleye

    A large variety of foreign bodies may be encountered in the external auditory meatus 1 . The objects may be organic or inorganic. Organic foreign bodies include paper, cotton wool, rubber, seeds, etc while inorganic objects include beads, ball bearings, stones, and crayons 1- 4. Foreign bodies are inserted into the ear.

  3. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  4. US defensive operations against Libya and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. Markup before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H. Res. 424 and H. Res 440, May 1, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The House Foreign Affairs Committee met to mark up two resolutions: H. Res. 424 and H. Res. 440. H. Res. 424 thanks the United Kingdom for its assistance in the April 14, 1986 operation against Libya. Despite objections to the raid and to including the British, as well as questions about the quality of the US response and about the President's compliance with the Constitution and the War Powers Resolution, the resolution passed. H. Res. 440 expresses sympathy to the victims of the Chernobyl accident and asks the Soviet Union to relax restrictions on communications and the transfer of whatever technology and assistance will be helpful. It also criticizes the Soviet handling of information about the accident. An amendment strengthened the wording of the criticism, and the resolution passed. The report includes the committee discussion and the tests of the two resolutions

  5. Justifications for caregiving in white, Asian American, and native Hawaiian grandparents raising grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A

    2013-01-01

    Race has been found to predict justifications for caregiving in family caregivers for older adults. However, little is known about this relationship in another type of family caregiver, Grandparents Raising Grandchildren (GRG). This study examined relationships between race and justifications for caregiving in Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and White GRG. A sample of 259 GRG registered as students' primary caregivers with a public school system completed a modified version of the 10-item Cultural Justifications for Caregiving (CJCG) scale. CJCG items did not load onto a single analytic factor. Two factors, custom and responsibility, emerged. Race was predictive of custom, with Native Hawaiian GRG having significantly higher scores than White or Asian American GRG. Native Hawaiian GRG also scored higher than Asian American, but not White, GRG on responsibility. Justifications for raising grandchildren appear to differ among groups based on racial identification. Findings elucidate cultural justification for caregiving in understudied GRG populations and suggest that justifications for caregiving are configured differently in GRG and family caregivers for older adults. Future studies should examine justifications for caregiving in GRG of other races.

  6. Justification of x-ray examinations: General principles and an Irish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Kate; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2008-01-01

    The principles of justification and optimisation, and the establishment and use of Diagnostic Reference Levels are core tenets of the European Medical Exposures Directive [Council Directive 97/43], and ensuing legislation across Europe. In Ireland, the European Medical Exposures Directive [Council Directive 97/43] was enacted into national law in Statutory Instrument 478 of 2002. This series of three review articles discusses the status of justification and optimisation of X-ray examinations nationally, and progress with the establishment of Irish Diagnostic Reference Levels. The current article will outline the ICRP recommendations which preceded the European Medical Exposures Directive, describe how the Directive was transposed into Irish Statute, and review the literature associated with some of the justification concepts arising from the Statute in order to elucidate the prevailing practice regarding justification in Ireland. Three levels of justification are identified: general, generic and individual. The relationship between referral guidelines and generic justification is explored, and practical issues in the implementation of individual justification are considered with reference to the role of the radiographer. Two further articles in the series will adopt a similar approach in discussing optimisation, and the establishment and use of Diagnostic Reference Levels

  7. Participatory approaches for environmental governance: theoretical justifications and practical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, Sybille

    2003-01-01

    A key justification for the rapid development of participatory approaches for environment and sustainable development governance stems from the characteristics of environmental issues. Environmental issues - and radioactive waste disposal is a good example - typically present four important physical characteristics: complexity, uncertainty, large temporal and spatial scales, and irreversibility, which all have consequences on what can be called the social characteristics of environmental issues. These include: social complexity and conflicts of interests, transversality, diffuse responsibilities and impacts, no clear division between micro- and macro-levels, and short-term costs of dealing with the issue associated with benefits which might occur only in the long-term. In turn, these physical and social characteristics determine the type of problem-solving processes needed to tackle environmental issues. It appears that the problem-solving processes best suited to confront global environmental issues will be dynamic processes of capacity-building, - aiming at innovative, flexible and adjustable answers, - allowing for the progressive integration of information as it becomes available, and of different value judgements and logics, - involving various actors from different backgrounds and levels. In promoting more democratic practices, these processes additionally should supersede traditional politics and allow co-ordination across different policy areas. It is deemed that participatory approaches have the potential to meet these problem-solving requirements

  8. Concepts of optimisation and justification consequences for radiological mass screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, J.H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Mass radiological screening campaigns have been mounted in many countries for different conditions and the needs of one country are not necessarily those of another. However, in the European community there is a reasonable uniformity about disease patterns and therefore, a mass screening situation applicable to one country is probably equally applicable throughout the Community. In radiation protection terms, all these potential surveys must be looked at under the same factors. In radiation protection, one thinks first of all justification of the practice. Then one follows it by optimisation of the technique used, so as to obtain the best balance between benefit and detriment, and at this point one must remember that the radiation protection concept of optimisation includes a financial element as well as a purely clinical element and this must lead us on eventually to touch on cost effectiveness. The last portion of the ICRP system is the actual setting of dose limits. Now these are really only applicable to workers not to patients. One cannot set an upper limit on the dose one is prepared to use in a diagnostic radiological examination, but one can say that the dose per examination, should be examined and that the dose range of that examination between various institutions should be ascertained. This should enable any one institution to see where their dose range lies in the larger dose range, and to see that their radiological practice is giving as low a dose as is reasonably achievable

  9. The Justification of Organizational Performance in Annual Report Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sanches Pagliarussi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the nature of organizational discourse is theoretically underpinned by the concept of self-serving attributions, a type of causal reasoning that allows the writer to take credit for good news and avoid blame for bad news. We incorporated signaling theory to the extant theoretical framework for self-serving attributions in order to develop hypotheses for the expected levels of attributional bias in the justification of organizational performance. A sample of 49 companies was selected, both from a bad year and a good year regarding the capital market context. Each company’s Letter to Shareholders was content analyzed in order to test our propositions concerning the presence and intensity of self-serving attributions in that section of annual reports. The results partially corroborate the proposed theoretical hypotheses, but the sample size is an issue in terms of robustness. Nevertheless, the results indicate that companies attempt to create a positive corporate image to external stakeholders even when negative performance occurs in a clearly favorable external context. Moreover, we observed that companies with positive performance in a good external context blame negative effects on the environment in a proportion equivalent to that observed for companies with positive performance in a bad year.

  10. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

      The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...... that the theoretical relationship between foreign aid and FDI is indeterminate. Aid may raise the marginal productivity of capital by financing complementary inputs, such as public infrastructure projects and human capital investment. However, aid may also crowd out productive private investments if it comes...... in the shape of physical capital transfers. We therefore turn to an empirical analysis of the relationship between FDI and disaggregated aid flows. Our results strongly support the hypotheses that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in foreign capital while aid invested in physical capital crowds out...

  11. Operational Law Handbook,2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...), human rights, rules of engagement, emergency essential civilians supporting military operations, contingency contractor personnel, foreign and deployment, criminal law, environmental law, fiscal law...

  12. Foreign Military Sales: Shaping Foreign Policy and Enhancing the Industrial Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haynes, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    The Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program, a Defense Department operation that manages sales of defense equipment as well as services and training to allied governments, is becoming a source of increasing dissatisfaction for the U.S...

  13. Foreign investment in Russia: obstacles and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody-Stuat, M.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of recent developments with regard to foreign investment in the Russian oil industry is presented. Progress has already been made in the oil and gas sector but some important issues which still remain insufficiently resolved for the potential Western investor are examined. These are: the settlement of the internal division of responsibilities; a stable legal and fiscal framework for foreign investment; decisions on what Russia wants from foreign oil companies; only difficult and costly fields are on offer; reserve estimates are not based on economic criteria; implementation of environmental and operational standards. (UK)

  14. Price Undertakings, VERs, and Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Jota; Miyagiwa, Kaz

    2006-01-01

    We compare the relative effect of a voluntary export restraint (VER) and a price undertaking on foreign firms' incentive to engage in FDI. We emphasize foreign rivalry as a determinant of FDI. We show, in a model that has two foreign firms competing with a home firm in the home country, that a price undertaking induces more FDI than a VER. The home country government, operating under the constraint to protect the home firm, is generally better off settling an antidumping case with a VER than ...

  15. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  16. Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign- exclusively Exhibition Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign-exclusively Exhibition Corporations In Feb, Ministry of Commerce issued its 1st decree on temporary regulation for foreign-investing corporations; the regulation allows foreign investors to set up foreign-investing convention & exhibition corporations exclusively or through cooperation with other Chinese corporations, enterprises or organizations. With legal protection on their regulatory management and legal rights, these foreign-investing corporations are in the charge of Department of Foreign Investment Administration, Ministry of Commerce.

  17. Closing the Knowledge Gap in Foreign Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie A.; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    The study explores how firms close their knowledge gaps in relation to business environments of foreign markets. Potential determinants are derived from traditional internationalization process theory as well as more recent literature on organizational learning processes, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building on these two literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primary data of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggests that factors considered essential in traditional internationalization process theory...

  18. Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    USASAC leads the AMC Security Assistance Enterprise, develops and manages security assistance programs and foreign military sales cases to build...that leads to cost savings and cost avoidance. The Shadow’s FMS sales are currently 1.6% of the total units in operation and accounts for the same...SPONSORED REPORT SERIES Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales December 2015 MAJ James P. Allen, USA MAJ Scott A. Bailey, USA CPT

  19. DART - for design basis justification and safety related information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Blondiaux, P.; Boucau, J.; Cantineau, B.; Doumont, C.; Mared, A.

    2000-01-01

    DART is the acronym for Design Analysis Re-engineering Tool. It embodies a systematic and integrated approach to NPP safety re-assessment and configuration management, that makes use of Reverse Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in conjunction with a state-of-the-art relational database and a standardized data format, to permit long-term management of plant safety related information. The plant design is reviewed in a step-by-step logical fashion by constructing fault trees that identify the link between undesired consequences and their causes. Each failure cause identified in a fault tree is addressed by defining functional requirements, which are in turn addressed by documenting the specific manner in which the plant complies with the requirement. The database can be used to generate up-to-date plant safety related documents, including: SAR, Systems Descriptions, Technical Specifications and plant procedures. The approach is open-minded by nature and therefore is not regulatory driven, however the plant licensing basis will also be reviewed and documented within the same database such that a Regulatory Conformance Program may be integrated with the other safety documentation. This methodology can thus reconstitute the plant design bases in a comprehensive and systematic way, while allowing to uncover weaknesses in design. The original feature of the DART methodology is that it links all the safety related documents together, facilitating the evaluation of the safety impact resulting from any plant modification. Due to its capability to retrieve the basic justifications of the plant design, it is also a useful tool for training the young generation of plant personnel. The DART methodology has been developed for application to units 2, 3 and 4 at Vattenfall's Ringhals site in Sweden. It may be applied to any nuclear power plant or industrial facility where public safety is a concern. (author)

  20. DART - for design basis justification and safety related information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Blondiaux, B.; Boucau, J.; Cantineau, B.; Mared, A.

    2001-01-01

    DART is the acronym for Design Analysis Re-Engineering Tool. It embodies a systematic and integrated approach to NPP safety re-assessment and configuration management, that makes use of Reverse Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in conjunction with a state-of-the-art relational database and a standardized data format, to permit long-term management of plant safety related information. The plant design is reviewed in a step-by-step logical fashion by constructing fault trees that identify the link between undesired consequences and their causes. Each failure cause identified in a fault tree is addressed by defining functional requirements, which are in turn addressed by documenting the specific manner in which the plant complies with the requirement. The database can then be used to generate up-to-date plant safety related documents, including: SAR, Systems Descriptions, Technical Specifications and plant procedures. The approach is open-minded by nature and therefore is not regulatory driven, however the plant licensing basis will also be reviewed and documented within the same database such that a Regulatory Conformance Program may be integrated with the other safety documentation. This methodology can thus reconstitute the plant design bases in a comprehensive and systematic way, while allowing to uncover weaknesses in design. The original feature of the DART methodology is that it links all the safety related documents together, facilitating the evaluation of the safety impact resulting from any plant modification. Due to its capability to retrieve the basic justifications of the plant design, it is also a useful tool for training the young generation of plant personnel. The DART methodology has been developed for application to units 2, 3 and 4 at Vattenfall's Ringhals site in Sweden. It may be applied to any nuclear power plant or industrial facility where public safety is a concern. (author)

  1. Justification, optimization and decision-aiding in existing exposure situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann-Jensen, Per

    2004-01-01

    The existing ICRP system of radiological protection from 1990 (ICRP Publication 60) can be seen as a binary or dual-line system dealing with protection in exposure situations categorized as either practices or interventions. The distinction between practices and interventions is summarized in the paper with focus on some of the problems experienced in making such a distinction. The protection principles within the existing system of protection are presented with emphasis on the application to de facto or existing exposure situations. Decision on countermeasures to mitigate the consequences of existing exposure situations such as nuclear or radiological accidents and naturally occurring exposure situations include factors or attributes describing benefits from the countermeasure and those describing harm. Some of these attributes are discussed and the general process of justification of intervention and optimization of protection arriving at generic reference levels for implementing protective measures is presented. In addition, the role of radiological protection professionals and other stakeholders in the decision-making process is discussed. Special attention is given to the question whether radiological protection should form only one of many decision-aiding inputs to a broader societal decision-making process or whether societal aspects should be fully integrated into the radiological protection framework. The concepts of practices and interventions, however logical they are, have created some confusion when applied to protection of the public following a nuclear or radiological accident. These problems may be solved in a new set of general ICRP recommendations on radiological protection, which are anticipated to supersede Publication 60 in 2005. The evolution of the basic ICRP principles for radiological protection in existing exposure situations into a new set of ICRP recommendations is briefly discussed based upon the various material that has been presented

  2. Economic Justification of Concentrating Solar Power in High Renewable Energy Penetrated Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Du, Ershun [Tsinghua University; Zhang, Ning [Tsinghua University; Kang, Chongqing [Tsinghua University; Xia, Qing [Tsinghua University

    2018-04-24

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants are able to provide both renewable energy and operational flexibility at the same time due to its thermal energy storage (TES). It is ideal generation to power systems lacking in flexibility to accommodate variable renewable energy (VRE) generation such as wind power and photovoltaics. However, its investment cost currently is too high to justify its benefit in terms of providing renewable energy only. In this paper we evaluate the economic benefit of CSP in high renewable energy penetrated power systems from two aspects: generating renewable energy and providing operational flexibility to help accommodating VRE. In order to keep the same renewable energy penetration level during evaluation, we compare the economic costs between the system with a high share of VRE and another in which some part of the VRE generation is replaced by CSP generation. The generation cost of a power system is analyzed through chronological operation simulation over a whole year. The benefit of CSP is quantified into two parts: (1) energy benefit - the saving investment of substituted VRE generation and (2) flexibility benefit - the reduction in operating cost due to substituting VRE with CSP. The break-even investment cost of CSP is further discussed. The methodology is tested on a modified IEEE RTS-79 system. The economic justifications of CSP are demonstrated in two practical provincial power systems with high penetration of renewable energy in northwestern China, Qinghai and Gansu, where the former province has massive inflexible thermal power plants but later one has high share of flexible hydro power. The results suggest that the CSP is more beneficial in Gansu system than in Qinghai. The levelized benefit of CSP, including both energy benefit and flexibility benefit, is about 0.177-0.191 $/kWh in Qinghai and about 0.238-0.300 $/kWh in Gansu, when replacing 5-20% VRE generation with CSP generation.

  3. Opportunities and threats of WTO membership of Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that after Ukraine joined WTO there were some rather significant reductions of tariff rates for Ukrainian products and liberalisation of access to the world markets, at the same time the internal Ukrainian market became more open for imported products. The article studies specific features and changes in the high-technology products market after Ukraine joined WTO. It analyses dynamics of volumes and specific weight of the world export-import of high-technology products and the structure of the world export and import of high technology products, including by individual countries and groups. The article makes a conclusion about a weak high-technology component of the Ukrainian export. It studies the structure of export of high-technology products of EU, CU and Ukraine. It shows that in order to develop the high-technology products market Ukraine needs to develop foreign trade with EU countries and also to continue co-operation with CU countries, in particular, with Russia. The article shows that the aerospace industry products takes the biggest specific weight in the export of high-technology products of Ukraine. It considers prospects of development of civil aircraft production in the world and Ukraine under the modern conditions. It analyses strengths and weaknesses of the aircraft construction industry and also threats and opportunities for aircraft construction of Ukraine due to external environment influence. The article shows that Ukraine cannot keep national aircraft building on its own, that is why it is necessary to develop close co-operation both with Russian enterprises and with the countries of the Western Europe. It offers recommendations on

  4. Les justifications en faveur de l'allocation universelle : une présentation critique

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Quirion

    1996-01-01

    National audience; The universal grant proposal has been championed by many authors. It consists in supplying each citizen with a benefit which is unconditional and can be drawn concurrently to every other resource. This paper builds a typology of the various justifications that have been provided for this proposal, and submits them to a critical examination. Justifications in which a universal grant is a cure for unemployment and thus a way to provide a right to work appear to be weakly-foun...

  5. Stripped of illusions? Exploring system justification processes in capitalist and post-Communist societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Jost, John T

    2014-02-01

    Sociologists and political scientists have often observed that citizens of Central and Eastern Europe express high levels of disillusionment with their social, economic and political systems, in comparison with citizens of Western capitalist societies. In this review, we analyze system legitimation and delegitimation in post-Communist societies from a social psychological perspective. We draw on system justification theory, which seeks to understand how, when and why people do (and do not) defend, bolster and justify existing social systems. We review some of the major tenets and findings of the theory and compare research on system-justifying beliefs and ideologies in traditionally Capitalist and post-Communist countries to determine: (1) whether there are robust differences in the degree of system justification in post-Communist and Capitalist societies, and (2) the extent to which hypotheses derived from system justification theory receive support in the post-Communist context. To this end, we summarize research findings from over 20 countries and cite previously unpublished data from a public opinion survey conducted in Poland. Our analysis confirms that there are lower levels of system justification in post-Communist countries. At the same time, we find that system justification possesses similar social and psychological antecedents, manifestations and consequences in the two types of societies. We offer potential explanations for these somewhat complicated patterns of results and conclude by addressing implications for theory and research on system justification and system change (or transition). © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Experience and lessons learned in the assessment of safety justifications for experiments mounted in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Some experiments in research reactors are arguably a risky undertaking due to their uncertain outcome. The justifications for such experiments require careful assessment to validate their undertaking. The public, the operators and the installation itself must be safeguarded. Assessment of the potential risk is an acquired skill but in doing so the route can be eased by learning from the lessons experience can teach. This paper, essentially for the usage of safety managers, sets out some of the issues relating to the assessment process gained from our experience over a few tens of years in the assessment of experiments. Many of the conclusions reached may appear all too obvious viewed in retrospect, but they were not necessarily clear at the time. Those organizations setting up assessment teams may find some of the conclusions of value such that their proposed management system can embrace methodologies for assessment that can avoid or lessen the impact of some of the pitfalls we have tried to identify. Failure to recognise some of these points may run the risk of delayed clearances, dilated timescales and cost overruns. It is in the hope of reducing all these penalties that we offer our experiences

  7. Urethral Foreign Body: A Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Enginyurt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Urethral insertion of foreign bodies is not very common. It is often associated with psychological problems and sexual alerts. In men due to the longer urethra this situation remains generally limited to the urethra, in women due to the short urethra foreign body can pass to the bladder. 40 years old, mentally retarded male patient was admitted to the emergency department with a complaint of urethrorrhagia. Physical examination revealed needle like structure in the urethra. The patient was taken into the operating room and under general anestesia by using cysto panendoscopy the foreign body has been identified as an old syringe needle, foreign body was removed with the help of forceps. Endoscopic methods should be utilized for the realization of the diagnosis and treatment of urethral foreign bodies. Foreign body in the urethra is usually encountered in patients with psychiatric disorders. For this reason, a detailed psychiatric evaluation is important in patients with urethral foreign bodies. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(1.000: 62-65

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects by probing the wound. Additional tests ... magnets pulling together parts of bowel. Removal of soft-tissue foreign bodies will ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects by probing the wound. Additional tests ... magnets pulling together parts of bowel. Removal of soft-tissue foreign bodies will ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign ...

  11. Foreign Languages and Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Lucille J.; Brod, Richard I.

    1974-01-01

    Gives employment opportunity information in the following fields where foreign language can be used as an auxiliary skill: 1) Business, Industry, Commerce; 2) Civil Service; 3) Education; 4) Law; 5) Library Science; 6) Media; 7) Science; 8) Service; 9) Social Sciences; 10) Travel, Tourism. The fields of foreign language teaching and interpretation…

  12. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ New procedures will help facilitate mergers and acquisitions by foreign companies in China The State Council, or China's cabinet, said in a February statement that China will establish a ministerial panel to review foreign firms' attempts to buy, or merge with, domestic companies.

  13. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    New procedures will help facilitate mergers and acquisitions by foreign companies in China The State Council,or China’s cabinet,said in a February statement that China will establish a ministerial panel to review foreign firms’ attempts to buy,or merge with,domestic companies.The committee, led by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of

  14. Present status of foreign reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao; Ishikawa, Yasusi; Mori, Jyunichi

    2000-03-01

    In considering extensively and evaluating advanced nuclear fuel recycle technologies then selecting credible one among those technology options and establishing practicable plan of future fast reactor fuel recycle technology, it is important to investigate foreign reprocessing information extensively and minutely as much as possible then to know trends of reprocessing technology development in the world and present technology level of each country. This report is intending to present information of the status and the technology of operating, constructing and closed foreign reprocessing facilities in the world, including, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel reprocessing technology. The conceptual study of 'Foreign Reprocessing Technology Database' was also performed in order to add or revise the information easily. The eight countries, France, The U.K., Russia, The U.S., Germany, Belgium, India and China, were studied regarding outline of the facilities, operation status, future plan, technical information of process flow sheet, primary components, maintenance system etc, construction and operating costs, accidents or troubles, decommissioning status. (author)

  15. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    to the firm?s productivity. Foreign-owned firms have, on average, higher productivity in equilibrium due to entry costs, which means that low-productivity foreign firms cannot enter. Foreign firms have higher wage growth and, with some exceptions, pay higher average wages, but not when compared to similarly...... large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...... characteristics, but, as expected, are reduced significantly when controlling for unobservable firm heterogeneity. Furthermore, acquired skills in foreign-owned and large firms appear to be transferable to both subsequent wage work and self-employment...

  16. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  17. Justification of Technical System Control in Developing and Testing Objects of Missile and Space Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Fedorovskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tests in general lifecycle of missile and space technology, play a special role. The high cost of such products and a little time for creation and refinement, allow only a limited number of tests. Justification of the appropriate number of tests and finding the ways to reduce it are important from the practical point of view.When the appropriate number of field tests is impossible to implement, as well as if full or partial realization of the sample operation conditions is impossible the authors propose to use software with the involvement of previously obtained aprioristic information to have the modeling results of the functioning sample or its parts, according to the reliability and quality standards.Involvement of statistical methods for systems and objects of the missile and space equipment is limited to the single number of the carried-out tests. Currently used models and methods for systems of missile and barreled weapon do not allow us to conduct analysis and provide guidance on emerging issues of concern to ensure the quality and reliability of objects of the missile and space equipment by results of tests.The method of probabilistic and statistical analysis of the stochastic system operability is supposed to be used to solve a problem of the planning tests, assessment and control of reliability of technical systems at tests using aprioristic calculated and experimental information. This method makes it possible to relate the number of tests, required to prove the desirable level of reliability, to different types of constructional, functional, structural reserves of the system, as well as the level of information-and-measuring base and the completeness of available information.Thus, the structure of controlled elements, their importance, and acceptance conditions including elaboration of actions and recommendations to eliminate discrepancies in controlled parameters and improve quality of the considered system are justified and formed

  18. Backward linkages from foreign investors to domestic firms

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolov, Mico

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of how to design policies to promote backward linkages would not be complete without introducing sound discovery into the debate. Foreign investors would naturally prefer to avoid creating rivals to their market position, aiming at horizontal positioning. But workers and managers often leave foreign plants to start up their own; local firms learn from watching the operations of foreigners. In the vertical direction, in cont...

