WorldWideScience

Sample records for justification ethical principles

  1. A Reply on Behalf of the Relativist to Mark Mason's Justification of Universal Ethical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Mark Mason, in his "A Justification, After the Postmodern Turn, of Universal Ethical Principles and Educational Ideals" Educational Philosophy and Theory, 37 (2005), attempts to justify transcultural multiculturalism. In this paper I argue that he fails to refute moral relativism, and that multiculturalism as he interprets it is not morally…

  2. A Justification, after the Postmodern Turn, of Universal Ethical Principles and Educational Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of education programmes in different cultures invites the question whether we are justified in doing so in cultures that may reject the programmes' underlying principles. Are there indeed ethical principles and educational ideals that can be justified as applicable to all cultures? After a consideration of Zygmunt Bauman's…

  3. Ultimate justification: Wittgenstein and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J

    1995-02-01

    Decisions must be justified. In medical ethics various grounds are given to justify decisions, but ultimate justification seems illusory and little considered. The philosopher Wittgenstein discusses the problem of ultimate justification in the context of general philosophy. His comments, nevertheless, are pertinent to ethics. From a discussion of Wittgensteinian notions, such as 'bedrock', the idea that 'ultimate' justification is grounded in human nature as such is derived. This discussion is relevant to medical ethics in at least five ways: it shows generally what type of certainty there is in practical ethics; it seems to imply some objective foundation to our ethical judgements; it squares with our experience of making ethical decisions; it shows something of the nature of moral arguments; and, finally, it has implications for teaching medicine and ethics.

  4. Justifications Shape Ethical Blind Spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous se

  5. Justification and radiology: some ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology.

  6. [ETHICAL PRINCIPALS AND A POSTERIORI JUSTIFICATIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Monica

    2015-12-01

    It is difficult to conceive that the human being, while being the same everywhere, could be cared for in such different ways in other societies. Anthropologists acknowledge that the diversity of cultures implies a diversity of moral values, thus that in a multicultural society the individual could draw upon different moral frames to justify the peculiarities of her/his demand of care. But how could we determine what is the moral frame that catalyzes behaviour while all we can record are a posteriori justifications of actions? In most multicultural societies where several moralframes coexist, there is an implicit hierarchy between ethical systems derived from a hierarchy of power which falsifies these a posteriori justifications. Moreover anthropologists often fail to acknowledge that individual behaviour does not always reflect individual values, but is more often the result of negotiations between the moralframes available in society and her/his own desires and personal experience. This is certainly due to the difficulty to account for a dynamic and complex interplay of moral values that cannot be analysed as a system. The impact of individual experience on the way individuals give or receive care could also be only weakly linked to a moral system even when this reference comes up explicitly in the a posteriori justifications.

  7. ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…

  8. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing b...

  9. Dewey's Ethical Justification for Public Deliberation Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John

    2013-01-01

    Interpretations of John Dewey's political theory grasp his respect for public deliberation, but typically overlook his ethical justification for democracy. Dewey gave two primary reasons why democracy is superior to other forms of government. First, a public educated in the tools of social intelligence can be more effective at managing their…

  10. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...

  11. Ethical Justification of Moral Norms in Scientific Research: Scientists' External Responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AKÖZER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists' moral responsibilities have become a focus for the scientific community over the postwar decades. International and regional networks of leading academic bodies have responded to a widely perceived increase in scientific fraud and the ensued loss of public trust in science during the 1980s, and initiated a discussion with a view to codifying good practice in research. While scientists' “external” responsibilities towards society and the humankind have been variously addressed, codes drafted since then mainly dwell on problems of misconduct concerning scientists' “internal” responsibilities towards science and to the scientific community. They also reflect an ethical pluralism, which declines justifying moral standards in research with reference to universal ethical principles. However, the need for such justification has been first recognized decades ago, during the Doctor's Trial in Nuremberg, where the shortcomings of the established ethos of science and the inadequacy of the Hippocratic ethics in safeguarding human rights in research had become flagrant, with the resultant Nuremberg Code of 1947 introducing a human rights perspective into Hippocratic ethics. This paper argues for the necessity of an integral ethical justification of scientists' both external and inner responsibilities, as put down or assumed by internationally acclaimed codes of conduct. Such necessity is validated by the evidence that a historical current to monopolize ethical thinking in the name of science and nullify philosophical ethics lies at the root of an anti–morality that relativized human worth and virtually legitimized human rights violations in scientific practice. Kantian ethics based on humans' absolute inner worth, and Popperian epistemology rooted in respect for truth and for humans as rational beings, pledge an ethical justification of moral norms in science so as to reinforce the latter against intrusions of anti–morality. The paper

  12. The Virtue of Principle Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersoff, Donald N.

    1996-01-01

    Presents arguments against adopting virtue ethics as a guiding concept in developing counseling guidelines: (1) virtue ethics is irrelevant in the resolution of most ethics cases; (2) virtue and principle ethics overlap; (3) principle ethics are more suited to acting and deciding; (4) the emphasis on virtue ethics increases the possibility of…

  13. Exploring ethical justification for self-demand amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, Floris

    2006-01-01

    Self-demand amputees are persons who need to have one or more healthy limbs or digits amputated to fit the way they see themselves. They want to rid themselves of a limb that they believe does not belong to their body-identity. The obsessive desire to have appendages surgically removed to fit an alternative body-image is medically and ethically controversial. My purpose in this paper is to provide a number of normative and professional ethical perspectives on whether or not it is possible to justify surgery for self-demand amputees. In doing so I proceed dialogically, moving between empirical context and normative theory, revealing the taken for granted normative assumptions (what I call the natural attitude--a technical term borrowed from phenomenology) that provide ethical limits to justifying the treatment of self-demand amputees. While I critically examine both Kantian responses against as well as Utilitarian responses for amputation on demand, I conclude that neither normative tradition can fully incorporate an understanding of what it is like to be a self-demand amputee. Since neither theory can justify the apparent non-rational desire of amputation on demand, ethical justification, I argue, falls short of the recognition that there may be a problem. To end, I introduce a meta-ethical idea, "the struggle for recognition," opening up the theoretical possibility of a hermeneutics of recognition before ethical justification that may be more sensitive to the problem of radical embodied difference exemplified by self-demand amputees.

  14. Code of ethics: principles for ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flite, Cathy A; Harman, Laurinda B

    2013-01-01

    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes.

  15. Militarism, human welfare, and the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Craig

    1992-01-01

    A case study is presented of the American Psychological Association (APA), as a health care organization that promotes human welfare. APA includes policies on human welfare in its Ethical Principles of Psychologists and even lists the advancement of psychology "as a means of promoting human welfare" on its letterhead. Nevertheless, APA has other policies and activities based on military and weapons work that appear to conflict with its promotion of human welfare. Although military work in and of itself may not necessarily be problematic, work that contributes to people purposely being harmed or killed should be squared with the association's ethical guidelines. The results presented here show that this may not be the case: There currently appears to be little justification in the Ethical Principles for work intended to harm people. APA's active lobbying, research, and development for the military are documented here, in relation to an analysis of the Ethical Principles. APA's uncritical support for Operation Desert Storm is examined specifically, with regard to weapons technology and therapeutic treatment of U.S. soldiers on the battlefield. This one-sided support for victims of the war is not in keeping with a Hippocratic health care ethic to treat patients needing care, and to do so with neutrality and impartiality. Similarities to a historical example of nationalistic mental health ethics are discussed, with a review of the development of the German Institute for Psychological Research and Psychotherapy and of the German Society for Psychology in the Nazi wartime effort and the Holocaust. The results here show similar deficiencies in APA's ethical standards, not the least of which is that the code applies to individual members but not to APA policies, committees, or activities. This article concludes with suggested criteria for the Ethical Principles that would at least (a) recognize the ambiguities in systematically developing and using weapons to hurt people

  16. Constructing Ethical Principles for Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The ethical discussion over synbio naturally raises metaquestions or questions of methodology: Which ethical principles and values could or should function as orientation or guidelines in discussing these issues?......The ethical discussion over synbio naturally raises metaquestions or questions of methodology: Which ethical principles and values could or should function as orientation or guidelines in discussing these issues?...

  17. Ethical principles of the American Psychological Association: an argument for philosophical and practical ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Malloy, David Cruise

    1999-01-01

    Unlike the American Psychological Association (APA), the Canadian Psychological Association has adopted a code of ethics in which principles are organized in order of importance. The validity of this hierarchical organization has received some empirical and theoretical support. We conducted a theoretical analysis that revealed conceptual justification for a ranking of the 6 principles in the APA code. Such a ranking could assist psychologists in making more informed and consistent moral choices when confronted with ethical dilemmas that involve conflicts among principles.

  18. The ethical justification for the use of animals in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostomitsopoulos N.G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all the benefits, the use of animals in biomedical research is still a subject of debate with respect to its true value. The sensitivity of the community and the interest of scientists who work in the field of laboratory animal science and welfare have clearly demonstrated that the use of animals in biomedical research must be conducted under specific scientific, legal and ethical rules. The ethical justification of a research project starts from its initial designing phase until its completion and the review of the obtained results. Justification of the necessity of the project and the need to use animals in the interests of human or animal health, the importance of conducting a pilot study and a systematic review of previously published animal research on the topic, and the availability of the proper facilities, equipment and personnel are the main issues of concern in the ethical review of a research project. The ethical justification of the proposed project by the scientists themselves involves team-work, and should be a sustainable rather than a one-off procedure. This justification reflects the interest and the responsibility of scientists to reduce the number of animals, refine the procedures, and possibly replace animals in their research projects. The end-results of the ethical review process will be the creation of a trust relationship between scientists and society. .

  19. Ethical principles for physician rating sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel

    2011-12-06

    During the last 5 years, an ethical debate has emerged, often in public media, about the potential positive and negative effects of physician rating sites and whether physician rating sites created by insurance companies or government agencies are ethical in their current states. Due to the lack of direct evidence of physician rating sites' effects on physicians' performance, patient outcomes, or the public's trust in health care, most contributions refer to normative arguments, hypothetical effects, or indirect evidence. This paper aims, first, to structure the ethical debate about the basic concept of physician rating sites: allowing patients to rate, comment, and discuss physicians' performance, online and visible to everyone. Thus, it provides a more thorough and transparent starting point for further discussion and decision making on physician rating sites: what should physicians and health policy decision makers take into account when discussing the basic concept of physician rating sites and its possible implications on the physician-patient relationship? Second, it discusses where and how the preexisting evidence from the partly related field of public reporting of physician performance can serve as an indicator for specific needs of evaluative research in the field of physician rating sites. This paper defines the ethical principles of patient welfare, patient autonomy, physician welfare, and social justice in the context of physician rating sites. It also outlines basic conditions for a fair decision-making process concerning the implementation and regulation of physician rating sites, namely, transparency, justification, participation, minimization of conflicts of interest, and openness for revision. Besides other issues described in this paper, one trade-off presents a special challenge and will play an important role when deciding about more- or less-restrictive physician rating sites regulations: the potential psychological and financial harms for

  20. Appealing to the crowd: ethical justifications in Canadian medical crowdfunding campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Mathers, Annalise; Chow-White, Peter

    2017-01-30

    Medical crowdfunding is growing in terms of the number of active campaigns, amount of funding raised and public visibility. Little is known about how campaigners appeal to potential donors outside of anecdotal evidence collected in news reports on specific medical crowdfunding campaigns. This paper offers a first step towards addressing this knowledge gap by examining medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients. Using 80 medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients, we analyse how Canadians justify to others that they ought to contribute to funding their health needs. We find the justifications campaigners tend to fall into three themes: personal connections, depth of need and giving back. We further discuss how these appeals can understood in terms of ethical justifications for giving and how these justifications should be assessed in light of the academic literature on ethical concerns raised by medical crowdfunding.

  1. Ethical principles and concepts in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Clinical ethics is the application of ethical theories, principles, rules, and guidelines to clinical situations in medicine. Therefore, clinical ethics is analogous to clinical medicine in that general principles and concepts must be applied intelligently and thoughtfully to unique clinical circumstances. The three major ethical theories are consequentialism, whereby the consequences of an action determine whether it is ethical; deontology, whereby to be ethical is to do one's duty, and virtue ethics, whereby ethics is a matter of cultivating appropriate virtues. In the real world of medicine, most people find that all three perspectives offer useful insights and are complementary rather than contradictory. The most common approach to clinical ethical analysis is principlism. According to principlism, the medical practitioner must attempt to uphold four important principles: respect for patient autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. When these principles conflict, resolving them depends on the details of the case. Alternative approaches to medical ethics, including the primacy of beneficence, care-based ethics, feminist ethics, and narrative ethics, help to define the limitations of principlism and provide a broader perspective on medical ethics.

  2. The ethics of placebo-controlled trials: methodological justifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millum, Joseph; Grady, Christine

    2013-11-01

    The use of placebo controls in clinical trials remains controversial. Ethical analysis and international ethical guidance permit the use of placebo controls in randomized trials when scientifically indicated in four cases: (1) when there is no proven effective treatment for the condition under study; (2) when withholding treatment poses negligible risks to participants; (3) when there are compelling methodological reasons for using placebo, and withholding treatment does not pose a risk of serious harm to participants; and, more controversially, (4) when there are compelling methodological reasons for using placebo, and the research is intended to develop interventions that can be implemented in the population from which trial participants are drawn, and the trial does not require participants to forgo treatment they would otherwise receive. The concept of methodological reasons is essential to assessing the ethics of placebo controls in these controversial last two cases. This article sets out key considerations relevant to considering whether methodological reasons for a placebo control are compelling.

  3. Constructing Ethical Principles for Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The ethical discussion over synbio naturally raises metaquestions or questions of methodology: Which ethical principles and values could or should function as orientation or guidelines in discussing these issues?...

  4. Justification and Justice: Rawls, Quine and Ethics as Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Taschetto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Rawls’s theory of justice and Quine’s philosophy constitute an almost entirely new topic of discussion. The analysis undertaken in this article aims to show that some fundamental epistemological traits of Rawls’s theory of justice may be causally explained by referring to Quine’s influence on him. Rawls’s assumptions, methods of theory-building and evaluation criteria are addressed and a close nexus between the methods of ethics and natural science is made explicit. In the light of the historical and epistemological analysis presented in this article it may be argued that Rawls’s theory of justice as fairness satisfies scientific requirements of evidence and objectivity within the sphere of ethics to the extent it is constructed and justified in accordance to Quine’s epistemology.

  5. [The ethics of principles and ethics of responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrani, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    In his brief comment, the author speculates if ethics in health-care relationship it still has a practical sense.The essay points out the difference between principles ethics and ethics of responsibility, supporting the latter and try to highlight its constitutive dimensions.

  6. Scriptural ethical principles and traditional African ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. van Rooy

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional ethical code of Africa is dominated by two factors, to wit, interpersonal relationships, which include the ancestor spirits, and taboo, which is mainly concerned with respecting the hierarchy of forces. God is hardly a factor in everyday conduct. Biblical ethics, on the other hand, is totally dominated by the idea of and relationship with God. The origin of biblical ethics (creation and redemption, history (God's redemptive acts, content (being God’s image, holy as He is holy, motivation (do as I have done to you, responsibility (both individual and communal responsibility is directed towards God. Expectation (rewards and sanctions, universality (including all peoples, since God is the Creator of all, internal character (in that thoughts and motives are also judged by God, teaching about property, jurisprudence (placing kings and the lowliest on the same level before God and his law, and work ethic (which is strongly critical of using any magical means - all of these are God-centred, and therefore sharply distinguished from African ethics which is man-centred. In the New Testament, the distinguishing factor is the new being, who is in Christ, being born again by the Holy Spirit, by which man is conformed to the image of his Redeemer and King. The dominant theme in both Testaments is love, which in African ethics is reserved for one's nearest kin, but in Scripture demanded even for one's enemies.

  7. Hypothetical Justifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Lahno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A basic conviction in moral non-cognitivism is: only hypothetical norms may be justified. Hartmut Kliemt argues for a moderate variant: there are only hypothetical justifications of norms whether the norms are hypothetical or categorical in kind. In this paper the concept of 'hypothetical justification' is analyzed. It is argued that hypothetical justifications are not of the kind that we should look for in normative ethics.

  8. The Ultimate Justification: Ethical Principles and Tactical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-16

    through a breached minefield, then conduct a movement to contact as the lead force of his brigade. The enemy positions are strong and arrayed in depth... surreal aspect to the fight. Able directs his tanks to begin firing at 3000 meters. Able thinks this must be what Dante’s Inferno looked like. The...Do You Tell A Victorious War From a Just One?" The New York Times, 17 March 1991, sec. 4, p. E4. Sun Tzu. The Art of War. trans. Samuel B. Griffith

  9. Can the NICE "end-of-life premium" be given a coherent ethical justification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard

    2013-12-01

    In 2009 the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) announced that its health technology appraisal committees would henceforth give special additional weight to health gains from life-extending end-of-life treatments. This was a response to mounting concern from NICE's stakeholders that effective new drugs for end-stage cancer often fail NICE's standard test of cost effectiveness. This change of policy may be justifiable on procedural grounds as the result of a democratic political process responding to stakeholder concerns. However, according to the "accountability for reasonableness" framework proposed by the philosopher Norman Daniels and endorsed by NICE, there also needs to be transparency about the substantive ethical grounds for public health care resource allocation decisions. In that spirit, I analyze eleven potentially relevant justifications for the NICE "end-of-life premium," drawn from the economics and philosophy literature: (1) rule of rescue, (2) fair chances, (3) ex post willingness to pay, (4) caring externality, (5) financial protection, (6) symbolic value, (7) diminishing marginal value of future life years, (8) concentration of benefits, (9) dread, (10) time to set your affairs in order, and (11) severity of illness. I conclude that none of them yields a coherent ethical justification for the NICE end-of-life premium.

  10. Ethics of radiological risk governance: justice of justification as a central concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskens, G

    2016-06-01

    Due to the specific character of the radiological risk, judgements on whether the use of nuclear technology would be justified in society have to consider knowledge-related uncertainties and value pluralism. The justice of justification not only informs the right of the potentially affected to participate in decision making, but also implies the responsibility of concerned actors to give account of the way they rationalise their own position, interests, hopes, hypotheses, beliefs, and concerns in knowledge generation and decision making. This paper characterises the evaluation of whether the use of nuclear technology would be justified in society as a 'complex social problem', and reflects on what it would imply to deal with its complexity fairly. Based on this assessment, the paper proposes 'reflexivity' and 'intellectual solidarity' as ethical attitudes or virtues for all concerned actors, to be understood from a specific 'ethics of care' perspective 'bound in complexity'. Consequently, it argues that there is a need for an 'interactive' understanding of ethics in order to give ethical attitudes or virtues a practical meaning in a sociopolitical context, and draws conclusions for the case of radiological risk governance.

  11. Justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernysh Iryna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study and justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis policy of the state in the tourist industry. The article justifies and proves expediency of the use of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry. The article marks out the scientific problem of identification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry by scientists, provides the composition and specifies the characteristics of principles of the anti-crisis state policy, and justifies functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry; proves the necessity of identification of principles and functions when developing conceptual grounds of the anti-crisis state policy and establishes their interrelation and interdependence during realisation of the relevant concept.

  12. Ethical principles in occupational therapy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellido Mainar, J R

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available For 2,500 years, the medical profession has created a body of ethical principles. Adapting to differeft historical and sociological circumstances, it has driven the practice of health professionals and constitutes a compilation of the rights and duties of doctors and patients.These principles represent the embryo of an emergening human science known as Bioethics. From the impulse of the scientific paradigm, a set of tasks and cares that were included in what was called charity started to be classified in a group of new proffesions devoted to the "methodical" care of patients and the underprivileged. Several new professions sprung up, including Occupational Therapy. From then on, the practice of the occupational therapist has remained protected by ethical principles that have traditionally monitored and driven the medical practice.This article first summarizes the historical evolution of the different ethical codes used by health professionals, emphasizing those aspects with a greater influence in the configuration of the ethical codes connected with occupational therapy.Secondly, we analyse the way occupational therapy has integrated the ethical principles of the medical practice in its own intervention. The main ethical guidelines used in the field are the ones proposed by the American Association of Occupational Therapy (AOTA, the World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT, and the Council of Occupational Therapists for the European Countries (COTEC.Finally, we point out some of the difficulties and bioethcal challenges faced by occupational therapists

  13. Faculty ethics: ideal principles with practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybold, L Earle

    2009-01-01

    Ethics in higher education is the subject of intense public attention, with considerable focus on faculty roles and responsibilities. Media reports and scholarly research have documented egregious misconduct that includes plagiarism, falsification of data, illicit teacher-student relationships, and grading bias. These accounts of wrongdoing often portray faculty ethicality as only a legal issue of obeying rules and regulations, especially in the teaching and research roles. My discussion challenges this narrow perspective and argues that characterizations of faculty ethicality should take into account broader expectations for professionalism such as collegiality, respect, and freedom of inquiry. First, I review the general principles of faculty ethics developed by the American Association of University Professors, as well as professional codes of ethics in specific professional fields. Second, I juxtapose the experiences of women and minority faculty members in relation to these general codes of ethics. This section examines three issues that particularly affect women and minority faculty experiences of ethicality: "chilly and alienating" academic climates, "cultural taxation" of minority identity, and the snare of conventional reward systems. Third, I suggest practical strategies to reconcile faculty practice with codes of ethics. My challenge is to the faculty as a community of practice to engage professional ethics as social and political events, not just legal and moral failures.

  14. Basic principles of bioethics and orthodox ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Katsimigas George

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The galloping progress in genetic and medical technology has led to the birth of the new science of bioethics. Bioethics examines the ethical dimension of problems arising from the application of the discoveries in the fields of biology and genetics and the effects they may have on nature and people in particular, from the aspect of anthropological teaching of the church Fathers.Aim: The aim of this article is: a the delimitation of the scientific field of bioethics and its historical background, b the emergence of the principles of the science of bioethics, c the determination of the principles of orthodox morality though which the issues arising from the application of genetic engineering in human are faced.Material and Method: The method used to collect material for the writing of this article “principles of bioethics and orthodox morality”, was the widespread review of international and Greek bibliography. For the collection of the English bibliography the electronic database CINAHL was used. The keywords used in combination were Bioethics orthodox ethics. Results: The basic principle of bioethics are: a the principle of autonomy, b the principle of equivalence, c the principle of not causing harm and pain, d the principle of utility or beneficence, e the principle of justice. The orthodox approach to the issues arising from the application of genetics human is based on the Orthodox anthropology, as expressed in the Bible and the texts of the Fathers of the Church. The centerpieces of the Biblical and Patristic anthropology are: a that man was created as the exact replica of the Triune God and b that man is a single psychosomatic entity.

  15. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, focusing on introduction and applicability; preamble; general principles; and ethical standards (resolving ethical issues, competence, human relations, privacy and confidentiality, advertising and other public statements, record keeping and…

  16. [Ethical principles in human scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1994-07-01

    Hippocrates was the first physician to use the scientific method to find rational and not religious or mythic causes, for the etiology of diseases. Hippocrates and Aristoteles did not dare to dissect the human body. Afterwards however, many scientists such as Herophilus, Erasitastrus, Vesalus and Fallopio, performed experiments in human beings using vivisection. According to that age's ideas, there was no cruelty in performing vivisection in criminals, since useful knowledge for the progress of medicine and relief of diseases was obtained. Only during the nineteenth century and with Claude Bernard (1865), the ethical principles of systematic scientific research in humans were defined. These principles were violated by nazi physicians during Hitler's dictatorship in Germany (1933-1945). As a response to these horrors, the Ethical Codes of Nuremberg (1947) and Geneva (1948), that reestablished all the strength of Hippocratic principles, were dictated. The Nuremberg rules enact that a research subject must give a voluntary consent, that the experiment must by necessary and exempt of death risk, that the research must be qualified and that the experiment must be discontinued if there is a risk for the subject. The Geneva statement is a modernized hippocratic oath that protects patient's life above all. These classical rules, in force at the present time, are the essential guides that must be applied by physicians and researchers.

  17. International consensus principles for ethical wildlife control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sara; Fenwick, Nicole; Ryan, Erin A; Baker, Liv; Baker, Sandra E; Beausoleil, Ngaio J; Carter, Scott; Cartwright, Barbara; Costa, Federico; Draper, Chris; Griffin, John; Grogan, Adam; Howald, Gregg; Jones, Bidda; Littin, Kate E; Lombard, Amanda T; Mellor, David J; Ramp, Daniel; Schuppli, Catherine A; Fraser, David

    2017-08-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human-wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control. A diverse panel of 20 experts convened at a 2-day workshop and developed the principles through a facilitated engagement process and discussion. They determined that efforts to control wildlife should begin wherever possible by altering the human practices that cause human-wildlife conflict and by developing a culture of coexistence; be justified by evidence that significant harms are being caused to people, property, livelihoods, ecosystems, and/or other animals; have measurable outcome-based objectives that are clear, achievable, monitored, and adaptive; predictably minimize animal welfare harms to the fewest number of animals; be informed by community values as well as scientific, technical, and practical information; be integrated into plans for systematic long-term management; and be based on the specifics of the situation rather than negative labels (pest, overabundant) applied to the target species. We recommend that these principles guide development of international, national, and local standards and control decisions and implementation. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Preferences for Key Ethical Principles that Guide Business School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, Roger; Piotrowski, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Business ethics is presently a major component of the business school curriculum. Although there has been much attention focused on the impact of such coursework on instilling ethical decision-making (Nguyen et al., 2008), there is sparse research on how business students view the major ethical principles that serve as the foundation of business…

  19. Preferences for Key Ethical Principles that Guide Business School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, Roger; Piotrowski, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Business ethics is presently a major component of the business school curriculum. Although there has been much attention focused on the impact of such coursework on instilling ethical decision-making (Nguyen et al., 2008), there is sparse research on how business students view the major ethical principles that serve as the foundation of business…

  20. An inquiry into the character of ethical statements and their verification and justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Hartin

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Meta-ethics aims at considering questions and problems of fundamental importance to ethics as a science. A central aspect of meta-ethics deals with the character of ethical statements. Are they capable of verification? This is the question examined by this paper. Many differing answers have been proposed to the question but where many answers falter is in their neglect to give attention to the truly scientific nature of ethics. It is proposed that the approach of W. Pannenberg is to be followed whereby ethics must be viewed in a scientific way. Christian ethical thinking must take the results in other branches of science and make use of them, applying them to Christianity and theology as the science of God. The views of Karl Popper on the notion of a hypothesis are seen to offer possibilities for attaining the scientific character of ethical statements.

  1. Principles for ethical research involving humans: ethical professional practice in impact assessment Part I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanclay, Frank; Baines, James T; Taylor, C. Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    ... methods textbooks, this paper identifies current principles for ethical research involving humans and discusses their implications for impact assessment practice generally and social impact assessment specifically...

  2. Islam and the four principles of medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Yassar

    2014-07-01

    The principles underpinning Islam's ethical framework applied to routine clinical scenarios remain insufficiently understood by many clinicians, thereby unfortunately permitting the delivery of culturally insensitive healthcare.This paper summarises the foundations of the Islamic ethical theory, elucidating the principles and methodology employed by the Muslim jurist in deriving rulings in the field of medical ethics. The four-principles approach, as espoused by Beauchamp and Childress, is also interpreted through the prism of Islamic ethical theory. Each of the four principles (beneficence, nonmaleficence,justice and autonomy) is investigated in turn, looking in particular at the extent to which each is rooted in the Islamic paradigm. This will provide an important insight into Islamic medical ethics, enabling the clinician to have a better informed discussion with the Muslim patient. It will also allow for a higher degree of concordance in consultations and consequently optimise culturally sensitive healthcare delivery.

  3. Ethical principles and guidelines for the development of cognitive systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaneyfelt, Wendy

    2006-05-01

    As cognitive systems technologies emerge, so too do the ethical issues surrounding their development and use. To develop cognitive systems technologies responsibly, Sandia National Laboratories is establishing a framework to proactively address both real and potential ethical issues. This report contains the principles and guidelines developers can use to guide them as they are confronted with ethical issues related to developing cognitive systems technologies as they apply to U.S. national security. A process to apply these principles offers a practical way to transfer these principles from paper to a working strategy. Case studies are presented to reflect upon potential scenarios and to consider resolution strategies.

  4. Argumentative Justification and Intuitive Subtlety in the Realization of Ethical Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Barrientos Rastrojo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the hermeneutical bases of all ethical decisions. Moral norms require an understanding of the circumstances, since good ethical judgments can only be made on that basis. While for Peter Singer, the tools for that understanding are rational, Mauricio Beuchot expands them through intuition and subtlety. The paper discusses whether Singer’s claims are substantiated in his works.

  5. Did I Do the Right Thing? A Question of Journalistic Ethical Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that journalism advisers need to help student journalists cultivate an informed journalistic conscience as well as some procedures in order to justify their decisions. Discusses examples that can help students understand and apply issues in journalism ethics of: law versus ethics; informed journalistic conscience; and justification…

  6. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Contraindication or Ethical Justification for Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn

    2016-11-01

    Is Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder ever ethically justified? Cosmetic genital surgery (specifically labioplasty) for adolescent girls is one of the most ethically controversial forms of cosmetic surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder is typically seen as a contraindication for cosmetic surgery. Two key ethical concerns are (1) that Body Dysmorphic Disorder undermines whatever capacity for autonomy the adolescent has; and (2) even if there is valid parental consent, the presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder means that cosmetic surgery will fail in its aims. In this article, we challenge, in an evidence-based way, the standard view that Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a contraindication for genital cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Our argument gathers together and unifies a substantial amount of disparate research in the context of an ethical argument. We focus on empirical questions about benefit and harm, because these are ethically significant. Answers to these questions affect the answer to the ethical question. We question the claim that there would be no benefit from surgery in this situation, and we consider possible harms that might be done if treatment is refused. For an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the most important thing may be to avoid harm. We find ourselves arguing for the ethical justifiability of cosmetic labioplasty for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, even though we recognize that it is a counter intuitive position. We explain how we reached our conclusion.

  7. Gandhian Principles in Social Work Practice: Ethics Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Tom; Ritchie, Heather

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the thought of Mahatma Gandhi, as revealed in his social activism, is relevant to social work ethics and a resource for its ethical enrichment. Proposes that principles such as seeking truth through service to others, individual self-development, nonviolent social action, and material simplicity could enhance the current National…

  8. Ethics Today: Are Our Principles Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In 1939 technological advances included the first handheld electric slicing knife, the first mass-produced helicopter, and the first transmission of a picture via a cable system (Science and Technology 2001). That year also saw the first Code of Ethics adopted by the American Library Association (ALA OIF 2010, 311). Can an ethical code first…

  9. In Defense of Four Principles Approach in Medical Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dabbagh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available "nPrinciplism, in general and Four Principles Approach in particular is largely discussed in current medical ethics. Accord­ing to principlism, the ethical relationship between physician and patient has to be categorized based on some princi­ples, the prin­ciples which are general, action-guiding and could help both the patient and the physician to arrange their ethical behav­ior. Four Principles Approach which is a principlistic view, has formulated the princi­ples which have to be considered in medi­cal ethics in the light of Rossian ethical framework as follows: respect for auton­omy, nonmalefi­cience, beneficence and jus­tice. Ethical Particularism, on the other hand, strongly criticizes princi­plism and repudi­ates the very idea of generalizabil­ity in the realm of ethics. According to particularists, the way in which a mor­ally relevant feature like fidelity and justice be­have in different ethical occasions is fully con­text-dependent so that they can­not be patternable in advance. It follows from this that fidelity, for instance, is not a good-making feature, generally speak­ing."nIn this paper, firstly, the Rossian ethics is discussed in order to make Four Principles Approach intelligible. Sec­ondly, the main particularists' argument against principlism is formulated. Finally, Particularists' argument is evalu­ated and its plau­si­bility is discussed.

  10. Universal Principles of Media Ethics: South African and German Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Sophie Borgmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly globalised nature of media and journalism has led to a review of ethical standards, mainly to find universal ethical values which are applicable in a world with countless different cultures. This article attempts to address this field of research in comparing South African and German approaches to the topic of media ethics. Firstly, it outlines theories of universal and specific cultural ethical principles in journalism. Secondly, it shows how the conception of universal ethical principles, so called protonorms, is interpreted differently in the two cultures and how specific cultural values of media ethics are rated among the two cultural frameworks of Germany and South Africa. An online survey conducted among German and South African journalism students found significant differences in the ranking of media ethics principles as well as similarities and differences in the interpretations of protonorms. The results support existing normative theories of universal media ethics, such as the theory of protonorms, in contributing explorative empirical data to this field of mainly theoretical research.

  11. Ethics and nursing research. 1: Development, theories and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble-Adams, R

    This article, the first of two looking at nursing ethics and research, outlines the foundations and development of an ethical framework for nursing research. The two dominant theories of ethics--utilitarianism and deontology--are described as they relate to the rights of individuals undergoing the research. Each of these approaches has limitations and in some instances choosing the right action may be difficult. The guiding ethical standards of beneficence/non-maleficence, respect for human dignity, justice, informed consent and vulnerable subjects are reviewed for the reader as they relate to undertaking research. This knowledge will help nurses conduct, participate in, or use research that is based on ethically sound principles. The second article will explore and explain the relationship between these guiding principles and the elemental steps of the research process.

  12. Ethical Principles for Physician Rating Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Strech, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    During the last 5 years, an ethical debate has emerged, often in public media, about the potential positive and negative effects of physician rating sites and whether physician rating sites created by insurance companies or government agencies are ethical in their current states. Due to the lack of direct evidence of physician rating sites’ effects on physicians’ performance, patient outcomes, or the public’s trust in health care, most contributions refer to normative arguments, hypothetical ...

  13. School Counseling Principles: Ethics and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This practical guide will sensitize the professional school counselor to legal and ethical issues involved in working with minors in school settings. Using a case study approach and more than 100 cases representing school counselors daily dilemmas, chapters help the reader connect the reality of school counseling to critical federal and state…

  14. Ethical and Privacy Principles for Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Abelardo; Siemens, George

    2014-01-01

    The massive adoption of technology in learning processes comes with an equally large capacity to track learners. Learning analytics aims at using the collected information to understand and improve the quality of a learning experience. The privacy and ethical issues that emerge in this context are tightly interconnected with other aspects such as…

  15. New Innovative Ethical Principles in Increasing Road Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Miletić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Future managers are faced daily with a variety of ethical dilemmas in traffic that need to be balanced by the interests of all participants. The question is whether a new innovative model of ethical principles could be developed that would increase road safety.Purpose: The a im is to raise the level of social responsibility and relationship of participants in traffic as well as warn all participants on the importance of safety. In addition, the purpose is to share suggestions to other researchers for further research studies in the area of increasing traffic safety.Method: We carried out a quantitative study (survey among first year post-graduate students studying at a higher education school focused on quality management in south-eastern Slovenia. The article presents five different ethical scenarios.Results: The participants have very similar views on judging individual ethical dilemmas. The desire to increase road safety, have led to new useful suggestions for further study of innovative new ethical principles in the field of safety, such as: no death victims annually, adequate road infrastructure, improved vehicle technology, video surveillance systems, and so on.Organization: Relevant authorities should promote models of ethical thinking and the introduction of codes of conduct at an early age. As such, the state, police, rescuers, fire departments, hospitals, and so on, would have fewer deaths due to serious traffic accidents.Society: By taking these results and further research suggestions into account, society would gain a new model that would be based on zero accidents annually.Originality: Research in the field of ethics and innovative ethical principles of traffic safety is limited. The article presents practical examples of ethical and moral decision-making that we encounter in daily traffic. But nothing much is done to make it better ("every day the same story".Limitations/Future Research: The research study

  16. Ethics and contemporary urology practice: Setting out principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several situations of great ethical implications are encountered by physicians in daily urological practice. Informed consent for interventions, selection of patients for operative demonstrations and educational workshops, enrollment of patients in clinical trials, and the use of technology are some issues that call for stringent application of ethical principles in decision making. The issues of autonomy, privacy, rights, duties, and privileges that arise have to pass the tests prescribed by contemporary social mores and regulations. Some of the issues encountered, principles applicable, and covenants and documents that guide decision making are discussed.

  17. R. S. Peters and Moral Education, 1: The Justification of Procedural Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    According to Peters, there are five procedural principles crucial for moral education: worthwhile activities; consideration of interests; freedom; respect for persons; and truth-telling. This article argues that these principles are not critical for moral education and fail to address important issues, such as the question "What ought I to do?"…

  18. Ethical Principles in European regulation of biotechnology - possibilities and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Berit Andersen; Nielsen, Linda

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to discribe, analyse and assess the varying methods of operationalising ethical principles within European regulation of biotechnology, with the inclusion of proposals for different tools and models for use in future regulation. The aim of the report is first and for...... and foremost to serve as a practical resource for use in evolving regulation, political support, and democratic and debating activities in different domains in response to rapid advances in biotechnology, and the ethical concerns that follow in its wake.......The purpose of this report is to discribe, analyse and assess the varying methods of operationalising ethical principles within European regulation of biotechnology, with the inclusion of proposals for different tools and models for use in future regulation. The aim of the report is first...

  19. Ethics and Information Technology: Some Principles To Guide Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Sonia

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the ethical challenges of information technology, particularly electronic indexes and the Internet; considers principles to guide students; and discusses possible librarian responses. Topics include Kant's categorical imperative, ownership, right to privacy, social responsibility, self-respect, plagiarism and copyrights, and three…

  20. Why There Is No Education Ethics without Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krek, Janez; Zabel, Blaž

    2017-01-01

    Moral education and ethical reflection are always dependent on the content of the internalized norms, principles and values of the individual. As we demonstrate, this also means that there is no instance of "feeling," "emotion," "spontaneity," or "care" that can be independent of norms, rules, and values…

  1. Ethics and Information Technology: Some Principles To Guide Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Sonia

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the ethical challenges of information technology, particularly electronic indexes and the Internet; considers principles to guide students; and discusses possible librarian responses. Topics include Kant's categorical imperative, ownership, right to privacy, social responsibility, self-respect, plagiarism and copyrights, and three…

  2. Some principles of Islamic ethics as found in Harrisian philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Sahin

    2010-04-01

    John Harris is one of the prominent philosophers and bioethicists of our time. He has published tens of books and hundreds of papers throughout his professional life. This paper aims to take a 'deep-look' at Harris' works to argue that it is possible to find some principles of Islamic ethics in Harrisian philosophy, namely in his major works, as well as in his personal life. This may be surprising, or thought of as a 'big' and 'groundless' claim, since John Harris has nothing to do with any religion in his intellectual works. The major features of Harrisian philosophy could be defined as consequentialism or utilitarianism with liberal overtones. Despite some significant and fundamental differences in the application of principles (ie, abortion, euthanasia), the similarities between the major principles in Harrisian philosophy and Islamic ethics are greater at some points than the similarities between Islamic ethics and some other religious ethics (ie, Christian, Judaism). In this study I compare Harrisian teachings with major Islamic principles on 'Responsibility', 'Side-effects and Double-effects', 'Equality', 'Vicious choice, guilt and innocence', 'Organ transplantation and property rights' and 'Advance directives'.

  3. RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE OF BUSINESS ETHICS PRINCIPLES IN TURKEY AND ROMANIA: A CROSS COUNTRY COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz AGAOGLU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to research in business ethics application, by studying one of the contemporary instruments of applying business ethics. The research focuses on Islamic business ethics in comparison to Christian business ethics and discusses its application using a comparative perspective. First, this chapter aims to address the Islamic understanding of what ethics means? What is the relationship between ethics, human nature and religion in Islam? While providing an introductory analysis on Islamic ethical standards, the chapter highlights first (1 the business ethical values and principles of Islamic ethics, second (2 the business ethical values and principles of Turkish Islamic ethics, third (3, the business ethical values and principles of Christian Romanian ethics.

