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Sample records for justice pitfield ruled

  1. Fighting addiction's death row: British Columbia Supreme Court Justice Ian Pitfield shows a measure of legal courage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The art in law, like medicine, is in its humanity. Nowhere is the humanity in law more poignant than in BC Supreme Court Justice Ian Pitfield's recent judgment in the legal case aimed at protecting North America's only supervised injection facility (SIF as a healthcare program: PHS Community Services Society versus the Attorney General of Canada. In order to protect the SIF from politicization, the PHS Community Services Society, the community organization that established and operates the program, along with two people living with addiction and three lawyers working for free, pro bono publico, took the federal government of Canada to court. The courtroom struggle that ensued was akin to a battle between David and Goliath. The judge in the case, Justice Pitfield, ruled in favour of the PHS and gave the Government of Canada one year to bring the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA into compliance with the country's Charter of Rights and Freedoms. If parliament fails to do so, then the CDSA will evaporate from enforceability and law in June of 2009. Despite the fact that there are roughly twelve million intravenous drug addiction users in the world today, politics andprejudice oards harm reduction are still a barrier to the widespread application of the "best medicine" available for serious addicts. Nowhere is this clearer than in the opposition by conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper and his faithful servant, federal health minister Tony Clement, towards Vancouver's SIF ("Insite". The continued angry politicization of addiction will only lead to the tragic loss of life, as addicts are condemned to death from infectious diseases (HIV & hepatitis and preventable overdoses. In light of the established facts in science, medicine and now law, political opposition to life-saving population health programs (including SIFs to address the effects of addiction is a kind of implicit capital punishment for the addicted. This commentary

  2. International criminal justice: a pillar for the international rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Aguilar Cavallo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The international criminal justice has experienced a rapid change over the past years. This circumstance has underscored the need for interaction and complementation between international and domestic law. Some authors consider that the international criminal justice, and the activities of its tribunals, jeopardize the legality of international law. Our vision is that international criminal justice is a central pillar of the rule of law, at the national and the international levels. Far from undermining the legality of international law, international criminal justice paves the way towards a true international public order.

  3. EQUITY EVALUATION OF PADDY IRRIGATION WATER DISTRIBUTION BY SOCIETY-JUSTICE-WATER DISTRIBUTION RULE HYPOTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Hajime; Kiri, Hirohide; Kobayashi, Shintaro

    When total supply is smaller than total demand, it is difficult to apply the paddy irrigation water distribution rule. The gap must be narrowed by decreasing demand. Historically, the upstream served rule, rotation schedule, or central schedule weight to irrigated area was adopted. This paper proposes the hypothesis that these rules are dependent on social justice, a hypothesis called the "Society-Justice-Water Distribution Rule Hypothesis". Justice, which means a balance of efficiency and equity of distribution, is discussed under the political philosophy of utilitarianism, liberalism (Rawls), libertarianism, and communitarianism. The upstream served rule can be derived from libertarianism. The rotation schedule and central schedule can be derived from communitarianism. Liberalism can provide arranged schedule to adjust supply and demand based on "the Difference Principle". The authors conclude that to achieve efficiency and equity, liberalism may provide the best solution after modernization.

  4. The Frontiers Approach: Defending a Sufficientarian Rule of Distributive Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    justice takes its starting point in duress as the relevant contrast to dignity. Human dignity, we define by expanding Kant’s notion of dignity as the moral worth of autonomous, rational persons to entail emotional valuable aspects of the human life and the praxis of embracing these aspects......One of the major topics of political philosophy is that of distributive justice – the question of determining, as T. M. Scanlon famously named his book on the subject, what we owe to each other. The way this question is answered has huge effects on which policies should be pursued, and thus, how...

  5. 77 FR 39117 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... regularly perform services for remuneration for the applicant, under the applicant's direction and control... Director may delegate authority to take final action on matters pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice... that the Director's final order issued pursuant to Sec. 1081.405 is final and unappealable, both within...