  19. [Foreign Body in Esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeki, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    An esophageal foreign body is the term for a foreign body in the esophagus. The 2 age groups most prone to this condition are children age 9 and under (and especially toddlers age 4 and under) and elderly individuals age 70 and over. A foreign body often lodges where the esophagus is most constricted. In toddlers, the foreign body is often currency or coins or a toy. In adults, the body is often a piece of fish, dentures, a piece of meat, a pin or needle, or a drug in its blister pack packaging. In children, an esophageal foreign body is treated by fluoroscopically guided removal of the body with a balloon catheter or magnetic catheter or removal of the body via endoscopy or direct esophagoscopy under general anesthesia. In adults, the best choice for treating an esophageal foreign body is removing the body with an endoscope but there are instances where surgery is performed because the body is hard to remove endoscopically, a puncture has occurred, or empyema or mediastinitis has developed. This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment of an esophageal foreign body.

  20. Economic justification for LAN installation in an oilfield equipment manufacturing operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishmuth, R.E.; Gariepy, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The oil field equipment manufacturing business, like any other business working in a world wide environment, is becoming interested in reducing the amount of time required to take a product from initial concept to the market place. The most recent concept being employed to achieve this goal is concurrent engineering. This paper discusses the use of local area networks connecting personal computers to facilitate both traditional engineering and manufacturing organizations and concurrent engineering concepts. The key to making either type of organizational structure work well is communication. As companies have moved away from large mainframe computers toward individual, stand alone, personal computers, communications as well as various databases have been difficult to maintain. The authors attempt to show how a LAN would help to solve problems with data integrity, communication and speed of product development. These ideas are combined with discussion of anticipated cost savings as well as LAN installation cost. The authors show that the initial cost of LAN installation can easily be justified by the costs saved in product development

  1. Adapting a strategic management model to hospital operating strategies. A model development and justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinehart, K; Zimmerer, T W; Oswald, S

    1995-01-01

    Industrial organizations have employed the process of strategic management in their attempts to cope effectively with global competitive pressures, while attempting to build and maintain competitive advantage. With health-care organizations presently trying to cope with an increasingly turbulent environment created by the uncertainty as to pending legislation and anticipated reform, the need for such organizational strategic planning is apparent. Presents and discusses a methodology for adapting a business-oriented model of strategic planning to health care.

  2. From mirror self-recognition to the looking-glass self: exploring the Justification Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Leigh S

    2005-01-01

    In his Tree of Knowledge (ToK) System, Henriques (2003) posits that the human ego or "self" has evolved because human beings are the only animals that have had to justify their behavior to others. This essay provides evidence for this Justification Hypothesis (JH) from everyday life sociology, starting with the work of George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley, and focuses on research related to the concept of the "looking-glass self." Special emphasis is given to the pragmatics of speech acts, the presentation of self in interaction rituals, the accounts given by actors in justification of their actions, and the role of social norms and conformity in the large-scale justification systems commonly called "culture."

  3. Gutting’s critical View to the Truth-Independent Justification Models on Believe in God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akbari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Justification of believe in God had been one of the most challenging problem throughout history of philosophy. The problem is "is believe in god epistemically justified?" Gutting's theory in justification of theism is combined of two parts. He critiques Witgenstainian's view firstly, and then considers Aquinas’, Plantinga's, and some other views as incorrect views on theism. Gutting says that Witgenstainians and Tomistic approaches cannot draw a religious language exactly. He also considers Plantinga's view as an incorrect view, because it is completely possible that the viewpoint of believers in believing to the existence of God to be evaluate epistemological as true as the non-believers’ view to the nonexistence of God. Discussing his own view, Gutting justifies believing in God regarding the religious experience. This article explains Gutting's critique of Witgenstainian's, Thomistic and Planting's approach on justification of believe in God.

  4. Justifications and comparisons in the division of household labor: the relevance of gender ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Paterna, Consuelo; Yago, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    This study tests the direct relevance of justifications and social comparisons (predictors of perceptions of fairness) on different types of household labour distribution, and the importance of masculinity ideology and neosexism on these variables. The participants were heterosexual dual-earner couples. Our results showed that both men and women use more justifications when their housework distribution is not equal, but only women use social comparisons associated with the ways of distributing domestic work. In addition, we observe that, in both men and women, justifications are related to a traditional masculine ideology, but a different model appears in relation to comparisons which are associated with neosexism in men and with traditional masculine ideology in women. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  5. System justification, the denial of global warming, and the possibility of "system-sanctioned change".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygina, Irina; Jost, John T; Goldsmith, Rachel E

    2010-03-01

    Despite extensive evidence of climate change and environmental destruction, polls continue to reveal widespread denial and resistance to helping the environment. It is posited here that these responses are linked to the motivational tendency to defend and justify the societal status quo in the face of the threat posed by environmental problems. The present research finds that system justification tendencies are associated with greater denial of environmental realities and less commitment to pro-environmental action. Moreover, the effects of political conservatism, national identification, and gender on denial of environmental problems are explained by variability in system justification tendencies. However, this research finds that it is possible to eliminate the negative effect of system justification on environmentalism by encouraging people to regard pro-environmental change as patriotic and consistent with protecting the status quo (i.e., as a case of "system-sanctioned change"). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Report of a consultation on justification of patient exposures in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation protection in medicine is underpinned by the concepts of justification and optimisation. Over the last 20 y much successful work has been devoted to developing and consolidating approaches to optimisation. A substantial knowledge base and a set of practical approaches have now been created to give effect to it. With respect to justification, less effort has been applied and the efforts applied have not yet been as successful. Authoritative sources suggest that a substantial fraction of radiological examinations may be unnecessary. In addition, a mainstream general medical journal has identified that few of those responsible for prescribing or performing examinations were familiar with the units used to specify the amount of radiation (and risk) received. This report sets out the conclusions of a consultation held in Vienna, by the International Atomic Energy Agency, dealing with the nature of justification and how to give effect to it in practice. (authors)

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

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    Full Text Available ... taking and allergies, especially to iodinated contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. ... blood vessels, so your physician may choose to leave it in place. The majority of foreign bodies ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as a splinter embedded under the skin, you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or ... that gets embedded in the tissue under the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the digestive tract ... a thin tube that can be used to help trap smooth objects like a marble, or to ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... into the soft tissues. Commonly swallowed objects include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small ... or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like coins and batteries, are radio-opaque, meaning that x- ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... saved. Using an ultrasound transducer to visualize the location of the object, the physician may make an ... the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... in the esophagus, you may receive an intravenous drug to relax the esophagus and allow the object to pass through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... small toys or pieces of toys and fish bones. Swallowing of magnets can cause significant problems including ... like toothpicks. Small esophageal foreign bodies like fish bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation ...

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  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. If the foreign body is ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type of ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

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  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... two snares. The catheter is guided into place just beyond the foreign object using x-ray fluoroscopy. ... perform surgery using ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like coins and batteries, ... or white on x-ray. Fluoroscopy is a special x-ray technique that makes it possible to ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small toys or pieces of toys and fish ... foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries can ...

  4. Foreign Data Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Data Library consists of meteorological data from nations other than the United States. The data are on original observational forms, in publications,...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... related to Foreign Body Retrieval Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... pieces of toys and fish bones. Swallowing of magnets can cause significant problems including bowel blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign ...

  7. Foreign object - swallowed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 327. Pfau PR, Hancock SM. Foreign ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 27. Schoem SR, Rosbe KW, ...

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  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

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  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

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  15. FOREIGN ECONOMIC AFFAIRS INTERNATIONALIZATION BY FRANCHISING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena POPESCU DUDUIALĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, franchise is the way to do business at the fastest pace in the world. More than 600,000 franchise business activities are spread all over the American continent generating sales of one trillion dollars. Over 40% of the US retail trade in products and services are achieved by franchises. A new franchise opens somewhere in the US every 12 minutes. Franchise is surely the success story of this decade. Romania is represented on this list by 171 franchise networks, with brands originating from 21 countries and the turnover was 800,000,000 Euros at the end of 2008, enevenly distributed by sectors of activity. It is interesting to note that although the industry networks are only 3.5% oof th total networks, they contribute with 43.6% in the turnover obtained in franchise system. Therefore, franchising can and should be a successful attempt both for the franchised and franchisers, for those who are driven by ethics, passion, vision and innovation, for those who want to franchise or develop the franchise network.

  16. FOREIGN ECONOMIC AFFAIRS INTERNATIONALIZATION BY FRANCHISING OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena POPESCU DUDUIALĂ

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, franchise is the way to do business at the fastest pace in the world. More than 600,000 franchise business activities are spread all over the American continent generating sales of one trillion dollars. Over 40% of the US retail trade in products and services are achieved by franchises. A new franchise opens somewhere in the US every 12 minutes. Franchise is surely the success story of this decade. Romania is represented on this list by 171 franchise ne...

  17. Effectiveness of Foreign Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    position towards North Korea by President George W. Bush and the breakdown in implementation of a 1996 agreement to relocate a Marine Corps air base on...the largest practiced religion is Shinto but the percentage of followers ranges from 30 percent to 90 percent) and is a treaty ally of the United...strike group was visiting Hong Kong and was directed to proceed to the disaster area instead of heading to the coast of South Korea for a planned

  18. 12 CFR 614.4700 - Financing foreign trade receivables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4700 Financing foreign trade receivables. (a) Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks, under policies adopted by their boards of directors, are authorized to finance foreign trade receivables on...

  19. Safety Justification and Safety Case for Safety-critical Software in Digital Reactor Protection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee-Choon; Lee, Jang-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Eunkyoung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Nuclear safety-critical software is under strict regulatory requirements and these regulatory requirements are essential for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. The verification & validation (V and V) and hazard analysis of the safety-critical software are required to follow regulatory requirements through the entire software life cycle. In order to obtain a license from the regulatory body through the development and validation of safety-critical software, it is essential to meet the standards which are required by the regulatory body throughout the software development process. Generally, large amounts of documents, which demonstrate safety justification including standard compliance, V and V, hazard analysis, and vulnerability assessment activities, are submitted to the regulatory body during the licensing process. It is not easy to accurately read and evaluate the whole documentation for the development activities, implementation technology, and validation activities. The safety case methodology has been kwon a promising approach to evaluate the level and depth of the development and validation results. A safety case is a structured argument, supported by a body of evidence that provides a compelling, comprehensible, and valid case that a system is safe for a given application in a given operating environment. It is suggested to evaluate the level and depth of the results of development and validation by applying safety case methodology to achieve software safety demonstration. A lot of documents provided as evidence are connected to claim that corresponds to the topic for safety demonstration. We demonstrated a case study in which more systematic safety demonstration for the target system software is performed via safety case construction than simply listing the documents.

  20. Safety Justification and Safety Case for Safety-critical Software in Digital Reactor Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kee-Choon; Lee, Jang-Soo; Jee, Eunkyoung

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety-critical software is under strict regulatory requirements and these regulatory requirements are essential for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. The verification & validation (V and V) and hazard analysis of the safety-critical software are required to follow regulatory requirements through the entire software life cycle. In order to obtain a license from the regulatory body through the development and validation of safety-critical software, it is essential to meet the standards which are required by the regulatory body throughout the software development process. Generally, large amounts of documents, which demonstrate safety justification including standard compliance, V and V, hazard analysis, and vulnerability assessment activities, are submitted to the regulatory body during the licensing process. It is not easy to accurately read and evaluate the whole documentation for the development activities, implementation technology, and validation activities. The safety case methodology has been kwon a promising approach to evaluate the level and depth of the development and validation results. A safety case is a structured argument, supported by a body of evidence that provides a compelling, comprehensible, and valid case that a system is safe for a given application in a given operating environment. It is suggested to evaluate the level and depth of the results of development and validation by applying safety case methodology to achieve software safety demonstration. A lot of documents provided as evidence are connected to claim that corresponds to the topic for safety demonstration. We demonstrated a case study in which more systematic safety demonstration for the target system software is performed via safety case construction than simply listing the documents

  1. Water Pricing as an Economic Justification for Reducing Non-Revenue Water (NRW Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Tabesh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of water demand and modification of consumption patterns are becoming increasingly essential due to the increasingly limited precipitation and the growing population which have led to both severe restrictions on renewable water resources and increasing demands for water in Iran. The most important consumption management measures involve reducing Non-Revenue Water (NRW and decreasing water losses in the water supply system. Non-revenue water is defined as the difference between the total inflow and the metered consumption in the supply system. The losses may be divided into the two components of apparent and real losses. Achieving reductions in non-revenue water calls for the careful study and evaluation of the operational procedures proposed in each case since reductions will be economical only when accurate and realistic values are considered in water pricing. The present study draws upon the data obtained from non-revenue water projects implemented in District 4 of Tehran Water and Wastewater Company, the measures proposed by the project consultant, and the economic justifications claimed for all the costs associated with the measures to eliminate water losses. The cost of the proposed measures are calculated for two different economic values of water proposed to ensure benefits, and under four different interest rates. Results confirm the profitability of the non-revenue water solutions based on the finished cost of water even at subsidized rates of public funds. However, project profitability will be in question if the economic price of water is assumed to be equivalent to the total trade price of water and if both real and apparent losses are to be reduced.

  2. Esophageal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal foreign body aspiration is a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For that reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threateining complications. Children most often ingest coins and toys whereas adults commonly tend to have problems with meat and bones. Esophageal foreign bodies are located at the cricopharyngeus muscle level in 70%, the thoracic esophagus in 15% and the gastroesophageal junction in the remaining 15%. Symptoms can vary according to the shape and structure of the ingested object, type of location, patient%u2019s age and complications caused by the foreign body. Delay in treatment, esophageal perforation and an underlying esophageal disease are poor prognostic factors. In treatment, observation, foley catheter, rigid or flexible esophagoscopy and removing the foreign body with a Magill forceps, pushing the foreign body into the stomach, giving intravenous glucagon and surgical treatment methods can be used. Rigid esophagoscopy is an effective and safe procedure for foreign body diagnosis and removal. Improved endoscopic experience and clinical management of thoracic surgeons led to reduced morbidity and mortality in recent years. Most of those emergencies of childhood are preventable. Family education is very important.

  3. ‘ SILENT’ LARYNGEAL FOREIGN BODY

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar; Sreenivas

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal foreign bodies in adults are rare. The foreign bodies accidentally entering the larynx are symptomatic in the form of choking , stridor or even death. We are presenting a rare case of foreign body in the larynx in a 42 year old male who was symptom free except for dysphonia. The foreign body was removed successfully under local anesthesia.

  4. Oil refining in U.S. foreign-trade zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, S.J.; Potter, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    With the crude-oil import supply being as inexpensive as it is today, relative to domestic supply, many independents have been sourcing their crude-oil needs from abroad and have found it an opportune time to step up their level of refining activity. To further enhance their competitive position with respect to foreign refineries, certain domestic refiners have discovered the operational benefits and savings that result from having a refinery designated as a foreign-trade zone (FTZ) under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of 1934, as amended. This paper examines the history and use of foreign-trade subzones for refining activities

  5. Justification of indirect methods of bending stresses polyethylene pipes evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikov, A. A.; Serebrennikov, D. A.; Hakimov, Z. R.

    2017-10-01

    The world and Russian companies have a long experience of the polyethylene pipeline installation and operation. At the same time, the significant attention is paid to the improvement of the relevant machines and the production technology. The polyethylene pipeline installation experience proves that its operation properties (reliability and durability) depend on physical and mechanical characteristics of polyethylene, which should be saved during its installation. Defects can occur, including in cases when the pipe is subjected to the significant bending stresses during installation. To evaluate these stresses, including when exposed to cold weather conditions, an indirect method based on the relationship between strength characteristics and occurred deformations is proposed.

  6. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...... investments), but aid may crowd out private investments when it comes in the shape of pure physical capital transfers. Empirically, we find that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in FDI, while aid invested in physical capital crowds it out. The paper shows that the composition of aid matters for its...

  7. Verification or Proof: Justification of Pythagoras' Theorem in Chinese Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongjin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents key findings of my research on the approaches to justification by investigating how a sample of teachers in Hong Kong and Shanghai taught the topic Pythagoras theorem. In this study, 8 Hong Kong videos taken from TIMSS 1999 Video Study and 11 Shanghai videos videotaped by the researcher comprised the database. It was found that…

  8. 75 FR 53269 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... and approval of sole-source contracts over $20 million under the 8(a) small business development... valuable component of its deliberations in preparing to implement this law, which includes contracting with... Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts AGENCIES...

  9. Authority and Moral Reasons: Parenting Style and Children's Perceptions of Adult Rule Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    The style of parenting of 100 children (mean age 11 years, 5 months) was established according to Baumrind's typology. Children were asked to indicate what they thought an adult would say to justify a moral rule in five different scenarios. Results indicated that parenting style did not relate to the number of justifications that children thought…

  10. Hegel’s justification of the human right to non-domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westphal Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Hegel’ and ‘human rights’ are rarely conjoined, and the designation ‘human rights’ appears rarely in his works. Indeed, Hegel has been criticised for omitting civil and political rights all together. My surmise is that readers have looked for a modern Decalogue, and have neglected how Hegel justifies his views, and hence just what views he does justify. Philip Pettit (1997 has refocused attention on republican liberty. Hegel and I agree with Pettit that republican liberty is a supremely important value, but appealing to its value, or justifying it by appeal to reflective equilibrium, are insufficient both in theory and in practice. By reconstructing Kant’s Critical methodology and explicating the social character of rational justification in non-formal domains, Hegel shows that the republican right to non-domination is constitutive of the equally republican right to justification (Forst 2007 - both of which are necessary requirements for sufficient rational justification in all non-formal domains, including both claims to rights or imputations of duties or responsibilities. That is the direct moral, political and juridical implication of Hegel’s analysis of mutual recognition, and its fundamental, constitutive role in rational justification. Specific corollaries to the fundamental republican right to non-domination must be determined by considering what forms of illicit domination are possible or probable within any specific society, in view of its social, political and economic structures and functioning.

  11. Fundamentals of legal argumentation : A survey of theories on the justification of legal decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.T.

    2017-01-01

    This book is an updated and revised edition of Fundamentals of Legal Argumentation published in 1999. It discusses new developments that have taken place in the past 15 years in research of legal argumentation, legal justification and legal interpretation, as well as the implications of these new

  12. THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION OF EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION LAW OF DISTANCES BETWEEN STOPS OF CITY PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbachov, P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigation of relation bitween the trip distance on stops location on the route between places of attraction. Theoretical justification of the use fulness of exponential distribution with the shift parameter for describing the trip distance between stops is given.

  13. Details and justifications for the MAP concept specification for acceleration above 63 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-02-28

    The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) requires a concept specification for each of the accelerator systems. The Muon accelerators will bring the beam energy from a total energy of 63 GeV to the maximum energy that will fit on the Fermilab site. Justifications and supporting references are included, providing more detail than will appear in the concept specification itself.

  14. Chinese Children's Justifications for Sharing Resources: Why Do We Have to Share?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mun

    2011-01-01

    Gilligan argued that Kohlberg's justice-based stage theory of morality reflects only one type of morality and does not consider people's tendency to use care-based moral judgements. This study examines Chinese children's tendency to use justice-based and care-based justifications for moral reasoning. Children's attitudes to conforming to the…

  15. American Sterilization: The Racist Justifications for Sterilization in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor Price

    2016-01-01

    An investigative analysis into anthropometrics, sterilization, eugenics, and other forms of scientific racism used to justify white supremacy and racial thought in the 19th and 20th centuries in the United States. The Tuskegee syphilis study, Darwinistic ideals, and neo-Lamarckian thoughts are critically analyzed as justifications for institutional racism.

  16. The Labours of Hercules: Ethical Embodiment and an Erasmian Justification for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barros, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a popular American dorm-room poster luminously asserted crass materialism as "JUSTIFICATION FOR HIGHER EDUCATION". Self-consciously premised on the paradoxical success of my failure or failure of my success as a professor of Renaissance literature and culture, this essay draws on Erasmus's educational theory of…

  17. 75 FR 34273 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-003, Public Disclosure of Justification and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... (c) (i.e., other than competitive procedures) to require public availability of the justification and... members of the intelligence community regards the potential security threat from publication of even... the sensitive but unclassified nature of the intelligence business. If this new requirement cannot be...

  18. Researching Justification Texts of a First Instance Court from Assignment to Results and Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langbroek, Philip; van der Linden - Smith, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Court decisions are reasoned to legitimize them. Lay people seem to understand little of the work of the courts. One of the questions for court administrators and judges is: for whom do judges write their judgments? Is it possible to analyze judicial justification texts with a view to the audiences

  19. A Reply on Behalf of the Relativist to Mark Mason's Justification of Universal Ethical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Mark Mason, in his "A Justification, After the Postmodern Turn, of Universal Ethical Principles and Educational Ideals" Educational Philosophy and Theory, 37 (2005), attempts to justify transcultural multiculturalism. In this paper I argue that he fails to refute moral relativism, and that multiculturalism as he interprets it is not morally…

  20. AFSC/FMA/North Pacific Observer Foreign Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) began placing observers on foreign fishing vessels operating off the northwest and Alaskan coasts of the United States...

  1. 75 FR 15413 - Approval for Processing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 196, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Personal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1671] Approval for Processing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 196, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Personal Navigation Devices), Fort Worth... & Electronics, an operator of Foreign-Trade Zone 196, has requested processing authority within FTZ 196 in Fort...

  2. The Pulse of Liability of Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Sofka, Wolfgang

    companies. Such liabilities of foreignness are persistent in nature. We investigate the causes behind these detrimental effects. We identify two major factors conceptually: a lack of legitimacy in the host country on the demand side and a lack of responsiveness on the side of the multinational corporation......Globalization has provided many companies with new opportunities for growth and efficiency. This requires them to operate successfully across cultural and social borders. These can be stumbling blocks to internationalization and have been found to cause frequent errors and delays for multinational...... that legitimacy is the dominant factor behind the effects of liability of foreignness. As customer experience increases, liability of foreignness caused by a lack of responsiveness becomes more of an issue....

  3. Policy Measures to Alleviate Foreign Currency Liquidity Shortages under Aggregate Risk with Moral Hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Fujiki

    2010-01-01

    During the recent global financial crisis, some central banks introduced two innovative cross-border operations to deal with the problems of foreign currency liquidity shortages: domestic liquidity operations using cross-border collaterals and operations for supplying foreign currency based on standing swap lines among central banks. We show theoretically that central banks improve the efficiency of equilibrium under foreign currency liquidity shortages by those two innovative temporary polic...

  4. Artificial neural network applying for justification of tractors undercarriages parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kuz’Min

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important properties that determine undercarriage layout on design stage is the soil compaction effect. Existing domestic standards of undercarriages impact to soil do not meet modern agricultural requirements completely. The authors justify the need for analysis of traction and transportation machines travel systems and recommendations for these parameters applied to machines that are on design or modernization stage. The database of crawler agricultural tractors particularly in such parameters as traction class and basic operational weight, engine power rating, average ground pressure, square of track basic branch surface area was modeled. Meanwhile the considered machines were divided into two groups by producing countries: Europe/North America and Russian Federation/CIS. The main graphical dependences for every group of machines are plotted, and the conforming analytical dependences within the ranges with greatest concentration of machines are generated. To make the procedure of obtaining parameters of the soil panning by tractors easier it is expedient to use the program tool - artificial neural network (or perceptron. It is necessary to apply to the solution of this task multilayered perceptron - neutron network of direct distribution of signals (without feedback. To carry out the analysis of parameters of running systems taking into account parameters of the soil panning by them and to recommend the choice of these parameters for newly created machines. The program code of artificial neural network is developed. On the basis of the created base of tractors the artificial neural network was created and tested. Accumulated error was not more than 5 percent. These data indicate the results accuracy and tool reliability. It is possible by operating initial design-data base and using the designed artificial neural network to define missing parameters.