  4. Principle-Based Ethics and the Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay, Ingrid; Oughton, Deborah [Univ. of Oslo (Norway). The Ethics Programme

    2003-10-01

    Search for common values can go a long way resolving international political and social differences, and represents an area where ethical evaluation can offer an input to international legislation. This paper argues that a principle-based, normative approach should be applied to evaluation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and the goal of sustainable development (SD). Primafacie ethical principles to promote weil-being, dignity and justice can be defined and supported from international agreements on sustainable developments. To promote coherency, these principles should then be specifled according to particular CDM-projects, to produce a set of norms that covers: 1) the different dimension to sustainable development, 2) the distribution of costs and benefits across time and place, and 3) consequences for different affected parties, including future generations and the environment.

  5. Violation of ethical principles in institutional care for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bužgová, Radka; Ivanová, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on issues of elder abuse in residential settings. Violation of ethical principles is shown in the results of this quantitative study aimed at defining the extent, nature and causes of such abuse by employees' unethical conduct towards clients in senior homes (i.e. residential nursing homes) in the Moravian-Silesian region of the Czech Republic. The research sample comprised 454 employees and 488 clients from 12 residential homes for older people. The data were collected from interviews with clients, who also received a questionnaire concerning their satisfaction with the institution. Two questionnaires were administered to the employees, one based on a pilot qualitative study and a second to investigate burnout. Outcomes were assessed according to the extent and form of elder abuse, the causes of elder abuse and the violation of basic ethical principles. The responses, in particular those of employees, revealed both psychological and physical abuse of older clients, and thus violation of two basic principles: respect for the person and non-maleficence. The group at risk of elder abuse comprised aggressive and dissatisfied clients, as well as those with mental problems and dementia. The employees most at risk of being abusers were those who had been employed in institutional care for more than five years, had inadequate knowledge about social services and suffered from burnout. The prevention of elder abuse is recommended to be through education focused on ethical principles, increasing employees' satisfaction by promoting a friendly and safe organizational culture, and providing adequate working conditions.

  6. The 3Rs principle – mind the ethical gap!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Franco, Nuno H.; Weary, Daniel M.;

    2012-01-01

    Over the 50 years since they were first proposed, the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) have made a tremendous impact. These principles seem to unify concerns for better science with causing less harm to animals. The ideas behind the 3Rs are so intuitively compelling that it is tempting to...... effects of repeated exposure to harmful procedures). We conclude that there is now a need for a more thorough ethical discussion on how to resolve these issues....

  7. How "moral" are the principles of biomedical ethics?--a cross-domain evaluation of the common morality hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Markus; Ineichen, Christian; Tanner, Carmen

    2014-06-17

    The principles of biomedical ethics - autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice - are of paradigmatic importance for framing ethical problems in medicine and for teaching ethics to medical students and professionals. In order to underline this significance, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress base the principles in the common morality, i.e. they claim that the principles represent basic moral values shared by all persons committed to morality and are thus grounded in human moral psychology. We empirically investigated the relationship of the principles to other moral and non-moral values that provide orientations in medicine. By way of comparison, we performed a similar analysis for the business & finance domain. We evaluated the perceived degree of "morality" of 14 values relevant to medicine (n1 = 317, students and professionals) and 14 values relevant to business & finance (n2 = 247, students and professionals). Ratings were made along four dimensions intended to characterize different aspects of morality. We found that compared to other values, the principles-related values received lower ratings across several dimensions that characterize morality. By interpreting our finding using a clustering and a network analysis approach, we suggest that the principles can be understood as "bridge values" that are connected both to moral and non-moral aspects of ethical dilemmas in medicine. We also found that the social domain (medicine vs. business & finance) influences the degree of perceived morality of values. Our results are in conflict with the common morality hypothesis of Beauchamp and Childress, which would imply domain-independent high morality ratings of the principles. Our findings support the suggestions by other scholars that the principles of biomedical ethics serve primarily as instruments in deliberated justifications, but lack grounding in a universal "common morality". We propose that the specific manner in which the principles

  8. Principles for ethical treatment decision-making in veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer Bley, C

    2017-08-31

    Many owners of companion animals with cancer are overwhelmed by having to choose the "right course of action." With the aim of reducing the burden on owners who are forced to act as surrogates for their animals, this work discusses principles that apply to ethical treatment decision-making for animal patients with cancer. Four principles frequently used for ethical decision-making in human medicine will be considered for their potential applicability in veterinary medicine. As a result of these considerations, preliminary guidelines are presented, along which a decision-making discussion can be held. The deliberate integration of the non-maleficence and beneficence principles into the purely empirical facts of what is medically possible helps to maintain a moral perspective in specialized veterinary medicine. At the same time, such guidelines may contribute to individual decision-making in a way that animal patients neither have to endure unnecessarily severe side effects, nor that they are euthanized prematurely. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. CONTEMPORARY LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND ETHICAL PRINCIPLES IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Perše

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe experiments on animals remain to play an important and yet unreplaceble role in the progress of biomedicine. Therefore, under certain legal conditions, it is morally acceptable to use animals for scientific purposes. Directive 86/609/EEC adopted in 1986 has started to regulate the legislation on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes in Europe and in Slovenia. In 2010, after a public consultation involving scientific community and animal protectionist associations, the European parliament released revised Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. The aim of the paper is to present contemporary legislation from the field of experimental animals and basic ethical principles that are foundation of responsible use of animals in research as well as valid science.   ConclusionThe society`s relationship to the animals varies throughtout history, also thanks to animal experimentation which definitively confirmed that animals are sentient beings that like humans experience pain, suffering, distres or enjoyment. In western developed society the number of people defending animal rights and contradicting the use of animals in experiments is increasing. Therefore, increasing effort and financial stimulation for the development and implementation of the methods to replace animal experimentation takes place in the EU. But as long as this does not occur the revised legislation requires careful and responsible use of animals in accordance with the legislative and contemporary ethical principles.

  10. Authenticity as a foundational principle of medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welie, J V

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, contemporary medical ethicists have become aware of the need to explicate a foundation for their various models of applied ethics. Many of these theories are inspired by the apparent incompatibility of patient autonomy and provider beneficence. The principle of patient autonomy derives its current primacy to a large extent from its legal origins. However, this principle seems at odds with the clinical reality. In the bioethical literature, the notion of authenticity has been proposed as an alternative foundational principle to autonomy. This article examines this proposal in reference to various existentialist philosophers (Heidegger, Sartre, Camus and Marcel). It is concluded that the principle of autonomy fails to do what it is commonly supposed to do: provide a criterion of distinction that can be invoked to settle moral controversies between patients and providers. The existentialist concept of authenticity is more promising in at least one crucial respect: It acknowledges that the essence of human life disappears from sight if life's temporal character is reduced to a series of present decisions and actions. This also implies that the very quest for a criterion that allows physicians to distinguish between sudden, unexpected decisions of their patients to be or not to be respected, without recourse to the patient's past or future, is erroneous.

  11. The principles of medical ethics and medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris John

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the application of the principles of medical ethics and of medical research to the case of children and others whose consent to treatment and to research is problematic. Public health depends substantially on the possibility of ongoing research into all conditions which affect the health of the people. Constraints on this research are therefore a public health issue. Moreover and more importantly the possibility of predictive testing and indeed of screening for health-relevant conditions is an important public health tool, and limitations on the use of this tool are of great significance to public health medicine. Having considered the particular problems created by research and predictive testing on children for late-onset conditions I go on to discuss research on those whose consent is problematic more generally. I conclude with radical recommendations for the reform of The Declaration of Helsinki and of the International Ethics Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, prepared by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS.

  12. The Use of Informational Formats to Implement APA Ethical Principles in Collecting Classroom Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolly, John P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Providing more information about experimental studies than required under the ethical principles formulated by the American Psychological Association can result in data bias on a specific task; overall, however, the implementation of ethical principles has little effect on data collected in classroom settings. (RL)

  13. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rebecca H.; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann

    2016-01-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit (‘Ethics Tool Kit’) has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency...

  14. The principle of double effect applied to ethical dilemmas of social robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of social robots into society will require that they follow ethical principles which go beyond consequentialism. In this paper, I show how to apply the principle of double effect to solve an ethical dilemma involving robots studied by Alan Winfield and colleagues. The principle...... of double effect states conditions for ethically acceptable behavior when there are both positive and negative consequences of an action. I propose a formal semantics with actions, causes, intentions, and utilities based upon the work of Judea Pearl, John Horty, and others. With this formal semantics...

  15. The APA Ethical Principles as a foundational competency: application to rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Stephanie L; Kerkhoff, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    Competence is a core component of ethical conduct as reflected in its addition as an ethical standard in the 2002 APA Ethics Code. Successfully operationalizing and assessing competence provides psychologists a means to improve education and training, advance the field of practice, and create a framework for accountability to the public. Much of the recent competency discussion has been in response to a proposed Cube Model, with its three axes being foundational competencies (practice building blocks, such as scientific knowledge, ethical standards), functional competencies (attributes of providing services, such as assessment, intervention), and developmental progression (acquiring increasing competence over the course of one's education and career). Ethics is included on the foundational competency axis and has been operationalized to the extent that subcomponents and benchmarks have been promulgated. The competency model as proposed faces multiple challenges, including gaining consensus regarding its components, addressing reliable and valid assessment over time, and creating a culture of acceptance. We propose the Ethical Principles as an alternative framework for conceptualizing ethics as a foundational competency given the Ethics Code is already time tested and includes a serial review process for broad discipline input and adaptability. We apply the Ethical Principles as foundational components to rehabilitation psychology training at internship, postdoctoral, and specialty levels to illustrate the model. Rehabilitation psychology should engage in the competency movement at the predoctoral and postdoctoral level. The application of the Ethical Principles as a foundational competency to rehabilitation psychology represents a first step in this dialog.

  16. The patient-centered medical home: an ethical analysis of principles and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Clarence H; Snyder, Lois; Neubauer, Richard L; Fischer, Gary S

    2013-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH), with its focus on patient-centered care, holds promise as a way to reinvigorate the primary care of patients and as a necessary component of health care reform. While its tenets have been the subject of review, the ethical dimensions of the PCMH have not been fully explored. Consideration of the ethical foundations for the core principles of the PCMH can and should be part of the debate concerning its merits. The PCMH can align with the principles of medical ethics and potentially strengthen the patient-physician relationship and aspects of health care that patients value. Patient choice and these ethical considerations are central and at least as important as the economic and practical arguments in support of the PCMH, if not more so. Further, the ethical principles that support key concepts of the PCMH have implications for the design and implementation of the PCMH. This paper explores the PCMH in light of core principles of ethics and professionalism, with an emphasis both on how the concept of the PCMH may reinforce core ethical principles of medical practice and on further implications of these principles.

  17. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-04-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit ('Ethics Tool Kit') has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval.

  18. How “moral” are the principles of biomedical ethics? – a cross-domain evaluation of the common morality hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The principles of biomedical ethics – autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice – are of paradigmatic importance for framing ethical problems in medicine and for teaching ethics to medical students and professionals. In order to underline this significance, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress base the principles in the common morality, i.e. they claim that the principles represent basic moral values shared by all persons committed to morality and are thus grounded in human moral psychology. We empirically investigated the relationship of the principles to other moral and non-moral values that provide orientations in medicine. By way of comparison, we performed a similar analysis for the business & finance domain. Methods We evaluated the perceived degree of “morality” of 14 values relevant to medicine (n1 = 317, students and professionals) and 14 values relevant to business & finance (n2 = 247, students and professionals). Ratings were made along four dimensions intended to characterize different aspects of morality. Results We found that compared to other values, the principles-related values received lower ratings across several dimensions that characterize morality. By interpreting our finding using a clustering and a network analysis approach, we suggest that the principles can be understood as “bridge values” that are connected both to moral and non-moral aspects of ethical dilemmas in medicine. We also found that the social domain (medicine vs. business & finance) influences the degree of perceived morality of values. Conclusions Our results are in conflict with the common morality hypothesis of Beauchamp and Childress, which would imply domain-independent high morality ratings of the principles. Our findings support the suggestions by other scholars that the principles of biomedical ethics serve primarily as instruments in deliberated justifications, but lack grounding in a universal “common morality”. We

  19. Perspectives on the ethical concerns and justifications of the 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV testing recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waxman Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC recommended three changes to HIV testing methods in US healthcare settings: (1 an opt-out approach, (2 removal of separate signed consent, and (3 optional HIV prevention counseling. These recommendations led to a public debate about their moral acceptability. Methods We interviewed 25 members from the fields of US HIV advocacy, care, policy, and research about the ethical merits and demerits of the three changes to HIV testing methods. We performed a qualitative analysis of the participant responses in the interviews and summarized the major themes. Results In general, arguments in favor of the methods were based upon their ultimate contribution to increasing HIV testing and permitting the consequent benefits of identifying those who are HIV infected and linking them to further care. Conclusions The prevailing theme of ethical concern focused on suspicions that the methods might not be properly implemented, and that further safeguards might be needed.

  20. [Ethical principles of management and planning during influenza pandemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubar', O I; Asatrian, A Zh

    2012-01-01

    The article is dedicated to an actual problem of ethical component inclusion into the system of management and planning of epidemic control measures during threat emergence and in the course of influenza pandemic (epidemic) progress. Data regarding development of international ethical guidelines during influenza including WHO recommendations are presented and analysis of normative documents in Russian Federation is given. A necessity of comprehension and accounting of ethical values in pandemic preparedness is shown, main directions of action and responsibility are revealed. Key ethical positions of planning and implementation of measures during influenza pandemic are outlined, compliance with those determines the level of public support and thus provides the effectiveness of the implemented measures.

  1. Revisiting Principles of Ethical Practice Using a Case Study Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Bertina H.; Peak, Pamela W.; Barrio, Brenda L.; Lindo, Endia J.; Hovey, Katrina A.; Lim, Okyoung; Peterson-Ahmad, Maria; Dorel, Theresa G.; Goran, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A code of ethics serves as a compass, guiding professionals as they perform the roles associated with their profession. These codes are evidence to the public that professionals are concerned about the services they provide and the individuals to whom they are provided. Codes of ethics should be living documents, changing focus as the fields they…

  2. 2010 Amendments to the 2002 "Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The following amendments to the 2002 "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct" (the Ethics Code; American Psychological Association, 2002) were adopted by the APA Council of Representatives at its February 2010 meeting. The changes involve the last two sentences of the final paragraph of the Introduction and Applicability section and Ethical Standards 1.02 and 1.03. The amendments became effective June 1, 2010. A history of these amendments to the Ethics Code is provided in the "Report of the Ethics Committee, 2009" in this issue of the American Psychologist (American Psychological Association, Ethics Committee, 2010). Following are a clean version of the revisions and a version indicating changes from the 2002 language (inserted text is underlined; deleted text is crossed out).

  3. Nanotechnology: is there a need for ethical principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meetoo, Danny

    Nanotechnology (NT) is concerned with materials and systems whose structures and components exhibit novel physical, chemical and biological properties due to their nanoscale size. This new scientific discipline is fast becoming a major driver of the future direction of health care and is likely to have a significant impact on society, medicine and nursing. This article demonstrates that ethical reflections lie at the heart of nursing. In contextualizing the ethics of NT, this article questions the conclusion reached by others that ethical reflections on NT lag behind its scientific developments. Instead it proposes that the ethical issues raised by NT are similar to those relating to biotechnology, considered by ethicists since the 1970s. Consequently, this article argues that a foundation of ethical reflections already exists that can be transferred to NT. Finally, this article asserts the need for nurses to be proactively involved in interdisciplinary discussions likely to extend the current ethical reflections of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice to NT.

  4. The principle of double effect applied to ethical dilemmas of social robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of social robots into society will require that they follow ethical principles which go beyond consequentialism. In this paper, I show how to apply the principle of double effect to solve an ethical dilemma involving robots studied by Alan Winfield and colleagues. The principle...... of double effect states conditions for ethically acceptable behavior when there are both positive and negative consequences of an action. I propose a formal semantics with actions, causes, intentions, and utilities based upon the work of Judea Pearl, John Horty, and others. With this formal semantics......, the question of whether an action is permitted according to the principle of double effect is reduced to deciding whether a certain formula is true or otherwise....

  5. Culpability and pain management/control in peripheral vascular disease using the ethics of principles and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omery, A

    1991-09-01

    The purposes of this article were to provide insight into the process of ethics and ethical inquiry and to explore the ethical issues of culpability and pain management/control. Critical care nurses who currently care for vascular patients identified these issues as occurring frequently in their practice. Authors in critical care nursing generally have limited the process of ethical inquiry to a theoretical framework built around an ethic of principles. The message many critical care nurses heard was that this one type of theoretical ethical framework was the totality of ethics. The application of these principles was ethical inquiry. For some nurses, the ethic of principles is sufficient. For others, an ethic of principles is either incomplete or foreign. This second group of nurses may believe that they have no moral voice if the language of ethics is only the language of principles. The language of principles, however, is not the only theoretical framework available. There is also the ethic of care, and ethical inquiry can include the application of that framework. Indeed, the language of the ethic of care may give a voice to nurses who previously felt morally mute. In fact, these two theoretical frameworks are not the only frameworks available to nurses. There is also virtue ethics, a framework not discussed in this article. A multiplicity of ethical frameworks is available for nurses to use in analyzing their professional and personal dilemmas. Recognizing that multiplicity, nurses can analyze their ethical dilemmas more comprehensively and effectively. Applying differing ethical frameworks can result in the same conclusions. This was the case for the issue of culpability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Biotechnology entrepreneurship and ethics: principles, paradigms, and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszler, Patricia C

    2006-09-01

    Biotechnology, whether in the context of new drugs derived from DNA and genetic technology, genetically modified food, or biologics making use of living cells, raises ethical concerns at a variety of different levels. At the research level, there is concern that the very nature of research is being subverted, rather than enhanced, by entrepreneurship. This area of ethical concern has intensified in the United States as a result of the conflicts of interests resulting from the growing alliance between University academia and private industry in the research enterprise. As we travel down the research path into development of a drug or technology, ethical questions arise with respect to protecting human subjects and society from danger and exploitation by researchers. As development gives way to marketing and dissemination of a new product, government regulators are pressed to get drugs and biologics through the regulatory pipeline into the market faster, walking an ethical tightrope between speed and safety. As new biotechnology products enter the market place, doctors and patients traverse yet another tightrope, that between unknown risk and the promise of benefit. And finally, patent protection is increasingly viewed as a unethical culprit in keeping prices high and depriving the global poor from lifesaving drugs and biologics. Bioethics has, to date, been largely a creation of Western research and medicine. As such it is wholly inadequate to respond to the cascade of ethical issues that flow from a vibrant biotechnology industry. And if biotechnology is in its infancy, as most believe, it is crucial that scientists, entrepreneurs and governments engage in dialogue about the ethical and societal questions raised on the road of scientific progress.

  7. Sustainability as an Ethical Principle: Ensuring Its Systematic Place in Professional Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Annette

    2015-12-30

    Alongside the central focus on the persons requiring nursing care in professional nursing practice, the perspective of the sustainability of interventions and the use of materials (for example, nursing aids and hygiene articles) is gaining prominence in nursing decision-making processes. This contribution makes the principle of sustainability concrete and delineates its importance in the context of professional nursing practice and decision-making. It further suggests the development of an ethical policy in order to systematically ensure that sustainability has a place in ethical reflection and decision-making, and describes the elements involved. Finally, a synthesis is made between the importance of the principle of sustainability, suggested ethical policies (system of ethical reflection) as they affect nursing practice and professional reflection, decision-making, and practice.

  8. The Limits of Moral Principle: An Ends, Means, and Role Spheres Model of the Ethical Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    utilitarianism, rule utilitarianism, and egoism . Act utilitarianism is explained by the formula- tion that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote...moral rule that requires the act" tnat becomes the basis for stating moral principles (3:12). Finally, egoism is the idea that "the most fundamental...ethics (as utilitarian or ethical egoism ) according to which the rightness of an act is determined by its ends" (20:2350). Deontology, on the other hand

  9. Ethical principles for the management of infants with disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Lynn H; Hewitt, Jacqueline K; Warne, Garry L

    2010-01-01

    The Fifth World Congress on Family Law and Children's Rights (Halifax, August 2009) adopted a resolution endorsing a new set of ethical guidelines for the management of infants and children with disorders of sex development (DSD) [www.lawrights.asn.au/index.php?option = com_content&view = article&id = 76&Itemid = 109]. The ethical principles developed by our group were the basis for the Halifax Resolution. In this paper, we outline these principles and explain their basis. The principles are intended as the ethical foundation for treatment decisions for DSD, especially decisions about type and timing of genital surgery for infants and young children. These principles were formulated by an analytic review of clinician reasoning in particular cases, in relation to established principles of bioethics, in a process consistent with the Rawlsian concept of reflective equilibrium as the method for building ethical theory. The principles we propose are: (1) minimising physical risk to child; (2) minimising psychosocial risk to child; (3) preserving potential for fertility; (4) preserving or promoting capacity to have satisfying sexual relations; (5) leaving options open for the future, and (6) respecting the parents' wishes and beliefs.

  10. No Offense! On the Offense Principle and Some New Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2016-01-01

    A central aim within criminal justice ethics is to give a plausible justification concerning which type of acts ought to be criminalized by the state. One of the principles of criminalization which has been presented and critically discussed in the philosophical literature is the Offense Principle...

  11. Journalism Ethics in Secondary Education: Principles and Guidelines for Decision Making within a Systematic Framework of Moral Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlong, Ann

    In response to rising public criticism of the media and demand for accountability, leaders among professional journalists are calling for a renewed emphasis on codes of ethics and deliberate attention to moral action. In examining the importance and relevance of ethics to high school journalism, three principles for the teaching of ethics emerge:…

  12. From Ethical Justification to Delimitation of Boundaries between Country Power and Individual Rights:A Settlement Way of the Particular Ethical Conflict in Public Health%从伦理辩护到国家权力、个人权利界限的划定--公共卫生领域特殊伦理冲突的和解之道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珊; 路绪锋

    2014-01-01

    In epidemic prevention work ,in order to protect public health we have no choice but to infringe the right of infectious disease patients ,this is a particular ethical conflict in public health which is different from clinical medicine . Although some scholars argue in favor of the priority of public health according to utilitarianism ,difference principle and the priority of public good ,all of these are not consistent with the individual perspective of medical ethics . In fact , upholding single theoretical perspective is the maximal obstacle on the road to reconciliation of ethical conflict ,only change the single perspective can we open the compatibility of theory .We have to transform ethical justification to practical wisdom ,that is to say ,country power and individual rights should stick to each boundary ,so as to achieve harmonious status between them .%在流行病防控等公共卫生工作中,为了维护公共健康不得不侵犯传染病患者的个人权利,这是公共卫生领域不同于临床医学的特殊伦理冲突。虽然有学者分别依据“效果论”、“差异原则”和“公共善优先”为公共健康的优先性进行了辩护,但都不能与医学伦理学的个体论视角相融洽。实际上,固守单一的理论视角是伦理冲突和解的最大障碍,只有改变单一视角,才能开启理论的兼容性。伦理辩护必须转化为实践智慧,即必须在公共卫生实践中实现国家权力与个人权利的有序协调,使国家权力和个人权利坚守各自的界限。

  13. Ethics of Living Technology: Design Principles for Proactive Home Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Mäyrä

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The entry of proactive technology into highly sensitive environments, such as the home, produces specific design challenges that are inextricably linked to ethical issues. Two design goals are presented and analysed: proactive solutions have to be both personalized and consistent. These requirements are partially contradictory, and need to be understood in the context of the socio-cognitive setting of the home. The embedding of proactive technology into a home environment has to provide the user with an awareness of the possibilities of control and play. These design goals are further developed with regard to different user cultures: here we concentrate on early adopters and elderly people.

  14. Application of legal principles and medical ethics: multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, M A; Tay, S K

    2014-06-01

    In the management of complex medical cases such as a multifetal pregnancy, knowledge of the ethical and legal implications is important, alongside having competent medical skills. This article reviews these principles and applies them to scenarios of multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction. Such a discussion is not solely theoretical, but is also relevant to clinical practice. The importance of topics such as bioethical principles and informed consent are also herein addressed.

  15. The 3Rs principle – mind the ethical gap!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Franco, Nuno H.; Weary, Daniel M.;

    2012-01-01

    Over the 50 years since they were first proposed, the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) have made a tremendous impact. These principles seem to unify concerns for better science with causing less harm to animals. The ideas behind the 3Rs are so intuitively compelling that it is tempting...

  16. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: Exploring the Role of Moral Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Kohlberg (1969) developed a seminal model that has had a profound effect on thinking about moral principles, as well as on the course of research in this...area. For Kohlberg , the stages of moral development are considered to be progressive, invariant and non-regressive, although the exact number of...associated with cognitive and developmental gains that can only occur with maturation. For instance, Kohlberg posited the stages 1 and 2 with their

  17. When psychologists work with religious clients: applications of the general principles of ethical conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarhouse, M A; VanOrman, B T

    1999-12-01

    Psychologists become more effective and relevant when they appreciate that many clients hold religious values and commitments. Greater awareness of religion and religious values in the lives of clients may aid clinicians' efforts to provide more accurate assessments and effective treatment plans. The authors use the American Psychological Association's (1992) "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct" as a framework to examine many of the ethical issues relevant when psychologists work with religious clients. This article also provides suggestions for ways in which clinicians may obtain the skills needed to offer competent assessments and interventions with religiously committed clients.

  18. Towards a community effort to identify ethical principles for research in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    The hydrological community in Europe is growing rapidly in both size and, more importantly, scientific relevance and integrity. The Hydrological Sciences (HS) Division of EGU actively is promoting the above development by identifying research targets, stimulating the involvement of young scientists and managing a scientific open access journal based on a public peer review process. The management of the Division itself and the organisation of the General Assembly are carried out transparently, with the aim to seek an improved involvement of top and young scientists, with a bottom up approach. I believe the HS community is animated by a strong enthusiasm which, however, is not adequately supported by economical funding. In my opinion this is a major problem which HS should consider and discuss. The relevance of the societal and environmental problems dealt with by hydrologists, in a professional way and with exceptional scientific skills, is without doubt and therefore the limited amount of funding is not justified in practice. In my opinion, in order to refine the structure of the HS community, and promote its visibility, we should formally identify HS ethical principles for research in environmental science. The principles should highlight the role of hydrology as well as the ethical and scientific solidity of the HS community. Establishing ethical principles is even more important in view of the transparent approach HS is adopting for reviewing and publishing contributions and in view of the increasing need to transparently prove how public funding for research is administered. Establishing ethical principles for hydrology is not a trivial task. Hydrology is characterised by a relevant uncertainty in data, models and parameters. Hydrology is also relying on a large variety of approaches, ranging from statistical to physically based. The purpose of this poster is to present a collection of ethical principles for scientific research presented by the literature and

  19. Juridical and ethical peculiarities in doping policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Mike J; Tarasti, Lauri

    2010-03-01

    Criticisms of the ethical justification of antidoping legislation are not uncommon in the literatures of medical ethics, sports ethics and sports medicine. Critics of antidoping point to inconsistencies of principle in the application of legislation and the unjustifiability of ethical postures enshrined in the World Anti-Doping Code, a new version of which came into effect in January 2009. This article explores the arguments concerning the apparent legal peculiarities of antidoping legislation and their ethically salient features in terms of: notions of culpability, liability and guilt; aspects of potential duplication of punishments and the limitations of athlete privacy in antidoping practice and policy. It is noted that tensions still exist between legal and ethical principles and norms that require further critical attention.

  20. The compliance level of primary school administrators’ to ethical principles while evaluating the teachers’ performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Bozkurt Bostancı

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study has been done to determine the compliance level of primary school administrators’ to ethical principles in evaluating the teachers’ performances. In this study, whether the views of administrators and teachers’ about this subject differ in the extent of honesty, democracy, responsibility, and justice according to the duty and on the same extent, whether only the teachers’ views differ according to the variables of sex, occupational seniority, educational background, and whether to take in service training about ethic and branch are tried to be introduced. This study is a browsing model. A total of 74 school administrators, 41 of them from Sakarya City and 33 of them from Kastamonu City, and a total of 457 teachers, 216 of them from Sakarya City and 241 of them from Kastamonu, have attended to this study. In this study, these results are found. The views of teachers and school administrators about the compliance level of primary school administrators to ethical principles in evaluating the teachers’ performances differ according to the duty in the extent of honesty, tolerance, democracy, responsibility, and justice. The views of the teachers differ in the extent of tolerance, democracy and responsibility according to the conditions of taking in service training about ethic, democracy according to the sex, responsibility according to the occupational seniority and honesty according to the branches. According to the variable of educational background of the teachers, there aren’t any differentiations among the views of teachers and school administrators about the compliance level of primary school administrators to ethical principles in evaluating the teachers’ performances

  1. Examining Observation of Professional Ethics Principles by Shiraz Namazi Hospital Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1 Solmaz Behrooz,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Shiraz Namazi Hospital is one of medical poles in treatment and training respect that in organ transplantation aspect is one of the most important centers in Iran and the Middle East. Organ transplantation is one of the most complex surgeries and includes various issues in medical ethics domain. Maladaptation between transplantation donor and receiver, receiver’s special conditions, brain death, patients' prioritization and many other issues are in this scope. The main objective of the present study is examining observation of professional ethics principles by Shiraz Namazi Hospital physicians. Materials and Methods: The statistical population of the present study includes Shiraz Namazi hospital medical cadre. Based on the obtained statistics, the number of Namazi Hospital physicians is 450. Therefore, the statistical population is 450 persons; according to Cochran relation, the sample number was determined 208. The tool used in the present study was a scholar made questionnaire whose items were extracted through interview and from existing texts and finally the questionnaire validity and reliability was studied. After examining descriptive statistics, the research hypotheses were examined using single sample inferential statistical method. Findings: The study findings showed that the average of familiarity with professional ethics principles indicator was equal to 3.662 and regarding the significant difference from the average of familiarity level criterion with professional ethics principle was in desirable level ( p-value= 0.000, t=7.512. also, the status of professional ethics training to medical cadre was in a desirable level ( p-value= 0.000, t= 11.444 and the indicator of ethical principles status in physicians of Shiraz Namazi hospital relations with each other was in a desirable level ( pvalue= 0.009, t= 4.341. Conclusion:The present study findings in this part were not unexpected regarding experienced cadre of Shiraz

  2. The first ten principles for the ethical administration of nursing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, L L

    2000-01-01

    At the dawn of the 20th century, postmodern academics stressed the cultural differences among human beings. Philosophers predicated differing value systems based on these cultural differences, and conflicts have arisen among those who hold distinctly different religious traditions. Many people believe there can be no universal system to explain reality and thus form the basis for norms in human behavior. However, at the close of the 20th century scientists and philosophers had come full circle: physics quite literally became metaphysics, and ethical systems made sense. Rush Kidder interviewed two dozen "men and women of good conscience" from around the world and asked them if there is a single set of values that wise people use to make decisions. They answered with a resounding YES! Thus, in addition to the customary principles of beneficence, nonmalfeasance, honesty, and so forth, the author proposes a set of ethical principles based on those universal values, adapted to fit nursing administrators' dual responsibilities. Ethical decision making and behavior, the author contends, help to reconcile perspectives and interests and to keep values and mission uppermost in one's mind. In the process, ethical behavior establishes long-term relations of trust and cooperation, which in turn promote consistency and stability in an unstable world.

  3. Elective non-therapeutic intensive care and the four principles of medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Antoine; Audibert, Gérard; Guibet Lafaye, Caroline; Lafaye, Caroline Guibet; Puybasset, Louis; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Claudot, Frédérique

    2013-03-01

    The chronic worldwide lack of organs for transplantation and the continuing improvement of strategies for in situ organ preservation have led to renewed interest in elective non-therapeutic ventilation of potential organ donors. Two types of situation may be eligible for elective intensive care: patients definitely evolving towards brain death and patients suitable as controlled non-heart beating organ donors after life-supporting therapies have been assessed as futile and withdrawn. Assessment of the ethical acceptability and the risks of these strategies is essential. We here offer such an ethical assessment using the four principles of medical ethics of Beauchamp and Childress applying them in their broadest sense so as to include patients and their families, their caregivers, other potential recipients of intensive care, and indeed society as a whole. The main ethical problems emerging are the definition of beneficence for the potential organ donor, the dilemma between the duty to respect a dying patient's autonomy and the duty not to harm him/her, and the possible psychological and social harm for families, caregivers other potential recipients of therapeutic intensive care, and society more generally. Caution is expressed about the ethical acceptability of elective non-therapeutic ventilation, along with some proposals for precautionary measures to be taken if it is to be implemented.

  4. Ethical standards and regulations principles of professional conduct in the field of mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia I. Melnychuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An origin of conflicts, during life of man, is the inevitable phenomenon. A subject for a conflict results in the origin of conflict situation, which contains the negative colouring the display of which can be offence. Mediaciya appears the alternative method of permission of conflict, which is directed on zalagodzhennya and decision of conflicts by the direct socializing with an offender and suffering. A collaboration as a result of realization of which reasons of divergences and aspiration of resisting sides of search of vzaemopriynyatnikh ways of decision of situation turn out appears the base of process of mediacii. In this process the third participant is a neurohumor, the purpose of activity of which is adjusting and communicative process control. Institualizaciya of codes of conduct, which are added the certain types of moral mutual relations between people is optimum for realization of professional activity. Socialphilosophical interpretation of cultural, humanism principles of restoration process is fixed in the ethics standards of mediacii. Ethics norms are key in achievement of the real perfection, that is why there is a clear requirement in the ethics estimation of practice of neurohumor for the maintainance of moral, legal norms upgrading functioning. Professional practice of neurohumor is based on an awareness them of ethics aspects and social payment in prevention of recidivism, observance of ethics rules and standards, proper European legislation, national traditions.

  5. Engineer Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-15

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  6. Morality, ethics, and law: introductory concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to differentiate morality, ethics, and law. Morality refers to a set of deeply held, widely shared, and relatively stable values within a community. Ethics as a philosophical enterprise involves the study of values, and the justification for right and good actions, as represented by the classic works of Aristotle (virtue ethics), Kant (duty-based ethics), and Bentham and Mill (utilitarian and consequentialist ethics). Applied ethics, in contrast, is the use of ethics principles (e.g., respect for autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence, justice) in actual situations, such as in professional and clinical life. Finally, law is comprised of concrete duties established by governments that are necessary for maintaining social order and resolving disputes, as well as for distributing social resources according to what people need or deserve.

  7. Comparing the Principle-Based SBH Maieutic Method to Traditional Case Study Methods of Teaching Media Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study at a Northwest university compared two methods of teaching media ethics, a class taught with the principle-based SBH Maieutic Method (n = 25) and a class taught with a traditional case study method (n = 27), with a control group (n = 21) that received no ethics training. Following a 16-week intervention, a one-way…

  8. 76 FR 81517 - Submission for Review and Comment: “The Menlo Report: Ethical Principles Guiding Information and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... SECURITY Submission for Review and Comment: ``The Menlo Report: Ethical Principles Guiding Information and Communication Technology Research'' (``Menlo Report'') for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Science and Technology, Cyber Security Division (CSD), Protected Repository for the Defense of...

  9. Is Rorty's neopragmatism the "real" foundation of medical ethics: a search for foundational principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, William T

    2006-01-01

    Principlism, the predominate approach to bioethics, has no foundational principles. This absence of foundations reflects the general intellectual climate of postmodern relativism. Even America's foremost public philosopher, Richard Rorty, whose pragmatism might suggest a philosophy of commonsense, seems to be swimming in the postmodern swamp. Alternatively, principlism's architects, Beauchamp and Childress, suggest a constantly evolving reflective equilibrium with some basis in common morality as a workable framework for twenty-first century bioethics. The flaw in their approach is failure to conform to real doctors' and patients' experiences. Real doctors adopt a scientific paradigm that assumes an objective reality. Patients experience real suffering and seek effective cures, treatments, palliation and solace. The foundation of medical ethics should be that doctors altruistically respond to their patients' suffering using scientifically acceptable modalities. Compassion, caring, and respect for human dignity are needed as guides in addition to justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence and respect for autonomy.

  10. A Life Below the Threshold?: Examining Conflict Between Ethical Principles and Parental Values in Neonatal Treatment Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Thomas V

    2016-01-01

    Three common ethical principles for establishing the limits of parental authority in pediatric treatment decision-making are the harm principle, the principle of best interest, and the threshold view. This paper considers how these principles apply to a case of a premature neonate with multiple significant co-morbidities whose mother wanted all possible treatments, and whose health care providers wondered whether it would be ethically permissible to allow him to die comfortably despite her wishes. Whether and how these principles help in understanding what was morally right for the child is questioned. The paper concludes that the principles were of some value in understanding the moral geography of the case; however, this case reveals that common bioethical principles for medical decision-making are problematically value-laden because they are inconsistent with the widespread moral value of medical vitalism.

  11. [Reciprocal altruism--the resurrection of an old ethical principle in the Israeli organ transplant law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The new Israeli Organ Transplant Law grants priority in organ allocation to candidates for transplantation who have registered as organ donors at least 3 years prior to being listed or have been Live organ donors or have a first degree relative who has been a deceased donor. This unique law resurrects the old ethical principle of reciprocal altruism in which each partner in society helps the other while he helps himself. The altruist benefits because in time he, in turn, is helped. The law aims to eliminate the "free riding" phenomenon of candidates for organ transplantation who do not accept brain death and therefore object to organ donation after death yet do not abstain from waiting for such donation. The morality of such behavior is discussed along with the ethical appraisal of its solution in the law, suggesting it to be just and fair.

  12. Analysis of the Paternalistic Justification of an Agenda Setting Public Health Policy: The Case of Tobacco Plain Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses the paternalistic justification of the world's first mandatory tobacco plain packaging policy, which came into force in Australia in 2012. The policy is setting international precedence, with a range of developed and developing countries planning and implementing similar policies. Understanding the paternalistic dimension of the policy is therefore of imminent international importance. The policy meets important ethical benchmarks such as respect for citizens' self-interests and protection of others against harm. However, plain packaging faces a number of ethical challenges: the policy is a controversial type of paternalism; it runs partially against the harm principle; and it fails to meet key operational criteria.

  13. [Late interruption of pregnancy due to foetal disease: is an inductive method for the generation of ethical principles applicable?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J B; Hönig, A; Häusler, S F M; Rehn, M; Dietl, J; Djakovic, A

    2011-12-01

    The current study investigates if an inductive method for the generation of ethical principles can be applied to the crucial moral question if late interruption of pregnancy due to fetal disease is ethically adequate. This method originates from the US American philosopher John Rawls and puts a group of so-called competent moral investigators in the beginning of the decision process. These competent moral investigators should be objective, tolerant and sensitive. Thus, real cases which lead to an intuitive, unanimous and clear decision of the competent moral investigators are analysed for the underlying ethical principles. The ethical principles thus detected are then applied to more complicated cases which could not be assessed clearly. In the current study, the case of foetal trisomy 18 and foetal palate cleft could be clearly judged with a yes and a no, respectively, with regard to an approval of late interruption of pregnancy. The underlying ethical principle leading to these decisions is the utilitaristic principle of minimising harm for mother and fetus. We then tried to apply this principle to a case of foetal trisomy 21, however, no clear decision for an approval or a disapproval of the interruption of pregnancy could be found as it was not possible to assess foetal interests. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. [High-cost therapy. Ethical principles of allocation of scarce resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norheim, O F

    1992-10-10

    This article raises some ethical problems concerning high-cost therapy for malignant haematological diseases. The problem of setting priorities is discussed within the framework of utilitarianism, right-based theories and the contractarian theory of John Rawls. It is argued that utilitarianism can provide precise answers, based on the principle of allocative efficiency. However, this is not the only objective of a public health care system. The right-based approach is discussed, but sufficiently precise definitions seem hard to formulate. The contractarian approach is regarded as interesting, since it tries to address the question of trade-offs between objectives of allocative efficiency and distributive fairness.