  6. Employee conscientiousness, agreeableness, and supervisor justice rule compliance: A three-study investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jason L; Cropanzano, Russell; Li, Andrew; Shao, Ping; Zhang, Xin-An; Li, Yuhui

    2017-11-01

    Researchers have paid limited attention to what makes organizational authority figures decide to treat their employees either justly or unjustly. Drawing from the actor-focused model of justice, as well as the stereotype content model, we argue that employee conscientiousness and agreeableness can impact the extent to which supervisors adhere to normative rules for distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice, as a result of supervisors' evaluations of their employees' effort and their liking of the employees. Supervisory compliance with justice rules may, in turn, impact the extent to which employees judge themselves to be treated either justly or unjustly. We tested these possibilities in 3 studies. In Study 1, we utilized a meta-analysis to demonstrate positive relationships between employees' conscientiousness, agreeableness, and their justice perceptions. In Study 2, we conducted 3 experiments to test the causal relationship between employee personality and supervisor intentions to comply with justice rules. In Study 3, we conducted an employee-supervisor dyadic field survey to examine the entire mediation model. Results are discussed in terms of the potential roles that both employees and supervisors may play in shaping employees' justice perceptions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Monitoring and evaluation of the rule of law and justice in the EU: status quo and the way ahead?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gramatikov, M.; Janse, R.

    2012-01-01

    This Concept Paper presents a framework for monitoring and evaluation of the rule of law and justice in the European Union. The development of the framework has been based on a number of principles - objectivity and neutrality, validity and reliability, actionability. It also firmly follows the

  8. The res judicata rule in jurisdictional decisions of the international Court of justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreća Milenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the effects of the res judicata rule as regards jurisdictional decisions of the International Court of Justice. He finds that there exists a special position of a judgment on preliminary objection in respect to both aspects of the res judicata rule - its binding force and finality. A perception of distinct relativity of a jurisdictional decision of the Court, expressing its interlocatory character pervades, in his opinion, the body of law regulating the Court's activity. Preliminary objections as such do not exhaust objections to the jurisdiction of the Court, as evidenced by non-preliminary objections to the jurisdiction of the Court giving rise to the application of the principle compétence de la compétence understood in the narrow sense. With regard to the binding force of a judgment on preliminary objections, it does not create legal obligations stricto sensu. The author finds that the relative character of jurisdictional decisions of the Court as compared with a judgment on the merits is justified on a number of grounds.

  9. Organisational justice rules as determinants of black and white employees' fairness perceptions of personnel selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Jong

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of the South African population may lead to opinions that test fairness is not a pure empirical problem, but requires certain subjective value judgements. The aim of this study was to identify applicants' underlying reasons for evaluating a selection technique as being fair/unfair. These fairness perceptions were analysed by means of the organisational justice theory. The total sample consisted of 328 mature university students (M = 30,6 all of whom had work experience. The analyses comprised two sets of comparisons. The first set involved Black (uninformed and White (uninformed groups. The second comparison involved informed versus uninformed black students. Exposure to the subjects Strategic Personnel Management and/or undergraduate Industrial Psycohology, in which the nature and value of various selection techniques are studied, constituted the variable'being informed'. It was hypothesised that the Black (uninformed and the White (uninformed groups would perceive the value of the 11 justice rules for the total fairness perception across the ten selection techniques differently. Substantial support was found for this hypothesis. The same hypothesis was investigated for the Black (informed and the Black (uninformed groups, but no significant differences were found to support the latter hypothesis. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of South African selection practices. Opsomming Die diversiteit van die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking mag daartoe lei dat persepsies van die billikheid van verskillende personeelkeuringtegnieke op n verskeidenheid van subjektiewe waarde-oordele gegrond word. Dit is die doel van hierdie ondersoek om die onderliggende redes waarvolgens kandidate keuringtegnieke as billik/onbillik evalueer, te identifiseer. Die kandidate se billikheidpersepsies van tien keuringtegnieke is aan die hand van die organisatoriese billikheidteorie ontleed. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 328 volwasse

  10. Military Justice: Courts of Military Review--Rules of Practice and Procedure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    ...) This revision, in conformity with the Military Justice Act of 1983 and Manual for Courts-Martial 1984, changes past practice and procedures in several significant areas, and alters other procedures...