  5. Justification of computational methods to ensure information management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Due to the diversity and complexity of organizational management tasks a large enterprise, the construction of an information management system requires the establishment of interconnected complexes of means, implementing the most efficient way collect, transfer, accumulation and processing of information necessary drivers handle different ranks in the governance process. The main trends of the construction of integrated logistics management information systems can be considered: the creation of integrated data processing systems by centralizing storage and processing of data arrays; organization of computer systems to realize the time-sharing; aggregate-block principle of the integrated logistics; Use a wide range of peripheral devices with the unification of information and hardware communication. Main attention is paid to the application of the system of research of complex technical support, in particular, the definition of quality criteria for the operation of technical complex, the development of information base analysis methods of management information systems and define the requirements for technical means, as well as methods of structural synthesis of the major subsystems of integrated logistics. Thus, the aim is to study on the basis of systematic approach of integrated logistics management information system and the development of a number of methods of analysis and synthesis of complex logistics that are suitable for use in the practice of engineering systems design. The objective function of the complex logistics management information systems is the task of gathering systems, transmission and processing of specified amounts of information in the regulated time intervals with the required degree of accuracy while minimizing the reduced costs for the establishment and operation of technical complex. Achieving the objective function of the complex logistics to carry out certain organization of interaction of information

  6. Prepubertal vaginal discharge: Vaginoscopy to rule out foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Saniye; Karnak, İbrahim; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit; Çiftçi, Arbay Özden

    2016-01-01

    Medical records of all prepubertal patients who underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were evaluated by pediatricians prior to surgical consultation. Vaginoscopy is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. During the study period, 20 girls with persistent vaginal discharge with a mean age of 6.8 years (1-13 years) underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body. Six patients had bloody vaginal discharge and 4 had recurrent vaginal bleeding lasting for more than one month. Ten patients had purulent vaginal discharge lasting for 1-7 months. None of vaginal cultures revealed pathological bacteria or candida species. Preoperative imaging techniques revealed vaginal foreign body in one patient only. Vaginoscopy demonstrated vaginal foreign bodies in four patients. Foreign bodies were grass inflorescence, safety pin and undefined brownish particles (n=2), which may be pieces of toilet paper or feces. There was no complication related to vaginoscopy and removal of foreign body. Hymen integrity was preserved in all patients. Persistent or recurrent vaginal discharge in prepubertal girls should raise the suspect of vaginal foreign body. Continuous flow vaginoscopy is mandatory to detect and remove any vaginal foreign body. Early diagnosis would prevent complications secondary to long-standing foreign bodies.

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects by probing the wound. Additional tests ... prevent a potentially deadly infection of the nervous system. In some ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  8. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; R. Markusen, James

    2013-01-01

    Three types of theories have been used to explain the wage premium in foreign firms: the theories of heterogeneous workers, heterogeneous learning, and heterogeneous firms. We set up a model that explicitly encompasses two of these theories, and that can illustrate the third. This unifying...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... levels of sedative and anesthetic. Ultrasound may be used to guide the foreign body removal procedure. After you are positioned on the examination table, the radiologist or sonographer will apply some warm water-based gel on your skin and then place ...

  10. Danish foreign fighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Chris Holmsted

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is, through a comparative historical perspective, to analyse the particular phenomenon of foreign fighters, which in recent years, as a consequence of the proliferation of conflicts in Syria, Iraq and Ukraine, have emerged in Danish society as a major security concern...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endoscopic or surgical intervention is required only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type ... to view the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... advances to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects ... perform surgery using ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding removal procedures. In some cases, it is potentially more harmful to ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and push the object farther down. In some cases, prompt removal of the foreign body is necessary. Common procedures include: Flexible esophagoscopy Flexible esophagoscopy is a common diagnostic examination that enables a safe and detailed visual study of the esophagus while the patient is under ...

  14. Foreign language interactive didactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Moisés Gómez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Language Interactive Didactics is intended for foreign language teachers and would-be teachers since it is an interpretation of the foreign language teaching-learning process is conceived from a reflexive social interaction. This interpretation declares learning based on interactive tasks that provide learners with opportunities to interact meaningfully among them, as a way to develop interactional competence as objective in itself and as a means to obtain communicative competence. Foreign language interactive didactics claims for the unity of reflection and action while learning the language system and using it to communicate, by means of solving problems presented in interactive tasks. It proposes a kind of teaching that is interactive, developmental, collaborative, holist, cognitive, problematizing, reflexive, student centered, humanist, and with a strong affective component that empower the influencing psychological factors in learning. This conception appears in the book: DIDÁCTICA INTERACTIVA DE LENGUAS (2007 y 2010. The book is used as a textbook for the subject of Didactics that is part of the curriculum in language teachers’ formation of all the pedagogical sciences universities, in Spanish teachers’ formation who are not Spanish speaking people at Havana University, and also as a reference book for postgraduate courses, master’s and doctorate’ s degrees.

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sound waves), as well as the type of body structure and composition of body tissue through which the sound travels. A small ... complications. There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure ... limitations of foreign body detection and removal? The primary limitation of an ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Foreign Body Retrieval Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... so as not to expose the fetus to radiation. If an x-ray is necessary, precautions will be taken to minimize ... Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. If the foreign body is lodged in a ...

  18. Parliaments and Foreign Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.M.; Haney, Patrick; Harnisch, Sebastian; Kaarbo, Juliet; Oppermann, Kai; Tago, Atsushi

    Parliaments differ enormously in their foreign policy competences. This is best documented in the area of “war powers,” understood as decision-making on the use of force. In other issue areas, such as treaty-making, defense budgets, sanctions, or arms exports, differences across countries are far

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the type of foreign body and how it was introduced. If it was swallowed, you may undergo a direct examination ... and esophagus or an x-ray examination. If it is lodged in a soft tissue, such as ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of it. Esophageal bougienage For this procedure, you will sit upright while the physician passes a device from the mouth to the stomach that helps dilate, or widen, the esophagus. This helps advance the foreign body into the stomach, from where ...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding removal procedures. In some cases, it is potentially more harmful to remove the ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding foreign body removal ... rare cases, the general anesthesia used during rigid esophagoscopy can ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by a computer, which in turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames ... to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects ...

  3. Ending the Debate: Unconventional Warfare, Foreign Internal Defense, and Why Words Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, D

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate within the Special Forces community whether unconventional warfare and foreign internal defense are applicable in the contemporary and future Special Operations environments...

  4. Cost benefit justification of nuclear plant reliability improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, M.A.H.; Abdelmonem, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the secondary steam loop of the nuclear power plant has a significant effect on the reliability of the plant. Moreover, the necessity to cool a reactor safely has increased the reliability demanded from the system. The rapidly rising construction costs and fuel prices in recent years have stimulated a great deal in optimizing the productivity of a nuclear power plant through reliability improvement of the secondary steamloop and the reactor cooling system. A method for evaluating the reliability of steam loop and cooling system of a nuclear power plant is presented. The method utilizes the cut-set technique. The developed method can be easily used to show to what extent the overall reliability of the nuclear plant is affected by the possible failures in the steam and cooling subsystem. A model for calculating the increase in the nuclear plant productivity resulting from a proposed improvement in the two subsystems reliability is discussed. The model takes into account the capital cost of spare parts for several components, replacement energy, operating and maintenance costs

  5. Foreign Objects in the Rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease Proctitis Rectal Prolapse (See ... Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease Proctitis Rectal Prolapse NOTE: ...

  6. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  7. Foreign Investment Boosts Rural Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmeier, Amy; Glickman, Norman

    1990-01-01

    Through 1987, 10 percent of foreign investment was in nonmetro counties; 44 percent of this was in the South; and 38 percent of nonmetro foreign investment created new jobs (versus 17 percent in metro areas). Foreign investors chose nonmetro areas with low wages, lack of unionization history, good transportation access, and government incentives.…

  8. Foreign Remittances, Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Imports and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research paper focuses on establishing a relationship between external determinants and economic growth of Pakistan economy. Empirical analyses are carried out with time series econometric techniques using data over the period of 1977-2013. The main finding is that external determinants such as foreign remittances, foreign direct investment, and foreign imports matter from a growth perspective. Foreign remittances and foreign direct investment have a significant positive role in the growth process of Pakistan economy. Furthermore, it is found that foreign imports have adversely influenced the economic growth of Pakistan. The study recommends that policy makers shall take appropriate steps to increase the inflow of both foreign remittances and foreign direct investment in order to achieve the long run economic growth.

  9. Victim derogation and victim enhancement as alternate routes to system justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Aaron C; Jost, John T; Young, Sean

    2005-03-01

    Abstract-Numerous studies have documented the potential for victim-blaming attributions to justify the status quo. Recent work suggests that complementary, victim-enhancing stereotypes may also increase support for existing social arrangements. We seek to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings by proposing that victim derogation and victim enhancement are alternate routes to system justification, with the preferred route depending on the perception of a causal link between trait and outcome. Derogating "losers" (and lionizing "winners") on traits (e.g., intelligence) that are causally related to outcomes (e.g., wealth vs. poverty) serves to increase system justification, as does compensating "losers" (and downgrading "winners") on traits (e.g., physical attractiveness) that are causally unrelated to those outcomes. We provide converging evidence using system-threat and stereotype-activation paradigms.

  10. Justifying decisions in social dilemmas: justification pressures and tacit coordination under environmental uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W; van Dijk, Eric; Wit, Arjaan; De Cremer, David; de Rooij, Mark

    2007-12-01

    This article investigates how justification pressures influence harvesting decisions in common resource dilemmas. The authors argue that when a division rule prescribes a specific harvest level, such as under environmental certainty, people adhere more strongly to this division rule when they have to justify their decisions to fellow group members. When a division rule does not prescribe a specific harvest level, such as under environmental uncertainty, people restrict their harvests when they have to justify their decisions to fellow group members. The results of two experimental studies corroborate this line of reasoning. The findings are discussed in terms of tacit coordination. The authors specify conditions under which justification pressures may or may not facilitate efficient coordination.

  11. Redundancy of Redundancy in Justifications of Verdicts of Polish The Constitutional Tribuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winczorek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of an empirical study of 150 justifications of verdicts of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal (CT are discussed. CT justifies its decisions mostly on authoritative references to previous decisions and other doxa- type arguments. It thus does not convince the audience of a decision's validity, but rather documents it. Further, the methodology changes depending on features of the case. The results are analysed using a conceptual    framework    of sociological systems theory. It is shown that CT's justification methodology ignores the redundancy (excess of references and dependencies of the legal system, finding redundancy redundant. This is a risky strategy of decision- making, enabling political influence.

  12. Combining Theory of Institutional Logics and Theory of Justification in Understanding Ambiguous Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    I propose to understand decision making by combining theory of institutional logics (Friedland; Thornton, Ocasio & Lounsbury) and theory of justification (Boltanski and Thévenot). These two theoretical approaches are different but, at the same time, deal with the socially constructed plurality...... companies have located part of their business in Denmark. Finally I conclude and discuss why theory of institutional logics needs theory of justification and vice versa....... of the world nesting a macro-meso-micro level analysis. My argument is that both theories may learn from each other and enrich the study of ambiguous decision making. In the paper I describe, compare and combine the two theoretical approaches. I then illustrate the combined approach by a case where Chinese...

  13. Analysis of foreign physical activity recommendations and guidelines for schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:An adequate level of physical activity is an important part of children's lifestyle. The school environment plays a significant role in the area of interventions and strategies aiming to increase the level of physical activity in children. Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyse foreign recommendations leading to an increased level of physical activity in children and young people in Czech schools. Methods: A systematic search of studies published between 1988 and 2012 in the English language was completed in library databases Medline, Sport Discus, ProQuest, PsychInfo, ERIC, Wiley InterScience using the following keywords: physical activity, guidelines, recommendations, school and youth. The studies were then classified based on abstract and full-text analyses. Using a content analysis the expert team formulated the final recommendations to increase the level of physical activity for schools in the Czech Republic (CR. Results: Out of the total number of 91 identified foreign studies, 25 met the predetermined criteria and were used as a basis for formulating the recommendations. These foreign studies included 15 papers published in USA, two in Australia, two in Great Britain, two in Canada, one in the European Union, one in New Zealand and one international paper (an international consensus of experts from 34 countries. Based on the interpretation of the evidence, its justification and final consensus of the expert team, the basic areas for the recommendations to increase the level of physical activity in schools in the CR were identified. Conclusions: An analysis of foreign recommendations to increase the level of physical activity designed for schools and school facilities is one of the possible methods of formulating domestic recommendations. This recommendation could contribute to deeper understanding of the issue of the deteriorating lifestyle of school-aged children in the CR and reflects the efforts for improvement.

  14. Evaluation and Justification of an RFID Implementation : Pilot at IKEA Customer Distribution Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Björn; Qviberg, Ola

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this final thesis isto develop a model for justification and evaluation of RFID technology. RFID is a new, relatively untested, technology using radio signals for automatic identification of different objects. Our theoretical frame of references focuses on research about RFID and implementation iss ues, we also conducted case studies and interviews in order to learn about RFID. Most RFID installations of today are Pilots or early adopters wanting to try new technology. A lot of...

  15. Justification of Individual Medical Exposures for Diagnosis: A HERCA Position Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Improving the application of the justification principle in medical imaging is the responsibility of many stakeholders. This document is intended to provide clarity on the regulator's approach to the roles and responsibilities of the undertaking as well as a range of professionals involved in medical exposures. In doing so it considers the requirements of the new European Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directive 2013/59/Euratom and discusses a number of emerging challenges associated with efficient, effective and rapidly changing health care systems. In summary, - the justification process should be completed prior to the exposure taking place and include consideration of the following: - adequate information regarding the clinical condition(s) of the patient, relevant to the imaging request -this must be available including known possible contraindications (e.g. pregnancy, breast feeding) - the diagnostic question(s) to be addressed - where practicable, information, with regard to possible previous/concurrent examinations - the decision on the appropriate imaging procedure including the option of one that does not involve ionising radiation - traceability of the above to the referrer and practitioner, - the role of the regulator is to provide, through regulations and associated guidance, a clear and unambiguous regulatory framework including requirements for the justification process and accountability within local procedures - these will be subject to inspection, - the role of the undertaking and the professionals involved is to demonstrate compliance with regulations through procedures and documentation associated with each individual exposure, showing beyond reasonable doubt that the elements of the justification process have been completed, and by whom, in accordance with the responsibilities laid down in procedures

  16. Predictions of Actions and Their Justifications in False-Belief Tasks: The Role of Executive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putko Adam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine whether children’s ability to justify their action predictions in terms of mental states is related, in a similar way as the ability to predict actions, to such aspects of executive function (EF as executive control and working memory. An additional objective was to check whether the frequency of different types of justifications made by children in false-belief tasks is associated with aforementioned aspects of EF, as well as language. The study included 59 children aged 3-4 years. The ability to predict actions and to justify these predictions was measured with false-belief tasks. Luria’s hand-game was used to assess executive control, and the Counting and Labelling dual-task was used to assess working memory capacity. Language development was controlled using an embedded syntax test. It was found that executive control was a significant predictor of the children’s ability to justify their action predictions in terms of mental states, even when age and language were taken into account. Results also indicated a relationship between the type of justification in the false-belief task and language development. With the development of language children gradually cease to justify their action predictions in terms of current location, and they tend to construct irrelevant justifications before they begin to refer to beliefs. Data suggest that executive control, in contrast to language, is a factor which affects the development of the children’s ability to justify their action predictions only in its later phase, during a shift from irrelevant to correct justifications.

  17. Weighing Animal Lives : A Critical Assessment of Justification and Prioritization in Animal-Rights Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    The project underlying this dissertation aims at analyzing three pro-animal-rights theories, evaluating the theories, and outlining an alternative theoretical account of animal rights. The analytical categories are justification and function of animal rights, the definition of the right holder, and the resolution approach to rights conflict. The categories are applied to a naturalist, a theocentric, and a contractarian approach to defend animal rights. The evaluation is substantiated by the a...

  18. Ethical Justification of Moral Norms in Scientific Research: Scientists' External Responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AKÖZER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists' moral responsibilities have become a focus for the scientific community over the postwar decades. International and regional networks of leading academic bodies have responded to a widely perceived increase in scientific fraud and the ensued loss of public trust in science during the 1980s, and initiated a discussion with a view to codifying good practice in research. While scientists' “external” responsibilities towards society and the humankind have been variously addressed, codes drafted since then mainly dwell on problems of misconduct concerning scientists' “internal” responsibilities towards science and to the scientific community. They also reflect an ethical pluralism, which declines justifying moral standards in research with reference to universal ethical principles. However, the need for such justification has been first recognized decades ago, during the Doctor's Trial in Nuremberg, where the shortcomings of the established ethos of science and the inadequacy of the Hippocratic ethics in safeguarding human rights in research had become flagrant, with the resultant Nuremberg Code of 1947 introducing a human rights perspective into Hippocratic ethics. This paper argues for the necessity of an integral ethical justification of scientists' both external and inner responsibilities, as put down or assumed by internationally acclaimed codes of conduct. Such necessity is validated by the evidence that a historical current to monopolize ethical thinking in the name of science and nullify philosophical ethics lies at the root of an anti–morality that relativized human worth and virtually legitimized human rights violations in scientific practice. Kantian ethics based on humans' absolute inner worth, and Popperian epistemology rooted in respect for truth and for humans as rational beings, pledge an ethical justification of moral norms in science so as to reinforce the latter against intrusions of anti–morality. The paper

  19. The use of nonhuman animals in biomedical research: necessity and justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francione, Gary L

    2007-01-01

    Discourse about the use of animals in biomedical research usually focuses on two issues: its empirical and moral use. The empirical issue asks whether the use of nonhumans in experiments is required in order to get data. The moral issue asks whether the use of nonhumans can be defended as matter of ethical theory. Although the use of animals in research may involve a plausible necessity claim, no moral justification exists for using nonhumans in situations in which we would not use humans.

  20. Application of the principles of justification and optimisation to products causing public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, A.B.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the practical incorporation of the ICRP principles of justification and optimisation into a policy designed to control radioactive consumer products. ICRP recommends the use of cost benefit analysis and differential cost benefit analysis for justification and optimisation respectively, and expresses these procedures in simple mathematical forms. This might suggest that their application should involve quantification and therefore be objective. The problems which arise in such quantification are discussed. These include the derivation of a market demand curve for a given product and its adjustment to remove any distortion of perceived value or risk produced by advertising; the costing of detriment to those who receive no benefit (e.g., as a consequence of uncontrolled disposal); and the costs of the analyses themselves. Furthermore, both cost benefit and differential cost benefit analyses are dependent on availability of market and performance data. This is incompatible with prior approval schemes in which a decision must be made before the product is distributed. Ultimately criteria for product justification must therefore be based on judgements on the acceptability of risk that are political rather than scientific in nature. Optimisation must initially be carried out on an intuitive basis. However as experience is gained with similar products the opportunity for more formal optimisation and the setting of radiological protection standards arise. This requires further value judgements which are illustrated with reference to examples. (author)

  1. Appealing to the crowd: ethical justifications in Canadian medical crowdfunding campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Mathers, Annalise; Chow-White, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Medical crowdfunding is growing in terms of the number of active campaigns, amount of funding raised and public visibility. Little is known about how campaigners appeal to potential donors outside of anecdotal evidence collected in news reports on specific medical crowdfunding campaigns. This paper offers a first step towards addressing this knowledge gap by examining medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients. Using 80 medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients, we analyse how Canadians justify to others that they ought to contribute to funding their health needs. We find the justifications campaigners tend to fall into three themes: personal connections, depth of need and giving back. We further discuss how these appeals can understood in terms of ethical justifications for giving and how these justifications should be assessed in light of the academic literature on ethical concerns raised by medical crowdfunding. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. On Engster's care-justification of the specialness thesis about healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Benedict

    2017-08-01

    To say health is 'special' is to say that it has a moral significance that differentiates it from other goods (cars, say or radios) and, as a matter of justice, warrants distributing it separately. In this essay, I critique a new justification for the specialness thesis about healthcare (STHC) recently put forth by Engster. I argue that, regrettably, Engster's justification of STHC ultimately fails and fails on much the same grounds as have previous justifications of STHC. However, I also argue that Engster's argument still adds something valuable to the debate around STHC insofar as it reminds us that the moral significance of healthcare may be wider than simply its effect on the incidence of disability and disease: one further reason we may think healthcare is morally significant is because it concerns the treatment and care of those who are already unwell. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Justification beliefs of violence, myths about love and cyber dating abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrajo, Erika; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Calvete, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Distorted beliefs about violence and love are often associated with the presence of violence in dating relationships. This study analyzes the relationship between beliefs that justify violence and myths about love in two types of cyber dating abuse (control and direct aggression). The sample consisted of 656 young people between the ages of 18 and 30 years (79.5% women). Regression analysis showed that justification of cyber dating abuse was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of direct aggression in online dating relationships. Myths about love were associated with a greater likelihood of control in online dating relationships. Furthermore, the relationship between justification of cyber dating abuse and perpetration of direct aggression was stronger in women. The relationship between myths about love and perpetration of online control was stronger among the youngest individuals. The justification of abuse and myths about love are important aspects in the development of different kinds of online abuse among young couples. This finding has important implications for the prevention of and intervention in these behaviors.

  4. Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose.

  5. Foreign exchange transaction exposure of enterprises in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogićević Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises involved in international business face transaction exposure to foreign exchange risk. This type of exposure occurs when an enterprise trades, borrows, or lеnds in foreign currency. Transaction exposure has a direct effect on an enterprise’s financial position and profitability. It is one of the three forms of exposure to exchange rate fluctuations, the other two being translation exposure and operating exposure. The aim of this paper is to assess the transaction exposure of enterprises in Serbia operating internationally. In addition to identifying and measuring transaction exposure, this paper explores the practical importance that enterprises in Serbia attach to management of this type of foreign exchange risk. We do not find significant differences between domestic and foreign enterprises in their choice of the type of foreign exchange risk exposure to manage. Although transaction exposure is the most managed type of foreign exchange risk, research has shown that, compared to foreign businesses, Serbian enterprises do not use sufficient protective measures to minimize the negative impact of this type of exposure on their cash flows and profitability. We expected that there would be a statistically significant dependence between the volume of enterprises’ foreign currency transactions and the level of applied transaction exposure management practices. However, the results of our research, based on a sample of enterprises in Serbia operating internationally, show that transaction exposure management practices can be influenced by factors other than the level of an enterprise’s foreign currency transactions, such as the enterprise’s country of origin.

  6. Sexual Assault Perpetrators’ Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E.; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims’ alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators’ post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162

  7. Measurement of Foreign Exchange Exposure on the Turkish Private Banks’ Stock Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil Canbas; Murat Doganlar; Yildirim B.Onal

    2002-01-01

    All performance criteria of the banks are affected by the exchange rate fluctuations through foreign currency transactions and operations. However, exchange rate fluctuations -even without such activities can influence the banks through their affect on foreign competition, foreign loan demand and other banking conditions. Exchange rate exposure is classified as operation, transaction, and accounting exposures. Most of the studies, which measure these exposures, focused on the affect of the ex...

  8. Profiles of foreign direct investment in US energy, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Profiles of Foreign Direct Investment in US Energy 1991 describes the role of foreign ownership in US energy enterprises, with respect to investment, energy operations, and financial performance. Additionally, since energy investments are made in a global context, outward investment in energy is reviewed trough an examination of US-based companies' patterns of investment in foreign petroleum. The data used in this report come from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the US Department of Commerce, company annual reports, and public disclosures of investment transactions

  9. Profiles of foreign direct investment in US energy, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Profiles of Foreign Direct Investment in US Energy 1990 describes the role of foreign ownership in US energy enterprises, with respect to investment, energy operations, and financial performance. Additionally, since energy investments are made in a global context, outward investment in energy is reviewed through an examination of US-based companies' patterns of investment in foreign petroleum. The data used in this report come from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the US Department of Commerce, company annual reports, and public disclosures of investment transactions

  10. Why Justification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2017-01-01

    distinguish the national and the transnational and state and society. On that background, two structural differences between national and transnational public power are focused upon. First is the issue of constructing and delineating boundaries, which in national contexts is addressed through reference...... to territorial borders. Second is the issue of adapting decision-making to changing societal circumstances, which is addressed in national contexts through democracy. Both of these remedies are unavailable or only partially available at the transnational level. It is in order to respond to these deficiencies...

  11. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FOREIGN DEBT IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Korol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The impact of foreign debt growth on the social and economic performance of Greece was shown. The parameters of GDP, consumption, interest rates, unemployment and government spendings were analyzed. Methodology. Data obtained for 2001-2014 was used for regression analysis, vector autoregression and as well as Kalman filter. Results. A multi-faced analysis of the debt for EU-member states and Greece in particular was performed. The events and decisions of Greek authorities leading to the crisis were summarized in structural and logical scheme. The recommendations for the economic policy of Greece, based on the performed analysis were suggested. The practical applications. Establishment of all weaknesses and empirical testing of the necessary indicators in this study was the basis for the justification of measures to stabilize the economic situation in Ukraine and Greece. Value/originality. The Mandel-Fleming model and the model of balance of savings-investments was used for the first time for the theoretical interpretation of the nature of the debt crisis in Greece, that under the influence of capital inflows caused by the deterioration of the current account balance and interest rate cuts. The increase in foreign borrowings has led to an increase in the budget deficit and reduction in savings. Also for the first time performed regression-correlation analysis, in particular the Kalman filter is used to study the effect of debt on macroeconomic performance of the Greek economy.