  15. The Belmont Report. Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    On July 12, 1974, the National Research Act (Pub. L. 93-348) was signed into law, thereby creating the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. One of the charges to the Commission was to identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects and to develop guidelines which should be followed to assure that such research is conducted in accordance with those principles. In carrying out the above, the Commission was directed to consider: (a) the boundaries between biomedical and behavioral research and the accepted and routine practice of medicine, (b) the role of assessment of risk-benefit criteria in the determination of the appropriateness of research involving human subjects, (c) appropriate guidelines for the selection of human subjects for participation in such research and (d) the nature and definition of informed consent in various research settings. The Belmont Report attempts to summarize the basic ethical principles identified by the Commission in the course of its deliberations. It is the outgrowth of an intensive four-day period of discussions that were held in February 1976 at the Smithsonian Institution's Belmont Conference Center supplemented by the monthly deliberations of the Commission that were held over a period of nearly four years. It is a statement of basic ethical principles and guidelines that should assist in resolving the ethical problems that surround the conduct of research with human subjects. By publishing the Report in the Federal Register, and providing reprints upon request, the Secretary intends that it may be made readily available to scientists, members of Institutional Review Boards, and Federal employees. The two-volume Appendix, containing the lengthy reports of experts and specialists who assisted the Commission in fulfilling this part of its charge, is available as DHEW Publication No. (OS

  16. Palliative cancer care ethics: Principles and challenges in the Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejaswi Mudigonda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Palliative cancer treatment is a system of care that seeks to relieve suffering in patients with progressive cancer. Given the intractable symptoms with which certain malignancies manifest, palliative care offers a practical approach towards improving the patient′s quality of life. However, there are an array of ethical issues associated with this treatment strategy such as particular methods of pain relief, a reliable assessment of suffering, autonomy, and multi-specialist care. While these principles are important to increase and improve the network of palliative care, the resource-poor Indian environments present numerous barriers for these principles to be practically applied. As the infrastructure of comprehensive cancer centers develop, paralleled with an increase in training of palliative care professionals, significant improvements need to be made in order to elevate the status of palliative cancer care in India.

  17. The declaration of Helsinki 2000: ethical principles and the dignity of difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salako, S E

    2006-06-01

    The first detailed regulations about nontherapeutic research were promulgated by the Prussian Government in 1900. In 1947, the Nuremberg Code was decreed. Since then, the Declaration of Helsinki (DOH) was adopted in 1964 and has been revised five times. The object of this article is to evaluate the 2000 Revision of the DOH and discuss three problems of concern. These problems are: (1) If, unlike its predecessors, the DOH (2000) has recast itself as a minimum set of international standards 'binding' on physicians worldwide, from where does it derive its authority? (2) The wording of the DOH is incongruent with the underlying ethical principles. (3) The projection of the DOH into the realms of social justice raises the issue of human dignity. Finally, the feasibility or desirability of a theory of justice privileging human dignity as one of its guiding principles and the future of the DOH are examined.

  18. Counting on Beauty: The role of aesthetic, ethical, and physical universal principles for interstellar communication

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A

    2008-01-01

    SETI researchers believe that the basic principles of our science and the science of extraterrestrial beings should be fundamentally the same, and we should be able to communicate with them by referring to those things we share, such as the principles of mathematics, physics, and chemistry (a similar cognitive map of nature). This view assumes that there is only one way to conceptualize the laws of nature. Consequently, mathematics and the language of nature should be universal. In this essay, we discuss the epistemological bases of the last assumptions. We describe all the hypotheses behind the universality of the laws of nature and the restrictions that any technology should have to establish contact with other galactic technological civilization. We introduce some discussions about the limitations of homocentric views. We discuss about the possible use of aesthetic cognitive universals as well as ethical ones in the design of interstellar messages. We discuss the role of symmetry as a universal cognitive m...

  19. Current principles and practice of ethics and law in perinatal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berceanu, C; Albu, Simona Elena; BoȚ, Mihaela; Ghelase, M Șt

    2014-01-01

    One of the most controversial discussion topics in modern bioethics, science or philosophy is represented by the beginning of the individual human life. It is ethically, medically and scientifically correct that the human conception product to be born, so to gain personality and individuality, to be treated as a patient since the intrauterine life. Intrauterine foetal interventions, performed in various therapeutic purposes are still in the experimental stage even in centres with rich experience in perinatal medicine. Progresses truly outstanding are present especially in the prenatal diagnostic methods. Non invasive prenatal testing represents without a doubt a great progress in prenatal diagnosis, but from this point of view, the role of practitioners in the field of perinatal medicine, on counselling and addressing the indication of this test becomes essential. Beyond cultural, national, social or related differences, in perinatal medicine practice is particularly important to respect and permanently reassess the ethical codes. Our paper is targeting to spotlight the essential principles and practice of ethics and law in perinatal medicine nowadays on one hand, and to bring an update review on a controversial topic on the other hand.

  20. An Approach to Reconciling Competing Ethical Principles in Aggregating Heterogeneous Health Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, Barry; Davis, Alexander; Fischhoff, Baruch; Hanmer, Janel

    2017-08-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores are used extensively to quantify the effectiveness of medical interventions. Societal preference-based HRQL scores aim to produce societal valuations of health by aggregating valuations from individuals in the general population, where each aggregation procedure embodies different ethical principles, as explained in social choice theory. Using the Health Utilities Index as an exemplar, we evaluate societal preference-based HRQL measures in the social choice theory framework. We find that current preference aggregation procedures are typically justified in terms of social choice theory. However, by convention, they use only one of many possible aggregation procedures (the mean). Central to the choice of aggregation procedure is how to treat preference heterogeneity, which can affect analyses that rely on HRQL scores, such as cost-effectiveness analyses. We propose an analytical-deliberative framework for choosing one (or a set of) aggregation procedure(s) in a socially credible way, which we believe to be analytically sound and empirically tractable, but leave open the institutional mechanism needed to implement it. Socially acceptable decisions about aggregating heterogeneous preferences require eliciting stakeholders' preferences among the set of analytically sound procedures, representing different ethical principles. We describe a framework for eliciting such preferences for the creation of HRQL scores, informed by social choice theory and behavioral decision research.

  1. Should engineering ethics be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaté, Charles J

    2011-09-01

    Should engineering ethics be taught? Despite the obvious truism that we all want our students to be moral engineers who practice virtuous professional behavior, I argue, in this article that the question itself obscures several ambiguities that prompt preliminary resolution. Upon clarification of these ambiguities, and an attempt to delineate key issues that make the question a philosophically interesting one, I conclude that engineering ethics not only should not, but cannot, be taught if we understand "teaching engineering ethics" to mean training engineers to be moral individuals (as some advocates seem to have proposed). However, I also conclude that there is a justification to teaching engineering ethics, insofar as we are able to clearly identify the most desirable and efficacious pedagogical approach to the subject area, which I propose to be a case study-based format that utilizes the principle of human cognitive pattern recognition.

  2. 动物伦理中的理性原则与情感原则%On Rational and Emotional Principles in Animal Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张达玮; 陆玉瑶

    2016-01-01

    The various principles of argumentation on animal ethics can be roughly divided into rational and emotional principles. The rationalistic philosophers, such as Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and Rene Descartes etc., proposed that human should treat animals with rational principles, and animals, without the same ethic status as human, should only be means and instruments for human to use. In argumentation on animal rights, Tom Regan advocated that the rights should be extended to animals rather than be limited to human. Even if Regan kept on stressing that his demonstration was completely based on rational principles, his argument was refuted by Alan White and Mary Anne Warren etc. whose arguments were also out of rational principles. Besides, the animal rights proposed by Regan were only limited to higher animals, the subjects of living. In confining rights to subjects with living experiences, Regan didn��t realize that the principles he followed were actually emotional principles. In fact, the contracts on animal protection remain moral problems providing an external reason for animal ethics. The emotional principles in animal ethics advocate sympathy for animals, which is manifested by Peter Singer��s theory, in which he gave up making a distinction between animals and human. According to Kant’s moral philosophy confined within the rational beings, human have no direct moral responsibility for animals, the justification of animal ethics is based on benevolence and compassion of rational beings, and the responsibility for animals is the indirect responsibility for human themselves. The utilitarianism, represented by Jeremy Bentham, also bases animal ethics on animals’feeling about pain and pleasure and on human��s compassion for animals. The emotional principles provide an internal reason for animal protection, which is also applicable for the moral conduct of treating other non⁃rational beings. The argument on animal ethics mainly focuses on the

  3. The Lobotomy - A Question of Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Sidenius, Kristoffer; Boukaouit, Dounia; Lystoft, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    This project offers an insight into the history of psychosurgery and into the history of the lobotomy especially. The project analyses the ethical issues concerning the use of the lobotomy both then and now. More specifically, it will analyse Egas Moniz and Walter Freeman’s justifications and reasoning for performing the procedure, and it seeks to shed light on this by applying utilitarianism and deontology as well as the four biomedical principles. In the discussion it will be discussed ...

  4. Ethical issues in optometric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Sithole

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethics as a discipline is the study and analysis of values and standards related to duty, responsibility, and right and wrong behavior. The ethical obligations of optometry toward patients are similar to those of other health professionals. These obligations generally require optometrists to recognize, respect, and protect the rights of their patients. This approach encourages patients to participate actively in their care and allows them to develop arelationship with their optometrist based on trust. The ethical codes which contain guiding principles serve to help practitioners in their decisions and in practicing in accordance with a set of standards that are expected of a health care practitioner. There are four major ethical principles in health care, namely; beneficence, non-maleficence, and respect for autonomy and justice. Because these principles are easily recognized as being among the primary ethical goals of health care, using them as the basis for ethical analysis may help to explain the moral justification for certain professional actions as well as to identify unethical behavior. However, in clinical practice, the specific demands and rationales of these broad principles may be difficult to apply. This illustrates the paradox that whilst these principles are essential tools for ethical practice, if applied too rigidly, they can be problematic. How-ever, the goal of ethical decision making in optometry should be to identify one or more courses of action that will honor the profession’s essential values while minimizing conflict with other values and professional standards. Every profession, every practice and every practitioner is governed by not only legal constraints, but also by the ethical concerns of ensuring that the patient is properly served. Considering our practices from a patient’s perspective can help optometrists understand the multiple responsibilities of clinical practice. (S Afr Optom 2010 69(2 93-99

  5. RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE OF BUSINESS ETHICS PRINCIPLES IN TURKEY AND ROMANIA: A CROSS COUNTRY COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    Filiz AGAOGLU

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to research in business ethics application, by studying one of the contemporary instruments of applying business ethics. The research focuses on Islamic business ethics in comparison to Christian business ethics and discusses its application using a comparative perspective. First, this chapter aims to address the Islamic understanding of what ethics means? What is the relationship between ethics, human nature and religion in Islam? While providing an introductory...

  6. Shared Principles of Ethics for Infant and Young Child Nutrition in the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has extended to distrust of all commercial efforts to improve infant and young child nutrition. The lack of trust is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant and young child nutrition in the developing world. Discussion To begin to bridge this gap in trust, we developed a set of shared principles based on the following ideals: Integrity; Solidarity; Justice; Equality; Partnership, cooperation, coordination, and communication; Responsible Activity; Sustainability; Transparency; Private enterprise and scale-up; and Fair trading and consumer choice. We hope these principles can serve as a platform on which various parties in the in the infant and young child nutrition arena, can begin a process of authentic trust-building that will ultimately result in coordinated efforts amongst parties. Summary A set of shared principles of ethics for infant and young child nutrition in the developing world could catalyze the scale-up of low cost, high quality, complementary foods for infants and young children, and eventually contribute to the eradication of infant and child malnutrition in the developing world.

  7. Professional Conduct Manual, Containing Principles for Professional Ethics and Guidelines for the Provision of School Psychological Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of School Psychologists, Bethesda, MD.

    Consistent with its mission, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) has adopted an integrated set of comprehensive standards for the preparation, credentialing, and professional practice in school psychology. Standards for training and credentialing, ethical principles, and guidelines for practice have undergone review and…

  8. 77 FR 73669 - Response to Comments Received for the “The Menlo Report: Ethical Principles Guiding Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... to subjects (or those reliant on information and communication technology (ICT) under study) exists... of ICTR. Response: The purpose of the Menlo Report is to advocate principles and applications, not to... (including that which involves ICT). F. Relationship Between Laws and Ethics Many comments were...

  9. Luther and Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2017-01-01

    In this article I treat of Luther's doctrine on justification as it came out in different ways in seminal texts between 1518-1538, all represented in new and highly recommendable commented translations in The Annotated Luther, vol. 2: Word and Faith, Fortress Press 2015.......In this article I treat of Luther's doctrine on justification as it came out in different ways in seminal texts between 1518-1538, all represented in new and highly recommendable commented translations in The Annotated Luther, vol. 2: Word and Faith, Fortress Press 2015....

  10. ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF INFECTIONS DISEASES AND VACCINATION Part 4. The balance between universal ethical and ecoethics principles on zooanthroponosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kubar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper continued the presentation of the data on ethical, legal and social aspects of the problems connected with the study for prevention infections diseases, additionally including the wide list of infections diseases and increasing the specter of ethical problems in the science in comparision with previous publications in this aria. The investigation of the balance universal ethical principles and ecoethics in the field of zooanthroponosis has been done first time in this paper. Data of the paper are based on the scientific and professional experience of the authors both in infections diseases and bioethics and give the analysis of main international UNESCO documents on bioethics and ecoethics. The principal element that has been used by authors for analysis was the view on epidemiology of zooanthroponosis as ecological process for integration between ethiological agents of infections diseases on the real population of different animals including human beings. Such approach became the base for including the biological, social, economical, topographic and environmental factors for investigation the principals of control and prevention in the aria of zooanthroponosis. In the paper has been presented the set of both environmental principles: common and practical. Theoretical picture of the application the philosophical standards of environmental ethics has been done in real conditions of ethiology, patogenics, epidemiology, clinic, treatment and prevention such kinds of zooanthroponosis as: eastern equine encephalitis, tick borne encephalitis, leptospirosis, Q-fever, tularemia, hemolytic uremic syndrome, listeriosis, West Nile fever, pseudo-tuberculosis and others. In the frame of the understanding ideology and principless of environmental ethics such as “respect for all life forms, human and non-human” and “respect for biodiversity” in the practical situation of zooanthroponosis the priority of prevention human being and

  11. An ethical framework for pharmacy management: balancing autonomy and other principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Peter A; Schneider, Paul L; Good, Chester B

    2014-04-01

    Decisions to control pharmaceutical costs can cause conflicts as to what medications are covered. Such conflicts have ethical implications, however implicit, and given this fact, an ethical framework can help address them. In the following commentary, we discuss the more traditional, individual-level ethical considerations likely familiar to most clinicians. We, then, discuss population-level ethical constructs that clinicians may not as readily embrace. We also present a hypothetical cancer-care case to illustrate how imbalances in ethical foci between individual- and population-level constructs may lead to conflicts among health care actors and promote shifts in pharmaceutical decision making away from providers and toward payers, paradoxically reducing provider autonomy and hence patient autonomy. Finally, we propose a more comprehensive ethical framework to help converge individual, payer, and societal interests when making pharmaceutical use decisions. Pharmacists play a crucial role as pharmacy benefits managers and should be familiar with individual- and population-based ethical constructs.

  12. From human ability to ethical principle: an intercultural perspective on autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    Based on an empirical study regarding ethical challenges within intercultural health care, the focus of this article is upon autonomy and disclosure, discussed in light of philosophy and anthropology. What are the consequences for patients if the patients' right to be autonomous and to participate in treatment and care decisions by health care workers is interpreted as an obligation to participate? To force a person to make independent choices who is socio-culturally unprepared to do so, may violate his/her integrity. This may in turn jeopardise the respect, integrity and human worth the principle of autonomy was meant to ensure, and if so, may damage any relationship of trust that may exist between patient and health care worker. There is necessarily a link between autonomy and disclosure. Western disclosure practices may make the relationship between patients and health care workers difficult--even distrustful. To confront a patient with a very serious diagnosis may be seen not only as a tactless action, but also an unforgivable one. Hence, among many ethnic groups it is a family member's duty to shield patients from bad or disquieting news, e.g., a cancer diagnosis. If a family member is used to interpret in such situations, will the information given equal the information communicated by that interpreter? Even though respect for a person's autonomy is part of the respect for a person, one's respect for the person in question should not depend on his/her ability or aptitude to act autonomously.

  13. Empirical investigation of the ethical reasoning of physicians and molecular biologists – the importance of the four principles of biomedical ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesen, Mette; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2007-01-01

    Background This study presents an empirical investigation of the ethical reasoning and ethical issues at stake in the daily work of physicians and molecular biologists in Denmark. The aim of this study was to test empirically whether there is a difference in ethical considerations and principles between Danish physicians and Danish molecular biologists, and whether the bioethical principles of the American bioethicists Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress are applicable to these groups. Method This study is based on 12 semi-structured interviews with three groups of respondents: a group of oncology physicians working in a clinic at a public hospital and two groups of molecular biologists conducting basic research, one group employed at a public university and the other in a private biopharmaceutical company. Results In this sample, the authors found that oncology physicians and molecular biologists employed in a private biopharmaceutical company have the specific principle of beneficence in mind in their daily work. Both groups are motivated to help sick patients. According to the study, molecular biologists explicitly consider nonmaleficence in relation to the environment, the researchers' own health, and animal models; and only implicitly in relation to patients or human subjects. In contrast, considerations of nonmaleficence by oncology physicians relate to patients or human subjects. Physicians and molecular biologists both consider the principle of respect for autonomy as a negative obligation in the sense that informed consent of patients should be respected. However, in contrast to molecular biologists, physicians experience the principle of respect for autonomy as a positive obligation as the physician, in dialogue with the patient, offers a medical prognosis based upon the patients wishes and ideas, mutual understanding, and respect. Finally, this study discloses utilitarian characteristics in the overall conception of justice as conceived by oncology

  14. Law and ethics in conflict over confidentiality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, B M; Cook, R J

    2000-09-01

    Ethical principles that require the preservation of patients' confidential information are reinforced by principles found in several areas of law, such as law on contracts, negligence, defamation and fiduciary duty. However, laws sometimes compel disclosures of medical confidences, and more often may justify or excuse disclosures. Legally contentious issues concern patients' confidences regarding possible unlawful conduct, such as pregnancy termination, and the risk of spread of HIV and other infections. This article reviews the various legal bases of the duty of confidentiality, and legal challenges to the ethical obligation of non-disclosure. It addresses the justifications and limits of exchange of patients' health information among healthcare professionals and trainees, and considers legally recognized limits of confidential duties, and the scope of legitimate disclosure. An underlying theme is how to determine whether physicians are ethically justified in employing the discretion the law sometimes affords them to breach patients' expectations of confidentiality.

  15. Application of Ethical Principles to Research using Public Health Data in The Global South: Perspectives from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anane-Sarpong, Evelyn; Wangmo, Tenzin; Sankoh, Osman; Tanner, Marcel; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2016-12-22

    Existing ethics guidelines, influential literature and policies on ethical research generally focus on real-time data collection from humans. They enforce individual rights and liberties, thereby lowering need for aggregate protections. Although dependable, emerging public health research paradigms like research using public health data (RUPD) raise new challenges to their application. Unlike traditional research, RUPD is population-based, aligned to public health activities, and often reliant on pre-collected longitudinal data. These characteristics, when considered in relation to the generally lower protective ethico-legal frameworks of the Global South, including Africa, highlight ethical gaps. Health and demographic surveillance systems are examples of public health programs that accommodate RUPD in these contexts. We set out to explore the perspectives of professionals with a working knowledge of these systems to determine practical ways of appropriating the foundational principles of health research to advance the ever growing opportunities in RUPD. We present their perspectives and in relation to the literature and our ethical analysis, make context relevant recommendations. We further argue for the development of a framework founded on the discussions and recommendations as a minimum base for achieving optimal ethics for optimal RUPD in the Global South.

  16. Alston's Concept of Justification

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The controversy between "internalism" and "externalism" is one of the most heated in epistemology. At stake is what confers justification (or warrant) or on what converts true belief into knowledge. Although most epistemologists are epistemic internalists or externalists, a few purport to reconcile these apparently disparate epistemic positions. Most notable of these synthesizers is William Alston. He argues that to be justified in believing that p is for that belief to be based on some acces...

  17. Justification and Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymanek Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In her paper “Argumentation theory and the conception of epistemic justification”, Lilian Bermejo-Luque presents a critique of deductivism in argumentation theory, as well as her own concept of epistemic justification inspired by the views of Stephen Toulmin. Reading this paper induced me to reflect on the mutual relation between the notions of justification and argumentation. In this work I would like to first draw the reader’s attention to a few issues which seem debatable to me, or which I find worth presenting from a slightly different point of view than that of Lilian Bermejo-Luque. I agree that deductivism is not suitable for a general theory of evaluation of arguments although the critique of deductivism presented by the Author appears as not fully adequate to me. Then I proceed to presenting my doubts about the “conception of justification as a proper outcome of good argumentation” presented in the work. I need to emphasise that due to a broad range of topics addressed by me in this short paper, the description of some of them will be neither fully precise nor exhaustive.

  18. Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2010-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions of e...

  19. Ethical principles for project collaboration between academic professionals or institutions and the biomedical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Povl

    2012-01-01

    Ethics in biomedical research cannot be defined by etymology, and need a semantic definition based on national and contemporary values. In a Nordic cultural and historic context, key values are solidarity with one's fellow man, equality, truth, justice, responsibility, freedom, and professionalism. In contemporary medical research, such ethics are further subgrouped into research ethics, researcher ethics, societal ethics, and distributive ethics. Lately, public and academic debates have addressed the necessary strengthening of the ethical concerns and interests of patients and society. Despite considerable progress, common ethical definitions and control systems still lack uniformity or indeed do not exist. Among the cooperative partners involved, the pharmaceutical industry have preserved an important role. The same is true for the overall judgments reflected by the European Forum for Good Clinical Practice, leading peer-reviewed journals, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics for developing nations, and the latest global initiative, the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity. To help both institutions and countries, it will be valuable to include the following information in academia-industry protocols before starting a project: international authorship names; fixed agendas and time schedules for project meetings; chairperson shifts, meeting reports, and project plan changes; future author memberships; equal blinding and data distribution from disciplinary groups; an equal plan for exchange of project manuscripts at the proofing stage; contractual descriptions of all procedures, disagreements, publishing rights, prevention, and controls for suspected dishonesty; and a detailed description of who is doing what in the working process.

  20. Bio-ethical principles of medical law with an emphasis on the law of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Mahdavi Sabet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been many talks about the necessity of ethics in all affairs, especially medical affairs which deal with the lives of individuals and the society expects Medical Group to be abide by morals more than laws. This matter indicates on the fact that the society considers ethics as a stronger enforcement of the law and deplores a doctor who has ignored ethics in the medical profession. Thus, they blamed the doctor from ethical aspect more than deploring him from a legal aspect (civil or criminal liability. The legislator is also influenced by public in anticipation of responsibility (both criminal and civil for doctors and imposes legal rules on this basis. The concept of this article has an extremely close relationship with three concepts of morality, professional ethics and law. Initially first two concepts will be defined and separated and then the relation between professional ethics and medical laws will be expressed. Then, the relation between two concepts of medical ethics and bioethics ethics will be evaluated. Two religion or secularism basis have been taken for medical rights and strengths and weaknesses of each are discussed and the approach of the Iranian legal system will also be mentioned with evaluation of controversial medical samples.

  1. Do Brazilian scientific journals promote the adherence of Chagas disease researchers to international ethical principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Guilherme; Guilhem, Dirce; Talvani, André

    2013-01-01

    The ethical aspects of the Brazilian publications about human Chagas disease (CD) developed between 1996 and 2010 and the policy adopted by Brazilian medical journals were analyzed. Articles were selected on the SciELO Brazil data basis, and the evaluation of ethical aspects was based on the normative contents about ethics in research involving human experimentation according to the Brazilian resolution of the National Health Council no. 196/1996. The editorial policies of the section "Instructions to authors" were analyzed. In the period of 1996-2012, 58.9% of articles involving human Chagas disease did not refer to the fulfillment of the ethical aspects concerning research with human beings. In 80% of the journals, the requirements and confirmation of the information about ethical aspects in the studies of human CD were not observed. Although a failure in this type of service is still observed, awareness has been raised in federal agencies, educational institutions/research and publishing groups to standardize the procedures and ethical requirements for the Brazilian journals, reinforcing the fulfillment of the ethical parameters, according to the resolution of NHC no. 196/1996.

  2. Ethical principles for project collaboration between academic professionals or institutions and the biomedical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riis P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Povl Riis Age Forum, State Board for Research and Age Policies, Odense, DenmarkAbstract: Ethics in biomedical research cannot be defined by etymology, and need a semantic definition based on national and contemporary values. In a Nordic cultural and historic context, key values are solidarity with one's fellow man, equality, truth, justice, responsibility, freedom, and professionalism. In contemporary medical research, such ethics are further subgrouped into research ethics, researcher ethics, societal ethics, and distributive ethics. Lately, public and academic debates have addressed the necessary strengthening of the ethical concerns and interests of patients and society. Despite considerable progress, common ethical definitions and control systems still lack uniformity or indeed do not exist. Among the cooperative partners involved, the pharmaceutical industry have preserved an important role. The same is true for the overall judgments reflected by the European Forum for Good Clinical Practice, leading peer-reviewed journals, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics for developing nations, and the latest global initiative, the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity. To help both institutions and countries, it will be valuable to include the following information in academia–industry protocols before starting a project: international authorship names; fixed agendas and time schedules for project meetings; chairperson shifts, meeting reports, and project plan changes; future author memberships; equal blinding and data distribution from disciplinary groups; an equal plan for exchange of project manuscripts at the proofing stage; contractual descriptions of all procedures, disagreements, publishing rights, prevention, and controls for suspected dishonesty; and a detailed description of who is doing what in the working process.Keywords: ethics, collaboration, academia, biomedical industry

  3. Diagnosis of autism, abortion and the ethics of childcare in Yoruba culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Ademola Kazeem

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the ethics of childcare in Yoruba culture in the contexts of autism and abortion. The traditional Yoruba moral principles of ibikojuibi (equality of humans at birth) and ajowapo (solidarity) have been theoretically developed to establish the personhood of autistic children and provide a justification for not aborting foetuses with autism. Despite these justifications, this paper argues that there is a need for contextual rethinking, which would allow for: (i) prenatal genetic testing, as well as abortion of foetuses with a high risk of the autism mutation, and (ii) early clinical diagnosis and treatment of autistic children in contemporary Yoruba society.

  4. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  5. Discursive Justification and Skepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerken, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I consider how a general epistemic norm of action that I have proposed in earlier work should be specified in order to govern certain types of acts: assertive speech acts. More specifically, I argue that the epistemic norm of assertion is structurally similar to the epistemic norm...... of action. First, I argue that the notion of warrant operative in the epistemic norm of a central type of assertion is an internalist one that I call ‘discursive justification.’ This type of warrant is internalist insofar as it requires that the agent is capable of articulating reasons for her belief....... The idea, roughly, is that when one asserts that p, one is supposed to be in a position to give reasons for believing that p. Bonjour’s reliable clairvoyant Norman, for example, is not in an epistemic position to make assertions regarding the president’s whereabouts—even if Norman knows the president...

  6. Is Rorty’s Neopragmatism the “Real” Foundation of Medical Ethics: a Search for Foundational Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, William T

    2006-01-01

    Principlism, the predominate approach to bioethics, has no foundational principles. This absence of foundations reflects the general intellectual climate of postmodern relativism. Even America’s foremost public philosopher, Richard Rorty, whose pragmatism might suggest a philosophy of commonsense, seems to be swimming in the postmodern swamp. Alternatively, principlism’s architects, Beauchamp and Childress, suggest a constantly evolving reflective equilibrium with some basis in common morality as a workable framework for twenty-first century bioethics. The flaw in their approach is failure to conform to real doctors’ and patients’ experiences. Real doctors adopt a scientific paradigm that assumes an objective reality. Patients experience real suffering and seek effective cures, treatments, palliation and solace. The foundation of medical ethics should be that doctors altruistically respond to their patients’ suffering using scientifically acceptable modalities. Compassion, caring, and respect for human dignity are needed as guides in addition to justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence and respect for autonomy. PMID:18528478

  7. The ethics of secondary data analysis: considering the application of Belmont principles to the sharing of neuroimaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakewood, Beth; Poldrack, Russell A

    2013-11-15

    The sharing of data is essential to increasing the speed of scientific discovery and maximizing the value of public investment in scientific research. However, the sharing of human neuroimaging data poses unique ethical concerns. We outline how data sharing relates to the Belmont principles of respect-for-persons, justice, and beneficence. Whereas regulators of human subjects research often view data sharing solely in terms of potential risks to subjects, we argue that the principles of human subject research require an analysis of both risks and benefits, and that such an analysis suggests that researchers may have a positive duty to share data in order to maximize the contribution that individual participants have made.

  8. The use of ethical principles as a regulatory instrument in relation to plant technology -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartlev, Mette

    2006-01-01

    In Danish legal theory law and ethics have traditionally been perceived as two distinct concepts belonging to separate spheres. Legal dogmatics has been focusing on "what law is", a question which according to the positivist tradition is supposed to be answered on an empirical rather than...... a normative basis. Ethics on the other hand has been considered to belong to legal politics whose purpose is to make statements on what law should be. The positivist tradition in Danish legal theory has, however, been challenged more recently, and discussions about the value basis of law and the relation...... between law and ethics has become more common in many academic legal works. Irrespective of the development in legal thinking, Danish laws in general are still composed in a rather technical way. Accordingly, it is rare to see acts with provisions specifying the purpose of the act and declaring the basic...

  9. 资源可持续利用:一种资源利用伦理原则%Sustainable utilization: an ethical principle of resources utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈安宁

    2001-01-01

    论文阐释了资源利用伦理的概念,从历史实践、现实需求和社会基本伦理意识等方面说明资源可持续利用伦理原则的合理性,用博弈论方法重点讨论了资源可持续利用伦理原则在资源利用中克服“囚徒困境”的作用,伦理失灵的原因和伦理法律化的必要性。%The paper expounds the concept of the ethics of resources utilization.Based on the analyses of practices and actual demands of the ethics of sustainable utilization,and basic ethical consciousness in the society,the paper explains the rationality of the ethical principle of sustainable utilization.It points out that ethical principle of sustainable utilization can be deduced from “ veil of ignorance between intergenerations"and is intergenerational fair.The paper gives the frame of the analysis of ethical function in the game of resources utilization and discusses the ethical mechanisms about putting away the“ prisoners dilemma",the reasons of ethics failure and the necessity of ethics legalization in resources utilization.This paper considers that if persons have enough high moral level or trust in others ,they can avoid falling into the “ prisoners dilemma" ,on the contrary,when they dont t have enough high moral level ,or can t trust others,they have to face entire ethics failure and “ isolation paradox" in resources utilization,therefore,the ethics of sustainable utilization need to be legalized.

  10. Decision making at the end of life: a model using an ethical grid and principles of group process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, D R; Wilensky, P

    1999-01-01

    Those who provide care for the dying seek to address issues of pain and suffering in the context of the psychological, spiritual, mental, and physical complexities of the individual experiencing a terminal illness. People who are dying are still living. They have the right to be in control of their lives. The staff (caregivers) also have an integrity which must be preserved. They too must be connected to the decision-making process. The reality of palliative care brings up unresolved psychological issues, often turbulent personal issues, for all involved in the process. This can cause extra unnecessary pain and suffering for all concerned. It is essential that a real (unflinching) and an ethical relationship between the patient and the staff be maintained and valued as these issues are confronted and resolved. This relationship will be subject to group process influences, which must be recognized and embraced. Avoidance of these issues can lead to unfairness, misunderstanding, shame, and lasting resentment among the caregivers, as well as to tragic consequences for the patient and the family. The purpose of this article is to describe a decision-making process in palliative care that includes the use of ethical principles as well as features of group process. The ethical grid was adapted and developed from the work of Jonsen, Siegler, and Winslade. The features of group process are based on theories of group work as defined by Trotzer; Johnson and Johnson; Gladding; Bion; Yalom; and Amundson, Borgen, Westwood and Pallard.

  11. A modified OSCE assessing the assimilation and application of ethical principles relevant to Obstetric and Gynaecological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Hugo van Woerden

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop and evaluate a modified OSCE assessing the assimilation and application of a range of ethical principles relevant to Obstetric and Gynecological practice. Setting. Candidates for an SpR training rotation Methods. Twenty six candidates working in Obstetrics and Gynecology were presented with four questions covering a range of relevant ethical scenarios. Their responses were assessed using a marking schedule. The marking schedule was evaluated against a checklist developed for assessing postgraduate medical examinations. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by calculating Kappa values for each question. The items in the marking schedule were also assessed to determine the level of agreement between the two examiners. To assess the contribution of each question to the total score, the question to total score correlations were calculated. The discriminatory capacity of each question was also assessed. Results. The development of the examination met almost all of the criteria in the checklist for developing a postgraduate examination. Inter-rater reliability was reasonable (4 weighted Kappas ranged from 0.53 - 0.75. There was a high level of agreement between examiners as to whether a candidate had answered an item on the marking schedule correctly. The degree of discrimination of items in the marking schedule was consistent with clinical opinion on the importance of questions. Conclusion. This modified OSCE examination demonstrates the feasibility of testing ethical principles relevant to practice in Obstetrics and Gynecology in candidates for postgraduate posts. It meets most of the criteria laid down in a checklist developed to assess postgraduate medical examinations

  12. A Model for Teaching Ethical Meta-Principles: A Descriptive Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Irma S.; Rivas, Olivia; Mancillas, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    As students, educators, outreach and community service experts enter their distinct professional worlds, each will be compelled to make a wide variety of decisions. The shaping of peoples' ethical beliefs occurs through personal experiences as well as family, culture, religion and peer pressure. In order for these students, educators, outreach and…

  13. Resolving a Conflict between APA Learning Goals and APA Ethical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corty, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    Although American Psychological Association (APA) Ethical Standards make it clear that instructors cannot require students to disclose personal information in class-related activities, an APA learning goal for undergraduate psychology students is that they reflect on their experiences to develop insight into their behavior and mental processes.…

  14. Integrating Values and Ethics into Post Secondary Teaching for Leadership Development: Principles, Concepts, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Paul T.; Stefkovich, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of moral literacy as it applies to leadership development and the processes for promoting moral literacy through teaching in colleges and universities. Design/methodology/approach: The ethics of authenticity and moral agency in education settings are proposed as a means for promoting and…

  15. "Is This Ethical?" A Survey of Opinion on Principles and Practices of Document Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragga, Sam

    1996-01-01

    Reprints a corrected version of an article originally published in the volume 43, number 1 issue of this journal. Presents results of a national survey of technical communicators and technical communication teachers assessing the ethics of seven document design cases involving manipulation of typography, illustrations, and photographs. Offers…

  16. Resolving a Conflict between APA Learning Goals and APA Ethical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corty, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    Although American Psychological Association (APA) Ethical Standards make it clear that instructors cannot require students to disclose personal information in class-related activities, an APA learning goal for undergraduate psychology students is that they reflect on their experiences to develop insight into their behavior and mental processes.…

  17. The ethics of characterizing difference: guiding principles on using racial categories in human genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Mountain, Joanna; Koenig, Barbara; Altman, Russ; Brown, Melissa; Camarillo, Albert; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca; Cho, Mildred; Eberhardt, Jennifer; Feldman, Marcus; Ford, Richard; Greely, Henry; King, Roy; Markus, Hazel; Satz, Debra; Snipp, Matthew; Steele, Claude; Underhill, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We are a multidisciplinary group of Stanford faculty who propose ten principles to guide the use of racial and ethnic categories when characterizing group differences in research into human genetic variation.

  18. [Ethical and legal principles for the activities of bioprospection in relation to human beings and the human genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades, bioprospecting has become an important field of research, which looks for development alternatives, entry into global (environmental) markets, and the subsequent obtention of benefits under sustainable development principles. However, there is still so much to discuss regarding the social and environmental impacts produced by this activity, as well as its main limitations. To this end, the Forum/round-table discussion, entitled "Bioprospección, Etica y Sociedad" was organised to take place on 28 March 2012 at the National University of Colombia. Its main objective was to enrich our knowledge on bioprospecting considering the ethical considerations that involve society. The presentation given by Professor ROMEO CASABONA, regarding the connection between bioprospecting and the human genome deserves special attention and is presented below.

  19. A Study of Developing Professional Ethics Principles Scale for Teachers Working in the Pre-School Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şafak ÖZTÜRK AYNAL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the development of a professional ethics principles scale for teachers working in the pre-school education domain, in addition to testing the reliability and validity of this questionnaire. To this end, pre-school teachers' opinions were collected. Following the analysis of these viewpoints and the previous literature, items of the trial form were written. The draft form which comprised these items were applied to 245 pre-school teachers. In order to document the validity of the scale, a factor analysis was conducted. The analysis results revealed that the scale has a four factorial structure. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of the scale, which is an indicator of its reliability, was found to be 0.95. The reliability coefficients for the subcomponents varied between 0.90 and 0.94.

  20. Socially responsible ethnobotanical surveys in the Cape Floristic Region: ethical principles, methodology and quantification of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Erik Van Wyk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A broad overview of published and unpublished ethnobotanical surveys in the Cape Floristic Region (the traditional home of the San and Khoi communities shows that the data is incomplete. There is an urgent need to record the rich indigenous knowledge about plants in a systematic and social responsible manner in order to preserve this cultural and scientific heritage for future generations. Improved methods for quantifying data are introduced, with special reference to the simplicity and benefits of the new Matrix Method. This methodology prevents or reduces the number of false negatives, and also ensures the participation of elderly people who might be immobile. It also makes it possible to compare plant uses in different local communities. This method enables the researcher to quantify the knowledge on plant use that was preserved in a community, and to determine the relative importance of a specific plant in a more objective way. Ethical considerations for such ethnobotanical surveys are discussed, through the lens of current ethical codes and international conventions. This is an accessible approach, which can also be used in the life sciences classroom.

  1. Ethics in Perinatal Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-16

    Mar 16, 2016 ... care delivery.9 Ethical codes are sets of principles or rough guides to practice, usually ... Feminist bioethical orientation, also known as the ethics of care and ... informed consent is a pre-requisite to the autonomy of the patient. There are .... the ethical principles of both beneficence and justice. Mega-ethical ...

  2. Compliance of NHS dental practice websites in Wales before and after the introduction of the GDC document 'Principles of ethical advertising'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, M L; Davies, M; Dewhurst, R; Atkin, P A

    2016-06-10

    Objectives To evaluate the compliance of NHS dental practice websites in Wales, UK, with the 2012 GDC document Principles of ethical advertising, before its introduction (2011) and again after its introduction (2014).Methods All practices in Wales with an NHS contract and dental practice website were identified. The content of the website was evaluated to determine if it complied with the principles outlined in the 2012 GDC document Principles of Ethical Advertising.Results Twenty-five percent of the 446 practices sampled in 2011 had a website, compared to 44% of the 436 practices sampled in 2014. The principles best complied with were; displaying the name, geographic address, and telephone number of the practice (100% for both years). None of the websites compared the qualifications or skills of its practitioners to others, therefore 100% complied with this principle. Displaying team members' professional qualification and the country from which this is obtained was fairly well represented; 92% and 61% respectively in 2014; an improvement from only 50% and 49% respectively in 2011. Principles worst complied with were displaying the GDC's address (3% 2011; 9% 2014) or link to the GDC website (11% 2011; 7% 2014) and details of the practice complaints procedure (1% 2011; 5% 2014). Overall, no practice complied with all of the compulsory principles.Conclusion In both 2011 and 2014 no practice website was compliant with all the principles outlined in the 2012 GDC document Principles of ethical advertising. Reflecting results from previous studies, this study showed that compliance is slowly improving, yet over 4 years after the introduction of the mandatory principles, it remains that no practice website is 100% compliant.