  11. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  12. Retributive and restorative justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  13. Special Justice for Peace: A Transitional Justice Model According to Modern Tendencies and Orientations of Law and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the constitutional implications of the peace agreement about Colombia’s armed conflict. It examines constitutional rules and international instruments about human rights, confronting the agreement with justice criteria in the national and international context, to underline the role of justice for the definitive solution of the conflict. By using the methodology of opposing concepts, it reviews the implications of formal justice and material justice, to establish the superiority of the last one and it’s relation with social justice; it analyses the differences between individual justice and global justice, to demonstrate the need to obtain an integral justice; it contrasts alternative justice and traditional justice, to propose an integrated justice; it explains that justice based upon the formal syllogism should be overcome by a justice based upon equity, to obtain a justice anchored in the Constitution, universal and concentrated in the human rights; it hypothesizes that justice supported in the atonement and retribution should be overcome by a justice that is preventive and restorative, that allows the construction of a justice focused in the future, without ignoring the past; it clarifies that justice with one jurisdiction and special justice are the components of a integrative transitional justice; it explains the presence of justice in different institutions with different functions and justice concentrated in one institution, although with different functions, because there is a search for an integrative justice; it exposes the search for a constitutional and political justice, discussing the vision of justice as a triumph of the force or the scandalous concession of benefits; it exalts that it is a justice in search of a positive discrimination, not a negative discrimination, overcoming the discussion between justice for the powerful and justice for the weak; finally, it considers that it is a justice

  14. Nuclear power use backed by EURATOM law. European Court of Justice ruling points the way ahead in cross-border litigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    The Europeanization of nuclear safety has become highly evident with the adoption of the EURATOM Safety Directive of June 25, 2009. It will remain in the focus of public attention because its transposition into national law is to be completed by July 22, 2011. The subject of nuclear safety is treated also by the European Court of Justice (ECJ). The Court's rulings may even set the courses of events. It is not only EURATOM rules and regulations and secondary European law in the format of directives which are up for review, but also more extensive principles of European law. The main sources of dispute are the different nuclear energy policies and non-uniform safety regulations of member states. Cross-border events again and again trigger such disputes. One such constellation constitutes the background to the latest ECJ ruling of October 27, 2009 about nuclear safety and radiation protection. Action before an Austrian court was brought against a nuclear power plant situated in the Czech Republic and licensed by Czech authorities. Cessation of emissions of hazardous ionizing radiation by that plant and, thus, ultimately shutdown of that plant were demanded. The special feature of the case is the fact that the action was filed with an Austrian (civil) court and heard there. As the ECJ had commented in 2006 on a procedural question before legal proceedings were started, the issue at stake now was the right to bring action out of Austria against the nuclear power plant licensed in the Czech Republic. In Austrian law, there is no such right of cessation with respect to plants licensed in Austria, but only a right to claim damages. Against this background some thoughts are expressed about, and forecasts attempted of, European nuclear and radiation protection law. In this assessment, the difficult, multifaceted issues of European law rank second to the explanations of practical consequences for the development of nuclear power in EU member states. (orig.)

  15. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition.......This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...

  16. Special Justice for Peace: A Transitional Justice Model According to Modern Tendencies and Orientations of Law and Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the constitutional implications of the peace agreement about Colombia’s armed conflict. It examines constitutional rules and international instruments about human rights, confronting the agreement with justice criteria in the national and international context, to underline the role of justice for the definitive solution of the conflict. By using the methodology of opposing concepts, it reviews the implications of formal justice and material justice, to establish the supe...

  17. 76 FR 1641 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... and By-Laws, a review of ethics rules applicable to the Board's activities, and briefings from OJP... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (OJP) Docket No. 1543] Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION...