  12. The Bank of Canada's Management of Foreign Currency Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobo De León

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the Bank's management of the liquid foreign currency portion of the government's official reserves. It broadly outlines the operations of the Exchange Fund Account (EFA), the main account in which Canada's reserves are held. It then briefly reviews the evolution of the objectives and management of the EFA over the past 25 years, particularly in light of the changing level of reserves and developments in financial markets. The EFA is funded by Canada's foreign currency b...

  13. North American Foreign Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Noonan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of so-called “foreign fighters” is in no way new the past thirty-plus years has shown a marked increase in the numbers of individuals traveling abroad to fight in civil conflicts in the Muslim world. The crisis in Syria (2011-present has created a massive influx of such individuals going to fight. Of particular concern in western capitals has been the numbers of individuals from those countries that have gone to fight in that conflict which has since crossed the border into neighboring Iraq with the establishment of the socalled “Islamic State” and threatens to broaden the conflict into a larger regional sectarian conflagration. While the numbers of such participants from Western Europe have been greater than those who have gone from the United States and Canada there are legitimate concerns in both Washington, DC, and Ottawa about American and Canadian citizens who have gone—or attempted to go—to fight there and in other locales such as the Maghreb and Somalia. The analysis here will provide some background on the foreign fighter phenomenon, discuss the foreign fighter flow model, explore the issue from both Canadian and US perspectives to include providing details of some original research categorizing the characteristics of a small sample of US and Canadian fighters and those who attempted to go and fight, discuss how both governments have attempted to deal with the issue, and offer some policy prescription for dealing with this issue that is of importance to both international security writ large and domestic security in the US and Canada.

  14. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...... perspectives on European foreign policy research and advice and serves as an invaluable resource for students of EU foreign policy and, more broadly, European Studies....

  15. Final Environmental Assessment for the Update and Implementation of the Total Force Training Mission for Visiting Units (Operation Snowbird, Multi-Service, and Foreign Military Sales), Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    audience at a music festival . Noise & Health, 2003, 5(19):51- 58. 34. Smith PA et al. The prevalence and type of social noise exposure in young adults...foreign and domestic pilots/aircraft (substandard) 21 4% 3.1; 3.4; 4.1; 4.4 Economic risk/reduce tourism , pro, cons 23 3 5% 4.3.1.2 Impact on low...impacts are underestimated as the increase in sorties and noise would certainly affect local businesses, especially the tourism industry. 16 6 As

  16. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...... key markets (China, UK and USA) as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  17. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...... markets (China, UK and USA) is used as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  18. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  19. Why foreign firms forsake franchises

    OpenAIRE

    Blajina, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article is devoted to the problem of franchising in Russia. The article informs about difficulties, which face foreign companies developing their business in our country. Doing business in franchising foreign companies have to overcome some challenges such as: obtain a credit, unpredictability of the economy and so on. But in spite of all these difficulties many foreign companies and Russian ones set up franchising in Russia and promote themselves at the Russian market, but never the les...

  20. Yabancı Sermaye ve Türkiye'de Elektronik, Kimya ve Toprak Sektörlerinde Faaliyet Gösteren Yatırım Ortaklıklarının Performanslarının İncelenmesi = Study of the Foreign Capital and the Performance of the Joint Ventures That Operate in The Electronical, Chemical and Cement Sectors in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol EREN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Firms have started to cooperate with other firms due to globalization and rapidly increasing competition. They can have quick access to the most recent technology and different markets by cooperating with other firms. Thus by increasing their cross-border operations, multinational companies prefer to establish joint ventures. Joint ventures are the forms of cooperation that is widely used by multinational firms. In Turkey, Foreign Capital Law (No : 6224 has been enacted on January, 18th, 1954. This law has been enacted to encourage foreign capital investments. Even though, it is quite liberal, the amount of foreign capital inflow is not at a desirable level. Therefore, it is necessary and very important to research the reasons for the inadequacy in foreign capital inflows to Turkey. In this paper, the performance of joint ventures in electronic, chemistry and cement sectors are studied. The joint ventures in which the foreign partner has an equity share of less than ninety percent are included in the scope of the study.

  1. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  2. Global health and foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health.

  3. Paternalistic breaches of confidentiality in prison: mental health professionals' attitudes and justifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Bernice Simone; Handtke, Violet; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2015-06-01

    This manuscript presents mental health practitioners' (MHPs) practice, attitudes and justifications for breaching confidentiality when imprisoned patients disclose suicidal thoughts or abuse by others. 24 MHPs working in Swiss prisons shared their experiences regarding confidentiality practices. The data were analysed qualitatively and MHPs' attitudes and course of action were identified. Analysis revealed paternalistic breaches of confidentiality. When patients reported suicidal thoughts and abuse, MHPs believed that forgoing confidentiality is necessary to protect patients, providing several justifications for it. Patients were informed that such information will be transmitted without their consent to medical and non-medical prison personnel. With reference to suicidal attempts, MHPs resorted to methods that may reduce suicidal attempts such as transfer to hospital or internal changes in living arrangements, which would require provision of certain information to prison guards. In cases of abuse, some MHPs convinced patients to accept intervention or sometimes overrode competent patients' refusals to report. Also in the case of abuse, provision of limited information to other prison personnel was seen as an acceptable method to protect patients from further harm. Breaches of confidentiality, whether limited or full, remain unethical, when used for competent patients based solely on paternalistic justifications. Institutionalising ethical and legal procedures to address suicidal and abuse situations would be helpful. Education and training to help both medical and prison personnel to respond to such situations in an appropriate manner that ensures confidentiality and protects patients from suicide and abuse are necessary. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Virtual Foreign Correspondence: Experimental Instructions in Digital Foreign News Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Oliver; Stalph, Florian; Steller, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Within a series of six qualitative studies over seven years, this research in instructing journalism students investigates whether or not covering foreign news from home via Internet technology can substitute foreign correspondents on-site to reduce costs. Co-orientation and decontextualization can be described as characteristic for virtual…

  5. A review of the information required by technical justifications and its availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrall, G.M.; Conroy, P.J.; Whittle, M.J.; Roscoe, P.

    1997-03-01

    A central feature of the European approach to Inspection Qualification (IQ) is the use of Technical Justifications (TJ). This arises from the recognition that practical trials of an inspection can never, by themselves, generate sufficient information to provide confidence in an inspection. The central role of TJ has raised concerns that information which is vital to their production may currently not be available. The range of roles that TJ can play in IQ is described in this report, their typical structure, the key input information, and the essential variables defined. The extent to which this information currently is available is then discussed. Information needs are defined. 10 refs

  6. Justification of the zeta-function renormalization in rigid string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.V.; Pirozhenko, I.G.

    1997-01-01

    A consistent procedure for regularization of divergences and for the subsequent renormalization of the string tension is proposed in the framework of the one-loop calculation of the interquark potential generated by the Polyakov-Kleinert string. In this way, a justification of the formal treatment of divergences by analytic continuation of the Riemann and Epstein-Hurwitz zeta-functions is given. A spectral representation for the renormalized string energy at zero temperature is derived, which enables one to find the Casimir energy in this string model at nonzero temperature very easy

  7. Very high temperature chemistry: Science justification for containerless experimentation in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, William H.; Nordine, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of the justification for application of containerless processing in space to high temperature science. Low earth orbit offers a gravitational environment that allows samples to be positioned in an experimental apparatus by very small forces. Well controlled experiments become possible on reactive materials at high temperatures in a reasonably quiescent state and without container contamination. This provides an opportunity to advance the science of high temperature chemistry that can only be realized with a commitment by NASA to provide advanced facilities for in-space containerless study of materials at very high temperature.

  8. FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ignatovych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and applied aspects of forming and realization conception of social entrepreneurship are considered in the world economy. The main features of social entrepreneurship are distinguished. On the basis of generalization foreign experience of social entrepreneurship realization are certained its organization leading forms, in particular, unprofitable private organizations, business with social mission, social co-operatives, and also priority spheres and basic directions of modern development. The features of social entrepreneurship state support are investigated in the different countries of the world. Differences between European models and The USA model of social entrepreneurship are shown, pointed reasons of these differences. Foreign experience of social entrepreneurship is very important for Ukrainian social enterprises development. In unstable political situation and in period of financial crisis with production reducing and high inflation only social entrepreneurs can make economy conditions better. Also there is pointed the important role of legislative power for creating favorable conditions.

  9. Glass Foreign Body Hand Radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ehsani-Nia, DO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 27-year-old female sustained an injury to her left hand after she tripped and fell on a vase. She presented to the emergency department (ED complaining of pain over the laceration. Upon examination, patient presented with multiple small abrasions of the medial aspect of the left 5thdigit that are minimally tender. Additionally, she has one 0.5cm linear laceration of the medial aspect of the 5thmetacarpal with severe tenderness in the area and palpable underlying foreign body. Significant findings: Left hand plain radiography demonstrated a subcutaneous foreign body medial to the 5thmetacarpal that is radiopaque, trapezoidal in shape, and measures approximately 11mm x 3mm. Discussion: Laceration repairs are amongst the most common procedures in the emergency department; however, consideration for foreign body is often underdiagnosed. Imaging is performed in only about 11% of all traumatic wounds in the ED.1 Of those injuries relating to the hand that are subsequently imaged, about 15% are found to have a foreign body.2,3 Additionally, it is estimated that foreign bodies are present in 7% to 8.7% of all wounds caused by glass objects.4,5 Glass is among the most common foreign bodies in lacerations, and fortunately they are radiopaque and relatively well visualized radiographically. It has been demonstrated that 2mm glass foreign bodies have a 99% detection rate with radiography, and 1mm glass foreign bodies an 83% detection rate.6 Patient perception of foreign body has a positive predictive value of 31%, making it a poor source in influencing clinical decision-making to obtain wound radiographs.3 Clinicians should have a high suspicion for foreign body in lacerations, particularly those caused by glass, and utilize close physical examination and imaging for evaluation. Topics: Radiography, glass, foreign body, trauma

  10. BRACEROS, MEXICO, AND FOREIGN TRADE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966

    CRITICISM OF GOVERNMENTAL POLICY RESTRICTING USE OF FOREIGN CONTRACT WORKERS ON AMERICAN FARMS IN 1965 EXPRESSES THREE POSSIBILITIES -- (1) A SEVERE DISRUPTION OF DOMESTIC FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTION, (2) AN INCREASE OF AMERICAN INVESTMENT IN FOREIGN, PARTICULARLY MEXICAN, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION, AND (3) A LOSS OF UNITED STATES EXPORT MARKET…

  11. Foreign Language Study in Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lilian O.; Tarjan, Jeno

    1968-01-01

    Foreign language study at the Karl Marx University of Economic Sciences in Budapest aims to develop the ability to use the language as a native would in a particular business or profession, and to help the student become fully aware of the political, historical, sociological, and geographical background of the foreign country and the…

  12. Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kefeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ingested foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract are a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies that were treated in our department. Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies who were admitted to our hospital between February 2010 and August2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The data regarding their age, gender, clinical profile, type and localization of the esophageal foreign body, performed endoscopic procedure and initial symptoms of the patients were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal foreign body were included in this study. Of these patients, 21 were male and 17 were female. The youngest patient was 17 years old and the oldest patient was 79 years old. Most of the foreign bodies (%55.3 detected in the stomach. Food waste and metallic objects in 21 and 16 patients respectively. The most common complaint was dysphagia (%50. After endoscopic intervention three of the patients were directed to surgery. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal foreign bodies is important as their complications are life threatening. The best method of removal of foreign bodies is controversial. Early management with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most efficient and safe treatment method in current conditions.

  13. Uncommon, undeclared oesophageal foreign bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-11

    May 11, 2011 ... presented with a sudden onset of total dysphagia and history of ingestion of foreign bodies was not volunteered by any despite direct questioning. Plain radiograph of the neck and chest in either case did not reveal presence of foreign body. Both were successfully removed through rigid oesophagoscopy.

  14. Evaluating of foreign trade security

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyliev Andriy

    2015-01-01

    A method of evaluating foreign trade security is considered based on horizontally integrated approach to research security issues, taking into account the conditions of management, factors, components and levels of external security. The work was based theories of security, economics, management theory, practice of state regulation of foreign trade.

  15. Foreign uranium supply. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, N.B.; Steyn, J.J.

    1978-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the extent to which foreign uranium may be available to United States utilities in the short term (through 1980), the intermediate term (1981--1985), and the long term (1986--95). All free world foreign uranium producers and prospects are included, with particular emphasis on Australia, Canada, southern Africa, France, and French-speaking Africa. The assessment includes reserves, resources, exploration and prospects; firm and potential production capacity and prospects; national policies and relevant political and economic conditions; foreign uranium demand; etc. Conclusions are: Foreign supply capability is greater than foreign demand in the near term. The current availability of uncommitted future Australian production presents an unusual opportunity for establishing commercial relations with very substantial producers. Foreign uranium contracts represent an increase in diversity of supply and access to resources but have less assurance of supply than do domestic contracts. However, uncertainties can frequently be accommodated within an overall procurement program, thereby retaining the diversity and price advantages of foreign procurement. The practice of market pricing of contracts reduces the incentives for foreign contracting

  16. Foreign workers in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Lim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global age many people cross national borders in search of better work and more wages. According to IOM, more than 100 000 000 workers leave their homeland and migrate to another country for this reason. Europe and North America have already experienced increase in foreign labor for many decades but nowadays, it is very common to see foreign laborers in Asian countries. As the number of foreign laborers rapidly increased, however, so did many social problems in relation to these workers. No country is safe from or immune to such social problems in regards to the foreign workers especially with a much easier and more efficient transportation system. In case of South Korea, the history of foreign labor may not be as long as other nations but as of 2007, it boasts of more than 250 000 foreign laborers and is thus facing just as many social problems as well. In order to investigate such social issues, this article explores the history of foreign laborers and their current situation in South Korea. Furthermore, this artticle examines both internal and external factors which may have caused exponential growth of foreign labor market in South Korea in the past decade.

  17. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...

  18. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    Many papers have documented a wage premium in foreign-owned and large firms. However, there is very little formal theory in the literature and empirical analyses are typically not based on hypotheses which are rigorously derived from theory. This paper contributes to the theory-empirics gap...... by developing a model that allows for two "pure" explanations for the wage premium. The first is a heterogenous-worker explanation along the lines of Yeaple (2005), where firms that select more scaleintensive technologies select ex-ante more productive workers. In this case, the wage premium is a pure selection...... phenomenon. The second explanation builds on the heterogeneous-firm model of Melitz (2003) combined with on-the-job learning as in Markusen (2001). Productivity differences between firms are internalized by ex-ante homogeneous workers, so the wage premium is a pure learning phenomenon due to ex-post higher...

  19. Neurology of foreign language aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Biedroń

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This state-of-the art paper focuses on the poorly explored issue of foreign language aptitude, attempting to present the latest developments in this field and reconceptualizations of the construct from the perspective of neuroscience. In accordance with this goal, it first discusses general directions in neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude, starting with the earliest attempts to define the neurological substrate for talent, sources of difficulties in the neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude and modern research methods. This is followed by the discussion of the research on the phonology of foreign language aptitude with emphasis on functional and structural studies as well as their consequences for the knowledge of the concept. The subsequent section presents the studies which focus on lexical and morphosyntactic aspects of foreign language aptitude. The paper ends with a discussion of the limitations of contemporary research, the future directions of such research and selec ed methodological issues.

  20. A Comparison of Social Dominance Theory and System Justification: The Role of Social Status in 19 Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Salfate, Salvador; Paez, Dario; Liu, James H; Pratto, Felicia; Gil de Zúñiga, Homero

    2018-07-01

    This study tests specific competing hypotheses from social dominance theory/realistic conflict theory (RCT) versus system justification theory about the role of social status. In particular, it examines whether system justification belief and effects are stronger among people with low socioeconomic status, and in less socially developed and unequal nations than among better-off people and countries. A cross-national survey was carried out in 19 nations from the Americas, Western and Eastern Europe, Asia, and Oceania using representative online samples ( N = 14,936, 50.15% women, M age = 41.61 years). At the individual level, system justification beliefs, right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, national identification, sociopolitical conservatism, sex, age, and social status were measured. At the national level, the human development index and the Gini index were used. Multilevel analyses performed indicated that results fit better with the social dominance/RCT approach, as system justification was higher in high-status and developed nations; further, associations between legitimizing ideologies and system justification were stronger among high-status people.

  1. Men's response to their wives' participation in microfinance: perpetration and justification of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, N S

    2016-12-01

    The present study adds to extant literature on the association between microfinance participation and intimate partner violence (IPV) by assessing a national sample of men married to microfinance participants. The key objective was to assess whether there was a positive association between wives' microfinance participation and men's perpetration and justification of IPV in urban areas of Bangladesh. This study is based on a population-based secondary data analysis. In this cross-sectional study, data from a national sample of men from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were analysed using logistic regression analyses. IPV perpetration was measured using a modified Conflict Tactics Scale and justification of IPV was measured based on 'justification of wife beating' statements with which men agreed or disagreed. Men married to microfinance participants were not significantly different from men married to non-participants of microfinance in terms of IPV perpetration in both urban and rural areas. However, the interaction effect of wives' microfinance participation and urban living on men's justification of IPV revealed a significant and positive beta coefficient. Specifically, wives' participation in microfinance was positively associated with men's justification of IPV in urban areas (β = 0.51, P men and women. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Can the NICE "end-of-life premium" be given a coherent ethical justification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard

    2013-12-01

    In 2009 the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) announced that its health technology appraisal committees would henceforth give special additional weight to health gains from life-extending end-of-life treatments. This was a response to mounting concern from NICE's stakeholders that effective new drugs for end-stage cancer often fail NICE's standard test of cost effectiveness. This change of policy may be justifiable on procedural grounds as the result of a democratic political process responding to stakeholder concerns. However, according to the "accountability for reasonableness" framework proposed by the philosopher Norman Daniels and endorsed by NICE, there also needs to be transparency about the substantive ethical grounds for public health care resource allocation decisions. In that spirit, I analyze eleven potentially relevant justifications for the NICE "end-of-life premium," drawn from the economics and philosophy literature: (1) rule of rescue, (2) fair chances, (3) ex post willingness to pay, (4) caring externality, (5) financial protection, (6) symbolic value, (7) diminishing marginal value of future life years, (8) concentration of benefits, (9) dread, (10) time to set your affairs in order, and (11) severity of illness. I conclude that none of them yields a coherent ethical justification for the NICE end-of-life premium.

  3. Doses to organs and tissues from concomitant imaging in radiotherapy: a suggested framework for clinical justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R M

    2008-12-01

    The increasing use of imaging for localization and verification in radiotherapy has raised issues concerning the justifiable doses to critical organs and tissues from concomitant exposures, particularly when extensive image-guided radiotherapy is indicated. Doses at positions remote from the target volume include components from high-energy leakage and scatter, as well as from concomitant imaging. In this paper, simulated prostate, breast and larynx treatments are used to compare doses from both high-energy and concomitant exposures as a function of distance from the target volume. It is suggested that the fraction, R, of the total dose at any point within the patient that is attributable to concomitant exposures may be a useful aid in their justification. R is small within the target volume and at large distances from it. However, there is a critical region immediately adjacent to the planning target volume where the dose from concomitant imaging combines with leakage and scatter to give values of R that approach 0.5 in the examples given here. This is noteworthy because the regions just outside the target volume will receive total doses in the order of 1 Gy, where commensurately high risk factors may not be substantially reduced because of cell kill. Other studies have identified these regions as sites of second cancers. The justification of an imaging regimen might therefore usefully take into account the maximum value of R encountered from the combination of imaging and radiotherapy for particular treatment sites.

  4. The trouble with justification. Getting straight on the science and politics of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.

    2012-01-01

    Full-text: The way nuclear energy technology 'escapes' a deliberate justification approach as an energy technology on a transnational level is today in sharp contrast with the way fossil fuel energy technologies are subject of global negotiations driven by the doom of climate change. The claim put forward in this lecture is that this 'denial' is a symptom of a contemporary settled 'comfort of polarisation' around the use of nuclear energy technology that is deeply rooted in the organisational structures of politics, science and informed civil society. The lecture argues for the need to develop a new rationale that aims to seek societal trust 'by method instead of proof', taking into account that the outcome of such a justification process might as well be an acceptance or a rejection of the technology. It sketches what this 'deliberate-political' approach would be in theory and practice, briefly hits at two contemporary myths that would relativize the need for this approach and concludes with a 'pragmatic' list of elements of an advanced framework for deliberation on nuclear energy technology and on energy in general. (author)

  5. Analysis of radiological examination request forms in conjunction with justification of X-ray exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantopoulou, Ch.; Tsalafoutas, I.; Maniatis, P.; Papavdis, D.; Raios, G.; Siafas, I.; Velonakis, S.; Koulentianos, E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the adequacy of patient data and clinical information transmitted to the radiological departments by the referring clinicians in view of the justification demands concerning the radiological examinations, as those are described in the Radiation Protection Regulations of the European Union Nations. Materials and methods: Request forms for 1708 patients referred to radiology department and 410 referred to the CT department were evaluated concerning the proper completion of the form fields. Furthermore, for CT examinations a more detailed evaluation was carried out, to assess the rationalistic use of CT within the diagnostic algorithm. Results: Not properly completed request forms to both departments were observed, however, the omissions were more prominent for the referrals to the radiology department, where the age and the probable clinical diagnosis was not given in 81.5 and 46% of the forms, respectively. Furthermore, the emergency indication was less cautiously used compared to the CT requests. For the CT department 33.3% of requests were justified and the final diagnosis was included in the referring doctor's probable clinical diagnosis. U/S was the examination of choice in 51% of the cases where an examination should have been performed before CT and in 70.6% of the cases where an alternative examination was proposed. Conclusions: The inadequate transmission of clinical information and the large number of not fully justified CT requests observed in this study are typical examples of the various problems that radiologists have to face in order to apply the justification directives

  6. Northern and Southern European Traffic Flow Land Segment Analysis as Part of the Redirection Justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SiniŁa Vilke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural geotraffic flows act as one of the most important factors directly affecting redirections of the world transportation routes. In terms of door-to-door multimodal transport chain, several routes from Far East toward European destinations exist, with Northern European route acting as prevailing one. The proposed paper elaborates possibilities of redirection of the traffic flow by directing cargoes to an alternative route through the Adriatic Sea. The aim is to justify realisation of mentioned possibility in terms of land transportation segment analysis, i.e. by analysing cargo transportation from ports to final destinations in Central Europe, placed in natural gravitational hinterland of ports of Northern Adriatic Port Association (NAPA. Geo-traffic and logistics’ analyses of NAPA ports are presented in the paper. Container traffic and its trend as compared with Northern European ports are analysed. The development plans of inland connections are presented in function of justification of the traffic flow redirection. A model for the selection and evaluation of the optimal container transport route by using the multiple criteria analysis (MCA has been introduced and developed. The model was applied for the selection of the representative service connecting Far East (origin and the central Europe (destination by detailed analysis of the land transportation segment. The PROMETHEE method was used for the model testing and evaluation. Summarised results are presented and discussed tending to confirmation of the traffic flow redirection justification.

  7. The justification of studies in genetic epidemiology - political scaling in China Medical City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Genetic epidemiology examines the role of genetic factors in determining health and disease in families and in populations to help addressing health problems in a responsible manner. This paper uses a case study of genetic epidemiology in Taizhou, China, to explore ways in which anthropology can contribute to the validation of studies in genetic epidemiology. It does so, first, by identifying potential overgeneralizations of data, often due to mismatching scale and, second, by examining it's embedding in political, historical and local contexts. The example of the longitudinal cohort study in Taizhou illustrates dimensions of such 'political scaling'. Political scaling is a notion used here to refer to the effects of scaling biases in relation to the justification of research in terms of relevance, reach and research ethics. The justification of a project on genetic epidemiology involves presenting a maximum of benefits and a minimum of burden for the population. To facilitate the delineation of political scaling, an analytical distinction between donating and benefiting communities was made using the notions of 'scaling of relevance', 'scaling of reach' and 'scaling of ethics'. Political scaling results at least partly from factors external to research. By situating political scaling in the context of historical, political and local discourses, anthropologists can play a complementary role in genetic epidemiology.