  3. Guidelines for Teaching Cross-Cultural Clinical Ethics: Critiquing Ideology and Confronting Power in the Service of a Principles-Based Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, Fern

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a pedagogical framework for teaching cross-cultural clinical ethics. The approach, offered at the intersection of anthropology and bioethics, is innovative in that it takes on the "social sciences versus bioethics" debate that has been ongoing in North America for three decades. The argument is made that this debate is flawed on both sides and, moreover, that the application of cross-cultural thinking to clinical ethics requires using the tools of the social sciences (such as the critique of the universality of the Euro-American construct of "autonomy") within (rather than in opposition to) a principles-based framework for clinical ethics. This paper introduces the curriculum and provides guidelines for how to teach cross-cultural clinical ethics. The learning points that are introduced emphasize culture in its relation to power and underscore the importance of viewing both biomedicine and bioethics as culturally constructed.

  4. Testing public health ethics: why the CDC's HIV screening recommendations may violate the least infringement principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Matthew W; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K; King, Elizabeth J; Wyckoff, Sarah C

    2011-01-01

    The CDC's HIV screening recommendations for health care settings advocate abandoning two important autonomy protections: (1) pretest counseling and (2) the requirement that providers obtain affirmative agreement from patients prior to testing. The recommendations may violate the least infringement principle because there is insufficient evidence to conclude that abandoning pretest counseling or affirmative agreement requirements will further the CDC's stated public health goals.

  5. Implementing the Precautionary Principle through Stakeholder Engagement for Product and Service Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre de Coninck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The precautionary principle is a sustainable development principle that attempts to articulate an ethic in decision making since it deals with the notion of uncertainty of harm. Uncertainty becomes a weakness when it has to serve as a predictor by which to take action. Since humans are responsible for their actions, and ethics is based in action, then decisions based in uncertainty require an ethical framework. Beyond the professional deontological responsibility, there is a need to consider the process of conception based on an ethic of the future and therefore to develop a new ethical framework which is more global and fundamental. This will expose the justifications for choices, present these in debates with other stakeholders, and ultimately adopt an axiology of decision making for conception. Responsibility and participative discourse for an equal justice among actors are a basis of such an ethic. By understanding the ethical framework of this principle and applying this knowledge towards design or innovation, the precautionary principle becomes operational. This paper suggests that to move towards sustainability, stakeholders must adopt decision making processes that are precautionary. A commitment to precaution encourages a global perspective and the search for alternatives. Methods such as alternative assessment and precautionary deliberation through stakeholder engagement can assist in this shift towards sustainability.

  6. Colonialism, Biko and AIDS: reflections on the principle of beneficence in South African medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Hillel David

    2009-06-01

    This paper examines the principle of beneficence in the light of moral and epistemological concerns that have crystallized in the South African context around clinical care. Three examples from the South African experience affecting the development of bioethics are examined: medical colonialism, the death in detention of Steve Biko, and the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Michael Gelfand's book [(1948). The sick African: a clinical study. Cape Town: Stewart Printing Company.] on African medical conditions captures the ambiguous nature of colonial medicine that linked genuine medical treatment with the civilizing mission. Biko's death was a key historical event that deeply implicated the medical profession under apartheid. The present HIV/AIDS epidemic presents the gravest social and political crisis for South African society. All three experiences influence the meaning and relevance of beneficence as a bioethics principle in the South African context. This paper argues for a South African bioethics informed by a critical humanism that takes account of the colonial past, and that does not model itself on an "original wound" or negation, but on positive care-giving practices.

  7. On Ethical Principles of Caring for Empty-Nest-Elderly%弱势群体中关爱“空巢老人”的伦理原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张多来; 寇进

    2012-01-01

    As an aging society arriving,the aging scales up and the empty-nest-elderly also increase.The ethical principles of caring them are as follows: love and happiness principle;fair and charitable principle;comfort and respect principle;Justice and liable principle.%随着老龄化社会到来,老龄化比例增大,"空巢老人"也随之增多。因此,关爱空巢老人要遵循的伦理原则是:关爱和幸福原则;公平和行善原则;慰藉和尊重原则;公正和义务原则。

  8. Minors and euthanasia: a systematic review of argument-based ethics literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuman, Giulia; Gastmans, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Euthanasia was first legalised in the Netherlands in 2002, followed by similar legislation in Belgium the same year. Since the beginning, however, only the Netherlands included the possibility for minors older than 12 years to request euthanasia. In 2014, the Belgian Act legalising euthanasia was amended to include requests by minors who possess the capacity of discernment. This amendment sparked great debate, and raised difficult ethical questions about when and how a minor can be deemed competent. We conducted a systematic review of argument-based literature on euthanasia in minors. The search process followed PRISMA guidelines. Thirteen publications were included. The four-principle approach of medical ethics was used to organise the ethical arguments underlying this debate. The justification for allowing euthanasia in minors is buttressed mostly by the principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy. Somewhat paradoxically, both principles are also used in the literature to argue against the extension of legislation to minors. Opponents of euthanasia generally rely on the principle of non-maleficence. The present analysis reveals that the debate surrounding euthanasia in minors is at an early stage. In order to allow a more in-depth ethical discussion, we suggest enriching the four-principle approach by including a care-ethics approach. What is Known: • The Netherlands and Belgium are the only two countries in the world with euthanasia legislation making it possible for minors to receive euthanasia. • This legislation provoked great debate globally, with ethical arguments for and against this legislation. What is New: • A systematic description of the ethical concepts and arguments grounding the debate on euthanasia in minors, as reported in the argument-based ethics literature. • A need has been identified to enrich the debate with a care-ethics approach to avoid oversimplifying the ethical decision-making process.

  9. Does a Sentiment-Based Ethics of Caring Improve upon a Principles-Based One? The Problem of Impartial Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James Scott

    2008-01-01

    My task in this paper is to demonstrate, contra Nel Noddings, that Kantian ethics does not have an expectation of treating those closest to one the same as one would a stranger. In fact, Kantian ethics has what I would consider a robust statement of how it is that those around us come to figure prominently in the development of one's ethics. To…

  10. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  11. Beyond Medical "Missions" to Impact-Driven Short-Term Experiences in Global Health (STEGHs): Ethical Principles to Optimize Community Benefit and Learner Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Melissa K; Loh, Lawrence C; Evert, Jessica; Prater, Christopher; Lin, Henry; Khan, Omar A

    2016-05-01

    Increasing demand for global health education in medical training has driven the growth of educational programs predicated on a model of short-term medical service abroad. Almost two-thirds of matriculating medical students expect to participate in a global health experience during medical school, continuing into residency and early careers. Despite positive intent, such short-term experiences in global health (STEGHs) may exacerbate global health inequities and even cause harm. Growing out of the "medical missions" tradition, contemporary participation continues to evolve. Ethical concerns and other disciplinary approaches, such as public health and anthropology, can be incorpo rated to increase effectiveness and sustainability, and to shift the culture of STEGHs from focusing on trainees and their home institutions to also considering benefits in host communities and nurtur ing partnerships. The authors propose four core principles to guide ethical development of educational STEGHs: (1) skills building in cross-cultural effective ness and cultural humility, (2) bidirectional participatory relationships, (3) local capacity building, and (4) long-term sustainability. Application of these principles highlights the need for assessment of STEGHs: data collection that allows transparent compar isons, standards of quality, bidirectionality of agreements, defined curricula, and ethics that meet both host and sending countries' standards and needs. To capture the enormous potential of STEGHs, a paradigm shift in the culture of STEGHs is needed to ensure that these experiences balance training level, personal competencies, medical and cross-cultural ethics, and educational objectives to minimize harm and maximize benefits for all involved.

  12. Ethics of Plant Breeding: The IFOAM Basic Principles as a Guide for the Evolution of Organic Plant Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    The basic values of organic agriculture is laid down in the IFOAM four basic principles: the principle of health, the principle of ecology, the principle of fairness and the principle of care. These principles and the consequences and challenges for the further development of organic plant breeding

  13. The Stateville penitentiary malaria experiments: a case study in retrospective ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Franklin G

    2013-01-01

    During World War II, malaria research was conducted in prisons. A notable example was the experiments at Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois, in which prisoner-subjects were infected with malaria for the purpose of testing the safety and efficacy of novel anti-malaria drugs. Over time, commentators have shifted from viewing the malaria research at Stateville as a model of ethical clinical research to seeing the experiments as paradigmatic of abusive human experimentation. This essay undertakes a retrospective ethical assessment of the Stateville malaria research during the 1940s in light of basic ethical principles and the Nuremberg Code, as well as contemporary malaria research. In addition to its historical interest, this case study provides a rich context for addressing basic issues of research ethics, including the voluntariness of consent, the justification of risks, and the exploitation of vulnerable subjects.

  14. Ethical principles and legal requirements for pediatric research in the EU: an analysis of the European normative and legal framework surrounding pediatric clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Wim; Dierickx, Kris; Nys, Herman

    2009-10-01

    The involvement of minors in clinical research is inevitable to catch up with the lack of drugs labeled for pediatric use. To encourage the responsible conduct of pediatric clinical trials in the EU, an extensive legal framework has been developed over the past decade in which the practical, ethical, legal, social, and commercial issues in pediatric research are addressed. In this article, the European legal framework surrounding pediatric clinical trials is analyzed from the perspective of the major ethical concerns in pediatric research. The four principles of biomedical ethics will be used as a conceptual framework (1) to map the ethical issues addressed in the European legal framework, (2) to study how these issues are commonly handled in competent adults, (3) to detect workability problems of these paradigmatic approaches in the specific setting of pediatric research, and (4) to illustrate the strong urge to differentiate, specify, or adjust these paradigmatic approaches to guarantee their successful operation in pediatric research. In addition, a concise comparative analysis of the European regulation will be made. To conclude our analysis, we integrate our findings in the existing ethical discussions on issues specific to pediatric clinical research.

  15. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Published research in English-language journals are increasingly required to carry a statement that the study has been approved and monitored by an Institutional Review Board in conformance with 45 CFR 46 standards if the study was conducted in the United States. Alternative language attesting conformity with the Helsinki Declaration is often included when the research was conducted in Europe or elsewhere. The Helsinki Declaration was created by the World Medical Association in 1964 (ten years before the Belmont Report) and has been amended several times. The Helsinki Declaration differs from its American version in several respects, the most significant of which is that it was developed by and for physicians. The term "patient" appears in many places where we would expect to see "subject." It is stated in several places that physicians must either conduct or have supervisory control of the research. The dual role of the physician-researcher is acknowledged, but it is made clear that the role of healer takes precedence over that of scientist. In the United States, the federal government developed and enforces regulations on researcher; in the rest of the world, the profession, or a significant part of it, took the initiative in defining and promoting good research practice, and governments in many countries have worked to harmonize their standards along these lines. The Helsinki Declaration is based less on key philosophical principles and more on prescriptive statements. Although there is significant overlap between the Belmont and the Helsinki guidelines, the latter extends much further into research design and publication. Elements in a research protocol, use of placebos, and obligation to enroll trials in public registries (to ensure that negative findings are not buried), and requirements to share findings with the research and professional communities are included in the Helsinki Declaration. As a practical matter, these are often part of the work of American

  16. Ethics without Intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    . This distinction, which, according to the doctrine of double effect, makes a difference to the moral justification of actions, is widely applied to some of the most controversial ethical and political questions of our time: collateral damages in wars and acts of terrorism; palliative care, euthanasia, abortion...

  17. Management and ethical responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most authors believe that ethics is set of moral principles and values which leads a person or a group toward what is good or bad. Ethics sets the standards about what is good, and what is bad in behaving and decision making. Principles are the rules or the laws that create ethical codex.

  18. Bidirectional Exchanges of Medical Students Between Institutional Partners in Global Health Clinical Education Programs: Putting Ethical Principles into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbaugh, Robert; Kellett, Anne; Peluso, Michael J

    One-third of US medical students participate in global health (GH) education, and approximately one-quarter of US medical schools have structured programs that offer special recognition in GH. GH clinical electives (GHCEs) are opportunities for students to experience a medical system and culture different from their own. GHCEs are administered through institutional affiliation agreements, often between an institution in a high-income country (HIC) and one in a low- or middle-income country (LMIC). Although these agreements suggest the exchange of students in both directions, GHCEs are traditionally characterized by students from HICs traveling to LMICs. The goal of this study was to investigate the availability of opportunities for students from LMICs participating in GHCEs at partner institutions in HICs and to describe the costs of these opportunities for students from LMICs. We conducted a web-based search of 30 US institutions previously identified as having structured programs in GH. We determined which of these schools have programs that accept medical students from international schools for GHCEs, as well as the administrative requirements, types of fees, and other costs to the international student based on information available on the web. Descriptive statistics were employed for the quantitative analysis of costs. We found that, although the majority of US institutions with structured GH programs sending students to sites abroad accept international students at their sites in the United States, nearly one-fifth of programs do not offer such opportunities for bidirectional exchange. We also characterized the substantial costs of such experiences, because this can represent a significant barrier for students from LMICs. Access to GHCEs in US partner institutions should be an important underlying ethical principle in the establishment of institutional partnerships. The opportunities available to and experiences of students from LMIC partner institutions are

  19. Notes on the ethics of Husserl to Habermas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gerardo Acosta Niño

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this paper we will show the direction of Edmund Husserl’s phenomenological ethics as a renewal of man and culture, its limits and the ability to be complemented with the discourse ethics by Jürgen Habermas. We will highlight the approach that these authors have with their critical reflection on contemporary society and highlight the sense in that they understand the crisis of culture, not as something temporary and contingent, but as essential to culture itself. Thus, we will proceed to point out how to pass from an ethics-centered consciousness, to ethical standards based on communicative action on the merits of the world of life intersubjectively shared. In this perspective ethics may not appear depending on it for longer apologetic and transcendental philosophy justification as a science, a reflection of that rationality seeking some autonomy and freedom for the individual and the community as if it were of a universal science and essential to mancentered reason. This leads us to think in terms of communicative ethics, that is, to put consideration of all affected our principles and values in a speech community in which it seeks not knowledge and truth of things, but our understanding, normative rightness and understanding, based on our particular forms of life, our special worlds made of the various speech acts.

  20. Ethical, legal, and social aspects of farm animal cloning in the 6th Framework Programme for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, John; Sachez, Elena; Matthiessen-Guyader, Line

    2004-01-01

    Cloned livestock have potential importance in the provision of improved medicine as well as in the development of livestock production. The public is, however, increasingly concerned about the social and ethical consequences of these advances in knowledge and techniques. There is unevenness throughout Europe in different Member States' attitudes to research into livestock cloning. Although there is EU legislation controlling the use of animals for research purposes, there is no legislation specifically governing cloning in livestock production. The main EU reference is the 9th Opinion of the European Group on Ethics, which states "Cloning of farm animals may prove to be of medical and agricultural as well as economic benefit. It is acceptable only when the aims and methods are ethically justified and when carried out under ethical conditions." The ethical justification includes the avoidance of suffering, the use of the 3Rs principle and a lack of better alternatives. The Commission addresses these issues in the 6th Framework Programme by promoting the integration of ethical, legal and social aspects in all proposals where they are relevant, by fostering ethical awareness and foresight in the proposals, by encouraging public dialogue, and by supporting specific actions to promote the debate. Research must respect fundamental ethical principles, including animal welfare requirements.

  1. 证成、识别、具体化——论行政法原则的适用程序%On Justification, Identification and Specification: Application Procedure of Principles of Administrative Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静涛

    2011-01-01

    行政法基本原则适用的必要性已得到较为广泛的认同,但如何在具体适用中避免原则的固有局限性仍然是一个值得探讨的问题。本文以行政法基本原则的适用程序为研究对象,将这一过程大致分为适用情形的证成、原则的识别、原则的具体化三个步骤来作具体分析。%The necessity of application of basic principles of administrative law has been widely acknowledged; however, how to avoid the inherent limitations in specific application is still worth studying. Based on application procedure of the basic principles of administrative law, the author analyzes the procedure from three aspects: application cases, identification of the principle and specification of the principle.

  2. The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

    2013-06-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education.

  3. What Do the Various Principles of Justice Mean Within the Concept of Benefit Sharing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauda, Bege; Denier, Yvonne; Dierickx, Kris

    2016-06-01

    The concept of benefit sharing pertains to the act of giving something in return to the participants, communities, and the country that have participated in global health research or bioprospecting activities. One of the key concerns of benefit sharing is the ethical justifications or reasons to support the practice of the concept in global health research and bioprospecting. This article evaluates one of such ethical justifications and its meaning to benefit sharing, namely justice. We conducted a systematic review to map the various principles of justice that are linked to benefit sharing and analysed their meaning to the concept of benefit sharing. Five principles of justice (commutative, distributive, global, procedural, and compensatory) have been shown to be relevant in the nuances of benefit sharing in both global health research and bioprospecting. The review findings indicate that each of these principles of justice provides a different perspective for a different benefit sharing rationale. For example, commutative justice provides a benefit sharing rationale that is focused on fair exchange of benefits between research sponsors and communities. Distributive justice produces a benefit sharing rationale that is focused on improving the health needs of the vulnerable research communities. We have suggested that a good benefit sharing framework particularly in global health research would be more beneficial if it combines all the principles of justice in its formulation. Nonetheless, there is a need for empirical studies to examine the various principles of justice and their nuances in benefit sharing among stakeholders in global health research.

  4. National Survey on Justification of CT-examinations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Leitz, Wolfram; Richter, Sven

    2009-02-15

    All examinations in diagnostic radiology shall be justified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of the patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the degree of justification for CT-examinations in Sweden. Referrals for all examinations performed during one day were retrospectively evaluated by a group of physicians. The study was designed and conducted by a project group lead by prof. Haakan Jorulf. The authors of this report have derived the results and conclusions on the basis of the data and are responsible for the content of this report. The principle result was that approximately 20 % of all examinations were not justified. The degree of justification varied strongly with organ examined, moderately with prescriber affiliation and weakly with geographical region. If unjustified examinations could be avoided a large dose reduction for the population would be achieved. This study shows that there is a need for improvements and the authority will continue to work with this issue

  5. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  6. How "moral" are the principles of biomedical ethics?--a cross-domain evaluation of the common morality hypothesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christen, Markus; Ineichen, Christian; Tanner, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    .... Childress base the principles in the common morality, i.e. they claim that the principles represent basic moral values shared by all persons committed to morality and are thus grounded in human moral psychology...

  7. 16 CFR 240.15 - Cost justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost justification. 240.15 Section 240.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.15 Cost justification. It is no defense to...

  8. Ethical Risk in the Nursing and Ethical Principles in the Management of Clinical Psychology Division%临床心理科的护理伦理风险及管理伦理原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田贵平; 杨旭东; 邓伟静

    2011-01-01

    在临床心理科的日常工作中,护理人员的安全观念,分级护理制度的缺陷,对陪护家属教育的不足,病房设施中的隐患,患者病情变化的复杂性,药物副作用等都易使护理工作存在风险,应在护理工作中贯彻以人为本、尊重、慎独、公正、知情同意等原则,把护理风险降低到最低程度.%Various factors lead to the ethical risks in the daily nursing in clinical psychology division, including insufficient sense of medical security among nursing staff, imperfect system of grading nursing, lack of education for patients'family members, potential dangers in the ward facilities, the complexities in patients'disease conditions, and the side effects of drugs. Therefore, the ethical principles including people - oriented principle, respect for patients, self- restraining in privacy, justice, and informed consent should be applied in daily nursing in clinical psychology division, in order to minimize nursing risks.

  9. Ethical principles and operational guidelines for good clinical practice in paediatric research. Recommendations of the Ethics Working Group of the Confederation of European Specialists in Paediatrics (CESP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Denis

    2004-02-01

    A child has the full right of protection of his/her life by provision of optional medical care. There is a need in paediatrics for better evidence based practice founded on quality research into efficacy and safety of children's medications. To protect the best interests of the child one must balance the ethical demand to do clinical studies with the necessity to avoid doing harm. To achieve this end good clinical practice in paediatric research demands that studies comply with the Declaration of Helsinki, ICH topic E11, EU Directives and other relevant international guidelines. Evident differences in physiology, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between children of differing ages and between children and adults demand properly constructed and conducted studies that respect the special somatic, emotional and mental needs of children. To justify any research project one must balance the benefit/risk ratio, provide experienced, competent personnel and infracture, obtain adequate informed consent/assent, and have the study evaluated and approved by an ethics committee containing expertise on the rights and needs of children.

  10. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is."

  11. Ethical Principles Associated with the Publication of Research in ASHA's Scholarly Journals: Importance and Adequacy of Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Janis C.; Minifie, Fred D.; Horner, Jennifer; Robey, Randall R.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this 2-part study was to determine the importance of specific topics relating to publication ethics and adequacy of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) policies regarding these topics. Method: A 56-item Web-based survey was sent to (a) ASHA journal editors, associate editors, and members of the…

  12. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  13. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  14. [AN EVALUATION OF JUSTICE AND RIGHT TO HEALTH CONCEPTS IN THE PERSPECTIVES OF ETHICAL THEORIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    Right to health is considered as a fundamental human right. However the realization of right to health is facing obstacles due to the scarce resources which are needed for the provision of health services. Besides the vast technological improvements in medical area leads to the development of diagnosis and treatment possibilities each and every day. Thus, the provision of health services becomes a subject of distributive justice. To define the concept of justice, first one should identify the conditions of demanding right to have something and then determine how and who is obliged to give the deserved. Ethical theories form their own paradigms of acting right regarding their anchor points and priority values. The basic concepts such as justice or right to health are considered and conceptualized within the paradigms of the ethical theories. Thus some ethical theories consider right to health as a natural constituent of human being, while some may consider it contextual and others may reject it completely. In a similar vein, justice and related concepts of justice such as formal and material principles of justice differ regarding the paradigm of the ethical theory in which we position ourselves. The paradigms of ethical theories demand different approaches from each other both in defining the concepts and implementations in practical life. This paper sets forth how justice and right to health is conceptualized in the virtue ethics, deontological ethics, liberal ethical theory and communitarian ethical theories. To this end first the general frame of each ethical theory and how justice is conceptualized within this frame is defined. Following that a discussion of the possibility of justification of the right to health within the context of ethical theory is perused.

  15. IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  16. Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross E G

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis (TB) treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative means of justifying the use of reciprocity through appeal to different moral and political theoretical traditions (i.e., virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism). We suggest that each theory can be used to provide reasons to take reciprocity seriously as an independent moral concept, despite any other differences. Third, we explore general meanings and uses of the concept of reciprocity, with the primary intention of demonstrating that it cannot be simply reduced to other more frequently invoked moral concepts such as beneficence or justice. We argue that reciprocity can function as a mid-level principle in public health, and generally, captures a core social obligation arising once an individual or group is burdened as a result of acting for the benefit of others (even if they derive a benefit themselves). We conclude that while more needs to be explored in relation to the theoretical justification and application of reciprocity, sufficient arguments can be made for it to be taken more seriously as a key principle within public health ethics and bioethics more generally.

  17. Justification for a Standardised Zoological Nomenclature: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justification for a Standardised Zoological Nomenclature: The Fascinating World of Animal Common Names. ... Ghana Journal of Science ... by the beginning of the 19th century, became the final authority on naming animals worldwide.

  18. Teaching the Ethics of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Carol K.; Harris, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Points out the challenges of educating students about bioethics and the limited training of many biologists on ethics. Discusses the basic principles of ethics and ethical decision making as applied to biology. Explains the models of ethical decision making that are often difficult for students to determine where to begin analyzing. (Contains 28…

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility: Why? ethical justification of corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Caballero Jara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucho se ha discutido en el Perú sobre qué es la responsabilidad social empresarial (RSE ycómo se implementa. La pregunta de por qué, en cambio, no ha recibido similar interés. Esta esprecisamente la interrogante que el presente artículo busca responder: ¿Qué justifica la RSE?¿Por qué las empresas deben ser socialmente responsables?Tomando como punto de partida la clasificación en cuatro grandes teorías de responsabilidadsocial empresarial o corporativa propuesta por Garriga y Melé (2004, a saber, las teoríasinstrumentales, políticas, integradoras y éticas, se identifican rastros de las mismas en la literaturaperuana. De esta forma, se logra un panorama de las distintas justificaciones brindadas porlos autores peruanos. Posteriormente, se toma partido a favor de las teorías éticas de RSE, enparticular del subgrupo «teoría normativa de los grupos de interés» (stakeholder normativetheory, que ve a la RSE como ética aplicada a los negocios, exponiendo sus versiones utilitaristay deontológica, exposición que deja a esta última mejor posicionada. De esta manera, sepropone ir más allá de las justificaciones exclusivamente rentistas, según la cual el empresariodebe ser socialmente responsable porque le conviene, y considerar la deontología como lajustificación del por qué hacer RSE.

  20. Ethics without Intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    Ethics Without Intention tackles the questions raised by difficult moral dilemmas by providing a critical analysis of double effect and its most common ethical and political applications. The book discusses the philosophical distinction between intended harm and foreseen but unintended harm....... This distinction, which, according to the doctrine of double effect, makes a difference to the moral justification of actions, is widely applied to some of the most controversial ethical and political questions of our time: collateral damages in wars and acts of terrorism; palliative care, euthanasia, abortion...... of our time. An engaging and comprehensive introduction to the doctrine of double effect. - See more at: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/ethics-without-intention-9781472525796/#sthash.NKISOPL8.dpuf...

  1. Parents' refusal of medical treatment based on religious and/or cultural beliefs: the law, ethical principles, and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnard-Palmer, Luanne; Kools, Susan

    2004-10-01

    When parents apply religious or cultural beliefs concerning spiritual healing, faith healing, or preference for prayer over traditional health care for children, concerns develop. Medical care is considered one of the most basic of all human needs, and yet parents may elect to apply religious or cultural beliefs in place of traditional Western medical care for their children. Because memberships in religious groups that have beliefs concerning prayer and health care for children are increasing, the topic is of great importance for pediatric health professionals. This article describes parental refusal of medical care, and it discusses the legal, ethical, and clinical implications.

  2. Ethics of the electrified mind: defining issues and perspectives on the principled use of brain stimulation in medical research and clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Evans, Emily L; Hamilton, Roy H

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, non-pharmacologic approaches to modifying human neural activity have gained increasing attention. One of these approaches is brain stimulation, which involves either the direct application of electrical current to structures in the nervous system or the indirect application of current by means of electromagnetic induction. Interventions that manipulate the brain have generally been regarded as having both the potential to alleviate devastating brain-related conditions and the capacity to create unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Hence, although brain stimulation techniques offer considerable benefits to society, they also raise a number of ethical concerns. In this paper we will address various dilemmas related to brain stimulation in the context of clinical practice and biomedical research. We will survey current work involving deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. We will reflect upon relevant similarities and differences between them, and consider some potentially problematic issues that may arise within the framework of established principles of medical ethics: nonmaleficence and beneficence, autonomy, and justice.

  3. Justification philosophique de l’éducation des valeurs éthiques et civiques dans l’éducation formelle. Analyse critique de la LOMCE

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia Calandín, Javier; Vicent GOZÁLVEZ

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we start with the approach of the new LOMCE in order to go back to the philosophical justification of each ethical value that we believe should be addressed in education as its backbones. First, we focus on some contradictions in the new LOMCE. Later, we explore the philosophical foundation of ethical values in education. We propose the hermeneutical approach to unravel the ethical values. In the third and most extensive section we delve into the philosophical basis of different...

  4. The paradox of imperfect duty in Kant's moral philosophy: A problem in 'applying' ethics'

    OpenAIRE

    Richter Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The Applied Ethics debate has not yet sufficiently clarified what application of ethics exactly is. The issue of application is considered to be especially problematic in Kantian ethics or in discourse ethics. This article describes the concept of applying ethics in Kant. In discussing the duty of helping others and the theory of its application in Metaphysics of Morals it is shown that a strict separation of justification and application in ethical theory ...

  5. Ethical Issues within the Gerontological Nursing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Rose Therese

    This presentation focuses on ethical issues that need to be addressed within the gerontological nursing curriculum for preparing nurses to become change agents and catalysts in the health care of the older population. Ethics and ethical principles are defined, and three ethical principles are discussed: justice; beneficence; and autonomy.…

  6. Ethics into Finance: The Level of Ethics in Islamic Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Lukman Ayinde Olorogun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, ethics have become an essential marketing tool. Both conventional and Islamic financial institutions have claimed to have operates on ethical ground. In the wave of overlapping between these institutions, Islamic insurance has adopted “ethics†as its major marketing strategy or slogan in order to penetrate into the Muslims and non-Muslims insurance markets. Methodology: Using Islamic principles to present ethics in its business relegates Islamic law to ethics only. Thus,...

  7. The ethical challenges of animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsian, Hope R; Gluck, John P

    2015-10-01

    In 1966, Henry K. Beecher published an article entitled "Ethics and Clinical Research" in the New England Journal of Medicine, which cited examples of ethically problematic human research. His influential paper drew attention to common moral problems such as inadequate attention to informed consent, risks, and efforts to provide ethical justification. Beecher's paper provoked significant advancements in human research policies and practices. In this paper, we use an approach modeled after Beecher's 1966 paper to show that moral problems with animal research are similar to the problems Beecher described for human research. We describe cases that illustrate ethical deficiencies in the conduct of animal research, including inattention to the issue of consent or assent, incomplete surveys of the harms caused by specific protocols, inequitable burdens on research subjects in the absence of benefits to them, and insufficient efforts to provide ethical justification. We provide a set of recommendations to begin to address these deficits.

  8. ETHICS AND CHANGES IN SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Jovo Radoš; Milan Nešić

    2008-01-01

    Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.). Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympic...

  9. IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  10. Conscientious objection or fear of social stigma and unawareness of ethical obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Duarte, Graciana Alves; Osis, Maria José Duarte

    2013-12-01

    Conscientious objection is a legitimate right of physicians to reject the practice of actions that violate their ethical or moral principles. The application of that principle is being used in many countries as a justification to deny safe abortion care to women who have the legal right to have access to safe termination of pregnancy. The problem is that, often, this concept is abused by physicians who camouflage under the guise of conscientious objection their fear of experiencing discrimination and social stigma if they perform legal abortions. These colleagues seem to ignore the ethical principle that the primary conscientious duty of OB/GYNs is-at all times-to treat, or provide benefit and prevent harm to, the patients for whose care they are responsible. Any conscientious objection to treating a patient is secondary to this primary duty. One of the jobs of the FIGO Working Group for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion is to change this paradigm and make our colleagues proud of providing legal abortion services that protect women's life and health, and concerned about disrespecting the human rights of women and professional ethical principles.

  11. Pain management. Theological and ethical principles governing the use of pain relief for dying patients. Task Force on Pain Management, Catholic Health Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Pain management is a societal problem because of concerns about the use of drugs, the belief that patients are not good judges of the severity of their pain, and an alarming level of ignorance about pain and its treatment among physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers. The result is that patients suffer pain unnecessarily, even up to the point of their death. Pain management is also a clinical-practice problem. Courses in pain and symptom management are not readily available to medical and nursing students. And in clinical practice, good pain assessment is not easy to accomplish because pain is so subjective. Fortunately, with education, doctors and nurses can vastly improve their ability to assess and manage patients' pain. Additional problems in pain management relate to the manner in which healthcare is provided today: an acute disease-oriented model of hospital care, frequent transfers, fragmented care, inadequate reimbursement, market forces that drive up costs, and maldistribution of clinical services. In improving their ability to manage pain, professionals must understand the difference between pain and suffering, acute and chronic pain, and the sensory and emotional aspects of pain. Guiding principles include Church teaching and ethical principles, such as patient self-determination, holistic care, the principle of beneficence, distributive justice, and the common good. Pain management strategies that will be instrumental in formulating effective responses to these problems include expanding professional and community education, affording pain funding priority, establishing institutional policies and protocols, forming clinical teams, encouraging hospice and home care, and requiring accreditation in pain and symptom management.

  12. The importance of vocational ethics in paramedic education, vocational ethics course for paramedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakdemirli Ahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethics are rules of behaviors which morally good or bad. Bioethics is the study of ethics about by advances in biology and medicine. Health care providers should have knowledge about health professional ethics principles, public officials’ ethical behavior principles and ethical principles concerned about other legislation. They should find the required information to make logical, objective and accurate decisions where they may face with ethical problems in their professional life. Unfortunately in our country there isn’t any special vocational ethics course designed for paramedics. Our aim is to design a Vocational Ethics Course for Paramedics which includes all issues of bioethics.

  13. Ethics Training in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Guloksuz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.

  14. Ethical Perspectives of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian PALADE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the fair equality of the concept of opportunity from the perspective of the moral and reasonable justifications brought to support positive discrimination. Although contemporary democratic societies guarantee the absence of discrimination by securing the formal equality of opportunity, this seems to be insufficient to balance opportunities. The Rawlsian model has gained ground, by advancing a redistribution of the resources to support the disadvantaged ones, which is implemented through special measures. The compulsory quotas for admission to higher education or public institutions, addressed to some disadvantaged groups, are one of the effective means of implementing fairness. As this system has shattered the principle of reward judging by one‟s merits, and ending up as a form of inverse discrimination of the majority groups, it is necessary that we analyse the arguments and the boomerang effects of the special measures. The undertaking proposed by the present paper is structured around highlighting the ethical aspects, as well as the consequences resulting from the arguments in favour of positive discrimination. Do we have the moral obligation to make up for the past inequalities suffered by some groups? Does preferential treatment really ensure the genuine integration of such groups? Do special measures contribute in creating social justice? Without the claim of having responded definitively and exhaustively to these questions, this paper attempts to emphasise the ethical dilemma that raises when special measures favour one group or another, when a group is protected judging by only one criterion, or when only an implementation area is selected.

  15. Community-based applied research with Latino immigrant families: informing practice and research according to ethical and social justice principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ana; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén

    2011-06-01

    This manuscript describes the implementation of two community-based programs of research with Latino immigrant populations exposed to intense contextual challenges. We provide background on our program of research and specific implementation of an evidence-based parenting intervention. We also describe how our research efforts were seriously affected by immigration-related events such as the ICE raids in Utah and a history of discrimination and exclusion affecting Latino immigrants in Michigan. These external political and social challenges have affected the very core principles of our efforts to implement community-based approaches. The current manuscript describes key lessons that we have learned in this process. Finally, reflections for research, practice, and social policy are included.

  16. Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he a...

  17. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  18. 论医疗宣传应遵循的伦理原则%Discussion on Ethical Principles of Medical Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗克品; 王海艳; 杨明

    2013-01-01

    Based on clearing the significance of medical propaganda in hospital construction and charateristics of medical services, it addressed that medical media should follow the medical ethical principles of integrity, nonprofit, beneficence, confidentiality and moderate, in order to solve the current problems and promote the sustainable development of medical media, reflect the social values of hospital rather than perform a purely profit-maximizing business behavior.%在明确医疗宣传在医院建设发展中的重要作用及医疗服务特点的基础上,针对现阶段医疗宣传中存在的一些问题,提出医疗宣传应当遵循诚信、公益性、有利、保密、适度等伦理原则,以促进医疗宣传可持续发展,最大程度地体现医院社会价值,而不是单纯追求利润最大化的商业行为.

  19. 关于精神疾病患者医疗伦理原则的思考%Medical Ethical Principles in Mental Disease Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江欢; 李义庭

    2012-01-01

    Mental disease has its particularity, mental disease patients belong to vulnerable groups, how to respect and protect their rights are social concerns. In the medical process, should fully respect their personality and dignity, follow the ethical principles of combing the intervene of doctors with patients autonomy, combing medical humanitarian with force protection, and combing independent informed consent with agreement of guardian.%精神疾病有其特殊性,精神疾病患者属于弱势群体,如何尊重和保护他们的权益被社会所关注.在医疗过程中,应该充分尊重患者的人格与尊严,遵循行使医生干涉权与尊重患者自主权相结合、医学人道主义与约束性保护相结合、自主知情同意与监护人同意相结合的伦理原则.

  20. Can context justify an ethical double standard for clinical research in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landes Megan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of clinical research deserves special caution so as to safeguard the rights of participating individuals. While the international community has agreed on ethical standards for the design of research, these frameworks still remain open to interpretation, revision and debate. Recently a breach in the consensus of how to apply these ethical standards to research in developing countries has occurred, notably beginning with the 1994 placebo-controlled trials to reduce maternal to child transmission of HIV-1 in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. The design of these trials sparked intense debate with the inclusion of a placebo-control group despite the existence of a 'gold standard' and trial supporters grounded their justifications of the trial design on the context of scarcity in resource-poor settings. Discussion These 'contextual' apologetics are arguably an ethical loophole inherent in current bioethical methodology. However, this convenient appropriation of 'contextual' analysis simply fails to acknowledge the underpinnings of feminist ethical analysis upon which it must stand. A more rigorous analysis of the political, social, and economic structures pertaining to the global context of developing countries reveals that the bioethical principles of beneficence and justice fail to be met in this trial design. Conclusion Within this broader, and theoretically necessary, understanding of context, it becomes impossible to justify an ethical double standard for research in developing countries.

  1. Ethical Leadership: Need for Business Ethics Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available “Leadership is lifting a person’s vision to higher sights, the raising of a person’s performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its normal limitations” – Peter F Drucker. Leadership is a special talent based on timeless wisdom that not all people possess. Leadership is based on one’s vision, principle and integrity. To be effective, a leader must be ethical. Ethical leadership involves one’s core values, to live a life of integrity and in service of the common good. It is ultimately about ethically motivating others in ethical directions. Management and businesses are constantly facing important ethical challenges. Ethical decision-making and leadership are the basis of ethical organizations. There is sheer dearth of ethical leadership which is evident by the recent financial crisis that triggered the worst global recession. The current unrelenting scandals by the politicians and the business community are having serious negative repercussions on business, society and the environment which needs to be addressed immediately. This article introduces the concept and reasoning behind ethical leadership and the role it plays in today’s business and society. The article discussing the role of education in nurturing ethical culture in future professional business leaders in depth is addressed to educationists, students and professionals in view of the urgency in the current context.

  2. A quick guide to ethical theory in healthcare: solving ethical dilemmas in nutrition support situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Suzie

    2006-04-01

    Ethical dilemmas can be challenging for the nutrition support clinician who is accustomed to evidence-based practice. The emotional and personal nature of ethical decision making can present difficulties, and conflict can arise when people have different ethical perspectives. An understanding of ethical terms and ethical theories can be helpful in clarifying the source of this conflict. These may include prominent ethical theories such as moral relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian absolutism, Aristotle's virtue ethics and ethics of care, as well as the key ethical principles in healthcare (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice). Adopting a step-by-step approach can simplify the process of resolving ethical problems.

  3. Teaching Ethics by Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, Margot Joan

    1980-01-01

    Starting with basic philosophic positions and principles, nursing students can be helped to analyze ethical dilemmas of increasing complexity. A hypothetical situation is presented and discussed as an example of a case study used to teach these principles. (CT)

  4. Foundational ethics of the health care system: the moral and practical superiority of free market reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Robert M

    2008-10-01

    Proposed solutions to the problems of this country's health care system range along a spectrum from central planning to free market. Central planners and free market advocates provide various ethical justifications for the policies they propose. The crucial flaw in the philosophical rationale of central planning is failure to distinguish between normative and metanormative principles, which leads to mistaken understanding of the nature of rights. Natural rights, based on the principle of noninterference, provide the link between individual morality and social order. Free markets, the practical expression of natural rights, are uniquely capable of achieving the goals that central planners seek but find beyond their grasp. The history of this country's health care system and the experiences of other nations provide evidence of the superiority of free markets in reaching for the goals of universal access, control of costs, and sustaining the quality of health care.