  8. Justification of doctors' referral for radiological imaging among some Nigerian doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Osaigbovo Ighodaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The demand for radiological examination has increased tremendously despite paucity of referring clinicians' knowledge on radiation protection. Reasons to justify these referrals vary. Consequently, the aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinicians' knowledge of radiological imaging dosage to their referral justification and guideline. Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaires were developed with four sections (Section 1, sociodemographic data; Section 2, justification for imaging referral; Section 3, knowledge of radiation dose to patients; Section 4, effect of irradiation. The questionnaires were administered at a previous Nigerian Medical Association National Conference, which took place at Lagos in 2013. Sections 3 and 4 were scored and rated. Results: The respondents gave plausible reasons to refer patients for radiological evaluation despite the observation that majority of them were unaware of the existence of referral guidelines and had poor knowledge on radiation. Only 16 (12.2% of the respondents had a fair score on knowledge about radiation dose to patients while 110 (84.0% had poor score. Five (3.8% of the respondents had good score. Similarly, on identifying effect of radiation, 10 (7.6% had good score, 4 (3.1% fair score, and 117 (89.3% poor score. Conclusion: Most of the referrals of patients for radiological evaluation by the respondents were not based on the standard guidelines. Therefore, it is pertinent that referral guidelines should be developed and implemented and clinicians should be educated and trained on radiation protection.

  9. The precarity of critique: Cultures of mistrust and the refusal of justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witte Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on recent developments towards authoritarianism and right-wing populism that have become apparent in a number of Western societies and aims at pinpointing possible cultural foundations for this trend. Using the example of the German PEGIDA movement and the wider milieu in which it is embedded, it identifies and describes a rapidly spreading culture of mistrust and discusses some of its political and epistemological implications. In a second step, the paper draws on Luc Boltanski’s theory of justification in order to attain a better understanding of this political movement’s specificities. It is argued that it is a quasi-violent refusal of justification which is constitutive for the movement in question, thereby transcending the reach of Boltanski’s framework to some extent. In a third step, a closer look is taken at the epistemological paradox that results from the fact that a number of the PEGIDA movement’s crucial points of criticism are effectively shared by a larger part of the overall population, raising severe problems for the question of sociological critique. The paper utilizes ideas by Bruno Latour in order to illuminate this paradox further and examine its consequences. It closes with remarks on the possibility to “reassemble” trust and critique as crucial but contested - and, hence, precarious - foundations of modern society.

  10. Justifications and self-organization as determinants of recycling behavior. The case of used batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, Ralf; Bernasconi, Petra; Smieszek, Timo; Loukopoulos, Peter; Scholz, Roland W [Chair of Environmental Sciences: Natural and Social Science Interface, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (ETH Zuerich), Universitaetsstrasse 22, ETH Zentrum CHN J76.3, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-06-15

    Much previous research on recycling behavior has drawn heavily on models of personal and perceived social norms, as well as of personal attitudes, to explain recycling behavior. Although such models have received empirical support, the issue concerning discrepancies between norms, personal attitudes and an individual's behavior is yet to be resolved. Using battery recycling in Switzerland as a case in point, the present questionnaire-based research examines via regression analyses the relationship between self-reported recycling behavior and socio-demographic variables, attitudes towards ecologically positive waste disposal, trust in waste disposal authorities, specific knowledge concerning recycling, justifications for not participating in the recycling scheme, self-organization of recycling behavior, and level of battery consumption. It was found that recycling knowledge, self-organization of recycling, and disagreement with justifications for non-recycling were positively related to recycling behavior, while attitudes towards ecological waste disposal and trust in waste disposal authorities were not directly related to respondents' self-reported battery recycling behavior. On the basis of these results, with reference to Sykes and Matza's Neutralization theory [Sykes GM, Matza D. Techniques of neutralization: a theory of delinquency. Am Sociol Rev 1957:22(6):664-70] a contextualized model of recycling behavior is proposed. This model is able to account for inconsistencies between personal attitudes and perceived social norms, and has practical implications for the design of public intervention strategies for enhancing participation in the recycling. (author)

  11. The application of Dempster-Shafer theory demonstrated with justification provided by legal evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn P. Curley

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In forecasting and decision making, people can and often do represent a degree of belief in some proposition. At least two separate constructs capture such degrees of belief: likelihoods capturing evidential balance and support capturing evidential weight. This paper explores the weight or justification that evidence affords propositions, with subjects communicating using a belief function in hypothetical legal situations, where justification is a relevant goal. Subjects evaluated the impact of sets of 1--3 pieces of evidence, varying in complexity, within a hypothetical legal situation. The study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this evidential weight measure as an alternative or complement to the more-studied probability measure. Subjects' responses indicated that weight and likelihood were distinguished; that subjects' evidential weight tended toward single elements in a targeted fashion; and, that there were identifiable individual differences in reactions to conflicting evidence. Specifically, most subjects reacted to conflicting evidence that supported disjoint sets of suspects with continued support in the implicated sets, although an identifiable minority reacted by pulling back their support, expressing indecisiveness. Such individuals would likely require a greater amount of evidence than the others to counteract this tendency in support. Thus, the study identifies the value of understanding evidential weight as distinct from likelihood, informs our understanding of the psychology of individuals' judgments of evidential weight, and furthers the application and meaningfulness of belief functions as a communication language.

  12. The trouble with justification, in search of an ethics of method for energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this series of slides the author tries to clarify the relationships between risks, knowledge, fairness and public acceptance. Fairness appears to be an important concept when dealing with risks. Fairness means a fair distribution of benefits and burdens and implies an informed consent or the possibility to avoid the risk. Fair risk justification in energy governance is risk justification of which the method of knowledge generation and decision making is trusted as fair by society. Seeking societal trust is the aim of sciences and technologies but the global social challenges we face are ultimately complex and our modern societies based on representative democracy do not favor consensus and stand in various comforts of polarization: pro or contra nuclear energy for instance, the same arguments being used in both sides. The result is a polarisation maintained by a lack of methodological intellectual confrontation in the structures of politics, science and civil society. There is a need for new practical forms of democracy, research and education

  13. 26 CFR 1.172-4 - Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... years. (iv) Loss attributable to foreign expropriation. If the provisions of section 172(b)(3)(A) and § 1.172-9 are satisfied, the portion of a net operating loss attributable to a foreign expropriation... attributable to a foreign expropriation loss (as defined in section 172(h)) and if an election under paragraph...

  14. Correlative factors for the location of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Feng, Rui-Ling; Jiang, Lan; Ren, Hong-Bo; Li, Qi

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to analyze factors related to the location of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in infants and children, and provide help in the assessment of the disease, surgical risk and prognosis. The clinical data of 1,060 pediatric patients with tracheobronchial foreign bodies diagnosed from January 2015 to December 2015 were retrospectively studied, the association of the location of the foreign bodies with age, gender, granulation formation, chest computed tomography and 3D reconstruction results, preoperative complications, operation time, and hospital stay was analyzed. The location of foreign bodies was not correlated with age, gender, operation time and length of hospital stay, but was correlated to granulation formation, chest computed tomography and 3D reconstruction results, and preoperative complications. The location of foreign bodies was correlated to granulation formation, the location of foreign bodies displayed by chest computed tomography, and preoperative complications.

  15. Interaction of national and foreign safety guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1991-01-01

    A commercial contract for a nuclear power plant includes an agreement on the appropriate safety requirements with which the plant must conform. This may involve adopting the safety requirements of the exporting country, the importing country or a combination of the two sets of safety requirements. To ensure that a high level of safety is achieved it is appropriate that the regulatory authorities in the two countries should establish a co-operative arrangement which will extend for the life of the plant. The regulatory authority in the importing country will need to develop a good understanding of the design, safety analysis and operating history of the reactor type which is being purchased. The regulator in the exporting country can be of great assistance in this regard. The co-operative arrangement should extend into the commissioning and operating stage at which point there will be a two way flow of information. During the operating stage information exchange should include significant operating events, operating problems, new safety related research information, necessary design changes and the results of periodic updating of the safety analysis. In some cases the co-operation should extend to training of regulatory staff. The choice of national versus foreign safety requirements may be important. However, if the two regulatory authorities are to discharge their legal and moral safety responsibilities it is at least equally important to maintain a co-operative arrangement for the life of the plant. (author)

  16. Diagnosis and management of an intra-articular foreign body in the foot.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulhall, K J

    2002-10-01

    We describe a case of a small intra-articular foreign body in the foot presenting 48 hours following injury, which at operation showed early evidence of septic arthritis. It is essential to accurately localise periarticular foreign bodies in the foot and proceed to arthrotomy and debridement in all cases where there is radiological or clinical evidence to suggest intra-articular retention of a foreign body.

  17. Summary of foreign HTGR programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This report contains pertinent information on the status, objectives, budgets, major projects and facilities, as well as user, industrial and governmental organizations involved in major foreign gas-cooled thermal reactor programs. This is the second issue of this document (the first was issued in March 1979). The format has been revised to consolidate material according to country. These sections are followed by the foreign HTGR program index which serves as a quick reference to some of the many acronyms associated with the foreign HTGR programs

  18. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985. Submitted to Congress February 1984. Procurement, Aircraft Procurement, Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    j~r_ f i1~ -A’s OSI 14. 8 ProJect Finannial Plan (Cont’d): FY 1289 TOTAL Qty cost Qty Cost APN-5 223 $20,934 0&HN Install. (41) $4$54 2,605 APN-6...ATS) AMD Design Changes -W - 4-0 1_ _ OSI ? 11-84 Description/Justification (Cont’d): ALQ-126 Support Assembly Addition of Latching Relay to BRU-33 BRU...Activity 5 Modification Title and No.: Night Vision (OSIP 39-85) Modelo of Aircraft Affected: HII-IK Description/Justification: In order to improve tactical

  19. Italians and Foreign Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Bonifazi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Opinion surveys on attitudes towards immigration are becoming more and more important, owing to the increasing role of political debate on migration issues in Western European countries. CNR has conducted four surveys on this topic, collecting data on the evolution of Italians attitudes towards migration issues. In fact, the ? rst survey was conducted in the second half of the eighties, when foreign immigration was in its early stages. The last survey took place in 2002, when immigration was already well established in Italy. The article focuses on three main issues: the global impact of immigration on Italian society, the immigrants role in the labour market, and immigration policy. In general, the results of the last survey con? rm a trend that appeared already in 1997, of more balanced and realistic opinion that were less of a response to circumstances perceived as special emergencies. Highly educated people, teachers and students continue to be the most open and receptive groups, whereas the less favourably inclined and more worried continue to be old people, those with less education, the unemployed, housewives, and retirees.

  20. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  1. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  2. POLAND`S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowski Bogdan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the discussion of motives, determinants and effects of outward FDI of companies from emerging economies. We analyze the the scale, structure, geographical location and effects of Polish foreign direct investments as well as we prioritize their determinants. The interest of Polish companies in investing abroad has increased sharply over the last decade, due to the need to broaden the scale of business operations and geographical scope of their economic activities after the Poland`s accession to the European Union.

  3. Domestic and Foreign Banks’ Profitability: Differences and Their Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AZAM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to analyze and compare the profitability of domestic (Public & Private and foreign banks operating in the Pakistan Banking market between 2004 and 2010 on quarterly basis. Total 36 Commercial Banks of Pakistani Industry have represented our sample. To control for the effect of bank ownership on performance, we split the sample into three categories: (1 domestic banks with Government Control, (2 domestic banks with Private control, and (3 foreign banks. This study also finds that foreign banks are more profitable than all domestic banks regardless of their ownership structure by applying regression analysis. This may suggest that it is better for a multinational bank to establish a subsidiary/branch rather than acquiring an “existing player” in the host country. We also found that domestic and foreign banks have different profitability determinants, i.e. factors that are important in shaping domestic banks’ profitability are not necessary important for the foreign banks and vice versa. Empirical results show that foreign banks are less affected by the macroeconomic factors of the host country than domestic banks and they have a higher profitability margin in Pakistan.

  4. Predicted wear on the tube outside surface due to foreign object in the secondary side of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Nam; Cho, Nam Cheoul

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to evaluate the effects of foreign objects on steam generator tubes and to use this information to take appropriate safety precautions to prevent nuclear accidents. Foreign objects may include loose parts from the feed water system and items lost by workers during o/h, and may flow into the secondary side of steam generators during operation. A foreign object could damage steam generator tube walls if there is relative motion between the tube and the foreign object. This is especially true for foreign objects that land on the tube sheet because the velocity of cross flow, which creates a contact force between the tube and foreign object, is relatively high there. During steam generator overhauls, foreign objects are detected by non destructive methods such as the visual test and/or the eddy current test. Confirmed foreign objects should be removed for nuclear safety. The Foreign Object Search and Retrieval System (FOSAR) can be used to remove foreign objects from the steam generators with a square tube array. However, the FOSAR cannot be used (or can be used in only a very restricted area, such as the outside of the tube bundle) in the steam generators with a triangular tube array. In order to continue nuclear power plant operations without removing foreign objects, the integrity of the steam generator tube must be verified. This paper introduces a practical method developed to evaluate the effects of foreign objects detected on tube sheets in the secondary sides of steam generators

  5. Economical justification in usage of heat pump connected to the turbine cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijakovski, Vladimir; Josifovski, Vasko

    2008-01-01

    Orangery or greenhouse presents building with micro climate quite different from the external, that is internal temperature is substantially different from the external air temperature. Part of the solar energy is absorbed by plants and ground, part is transformed to heat energy, thus heating internal air. That is the reason, depending on the local climate conditions, heat radiation covers 30 to 60 % of the total heat energy needs for the orangery. Economical justification for the connection of heat pump to the cold end of the turbine in the orangerie's (green-house) heating system is presented in this paper. Rationality from the usage of low-temperature heat energy from the turbine's cold-end comes from techno-economical and ecological aspect. (Author)

  6. Beyond Territory: Revisiting the Normative Justification of Self-Government in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janique Dubois

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The association of sovereignty with control over territory is being challenged both internally and externally in modern societies. Demands for political autonomy from sub-state minorities undermine the natural link between nation, state and territory from within, while the movement of capital, goods and information across borders contests the relationship between these concepts from without. Scholars of international relations, law, philosophy and political science have already suggested that the sovereignty of nation-states is under attack; however, scant attention has been paid to the way in which changes in the relation between nation, state, and territory affect the normative weight associated with each of these concepts in discussions about sovereignty and self-government. The objectives of this article is to examine the way in which nation, state, sovereignty, and territory are addressed in normative justifications of indigenous self-government and to better understand how these notions are being treated in its implementation.

  7. Justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernysh Iryna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study and justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis policy of the state in the tourist industry. The article justifies and proves expediency of the use of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry. The article marks out the scientific problem of identification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry by scientists, provides the composition and specifies the characteristics of principles of the anti-crisis state policy, and justifies functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry; proves the necessity of identification of principles and functions when developing conceptual grounds of the anti-crisis state policy and establishes their interrelation and interdependence during realisation of the relevant concept.

  8. From Discovery to Justification: Outline of an Ideal Research Program in Empirical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Erich H.; Zenker, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The gold standard for an empirical science is the replicability of its research results. But the estimated average replicability rate of key-effects that top-tier psychology journals report falls between 36 and 39% (objective vs. subjective rate; Open Science Collaboration, 2015). So the standard mode of applying null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) fails to adequately separate stable from random effects. Therefore, NHST does not fully convince as a statistical inference strategy. We argue that the replicability crisis is “home-made” because more sophisticated strategies can deliver results the successful replication of which is sufficiently probable. Thus, we can overcome the replicability crisis by integrating empirical results into genuine research programs. Instead of continuing to narrowly evaluate only the stability of data against random fluctuations (discovery context), such programs evaluate rival hypotheses against stable data (justification context). PMID:29163256

  9. THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION OF THE CONCEPT OF INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS PROCESSES IN THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina G. Garanina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains theoretical and practical justification of the concept of innovative development of business processes based on the information analysis of the company’s infrastructure under the conditions of building a common information space. This study focuses on the supporting business processes update, on the documented information processing based on the state-of-the-art information technology solutions in particularly.The factors preventing an enterprise to build a common information space are highlighted in this study. The functional set of the management areas is examined and the degree of state-of-the-art information technology utilization to support the company’s process areas is analyzed. It is proposed to overcome the identified barriers through the automation of the company’s process areas and innovative development of supporting business processes of documented information processing by using modern information technology resources.

  10. Western Interventions in Current Wars: Political Justification and Civil Society´s Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Bueno Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, it seems to be an agreement in Western countries in favor of values included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. On the other hand, Western countries initiate or intervene in armed conflicts outside their territories, which implies actions contrary to such values. This article examines this apparent contradiction: it describes briefly the international context of contemporary conflicts and it refers to the just-war tradition in order to analyze both the position of the Charter of the United Nations and the justifications given by Western countries. Moreover, the arguments used by the US and the Spanish Governments to justify their interventions in the Afghanistan (2001 and Iraq (2008 wars, and the responses of civil society are considered.

  11. Biomechanical justification of the choice of optimum mode for passing the individual pursuit race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Kolumbet

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : biomechanical justification of the choice of optimum mode of passing competitive distance of 4 km individual pursuit on track. Material : The qualified cyclists (n=14 participated in researches. The modified stationary cycle Monark was used. Cyclists performed work in two modes - A and B. Results : The mode B is physiologically more favorable. The mode B should be considered as a model of passing a distance in preliminary races of individual pursuit. Work in the mode A demands terminal mobilization of organism functions. Work in the mode A is more effective in the achievement of sports result. It can be used only once in the final race of competitions. Conclusions : The received data should be considered as a demonstration of specific features of passing a distance in the competitive modes. The tactical variant of competitive program creation is defined by the individual functional state.

  12. Public Opinion and Foreign Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2009-02-26

    Feb 26, 2009 ... person of Charles Taylor, given his antecedents. Regardless ..... influence of the reactions of the public on the foreign policy actions of governments. ... tion reacted vehemently to this move, which was viewed as tantamount.

  13. Foreign body in the nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000037.htm Foreign body in the nose To use the sharing features ... in a normal attempt to explore their own bodies. Objects placed in the nose may include food, ...

  14. Foreign direct investment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bredero, Q.S.

    2007-01-01

    Foreign Direct Investment in China is one of the most comprehensive studies of FDI in China and provides a remarkable background of information on the evolution of China’s FDI policies over the last 30 years.

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it back and forth over the area of interest until the desired images are captured. There is ... operating suite, post-procedural hospitalization and greater complication rates than those experienced with other techniques. In spite ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... operating suite, post-procedural hospitalization and greater complication rates than those experienced with other techniques. In spite ... or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web ...

  17. The proposals on cooperation to foreign centers of science on thermophysical properties of reactor materials in a broad band of pressure and temperatures realized at normal transient and emergency operation activity of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortov, V.E.

    1996-01-01

    The proposals on cooperation in the area of thermophysical properties of reactor materials in a broad band of pressure and temperature realized at normal transient and emergency operation activity of nuclear power plants are discussed. 1 fig

  18. Justification of disintegration testing beyond current FDA criteria using in vitro and in silico models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebbing, Lukas; Klumpp, Lukas; Webster, Gregory K; Löbenberg, Raimar

    2017-01-01

    Drug product performance testing is an important part of quality-by-design approaches, but this process often lacks the underlying mechanistic understanding of the complex interactions between the disintegration and dissolution processes involved. Whereas a recent draft guideline by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has allowed the replacement of dissolution testing with disintegration testing, the mentioned criteria are not globally accepted. This study provides scientific justification for using disintegration testing rather than dissolution testing as a quality control method for certain immediate release (IR) formulations. A mechanistic approach, which is beyond the current FDA criteria, is presented. Dissolution testing via United States Pharmacopeial Convention Apparatus II at various paddle speeds was performed for immediate and extended release formulations of metronidazole. Dissolution profile fitting via DDSolver and dissolution profile predictions via DDDPlus™ were performed. The results showed that Fickian diffusion and drug particle properties (DPP) were responsible for the dissolution of the IR tablets, and that formulation factors (eg, coning) impacted dissolution only at lower rotation speeds. Dissolution was completely formulation controlled if extended release tablets were tested and DPP were not important. To demonstrate that disintegration is the most important dosage form attribute when dissolution is DPP controlled, disintegration, intrinsic dissolution and dissolution testing were performed in conventional and disintegration impacting media (DIM). Tablet disintegration was affected by DIM and model fitting to the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation showed a growing effect of the formulation in DIM. DDDPlus was able to predict tablet dissolution and the intrinsic dissolution profiles in conventional media and DIM. The study showed that disintegration has to occur before DPP-dependent dissolution can happen. The study suggests that

  19. Quality assurance in digital dental radiography--justification and dose reduction in dental and maxillofacial radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstern, F; Geibel, M-A

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of quality assurance requirements for digital dental radiography in routine clinical practice. The results should be discussed by radiation protection authorities in the context of the relevant legal requirements and current debates on radiation protection. Two hundred digital dental radiographs were randomly selected from the digital database of the Department of Dentistry's Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Ulm University, and evaluated for various aspects of image quality and compliance with radiographic documentation requirements. The dental films were prepared by different radiology assistants (RAs) using one of two digital intraoral radiographic systems: Sirona Heliodent DS, 60 kV, focal spot size: 0.7 mm (group A) or KaVo Gendex 765 DC, 65 kV, focal spot size: 0.4 mm (group B). Radiographic justification was documented in 70.5% of cases, and the radiographic findings in 76.5%. Both variables were documented in the patient records as well as in the software in 14% of cases. Clinical documentation of the required information (name of the responsible dentist and radiology assistant, date, patient name, department, tube voltage, tube current, exposure time, type of radiograph, film size, department and serial number of the dental radiograph) was 100% complete in all cases. Moreover, the department certified according to DIN ISO 9001:2008 specifications demonstrated complete clinical documentation of radiographic justifications and radiographic findings. The entire dentition was visible on 83% of the digital films. The visible area corresponded to the target region on 85.7% of the digital dental radiographs. Seven to 8.5% of the images were classified as "hypometric" or "hypermetric". This study indicates that improvements in radiology training and continuing education fordentists and dental staff performing x-ray examinations are needed to ensure consistent high quality of digital dental radiography. Implementation of

  20. On the perpetuation of ignorance: system dependence, system justification, and the motivated avoidance of sociopolitical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Steven; Kay, Aaron C

    2012-02-01

    How do people cope when they feel uninformed or unable to understand important social issues, such as the environment, energy concerns, or the economy? Do they seek out information, or do they simply ignore the threatening issue at hand? One would intuitively expect that a lack of knowledge would motivate an increased, unbiased search for information, thereby facilitating participation and engagement in these issues-especially when they are consequential, pressing, and self-relevant. However, there appears to be a discrepancy between the importance/self-relevance of social issues and people's willingness to engage with and learn about them. Leveraging the literature on system justification theory (Jost & Banaji, 1994), the authors hypothesized that, rather than motivating an increased search for information, a lack of knowledge about a specific sociopolitical issue will (a) foster feelings of dependence on the government, which will (b) increase system justification and government trust, which will (c) increase desires to avoid learning about the relevant issue when information is negative or when information valence is unknown. In other words, the authors suggest that ignorance-as a function of the system justifying tendencies it may activate-may, ironically, breed more ignorance. In the contexts of energy, environmental, and economic issues, the authors present 5 studies that (a) provide evidence for this specific psychological chain (i.e., ignorance about an issue → dependence → government trust → avoidance of information about that issue); (b) shed light on the role of threat and motivation in driving the second and third links in this chain; and (c) illustrate the unfortunate consequences of this process for individual action in those contexts that may need it most.

  1. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Rio, Ana Cristina Dal; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Nicola, Ester Maria Danielli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive proced...

  2. Foreign languages in advertising as implicit Country-of-Origin cues. Mechanism, associations, and effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornikx, J.M.A.; Meurs, W.F.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Brands can position themselves as belonging to a foreign culture by using foreign languages (FLs) in advertising. FLs in ads have been suggested to be implicit country-of-origin (COO) cues. This paper examines the expectations that FLs operate through the COO effect (Study 1), and that they evoke

  3. 75 FR 30372 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196 Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority ATC Logistics & Electronics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket T-2-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 196 Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution... filed an application submitted by the ATC Logistics & Electronics, operator of Site 2, FTZ 196...

  4. 26 CFR 1.959-3 - Allocation of distributions to earnings and profits of foreign corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... profits taxes imposed on or with respect to such distribution by any foreign country or possession of the..., after incurring $10 of foreign income tax allocable to such income under paragraph (c) of § 1.954-1, has... has earnings and profits of $300, consisting of operating income of $100 for each of the years 1963...

  5. Pedagogical Conditions of Multilevel Foreign Languages Teaching in Pedagogical Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakin, Vasily V.; Shukshina, Tatiana I.; Piskunova, Svetlana I.; Babushkina, Larisa E.; Falileev, Alexander E.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to pedagogical conditions of multilevel foreign languages teaching in pedagogical higher education. The purpose of the study is to form the students' skills in foreign language mastering, to form the ability to operate independently and autonomously in this activity, both in the specific learning situation, and in the…

  6. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... January 1 of the subsidized year, by surveying a data file known as “Merchant Fleets of the World” that is... total tonnage in the range. (e) Largest foreign flag not competitor. In the event that the Board... competitor of any particular operator, the Board may determine the foreign-flag competition in a manner that...

  7. Information Support of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Melnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Informatization and modern information technologies cover the most various areas of social, spiritual and material human life and have become the dominating globalization factor with major impact on world events. Modern international relations present new challenges and threats ofcross-border nature, which fall within the area of information security. This brings issues of informational influence on international policy to the fore. In this context the question of improvement and modernization of policy instruments for more effective use of modern means of implementation of foreign policy priorities, including information support of international activities, achieves fundamental importance. Given the complexity of modern international relations and tasks facing foreign affairs departments, diplomatic success in many cases depends onthe efficiency of information support. The article analyses current objectives and methods of information support of foreign policy in the context of modern Russian legislation. The author examines the approach of the Information and Press Department of the Russian Ministryof Foreign Affairs,a subdivision responsible for information support and international cooperation in the media sphere. The article specifies the key role of new information technologies for informing the audience expeditiously and to the full extent in regard to Russian approaches to the solution of international problems, foreign policy initiatives and actions of the Russian Federation, and for counteracting attempts to discredit Russian foreign policy.

  8. 31 CFR 595.304 - Foreign person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.304 Foreign person. The term foreign person means any citizen or national of a foreign state (including any such individual who is also a citizen or national of the United States), or any entity not...

  9. 31 CFR 594.304 - Foreign person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.304 Foreign person. The term foreign person means any citizen or national of a foreign state (including any such individual who is also a citizen or national of the United States), or any entity not...

  10. 17 CFR 240.3b-4 - Definition of “foreign government,” “foreign issuer” and “foreign private issuer”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... government,â âforeign issuerâ and âforeign private issuerâ. 240.3b-4 Section 240.3b-4 Commodity and... Definition of “foreign government,” “foreign issuer” and “foreign private issuer”. (a) The term foreign... country. (c) The term foreign private issuer means any foreign issuer other than a foreign government...

  11. STOMACH FOREIGN BODIES IN LABRADOR DOG AND ITS SURGICAL MANAGEMENT - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A one year old male Labrador dog was presented with a history of frequent vomiting, inappetence, depression, restlessness and with a suspicion of ingestion of metal key ring. Ultrasonography and radiographic examination revealed radio-opaque foreign body in stomach. Hence the case was diagnosed as gastric foreign body syndrome and surgical correction was planned to remove the foreign body from stomach. Under general anaesthesia gastrotomy was conducted and the foreign bodies were removed. Post-operatively administration of antibiotics, analgesics and regular dressing of wound was done and the dog recovered uneventfully

  12. 41 CFR 102-5.95 - Is the comfort and/or convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize home-to-work transportation? 102-5...-to-Work Transportation § 102-5.95 Is the comfort and/or convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize home-to-work transportation? No, the comfort and/or convenience of an...

  13. Inducing Attitude Change toward Online Gaming among Adolescent Players Based on Dissonance Theory: The Role of Threats and Justification of Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The negative impact of online gaming on adolescents has received much attention. The question of how to reduce their pathological use of online gaming is a critical issue. Based on the concept of external justification in dissonance theory, this experimental study aimed to examine whether severity of threat and justification of effort would impact…

  14. "Because I Am Worth It" : A Theoretical Framework and Empirical Review of a Justification-Based Account of Self-Regulation Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witt Huberts, Jessie C.; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    Self-regulation failure is often explained as being overwhelmed by impulse. The present article proposes a novel pathway, presenting a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure. With justification we refer to making excuses for one's

  15. Hidden foreign trade and corruption on customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Богдан Миколайович Головкін

    2017-12-01

    migration through the customs border of amber and wood, the manipulation of exports of grain and other highly liquid products deserve. Summarizing, we draw the following conclusions. Customs corruption is based on providing shadow foreign trade and covering economic crime on a transnational or transboundary scale. It is in violation of customs legislation by both parties in customs matters for the purpose of illegal enrichment. In corruption practices, all bodies and services that provide state control over the movement of goods through the customs border of Ukraine and carry out law-enforcement activities in this area participate. The level of corruption in the sphere of foreign economic activity depends on the volume of illegal export-import operations with raw materials and highly liquid products, as well as the ratio of official taxes and the cost of corruption services to economic entities. It was clarified that in parallel with "centralized corruption" in customs authorities there is "competitive corruption" between regional customs and their structural divisions for providing corruption services at lower prices. Measures to prevent corruption and crime should be aimed at reducing the profitability of shadow foreign trade by liberalizing the tax burden at the same time while strengthening control over transfer pricing, including the customs service into an integrated security system throughout the supply chain, implementing common customs control, managing risky operations.

  16. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Sinonasal metallic foreign body penetration of the anterior cranial fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine B. Samuelson

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Intracranial metallic foreign bodies may have significant potential morbidity. Recent advances in endonasal techniques for anterior skull base access may enhance outcomes through reduced morbidity and mortality, improved speed and precision, shorter hospital stays, and lower post-operative pain [1,2,4]. Technical nuances of these approaches and medical decision-making in the context of various neurosurgical considerations are discussed.

  18. Metallic foreign body in esophagus: Are multiple radiographs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-rays that established the diagnosis and prompted the referral. Despite the initial X-ray films confirming the diagnosis, further plain X-rays of the neck soft tissue, chest and abdomen may be obtained to confirm the position of the foreign body before operative extraction is attempted, thus exposing the patient to further doses ...

  19. South African legislation on limiting private and foreign higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of the amendments were aimed at limiting the operations of private and foreign higher education institutions in South Africa. Good arguments exist for the ... The article introduces a link to the concept of globalisation by indicating how global financial markets impact on developing countries. It then explores the ...

  20. Benchmarking Human Capital Strategies of Domestic and Foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The object of this research is to investigate the human resource management strategies in the Nigerian Airline Industry. A comparative study was conducted in Nigeria's airline industry to examine the extent to which Domestic Airlines (DAs) and Foreign Airlines (FAs) operating in the country are using Human Resource ...

  1. 26 CFR 1.954-1 - Foreign base company income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the rules of section 951 and thus is subject to current taxation under section 1, 11 or 55 of the... through FP and separately without FP. Based on the facts in the table below, the foreign base company... interest income is from sources within CFC's country of operation, is subject to a $10 income tax therein...

  2. Principles of accounting in the information space of foreign economic activity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Yu. Gordopolov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents scientific results confirming the influence of the external environment on the need for revision of accounting principles in accordance with the characteristics of economic activity. A model of the relationship between the management system and the subsystem of accounting of the subject of foreign economic activity was developed. The study substantiates the approach to the formation of information in accounting, which indirectly depends on how the system of management of foreign economic activity at the enterprise is constructed. The influence of accounting information support on creation of the communication space of the system of management of foreign economic activity is determined. The directions of transformation of accounting principles of foreign economic operations in the context of the influence of the management system of foreign economic activity of the enterprise are presented. The article presents the proposed changes in the part of the transformation of accounting principles of foreign economic activity.

  3. What We Talk About When We Talk About Morality: Deontological, Consequentialist, and Emotive Language Use in Justifications Across Foundation-Specific Moral Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Melissa A; Laham, Simon M

    2016-09-01

    Morality is inherently social, yet much extant work in moral psychology ignores the central role of social processes in moral phenomena. To partly address this, this article examined the content of persuasive moral communication-the way people justify their moral attitudes in persuasive contexts. Across two studies, we explored variation in justification content (deontological, consequentialist, or emotive) as a function of moral foundations. Using justification selection techniques (Study 1) and open-ended justification production (Study 2), results demonstrate a preference (a) for deontological appeals in justifications for the sanctity foundation, (b) for consequentialist appeals for the individualizing foundations (care and fairness), and (c) for emotive appeals in justifications for the binding foundations (loyalty, authority and sanctity). The present research questions the generality of inferences about the primacy of emotions/intuition in moral psychology research and highlights the important role of reasons in persuasive moral communication. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedures include the need for anesthesia and an operating suite, post-procedural hospitalization and greater complication rates ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  5. TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TO FOREIGNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Claudia Horea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English as a foreign language requires very different approaches if we consider the recipients of the didactic process. Concerning the practical aspects of the primary task of a language instructor, namely teaching, skills of all sorts are required in order to be able to use best methods and most appropriate resources and up to date materials and devices. Moreover, to teach students of your own mother tongue is one very distinct thing from teaching foreigners. These two categories, namely students of the same mother tongue as their teacher and foreigners, have two things in common, namely: first, they are the subjects on whom the activity of teaching English is to be applied and second, this language is not their native tongue. These facts can thus be reduced to one idea: addressing to recipients of EFL teaching. Still, there is a big difference between teaching the first category mentioned, those who have the same mother tongue as the teacher and teaching the second category, foreigners, to whom not even the vaguest hints can be provided in other language than English. There comes a new challenge, an extra endeavour for an even more special approach. This study undertakes to present some of the distinctions entailed at the level of teaching methods and to parallel the diverse methodological approaches for the two situations presented. Are the four skills that language acquisition assumes to be taught distinctly and shall the approaches in each particular situation differ from one case to the other or not too much? It takes some distinct features to be or, better saying, to become a teacher of languages; and to teach English as foreign language to foreigners is a new development within this typology, a diverse dimension. New levels of character traits are instinctively reached by instructors in order to better cope, unconsciously, psychologically and emotionally, with the upgraded’ challenges.

  6. Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate various factors that influence consumers’ intention of buying foreign products. The data were collected by means of self-structured questionnaires from a total of 260 Bangladeshi consumers residing in the two major cities of the country, Dhaka and Chittagong. At the initial stage, statistical analyses, particularly descriptive analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis, were conducted using SPSS, after which structural equation modeling was run by using AMOS. The findings have established that brand image and quality of foreign products carry significant positive influence on purchase intention of foreign products. However, religiosity leaves a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of foreign products. Furthermore, findings have also revealed that the image of the country of origin carries a significant positive effect on brand image but ethnocentrism carries a significant negative effect on perceptions about the quality of foreign products in their purchase intention. The major contribution of the current study is that it focuses on Bangladesh, as there is a vacuum in contemporary literature on this topic in the context of Bangladeshi consumers. The findings derived from the study could facilitate marketers in the creation of effective marketing strategies and at the same time are also valuable for academicians as well as consumers at large.

  7. Foreign bodies in the torax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćerimagić Zenaida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metallic foreign bodies in the lung could be recognized using radiography. Non-metallic foreign bodies make difficulties because they are not as dense as metals. The aim of this report was to present the case of nonmetallic foreign bodies in the lung. Case report. A soldier of the Federation Army of Bosnia and Hertzegovina, injured in the explosion in 1998 was presented. The soldier was subjected to thoracic drainage and surgery tretment of the wound. After one year, the pulmologist treated him with tuberculostatics because of hemoptysis and pulmonary infiltration shown by a radiogram. This therapy had no effects, and the pulmologist presented this case to the thoracic surgeon who made thoracotomy removing a piece of wood (13 × 2 × 0.7 cm, 20 different-size pieces of wood, and a piece of textile from the lung. Conclusion. Patients with penetrating explosive lung injuries without metallic foreign bodies shown by a radiogram, with complications as hemoptisis, lung abscess, bronchiectasis, obstruction of the bronchus, chronic pneumonia should be subjected to thoracotomy for removing suspected foreign bodies without resecting the lung.

  8. Thinking in a foreign language, fast and slow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turula Anna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies (Keysar et al., 2012; Lazar et al., 2014 suggest that decisions made in a foreign language are more rational. The authors imply that when thinking in a language which is not our native tongue, analytical, slow, deep-thinking is activated. The question that underlies the present article is whether this is a characteristic of every mental operation in the foreign medium. Studies carried out by Costa et al. (2014, Geipel et al. (2015 and Hadjichristidis et al. (2015 suggest the issue is much more complex than it may seem.

  9. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1988/1989 Submitted to Congress. Operation & Maintenance, Marine Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    N $0 4 >U4. .v i 104 00 0 00 w 4) 0 :3 N r.’U -r4 0 0400 9~~ 0 (a~ ~!k= 4- w A = :3 ki td 0 l i C4In 0 m 0-4 0 NQ m m Qo o mL q~ rr-4m Q v N . 4... 4bd IV 4 a 0 k 6- u* ’ 44 0% 4 h hi Ř 0 -4 Ř 0 V’ wi *4 6 600. J a 0 $4 41 4 Q P4 6k Ca at%~ 640 4 hi � ki -4 4 $i F’ 6 4 .0 41-4 M, 0 % 4 +i c...34444 V) 9; H 𔃺 4.) W r1) 0 go 02 V4 02 *4 4)0 0 g 𔃺 𔃺 -’-4 H 0 0 - > 41 0~ 4) 0d 0 0 0 $4 (A0 .02 td 0 r * r q la0 . 10 rd 4H 04 4 .) v . 4. u.’ 50

  10. Justification of disintegration testing beyond current FDA criteria using in vitro and in silico models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uebbing L

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lukas Uebbing,1,2,* Lukas Klumpp,1,3,* Gregory K Webster,4 Raimar Löbenberg1 1Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Katz Group-Rexall Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; 2Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, 3Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; 4Global Research and Development, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Drug product performance testing is an important part of quality-by-design approaches, but this process often lacks the underlying mechanistic understanding of the complex interactions between the disintegration and dissolution processes involved. Whereas a recent draft guideline by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has allowed the replacement of dissolution testing with disintegration testing, the mentioned criteria are not globally accepted. This study provides scientific justification for using disintegration testing rather than dissolution testing as a quality control method for certain immediate release (IR formulations. A mechanistic approach, which is beyond the current FDA criteria, is presented. Dissolution testing via United States Pharmacopeial Convention Apparatus II at various paddle speeds was performed for immediate and extended release formulations of metronidazole. Dissolution profile fitting via DDSolver and dissolution profile predictions via DDDPlus™ were performed. The results showed that Fickian diffusion and drug particle properties (DPP were responsible for the dissolution of the IR tablets, and that formulation factors (eg, coning impacted dissolution only at lower rotation speeds. Dissolution was completely formulation controlled if extended release tablets were tested and DPP were not important. To demonstrate that disintegration is the most important dosage form attribute when dissolution is

  11. Researching Justification Texts of a First Instance Court: from Assignment to Results and Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Langbroek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Court decisions are reasoned to legitimize them. Lay people seem to understand little of the work of the courts. One of the questions for court administrators and judges is: for whom do judges write their judgments? Is it possible to analyze judicial justification texts with a view to the audiences they address? We answered that question by developing a methodology for the analysis of judgment justification texts, investigating judicial writing behavior. This paper focuses on the methodological hurdles we had to take and the mistakes we made and had to correct. Research reports in all articles on socio-legal research offer a positive and linear description of the research. This article wants to show that trial and error during the research process were inevitable and maybe could have been avoided if we would have had more experience with this type of research. We hope students and other researchers may profit from our experience. Las decisiones judiciales se razonan para legitimarlas. Los profanos en la materia parecen entender poco de la labor de los tribunales. Una de las preguntas a administradores de tribunales y jueces es: ¿para quién redactan los jueces sus sentencias? ¿Es posible analizar los textos de justificación judiciales desde la perspectiva del público a quien se dirigen? Hemos respondido a esta pregunta mediante el desarrollo de una metodología para el análisis de textos de justificación judiciales, investigando el comportamiento de la escritura judicial. Este artículo se centra en los obstáculos metodológicos que tuvimos que sortear y los errores que cometimos y tuvimos que corregir. Los informes de investigación en todos los artículos de investigación sociojurídica ofrecen una descripción positiva y lineal de la investigación. Este artículo quiere demostrar que la prueba y el error eran inevitables durante el proceso de investigación eran inevitables, y podrían haberse evitado si hubiéramos tenido mayor

  12. The Transitional Justice Models and the Justifications of Means of Dealing with the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Krotoszynski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of transitional justice measures can be fully understood only when one takes into account the values, rationales and justifications that lie at the roots of various ways of dealing with past wrongs. Seeing transitional justice as an ontologically complex structure, the article aims to relate the legal instruments that concentrate on past abusers to the axiological layer of settling accounts with the past. In order to do so, three basic models of transitional justice – a retribution model, a historical clarification model and a thick line model – all based on the measures implemented during democratic change, are presented. Then, with the use of a classic division between consequentialist and deontological argumentation, the article describes transitional justice justifications. Next, the values emblematic for each of the models are identified. Finally, the article proposes a structure of transitional justice moral reasoning that may guide transitional decision-making process on the axiological level. El desarrollo de medidas de justicia transicional sólo puede entenderse en su totalidad cuando se tienen en cuenta los valores, razones y justificaciones que subyacen en las raíces de las diversas maneras de tratar con los errores del pasado. Al ver la justicia transicional como una estructura ontológicamente compleja, el artículo pretende relacionar los instrumentos jurídicos que se concentran en los agresores del pasado con la capa axiológica de ajustar cuentas con el pasado. Para conseguirlo, se presentan tres modelos básicos de justicia transicional -un modelo de retribución, un modelo de esclarecimiento histórico y un modelo de línea gruesa-, todos basados en las medidas aplicadas durante un cambio democrático. Seguidamente, el artículo describe las justificaciones de la justicia transicional, con el uso de una división clásica entre argumentación consecuencialista y deontológica. A continuación, se

  13. The acceptability of conducting data linkage research without obtaining consent: lay people's views and justifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xafis, Vicki

    2015-11-17

    A key ethical issue arising in data linkage research relates to consent requirements. Patients' consent preferences in the context of health research have been explored but their consent preferences regarding data linkage specifically have been under-explored. In addition, the views on data linkage are often those of patient groups. As a result, little is known about lay people's views and their preferences about consent requirements in the context of data linkage. This study explores lay people's views and justifications regarding the acceptability of conducting data linkage research without obtaining consent. A qualitative study explored lay people's views regarding consent requirements in data linkage via four hypothetical data linkage scenarios of increasing complexity. Prior to considering the scenarios, participants were provided with information regarding best practice data linkage processes via discussion and a diagrammatic representation of the process. Lay people were able to understand the intricate processes involved in data linkage and the key protections afforded within a short amount of time. They were supportive of data linkage research and, on the whole, believed it should be conducted without consent provided a data linkage organization de-identifies the data used so that researchers do not handle identifiable data. Many thought that de-identified data holds a different status to identifiable data and should be used without specific consent in research that aims to benefit society. In weighing up conflicting values and interests, participants shifted consent preferences before arriving at their final consent preference for each scenario and provided justifications for their choices. They considered the protection of people's information, societal benefits, and the nature and constraints of research and recognized that these need to be balanced. With some exposure to the features of data linkage, lay people have the capacity to understand the

  14. Post-War Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Training, Peacekeeping, and Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M; Blanchard, Christopher M

    2007-01-01

    .... policymakers since the launch of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003. This report tracks important changes in financial and personnel pledges from foreign governments since the August 19, 2003 bombing of the U.N...

  15. Post-War Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Training, Peacekeeping, and Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M; Blanchard, Christopher M

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers since the launch of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003. This report tracks important changes in financial and personnel pledges from foreign governments since the August 19, 2003 bombing of the U.N...

  16. Post-War Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Training, Peacekeeping, and Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M; Blanchard, Christopher M

    2005-01-01

    .... policymakers since the launch of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003. This report tracks important changes in financial and personnel pledges from foreign governments since the August 19, 2003 bombing of the U.N...

  17. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  18. 15 CFR 30.52 - Foreign Trade Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign Trade Zones. 30.52 Section 30.52 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Import Requirements § 30.52 Foreign Trade Zones. Foreign...

  19. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9 Section 806.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship...

  20. Foreign and domestic experience of economic development of the Arctic territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy A. Matviishin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the key aspects of the Arctic exploration. There is a brief description of the Arctic Council, as well as strategic goals, objectives, activities and resources used of member countries and observer organizations to achieve these goals. The resource base of the Arctic region is studied. The economic analysis of the Arctic territories by circumpolar states, including the characteristics of resource projects, is arranged. The features of the Russian and foreign approaches to the management of the economy in the Arctic are noted. The method of logical analysis, economic and statistical and historical methods are used in the research. The result is the scientific justification of advantages and potential of domestic experience of development of the Arctic, and also of the necessity of timely adaptation of economic approaches, investment policy and the legislation according to the current chalenges and tendencies.

  1. Creativity in foreign language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ševečková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing creativity in foreign language teaching provides students with the opportunity to effectively build language skills as well as increasing their motivation for learning. Practical examples are given using folklore materials (songs, tales, etc. in learning Russian, as well as contemporary materials reflecting the culture of Russian speaking countries (films, poems, etc.. As well as increasing their ability in the target foreign language students also acquire factual information (realia through creative language games. In this paper we describe recent findings in the field and propose possible directions for future research.

  2. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  3. Employment effects of foreign acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems...... that the employment of skilled labor increasesmore than that of less-skilled labor. Our results indicate that the positive employment effects are more pronounced in acquired non-MNEs than in Swedish MNEs. Furthermore, we observe shifts in skill intensities toward higher shares of skilled labor in non-MNEs taken over...

  4. Foreign Body Aspiration in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Atkinson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old morbidly obese African American gravida 1, with a history of severe asthma complicated by multiple inpatient admissions, presents at 30 weeks gestation with a foreign body in her left main stem bronchus. After a failed bronchoscopy postpartum, the patient slipped into respiratory failure and was subsequently intubated, spending two weeks in the intensive care unit. After two more attempts of trying to retrieve the foreign object from her lung via bronchoscopy, she eventually contracted a postobstructive pneumonia and underwent a left lower lung lobectomy for curative treatment.

  5. Foreign criteria and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Thompson, I.M.G.

    1993-03-01

    The concept of measurement quality assurance (MQA) as embodied in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) programs is not generally used within European programs for testing or accreditation. Although the essential elements of quality control and quality assurance are in the European programs, the concept of testing the capability of the laboratory itself, in terms of its performance for the designated measurements, may not be included. Rather, the European programs use the concept of periodic calibration of laboratory reference standards against the next highest level of standards. Thus, they embody the concept of measurement traceability to appropriate primary standards. Within Europe a series of calibration accreditation programs has been established in the various countries tied together through a multilateral agreement. The radiation measurement programs are based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 series of standards. The purpose of this paper is to outline the overall operation of European Accreditation Programs in the radiation calibration and measurement areas. The operation of the radiation measurement programs of the National Measurement Accreditation Service (NAMAS) in the United Kingdom is described in detail along with other European programs. The manner in which these programs relate to individual dosimetry service programs is also described

  6. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Language serves different purposes depending on the international activity in question. Language has many dimensions and firms’ communicative requirements vary by operational platform. We argue that different dimensions of language vary in their importance depending on the operation mode chosen...... for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand......, and Sweden that have undertaken a business operation in a foreign country....

  7. Justification and Persuasion about Cloning: Arguments in Hwang's Paper and Journalistic Reported Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar; Federico-Agraso, Marta

    2009-05-01

    We examine the argumentative structure of Hwang et al.’s (2004) paper about human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, or ‘therapeutic cloning’), contrasted with four Journalistic Reported Versions (JRV) of it, and with students’ summaries of one JRV. As the evaluation of evidence is one of the critical features of argumentation (Jiménez-Aleixandre 2008), the analysis focuses on the use of evidence, drawing from instruments to analyze written argumentation (Kelly et al. 2008) and from studies about the structure of empirical research reports (Swales 2001). The objectives are: 1) To examine the use of evidence and the argumentative structure of Hwang et al.’s Science, 303: 1669-1674 (2004) original paper in terms of the criteria: a) pertinence of the evidence presented to the claims; b) sufficiency of the evidence for the purpose of supporting the claims; and c) coordination of the evidence across epistemic levels. 2) To explore how the structure of Hwang’s paper translates into the JRV and into university students’ perceptions about the evidence supporting the claims. The argumentative structure of Hwang’s paper is such that its apparently ostensible main claim about NT constitutes a justification for a second claim about its therapeutic applications, for which no evidence is offered. However, this second claim receives prominent treatment in the JRV and in the students’ summaries. Implications for promoting critical reading in the classroom are discussed.