  5. Ethical issues in infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, Gamal I; Serour, Ahmed G

    2017-03-01

    Infertility is a global medico-socio-cultural problem with gender-based suffering particularly in developing countries. Conventional methods of treatment for infertility do not usually raise ethical concerns. However, assisted reproductive technology (ART) has initiated considerable ethical debate, disagreement, and controversy. There are three ethical principles that provide an ethical basis for ART: the principle of liberty, principle of utility, and principle of justice. Medical ethics are based on the moral, religious, and philosophical ideas and principles of the society and are influenced by economics, policies, and law. This creates tension between the principles of justice and utility, which can result in disparity in the availability of and access to ART services between the rich and the poor. The moral status of the embryo is the key for all the ethical considerations and law regarding ART in different societies. This has resulted in cross-border ART. Conscientious objection of healthcare providers should not deprive couples from having access to a required ART service.

  6. Working class conservatism: a system justification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T

    2017-08-12

    Working class conservatism is a perennial issue in social science, but researchers have struggled to provide an adequate characterization. In social psychology, the question has too often been framed in 'either/or' terms of whether the disadvantaged are more or less likely to support the status quo than the advantaged. This is a crude rendering of the issue obscuring the fact that even if most working class voters are not conservative, millions are-and conservatives could not win elections without their support. System justification theory highlights epistemic, existential, and relational needs to reduce uncertainty, threat, and social discord that are shared by everyone-and that promote conservative attitudes. I summarize qualitative and quantitative evidence of system justification among the disadvantaged and consider prospects for more constructive political activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consistencies and Inconsistencies in Nurses' Ethical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jeanette A.; Helm, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Examines inconsistencies in individual nurses' decisions about ethical situations and their justifications in the light of changes due to contemporary feminism and professionalization of the nursing role. Suggests empirical identification of ambiguities identified by practitioners be added as a component of professional education. (Author/DH)

  8. Ethical considerations of genetic presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Pekar, Alicia; Sikula, Andrew; Lurie, Sue

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this literature review was to determine if there is adequate ethical justification for presymptomatic genetic testing on potential Huntington's disease patients. Huntington's disease is a neurological genetic disorder characterized by midlife onset which consists of cognitive, physical, and emotional deterioration. Although genetic testing has traditionally been guided by the principle of autonomy, severe psychological consequences such as depression, anxiety, survival guilt, and suicide have complicated the ethical issue of providing a presymptomatic yet definitive diagnosis for an incurable disease. An analysis of available articles yielded inconclusive findings, namely due to insufficient evidence, self-selection bias of test participants, or lack of a longitudinal design. Additional results indicated psychological distress is not solely associated with test result, but rather with individual characteristics including, but not limited to, psychological history, test motivation, level of preparation, social support, and age. In the interest of upholding the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, it is recommended that medical professionals follow strict protocol, provide extensive counseling, and employ vigilance when assessing at-risk individuals for HD presymptomatic test eligibility to ensure psychological well-being.

  9. Situating Ethics in Games Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Joy

    2013-01-01

    This paper posits that Inventing Games (IG), an aspect of the games curriculum based on principles of Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), opens up important spaces for teaching social and ethical understanding. Games have long been regarded as a site for moral development. For most teachers, however, ethical principles have been seen as…

  10. 利益冲突下干细胞治疗的伦理原则思考%Thinking on Ethical Principles for Stem Cell Therapy under Conflict of Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭篆丽; 古津贤

    2013-01-01

    干细胞技术具有非常可观的医学应用前景,但同时也存在很多伦理问题.尤其是在干细胞的临床治疗中,除了技术本身的伦理问题,卫生系统内部各方的利益冲突、医患之间的利益冲突以及研究者、投资者与医疗机构及患方之间的利益冲突等问题更加值得关注.为了促进干细胞治疗技术沿着正确的方向发展,必须尽快规范干细胞治疗技术的临床试验研究,建立健全准入制度和管理及评估机制,严格遵循干细胞治疗的伦理原则,即严格准入原则、不伤害原则、知情同意原则、非商业化原则.%Stem cell technology has considerable medical prospects, along with many ethical issues. Especially in the clinical treatment of stem cells, in addition to the ethical problems of the technology itself, the multi -party conflicts of interest within the health system between doctors and patients, between researchers, investors and medical institutions and the patients, are increasingly worthy of attention. In order to promote the stem cell therapy technology in the right direction, we should regulate clinical trial study of stem cell therapy as soon as possible, establish and perfect the access system and management and evaluation mechanism, strictly follow the stem cell therapy ethical principles, strict access principle, no harm principle, the principle of informed consent and the non - commercial principle.

  11. Ethics in IT Outsourcing

    CERN Document Server

    Gold, Tandy

    2012-01-01

    In IT divisions and organizations, the need to execute in a competitive and complex technical environment while demonstrating personal integrity can be a significant personal and organizational challenge. Supplying concrete guidelines for those at an ethical crossroads, Ethics in IT Outsourcing explores the complex challenges of aligning IT outsourcing programs with ethical conduct and standards. This one-stop reference on the ethical structure and execution of IT outsourcing incorporates an easy-to-apply checklist of principles for outsourcing executives and managers. It examines certificatio

  12. Virtue ethics and social psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Lunt, P.

    2005-01-01

    Virtue ethics has emerged as an alternative to deontological and utilitarian theory in recent moral philosophy. The basic notion of virtue ethics is to reassert the importance of virtuous character in ethical judgement in contrast to the emphasis on principles and consequences. Since questions of virtue have been largely neglected in modern moral theory, there has been a return to Aristotle’s account of virtue as character. This in turn has been questioned as the basis of virtue ethics and t...

  13. A grid to facilitate physics staffing justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eric E

    2009-12-03

    Justification of clinical physics staffing levels is difficult due to the lack of direction as how to equate clinical needs with the staffing levels and competency required. When a physicist negotiates staffing requests to administration, she/he often refers to American College of Radiology staffing level suggestions, and resources such as the Abt studies. This approach is often met with questions as to how to fairly derive the time it takes to perform tasks. The result is often insufficient and/or inexperienced staff handling complex and cumbersome tasks. We undertook development of a staffing justification grid to equate the clinical needs to the quantity and quality of staffing required. The first step is using the Abt study, customized to the clinical setting, to derive time per task multiplied by the anticipated number of such tasks. Inclusion of vacation, meeting, and developmental time may be incorporated along with allocated time for education and administration. This is followed by mapping the tasks to the level of competency/experience needed. For example, in an academic setting the faculty appointment levels correlate with experience. Non-staff personnel, such as IMRT QA technicians or clerical staff, should also be part of the equation. By using the staffing justification grid, we derived strong documentation to justify a substantial budget increase. The grid also proved useful when our clinical demands changed. Justification for physics staffing can be significantly strengthened with a properly developed data-based time and work analysis. A staffing grid is presented, along with a development methodology that facilitated our justification. Though our grid is for a large academic facility, the methodology can be extended to a non-academic setting, and to a smaller scale. This grid method not only equates the clinical needs with the quantity of staffing, but can also help generate the personnel budget, based on the type of staff and personnel required

  14. Exploration on the Ethical Principles of Follow-up Work of Assisted Reproductive Technology%辅助生殖技术随访工作中的伦理原则探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建伟; 刘艺

    2014-01-01

    随着人类辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology ,ART )的发展,术后进行的定期随访工作在 ART 中的伦理学问题不断凸显,有必要对其重视及规范。从伦理原则角度探讨了 ART 随访工作中存在的诸多伦理学问题,即个人隐私权保护的缺失、知情同意的形式化、医源性多胎的伦理困境等。保密互盲、知情同意、保护患者、保护后代等伦理原则监督和规范ART近期及远期随访工作,对于引导人类辅助生殖技术健康发展,具有重大现实意义。%With the development of human assisted reproductive technology (ART ) ,the ethical issues of regulating follow-up work of ART become more and more obvious .This paper discussed the common ethical issues in the follow-up work of ART from the view of ethical principles ,such as the lack of protection of personal privacy ,formalization of the principle of informed consent ,the ethical dilemma of iatrogenic multiple births and so forth .The principles of confidentiality and double-blind ,informed consent ,protection of patient’s and future generations’ rights ,supervision and regulation of short and long term follow-up work are of great practical importance to guiding the healthy development .

  15. Evidence, Ethics & Social Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the difficulties associated with resolving policy-based dilemmas which must appeal to evidential support as a justification for an ethical stand. Implication for the relevance of ethics to social policy formulation are discussed in detail.

  16. The moral justification behind a climate tax on beef in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkeskov, Anne; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the moral justification behind placing a tax on foods in correlation with their greenhouse gas emissions. The background is a report from 2016 by the Danish Council of Ethics promoting a national tax on the consumption of meat from ruminants as an initial step to curb the 19...... production and consumption. We discuss whether, given the anticipated effects on humans and the nature of climate change, individual consumers have a moral responsibility to change their diet and/or whether governments are justified in restricting the individual consumer’s freedom of choice through taxation...

  17. Virtue ethics and an ethics of care: complementary or in conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts virtue ethics and care ethics to determine their mutual relation. It is argued that there is one tradition within virtue ethics that emphasises that virtue is knowledge and also focuses on direct altruism. There is no opposition between that form of virtue ethics and ethics of care. Furthermore, there are principled objections to generalising the necessarily asymmetric relations of an ethic of care to the case of justice as reciprocal fairness.

  18. PERSPECTIVES OF ETHICAL CONSUMPTION DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yevtushevska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Universal principles of ethical consumption are lightened. Five main principles are definite, in particular: principle of caring treatment to environment, principle of human rights keeping, principle of human treatment to animals, principle of domestic producers support, principle of ethical treatment to other buyers. Main reasons of undeveloped consumer culture in Ukraine are analyzed, namely historical peculiarities of consumption, poor information, ineffective legislation, undeveloped ecological culture, poor experience of total boycott of goods and services. Perspectives of ethical consumption development under domestic conditions are opened.

  19. 中国家庭医生制度伦理原则探析及政策建议%Ethics Principle Analysis and Policy Recommendations of the Family Doctor System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 陈晓阳; 杨同卫; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    家庭医生制度的建立和完善需坚持如下伦理原则:公益性原则,公平与效率相结合原则,全面关怀原则,重视预防原则,家庭支持原则,社会参与原则。在生命伦理视域下,提出发展家庭医生制度的建议:提高家庭医生的人文素质,呼唤家庭医生服务过程中的人文关怀;加强政府政策支持力度,加大卫生资源投入;调整医疗保险政策、引导社区居民在家庭医生处首诊。%Establishing and perfecting the family doctor system should adhere to the following ethical princi-ples:the principle of public welfare, fairness and efficiency principle, the combination of comprehensive care prin-ciple, attaches great importance to the precautionary principle, the principle of family support, social participation principle. In the horizon, life ethics, puts forward suggestions for the development of family doctor system:impro-ving humanism quality of family physicians,calling the humanistic concern in the process of family doctor service increasing the government's policy support,increase the health resources into, adjust the health insurance policies, guide the community residents in the family doctor first.

  20. Forum Response: Ethics in Business and Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of business ethics. Draws conclusions about teaching business ethics noting that such instruction must start with the principles of capitalism and the functions of a market economy. (SG)

  1. Forum Response: Ethics in Business and Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of business ethics. Draws conclusions about teaching business ethics noting that such instruction must start with the principles of capitalism and the functions of a market economy. (SG)

  2. The System Justification Conundrum : Re-Examining the Cognitive Dissonance Basis for System Justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owuamalam, Chuma K.; Rubin, Mark; Spears, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In a landmark 1994 publication in the British Journal of Social Psychology, Jost and Banaji proposed the existence of a novel, fundamental system justification motive that drives social behaviors. More specifically, they proposed (a) that people have an epistemic need to support social hierarchies a

  3. The System Justification Conundrum : Re-Examining the Cognitive Dissonance Basis for System Justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owuamalam, Chuma K.; Rubin, Mark; Spears, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In a landmark 1994 publication in the British Journal of Social Psychology, Jost and Banaji proposed the existence of a novel, fundamental system justification motive that drives social behaviors. More specifically, they proposed (a) that people have an epistemic need to support social hierarchies

  4. Professional Ethics of Software Engineers: An Ethical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Yotam; Mark, Shlomo

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose an ethical framework for software engineers that connects software developers' ethical responsibilities directly to their professional standards. The implementation of such an ethical framework can overcome the traditional dichotomy between professional skills and ethical skills, which plagues the engineering professions, by proposing an approach to the fundamental tasks of the practitioner, i.e., software development, in which the professional standards are intrinsically connected to the ethical responsibilities. In so doing, the ethical framework improves the practitioner's professionalism and ethics. We call this approach Ethical-Driven Software Development (EDSD), as an approach to software development. EDSD manifests the advantages of an ethical framework as an alternative to the all too familiar approach in professional ethics that advocates "stand-alone codes of ethics". We believe that one outcome of this synergy between professional and ethical skills is simply better engineers. Moreover, since there are often different software solutions, which the engineer can provide to an issue at stake, the ethical framework provides a guiding principle, within the process of software development, that helps the engineer evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different software solutions. It does not and cannot affect the end-product in and of-itself. However, it can and should, make the software engineer more conscious and aware of the ethical ramifications of certain engineering decisions within the process.

  5. On the Principles and Goals of Construction Based on Ethics in Technological Subject%论构建技术主体伦理的原则及目标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周曦; 李树财

    2015-01-01

    在技术风险社会,技术主体在履行责任时往往会遇到伦理困境,所以技术主体伦理成为技术伦理的重要话题,它是对技术研发、运用以及运用后果等一系列技术过程中技术主体作用的伦理反思。文章分析了技术主体伦理构建的必要性:人与技术协调发展的客观要求、增强技术主体道德责任的重要途径、构建和谐社会的应有之义。在此基础上,认为明确、可行、合理的技术主体伦理原则对于指导技术主体走出伦理困境极为重要。为此,提出几条原则:“人与自然和谐统一”、“自律与他律相结合”、“主体愿用(受用)”、“技术风险即命令”等,以期实现技术价值认同、技术灾难教育素质化及技术德性“经营”的目标,而构建技术主体伦理是真正有效解决技术伦理问题的核心所在。%The paper introduces technological subject will often meet ethical dilemma in the risk society.So ethics in technological subject becomes an important topic of technology ethics,it is a series of ethical reflection of about technolo-gy research,application and consequences.The paper analyses the necessity of constructing the ethics in technological subject:It’s the objective requirement of harmonious development of human and technology,an important way to en-hance the moral responsibility of the technological subject,righteousness for the construction of harmonious society.On the basis of its necessity of construction,the article thinks clearly,feasible and reasonable principles of ethics in techno-logical subject is very important for technological subject walk out of the ethical predicament.To put forward principles tentatively as “man and nature embodied”,“combination of autonomy and heteronomy”,“subject willing to use or be used”and “technical risk is the command”.So as to achieve the following goals such as:identification of technological value

  6. Cost Justification for Investing in LEED Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparkling, Anthony E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability, or “green” building, has been examined across disciplines and continues to be at the forefront of global organizations’ and governments’ commitment to promote energy and environmental stewardship. As it relates to construction, this term has been defined and developed by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC. This Green Building certification body has developed a green building rating system for building construction, referred to as LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. The practice of constructing building facilities that meet LEED certification standards implies the overall goal of “meeting our building needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” (WCED, 1987. The objective of this study is to determine key cost justifications informing the pursuit of LEED certification, and to ascertain the level of satisfaction of owners as to the value of LEED. The study comprises 30 LEED-certified buildings that are owner occupied, and a survey to determine which cost justifications associated with LEED construction participants favored.

  7. On Propagandizing the Principles of Low Carbon Economy and Ecological Ethical Standard%关于低碳经济和生态伦理规范普及工作的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞一洋; 张治河

    2011-01-01

    我国要建设环境友好型、资源节约型社会,必须发展低碳经济,保护生态环境.然而,随着经济社会的发展,各种生态问题和气候异常现象日益突显.要解决这一问题,向全社会普及低碳经济和生态伦理规范就显得尤为必要.文章在介绍低碳经济和生态伦理规范内涵的基础上,探讨了加强低碳经济和生态伦理规范普及工作的重要意义,并提出了普及低碳经济和生态伦理规范的若干路径.%Developing low carbon economy and protecting ecological circumstances are required for our country to build an environment amicably and resources economizing society. But with the development of economical society, various ecological problems and exceptional climate occurred eminently. To solve these problems, it is necessary to propagandize the principles of low carbon economy and ecological ethical standard. On the basis of introduce the meanings of low carbon economy and ecological ethical standard, this paper investigate the importance of strengthen the propaganda of the principles, and suggested several ways of propagandizing the principles.

  8. There's More to Ethics than Justice and Harm: Teaching a Broader Understanding of Journalism Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Steven; McKinley, J. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Most applied ethics training in journalism in the West follows Enlightenment-era, reason-based ethical principles: Justice is intrinsically better than injustice (Kant), and the best choice is achieving the best outcome for all concerned (Mill). Recent scholarship in ethics suggests that ethics is much broader than this. This article examines a…

  9. There's More to Ethics than Justice and Harm: Teaching a Broader Understanding of Journalism Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Steven; McKinley, J. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Most applied ethics training in journalism in the West follows Enlightenment-era, reason-based ethical principles: Justice is intrinsically better than injustice (Kant), and the best choice is achieving the best outcome for all concerned (Mill). Recent scholarship in ethics suggests that ethics is much broader than this. This article examines a…

  10. 药物临床试验中科学原则、法规原则与伦理原则的权重与取舍%Weights and Choices of Scientific, Legislation and Ethical Principles in Clinical Drug Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁春才; 陈舒茵; 韦斌; 苏齐鉴; 秦辛

    2012-01-01

    The clinical drug trails should accord to ethics, legislation and scientific principles. The ethical principle requires that the rights and benefits of the subjects be maximized while risks should be minimized. Regulations also put first emphasis on the subjects' beneficial interest. However, experimental designs based on scientific principle often present challenges to ethical principle. When the legislation and scientific principles are contrary to ethical principle in the clinical drug trails, priority must be given to ethics.%药物临床试验既要符合伦理学原则、法规原则,又要具备科学原则.伦理学原则要求受试者最大程度受益和尽可能避免伤害.在法规原则上也首先强调的是受试者的权益,然而试验设计的科学性原则有很多时候却对伦理学提出了挑战.当药物临床试验的科学性、法规性与伦理性发生矛盾时,我们应把伦理问题摆在首位.

  11. Ethical issues in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artal, Raul; Rubenfeld, Sheldon

    2017-08-01

    Biomedical research is currently guided by ethical standards that have evolved over many centuries. Historical and political events, social and legal considerations, and continuous medical and technological advances have led to the prevailing research ethics and practice. Currently, patients and research subjects have complete autonomy while under medical care or when volunteering as research subjects. Enrolling volunteers in human subjects research includes a detailed and meaningful informed consent process that follows the cardinal principles of ethics: autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. These principles were gradually adopted after World War II, primarily in response to the unethical behavior of German physicians and scientists during the Third Reich. This review emphasizes the importance of historical milestones and the essential role that ethics has in contemporary medical research. Research protocols should achieve maximum benefits for the society, have clinical and scientific value, be subject to independent review, respect human dignity, and follow the principles of informed consent, and most importantly, subjects should have complete autonomy. However, current principles and regulations cannot cover every conceivable situation, particularly in view of the new advances in science and technology. New and evolving medical technology, genetic research, therapeutic interventions, and innovations challenge society to maintain the highest moral and ethical principles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The moral justification scale: reliability and validity of a new measure of care and justice orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, L S; Baker, R C; Roll, S

    2000-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that there are limitations to Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Gilligan in particular has observed that Kohlberg's theory considers abstract principled reasoning as the highest level of moral judgment, and penalizes those who focus on the interpersonal ramifications of a moral decision. Gilligan calls these justice and care orientations. The present paper describes the development of the Moral Justification Scale, an objective measure of the two orientations. The scale consists of six vignettes, of which two are justice oriented, two are care oriented, and two are mixed, incorporating both orientations. Construct validity was evaluated by expert judges and, overall, was high. Cronbach's alpha was .75 for the Care subscale and .64 for the Justice subscale, indicating adequate internal consistency. Split-half reliabilities were as follows: Care, r = .72, p Moral Justification Scale shows promise as an easily administered, objectively scored measure of Gilligan's constructs of care and justice.

  13. Rethinking research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Rosamond

    2010-10-01

    Contemporary research ethics policies started with reflection on the atrocities perpetrated upon concentration camp inmates by Nazi doctors. Apparently, as a consequence of that experience, the policies that now guide human subject research focus on the protection of human subjects by making informed consent the centerpiece of regulatory attention. I take the choice of context for policy design, the initial prioritization of informed consent, and several associated conceptual missteps, to have set research ethics off in the wrong direction. The aim of this paper is to sort out these confusions and their implications and to offer instead a straightforward framework for considering the ethical conduct of human subject research. In the course of this discussion I clarify different senses of autonomy that have been confounded and present more intelligible justifications for informed consent. I also take issue with several of the now accepted dogmas that govern research ethics. These include: the primacy of informed consent, the protection of the vulnerable, the substitution of beneficence for research's social purpose, and the introduction of an untenable distinction between innovation and research.

  14. Medical and nursing ethics: never the twain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, A

    1995-06-01

    Since the publication of Carol Gilligan's In a different voice in 1982, there has been much discussion about masculine and feminine approaches to ethics. It has been suggested that an ethics of care, or a feminine ethics, is more appropriate for nursing practice, which contrasts with the 'traditional, masculine' ethics of medicine. It has been suggested that Nel Noddings' version of an 'ethics of care' (or feminine ethics) is an appropriate model for nursing ethics. The 'four principles' approach has become a popular model for medical or health care ethics. It will be suggested in this article that, whilst Noddings presents an interesting analysis of caring and the caring relationship, this has limitations. Rather than acting as an alternative to the 'four principles' approach, the latter is necessary to provide a framework to structure thinking and decision-making in health care. Further, it will be suggested that ethical separatism (that is, one ethics for nurses and one for doctors) in health care is not a progressive step for nurses or doctors. Three recommendations are made: that we promote a health care ethics that incorporates what is valuable in a 'traditional, masculine ethics', the why (four principles approach) and an 'ethics of care', the 'how' (aspects of Noddings' work and that of Urban Walker); that we encourage nurses and doctors to participate in the 'shared learning' and discussion of ethics; and that our ethical language and concerns are common to all, not split into unhelpful dichotomies.

  15. Ethical issues in publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblet, J L

    1996-04-01

    Nurses usually publish to disseminate pertinent information and research findings. Their articles and textbooks promote quality patient care and sound professional practice. Nurses may also publish to meet requirements for academic promotion and professional advancement. Ethical issues play a part in any phase of writing for publication. Veracity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence are four of the ethical principles that pertain to aspects of authorship, peer review, and research in publication.

  16. MEDICAL GENETICS AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of medical genetics and it’s subdisciplines is noticed in last thirty years. Modern diagnostic methods made possible to establish human genome and its impairment. In human genetics, ethic is main principle in working. Ethic is science about biggest goodness for human or society, and its aim pro­tecting human health.Today's conditions for leaving and science development open a wide way for ethical approaches, but also for non-ethical manipulations with human even before his conception. We must keep to attitude that without law, with our behavior will must conduct our conscience. It is best to have neutral eugenetic attitude, which allows free ethical choice of each individual, in any case, for the well being of man.

  17. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  18. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  19. Justifications and Excuses in the Economic Analysis of Tort Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In the economic analysis of tort law, scant attention is paid to justifications and excuses. An injurer invoking a justification argues that he did not act wrongfully. Excuses imply that the injurer acted wrongfully, but that his act cannot be imputed to him. If torts are descr

  20. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  1. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  2. Beyond the principles of bioethics: facing the consequences of fundamental moral disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tristram Engelhardt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2012v11n1p13 Given intractable secular moral pluralism, the force and significance of the four principles (autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress must be critically re-considered. This essay examines the history of the articulation of these four principles of bioethics, showing why initially there was an illusion of a common morality that led many to hold that the principles could give guidance across cultures. But there is no one sense of the content or the theoretical justification of these principles. In addition, a wide range of secular moral and bioethical choices has been demoralized into lifestyle choices; the force of the secular moral point of view has also been deflated, thus compounding moral pluralism. It is the political generation of the principles that provides a common morality in the sense of an established morality. The principles are best understood as embedded not in a common morality, sensu stricto, but in that morality that is established at law and public policy in a particular polity. Although moral pluralism is substantive and intractable at the level of moral content, in a particular polity a particular morality and a particular bioethics can be established, regarding which health care ethics consultants can be experts. Public morality and bioethics are at their roots a political reality.

  3. 案主自决原则在临终关怀中的应用及伦理冲突%The Application and Ethical Conflicts in Client Self- determination Principle in Hospice Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    定光莉

    2011-01-01

    现代医学模式强调对临终者的人文关怀,社会工作者在临终关怀中发挥的作用不客忽视.案主自决原则作为社会工作的服务原则之一,充分体现了临终关怀的"提高生命质量"的照护宗旨与社会工作的"尊重素主权利"的服务态度的结合.探讨在我国具体的国情下,案主自决原则在临终关怀中的运用范围,具体分析三类限制案主自决原则的伦理冲突:医疗保护中隐瞒病情与知情同意中告知原则的伦理冲突;中国传统孝道观念与尊重案主抉择权利的伦理冲突;对待死亡讳莫如深的态度与商讨死亡、预办后事的伦理冲突.结合社会工作案例,分析诸多矛盾,找出解决问题的办法.社会工作者应运用访谈法、参与观察法、讨论法等专业方法和引领性、影响性、支持性等实务技巧,充分协调案主意愿、家属心理、社会舆论之间的关系,把握案主自决原则的运用尺度.同时,要在临终关怀中改变传统的死亡观念,完善死亡教育和伦理教育.%Modern medical mode stressed the humanistic concern for the dying person.Social workers play a critical role in hospice care.The client self - determination principle is one of fundamental principles of social work services, fully reflecting the combination of the care purpose of "improving the quality of life" of hospice and the service attitude of "respecting client's right" of social work.This paper discusses the application of client self - determination principle in hospice care under the specific national conditions in China.Three types of ethical conflicts which restrict the application of client self - determination principle are analyzed in detail, including the ethical conflict between concealing of patient's condition in the medical protection and the informed principle in informed consent , the ethical conflict between traditional Chinese concept of filial piety and respect for client's right of self

  4. JEA's Code of Ethics for Advisers; and Sites for Additional Ethics Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, John

    1997-01-01

    Lists general principles that media advisers should follow, the 12 points agreed upon as the Journalism Education Association's (JEA) Code of Ethics for Advisers, and a list of Web sites that deal with journalism ethics. (PA)

  5. Moral justification of Phase 1 oncology trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alex

    2014-06-01

    This article attempts to answer the following normative questions: Can one consider the design of Phase 1 trials ethically appropriate due to the unfavorable ratio of risks and benefits? What are some ethical safeguards for Phase 1 oncology research? A comparative review of literature contributed to the consolidation of the proposed ethical framework for Phase 1 oncology trials. This framework gives a special attention to issues of therapeutic misconception and vulnerability. The benefits and dangers associated with the enrollment in trials are described as well as the absence of alternatives, treatment-specific optimism, and vagueness in factual presentation during the informed consent process. The notion of therapeutic misconception is contrasted with optimism despite realism that stems from psychological, cultural, and religious factors and not necessarily from the lack of information. Close attention is given to the possible ways in which the inherent uncertainty and resulting cognitive biases may affect the informed consent process and the definition of therapeutic misconception. The article ends with recommendations for an ethical way of enrolling palliative patients in early stages of oncology research, giving special attention to provision of adequate consent, protection of vulnerability, and avoidance of therapeutic misconception.

  6. “守经达权”思路下护理伦理的告知义务问题探析%Analysis on Informing Obligation in Nursing Ethics Guided by the Thought of "Maintain Principles with Flexibility"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丹

    2012-01-01

    在护理伦理领域,告知义务的道德要求表现为尊重病人的知情权,但对于一些心理承受能力差的患者,护理人员在履行告知义务时却要面临伦理困境.借鉴中国传统观念“守经达权”的思路,主张护理人员在履行告知义务时依循程序伦理选择应有的价值取向,同时采取变通的方式,根据实际价值需要决定是否向病人告知其真实病情以及告知的程度,从而使护理人员能够既坚守道义,又不失灵活.%In nursing ethics, the moral requirement of informing obligation shows the respect for patients right to know, but for some patients with poor psychological ability, the nursing staff has to face ethical dilemma in the performance of the informing obligation. Chinese traditional thought of " maintain principles with flexibility" can be used for reference. During the performance of the informing obligation, nursing personnel choose the value orientation based on the sequence ethics, and in a flexible way, decide to inform the truth or not according to the best value for the patients, so that the nursing staff can follow the principles with flexibility.

  7. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description...

  8. Ethical fundamentals in human subjects research : On equipoise and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf - Verhave, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821373

    2010-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Rieke van der Graaf has studied how we can ethically justify human subjects research. In particular she has studied two ethical fundamentals that play a key role in the justification process, that of equipoise and human dignity. Equipoise is often taken to mean that

  9. Ethical fundamentals in human subjects research : On equipoise and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf - Verhave, R.

    2010-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Rieke van der Graaf has studied how we can ethically justify human subjects research. In particular she has studied two ethical fundamentals that play a key role in the justification process, that of equipoise and human dignity. Equipoise is often taken to mean that physician-resea

  10. Ethical issues in Chinese aesthetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Shuai; Dong, Ming-Min; Liu, Lin-Bo; Hu, Xiao-Ying

    2014-10-01

    Guided by the medical ethics principles of "four principles plus scope," Chinese aesthetic medical practitioners have proposed some extremely valuable ethical principles combined with the construction of aesthetic medicine and the requirements of clinical practice such as the principle of general nonmaleficence, the principle of local minimal invasiveness, the principle of informed consent, and the principle of respect and confidentiality. Chinese aesthetic surgical ethics provide valuable guidance for the practice of aesthetic medicine. Adherence to the ethics of Chinese aesthetic surgery provides an essential guide for the practice of aesthetic medicine in China. These principles protect both the medical practitioner and the patient, helping them to avoid unnecessary risks and disputes and ultimately promoting the sustainable development of aesthetic medicine.

  11. Ethical virtues in scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2012-01-01

    Most approaches to promoting integrity in research are principle-based in that they portray ethical conduct as consisting of adherence to ethical rules, duties, or responsibilities. Bruce MacFarlane has recently criticized the principle-based approach to promoting integrity in research and offered a virtue-based alternative. MacFarlane argues that principle-based approaches do not provide adequate guidance for ethical decision-making and are not very useful in moral education. In this article, I examine and critique MacFarlane's defense of the virtue-based approach. I argue that virtue-based and principle-based approaches to ethics are complementary and that they both can help promote research integrity.

  12. A Taxonomy of Ethical Ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Donelson R.

    1980-01-01

    Assesses the reliability and validity of the Ethics Position Questionnaire: an instrument with two scales, one measuring idealism and another measuring the rejection of universal moral principles in favor of relativism. (Author/SS)

  13. Imaginative ethics--bringing ethical praxis into sharper relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Mats G

    2002-01-01

    The empirical basis for this article is three years of experience with ethical rounds at Uppsala University Hospital. Three standard approaches of ethical reasoning are examined as potential explanations of what actually occurs during the ethical rounds. For reasons given, these are not found to be satisfying explanations. An approach called "imaginative ethics", is suggested as a more satisfactory account of this kind of ethical reasoning. The participants in the ethical rounds seem to draw on a kind of moral competence based on personal life experience and professional competence and experience. By listening to other perspectives and other experiences related to one particular patient story, the participants imagine alternative horizons of moral experience and explore a multitude of values related to clinical practice that might be at stake. In his systematic treatment of aesthetics in the Critique of Judgement, Kant made use of an operation of thought that, if applied to ethics, will enable us to be more sensitive to the particulars of each moral situation. Based on this reading of Kant, an account of imaginative ethics is developed in order to bring the ethical praxis of doctors and nurses into sharper relief. The Hebraic and the Hellenic traditions of imagination are used in order to illuminate some of the experiences of ethical rounds. In conclusion, it is argued that imaginative ethics and principle-based ethics should be seen as complementary in order to endow a moral discourse with ethical authority. Kantian ethics will do the job if it is remembered that Kant suggested only a modest, negative role of principle-based deliberation.

  14. Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Liese L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical…

  15. Practical applications of healthcare marketing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, R L

    1993-03-01

    All businesses--healthcare businesses in particular--have an absolute duty to treat their customers ethically; anything less is unacceptable. Author Goldman discusses four ethical principles that can be applied to help ensure that marketing decisions conform to the highest ethical standards.

  16. Ethics in economic decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, Marijke Christina

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation sheds more light on ethics in economic decision-making. Over the course of nine experiments, I studied (a) when people adhere to ethical standards like the do-no-harm principle, and (b) how people respond to situations in which ethical standards are violated by studying not only

  17. The Evolution of Social Work Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Frederic G.

    1998-01-01

    Traces the evolution of ethical norms, principles, and standards in social work during four stages in the profession's history: (1) morality period, (2) values period, (3) ethical theory and decision-making period, and (4) ethical standards and risk-management period. Recent developments in the profession include complex conceptual frameworks and…

  18. Ethics in economic decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, Marijke Christina

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation sheds more light on ethics in economic decision-making. Over the course of nine experiments, I studied (a) when people adhere to ethical standards like the do-no-harm principle, and (b) how people respond to situations in which ethical standards are violated by studying not only pu

  19. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swanepoel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

  20. Council Adopts New AERA Code of Ethics: Ethics Committee to Emphasize Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Carolyn D.

    2011-01-01

    At its February 2011 meeting, the AERA Council adopted unanimously a new Code of Ethics. The Code articulates a set of standards for education researchers in education and provides principles and guidance by which they can build ethical practices in professional, scholarly, and scientific activities. The Code reflects the Association's strong…

  1. An overview of ethics in maternal-child nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Sudia-Robinson, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Ethical issues across the childbearing year are multiple and complex. This article addresses ethical challenges facing maternal-child nurses and identifies strategies for making ethical decisions utilizing ethical principles and frameworks. Coping strategies for dealing with moral distress, how nurses demonstrate moral courage, and the attributes of an effective ethical decision maker are described. Ethical issues related to healthcare team relationships are discussed, with implications for nurses provided.

  2. Bioethical dimensions of cultural psychosomatics: the need for an ethical research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolas, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary psychosomatics is a research-based technical discipline and its social power depends on how scientific knowledge is obtained and applied in practice, considering cultural contexts. This article presents the view that the dialogical principles on which bioethical discourse is based are more inclusive than professional ethics and philosophical reflection. The distinction is advanced between rule-guided behavior and norm-justifiable acts (substantiation and justification). The practical implications of good practices in the generation of valid, reliable, generalizable and applicable knowledge are emphasized. For practitioners and researchers, the need to reflect on the distinction between patient and research participant can avoid the therapeutic misunderstanding, a form of abuse of the doctor-patient relationship. In addition, in resource-poor settings, the dilemma presented by the know-do gap (inapplicability of research results due to financial or social constraints) is part of the ethics' realm of the profession. Future prospects include a wider use of research results in practice, but avoidance of the know-do gap (the disparity between what is known and what can be done, particularly in settings with limited resources) requires a synthetic and holistic approach to medical ethics, combining moral reflection, theoretical analysis and empirical data.

  3. Tortury i egzekucje w etyce kata [TORTURES AND EXECUTIONS IN THE EXECUTIONER ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Tokarczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to executioner ethics in the sense capital punishment ethics.At first definitions and concepts are presented. Next: torture ethics, execution ethics,executioner ethics principles, evaluations of executioner and executioner placein culture.Author contemplates historical and cultural background connected with executionerprofession from mainly the three points of view: torture ethics, executionethics, executioner ethics in the light both deontological as utilitarian currents of ethics.

  4. An Ethical Review of Euthanasia and Physician-assisted Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    BANOVI?, Bo?idar; TURANJANIN, Veljko; MILORADOVI?, An?ela

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the majority of countries, active direct euthanasia is a forbidden way of the deprivation of the patients? life, while its passive form is commonly accepted. This distinction between active and passive euthanasia has no justification, viewed through the prism of morality and ethics. Therefore, we focused on attention on the moral and ethical implications of the aforementioned medical procedures. Methods: Data were obtained from the Clinical Hospital Center in Kragujevac, collec...

  5. Ethical multiculturalism: an evolutionary concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Mary G

    2006-01-01

    A concept analysis of ethical multiculturalism using Rogers' evolutionary approach is presented. It includes attributes, antecedents, and consequences of ethical multiculturalism. Attributes include moral reasoning, cultural competence, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and respect for persons and communities. Antecedents are culture knowledge; cultural awareness, sensitivity, encounters, and skill; and understanding of ethical principles. Consequences include protection of human subjects, preservation of cultural norms, dignity of participants and communities, and perceived value by individuals and communities. Ethical multiculturalism is defined as the use of moral reasoning to apply the ethical principles of beneficence and respect for persons and communities in a culturally competent manner to research in various societies or cultures.

  6. Contemplation of competition moral principles--Reconstructing competition ethic consensus%竞赛道德原则的思考--重构竞赛伦理共识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海云; 冯栋梁

    2014-01-01

    不道德竞赛行为对竞赛本身有着巨大的破坏力,这引起了学界对竞赛道德问题的关注。研究从康德道德哲学的视角对竞赛道德问题的归属进行了论证,指出竞赛道德问题存在于本体世界的逻辑必然性,以及运用现象世界的知识思维模式分析竞赛道德问题的不合理性。在此基础上通过改良传统竞赛伦理共识内在逻辑,以重构竞赛伦理共识的方式提出关于解决竞赛道德问题的伦理方案和一种竞赛伦理讨论的新视野。%Immoral competition behaviors are tremendously destructive to competition itself, which has caught the academia’s attention to competition moral issues. The authors demonstrated the attribute of competition moral issues from the perspective of Kant’s moral philosophy, pointed out that competition moral issues exist in the logical in-evitability of the noumenal world, analyzed the irrationality of competition moral issues by applying the knowledge thinking mode in the phenomenal world, and then by improving the intrinsic logic of traditional competition ethic consensus, put forward an ethical solution for solving competition moral issues and a new horizon for discussing competition ethics in a way to reconstruct competition ethic consensus.

  7. Reflexiones sobre los principios éticos en investigación biomedica en seres humanos Ethical principles in biomedical research involving human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANNE GAUDLITZ H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación biomedica en seres humanos plantea problemas valóneos. Una investigación científica debe ir de la mano de una serie de requisitos para que sea una investigación ética. La trayectoria de la investigación en el mundo occidental no ha estado libre de abusos. Las normas éticas internacionales han aparecido después de las transgresiones. La protección de los probandos que participan libre y voluntariamente en una investigación biomedica es una obligación ética, la dignidad de éstos está por sobre el progreso de la ciencia y el bienestar que éste acarrearíaBiomedical research involving human subjects present valoric problems. A scientific research must go hand in hand with several requisites to be ethic. Human experimentation through its history in the occidental world has not been exempt from abuses. Ethic international rules have appeared after the transgressions. The protection of the human beings that freely and willingly participate in a biomedical research is an ethic obligation. The dignity of the human beings is above the progress of science and the wealth it carries with it

  8. Professional Ethics in Astronomy: The AAS Ethics Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    It is fundamental to the advancement of science that practicing scientists adhere to a consistent set of professional ethical principles. Recent violations of these principles have led a decreased trust in the process of science and scientific results. Although astronomy is less in the spotlight on these issues than medical science or climate change research, it is still incumbent on the field to follow sound scientific process guided by basic ethical guidelines. The American Astronomical Society, developed a set of such guidelines in 2010. This contribution summarizes the motivation and process by which the AAS Ethics Statement was produced.