  8. Mortality Salience, System Justification, and Candidate Evaluations in the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sterling

    Full Text Available Experiments conducted during the 2004 and 2008 U.S. presidential elections suggested that mortality salience primes increased support for President George W. Bush and Senator John McCain, respectively. Some interpreted these results as reflecting "conservative shift" following exposure to threat, whereas others emphasized preferences for "charismatic" leadership following exposure to death primes. To assess both hypotheses in the context of a new election cycle featuring a liberal incumbent who was considered to be charismatic, we conducted four experiments shortly before the 2012 election involving President Barack Obama and Governor Mitt Romney. Contrary to earlier studies, there was little evidence that mortality salience, either by itself or in interaction with political orientation, affected overall candidate ratings or voting intentions. However, a significant interaction between mortality salience and system justification in some studies indicated a more circumscribed effect. The failure to "replicate" previous results in the context of this election may be attributable to disagreement among participants as to which of the candidates better represented the societal status quo.

  9. Seriously ill patients as living unspecified kidney donors: rationale and justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakké, Yannick S; Zuidema, Willij C; Hilhorst, Medard T; Erdman, Ruud A M; Massey, Emma K; Betjes, Michiel G H; Dor, Frank J M F; IJzermans, Jan N M; Weimar, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Between 2000 and December 2013, 106 live donor nephrectomies from anonymous living-donors were performed at the Erasmus MC Rotterdam; five of the donors (5.4%) had a life-threatening disease. The aim of the present report is to give the rational and justification for this procedure. All five donors underwent the national standard living-donor screening procedure. Additionally, motivation to donate and psychologic stability were assessed by a psychologist using in-depth interview techniques and a psychologic complaints questionnaire. Post-donor nephrectomy follow-up consisted of standard questionnaires and clinical check-ups. One patient had cerebral and caudal ependymomas, one had severe and progressive emphysema, two had Huntington's disease and one had a grade 2 oligodendroglioma. The psychologic screening revealed genuine motivation, adequate risk perception, and normal sense of reality. No contraindications for donation were found. The five donor nephrectomies made nine kidney transplantations possible. All donors were satisfied with the donation procedure. Three donors died during follow-up (0.6-4.9 years) as a result of their disease. In the absence of apparent additional health risks, medical, and psychologic contraindications, we consider it ethically justified to accept an offer from a cognitively competent patient with a life-threatening disease in view of their self-reported satisfaction during follow-up. Although based on a limited number of patients, we conclude that a stricter psychologic screening for seriously ill donors compared to healthy unspecified anonymous donors to unspecified patients is not necessary.

  10. Al-Qaida threats and strategies : the religious justification for targeting the international energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.F.

    2008-03-15

    Methods of analyzing threats generated by terrorists against the energy industry were discussed. Threat was defined as the product of an adversary's capability, intent, and authority to engage a target using a specific attack mode. The paper argued that robust models for threat must demonstrate a cultural awareness of the adversary in question. The study used an al-Qaida attack to develop and critique the religious justification offered by Salafi-Jihadi religious scholars for attacking the energy industry. The importance of the fatawa's religious authority was evaluated, and cultural drivers for al-Qaida were explored in relation to the threat model. An assessment of past terrorist acts against energy industry infrastructure was conducted. Various relevant fatawa issued by religious scholars were discussed. Socio-political and religious attributes of the al-Qaida movement were outlined using the Combating Terrorism Center's militant ideology atlas. The threat equation was expanded to include authority and cultural influences. The threat model was developed by assigning information to bins of capability, intent, and authority in order to assess and evaluate data. The Kalman filter technique was used to determine threat drivers. 98 refs., 20 figs.

  11. Justification of Constructing Rijeka-Zagreb Motorway Section for the Development of the Port of Rijeka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Huzjan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the significance of the Rijeka-Zagrebmotorway for the development of the Port of Rijeka, as well asits significance in the European road network and the networkof state motorways. It gives a short historic overview of thephase construction of the Rijeka-Zagreb motorway per sectionsand years of completion, and the most important parametersare mentioned that influence the justification of the upgradingof the motorway section to full transversal profile.Since "traffic" is one of the key components of developmentand necessary for all the aspects of human activities, the completionof a safe, reliable and fast traffic connection of the Croatiancapital with the biggest Croatian port represents the keyfactor of the Strategy of traffic development of the Republic ofCroatia.Besides, the Rijeka-Zagreb motorway represents the backboneof the Croatian motorway network, since it integrates theCroatian space connecting it with the European traffic corridors.Thus, new possibilities are opened to the national economy,mainly tourism and port traffic, and bringing direct benefits.Therefore, the greatest significance of the construction i. e.upgrading of this motorway lies precisely in raising the qualityof traffic service regarding road connection, but also in a widertraffic sense.

  12. Legal policy justification for the crime of non-covered use of payment cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors discuss the legal policy reasons for the crime of non-covered use of payments cards (Criminal Code, Art. 228(1. In the first part of the paper the ratio legis of this crime is explained. It is concluded that the non-covered use of payment cards deserves to be criminally sanctioned only when, based of the card's use, the card issuer becomes personally liable for payment to the third party not privy to the contract between the issuer and the card-holder. Conversely, criminal proscribing is not justified when debit cards are used at the point-of-sale or the ATM of another bank, since here the issuer authorizes the payment transaction and thereby participates in assuming his own obligation to pay to the third party. The second part of the paper contains critical analysis of the proscribed non-covered use of payment cards in the Serbian Criminal Code. In this respect the authors show the lack of clarity and certain discrepancies with the explained ratio legis of such a crime. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the issues regarding the justification of criminal proscribing in this field, in the last part of the paper the authors suggest possible solutions de lege ferenda.

  13. Development and Verification of the Computer Codes for the Fast Reactors Nuclear Safety Justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, A.E.; Mosunova, N.A.; Strizhov, V.F.

    2015-01-01

    The information on the status of the work on development of the system of the nuclear safety codes for fast liquid metal reactors is presented in paper. The purpose of the work is to create an instrument for NPP neutronic, thermohydraulic and strength justification including human and environment radiation safety. The main task that is to be solved by the system of codes developed is the analysis of the broad spectrum of phenomena taking place on the NPP (including reactor itself, NPP components, containment rooms, industrial site and surrounding area) and analysis of the impact of the regular and accidental releases on the environment. The code system is oriented on the ability of fully integrated modeling of the NPP behavior in the coupled definition accounting for the wide range of significant phenomena taking place on the NPP under normal and accident conditions. It is based on the models that meet the state-of-the-art knowledge level. The codes incorporate advanced numerical methods and modern programming technologies oriented on the high-performance computing systems. The information on the status of the work on verification of the separate codes of the system of codes is also presented. (author)

  14. Mandatory influenza vaccination for all healthcare personnel: a review on justification, implementation and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiffany L; Jing, Ling; Bocchini, Joseph A

    2017-10-01

    As healthcare-associated influenza is a serious public health concern, this review examines legal and ethical arguments supporting mandatory influenza vaccination policies for healthcare personnel, implementation issues and evidence of effectiveness. Spread of influenza from healthcare personnel to patients can result in severe harm or death. Although most healthcare personnel believe that they should be vaccinated against seasonal influenza, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that only 79% of personnel were vaccinated during the 2015-2016 season. Vaccination rates were as low as 44.9% in institutions that did not promote or offer the vaccine, compared with rates of more than 90% in institutions with mandatory vaccination policies. Policies that mandate influenza vaccination for healthcare personnel have legal and ethical justifications. Implementing such policies require multipronged approaches that include education efforts, easy access to vaccines, vaccine promotion, leadership support and consistent communication emphasizing patient safety. Mandatory influenza vaccination for healthcare personnel is a necessary step in protecting patients. Patients who interact with healthcare personnel are often at an elevated risk of complications from influenza. Vaccination is the best available strategy for protecting against influenza and evidence shows that institutional policies and state laws can effectively increase healthcare personnel vaccination rates, decreasing the risk of transmission in healthcare settings. There are legal and ethical precedents for institutional mandatory influenza policies and state laws, although successful implementation requires addressing both administrative and attitudinal barriers.

  15. Toxicity of Atorvastatin on Pancreas Mitochondria: A Justification for Increased Risk of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighara, Melina; Amirsheardost, Zahra; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Salimi, Ahmad; Seydi, Enayatollah; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-02-01

    Statins (including atorvastatin) are a widely used class of drugs, and like all medications, they have a potential for adverse effects. Recently, it has been shown that statins also exert side effects on the pancreas. In vitro studies have suggested that this class of drugs induced a reduction in insulin secretion. Also, the use of statins is associated with a raised risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but the mechanisms underlying statin-induced diabetes are poorly known. Literature data indicate that several statins are able to induce apoptosis signalling. This study was designed to examine the mechanism of atorvastatin on mitochondria obtained from rat pancreas. In our study, mitochondria were obtained from the pancreas and then exposed to atorvastatin and vehicle to investigate probable toxic effects. The results showed that atorvastatin (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 μM) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial swelling, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, the orchestrating factor for mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signalling. Atorvastatin also reduced the ATP levels. These results propose that the toxicity of atorvastatin on pancreas mitochondria is a key point for drug-induced apoptotic cell loss in the pancreas and therefore a justification for increased risk of DM. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  16. THE ROLE OF THE ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION IN THE COLLECTIVE DISMISSAL PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Mihai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Given that any collective dismissal process must begin from a decision of the competent corporate body, the paper analyzes the reasons leading to the issuance of such a decision of reorganization, which is the justification for technical and economic viability of that decision and what It must include to be thorough and legal in the context of a possible legal claim before the courts. We studied the role of the efficient and complex analysis of the company in terms of organizational and / or economic reasons but also the impact that the change in the company's structure will have by reducing the positions for which the activity will be considered redundant through the same analysis. Research aimed the position and the implications such an economic analysis will have on the entire collective dismissal procedures, procedures that are very precisely controlled by state institutions empowered by the phases imposed by law but also in agreement with the employer`s social partner. In a state that encourages commercial freedom and the exclusive organizational privilege of the employer, may the court censor the effects of this procedure analyzing itself the opportunity of reducing positions targeted by the reorganization caused by economic reasons, or may issue c onsiderations strictly in terms of reality and the seriousness of the causes that led to the adoption of such a decision of the employer?

  17. Do ethnicity and polygyny contribute to justification of men beating women in Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Tuoyire, Derek Anamaale

    2016-01-01

    Violence against intimate partners threatens public health and social cohesion, and its prevalence could increase with an attitude of justification of such violence. The objective of this article was to use religion and ethnicity as proxies for culture to examine Ghanaian women's acceptance of being beaten. We employed descriptive and binary logistic regression statistics applied to Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data collected in 2011 in Ghana. With a weighted sample of 10,627 women, the findings revealed that more than half (59.83%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 57.41%, 62.2%) of the respondents justified at least one form of intimate partner violence (IPV) or another and being a Mole-Dagbani (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.41; 95%; CI = 1.05, 1.90) and/or in a polygamous marriage/union (AOR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.420) were significant risk factors for justifying IPV. Activism in promoting IPV-free communities has to be group-specific to reach those in need of interventions.

  18. Humanity and Justice in Global Health: Problems with Venkatapuram's Justification of the Global Health Duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollar, Eszter; Laukötter, Sebastian; Buyx, Alena

    2016-01-01

    One of the most ambitious and sophisticated recent approaches to provide a theory of global health justice is Sridhar Venkatapuram's recent work. In this commentary, we first outline the core idea of Venkatapuram's approach to global health justice. We then argue that one of the most important elements of the account, Venkatapuram's basis of global health duties, is either too weak or assumed implicitly without a robust justification. The more explicit grounding of the duty to protect and promote health capabilities is based on Martha Nussbaum's version of the capability approach. We argue that this foundation gives rise to humanitarian duties rather than duties of justice proper. Venkatapuram's second argument from the social determinants of health thesis is instead a stronger candidate for grounding duties of justice. However, as a justificatory argument, it is only alluded to and has not yet been spelled out sufficiently. We offer plausible justificatory steps to fill this gap and draw some implications for global health action. We believe this both strengthens Venkatapuram's approach and serves to broaden the basis for future action in the area of global health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Economic justification of building a power plant on gas from the city dump in Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihamarn, K.; Popovska, Sanja

    1995-01-01

    Municipal waste treatment is a big problem in almost all urban environments in the world. Its combustion, after previous material sorting and separation for which recycling is possible, is considered the best method. Unfortunately, this method is very expensive and it can be used only in developed countries. Methane production from the municipal waste and its further use in the electric power production is consider a more appropriate method for developing countries. In the Republic of Macedonia the municipal waste problem is foremost in Skopje, where the cumulative quantities of municipal waste enable the production of c-ca 2 million m3 methane annually, sufficing to propel of a thermal power plant capacitating 11 MW. Considering all possible risks of non systematic and incomplete waste retrieval, the estimate is that under the current conditions, the 5,5 MW need of the thermal power plant can completely be covered. According to the data processed from the 5,5 MW Greenmaunt power plant in New Zealand which is being exploited for the last 5 years, the attempt of a evaluating the economic justification of setting up an equivalent power plant in Skopje is currently underway. 2 tabs

  20. Neurology of Foreign Language Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    This state-of-the art paper focuses on the poorly explored issue of foreign language aptitude, attempting to present the latest developments in this field and reconceptualizations of the construct from the perspective of neuroscience. In accordance with this goal, it first discusses general directions in neurolinguistic research on foreign…

  1. Culture in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire

    2013-01-01

    In foreign language education, the teaching of culture remains a hotly debated issue. What is culture? What is its relation to language? Which and whose culture should be taught? What role should the learners' culture play in the acquisition of knowledge of the target culture? How can we avoid essentializing cultures and teaching stereotypes? And…

  2. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Dal Rio, Ana Cristina; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Nicola, Ester Maria Danielli

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  3. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  4. Foreign Language Learning in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpet, Brian R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a visit made to Sweden to ascertain why Swedish citizens speak such excellent English. Motivation was a key factor. Describes observations of the methods of teaching English as a second language in Swedish schools. Makes recommendations for foreign language teaching in Great Britain based on these observations. (SED)

  5. Authorizing the Foreign Language Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, Hiram H.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews current practices in foreign-language teaching in light of Bourdieu's theories of language and power to show how failing to assess discursive intent prevents students from understanding strategic use of language. Bordieu's model is then proposed as the basis for pedagogy that authorizes students to use their existing cognitive skills in…

  6. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  7. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  8. Strengthening Foreign Language Professional Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Lowell

    1971-01-01

    The leitmotif of this address, inspired by lines found in William B. Yeats'"The Second Coming", underscores the need for a greater display of solidarity of language teachers through increased participation in professional associations. The work of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) is discussed and noted to be vital…

  9. The Ego-Defensive Role of Legitimacy: How Threat-Based Justifications Protect the Self-Esteem of Discriminators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cicero Roberto; Álvaro, José Luis; Vala, Jorge

    2018-05-01

    This article analyzes the ego-defensive role played by legitimation, by examining the hypothesis that threat-based justifications attenuate the negative effect on an individual's self-esteem caused by his or her becoming aware of his or her own discriminatory behavior. Across three studies (including a pilot experiment), participants who were led to believe that they had acted in a discriminatory way experienced a decrease in their self-esteem. In Study 1 ( N = 116), this effect was nullified when discrimination was justified by either symbolic or realistic threat perceptions. Study 2 ( N = 250) replicated this pattern of results and went further by showing that discrimination affects self-esteem only in more egalitarian individuals, whereas for those less egalitarian, it affects their social image. According to the ego-defensive role of legitimation, a meta-analytical integration of the results confirmed that the influence of discrimination in depressing self-esteem is moderated by threat-based justifications.

  10. Foreign Banks Set Sights on Housing Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Having cleared all the hurdles to enter the market, locally incorporated foreign banks declare their intentions to dive into the personal housing loan business in China A battle is brewing between domestic and locally incorporated foreign banks over the

  11. Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct Investment In Nigerian Agriculture (1970 -2009): An Econometric Analysis. ... The study showed that foreign exchange and the economic deregulation policy of Nigerian government ...

  12. Enlightenment From Motivation In Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2015-01-01

    This paper selects one of classifications of motivation in foreign language learning,that is,instrumental and integrative motivation.By analyzing such a distinction,it hopes to direct foreign language teaching in China.

  13. Urethral Foreign Body Management: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Andy Y.; Koh, Chester J.; Stein, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The management of urethral foreign bodies may require the use of various surgical techniques in a urologist's armamentarium. We report a unique case of a urethral foreign body requiring percutaneous and endoscopic techniques for removal.

  14. OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION POLICY AND CHILD FOREIGN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign language education, particularly in French, has taken root in Kenyan ... interest and potential in foreign language education at this young stage of life. ... Since independence, the Kenyan government has set up several education ...

  15. Unleash innovation in foreign subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, J; Hood, N

    2001-03-01

    In multinational corporations, growth-triggering innovation often emerges in foreign subsidiaries from employees closest to customers and least attached to the procedures and politeness of the home office. But too often, heavy-handed responses from headquarters squelch local enthusiasm and drive out good ideas--and good people. The authors' research into more than 50 multinationals suggests that encouraging innovation in foreign subsidiaries requires a change in attitude. Companies should start to think of foreign subsidiaries as peninsulas rather than as islands--as extensions of the company's strategic domain rather than as isolated outposts. If they do, innovative ideas will flow more freely from the periphery to the corporate center. Basing their arguments on a rich array of examples, the authors say that encouraging such "innovation at the edges" also requires a new set of practices, with two aims: to improve the formal and informal channels of communication between headquarters and subsidiaries and to give foreign subsidiaries more authority to see their ideas through. The challenge for executives of multinationals is to find ways to liberalize, not tighten, internal systems and to delegate more authority to local subsidiaries. It isn't enough to ask subsidiary managers to be innovative; corporate managers need to give them incentives and support systems to facilitate their efforts. The authors suggest four approaches: give seed money to subsidiaries; use formal requests for proposals as a way of increasing the demand for seed money; encourage subsidiaries to be incubators for fledgling businesses; and build international networks. As part of the last approach, multinationals also need to create roles for idea brokers who can link entrepreneurs in foreign subsidiaries with other parts of the company.

  16. A Self-Determination Model of Childhood Exposure, Perceived Prevalence, Justification, and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; Zegree, Joan; Foster, Dawn W.; Roffman, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    The present research was designed to evaluate self-determination theory as a framework for integrating factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. The proposed model suggests that childhood exposure to parental violence may influence global motivational orientations which, in turn result in greater cognitive biases (overestimating the prevalence of IPV and justification of IPV) which, in turn, contribute to an individual’s decision to use abusive behavior. Participan...

  17. Attitudes of South Asian men in the UK toward women and their understanding of and justification for domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Harjinder

    2015-01-01

    To date nothing is known about the attitudes of South Asian men in the UK toward women and domestic violence. Issues related to South Asian men and communities have remained largely under the surface due to religious and cultural sensitivity. The aim of the research is to examine the attitudes of South Asian men in London and the South East of England toward women and their understanding and justification of domestic violence. More specifically, the research explores a range of cultural and r...

  18. Foreign launch competition growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.; Pryke, I. W.

    1986-07-01

    A survey is given of progress made by other nations in providing or preparing to provide satellite launch services. The European Space Agency has four generations of Ariane vehicles, with a fifth recently approved; a second launch facility in French Guiana that has become operational has raised the possible Ariane launch rate to 10 per year, although a May failure of an Ariane 2 put launches on hold. The French Hermes spaceplane and the British HOTOL are discussed. Under the auspices of the Italian National Space Plane, the Iris orbital transfer vehicle is developed and China's Long March vehicles and the Soviet Protons and SL-4 vehicles are discussed; the Soviets moreover are apparently developing not only a Saturn V-class heavy lift vehicle with a 150,000-kg capacity (about five times the largest U.S. capacity) but also a space shuttle and a spaceplane. Four Japanese launch vehicles and some vehicles in an Indian program are also ready to provide launch services. In this new, tough market for launch services, the customers barely outnumber the suppliers. The competition develops just as the Challenger and Titan disasters place the U.S. at a disadvantage and underline the hard work ahead to recoup its heretofore leading position in launch services.

  19. Foreign Investments in Russia in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Iliukhina

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, a decline in foreign investors’ activities in the Russian Federation was observed. The inflow of foreign investments as a share of GDP decreased by 2.3 p.p. as compared to 2011. Foreign investments concentrated mainly in the industry and the fi nancial sector. In the industry, the leaders were manufacturing industries. As the geographic pattern of foreign investments is concerned, the largest volume of investments into the Russian Federation came from Switzerland, the Netherlands and...

  20. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Šoljan

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA), as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore,...

  1. Foreign Material Exclusion Program at CNE Cernavoda Nuclear Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urjan, Daniel [S.N. ' Nuclearelectrica' SA, CNE Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, Medgidiei 2 Street, 905200 Cernavoda, Constanta (Romania)

    2008-07-01

    In the face of a continuing attention to operations and maintenance costs at nuclear power plants, the future of the industry depends largely upon increasing plant availability and improving operating efficiency. The success in achieving these objectives is dependent upon the success of each plant's equipment maintenance program. Preventing the introduction of foreign materials into a nuclear power plant system or component requires a careful, thoughtful, and professional approach by all site personnel. This paper describes a proactive approach to prevent the introduction of foreign material into systems and components, by providing an overview of technical considerations required to develop, implement, and manage a foreign material exclusion program at CNE Cernavoda Unit 1 and 2 Nuclear Power Station. It is also described an example of Foreign Material Intrusion which happened during the 2003 planned maintenance outage at Cernavoda Unit no.1. This paper also defines personnel responsibilities and key nomenclature and a means for evaluating prospective work tasks and activities against standardized criteria, in order to identify the appropriate level of the required FME controls. (author)

  2. Foreign Material Exclusion Program at CNE Cernavoda Nuclear Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urjan, Daniel [S.N. ' Nuclearelectrica' SA, CNE Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, Medgidiei 2 Street, 905200 Cernavoda, Constanta (Romania)

    2008-07-01

    In the face of a continuing attention to operations and maintenance costs at nuclear power plants, the future of the industry depends largely upon increasing plant availability and improving operating efficiency. The success in achieving these objectives is dependent upon the success of each plant's equipment maintenance program. Preventing the introduction of foreign materials into a nuclear power plant system or component requires a careful, thoughtful, and professional approach by all site personnel. This paper describes a proactive approach to prevent the introduction of foreign material into systems and components, by providing an overview of technical considerations required to develop, implement, and manage a foreign material exclusion program at CNE Cernavoda Unit 1 and 2 Nuclear Power Station. It is also described an example of Foreign Material Intrusion which happened during the 2003 planned maintenance outage at Cernavoda Unit no.1. This paper also defines personnel responsibilities and key nomenclature and a means for evaluating prospective work tasks and activities against standardized criteria, in order to identify the appropriate level of the required FME controls. (author)

  3. Foreign Material Exclusion Program at CNE Cernavoda Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urjan, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In the face of a continuing attention to operations and maintenance costs at nuclear power plants, the future of the industry depends largely upon increasing plant availability and improving operating efficiency. The success in achieving these objectives is dependent upon the success of each plant's equipment maintenance program. Preventing the introduction of foreign materials into a nuclear power plant system or component requires a careful, thoughtful, and professional approach by all site personnel. This paper describes a proactive approach to prevent the introduction of foreign material into systems and components, by providing an overview of technical considerations required to develop, implement, and manage a foreign material exclusion program at CNE Cernavoda Unit 1 and 2 Nuclear Power Station. It is also described an example of Foreign Material Intrusion which happened during the 2003 planned maintenance outage at Cernavoda Unit no.1. This paper also defines personnel responsibilities and key nomenclature and a means for evaluating prospective work tasks and activities against standardized criteria, in order to identify the appropriate level of the required FME controls. (author)

  4. The ethical justification for the use of non-human primates in research: the Weatherall report revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Gardar

    2017-10-14

    The Weatherall report on the use of non-human primates in research was published in 2006. Its main conclusion was that there is a strong scientific case for the use of non-human primates in some cases, but the report stressed the importance of evaluating each case in the light of the availability of alternatives. In addition to arguing for the scientific necessity of using non-human primates in research, the report also provided an ethical justification. As could be expected, the report was harshly criticised by animal rights groups, but in the academic literature, only two critical replies appeared. In what follows, I will describe the ethical justification for non-human primate research as it is laid out in the Weatherall report and then consider the criticism in the academic literature. I conclude that the report's ethical justification for the use of non-human primates in research, in particular in basic neuroscientific research, has not been convincingly challenged by its critics. Since the criticism of the report is limited and represents only a small part of the academic discussion about the use of non-human primates in research, and a still smaller part of the ethical discussion about animal research, it is important that the discussion continue both at the academic and social level. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    probability. On average exit risk for domestic companies is 2.3 times higher than for foreign companies. First movers like Siemens, Philips, Kodak, Ford, GM or Goodyear have been active in the country for almost a century. Relative foreign survival increases with company age. However, the foreign survival...