  9. Ethics of caring and the institutional ethics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichel, B A

    1990-01-01

    Institutional ethics committees (IECs) in health care facilities now create moral policy, provide moral education, and consult with physicians and other health care workers. After sketching reasons for the development of IECs, this paper first examines the predominant moral standards it is often assumed IECs are now using, these standards being neo-Kantian principles of justice and utilitarian principles of the greatest good. Then, it is argued that a feminine ethics of care, as posited by Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings, is an unacknowledged basis for IEC discussions and decisions. Further, it is suggested that feminine ethics of care can and should provide underlying theoretical tools and standards for IECs.

  10. Health Care Professionals' Attitudes About Physician-Assisted Death: An Analysis of Their Justifications and the Roles of Terminology and Patient Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Derek W; Marcus, Brian S; Wakim, Paul G; Mercurio, Mark R; Kopf, Gary S

    2017-07-15

    Health care professionals (HCPs) are crucial to physician-assisted death (PAD) provision. To quantitatively assess the favorability of justifications for or against PAD legalization among HCPs, the effect of the terms "suicide" and "euthanasia" on their views and their support for three forms of PAD. Our questionnaire presented three cases: physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia for a competent patient, and euthanasia for an incompetent patient with an advance directive for euthanasia. Respondents judged whether each case was ethical and should be legal and selected their justifications from commonly cited reasons. The sample included physician clinicians, researchers, nonphysician clinicians, and other nonclinical staff at a major academic medical center. Of 221 HCPs, the majority thought that each case was ethical and should be legal. In order of declining favorability, justifications supporting PAD legalization were relief of suffering, right to die, mercy, acceptance of death, nonabandonment, and saving money for the health care system; opposing justifications were the slippery slope argument, unnecessary due to palliative care, killing patients is wrong, religious views, and suicide is wrong. The use of suicide and euthanasia terminology did not affect responses. Participants preferred physician-assisted suicide to euthanasia for a competent patient (P euthanasia for an incompetent patient to euthanasia for a competent patient (P euthanasia language did not bias HCPs against PAD, challenging claims that such value-laden terms hinder dialogue. More research is required to understand the significance of competency in shaping attitudes toward PAD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Ethics and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arler, Finn

    The purpose of this research report is threefold. Firstly, the author traces the origins and justification of cost-benefit analysis in moral and political philosophy. Secondly, he explain some of the basic features of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool in a step-bystep presentation. Thirdly......, he presents and discusses some of the main ethical difficulties related to the use of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool....

  12. Ethical issues related to biomonitoring studies on children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2007-01-01

    -off and the recruitments. In the initial phase of planning a biomonitoring study consideration of communication of results including risk and means of risk prevention should be made. Ethical considerations regarding the study protocol should take into account (a) justification of biological sampling related...

  13. Management's performance justification and failure to meet earnings thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Aerts, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We examine the intensity of management's performance justification as a remedial narrative impression management device, by investigating the association between behavioural earnings thresholds and causal language intensity on earnings-related outcomes in annual management commentary reports. Not me

  14. Theoretical Justification of Regulating International Trade and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The theory of comparative advantage has been advocated to justify the immense benefits that ... of international trade, and the operating rules and systems require periodic analysis and justification.

  15. Dimensions of Justice and Justification in EU and Transnational Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin-Karnell, Ester; Kjær, Poul F.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction to this special issue presents and explains the main idea behind each contribution to this collection of papers. Specifically, this special issue explores a grammar of justice and justification through political theory, legal and sociological perspectives, and discusses...

  16. THE MORAL MANAGER: REGAINING ETHICS FOR BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dominic GEORGESCU

    2013-01-01

    The paper refers to a distinction between limitative and generative ethics. The main idea is that, if ethics is to be of any help for managers, it has to provide applicable principles that can morally orient managerial decisions, and avoid abstract principles that are usually used not to help managers, but to sanction their decisions.

  17. Towards a sexual ethics for adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Steutel

    2009-01-01

    Which moral principles should guide us in evaluating sexual contacts of adolescents? This paper tries to answer this question by taking two steps. First, the implications of a liberal sexual ethics for adolescence are spelled out, assessed and refuted. The core principle of the liberal ethical view,

  18. Towards a sexual ethics for adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steutel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Which moral principles should guide us in evaluating sexual contacts of adolescents? This paper tries to answer this question by taking two steps. First, the implications of a liberal sexual ethics for adolescence are spelled out, assessed and refuted. The core principle of the liberal ethical view,

  19. Ethical issues in immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, David; Kilham, Henry; Leask, Julie; Tobin, Bernadette

    2009-01-29

    Discussions about current and future immunisation programmes raise novel questions about familiar ethical issues. Two sets of ethical issues dominate these discussions. The first is the issue of compulsory immunisation: what should be done about parents who fail to immunise their children? The second is: given competing demands on health care budgets, how should principles of justice in access and distribution inform vaccination programmes? This paper considers these two issues in the light of traditional ethical principles. With respect to the first, we argue that compulsion is justified only in cases in which we know with practical certainty that parental failure to immunise puts their own child or other children at high risk of severe illness. We also argue that the state should compensate those who suffer vaccine-related injury. With respect to the second, we claim that allocating resources according to health care need requires establishing priorities between public health programmes such as immunisation and other treatment programmes.

  20. Ethics in Digital Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiidenberg, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    This chapter joins the voices that consider research ethics to be a matter of situated, responsible judgment, rather than a matter of universal principles and rigid guidelines. When collecting data about or in digitally saturated contexts, we need to consciously choose between what is available......, findable and collectable, and what should be found, collected and used for research. Thus, this chapter will not offer a set of rules; rather, it advocates for systematic (self) reflexivity in ethical qualitative inquiry. In the following I outline some of the persistent ethical issues that scholars...... involved in internet research are faced with. Classical ethical concepts like informed consent, confidentiality, anonymity, privacy, publicity and harm are difficult to operationalize in a socio-technical context that is persistent, replicable, scalable, and searchable. Examples from my own work...

  1. Necessity of Scientific Ethics Committees in Terms of Ethical Principles and Codes of Conduct Etik İlkeler ve Davranış Kuralları Açısından Bilimsel Etik Kurullarının Gerekliliği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Ortaş

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the reflections and consequences of the problems that arise when scientific studies are not carried out within ethical rules and it emphasizes on the necessity of Scientific Ethics Committees for preventing such problems. Within this frame, the article gives information about the 6 basic principles that appear in the report titled “Bilimsel Araştırmalarda Etik ve Sorunları” (Ethics and Ethical Issues in Scientific Researches announced on December 1, 2001 and a list titled “Davranış Kuralları” (Code of Conduct by TÜBA (The Turkish Academy of Sciences following the establishment of a related center within TÜBİTAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey. Bu makalede bilimsel çalışmaların etik kurallar çerçevesinde yapılmaması durumunda ortaya çıkan sorunların yansımaları ve sonuçları üstünde durulmakta ve bunların önlenmesi için Bilimsel Etik Kurullarının gerekliliğine vurgu yapılmaktadır. Bu bağlamda TÜBİTAK bünyesinde ilgili bir merkezin kurulmasından sonra TÜBA tarafından 1 Aralık 2001 tarihinde açıklanan "Bilimsel Araştırmalarda Etik ve Sorunları" başlıklı raporda yer alan 6 temel ilke ve “Davranış Kuralları” hakkında bilgi verilerek makale sonlandırılmaktadır.

  2. Complementary stereotyping of ethnic minorities predicts system justification in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Winiewski, M.; Bilewicz, Michal; Bukowski, M.; Jost, John T.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of complementary stereotyping of ethnic minorities in Poland and its relationship to system justification. Using results from a nationally representative survey we test the hypothesis that complementary stereotypes—according to which ethnic minorities are seen as possessing distinctive, offsetting strengths and weaknesses—would be associated with system justification among Polish majority citizens. For four minorities, results indicated that stereotyping them as ...

  3. Business ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Thi

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present examples of business ethics issues. What is business ethics, things concerned in this field are and why it is needed and important when doing business? The concept of business ethics has connotations to provision, rules and standards in directing the behavior of actors in the business. Business ethics involves compliance with the law, the implementation of ethical responsibilities of a business, the protection of the rights of those who are related to the ...

  4. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...

  5. GLOBALIZATION AND BUSINESS ETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Khadartseva, L.; Agnaeva, L.

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that local conditions of markets may be different, but some global markets, ethics and social responsibility principles should be applicable to all markets. As markets globalize and an increasing proportion of business activity transcends national borders, institutions need to help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system

  6. Ethics in publication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallace, M.B.; Siersema, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Publication of scientific manuscripts remains our core method of sharing knowledge and advanced scientific inquiry. Pressures to publish for reasons other than pure discovery have the potential to corrupt this process. The core principles of scientific ethics outlined above provide guidance on how t

  7. Nursing ethics in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annatjie Botes

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Nursing is a true profession, distinguished by its philosophy of care, its full-time commitment to human well being, its particular blend of knowledge and skills and its valuable service to the community (Curtin & Flaherty, 1982:92. Ethics is vital to nursing. Being a professional implies ethical behaviour and knowledge of what it means to be ethical (Pera & Van Tonder, 1996:v. Ethics is the foundation of committed service to humankind. When nurses practice in an ethical manner they should adhere to ethical principles like autonomy, beneficence, justice, veracity, fidelity, confidentiality and privacy.

  8. MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčica Ivanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked to the question of life and death, then the lack of knowledge of basic legal acts would not be justified at all. The aim of the paper was to present the importance of medical ethics and medical law among the medical staff. A retrospective analysis of the medical literature available on the indexed base KOBSON for the period 2005-2010 was applied. Analysis of all work leads to the conclusion that the balance between ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, trust and cooperation between the two sides that appear over health care can be considered a goal that every health care worker should strive for. This study supports the attitude that lack of knowledge and non-compliance with the ethical principles and medical law when put together can only harm the health care worker. In a way, this is the message to health care professionals that there is a need for the adoption of ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, because the most important position of all health workers is their dedication to the patient as a primary objective and the starting point of ethics.

  9. An ethical response to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey William Lamberton

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the ethical question of the responsibility of business organisations to respond to climate change. Ethical principles of ‘polluter pays‘, ‘historic culpability’ and ‘equitable distribution of the carbon budget’ are applied to the question of ‘should business respond to climate change’, using rights and utilitarian ethical analyses. An ethical argument is established for business organisations to decarbonise their production and distribution systems rather than delay action...

  10. 浅谈护理伦理之不伤害原则在新生儿科的运用%The Application of No Damage Principle of Nursing Ethics in the Department of Neonatology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹

    2012-01-01

    从生理、心理的角度探讨医疗环境带给患儿的近期和远期伤害,以及护理伦理的不伤害原则在临床运用中的实际意义.提出在新生儿科倡导护理伦理的临床实践,可增强新生儿科工作者全面、深入为患儿健康着想的意识,提升新生儿科护理人员的伦理素质和职业道德,从而积极主动地采取相应措施,改变传统的护理模式,运用“发育支持性护理”模式,即在新生儿科采取个体化、人性化的护理方式,可在一定程度上降低医疗环境对患儿造成的近期和远期伤害.%From the viewpoint of view of the physiological and psychological, this paper discussed the immediate and long-term damage of the healthcare environment to the neonate, and the practical significance of the no damage principle of nursing ethics in clinical application. This paper advocated the nursing clinical practice in the department of neonatology, which can strengthen new pediatric workers a comprehensive and in-depth health consciousness for children, promote nurses'ethical quality and professional ethics, and actively take corresponding measures to change the traditional pattern of nursing and using "development supportive care" mode, namely using individualized and humanistic caring in the department of neonatology, in some extent, can reduce the immediate and long - term damage of medical environment to the neonate.

  11. Ethical review of research on human subjects at Unilever: reflections on governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Marti, Vernon; Roberts, Tony

    2014-07-01

    This article considers the process of ethical review of research on human subjects at a very large multinational consumer products company. The commercial context of this research throws up unique challenges and opportunities that make the ethics of the process of oversight distinct from mainstream medical research. Reflection on the justification of governance processes sheds important, contrasting light on the ethics of governance of other forms and context of research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ethical issues and Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié

    2013-10-11

    The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper. 

  13. The relationship between European paediatricians and commerce: ethical principles in paediatrics working group recommendations. Confederation of European Societies of Paediatrics (CESP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T L

    2000-01-01

    It is important that doctors have an ethically proper relationship with commercial interests. The relationship between paediatricians, paediatric societies and industry is probably healthy. To further the interests of patients it is important that it remains so. This mentionship would be undermined if: there was a perceived conflict of interests between paediatricians, their patients and industry; paediatricians were seen to endorse companies whose marketing and other practices were unethical. It will be enhanced if: paediatricians did not receive individual gain from industry; industrial support for educational and research activities, whether to individuals or institutions, is open, proportionate and accountable.

  14. 医学伦理学之“医德基本原则”说课设计%The basic principle of medical ethics of medical ethicspractice design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉环; 彭立华; 张茜; 白吉可

    2014-01-01

    To analysis the basic principle of“medical ethics”practice in the design of the processing of teaching material, teaching methods and learning. the teaching design and teaching reflection is discussed,how to use modern education theory and psychology sociology theory to guide the teaching of medical ethics of medical undergraduates section design,in order to improve the teaching quality.%就“医德基本原则”说课设计中教材的处理、教法和学情分析,通过教学过程设计和教学反思等环节探讨了如何利用现代教育学理论和心理社会学理论来指导医学本科生的医学伦理学章节教学设计,以期提高教学质量。

  15. Phenomenological Justification of Theory of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perminov V. Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes Husserl’s theory of time and provides its detailed comparison with theories of time of I. Kant and F. Brentano. The author first examines the general principles of the phenomenological theory of consciousness, and then analyzes the time concept of F. Brentano and Husserl’s criticism of these ideas, and eventually makes a comparison of Husserl’s and Kant’s theories of time. The author is inclined to conclude that progress in the interpretation of the time made by Husserl, is largely external, based on unacceptable epistemological principles. Critique of these principles the author plans to carry out in one of the next issues of the magazine.

  16. The ethics of cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasche-Orlow, Michael

    2004-04-01

    Cultural competence curricula have proliferated throughout medical education. Awareness of the moral underpinnings of this movement can clarify the purpose of such curricula for educators and trainees and serve as a way to evaluate the relationship between the ethics of cultural competence and normative Western medical ethics. Though rarely stated explicitly, the essential principles of cultural competence are (1) acknowledgement of the importance of culture in people's lives, (2) respect for cultural differences, and (3) minimization of any negative consequences of cultural differences. Culturally competent clinicians promote these principles by learning about culture, embracing pluralism, and proactive accommodation. Generally, culturally competent care will advance patient autonomy and justice. In this sense, cultural competence and Western medical ethics are mutually supportive movements. However, Western bioethics and the personal ethical commitments of many medical trainees will place limits on the extent to which they will endorse pluralism and accommodation. Specifically, if the values of cultural competence are thought to embrace ethical relativity, inexorable conflicts will be created. The author presents his view of the ethics of cultural competence and places the concepts of cultural competence in the context of Western moral theory. Clarity about the ethics of cultural competence can help educators promote and evaluate trainees' integration of their own moral intuitions, Western medical ethics, and the ethics of cultural competence.

  17. Emergency department triage: an ethical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastmans Chris

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency departments across the globe follow a triage system in order to cope with overcrowding. The intention behind triage is to improve the emergency care and to prioritize cases in terms of clinical urgency. Discussion In emergency department triage, medical care might lead to adverse consequences like delay in providing care, compromise in privacy and confidentiality, poor physician-patient communication, failing to provide the necessary care altogether, or even having to decide whose life to save when not everyone can be saved. These consequences challenge the ethical quality of emergency care. This article provides an ethical analysis of "routine" emergency department triage. The four principles of biomedical ethics - viz. respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice provide the starting point and help us to identify the ethical challenges of emergency department triage. However, they do not offer a comprehensive ethical view. To address the ethical issues of emergency department triage from a more comprehensive ethical view, the care ethics perspective offers additional insights. Summary We integrate the results from the analysis using four principles of biomedical ethics into care ethics perspective on triage and propose an integrated clinically and ethically based framework of emergency department triage planning, as seen from a comprehensive ethics perspective that incorporates both the principles-based and care-oriented approach.

  18. Pharmacy ethics: evaluation pharmacists' ethical attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Pooneh Salari; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Asghari, Fariba

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in pharmacy practice from prescription dispensing to more patient-centered relationship intensifies the necessity of clinical decision-making. Pharmacists' knowledge as well as ethical reasoning affects their clinical decision-making. Unfortunately in Iran pharmacy ethics did not develop along with medical ethics and special considerations are of major importance. The study was designed to evaluate pharmacists' attitude toward some principles of bioethics. A cross-sectional survey was performed on a sample of Iranian pharmacists attended in continuous education programs in 2010. Based on the pharmacists' attitude toward common ethical problems, 9 Likert-type scale scenarios were designed. A thousand pharmacists were surveyed and 505 questionnaires were filled. For the whole questionnaire the strongly disagree answer was the most ethical answer. On a scale from 1-5 on which 5=strongly disagree, the total score of pharmacists ethical attitude was 17.69 ± 3.57. For easier analysis we considered the score of 1 for agree and strongly agree answers, score of 2 for neutral answers and score of 3 for disagree and strongly disagree answers. The total score in confidentiality for all participants was 4.15 ± 1.45 out of 9, in autonomy 6.25 ± 1.85 out of 9, in non-maleficence 5.14 ± 1.17 out of 6 and in justice was 2.27 ± 0.89 out of 3, however there was no significant difference between men and women in the total score and the score of each theme. The older participants (> 40 years) significantly had lower total score (Pethical guidelines and improving pharmacy ethics curriculum is highly critical to provide the best pharmaceutical care and to make clinical decisions in critical situations. Therefore further quantitative and qualitative investigations into finding pitfalls and challenges in this issue are highly recommended.

  19. Ethics: the evidence of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2007-01-01

    Today's leaders in health care are being challenged by many demands and issues. To confront these many demands, health care leaders must have the ability to make decisions based on ethics. To ensure the survivability of an organization, the leadership must have values grounded on ethical principles. The problem in today's health care organizations is that not enough emphasis is being placed on a culture of ethics within the organization and within the behavior of the leadership. This article addresses the ethical issues facing today's health care leaders. In this article, an overview of the history and philosophy of ethics is provided along with definitions, guidelines, and a model to assist the leadership in health care organization to pursue and to adhere to a more ethical course.

  20. Work ethics: An Islamic prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shakil Ahmad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Islamic principles completely cover all aspects of life including working in an organization. Current study explore the job related variables an their connection with Islamic Work Ethics. Current study explores the literature relevant to Islamic Work Ethics. Previous study results show that there is significant impact of Islamic work ethics on organizational commitment, job satisfaction and rewards while Islamic work ethics has no significant relation with intention to quit job. Different studies results shows that Islamic work ethics can help build a better morale amongst employees which in turn can result in greater employee job satisfaction. Furthermore adopting Islamic work ethics improves organizational commitment, level of motivation and thus is likely to reduce the number of staff wanting to leave the organization i.e. quitting the job.

  1. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  2. An ethical dilemma in school nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, E; Taylor, S

    1999-10-01

    School nurses must consider the ethical principles that guide everyday practice. Autonomy, beneficence, justice, and nonmaleficence are the ethical principles most often confronted in the school setting. When beneficent care-giving begins to conflict with the family's decision-making autonomy, paternalism, a form of beneficence, affects the family's autonomy. This creates an ethical dilemma for the school nurse who guides his or her practice by ethical principles but who also must decide when it is appropriate to refer a child or family to a medical provider for further evaluation. A case study is presented to illustrate a specific ethical dilemma. The ethical dilemma is described using a model that examines external factors, professional responsibilities, and possible courses of action. The discussion includes cultural considerations and barriers pertinent to the case example.

  3. Ethical Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mary Kathryn

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma of how to respond to student papers advancing morally repugnant positions. Advocates conceptualizing writing as an ethical act and connecting ethics and revision. Describes briefly how three such student papers were handled. (SR)

  4. Liberal democracy and nuclear despotism: two ethical foreign policy dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Doyle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critical analysis of John Rawls's justification of liberal democratic nuclear deterrence in the post-Cold War era as found in The Law of Peoples. Rawls's justification overlooked how nuclear-armed liberal democracies are ensnared in two intransigent ethical dilemmas: one in which the mandate to secure liberal constitutionalism requires both the preservation and violation of important constitutional provisions in domestic affairs, and the other in which this same mandate requires both the preservation and violation of the liberal commitment to international legal arrangements and to the rule of law generally. On this view, the choice to violate constitutional provisions and international legal arrangements is evidence of nuclear despotism. Moreover, this choice does not imply that the ethical foreign policy dilemmas were resolved. Instead, it implies that the dilemmas force liberal democratic governments into implementing ethically paradoxical policy outcomes.

  5. ETHICS AND CHANGES IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovo Radoš

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.. Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympics codex and humanity principles, among which are: consciousness and honesty, righteousness, cultural-behavior principle, openness, and the like. Changes in sport (organizational, structural, competition, etc. need to be adequately adjusted to universal, and generally accepted, values. Avoiding deontological ethics inevitably leads to increased sports immorality (referees_ fixing match results, spectators_ aggressive behavior, cheating using for bidden doping, etc.. Thus, projecting and introducing innovations in the field of sport, which, after all, are necessary and unavoidable in all areas of life, including sport, will eventually show its positive results only if the aforementioned aspects of sport ethics are taken into consideration.

  6. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  7. Putting public health ethics into practice: A systematic framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg eMarckmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that public health practice raises ethical issues that require a different approach than traditional biomedical ethics. Several frameworks for public health ethics have been proposed, however, none of them provides a practice-oriented combination of the two necessary components: (1 A set of normative criteria based on an explicit ethical justification and (2 a structured methodological approach for applying the resulting normative criteria to concrete public health issues. Building on prior work in the field and integrating valuable elements of other approaches to public health ethics, we present a systematic ethical framework that shall guide professionals in planning, conducting, and evaluating public health interventions.Based on a coherentist model of ethical justification, the proposed framework contains (1 an explicit normative foundation with five substantive criteria and seven procedural conditions to guarantee a fair decision process, and (2 a six-step methodological approach for applying the criteria and conditions to the practice of public health and health policy. The framework explicitly ties together ethical analysis and empirical evidence, thus striving for evidence-based public health ethics. It shall provide normative guidance to those who analyze the ethical implications of public health practice including academic ethicists, health policy makers, health technology assessment bodies, and public health professionals.It will enable those who implement a public health intervention and those affected by it (i.e. the target population to critically assess whether and how the required ethical considerations have been taken into account. Thereby, the framework can contribute to assuring the quality of ethical analysis in public health. Whether the presented framework will be able to achieve its goals has to be determined by evaluating its practical application.

  8. Ethical Impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…

  9. Ethical leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.

    2015-01-01

    High-profile cases of leaders’ ethical failure in different settings and sectors have led to increased attention to ethical leadership in organizations. In this review, I discuss the rapidly developing field of ethical leadership from an organizational behavior/psychology perspective, taking a behav

  10. Ethics Education: Using Inductive Reasoning to Develop Individual, Group, Organizational, and Global Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Susan H.; White, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Ethics education that prepares students to address ethical challenges at work is a multifaceted and long-term endeavor. In this article, the authors propose an inductive ethics pedagogy that begins the process of ethics education by grounding students in their own individual ethical principles. The approach centers on developing students' ethical…

  11. Ethical Challenges in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffic, H Steven; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Silver, Stuart; Koh, Steve

    2015-09-01

    As with all professional ethical principles, those in psychiatry have to evolve over time and societal changes. The current ethical challenges for psychiatric administration and leadership, especially regarding for-profit managed care, need updated solutions. One solution resides in the development by the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators (AAPA) of the first set of ethical principles designed specifically for psychiatric administrators. These principles build on prior Psychological Theories of leadership, such as those of Freud, Kernberg, and Kohut. Supplementing these theories are the actual real life models of psychiatrist leadership as depicted in the memoirs of various psychiatrists. Appreciating these principles, theories, and models may help emerging leaders to better recognize the importance of ethical challenges. A conclusion is that psychiatrists should have the potential to assume more successful leadership positions once again. In such positions, making the skills and well-being of all in the organization seems now to be the foremost ethical priority.

  12. Self-awareness is an Ethical Principle --Analysis of Ethical thoughts of Marx's Doctoral Dissertation%自我意识是一个伦理原则——马克思博士论文伦理思想探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉胜; 张晓东

    2012-01-01

    在博士论文中,马克思确立了自我意识哲学的主体地位。表面看是在阐释伊壁鸠鲁哲学,实际上"已经显示出了马克思的创造的智慧"。在他的理论视域内,自我意识是一个伦理原则,有着丰富的伦理内涵,展现了其在走向社会批判以前"伦理批判"的思想特质。%In the Doctoral dissertation, Marx established the subject ststus of self-awareness philosophy. Apparently it interprets Epicurus's philosophy, but in fact it "has already demonstrated the wisdom of Marx". In his theoretical field, self-awareness is an ethical principle, which has rich ethical connotation and shows its ideological trait before social criticism.

  13. [Medical ethics as professional ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ivo

    2012-09-25

    Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (倫, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason.

  14. Leaders' use of moral justifications increases policy support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zant, Alex B; Moore, Don A

    2015-06-01

    Leaders must choose how to justify their organization's actions to stakeholders. We differentiate moral frames, or justifications based on moral values, from pragmatic frames, or justifications based on practical costs and benefits. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we found that moral policy frames elicited more support than pragmatic frames across a variety of scenarios. This effect was mediated by the perception that leaders who offer moral justifications possess relatively greater moral character. In Experiment 2, we found that perceptions of a leader's private motives had a stronger influence on policy support than did the leader's public stance. Experiment 3 demonstrated that, irrespective of how a policy was framed, people were most supportive of a policy championed by a leader high in moral character. In Experiment 4, we documented an additional benefit of moral policy frames: They allow leaders to mitigate the moral outrage generated by reneging on a policy.

  15. Justification of staff positions in a tightening marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, C

    1988-01-01

    Recend economic and political changes in the health care environment have made justification of both new and vacant staff positions increasingly difficult. Occupational therapy managers have been forced with balancing higher program costs with reduced reimbursement. As a result, requests to increase or refill positions are closely scrutinized. Managers must be able to develop staff justifications utilizing program, productivity, wst, revenue and reimbursement projections based on viable marketing surveys. This paer resents guidelines for development of a marketing survey. &a& and rogram options based on the results of such a survey are examine ! and discussed. A staffing justification proposal is included which demonstrates an effective method whtch can use to develop dynamic programs and services to ensure continued growth of the profession of occupational therapy.nd=yes&

  16. 管理伦理原则、多元性及折衷:管理学“实践导向”中的伦理问题%Ethical Principles of Management, the Pluralism and Its Compromise:Ethical Issues in Practice-Oriented Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕力

    2012-01-01

    The Efficiency First principle has never changed in the course of management development history after Taylor's scientific management theory. However due to the dominance of the consequences principle, contemporary human moral practice is in a deep crisis. The facts show that a lot of real life moral dilemmas cannot be resolved by a single principle. Management academia concentrate entirely on the field of management efficiency, thus lose the right of speaking for the value and the ethical issues in the management practice. Practice-Oriented Management should never be efficiency-oriented i instead, it should inherently include the diversified ethical principle.%尽管泰勒所创立的科学管理理论中“效率至上”的思想受到过一些批评,然而它所秉持的后果论的功利主义伦理原则在管理学百年发展历程中影响深远.20世纪末开始,由于功利主义原则的统治地位,包括管理伦理在内的当代人类道德实践处于深刻的危机之中.事实表明,现实生活中很多道德难题都无法依靠单一原则解决.管理学界对于现实管理伦理问题一概源自泰勒以来的功利主义伦理传统,将注意力完全集中在管理的效率维度,从而丧失了对于现实管理实践中价值和伦理问题的发言权.管理学研究的“实践导向”绝不应是单纯的“功利和效率导向”,它应该鼓励和提倡多元化的伦理原则.

  17. Ethical issues in the use of the bogus pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, H; Handelsman, M M

    1997-04-01

    This article addresses the ethics of utilizing the bogus pipeline (BPL) procedure in social psychological research. A debate is presented between 2 positions: One challenges the use of the BPL based on ethical principles, and the other confronts these challenges. The debate addresses the void in previous BPL literature regarding concerns about the ethics of using this technique, and raises awareness about potential ethical dilemmas faced by BPL users. The BPL is discussed from utilitarian and deontological ethical perspectives.

  18. Does the human brain have unique genetically determined networks coding logical and ethical principles and aesthetics? From Plato to novel mirror networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnati, Luigi Francesco; Agnati, Achille; Mora, Francisco; Fuxe, Kjell

    2007-08-01

    Starting from the assumption that philosophers carry out "experiments" not on concrete objects, but on concepts and relationships between concepts, it could be postulated that the philosopher's way to proceed is not basically different from that followed by scientists. From this similarity of approaches it can be considered that some philosophical problems and theories have a high impact on how to address scientific investigations. One of these issues is certainly the philosophical debate over innate ideas, which is central to the conflict between rationalist and empiricist epistemologies. We started our reflections on the possible presence of innate ideas in the human brain from the observation that there exists strong experimental support for the view that not only complex behaviours (e.g., sexual courtship, parental care) but also aesthetic and ethic judgements can be, at least in part, genetically determined. On these grounds it is suggested that neurobiological findings can give important contributions to the philosophical debate on innatism by putting forward possible explanatory models and heuristic hypotheses.

  19. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients.

  20. An ethical response to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey William Lamberton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethical question of the responsibility of business organisations to respond to climate change. Ethical principles of ‘polluter pays‘, ‘historic culpability’ and ‘equitable distribution of the carbon budget’ are applied to the question of ‘should business respond to climate change’, using rights and utilitarian ethical analyses. An ethical argument is established for business organisations to decarbonise their production and distribution systems rather than delay action. Government policies required to remove barriers which are delaying a widespread and meaningful response by business to humankind’s greatest moral challenge together with the ethical implications are discussed.

  1. Loophole ethics in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Kvalnes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical challenges in sports occur when the practitioners are caught between the will to win and the overall task of staying within the realm of acceptable values and virtues. One way to prepare for these challenges is to formulate comprehensive and specific rules of acceptable conduct. In this paper we will draw attention to one serious problem with such a rule-based approach. It may inadvertently encourage what we will call loophole ethics, an attitude where every action that is not explicitly defined as wrong, will be seen as a viable option. Detailed codes of conduct leave little room for personal judgement, and instead promote a loophole mentality. We argue that loophole ethics can be avoided by operating with only a limited set of general principles, thus leaving more space for personal judgement and wisdom.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i1.1740

  2. Business ethics in ethics committees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P

    1990-01-01

    The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center.

  3. Ethics in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P

    2015-09-01

    Ethics are a set of moral principles and values a civilized society follows. Doing science with principles of ethics is the bedrock of scientific activity. The society trusts that the results and the projected outcome of any scientific activity is based on an honest and conscientious attempt by the scientific community. However, during the last few decades, there has been an explosion of knowledge and the advent of digital age. We can access the publications of competitors with just a "click". The evaluation parameters have evolved a lot and are based on impact factors, h-index and citations. There is a general feeling that the scientific community is under a lot of pressure for fulfilling the criteria for upward growth and even retention of the positions held. The noble profession of scientific research and academics has been marred by the temptation to falsify and fabricate data, plagiarism and other unethical practices. Broadly speaking, the breach of ethics involves: plagiarism, falsification of data, redundant (duplicate) publication, drawing far-fetched conclusions without hard data, for early publicity, gift authorship (receiving as well as giving), not giving sufficient attention and consideration to scholars and post-docs as per the norms, self promotion at the cost of team-members, treating colleagues (overall all juniors) in a feudal way and Machiavellianism (cunningness and duplicity in general conduct and push to positions of power and pelf). Misconduct in Indian academics and science is also under a lot of focus. It is important and urgent that science, engineering, and health departments and institutions in our country have in place systems for education and training in pursuit of science with ethics by sound and professional courses in Responsible Conduct of Research. All research and academic institution must have the Office of Ethics for information, guidelines, training and professional oversight of conduct of research with the ethos and ethics

  4. Hidden in plain view: feminists doing engineering ethics, engineers doing feminist ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Donna

    2013-03-01

    How has engineering ethics addressed gender concerns to date? How have the ideas of feminist philosophers and feminist ethicists made their way into engineering ethics? What might an explicitly feminist engineering ethics look like? This paper reviews some major themes in feminist ethics and then considers three areas in which these themes have been taken up in engineering ethics to date. First, Caroline Whitbeck's work in engineering ethics integrates considerations from her own earlier writings and those of other feminist philosophers, but does not use the feminist label. Second, efforts to incorporate the Ethic of Care and principles of Social Justice into engineering have drawn on feminist scholarship and principles, but these commitments can be lost in translation to the broader engineering community. Third, the film Henry's Daughters brings gender considerations into the mainstream of engineering ethics, but does not draw on feminist ethics per se; despite the best intentions in broaching a difficult subject, the film unfortunately does more harm than good when it comes to sexual harassment education. I seek not only to make the case that engineers should pay attention to feminist ethics and engineering ethicists make more use of feminist ethics traditions in the field, but also to provide some avenues for how to approach integrating feminist ethics in engineering. The literature review and analysis of the three examples point to future work for further developing what might be called feminist engineering ethics.

  5. Vulnerability Assessments in Ethical Hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Ashiqur Rahman; Md. SarwarAlam Rasel; Asaduzzaman Noman; Shakh Md. Alimuzjaman Alim

    2016-01-01

    Ethical hackers use the same methods and techniques to test and bypass a system's defenses as their less-principled counterparts, but rather than taking advantage of any vulnerabilities found, they document them and provide actionable advice on how to fix them so the organization can improve its overall security. The purpose of ethical hacking is to evaluate the security of a network or system's infrastructure. It entails finding and attempting to exploit any vulnerabilities to de...

  6. Regulating Gamete Donation in the U.S.: Ethical, Legal and Social Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatello, Maya

    2015-09-01

    This article explores the practice of gamete donation in the U.S. having in mind the larger question of what do we as a society owe children born as a result (donor-conceived children). Do recipient-parents have a duty to tell their donor-conceived child about his/her genetic origins? Should the identity of the donor be disclosed or remain anonymous? Does the child have a right to know her conception story and to receive information, including identifying information, about the donor? Furthermore, if a donor-conceived child has a right to know, who has the duty to tell her/him about it? The Article underscores the ethical, legal and social dilemmas that arise, comparing and contrasting with international developments in this arena. It highlights the market-based and more specific medical justifications for regulating this field, explores the emerging so-called right of the child to know his/her genetic origins ("the right to know"), and considers the challenges such a right evokes to existing legal culture and principles of medical ethics in the U.S. as well as other broader societal implications of such a right.

  7. Regulating Gamete Donation in the U.S.: Ethical, Legal and Social Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Sabatello

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the practice of gamete donation in the U.S. having in mind the larger question of what do we as a society owe children born as a result (donor-conceived children. Do recipient-parents have a duty to tell their donor-conceived child about his/her genetic origins? Should the identity of the donor be disclosed or remain anonymous? Does the child have a right to know her conception story and to receive information, including identifying information, about the donor? Furthermore, if a donor-conceived child has a right to know, who has the duty to tell her/him about it? The Article underscores the ethical, legal and social dilemmas that arise, comparing and contrasting with international developments in this arena. It highlights the market-based and more specific medical justifications for regulating this field, explores the emerging so-called right of the child to know his/her genetic origins (“the right to know”, and considers the challenges such a right evokes to existing legal culture and principles of medical ethics in the U.S. as well as other broader societal implications of such a right.

  8. Sustaining engineering codes of ethics for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelfelder, Diane; Jones, Sharon A

    2013-03-01

    How much responsibility ought a professional engineer to have with regard to supporting basic principles of sustainable development? While within the United States, professional engineering societies, as reflected in their codes of ethics, differ in their responses to this question, none of these professional societies has yet to put the engineer's responsibility toward sustainability on a par with commitments to public safety, health, and welfare. In this paper, we aim to suggest that sustainability should be included in the paramountcy clause because it is a necessary condition to ensure the safety, health, and welfare of the public. Part of our justification rests on the fact that to engineer sustainably means among many things to consider social justice, understood as the fair and equitable distribution of social goods, as a design constraint similar to technical, economic, and environmental constraints. This element of social justice is not explicit in the current paramountcy clause. Our argument rests on demonstrating that social justice in terms of both inter- and intra-generational equity is an important dimension of sustainability (and engineering). We also propose that embracing sustainability in the codes while recognizing the role that social justice plays may elevate the status of the engineer as public intellectual and agent of social good. This shift will then need to be incorporated in how we teach undergraduate engineering students about engineering ethics.

  9. [Grounding public health policies in ethics and economic efficiency. SESPAS report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro Avilés, Miguel A; Lobo, Félix

    2010-12-01

    In recent times, various voices in Spain have questioned public health policies as an assault to personal freedom. The present article aims to respond to these voices with ethical and economic arguments. The scope and characteristics of this current of opinion are described. Then, starting with John Stuart Mill, the ethical principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, personal autonomy and justice, as well as related concepts taken from economic efficiency, such as externalities, monopoly, incomplete and asymmetric information, agency relationship, public goods and adverse selection, are discussed. A short mention is made of equity in economics, the welfare state and public health systems. The justification for paternalist actions by the state, as well as limits to these actions, are briefly discussed. Respect for individual freedom does not exclude the implementation of public health actions but rather demands the adoption of such policies. If these actions comply with certain conditions, they do not limit individual freedom but rather serve to protect it. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. In between St. Augustine and Luther: Grace and justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The view presented in this study emphasized grace as a cause of spiritual strength and justification of man. In understanding the deep meaning and nature of grace, this paper analyzes the formations given on the subject by two great minds, St. Augustine and Martin Luther. Because of the great influence of their work on the theology of grace and justification, this paper attempts to seek whether man’s understanding and belief of prudence would mean nothing at all, that any good that he will perform on his behalf would do nothing for his own justification. Thus it raises the question on the purpose of man’s freedom if his proprium is nothing and that divine prudence is the source of everything good. This led to the idea that grace is the primary energy source of man to make good, not by his own, but by divine prudence to obtain justification. Therefore, in this sense there is nothing good in man.

  11. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-09-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford.

  12. Maintaining Legitimacy: Controversies, Orders of Worth and Public Justifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patriotta, G.; Gond, J.-P.; Schultz, F.

    2011-01-01

    We build on Boltanski and Thévenot's theory of justification to account for the ways in which different stakeholder groups actively engage with discourses and objects to maintain the legitimacy of institutions that are relevant to their activity. We use this framework to analyse a controversy emergi

  13. Confirmation and justification. A commentary on Shogenji's measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David

    2012-01-01

    So far no known measure of confirmation of a hypothesis by evidence has satisfied a minimal requirement concerning thresholds of acceptance. In contrast, Shogenji's new measure of justification (Shogenji, Synthese, this number 2009) does the trick. As we show, it is ordinally equivalent to the most

  14. Multi-agent Justification Logic : communication and evidence elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renne, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a logic combining , a framework for reasoning about multi-agent communication, with a new multi-agent version of , a framework for reasoning about evidence and justification. This novel combination incorporates a new kind of that cleanly meshes with the multi-agent communications

  15. Choosing a Strategy for Return-on-Investment Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshay, Wellesley R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concept of human capital, including how it is linked to strategic analysis and how it relates to four alternative models for return-on-investment (ROI). Discusses how to choose the best model for ROI justification of training or other human performance technology (HPT) interventions. (AEF)

  16. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  17. 41 CFR 109-26.501-52 - Justification for purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Justification for purchase. 109-26.501-52 Section 109-26.501-52 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... purchase. (a) Requisitions for additions to the passenger motor vehicle fleet must contain adequate...

  18. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  19. Adolescents' and Mothers' Evaluations of Justifications for Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1991-01-01

    Used vignettes and self-reports to examine adolescents' and mothers' reasoning about family conflicts. Found that mothers and adolescents differentially evaluated reasons for parental requests and adolescent noncompliance. They also differed in their judgments of the likelihood of particular justifications succeeding or leading to conflict. (BC)

  20. Kierkegaard, Justification and the Integrity of Christian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    The doctrine of justification is frequently interpreted in a manner that excludes our active involvement in the drama of salvation. This reading has a detrimental effect on Christian education concerned to enable the learner's attentive, reasonable and responsible understanding of the Gospel. Taking its lead from Kierkegaard's account of…

  1. Justice and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.

  2. Needs and necessities of medical ethics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Larijani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, new medical technologies and their probable misuses have emerged public concerns about medical ethics. Medical ethics is a practical discipline that provides a structured approach for identifying, analyzing, and resolving ethical issues in clinical medicine. "nIn this study we reviewed some new methods of teaching medical ethics in other countries by searching in internet and literature. "nTwo key features related to the teaching of medical ethics are active involvement of students in the learning process instead of merely lecturing about the ethical principles and assessing how students apply their knowledge of ethical principles in simulated and actual situations. In many countries such as Iran, medical schools attempted to address medical ethics issues in formal ethics classes. "nIt is clear that the traditional method is no longer sufficient to meet the needs of practitioners and societies and new methods particularly those emphasize on active learning, individual participation, group interactions, and a process - based approach, should be developed and implemented. In addition, a concerted effort to improve education in medical ethics will benefit the medical profession and services to patients. Therefore, we recommend policy makers of medical ethics education to change the traditional methods to the modern methods; which are used now in the world.

  3. Justifications and needs for diversity in orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A A

    1999-05-01

    America is founded on high humanitarian, democratic ideals. The historic facts of slavery, discrimination, and segregation challenge and taint these democratic principles. Although progress has been made, serious racial problems remain. In 1997, the United States had 474 active hate groups, up 20% from 1996. African American males who have the same education as white males doing the same work earn approximately 75% of what their white counterparts earn. America, as predicted by the Kerner Commission Report, is two societies: black and white, separate, and unequal. Some astonishing disparities in healthcare exist. Peer reviewed medical literature documents that African Americans have higher infant mortality rates, shorter life expectancies, fewer joint replacements, and more amputations than whites. Communications within a diverse group of students and teachers enriches the educational experience. The late Supreme Court Justice Lewis Powell, LLD, asserted that a medical student from a particular background may enrich classmates' understanding of people whose cultures are different from their own, and improve their ability to serve a heterogeneous patient population. Diversity on clinical teams can enhance rapport between patient and physician, and can diminish unthinking insults to patients, born of physician ethnic insensitivity. Healthcare facilities with diverse staffs are more likely than homogeneous facilities to attract and successfully serve the nation's diverse population. A University of California at Davis School of Medicine study showed that diversity can be achieved without compromising quality of patient care. Clinically and ideologically, diversity in orthopaedics is good for patients and for the country.

  4. Clinical ethics and nursing: "yes" to caring, but "no" to a female ethics of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhse, Helga

    1995-07-01

    According to a contemporary school of thought there is a specific female approach to ethics which is based not on abstract "male" ethical principles or rules, but on "care". Nurses have taken a keen interest in these female approaches to ethics. Drawing on the views expounded by Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings, nurses claim that a female "ethics of care" better captures their moral experiences than a traditional male "ethics of justice". This paper argues that "care" is best understood in a dispositional sense, that is, as sensitivity and responsiveness to the particularities of a situation and the needs of "concrete" others. While "care", in this sense, is necessary for ethics, it is not sufficient. Ethics needs "justice" as well as "care". If women and nurses excessively devalue principles and norms, they will be left without the theoretical tools to condemn some actions or practices, and to defend others. They will, like generations of nurses before them, be condemned to silence.

  5. TERAPIA GÉNICA Y PRINCIPIOS ÉTICOS A TERAPIA GÊNICA E OS PRINCÍPIOS ÉTICOS GEN THERAPY AND ETHICAL PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Yunta

    2003-01-01

    écnica da técnica no mercado sem mencionar suas dificuldades inerentes. Uma das preocupações maiores é que a aceitação paulatina deste tipo de terapia, e a eliminação de restrições, permite o uso da técnica para terapia gênica germinal e para terapia gênica de melhora, cuja validade ética é questionada. Usar a terapia gênica em células germinais traz o risco de introduzir danos genéticos em gerações posterioresGene therapy is a form of genetic manipulation which tries to correct or to diminish the effects caused by genetic diseases. There are great hopes for the development of this type of therapy, specially for somatic genetic diseases that has no cure, but there are many technical difficulties which are not yet solved. It has not yet been shown clinical efficacy and the technique may cause irreversible damages in the organism. On one hand, it is considered necessary to establish regulatory mechanisms to avoid possible abuse and the research protocols must be strictly analyzed by ethical and scientific review committees. On the other hand, at the international level, it is necessary a dialogue between nations in order not to present gene therapy in the market as a successful technique, without mentioning all the technical difficulties. One of the major concerns consists in that the gradual acceptance of this technique and the removal of restrictions may lead to the use of germ gene therapy and genetic enhancement, whose ethical validity is questionable. The use of germ gene therapy carries the risk of introducing genetic damages in posterior generations

  6. Confidentiality principles in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasevici, B

    2015-01-01

    Confidentiality stands out in psychiatry through its multiple connotations as an intrinsic necessity in the ethics of professional relationships. Thus it represents an important characteristic of this profession and at the same time a stringent request which, through its specificity, implies a direct contact with persons in need for help. Despite being inserted in professional codes and legislative systems, confidentiality in psychiatry is far from being considered a clarified matter and does not stand aside from ethical controversy. Keeping the professional secret is often a hard task due to the pressure of the law or of other professional groups who can bring multiple justifications, including that of action for the benefit of society. The therapist is often sub- mitted to a tension caused on the one hand by the promise of keeping the professional secret and on the other hand by multiple requests of breaking the confidentiality. So the problem of confidentiality in Psychiatry deserves special attention because in this profession, more than in other branches of medicine, the gain of the patient's trust is essential in the psychotherapeutic relationship.

  7. Ethical acceptability, health policy and foods biotechnology based foods: is there a third way between the precaution principle and an overly enthusiastic dissemination of GMO?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Hervé, C

    2001-01-01

    The demand for consumer safety with regard to the food-processing industry is becoming, legitimately, more and more urgent. If ingested drugs can carry deleterious effects that exceed the beneficial effect that the research was initially undertaken for, then the same can only be the case for foods that stem from the same new biotechnologies, zero risk being non existent. There are two conflicting viewpoints about the possible risks linked to genetically modified organisms: a posteriori protection (based on vigilance once the product is on the market) and an a priori protection (at present usually supported by the precaution principle). We suggest a third way, which ensures consumer safety, but doesn't hinder scientific progress. Just as there are regulations for the protection of human subjects in biomedical research and regulations for the use of drugs after they are marketed, so should such regulations be introduced in the domains of food production that use biotechnologies. We therefore suggest that the scientific community and the food-processing industry develop evaluation protocols for new foods like the ones that exist for drugs. We thus offer thirteen regulations, based on the Helsinki declaration, in order to establish these protocols. These proposals, applied to food-processing research, would enable the industry to return confidence to consumers and thus avoid the random blocking of scientific progress, which is a source of health for the greater population.

  8. 信息伦理的几个基础理论问题研究%Research on Some Basic Theoretical Issues of Information Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福学

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the features and entropy of information sphere, the relationship of digital divide and information ethics, and the characteristics, principles and environmental approaches of information ethics.

  9. Making tough choices: HIV ethical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    A panel of the American Psychological Association (APA) has developed a simple, user friendly process to facilitate ethical and clinical decision making in cases involving HIV disease. The model is based on the five ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice. This article examines how the model could be applied to a hypothetical case of a private practice client and his therapist. The ethical question in this case concerns whether to reveal a patient's serostatus to his wife.

  10. Medicine saved ethics: Has ethics harmed medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In an article in The Boston Globe, Steven Pinker holds that the primary moral good of bioethics should be to "get out of the way". The accusation that bioethics is an obstacle to research because it calls attention to basic principles such as personal dignity and justice is clearly contradicted by the facts. There are, nonetheless, other ways in which bioethics can stand in the way of science, two of which, bureaucratisation and the loss of cultural vivacity, are worth addressing. Ethics committees provide a framework for evaluating problems and determining an appropriate course of action.

  11. An African ethic for nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  12. Integrating Ethics into the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Urges incorporation of ethics into social studies curriculum. Provides an overview of ethical theory including principle-based theories of utilitarianism and deontology and virtue-based theories. Discusses philosophies of social science including positivism, interpretivism, and critical social science. Suggests teaching methods and curriculum…

  13. Integrating Ethics into the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Urges incorporation of ethics into social studies curriculum. Provides an overview of ethical theory including principle-based theories of utilitarianism and deontology and virtue-based theories. Discusses philosophies of social science including positivism, interpretivism, and critical social science. Suggests teaching methods and curriculum…

  14. Ethical Considerations in Human Movement Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Highlights ethical issues for human subject research, identifying principles that form the construct of a code of research ethics and evaluating against this construct past human experimentation and current research in human movement studies. The efficacy of legislation and self-regulation is examined. Particular attention is given to the context…

  15. Issues and Guidance in Research Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Francis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the principles that govern the outlook and decisions of research ethics committees. The purpose of the paper is to outline such underlying principles in order to aid understanding for researchers into aspects of social and commercial behaviour. Prior to conducting research in any corporate area there is an obligation toward any human participants. That obligation is set out most clearly in the information and forms put out by the various ethics committees charged with examining the proposal, and with giving formal ethical approval. The principles that invest the understanding of ethics committees are those of protecting the vulnerable, and of protecting justifiably good reputations. Ethics committees should be seen as enabling and protecting rather than as a barrier to research. Peer reviews should be seen to include ethics matters in research, and are thus a natural extension of the common scientific endeavour. To this end the article outlines and discusses the issues commonly addressed by research ethics committees. By highlighting these principles, this paper aims to give insights and suggestions that should make the ethics application task easier.

  16. Genetic Counseling: Ethical and Professional Role Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, J. Melvin; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Genetic counseling assists people in identifying potential or manifest genetic problems, understanding their implications, making decisions about what course to follow, and working through psychological and social aspects as they affect individuals or couples. Four ethical principles and related ethical issues pertaining to autonomy, beneficence…

  17. Ethical Realism: A Guide to Action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkin, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Gary Miller's essay entitled "Ethical Realism and Continuing Education." In his essay, Dr. Miller has provided a valuable opportunity to reflect on the practice of continuing education (CE) leadership. Dr. Miller reviews six principles that are encapsulated in the concept of ethical realism, but are…

  18. Ethical Challenges Scenario: Youth Involvement in Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksy, Leslie J.

    2007-01-01

    All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

  19. Professional Decision Making and Personal Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jay; Steele, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Discusses ethics regarding the journalism and mass communications professoriate. Suggests a schema or audit to positively address such issues as accountability and loyalty, values, and principles. Offers eight questions for a personal ethics audit which attempt to join good intentions with good decisions, and shift the enterprise to a positive…

  20. Theories of normative ethics - an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne

    2007-01-01

    in a larger sum of total of welfare in the world Egoism: We ought always to act so as to maximize the sum total of our own welfare. Duty ethics: There are universal duties and prohibition we always should follow, irrespective of the consequences of following them. Virtue ethics:  The most basic question......Introduction: The presentation is a general introduction to the main schools in applied ethics, their implications and problems, and their relationship to the notion of equity. Background: Dilemmas and tensions between ethical principles and the practices of the maritime industry will be discussed...... at an empirical level in the workshop Ethics and Equity. This opening theoretical presentation is an attempt to frame and qualify the following discussion. Summary: The interest of normative ethics' is the content of our moral behaviour. Normative ethical theories seek to provide action-guides - procedures...

  1. Ethics in Turkish nursing education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgülü, Refia Selma; Dinç, Leyla

    2007-11-01

    This descriptive study investigated the current status of ethics instruction in Turkish nursing education programs. The sample for this study comprised 39 nursing schools, which represented 51% of all nursing schools in Turkey. Data were collected through a postal questionnaire. The results revealed that 18 of these nursing schools incorporated an ethics course into undergraduate and three into graduate level programs. Most of the educators focused on the basic concepts of ethics, deontological theory, ethical principles, ethical problems in health care, patient rights and codes of ethics for nurses. More than half of the educators believed that students' theoretical knowledge of ethics is applied to their clinical experiences. The teaching methods used included discussion in class, lectures, case studies, small group discussion, dramatization and demonstration. Assessment was carried out by means of written essays and written examinations.

  2. Occupational therapy, professional development and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The article's aim is to reflect on and contribute to developing occupational therapy as a profession. I propose an ethical interpretation of health and helping professions in general and occupational therapy in particular. According to this ethical interpretation, the essential function and mission...... of classical health and helping professions are defined by certain ethical values: the basic elements of a good human life. I argue that the central concepts of occupational therapy, activity and participation, can plausibly be understood in this light. However, this seems to imply a rather substantial...... conception of well-being which I try to spell out. In addition, I specify the basic principles of biomedical ethics in the context of occupational therapy according to an ethical interpretation. In conclusion, I point at four advantages of the ethical interpretation: It adds precision and content to ethical...

  3. Ethics Education in Training of Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rıza ERDEM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethics refers to a number of principles related to certain attitudes and moral values which are recognized by a group of people or the society itself. Science ethics could also be named as ethic and scientific dimensions which are supposed to care about related to the planning and maintenance of the scientific study. Moreover, the ethics of science includes the ethical values concerning various studies and publishing. However, it is also very common to come across some situations contradicting the science ethics in scientific studies and publishing the academic staffs who are supposed to train scientific ethics are effectively responsible for three major points: (1 Education & training, (2 Consultancy for post-graduate thesis, (3 Scientific jury membership and being a reviewer referee in scientific journals.

  4. 心理咨询与干预中的道德冲突与伦理原则——写在庆祝中国医学伦理学研究30周年之际%On the Moral Conflicts and Ethical Principles in Psychological Consultation and Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石大璞

    2012-01-01

    在庆祝中国医学伦理学与生命伦理学研究30周年之际,回顾了在活动筹办之初所阐述的文化背景在医学伦理研究中的重要意义,提出了在现代科学技术视域下对我国医学伦理学发展的思考,并结合自身长期从事心理咨询工作的实践,介绍了心理咨询与干预中的若干道德冲突,并提出了应该把握的伦理原则.%In celebration of the 30 anniversary for Chinese medical ethics and bioethics research, as an old ethical researcher, the author reviewed the important significance of culture background in the medical ethics research, which he expounded at the beginning of this activity. Some thoughts about the development of Chinese medical ethics under the view of modern science and technology were proposed. According to the experiences of long time psychological consultation, the author introduced some moral conflicts in psychological consultation and intervention, and proposed some ethical principles.

  5. Evidence and Ethics (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the December issue of EBLIP, the final issue of my first year as Editor-in-Chief. A year which I have thoroughly enjoyed and one where the fears over what to write in my editorials haven’t materialised. This quarter, ethics has featured quite heavily in my working life so I decided to make this the topic of the editorial, sharing some of my thoughts regarding evidence, ethics and how ethical principles are implemented within the EBLIP journal.Ethics are “principles of conduct or standards of behaviour governing an individual or profession” (Library and Information Science Editorial Committee, 2010, and as individuals or professionals we may be governed by various ethical codes. As I'm sure you know, EBLIP originated in the health domain, where ethical values and ethical research feature strongly. Indeed, by its formal definition, research cannot take place unless “ethical approval” from an appropriate committee has been granted. The practicalities of taking research through the ethical approval process can often be time consuming, and those involved in research need to bear this in mind when planning a project. Each committee will have a slightly different form and process (which can add to the frustration of the researcher, but basically will make their decision to approve on the basis that the research includes obtaining informed consent from participants (i.e., participants know what the research is about and what their involvement will mean; that the research will not cause harm to participants; that confidentiality will be maintained; and that the research undertaken is methodologically rigorous and worthwhile. Preparing a proposal for ethical approval, whilst time consuming, makes the researcher think about all aspects of the research and how it is going to be operationalized, which can save lots of time and effort in the long run and may well also improve the research design. These principles are the same whatever

  6. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  7. Doing the Right Thing: Ethical Issues in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Recent ethical lapses in corporate America have motivated institutions of higher education to focus more attention on their ethical responsibilities. These responsibilities include creating ethical learning environments in which students can learn the principles and traditions of professional practice and develop knowledge and skills to help them…

  8. Using Gaming To Help Nursing Students Understand Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Barbara L.; Yankou, Dawn

    2003-01-01

    An ethics game involves nursing students in defending actions in ethics-based scenarios. Benefits include increased confidence, ability to see multiple perspectives, values clarification, and exposure to decision-making models, professional responsibilities, ethical principles, social expectations, and legal requirements. Difficulties include…

  9. Administrator and Faculty Ethics Codes in Community Colleges. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Tronie

    The role of ethics in institutional management and instruction and the need for ethics codes have been identified as major issues currently facing community colleges in the United States. In general, ethics codes represent professional ideals, serving as guides for behavior and establishing principles of performance. A study was recently conducted…

  10. Ethical Analysis of the Functioning of Media in Society and Media Texts in the Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-01-01

    Ethical analysis of the functioning of media in society and media texts based on the ethical theory of media. It is assumed that the media are able to form certain audience’s moral principles. From this follows the main goal of media literacy ethics education: to involve the audience in a particular ethical behaviors (corresponding, for example, a particular religion, level of civilization, democracy, etc.). Teaching strategy is based on the study of ethical aspects of media and ethical analy...

  11. e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Ramadhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government ethics and formulating the issues of e-Government ethics. The e-Government ethics position, based on the previous three applied ethics, is also described in this paper. Computer ethics, information ethics and cyber ethics are considered as the foundations of e-Government ethics and several others applied ethics could enrich the e-Government ethics.

  12. Personalism for public health ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  13. Ideology and gender: observers' system justification and targets' gender as interactive predictors of citizenship expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaburu, Dan S; Harris, T Brad; Smith, Troy A

    2014-01-01

    We integrate system justification and social role theory to explain how observers' system justification and target employees' gender interact to predict observers' expectations of targets' sportsmanship citizenship behaviors. In contrast with social role theory predictions, observers did not expect greater levels of sportsmanship from women compared to men. Yet observers expected more sportsmanship from women (a) when observers were ideologically motivated by gender-specific beliefs (gender-specific system justification; Study 1) and (b) when system justification was cued experimentally (Study 2). A heretofore-unexamined aspect, observers' ideology, modifies their expectations of sportsmanship citizenship across target genders. This has implications for system justification, social role, and organizational citizenship theoretical perspectives.

  14. Neonatal ethics in ELBW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Messner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The delivery of extremely low gestational age newborns and extremely low birth weight infants presents challenging ethical issues for caregivers and parents. Major concerns regard the high mortality and morbidity resulting in long term sequelae, the limit of viability as well as the conflict and difficulty in judgement involving “quality of life” and “sanctity of life” issues. Other paramount ethical concepts include the newborn’s best interest, the decision to initiate or withhold treatment at birth and the decision to withdraw treatment with the consequence that the infant will die. On the basis of the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, justice and nonmaleficence we will discuss the best interest standards, the standard for the decision making process and treatment decisions, which should always be governed by the prospect for the individual infant. In this paper we propose that ethical questions should not be regulated by law and the legal system should not interfere in the patient-physician relationship. Continuous improvement in medicine over the last decades led to increased treatment possibilities, which on the other hand also resulted in more ethical dilemmas. Therefore, today more than ever, it is essential that the neonatologist becomes familiar with basic ethical concepts and their application to clinical reality.  Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  15. Tank farms justification for continued operations 007 Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propson, J.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-23

    This Implementation Plan (IP) provides detailed descriptions, cost estimates, and schedules of activities required to implement the controls specified in Flammable Gas/Slurry Growth Unreviewed Safety Question: Justification for Continued Operation for the Tank Farms at Hanford Site (WHC-SD-WM-JCO-007, Rev.0). This IP complies with the Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSR) Administrative Control 5.27 and WHC-IP-0842 Volume 4 Section 5.6 for such a plan.

  16. Exploring the Application of Capital Facility Investment Justification Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Karić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades now, the models for identifying and quantifying the level of risk of investment projects and investment justification evaluation have been the subject of investigation by members of professional and research communities. It is important to quantify the level of risk because by evaluating investment justification in terms of the risks involved, the decision-maker (investor is able to choose from available alternatives the one that will achieve the most favourable ratio of expected profit to the assumed risk. In this way, the economic entity can raise its productivity, profitability and the quality of business operation in general. The aim of this paper was to investigate the extent to which medium and large companies have been using modern methods of investment justification evaluation in their decision-making process and determine the level of quality of the application of the selected methods in practice. The study was conducted on a sample of medium and large enterprises in the eastern Croatia during 2011 and 2012, and it was established that despite the fact that a large number of modern investment project profitability and risk assessment models have been developed, the level of their application in practice is not high enough. The analyzed investment proposals included only basic methods of capital budgeting without risk assessment. Hence, it was concluded that individual investors were presented with low-quality and incomplete investment justification evaluation results on the basis of which the decisions of key importance for the development of the economic entity as a whole were made. This paper aims to underline the need for financial managers to get informed and educate themselves about contemporary investment project profitability and risk assessment models as well as the need to create educational programmes and computer solutions that will encourage key people in companies to acquire new knowledge and apply modern

  17. Mathematical justification of the Aharonov-Bohm hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Cesar R

    2008-01-01

    It is presented, in the framework of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, a justification of the usual Aharonov-Bohm hamiltonian (with solenoid of radius greater than zero). This is obtained by way of increasing sequences of finitely long solenoids together with a natural impermeability procedure; further, both limits commute. Such rigorous limits are in the strong resolvent sense and in both $\\R^2$ and $\\R^3$ spaces.

  18. Research ethics in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Schmitt Rocha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective here is to point out ethics in Physical Education research against a backdrop of individual and collective human conduct. Since Plato, the question of ethics in the Western world has been an incessant search for the virtues to harmonize personal and social wellbeing and for the absolute principles of conduct: Autonomy, Beneficence and Justice. Physical Education cannot exempt itself from these and its countless areas of research. In addition to the moral education that develops and solidifies within social groups, the characteristic of which is action on an individual level, we must also consider ethical principles such as those defended by the Physical Education World Manifesto and those that regulate the professional activities of Physical Education professionals. Irrespective of the area investigated, Research in Physical Education will always clash with institutionalized ethical principles enforced by ethics committees, councils and the values accepted by the researchers. Committees strive to preserve the integrity and dignity of the people enrolled on research studies while the researchers challenge the limits of knowledge at an uncomfortable frontier between the acceptable and the unacceptable within a given context of academic vision and needs.

  19. Computational meta-ethics towards the meta-ethical robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, G.-J.

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that ethically correct robots should be able to reason about right and wrong. In order to do so, they must have a set of do’s and don’ts at their disposal. However, such a list may be inconsistent, incomplete or otherwise unsatisfactory, depending on the reasoning principles that

  20. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  1. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.

  2. Uncertainty and the ethics of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2006-01-01

    A probabilistic explication is offered of equipoise and uncertainty in clinical trials. In order to be useful in the justification of clinical trials, equipoise has to be interpreted in terms of overlapping probability distributions of possible treatment outcomes, rather than point estimates representing expectation values. Uncertainty about treatment outcomes is shown to be a necessary but insufficient condition for the ethical defensibility of clinical trials. Additional requirements are proposed for the nature of that uncertainty. The indecisiveness of our criteria for cautious decision-making under uncertainty creates the leeway that makes clinical trials defensible.

  3. Radiation protection: some philosophical and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Santiago; Chhem, Rethy K; Czarwinski, Renate

    2010-10-01

    The ethical issue of justification has become an urgent issue in radiology. There has been a shift in emphasis in the discussion from what has been regarded as a rather paternalistic attitude of practitioners to one that stresses the rights of the individual patient. This article comments on this current move on the part of the profession by offering certain relevant philosophical considerations. Using a medical scenario as the context to comment on this shift, it discusses important and fundamental issues, such as the autonomy and the rights of the patient in addition to the question of consent on the patient's part.

  4. Biomedical research ethics: an Islamic view--part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Raafat Y

    2007-10-01

    Most of the currently accepted western basic principles of ethics in research are consistent with the instructions of Islam. This statement may come as a surprise to some western researchers. In this article, I will discuss why Islam rejects secularization and this is not because the ethical principles embedded in Islam's teachings are archaic and out of touch with current realities. In addition, I will point out the agreement between general broad principles of research ethics and Islamic teachings concerning life; this would show clearly that Islam has addressed the regulation of ethics in research more than 14 centuries ago.

  5. Public Health Ethics, Legitimacy, and the Challenges of Industrial Wind Turbines: The Case of Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While industrial wind turbines (IWTs) clearly raise issues concerning threats to the health of a few in contrast to claimed health benefits to many, the trade-off has not been fully considered in a public health framework. This article reviews public health ethics justifications for the licensing and installation of IWTs. It concludes that the…

  6. Different views on ethics: how animal ethics is situated in a committee culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideland, M

    2009-04-01

    Research that includes non-human animal experimentation is fundamentally a dilemmatic enterprise. Humans use other animals in research to improve life for their own species. Ethical principles are established to deal with this dilemma. But despite this ethical apparatus, people who in one way or another work with animal experimentation have to interpret and understand the principles from their individual points of view. In interviews with members of Swedish animal ethics committees, different views on what the term ethics really means were articulated. For one member, the difficult ethical dilemma of animal experimentation is the lack of enriched cages for mice. For another, the ethical problem lies in regulations restraining research. A third member talks about animals' right not to be used for human interests. These different views on "ethics" intersect once a month in the animal ethics committee meetings. There is no consensus on what constitutes the ethical problem that the members should be discussing. Therefore, personal views on what ethics means, and hierarchies among committee members, characterise the meetings. But committee traditions and priorities of interpretation as well are important to the decisions. The author discusses how "ethics" becomes situated and what implications this may have for committees' decisions.

  7. An Ethical Review of Euthanasia and Physician-assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banović, Božidar; Turanjanin, Veljko; Miloradović, Anđela

    2017-02-01

    In the majority of countries, active direct euthanasia is a forbidden way of the deprivation of the patients' life, while its passive form is commonly accepted. This distinction between active and passive euthanasia has no justification, viewed through the prism of morality and ethics. Therefore, we focused on attention on the moral and ethical implications of the aforementioned medical procedures. Data were obtained from the Clinical Hospital Center in Kragujevac, collected during the first half of the 2015. The research included 88 physicians: 57 male physicians (representing 77% of the sample) and 31 female physicians (23% of the sample). Due to the nature, subject and hypothesis of the research, the authors used descriptive method and the method of the theoretical content analysis. A slight majority of the physicians (56, 8%) believe that active euthanasia is ethically unacceptable, while 43, 2% is for another solution (35, 2% took a viewpoint that it is completely ethically acceptable, while the remaining 8% considered it ethically acceptable in certain cases). From the other side, 56, 8% of respondents answered negatively on the ethical acceptability of the physician-assisted suicide, while 33% of them opted for a completely ethic viewpoint of this procedure. Out of the remaining 10, 2% opted for the ethical acceptability in certain cases. Physicians in Serbia are divided on this issue, but a group that considers active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide as ethically unacceptable is a bit more numerous.

  8. Ethical Issues in the Use of Humans for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaw, W. L.

    The APA Ethical Principles, the University of Georgia policy, standard research texts, and research literature on specific methodologies, all in relation to ethical issues in human research, are discussed. The 10 APA principles state, in essence, that the investigator is responsible for what happens, that confidentiality and the protection of the…

  9. Research Ethics: Institutional Review Board Oversight of Art Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2011-01-01

    By having their research proposals reviewed and approved by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), art therapists meet important ethical principles regarding responsibility to research participants. This article provides an overview of the history of human subjects protections in the United States; underlying ethical principles and their application…

  10. Research Ethics: Institutional Review Board Oversight of Art Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2011-01-01

    By having their research proposals reviewed and approved by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), art therapists meet important ethical principles regarding responsibility to research participants. This article provides an overview of the history of human subjects protections in the United States; underlying ethical principles and their application…

  11. Research ethics and private harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koocher, Gerald P

    2014-12-01

    This commentary addresses the emotionally powerful account of Nicole Taus Kluemper from the perspective of a psychologist familiar with the administrative operation of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the ethics of the profession. The application of the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct to the case is discussed, and alternative methods of response that researchers who have concerns about case studies might use are offered. The author concludes that existing ethical principles-the aspirational standards in particular-do bear upon the matter in question. However, the enforceable code of conduct is not sufficiently clear about obligations to those whom psychologists publicly discuss when the psychologist does not have a specific duty of care to an individual.

  12. ETHICAL CHALLENGES IN AESTHETIC DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius NEAGU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic dentistry is a branch of dentistry which aims primarily at improving patient’s physical appearance and, to a lesser extent, the functionality of teeth. This field raises particular ethical dilemmas and requires a careful evaluation of patient’s needs and wishes versus his/her clinical best interests. In this article, the authors discuss the main ethical challenges in the field of aesthetic dentistry in the light of the four “classical” principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. The authors conclude that the principles of medical ethics should be at the very foundation of the field of aesthetic dentistry, for establishing a patient-physician relationship which could lead to optimum clinical outcomes, while respecting the wishes of the patient and promoting his/her best interests.

  13. [Scientific ethics of human cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2005-01-01

    True cloning is fission, budding or other types of asexual reproduction. In humans it occurs in monozygote twinning. This type of cloning is ethically and religiously good. Human cloning can be performed by twinning (TWClo) or nuclear transfer (NTClo). Both methods need a zygote or a nuclear transferred cell, obtained in vitro (IVTec). They are under the IVTec ethics. IVTecs use humans (zygotes, embryos) as drugs or things; increase the risk of malformations; increase development and size of abnormalities and may cause long-term changes. Cloning for preserving extinct (or almost extinct) animals or humans when sexual reproduction is not possible is ethically valid. The previous selection of a phenotype in human cloning violates some ethical principles. NTClo for reproductive or therapeutic purposes is dangerous since it increases the risk for nucleotide or chromosome mutations, de-programming or re-programming errors, aging or malignancy of the embryo cells thus obtained.

  14. Ethics Do Matter, But Where?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. O'Brien

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The implications of social work being an ethics-based profession are explored. Conduct toward colleagues in the discharge of ethical practices is a focus of this article. The author’s view is that other disciplines involved in mental health, for example, psychiatry, family physicians, psychology, nursing, pastoral services, education, and rehabilitation therapy, share these values. As such, these themes are relevant across many professional disciplines. The article’s intent is to promote discussion as to how we cultivate a collective demeanor as social workers that is congruent with our most hallowed values and principles, namely, social justice, ethical practice, fairness and respect for all people. An examination of daily practices in the workplace and suggested remedies to enhance ethical conduct, including a series of questions we can ask ourselves, are offered.

  15. Ethics in Medical Research and Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izet Masic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To present the basic principles and standards of Ethics in medical research and publishing, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the published literature. Investing in education of researches and potential researches, already in the level of medical schools. Educating them on research ethics, what constitutes research misconduct and the seriousness of it repercussion is essential for finding a solution to this problem and ensuring careers are constructed on honesty and integrity.

  16. Florence Nightingale's contribution to contemporary nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Florence Nightingale brought nursing from a disreputable and immoral vocation into the honest and ethical profession that is enjoyed today by emphasizing strict morals in the personal and work lives of her nursing students. In modern day, ethical principles guide the nursing profession and have many relevant connections to Nightingale's morals. Just as the high moral character of Nightingale's nurses helped nursing rise to a profession in her day, teaching and following ethical principles is crucial in furthering the nursing profession in our day.

  17. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allon J. Friedman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics.

  18. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN MEDICAL PRACTICE AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is governed by moral principles that define human conduct for an individual, group or society. Role of ethics has become extremely important in medical practice and research. Medical practice or any scientific act related to human participation in research should be carefully calibrated safeguarding the ethical interest of the patient/participant. The philosophy of medical intervention should be to integrate a transparent health care system that focuses on consistent delivery of evidence based care at the right time in the right environment and in right manner. In futuristic healthcare sector, upcoming professionals should be adequately sensitized to protect and respect the ethical interest of the patients.

  19. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allon N

    2016-04-19

    Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics.

  20. Relational narrative: the postmodern turn in nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, S

    1999-01-01

    A philosophy of nursing requires an ethical cornerstone. I describe three dialectical layers of an ethical cornerstone: subjective immersion, objective detachment, and relational narrative. Dialectically, the move from immersion to detachment is the turn from communitarian to rational ethics, replacing traditions with universal principles. The move from universalism to engagement is the turn from rational to relational ethics, replacing detached reason with engagement between particular selves. Conceptually, the three layers correspond to premodern, modern, and postmodern ethics. I propose that the layers be viewed not as stages, but as elements that coexist in an ethically vital profession, and I conclude with an illustration of their coexistence in a clinical situation.

  1. ETHICS AND COMPLIANCE IN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the evolution of the business ethics concept through the prism of definitions from some renowned authors in the field and through the approach model of the business ethics and by implementing it in the company level. We have found out that in the last 40 years this concept has evolved from a theoretical aspect, as well as a practical one. Companies are motivated to implement ethics and compliance programs in business so that they can manage the changes that come from society. If, until recently, all that mattered for a company was profit, in the last decades, the situation changed. In order to develop a durable business, it is essential to have a good reputation. Owning and implementing an ethics and compliance program in business has become an imperative for companies, regardless of their activity sector. The role of the compliance department becomes more pregnant in each company: the employees need safety, the existence of communication lines provides comfort. From the partners in business’ point of view, owning such a program is a necessity, a condition, and not conforming to the principles of business ethics can lead to the isolation of the company. The ethics and compliance programs in business are instruments that protect the company by implementing certain proactive identification mechanisms that ensure the development of an ethical organizational culture.

  2. Analysis of regulatory-ethical framework of clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević-Georgiev Andrijana; Krajnović Dušanka; Milovanović Srđan; Ignjatović Svetlana; Đurić Dušan; Marinković Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Every clinical trial has to meet all ethical criteria in addition to the scientific ones. The basic ethical principles in the clinical trials are the following: nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect for autonomy and the principle of justice. Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical cases with the outcomes leading to the changes in regulatory­ethical framework related to the clinical trials, as well as the outcomes of key clinical trials that influenced the in...

  3. BUSINESS ETHICS IMPLEMENTATION IN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    BERINDE Mihai; ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we have analysed the perception and implementation of the principles of business ethics for companies. This paper is a theoretical approach to ethical principles and the corresponding legislation, as well as an analysis of the degree of alignment of national legislation with the latest stipulations following the entry into force of the UK Bribery Act. This Act is currently recognized as a new and more comprehensive approach on the subject of ethics in international ...

  4. Ethics in using students as subjects in software engineering experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Enyan, B. (Benjamin)

    2016-01-01

    The ethical issues that researchers encounter in experiment are usually debated upon. Ethical issues are scrutinized and reported in the law, medicine and psychology areas of study. Independent boards are commonly employed to vet the ethical aspect of experiments in the above mentioned areas of study. However, in the software engineering area of research, it is not entirely like that as researchers just follow the guidelines of their respective institutions. Ethical principles of right and wr...

  5. Cautionary tales: ethics and case studies in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2014-12-01

    Ethical concerns are normally avoided in science classrooms in spite of the fact that many of our discoveries impinge directly on personal and societal values. We should not leave the ethical problems for another day, but deal with them using realistic case studies that challenge students at their ethical core. In this article we illustrate how case studies can be used to teach STEM students principles of ethics.

  6. THE ROLE OF ETHICS FOR COST ACCOUNTING PROFESSSIONALS

    OpenAIRE

    Petru Stefea; Nita Cornel Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to improve the understood importance of ethics for cost accounting professionals as a tool for successful cost accounting system. Also, present study is outpointing the implications of ethical conduct over the cost accounting system and, also, a review of ethical standards and principles for cost accounting professionals. The value contribution of this paper comes from a critical review of the ethics of cost accounting professionals presented by the most important...

  7. THE ROLE OF ETHICS FOR COST ACCOUNTING PROFESSSIONALS

    OpenAIRE

    Petru Stefea; Nita Cornel Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to improve the understood importance of ethics for cost accounting professionals as a tool for successful cost accounting system. Also, present study is outpointing the implications of ethical conduct over the cost accounting system and, also, a review of ethical standards and principles for cost accounting professionals. The value contribution of this paper comes from a critical review of the ethics of cost accounting professionals presented by the most important...

  8. Engaging Students in the Ethics of Engineering and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiko, Yasukawa

    This paper argues that education for engineers and technologists should focus on the ethics of technology and engineering, and not just ethics in technology and engineering projects. It argues that one's expression of their ethical position is linked closely to their identity formation, and is di......, and is different to other "competencies" that are emphasised in engineering and technology education. Principles of sustainable development are proposed as a framework for engaging students in reflecting on their ethical positions and practices....

  9. The relevance of Rawls' principle of justice for research on cognitively impaired patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    An ethical conflict arises when we must perform research in the interest of future patients, but that this may occasionally injure the interests of today's patients. In the case of cognitively impaired persons, the question arises whether it is compatible with humane healthcare not only to treat, but also to use these patients for research purposes. Some bioethicists and theologians have formulated a general duty of solidarity, also pertaining to cognitively impaired persons, as a justification for research on these persons. If one examines this thesis from the theory of justice according to John Rawls, it is revealed that such a duty of solidarity cannot necessarily be extrapolated from Rawls' conception of justice. This is at least true of Rawls' difference principle, because according to the difference principle only those measures are justifiable which serve the interest of the respective least well off. Those measures which would engender additional injury for the least well off could not be balanced by any utility according to Rawls. However, John Rawls' difference principle is subordinate to the first principle, which is that each person has an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with the same liberty for others. These "primary goods" are determined by the freedom and integrity of the person. This integrity of decisionally impaired persons would be in danger if one would abstain from research and thus forego the increase in knowledge related to their disease. Thus one could conclude, at least from Rawls' first principle, that society must take on a duty to guarantee the degrees of freedom for cognitively impaired persons and thus also support the efforts for their healing.

  10. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations.

  11. Ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, David

    2012-01-01

    In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness.

  12. Ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabro, Christian

    2015-01-01

    What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter.......What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter....

  13. Ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabro, Christian

    2015-01-01

    What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter.......What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter....

  14. [Ethics and ritual circumcision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, C; Faix, A

    2014-12-01

    Circumcision dates back to ancient times, nowadays, this ritual is practiced mainly in the context of Jewish and Muslim religions. The purpose of this article is to give urologists elements of reflection on the act according to the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. According to a Kantian vision, priority should be given to the respect and wishes of the individuals. In contrast, for the utilitarian theory, circumcision can be justified by a contribution to the happiness of the majority of community members at the expense of a given few. In the event of a request for ritual circumcision, urologists find themselves in the middle, uncomfortable for some, questioning the ethics of its meaning. The main pitfall for the surgeon remains in respecting the child's autonomy.