  6. Revisiting Problems with Foreign Language Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Anna; Kormos, Judit

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated three of the issues recently raised in connection with the traditional concept of foreign language aptitude: the relationship between foreign language aptitude and working memory and phonological short-term memory capacity, the role of foreign language aptitude in predicting success in the framework of focus-on-form foreign…

  7. 31 CFR 500.301 - Foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign country. 500.301 Section 500.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 500.301 Foreign country. The term foreign country also includes, but not by way of limitation: (a) The...

  8. 31 CFR 515.301 - Foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign country. 515.301 Section 515.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 515.301 Foreign country. The term foreign country also includes, but not by way of limitation: (a) The...

  9. 34 CFR 682.611 - Foreign schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign schools. 682.611 Section 682.611 Education... for Participating Schools § 682.611 Foreign schools. A foreign school is required to comply with the... publications or documents that those schools need not comply with those provisions. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1077...

  10. Mode of foreign entry, technology transfer, and foreign direct investment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mattoo, Aaditya; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Saggi, Kamal

    2001-01-01

    Foreign direct investment can take place through the direct entry of foreign firms or the acquisition of existing domestic firms. Mattoo, Olarreaga, and Saggi examine the preferences of a foreign firm and the host country government with respect to these two modes of foreign direct investment in the presence of costly technology transfer. The tradeoff between technology transfer and market...

  11. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, K. S

    2007-12-15

    This study approaches the international trends related to nuclear non-proliferation in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the trend of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Second, this study analyzes the trend of international nuclear organizations, which includes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a central body of development of nuclear technology and international nuclear diplomacy, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), a intergovernmental organization to consist of a group of nuclear advanced countries. Third, this study analyzes the trends of the U.S.'s nuclear foreign policies, particularly nuclear non-proliferation. Fourth, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran as they cause serious concerns to a international society.

  12. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, K. S.

    2007-12-01

    This study approaches the international trends related to nuclear non-proliferation in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the trend of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Second, this study analyzes the trend of international nuclear organizations, which includes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a central body of development of nuclear technology and international nuclear diplomacy, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), a intergovernmental organization to consist of a group of nuclear advanced countries. Third, this study analyzes the trends of the U.S.'s nuclear foreign policies, particularly nuclear non-proliferation. Fourth, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran as they cause serious concerns to a international society

  13. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in developed economies. In the economies in which they operate, they bring capital, technology transfer, improve the national reputation and influence the other companies to invest in this countries, they provide a substantial source of revenue for the government and always improve the balance of payments in the host country.

  14. [JUSTIFICATION OF USING EQUIVALENCE OF THE INDICES OF QUALITY, SAFETY, AND EFFICACY IN DEVELOPING BIOANALOGS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyazov, R R; Goryachev, D V; Gavrishina, E V; Romodanovskii, D P; Dranitsyna, M A

    2015-01-01

    We describe general principles of demonstrating biosimilarity, as well as selecting the biosimilarity margins. Any change in the structure of a biological molecule can modify its functional activity. Therefore, therapeutic equivalence between a biosimilar product and the corresponding reference product cannot be demonstrated using a single criterion. To demonstrate biosimilarity between two medicinal products, their various characteristics have to be evaluated which may, directly or indirectly, justify that clinically significant differences are absent. Insufficient understanding of 6ritical quality attributes brings a risk for the biosimilar product developer. This will either increase the number of non-clinical and clinical tests and trials needed or will result in awareness that the manufacturing process needs to be improved at the late stages of development, after investing significant resources in the development process. At the same time, the specification of the biological medicinal product cannot solely ensure safety and efficacy thereof. Properly characterized and controlled manufacturing process, which ensures consistency in its attributes not adequately controlled in specifications but influencing safety and efficacy profiles and showing their relevance in non-clinical tests and clinical trials, is an additional quality assurance factor. Justification of all development strategy details, including biosimilarity margins, has to be provided each time when the development process is initiated or when proceeding to the next steps. All problems encountered by the developer have to be resolved in close communication with the regulatory authority. In order to increase the quality of investigation and developer's adherence to good practices, clinical trial results should be published in detail.

  15. Seismic justification of free standing spent fuel storage racks: experimental versus computed behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champomier, F.P.; Peron, J.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Most spent fuel storage racks now designed for nuclear power plants are of the free standing type. They consist in a series of independent modules of varying size (typically, 2 m long and wide and 5 m high) immersed in water but simply left standing on the bottom of the spent fuel storage pool. The ever increasing need for additional storage room leads power plants to wish to have compact modules positioned as close to each other as possible. The reduced clearance is essentially limited by the possible interaction of a module with its neighbors in case of a seismic event. In fact, during an earthquake, it is anticipated that each module may have a complex and different movement relative to the pool floor: sliding, uplifting, rocking may occur depending on various parameters related to module geometry and load and seismic excitation. Minimum clearance between modules is to be defined and justified. Two approaches are possible: each module may be demonstrated to stay wide from its neighbors or to impact them with no significant resulting damage. Though experimental work is sometimes possible, it certainly cannot be routinely or systematically envisaged. Thus, approaches to evaluation and justification basically rely on numerical simulation of the problem. Actually, the entire calculation scheme is often repeated a large number of times with varying parameters (seismic input in the three directions, friction coefficients, fuel loading characteristics, etc.) for additional treatment and confidence. The object of this paper is to provide some insight on the kind of information one can reasonably expect to obtain from such studies. (author)

  16. A system justification view of sexual violence: legitimizing gender inequality and reduced moral outrage are connected to greater rape myth acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Rape is a pervasive social problem that causes serious physical and psychological repercussions. Rape victims' recovery is often complicated by the public's failure to believe the victim and restore justice. This study applied system justification theory to examine whether the justification of gender inequality is related to moral outrage (an emotional precursor to corrective action) and rape myth acceptance; we also examined whether rape myth acceptance is associated with moral outrage at injustice. Results showed that gender-specific system justification correlated with less moral outrage at human suffering as well as greater rape myth acceptance. The relationships between these variables were similar for men and for women, a finding that suggests that rape myths are system justifying for women. When we controlled for gender-specific system justification, rape myth acceptance correlated with less moral outrage. Results are discussed in the context of how legitimizing ideologies reduce moral outrage at injustice and perpetuate a system of sexual violence.

  17. Neglect of the foreign invisible: Historiography and the navigation of conflicting sensibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2015-05-01

    This essay is intended first as a contribution to historiography, and only second as a contribution to the history of developmental psychology. It is therefore a discussion--primarily--of the doing of the history of psychology, rather than of its content. Briefly put: American psychology, including its associated approaches to the history of psychology, is not adequately equipped to benefit fully from the contributions of foreign scholars. To make the resulting argument clear, two archive-driven microhistories are reviewed, contrasted, augmented with new archival research, and synthesized: Yeh Hsueh's (2004) examination of the nomination process at Harvard University that led to the awarding of an honorary doctorate to Jean Piaget in 1936, and Marc Ratcliff and Paloma Borella's (2013) examination-just recently published in French-of a similar process that resulted in Piaget's hiring at Geneva in 1929 and his eventual promotion in 1940. Comparing the authors' different approaches to similar content then affords this article's larger argument: we need to broaden our sensibilities so we can see high-quality foreign contributions for what they are. Several interesting insights result if we do. Among them: although Piaget's theory is today mistakenly criticized for being asocial, and this serves as justification for countering his early works with Vygotsky's posthumous critique, it emerges from these archival studies that Piaget may have in fact chosen to present himself and his work as nonsociological (when this was not the case) for reasons unrelated to his intellectual project. Such examples then broaden the discussion of "neglect of the foreign invisible" to include suppression--even censorship (by self or other)--which in turn reflects the primary problem afforded by internationalization: by what standards are we to judge the contributions of "foreigners" into "our" discipline? (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. 17 CFR 30.12 - Direct foreign order transmittal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct foreign order... FOREIGN FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.12 Direct foreign order transmittal. (a) Authorized... investment decisions with respect to foreign futures and foreign option transactions are made by a commodity...

  19. Accommodation training in foreign workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masumi; Miyao, Masaru; Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    By relaxing the contracted focus-adjustment muscles around the eyeball, known as the ciliary and extraocular muscles, the degree of pseudomyopia can be reduced. This understanding has led to accommodation training in which a visual target is presented in stereoscopic video clips. However, it has been pointed out that motion sickness can be induced by viewing stereoscopic video clips. In Measurement 1 of the present study, we verified whether the new 3D technology reduced the severity of motion sickness in accordance with stabilometry. We then evaluated the short-term effects of accommodation training using new stereoscopic video clips on foreign workers (11 females) suffering from eye fatigue in Measurement 2. The foreign workers were trained for three days. As a result, visual acuity was statistically improved by continuous accommodation training, which will help promote ciliary muscle stretching.

  20. The Evolution of the Collective Forms of Interaction between Foreign Business and Government in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Yakovlev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper uses the evidence from Russia to analyze the arrangements for interaction between foreign firms and key national partners in the countries of their operations. We identify the main stages and factors that were driving the evolution of the two main channels of collective action for foreign firms in Russia over the last 25 years – the Foreign Investment Advisory Council under the Office of the Russian Prime Minister and foreign business associations. We also provide the comparative analysis of the effectiveness of these two main channels, as well as highlight the factors contributing to higher effectiveness of individual foreign business associations under the current Russia’s circumstances. We show that political rather than economic or institutional factors play a more significant role in explaining the changes in the effectiveness of collective efforts of foreign firms. Russia’s experience suggests that the mechanisms of interaction between foreign business and the authorities can work effectively only if there is mutual interest in such interaction. In Russia since the mid-2000s there have been relatively favorable political conditions for the dialogue between the Government and foreign firms, and the respective interaction mechanisms produced some positive effects regarding e.g. attraction of additional foreign investment inflows and modernization of the regulatory framework. However, with worsening the political situation in 2013, political priorities of the Russian Government became markedly more important than the economic ones, and thus, the effectiveness of the existing instruments for collective action of foreign firms significantly decreased. One consequence of this has been the greater willingness of foreign business associations to cooperate with Russian business in order to promote jointly a pragmatic reform agenda.

  1. Foreign body in children?s airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassol Vitor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and the results of bronchoscopic treatment of children due to foreign body aspiration in a university hospital. METHOD: Time series of children who underwent bronchoscopies for foreign bodies aspirated into the airway between March 1993 and July 2002. Each patient was analyzed for age, sex, initial clinical diagnosis, nature and location of the foreign body, duration of symptoms between aspiration and bronchoscopy, radiological findings, results of bronchoscopic removal, complications of bronchoscopy and presence of foreign bodies in the airways. RESULTS: Thirty-four children, 20 (59% boys, ages ranging from nine months to nine years (median = 23 months. In 32 (94% children the foreign body was removed by rigid bronchoscope, and two resulted in thoracotomy. Foreign bodies were more frequent in children under three years of age (66%. A clinical history of foreign body inhalation was obtained in 27 (80% cases. Most of the foreign bodies removed were organic (65% and more frequently found in the right bronchial tree (59%. Foreign bodies were removed within 24 hours in 18 (53% cases. The most frequent radiographic findings were: unilateral air trapping, atelectasis and radiopac foreign body. Major bronchoscopy complications occurred in seven children (22%, and there were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: More attention is necessary to the respiratory symptoms of aspirations, mainly in boys at early ages, with clinical history and compatible radiological findings. Most foreign bodies removed were of organic nature. In this case series, therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy was effective with few complications.

  2. Intraorbital wooden and bamboo foreign bodies: CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, A.; Kato, A.; Takase, Y.; Kudo, S.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the CT findings of intraorbital wooden and bamboo foreign bodies in the acute, subacute, and chronic stages. We examined four patients using CT a total of seven times. The CT findings were reviewed. There were three dry wooden foreign bodies. CT within a day of the accident demonstrated wooden foreign bodies as low density relative to surrounding orbital fat, while CT 8-29 days after the accident showed them as denser than the extraocular muscles. In the acute stage, dry wooden foreign bodies mimic air bubbles. Wooden foreign bodies in the subacute and chronic stages should be included in the differential diagnosis of intraorbital lesions of soft tissue density or above on CT of traumatised orbits. There was one dry bamboo foreign body. Within a day of the accident it was recognised as linear lesion isodense with fat. Therefore, such foreign bodies may be missed on CT when located in the orbital fat. (orig.)

  3. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technologic...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms.......We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...... distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...

  4. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  5. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY DETERMINANTS OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN ISLAMIC BANKS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Muda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is conducted to compare the determinants of profitability of the domestic and foreign Islamic banks operating in Malaysia. The Generalized Least Square (GLS is employed with unbalanced panel data on seventeen Islamic banks, using quarterly data for the period of 2007 to 2010. In order to find out the differences in the profitability determinants, the sample of banks is divided into two sub-samples (domestic and foreign. The results reveal that domestic Islamic banks are more profitable than foreign Islamic banks. The results also show that the profitability determinants of domestic banks are different from those of foreign banks. The overhead expenses, loans, efficiency, gross domestic product growth rate and bank size have a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability, in which case applicable to the domestic banks only. In turn, the gross domestic product per capita has a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability of only the foreign banks. The study finds that, deposits, capital and reserves, inflation and banks’ age have a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability of both domestic and foreign banks. Meanwhile, liquidity and concentration are not able to explain the variability of domestic and foreign Islamic banks’ profitability. The findings indicate that the profitability of domestic banks is affected by the global financial crisis while, the profitability of foreign banks is not affected.

  7. Forbidden Payment: Foreign Bribery and American Business After 1977

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Hines, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The United States prohibits American individuals and corporations from bribing foreign government officials. Legislation enacted in 1976 and 1977 stipulates tax penalties, fines, and even prison terms for executives of American companies that pay illegal bribes. This paper examines the effect of US anti-bribery legislation on the operations of US firms in bribe-prone countries after 1977. Four separate indicators reveal that US business activities in these countries fell sharply after passage...

  8. Airway foreign body in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina GONZÁLEZ-HERRERO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aspiration of a foreign body in children is a frequent emergency in pediatrics, being potentially lethal. Method: Narrative review. Results: This pathology mainly affects children under 5 years of age with a peak of incidence between the first and third years of life. The clinic will depend on the type of foreign body (size, shape, possibility of breaking, organic or not, the age of the child and the location of the object. In our environment, the most frequent is the aspiration of nuts (peanuts and sunflower seeds. After the initial picture, an asymptomatic period tends to occur, which favors delayed diagnosis and leads to possible errors in the diagnosis. Discussion: An adequate clinical history and a high diagnostic suspicion are fundamental to favor an early treatment. The presence of a normal chest X-ray does not exclude the presence of a foreign body in the airway, so a bronchoscopy is indicated if the diagnostic suspicion is high. The treatment of choice is extraction by rigid bronchoscopy, being controversial the use of flexible fibrobronchoscope. Conclusions: Conclusions: The aspiration of a foreign body is a pediatric emergency that requires a diagnosis and early treatment. The highest incidence occurs in children under 3 years and more frequently in men. The most commonly aspirated material in our environment are nuts, mainly located in the bronchial tree. The initial episode may go unnoticed, delaying the diagnosis and may lead to progressive respiratory distress in the child. A detailed clinical history and suspicion of this pathology are essential in children at risk age who present with cough and dyspnea of sudden onset. The existence of a normal chest radiograph should not postpone bronchoscopy when there is high clinical suspicion. The treatment of choice for the extraction of foreign bodies in airways in children is rigid bronchoscopy, being controversial the use of the flexible fibrobronchoscope

  9. 77 FR 16537 - Approval for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Subzone 78A, Nissan North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1820] Approval for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Subzone 78A, Nissan North America, Inc. (Electric Passenger Vehicles..., Nissan North America, Inc. (NNA), operator of Subzone 78A, at the NNA manufacturing facilities in Smyrna...

  10. 77 FR 73414 - Approval for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 41H; Mercury Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1871] Approval for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 41H; Mercury Marine (Marine Propulsion Products); Fond du Lac and... manufacturing authority on behalf of Mercury Marine, operator of Subzone 41H at the Mercury Marine facilities in...

  11. 75 FR 12732 - Foreign-Trade Zones 73 and 74; Application for Manufacturing Authority; The Belt's Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 16-2010] Foreign-Trade Zones 73 and 74... Corporation (TBC), an operator of FTZs 73 and 74, requesting manufacturing authority at sites within FTZs 73... CFR part 400). It was formally filed on March 5, 2010. The TBC facility in FTZ 73 (32 employees, 3,300...

  12. 75 FR 8918 - Approval for Subzone Expansion and Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 119B...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... and Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 119B, Uponor, Inc. (Polyethylene Tubing); Apple Valley, MN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... Zone 119 (Minneapolis, Minnesota), has submitted a request on behalf of Uponor, Inc. (Uponor), operator...

  13. 78 FR 28190 - Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-7-2013] Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water Heaters); Louisville, Kentucky On January 7, 2013, GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C in Louisville, Kentucky, submitted a notification of proposed...

  14. The Distinctive Role of Foreign Debt in Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Hansen, Marianna Andryeyeva; Muradoglu, Yaz Gulnur

    Finance theory suggests that a positive (long) foreign exchange exposure can be offset by debt denominated in foreign currency (“foreign debt”) and empirical studies confirm that foreign debt is used for hedging purposes. We use detailed exposure information on a sample of medium-sized nonfinancial...... firms and show that in its practical hedging application, foreign debt is used distinctively different from derivatives (e.g. forward contracts). While the use of derivatives is associated with flow measures (foreign sales revenue), the use of foreign debt is solely associated with stock measures...... level which makes it possible to go deeper than previous studies in detecting the drivers behind foreign debt usage. The empirical results are important in order to understand the factors driving the use of foreign debt in non-financial firms....

  15. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI): Presentation and Justification of the NEFI Science Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Gutman, G.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Qi, J.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2004, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) - an interdisciplinary program of internationally-supported Earth systems and science research - has addressed large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental changes over Northern Eurasia and their impact on the Global Earth system. With more than 1500 peer-reviewed journal publications and 40 books to its credit, NEESPI's activities resulted in significant scientific outreach. This created a new research realm through self-organization of NEESPI scientists in a broad research network, accumulation of knowledge while developing new tools (observations, models, and collaborative networks) and producing new, exciting results that can be applied to directly support decision-making for societal needs. At the Synthesis NEESPI Workshop in Prague, Czechia (April 9-12, 2015) it was decided to shift gradually the foci of regional studies in Northern Eurasia towards applications with the following major Science Question: "What dynamic and interactive change(s) will affect societal well-being, activities, and health, and what might be the mitigation and adaptation strategies that could support sustainable development and decision-making activities in Northern Eurasia?". To answer this question requires a stronger socio-economic component in the ongoing and future regional studies focused on sustainable societal development under changing climatic and environmental conditions. The NEESPI Research Team has reorganized itself into "Northern Eurasia Future Initiative" (NEFI) and began development of the NEFI Programmatic White Paper released at http://neespi.org in June 2016. Presentation will provide justification of the new NEFI research foci and approach examples addressing them. The societal challenges, particularly the socio-economic challenges are the top priority in most of them. Throughout the NEESP Initiative duration, support for it studies has been provided by

  16. Justification for the development of a bending magnet beamline at sector 10 at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division

    2006-01-01

    The long-planned and much-needed merger of EnviroCAT into the Materials Research Collaborative Access Team (MR-CAT) will provide dedicated state-of-the-art facilities that are critical to research on a broad range of issues in environmental sciences. These CATs will focus on developing a bending magnet (BM) beamline for x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and micro x-ray analysis of environmental samples through integration with existing insertion device (ID) capabilities in XAFS, micro x-ray analysis, and x-ray scattering. In addition, the expanded MR-CAT will serve as the hub of personnel and laboratory infrastructure support for molecular environmental science and biogeochemical science at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). In conjunction with the merger of EnviroCAT into MR-CAT, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will become a member institution of MR-CAT, joining the present members (University of Notre Dame, Illinois Institute of Technology, University of Florida, British Petroleum, and Argonne's Chemical Engineering and Biosciences Division). The motivation for blending capabilities meeting the needs of EnviroCAT users into the MR-CAT facilities is the explosion of synchrotron-radiation-based research in the field known as molecular environmental science (MES). This research is driven largely by the need to remediate contaminated environmental materials and to understand the scientific foundations that govern contaminant transport in the environment. Synchrotron radiation is playing a crucial role in solving environmental science problems by offering x-ray-based analytical techniques for detailed molecular- and atomic-level studies of these systems. This document focuses on the scientific justification for developing a specific type of BM beamline capability at Sector 10 for XAFS and micro x-ray analysis to support the growing MES community. However, the modification of Sector 10 will meet other future needs by providing (1) an existing undulator

  17. Justification for the development of a bending magnet beamline at sector 10 at the APS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division

    2006-09-18

    The long-planned and much-needed merger of EnviroCAT into the Materials Research Collaborative Access Team (MR-CAT) will provide dedicated state-of-the-art facilities that are critical to research on a broad range of issues in environmental sciences. These CATs will focus on developing a bending magnet (BM) beamline for x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and micro x-ray analysis of environmental samples through integration with existing insertion device (ID) capabilities in XAFS, micro x-ray analysis, and x-ray scattering. In addition, the expanded MR-CAT will serve as the hub of personnel and laboratory infrastructure support for molecular environmental science and biogeochemical science at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). In conjunction with the merger of EnviroCAT into MR-CAT, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will become a member institution of MR-CAT, joining the present members (University of Notre Dame, Illinois Institute of Technology, University of Florida, British Petroleum, and Argonne's Chemical Engineering and Biosciences Division). The motivation for blending capabilities meeting the needs of EnviroCAT users into the MR-CAT facilities is the explosion of synchrotron-radiation-based research in the field known as molecular environmental science (MES). This research is driven largely by the need to remediate contaminated environmental materials and to understand the scientific foundations that govern contaminant transport in the environment. Synchrotron radiation is playing a crucial role in solving environmental science problems by offering x-ray-based analytical techniques for detailed molecular- and atomic-level studies of these systems. This document focuses on the scientific justification for developing a specific type of BM beamline capability at Sector 10 for XAFS and micro x-ray analysis to support the growing MES community. However, the modification of Sector 10 will meet other future needs by providing (1) an existing

  18. The development of standard operating protocols for paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, J.; Mencik, C.; McLaren, C.; Young, C.; Scadden, S.; Mashford, P.; McHugh, K.; Beckett, M.; Calvert, M.; Marsden, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how the requirement for operating protocols for standard radiological practice was expanded to provide a comprehensive aide to the operator conducting a medical exposure. The protocols adopted now include justification criteria, patient preparation, radiographic technique, standard exposure charts, diagnostic reference levels and image quality criteria. In total, the protocols have been welcomed as a tool for ensuring that medical exposures are properly optimised. (author)

  19. Symptom-based emergency operating procedures development for Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruglov, Y.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper and lecture are presented: (1) Introduction; (2) EOP project work stages and documentation; (3) Selection and justification of accident management strategy; (4) Content of EOP package; (5) Development of EOP package; (6) EOP package verification; (7) EOP package validation; (8) EOP training; (9) EOP implementation; (10) Conditions of symptom-based emergency operating producers package application and its interconnection with event-based emergency operating procedures; (11) Rules of EOP application; EOP maintenance

  20. Evaluation of Foreign Investment in Power Plants using Real Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Moritoshi; Zhou, Yicheng

    This paper proposes new methods for evaluating foreign investment in power plants under market uncertainty using a real options approach. We suppose a thermal power plant project in a deregulated electricity market. One of our proposed methods is that we calculate the cash flow generated by the project in a reference year using actual market data to incorporate periodic characteristics of energy prices into a yearly cash flow model. We make the stochastic yearly cash flow model with the initial value which is the cash flow in the reference year, and certain trend and volatility. Then we calculate the real options value (ROV) of the project which has abandonment options using the yearly cash flow model. Another our proposed method is that we evaluate foreign currency/domestic currency exchange rate risk by representing ROV in foreign currency as yearly pay off and exchanging it to ROV in domestic currency using a stochastic exchange rate model. We analyze the effect of the heat rate and operation and maintenance costs of the power plant on ROV, and evaluate exchange rate risk through numerical examples. Our proposed method will be useful for the risk management of foreign investment in power plants.