  15. Basing Science Ethics on Respect for Human Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aközer, Mehmet; Aközer, Emel

    2016-12-01

    A "no ethics" principle has long been prevalent in science and has demotivated deliberation on scientific ethics. This paper argues the following: (1) An understanding of a scientific "ethos" based on actual "value preferences" and "value repugnances" prevalent in the scientific community permits and demands critical accounts of the "no ethics" principle in science. (2) The roots of this principle may be traced to a repugnance of human dignity, which was instilled at a historical breaking point in the interrelation between science and ethics. This breaking point involved granting science the exclusive mandate to pass judgment on the life worth living. (3) By contrast, respect for human dignity, in its Kantian definition as "the absolute inner worth of being human," should be adopted as the basis to ground science ethics. (4) The pathway from this foundation to the articulation of an ethical duty specific to scientific practice, i.e., respect for objective truth, is charted by Karl Popper's discussion of the ethical principles that form the basis of science. This also permits an integrated account of the "external" and "internal" ethical problems in science. (5) Principles of the respect for human dignity and the respect for objective truth are also safeguards of epistemic integrity. Plain defiance of human dignity by genetic determinism has compromised integrity of claims to knowledge in behavioral genetics and other behavioral sciences. Disregard of the ethical principles that form the basis of science threatens epistemic integrity.

  16. [Research ethics committees: a necessary good].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Alejandra V

    2013-12-01

    The Nuremberg Code, issued as the result of the deliberations of the Nuremberg Trials, which judged the atrocities carried out during Nazi Germany (1933-1945), was the first universal document that defined research ethics principles for human experimentation. This code served as the basis for the subsequent ethical codes and principles used today by the Research Ethics Committees. The Research Ethics Committee is a multidisciplinary body whose primary role is to protect the rights and welfare of research subjects through the review of research protocols, ensuring compliance with internationally and locally accepted ethical guidelines. Worldwide, there have been important improvements in order to promote and regulate bioethics in medical research. In Venezuela, several national organizations have been constituted with the aim of promoting the establishment of ethics committees; however, there has not been a significant progress in the quantity or quality of the functioning of Research Ethics Committees in the country. It is imperative for each research institution to establish and work to improve their ethics committee to ensure the quality of the clinical research conducted, making it adherent to ethical codes, and safeguarding the integrity and credibility of the investigators and the research institutions, and more importantly, the patient's rights.

  17. The Ethics of Payment for Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Villagómez-Cortés

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES is an economic tool that has emerged in recent years as a mechanism to promote conservation of natural resources, as well as that of various goods and services commonly used. However, its application in practice raises a number of ethical concerns that this study seeks to discuss. The concept and benefits of PES are discussed, emphasizing its neoclassical economic nature background and how the initial anthropogenic position has evolved into a more holistic ecosystem vision. The paper examines some of the relationships between ethics and ecosystem services as well as the natural conflicts emerging from the opposition of utilitarian economic values versus moral arguments and deontological ethical systems. Then, a justification for ethics in payment for ecosystem services is provided as an attempt to solve perceived conflicts between conservation and human welfare. Later, the right to benefit from natural resources and PES is discussed. The conflict between natural resources as public goods whose use is a universal right for all human beings and the property rights, either legal or ancestral, of indigenous and originary people is stressed. Finally, the future of ethics and ecosystem services on issues such as the well-being of future generations and the search of an efficient integration based on land planning and conservation management strategies is discussed. In conclusion, the paper emphasizes the need for a better, integrated accounting of the benefits and costs of nature conservation, which will probably only occur when teams of natural and social scientists work together.

  18. ETHICS AND DEONTOLOGY OF MEDICAL EDUCATION AND NURSES IN PORTUGUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Costa Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses deontological issues of health care professions in relation to their ethical foundation. We present four models of teaching ethics and deontology in doctors’ training and the results of a PhD research on the teaching of these subjects in nurses’ training in Portugal. Given the importance of bioethics in deontological training of health care professions, we present a comparative analysis of. bioethical principles enunciated by Beauchamp and Childress (1979, related to ‘ethics of justice’, and Kemp’s(2000 proposal, associated to an ‘ethics of care’. Given the ambiguity of these bioethical expressions, we focus on the analysis of its contents and the need to discuss the fundamentals of ethical training of doctors and nurses in relation to the ethical theories they are derived from. Utilitarian ethics, duty ethics, virtue ethics, when the analysis of bioethics’ fundaments is not trained, the duty of caring of suffering can be put at risk.

  19. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  20. The Role of Ethics Committees and Ethics Consultation in Allocation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel; Hurst, Samia; Danis, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions about the allocation and rationing of medical interventions likely occur in all health care systems worldwide. So far very little attention has been given to the question of what role ethics consultation and ethics committees could or should play in questions of allocation at the hospital level. Objectives and Methods This article argues for the need for ethics consultation in rationing decisions using empirical data about the status quo and the inherent nature of bedside rationing. Subsequently, it introduces a 4-stage process for establishing and conducting ethics consultation in rationing questions with systematic reference to core elements of procedural justice. Results Qualitative and quantitative findings show a significant demand for ethics consultation expressed directly by doctors, as well as additional indirect evidence of such a need as indicated by ethically challenging circumstances of inconsistent and structurally disadvantaging rationing decisions. To address this need, we suggest 4 stages for establishing and conducting ethics consultation in rationing questions we recommend: (1) training, (2) identifying actual scarcity-related problems at clinics, (3) supporting decision-making, and (4) evaluation. Conclusion This process of ethics consultation regarding rationing decisions would facilitate the achievement of several practical goals: (i) encouragement of an awareness and understanding of ethical problems in bedside rationing, (ii) encouragement of achieving efficiency along with rationing, (iii) reinforcement of consistency in inter- and intraindvidual decision-making, (iv) encouragement of explicit reflection and justification of the prioritization criteria taken into consideration, (v) improvement in internal (in-house) and external transparency, and (vi) prevention of the misuse of the corresponding consulting structures. PMID:20706163

  1. Ethical principles and practice in organic processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Weinreich; Nielsen, T; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2006-01-01

    market for new actors – especially this paper will concentrate on the processing companies who, for a large part, took interest in the organic production after the ending of the pioneer phase. The authors emphasize the importance of reflecting values in relation to organic food production especially...

  2. Ethical principles and practice in organic processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Weinreich; Nielsen, T; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2006-01-01

    This paper will give a short introduction to the historical roots of the organic production in Denmark. The organic production has gone from a pioneer phase with few dedicated actors, to an institutionalized and standardized food production system. The institutionalization has opened the organic ...

  3. A Bayesian Justification for Random Sampling in Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Meeden

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the usual Bayesian approach to survey sampling the sampling design, plays a minimal role, at best. Although a close relationship between exchangeable prior distributions and simple random sampling has been noted; how to formally integrate simple random sampling into the Bayesian paradigm is not clear. Recently it has been argued that the sampling design can be thought of as part of a Bayesian's prior distribution. We will show here that under this scenario simple random sample can be given a Bayesian justification in survey sampling.

  4. Virtue ethics and nursing: on what grounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newham, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    Within the nursing ethics literature, there has for some time now been a focus on the role and importance of character for nursing. An overarching rationale for this is the need to examine the sort of person one must be if one is to nurse well or be a good nurse. How one should be to live well or live a/the good life and to nurse well or be a good nurse seems to necessitate a focus on an agent's character as well as actions because character is (for the most part) expressed in action (e.g. see Laird). This paper will give an overview of the reasons for the role and importance of character in nursing practice and explain its relation to nursing's frequent use of virtue ethics in order to recommend caution. While the paper agrees that the role of character is important in nursing caution is needed in both how much moral and thus normative, emphasis is being placed on the psychology of character and on the drift to virtue ethics. The psychological which may be explanatory needs to be linked with the normative, and a justification for the normative is needed. A justification as virtue ethics is contested, and nursing practice does not need to take on this explanatory and justificatory burden. A tentative proposal raised but not discussed in depth in this paper is that when an ultimate explanation or explanatory ground is needed, nursing practice leads quite naturally to a form of consequentialism as well as a realist metaethic. On this account, there are two levels of moral thinking, and nursing practice entails the virtues at one level and leads quite naturally to moral thinking at another more critical level of the criterion of what makes something right and good independently of character. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. First Principles Justification of a "Single Wave Model" for Electrostatic Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, J D; Crawford, John David; Jayaraman, Anandhan

    1998-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of a unstable electrostatic wave is considered for a multi-species Vlasov plasma. From the singularity structure of the associated amplitude expansions, the asymptotic features of the electric field and distribution functions are determined in the limit of weak instability, i.e. electric field is monochromatic at the wavelength of the linear mode with a nonlinear time dependence. The structure of the distibutions outside the resonant region is given by the linear eigenfunction but in the resonant region the distribution is nonlinear. The details depend on whether the ions are fixed or mobile; in either case the physical picture corresponds to the single wave model originally proposed by O"Neil, Winfrey, and Malmberg for the interaction of a cold weak beam with a plasma of fixed ions.

  6. First principles justification of a ``single wave model'' for a general electrostatic instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, J. D.; Jayaraman, A.

    1997-11-01

    The coefficients in the amplitude equation for an unstable mode in a multi-species Vlasov plasma are singular as the growth rate γ approaches zero. Rescaling the mode amplitude |A(t)|=γ^5/2r(γ t) cancels these singularities to all orders. (J.D. Crawford and A. Jayaraman, submitted to J. Math. Phys.; available from http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/patt-sol/9706001) In addition, singularities arise in the asymptotic form of f(x,v,t); there are poles in the complex-velocity plane that approach the real velocity axis at the phase velocity vp as γarrow0^+. However the numerators contain factors of A(t), and we analyze the resulting product by introducing a singular velocity variable u=(v-v_p)/γ. In an \\cal O(γ) neighborhood of v_p, the weighted coefficients have finite, non-zero limits; outside this neighborhood, the coefficients vanish at γ=0. The complete asymptotic description of the instability contains non-resonant particles driven linearly by a monochromatic electric field E while the resonant particles at vp remain strongly nonlinear and yield a density spectrum with many wavenumbers. This picture recalls the single wave model of O'Neil et al. introduced for a cold beam-plasma instability with fixed ions.

  7. Paternalism and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-06-29

    In one of a series of articles on philosophical medical ethics, Gillon considers various moral arguments in support of medical paternalism. He maintains that the utilitarian principle of maximizing happiness by improving health, minimizing suffering, and prolonging life is not promoted by granting physicians the authority to deceive patients or to make decisions for them in areas of moral and subjective choice. If one wants to do good for a patient, one generally needs to find out what the patient wants one to do. Gillon concludes that many utilitarians agree with deontologists that respect for autonomy is required if human welfare really is to be maximized.

  8. Robot companions and ethics a pragmatic approach of ethical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Gérard

    2013-12-01

    From his experience as ethical expert for two Robot Companion prototype projects aiming at empowering older MCI persons to remain at home and to support their family carers, Gerard Cornet, Gerontologist, review the ethical rules, principles and pragmatic approaches in different cultures. The ethical process of these two funded projects, one European, Companionable (FP7 e-inclusion call1), the other French, Quo vadis (ANR tecsan) are described from the inclusion of the targeted end users in the process, to the assessment and ranking of their main needs and whishes to design the specifications, test the performance expected. Obstacles to turn round and limits for risks evaluation (directs or implicit), acceptability, utility, respect of intimacy and dignity, and balance with freedom and security and frontiers to artificial intelligence are discussed As quoted in the discussion with the French and Japanese experts attending the Toulouse Robotics and medicine symposium (March 26th 2011), the need of a new ethical approach, going further the present ethical rules is needed for the design and social status of ethical robots, having capacity cas factor of progress and global quality of innovation design in an ageing society.

  9. Public health accreditation and metrics for ethics: a case study on environmental health and community engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, Ruth Gaare; Stefanak, Matthew; Brandenburg, Terry; Pannone, Aaron; Melnick, Alan

    2013-01-01

    As public health departments around the country undergo accreditation using the Public Health Accreditation Board standards, the process provides a new opportunity to integrate ethics metrics into day-to-day public health practice. While the accreditation standards do not explicitly address ethics, ethical tools and considerations can enrich the accreditation process by helping health departments and their communities understand what ethical principles underlie the accreditation standards and how to use metrics based on these ethical principles to support decision making in public health practice. We provide a crosswalk between a public health essential service, Public Health Accreditation Board community engagement domain standards, and the relevant ethical principles in the Public Health Code of Ethics (Code). A case study illustrates how the accreditation standards and the ethical principles in the Code together can enhance the practice of engaging the community in decision making in the local health department.

  10. Ethical Reasoning in a Time of Revolution: A Study of Local Officials in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Debra W; Sprinthall, Norman; Siemienska, Renata

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 485 local officials in Poland showed that both elected and appointed officials strongly preferred principled reasoning for ethical decision making. Gender and attitude toward the change from Communism made a difference in preferred modes of ethical reasoning. (SK)

  11. A Computerised Business Ethics Expert System -A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Brenner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Where unethical business decision-making arises from failures of ethical perception, there is an important role for ethical training and decision-making tools. These may help business people to consider all relevant issues when assessing the ethical status of potential decisions. Ethical training programmes give business people a basic understanding of the principles which underlie ethical judgements and equip them with many of the necessary skills for dealing with the ethical dilemmas which they face in their jobs. Similarly, ethical decision-making tools may guide managers through the various ethical considerations which are relevant to business decision-making and help them to develop their ethical-perceptual skills. Furthermore, by establishing and reinforcing good ethical decision-making practices, training programmes and decision-making tools may also reduce the incidence of self-consciously unethical decision-making. A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making by the use of computerized business ethics expert systems is proposed. These systems have the potential to guide business people through a process of ethical evaluation while simultaneously fulfilling an educational role, thus providing many of the benefits of both training programmes and decision-making tools. While the prospect of a computer system which could simply make ethical judgements for business people is both unrealistic and undesirable, a system which leads human decision-makers through a structured assessment process has the potential for genuine benefits. Keywords: Expert Systems, Ethical Decision Making

  12. Ethics for pandemics beyond influenza: Ebola, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and anticipating future ethical challenges in pandemic preparedness and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maxwell J; Silva, Diego S

    2015-01-01

    The unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has raised several novel ethical issues for global outbreak preparedness. It has also illustrated that familiar ethical issues in infectious disease management endure despite considerable efforts to understand and mitigate such issues in the wake of past outbreaks. To improve future global outbreak preparedness and response, we must examine these shortcomings and reflect upon the current state of ethical preparedness. To this end, we focus our efforts in this article on the examination of one substantial area: ethical guidance in pandemic plans. We argue that, due in part to their focus on considerations arising specifically in relation to pandemics of influenza origin, pandemic plans and their existing ethical guidance are ill-equipped to anticipate and facilitate the navigation of unique ethical challenges that may arise in other infectious disease pandemics. We proceed by outlining three reasons why this is so, and situate our analysis in the context of the EVD outbreak and the threat posed by drug-resistant tuberculosis: (1) different infectious diseases have distinct characteristics that challenge anticipated or existing modes of pandemic prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery, (2) clear, transparent, context-specific ethical reasoning and justification within current influenza pandemic plans are lacking, and (3) current plans neglect the context of how other significant pandemics may manifest. We conclude the article with several options for reflecting upon and ultimately addressing ethical issues that may emerge with different infectious disease pandemics.

  13. A critical consideration of ethical foundations for the accounting profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Buys

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available When considering some of the key reasons for the desperate state of the current global economic environment, it is difficult to deny accounting’s role therein. Although accounting institutes require adherence to codes of conduct, the question remains as to what happened to the stewardship function of the accounting profession. This article has critically reflected on the question, ‘What constitutes an ethical accounting profession’? The key principles within many institutes’ codes of conduct, such as competency, integrity, objectivity and confidentiality, have been considered against the background of utilitarianism, formalism and virtue ethics as foundational ethical theories. This article has concluded that although these principles aim to provide a framework for ethical accounting conduct, individual subjectivity on the part of the accountant will play a role in how these ethical principles become ethical practices.

  14. Public health ethics theory: review and path to convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics is a nascent field, emerging over the past decade as an applied field merging concepts of clinical and research ethics. Because the "patient" in public health is the population rather than the individual, existing principles might be weighted differently, or there might be different ethical principles to consider. This paper reviewed the evolution of public health ethics, the use of bioethics as its model, and the proposed frameworks for public health ethics through 2010. Review of 13 major public health ethics frameworks published over the past 15 years yields a wide variety of theoretical approaches, some similar foundational values, and a few similar operating principles. Coming to a consensus on the reach, purpose, and ends of public health is necessary if we are to agree on what ethical underpinnings drive us, what foundational values bring us to these underpinnings, and what operating principles practitioners must implement to make ethical decisions. If public health is distinct enough from clinical medicine to warrant its own set of ethical and philosophical underpinnings, then a decision must be made as to whether a single approach is warranted or we can tolerate a variety of equal but different perspectives. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. The Role of Ethical Standards in Applied Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar Ghafarinasab

    2014-01-01

    Ethics include principles and standards that constitute the basis of professional responsibilities and activities and these should be taking as guiding principles. These laws should supervise research procedures and be prepared to suggest ways of responding to complaints about unethical behavior. We recommend that there are five principles in different fields that sociologists should follow. They include: professional competency, integrity, scientific and ethical responsibilities, respect for the rights and status of humans and accepting their diversity.

  16. Teaching Ethics in Canadian Gastroenterology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Van Rosendaal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A firm foundation in medical bioethics is essential to the education of any physician. The relative importance of specific ethical principles may vary with the physician's specialty, depending on the nature of the problems dealt with or the services provided in each discipline. The working knowledge in ethics required of a gastroenterologist is different, for example, from that needed by an intensivist or a psychiatrist. It is with this context in mind that Malhotra and Ottaway, in this issue of the Journal (pages 315-317, propose the creation of a national curriculum in bioethics specific to gastroenterology.

  17. Ethics for medical educators: An overview and fallacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arjun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is the rule of right conduct or practice in a profession. The basic principles of ethics are beneficence, justice and autonomy or individual freedom. There is very minor demarcation between ethics and the law. The ethics is promulgated by the professional bodies. All are expected to guide the medical professional in their practice. Medical educators have dual ethical obligations: firstly, to the society at large which expects us to produce competent health professionals, and secondly, to the students under our care. The students observe and copy what their teacher does and his/her role modelling can be a gateway to a student′s character building. Due to rapid increase in the number of medical colleges, privatization, and capitalism, ethical issue has become much more relevant and needs to discuss in detail. The present paper discusses the ethics for medical educators in detail with, basic principles, common breaches of ethics and fallacies due to wrong application of ethical principles, and the approach to ethics and methods by which we can prevent and avoid breach of ethics.

  18. Ethics for medical educators: an overview and fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arjun

    2010-07-01

    Ethics is the rule of right conduct or practice in a profession. The basic principles of ethics are beneficence, justice and autonomy or individual freedom. There is very minor demarcation between ethics and the law. The ethics is promulgated by the professional bodies. All are expected to guide the medical professional in their practice. Medical educators have dual ethical obligations: firstly, to the society at large which expects us to produce competent health professionals, and secondly, to the students under our care. The students observe and copy what their teacher does and his/her role modelling can be a gateway to a student's character building. Due to rapid increase in the number of medical colleges, privatization, and capitalism, ethical issue has become much more relevant and needs to discuss in detail. The present paper discusses the ethics for medical educators in detail with, basic principles, common breaches of ethics and fallacies due to wrong application of ethical principles, and the approach to ethics and methods by which we can prevent and avoid breach of ethics.

  19. Legitimizing the shameful: end-of-life ethics and the political economy of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Miran

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores one of the most politically sensitive and intellectually neglected issues in bioethics--the interface between the history of contemporary end-of-life ethics and the economics of life and death. It suggests that contrary to general belief, economic impulses have increasingly become part of the conditions in which contemporary end-of-life ethics continues to evolve. Although this conclusion does not refute the philosophical justifications provided by the ethics for itself, it may cast new light upon its social role.

  20. Jocasta's Fatalistic Ethic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brane Senegačnik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of Oedipus Tyrannus is the most perfect, the most successful and at the same time the simplest of the dramatic types used by Sophocles (Kirkwood. Although the structural focus is on the single figure of Oedipus, the minor characters - first and foremost Jocasta - are also allowed to utter ethical ideas of the utmost importance to the main theme of the tragedy. While the role of Jocasta itself is a secondary one, her passive attitude and fatalistic credo, set in striking contrast to Oedipus' firm determination to act and thus bring relief to the plague-stricken Thebes, express one of the most important ideas of the play. There are some striking similarities between her words and the ethical principles of the most prominent Hellenistic philosophies, i. e. (late Stoicism and Epicureanism, as well as those of Martin Heidegger's and his followers' thought. All these systems of ethics, each in its own way, are based on a reduced concept of' humanity, and the same is true of Jocasta's reasoning. This paper attempts to show that all the above-mentioned fatalistic attitudes are to be attributed to an inability to face the tragic reality of life.

  1. Ethics and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassany, O; Duracinský, M

    1999-01-01

    The current reference guideline about ethics in clinical trials is the Declaration of Helsinki of human rights in medical research. Three major principles are emphasised: respect of the patient to accept or not to participate in a trial, the constraints and the presumed risks must be acceptable for patients included in a study, and vulnerable subjects should not participate in studies. The investigator is responsible for obtaining a free and well-informed consent from patients before their inclusion in a study. Where possible, a new drug should always first be compared to placebo in order to prove its superiority. Else, a small-sized trial comparing a new drug versus a reference treatment can lead to an erroneous conclusion of absence of difference. Moreover, good results or improvement are obtained in at least 30% of cases with placebo, whatever the disease. The use of placebo is unethical in life-threatening diseases and when an effective proved drug exists. The use of placebo is ethical in severe diseases with no efficient drug, in some severe diseases even when an active reference treatment is available, and in all moderate and functional diseases. In order to detect flawed studies, most journals now ask for any manuscript submitted and reporting results of a randomised clinical trial to join a checklist in order to verify the quality of the trial. Finally, it remains the responsibility of the doctor to decide whether or not a protocol is ethical, to participate or not and to include patients or not.

  2. The business of ethics. Hospitals need to focus on managerial ethics as much as clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, L J

    1990-01-01

    Business ethics begins with the recognition of the various values and "goods" involved in judgements of what to do. Four key values are individual rights, individual self-interest, the company's best interest, and the public good. Often a company has to choose which of these goals or values should be subordinated to another. Business ethics, then, must clarify priorities among these values and establish priority principles to resolve conflicts. One approach to contemporary business ethics emphasizes personal integrity, focusing on conflicts of interest; another approach stresses social responsibility, focusing on the effect of company policy on groups and individuals in society. In business, most of the attention to conflicts of interest focuses on the conflict between employee self-interest and the firm's interest. Healthcare organizations may need to focus on potential conflicts between the patient's interest and the institution's or physician's interest. Physician referrals and pharmaceutical companies' marketing practices are two areas with potential conflicts. Not-for-profit organizations have been quicker than the business world to acknowledge social responsibility. In many ways, however, the social impact of healthcare policies and decisions has not been as carefully considered as it should be. Institutionalizing deliberation about clinical ethical issues has helped to raise awareness about the ethical dimensions of medical care. It would also be useful to institutionalize attention to business ethics in healthcare.

  3. Michel Foucault's Conception of Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamuran Gödelek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foucault’s conception of ethics is closely related to the political and intellectual structure, dominant in France in his youth. Foucault’s work can be regarded in general as a history of thought. Foucault aims at investigating our position today in the face of the historical foundations of contemporary culture. Hence, Foucault criticizes modern philosophy as well as the intellectual economical and political history of European culture. In the essence of Foucault’s criticism lies the denial of the idea of the constitutive subject, which has dominated the philosophy since Descartes. Foucault’s work is based on Nietzsche’s work which stands simply as a denial of Enlightment’s belief in the reason and in universal principles of humanistic values and rights. Foucault also, regards himself as a follower of Nietzsche and accepts his genealogical method, his conception of power and his views that ethical life is related with the aesthetics of self. We found, in Nietzsche, the foundations of Foucault’s subjectivity and its relation with language. Foucault, instead of developing a normative ethics, which could be true for anyone, is after developing a specific style which stems from individual freedom and intellectual development. For Foucault, ethics is investigating the relationship of the self with itself. Foucault regards ethics as a part of morality, which has the relationship of the self with itself as a subject matter. Foucault, in his conception of ethics does not deny the law of morality, that is, philosophy of morality, nor he denies the importance of the actual behavior of individuals. What Foucault particularly emphasizes is the style of self constituting of the individual as an ethical subject of his/her own actions, that is the style of developing his/her self. In this context, Foucault’s conception of ethics is based on the analysis of the relationship between self technologies and power forces.

  4. Where Are We? Finding a Start Point on the Ethical Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    of philosophy (e.g. utilitarianism versus deontology) and instead utilizes the scholarly dichotomy of functional versus aspirational ethics ...divisions are made. Duty-based ethics are broken down into principle-based ethics (deontology) and consequence-based ethics ( utilitarianism ). Teleology...then splits off from utilitarianism , etc. Since this paper is not about the various ethical philosophies, I maintain the bifurcation at the highest

  5. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological

  6. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theor

  7. Locating Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    implicates social relations in new forms of management, with the moralities assumed to be part of ethics attaching to varied understandings of obligation, accountability, trust and personhood. Central to the analysis is the exploration of the co-existence of standardisation with practices of differentiation...

  8. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  9. Transgressive ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø

    2013-01-01

    of treatment norms, we must move close to everyday work practices and appreciate the importance of material–technical treatment options as well as the interplay of professional ethics and identity. The cardiac treatment of brain-dead donors may thereby illuminate how treatment norms develop on the ground...

  10. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theor

  11. A literature review on accounting education in Turkey, etichal values, and occupational ethicsTürkiye’de muhasebe eğitimi, etik değerler ve meslek etiği üzerine literatür taraması

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Aykut Peker; Şefik Özdemir; Yusuf Polat; Enver Karakışla

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the basic ethical approaches in accounting are discussed by referring the concepts of accounting education, ethics, professional ethics, professional ethics training, accounting ethics education. Also it is devoted to fundamental ethical principles held by various institutions and organizations in Turkey and the World. The literature review are conducted on the studies carried out about the professional ethics in Turkey, accounting ethics, accounting ethics education and ethica...

  12. Computer and Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    越智, 貢

    2014-01-01

    With this essay I treat some problems raised by the new developments in science and technology, that is, those about Computer Ethics to show how and how far Applied Ethics differs from traditional ethics. I take up backgrounds on which Computer Ethics rests, particularly historical conditions of morality. Differences of conditions in time and space explain how Computer Ethics and Applied Ethics are not any traditional ethics in concrete cases. But I also investigate the normative rea...

  13. Nutrition: ethical issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Robert B; Rucker, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    For nutrition and its associated disciplines, ethical considerations related to research are often complicated by factors that range from the use of experimental research designs that are overly holistic to inextricable links between nutrition research and marketing. As a consequence, there is the need for constant vigilance to assess and deal with apparent conflicts of interest. Also, there are few scientific disciplines that are defined by cultural, religious, or political codifications as is nutrition. Accordingly, examples of historical, cultural, and political events are described that have influenced ethical approaches related to nutrition research. Furthermore, nutrition research questions are often multifaceted and require dealing with complex variables. In this regard, ethical principles and perspectives that have relevance to data acquisition, the publication and translation of nutrition research, and the marketing of nutritional products and concepts are highlighted.

  14. Ethical dilemmas in journal publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Olubukola; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    2012-01-01

    Physicians often face tremendous pressures and incentives to publish, sometimes leading to a compromise of ethical standards, either consciously or unconsciously. From the vantage of ethical authorship, we discuss what constitutes authorship; avoidance of ghost authorship; plagiarism, as well as self-plagiarism and duplicate publication; falsification; and fabrication. Editors also face ethical challenges, including how best to manage peer-review bias, to address reviewer tardiness, and to locate reviewers with appropriate expertise and professionalism. Editors need to deal with authors who fragment their work into multiple publications to enhance their curriculum vitae ("salami factor"), as well as to manage the financial benefits of advertising and to avoid conflicts of interest for the journal. Both authors and editors should be straightforward and principled throughout the publication process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [THE DECLARATION OF HELSINKI IN 2015 AND THE ETHICS OF RESEARCH IN FRENCH-SPEAKING AFRICA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botbol-Baum, Mylène

    2015-10-01

    This article follows my book "Bioéthique pour les pays du Sud" [Bioethics for the South] that was intended to show the need for an African bioethics to regulate international research, especially in the context of AIDS which is neither experienced nor cured the same way in the North and in the South. Many debates occurred since the publication of this book, debates that, at first glance, sided with those who claimed, in the name of rationality and pragmatism, double standards of care between both hemispheres. Despite a discourse based on respect for others, the Helsinki Declaration, in its 2000 version, supported justifications based on double standards of care. It replaces the debate on the legitimacy of research sponsored by the North, with participants from populations of emerging countries, as well as the debate on the best bioethics approach to respond to this problematic situated at the intersection of the universal, ethical principles and local situations. This text is the result of a reflection inspired by the conditions of legitimacy of bioethics teaching in French-speaking Africa countries, where the lack of regulation leads to exploitation and human experimentation in the name of care.

  16. Positioning of Engineer Ethics from the Standpoint of a Company. And the Ethics Education Towards Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaki

    The purpose of a company is contribution to society by operating activities. Therefore, it has a company principle and “Business ethics” conduct codes in each. On the other hand, many engineers with specialties are performing business toward the same purpose at the same company. And it will produce new inconsistency by introducing “Engineer ethics” and “the ethics of each professional” all at once in the situation of that company. Then, the engineer ethics education in company needs to carry out by arranging company conduct codes and Engineer ethics. This paper proposes what the company ethics education should be from exemplifying results by make activities and engineer ethics education of the corporate ethics observance in the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.

  17. International Perspectives of Ethical Approval: The New Zealand scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette McCallin Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Navigating the process of ethical approval” (Carey, 2010 raises many issues about the influence Institutional Ethics Committees have on research methodology and what can or cannot take place in research. Carey draws attention to the ethical challenges classic grounded theory researchers face when an ethical proposal that follows the principles of the methodology is presented to an Ethics Committee, whose main responsibility is the protection of participants. Ethics committees not only guide researchers on acceptable ethical practice, but are charged with monitoring ethical standards and ensuring researchers act in accordance with professional expectations for researchers within the jurisdiction. These committees aim to ensure consistency of ethical practice in research. While there is generally some flexibility in the review process researchers often find ethical requirements constraining, as guidelines are primarily prescriptive and are designed to ensure consistency in the application of universal ethical principles in research. In New Zealand, consistency includes paying attention to broader socio-cultural responsibilities to society that includes promoting awareness of the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumer Rights 1996, the Health Information Privacy Code 1994, and promoting ethical practices which involve Maori (the local indigenous people in research proposals as much as possible (Ministry of Health, 2006. So while researchers in training assume that their prime interest concerns the management of a research topic and methodology, they quickly find out that ethical guidelines influence research design. Even though there is an international code of ethics (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 2005 that defines ethical standards for researchers around the world, each country has its own specific requirements depending on the context. In this paper, ethical drivers in the New Zealand context are outlined and

  18. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe eight…

  19. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe eight…

  20. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyun Tan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  1. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Wenwen; Liang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose, we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  2. 30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is in an economic viability and relief... Required Reports § 203.85 What is in an economic viability and relief justification report? This report... economic viability and relief justification report must contain the following items for an oil and...

  3. Justification as a Teaching and Learning Practice: Its (Potential) Multifacted Role in Middle Grades Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Megan E.; Bartlo, Joanna; Thanheiser, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Justification is a core mathematics practice. Although the purposes of justification in the mathematician community have been studied extensively, we know relatively little about its role in K-12 classrooms. This paper documents the range of purposes identified by 12 middle grades teachers who were working actively to incorporate justification…

  4. Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.

  5. Business Reporting: How Transparency becomes a Justification Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper contributes to the discussion of the present status and future scenarios of business reporting by conducting a thorough review and analysis of state-of-the-art of the authoritative business reporting literature and also a set of specifically formulated models for voluntary reporting...... through linking disclosure to value creation is emphasized. As transparency is in the eye of the beholder, the process of developing corporate reporting practices must be concerned with reaching a common understanding and agreement between producers and consumers of such disclosures. Transparency...... is perceived as both a key objective and outcome of comprehensive business reporting. However, the concept of transparency seems to be an empty concept merely constituting a justification mechanism for actual behaviour, i.e. that disclosure instead is driven by the signalling value for the individual company...

  6. Role of ethical beliefs and attitudes of dental students in providing care for HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ahmed Khan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Dental students’ ethical beliefs about HIV/AIDS were not consistent with the ethical principles as stated in the code of ethics and they held negative attitudes towards PLWHAs. Ethical beliefs were found to be a determinant that may influence future attitudes of these students towards individuals with HIV/AIDS when providing care.

  7. Audiology: student perception of preceptor and fellow student ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Clifford; Vesely, Brian; White, Letitia; Mantie-Kozlowski, Alana; Franklin, Clay

    2014-01-01

    Health care professionals are expected to uphold high ethical standards. Recently, ethical practices in health care have received increased scrutiny and study in an effort to ensure that clinicians meet such high ethical standards in serving their patients and clients. The American Academy of Audiology's Code of Ethics establishes professional standards that allow for the proper discharge of an audiologist's responsibilities while maintaining the integrity of the profession. Under this code, student academy members are included and required to abide by the code, the same as practicing members. The code is composed of a preamble and eight principles. The present study provides an overview of students' perceptions across a broad spectrum of ethical topics governing our profession. Specifically, this study examined audiology students' perceptions of preceptor ethics relating to these eight principles using an online survey. Responses were collected from 143 of 600 audiology students contacted and indicated that they believed that their preceptors consistently followed each of the eight principles. Results also indicated that students believe fellow students also behave ethically and that it is the primary responsibility of academic faculty, not preceptors, to teach ethics. It can be concluded that preceptors are perceived by their students to be acting with high ethical standards. However, more research and discussion may be needed to determine who should teach these ethics to students.

  8. System justification and the defense of committed relationship ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martin V; Kay, Aaron C; Holmes, John G; Napier, Jaime L

    2011-08-01

    A consequential ideology in Western society is the uncontested belief that a committed relationship is the most important adult relationship and that almost all people want to marry or seriously couple (DePaulo & Morris, 2005). In the present article, we investigated the extent to which the system justification motive may contribute to the adoption of this ideology. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined whether a heightened motive to maintain the status quo would increase defense of committed relationship values. In Study 3, we examined the reverse association, that is, whether a threat to committed relationship ideology would also affect sociopolitical system endorsement. As past research has found that the justification of political systems depends upon how much these systems are perceived as controlling, in Study 4 we tested whether the defense of the system of committed relationships would also increase when framed as controlling. Results from Studies 1-4 were consistent with our hypotheses, but only for men. In Study 5, using cross-cultural data, we sought to replicate these findings correlationally and probe for a cause of the gender effect. Results from more than 33,000 respondents indicated a relationship (for men) between defense of the sociopolitical system and defense of marriage in countries where the traditional advantages of men over women were most threatened. In Studies 6 and 7, we investigated when this gender difference disappears. Results revealed that when we measured (Study 6) or manipulated (Study 7) personal relationship identity rather than relationship ideology, effects also emerge for women.

  9. Nurse prescribing ethics and medical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J

    This article suggests that nurse prescribers require an awareness of key concepts in ethics, such as deontology and utilitarianism to reflect on current debates and contribute to them. The principles of biomedical ethics have also been influential in the development of professional codes of conduct. Attention is drawn to the importance of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry's code of practice for the pharmaceutical industry in regulating marketing aimed at prescribers.

  10. Ethical decision making in intrapartum nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Anne H

    2012-01-01

    Nurses are confronted daily with making ethical decisions in practice, in which the "right" or best course of action must be determined. However, for intrapartum nurses, the seemingly ordinary nature of ethical issues means that these concerns may be viewed merely as clinical or logistical problems to be solved, leaving the ethical dimensions obscured. This has consequences not only for women and the provision of safe, family-centered maternity care but also for the quality of nurses' work environments and degree of moral distress experienced. This article explores ethical aspects of intrapartum nursing by applying ethical principles and moral reasoning to an "everyday" situation encountered by intrapartum nurses in practice. Implications for practice and the development of healthy moral communities are considered.

  11. e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Arief Ramadhan; Dana Indra Sensuse; Aniati Murni Arymurthy

    2011-01-01

    Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government eth...

  12. e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Arief Ramadhan; Dana Indra Sensuse; Aniati Murni Arymurthy

    2011-01-01

    Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government eth...

  13. An overview of the major changes in the 2002 APA Ethics Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Samuel; VandeCreek, Leon

    2003-06-01

    This article summarizes the major changes that were made to the 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct of the American Psychological Association. The 2002 Ethics Code retains the general format of the 1992 Ethics Code and does not radically alter the obligations of psychologists. One goal of the Ethics Committee Task Force was to reduce the potential of the Ethics Code to be used to unnecessarily punish psychologists. In addition, the revised Ethics Code expresses greater sensitivity to the needs of cultural and linguistic minorities and students. Shortcomings of the 2002 Ethics Code are discussed.

  14. Aesthetics and ethics in engineering: insights from Polanyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Priyan

    2011-06-01

    Polanyi insisted that scientific knowledge was intensely personal in nature, though held with universal intent. His insights regarding the personal values of beauty and morality in science are first enunciated. These are then explored for their relevance to engineering. It is shown that the practice of engineering is also governed by aesthetics and ethics. For example, Polanyi's three spheres of morality in science--that of the individual scientist, the scientific community and the wider society--has parallel entities in engineering. The existence of shared values in engineering is also demonstrated, in aesthetics through an example that shows convergence of practitioner opinion to solutions that represent accepted models of aesthetics; and in ethics through the recognition that many professional engineering institutions hold that the safety of the public supersedes the interests of the client. Such professional consensus can be seen as justification for studying engineering aesthetics and ethics as inter-subjective disciplines.

  15. Ethics for life scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics

  16. The Ethic of Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  17. Ethics for life scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics

  18. [Specialist and lay ethical expertise in public health: issues and challenges for discourse ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, both public health professionals and the populations targeted by prevention and health promotion programs have shown an increasing interest in ethical issues since some interventions have been seen as impinging on fundamental rights and values. Insofar as bioethics is not adapted to population interventions and community health issues, a specific expertise in public health ethics is now required. However, ethical expertise in this area faces many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to examine four of these challenges. The first three challenges concern professional or specialist expertise. The paper suggests that expertise in public health ethics should go beyond the search for greater sophistication in defining ethical principles. Experts in public health ethics also need to identify appropriate strategies to include public health professionals in ethical analysis and to adopt a critical and reflexive approach to the status of moral experts and moral expertise. However, the main challenge is to identify appropriate ways of reconciling lay and specialist ethical expertise. The paper argues that secular morality and common morality represent two key sources of lay ethics expertise and that the fundamental values that inform discourse ethics should be derived from both forms of expertise.

  19. Biomedical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, LeRoy

    1985-10-25

    An overview is provided of bioethical issues recently under discussion in the United States. Six topics dominated the field in 1984 and early 1985: human gene therapy; in vitro fertilization and research with human embryos; appropriate care for dying patients, both adults and newborns; organ transplantation; resource allocation and payment for health care services; and the role of hospital ethics committees in medical decision making. Walters focuses on three of these topics: (1) the issuing of standards for somatic-cell gene therapy; (2) developments in the death and dying arena, including state living will legislation, the emergence of a viewpoint that artificial nutrition and hydration are not qualitatively different from respiratory life-support systems, and federal efforts to regulate appropriate treatment for handicapped newborns; and (3) the growing support among medical organizations for hospital ethics committees.

  20. RFID design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehpamer, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military