  18. Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their interactions…

  19. Juvenile Justice

    OpenAIRE

    International Child Development Centre

    1998-01-01

    The third Innocenti Digest deals with the main issues connected with children and young people coming into conflict with the law and contact with the justice system. It looks at standards and problems from arrest through to the court hearing and sentencing, use of custodial measures and ways of avoiding the child’s unnecessary and counter-productive involvement with the formal justice system. It also covers prevention questions. Like previous publications in the series, it contains practical ...

  20. Social Justice for Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice in U.S. teacher education has a long and protracted history that harkens back to the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, with its attendant legal rulings and constitutional amendments that sought to undo the legacy of discrimination against communities of color, women, and the poor. What is lost,…

  1. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  2. Education and Criminal Justice: The Educational Approach to Prison Administration. The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lucien; Cosman, J. W.

    The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners do not express the basic principle that would support a serious educational approach to prison administration. The crucial missing rationale is the concept of the inherent dignity of the individual human prisoner. This concept has certain basic educational implications,…

  3. Water Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Perreault, T.; Vos, J.M.C.

    2018-01-01

    Water justice is becoming an ever-more pressing issue in times of increasing water-based inequalities and discrimination. Megacities, mining, forestry, industry and agribusiness claim an increasingly large share of available surface and groundwater reserves. Water grabbing and pollution generate

  4. When are Domestic Anti-Avoidance Rules in Breach of Primary and Secondary EU Law? – Comments Based on Recent Judgements from the European Court of Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jakob; Schmidt, Peter Koerver; Tell, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Based on the ECJ decisions in Eqiom SAS (Case C-6/16), as well as Joined Cases Deister Holding (Case C-504/16) and Juhler Holding (Case C-613/16), the authors discuss the interplay between Member States’ domestic antiavoidance rules, the Parent-Subsidiary Directive and the basic freedoms. In addi......Based on the ECJ decisions in Eqiom SAS (Case C-6/16), as well as Joined Cases Deister Holding (Case C-504/16) and Juhler Holding (Case C-613/16), the authors discuss the interplay between Member States’ domestic antiavoidance rules, the Parent-Subsidiary Directive and the basic freedoms....... In addition, the article contains a discussion on the degree to which the EU prohibition of abuse can be invoked even in the absence of national anti-avoidance measures....

  5. Spheres of Justice within Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbagh, Clara; Resh, Nura; Mor, Michal

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that there are distinct spheres of justice within education and examines a range of justice norms and distribution rules that characterize the daily life of schools and classrooms. Moving from the macro to micro level, we identify the following five areas: the right to education......, the allocation of (or selection into) learning places, teaching–learning practices, teachers’ treatment of students, and student evaluations of grade distribution. We discuss the literature on the beliefs by students and teachers about the just distribution of educational goods in these five domains......, and on the practices used in the actual allocation of these goods. In line with normative ‘spheres of justice’ arguments in social theory, we conclude that the ideals of social justice within schools vary strongly according to the particular resource to be distributed. Moreover, these ideals often do not correspond...

  6. An Exploration of the Implementation of Restorative Justice in an Ontario Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores the implementation of restorative justice within one Ontario Public School. Restorative justice is a philosophy and a process for dealing with harmful behaviour, viewing such behaviour as a violation of relationships, not rules. My research seeks to present how restorative justice has been implemented in one…

  7. Justice and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.

  8. ECONOMIC EQUALITY OR JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Tufan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of economic life, equality has been a matter for human. Intrinsically human has two legs: Selfish and Groupish. Our selfish side does not care equality while Groupish side cares. What about the justice? Does human wants justice more than equalities in economic life? In this research, we have applied a questionnaire to find these two questions answer. As a result we can report that respondents prefer equality rather than justice in negative outcomes. On the other hand, they tend to prefer justice if there is possibility for positive outcomes. We cannot give evidence about gender, education and age differences effect on equality and justice preference.

  9. Metrics of Justice. A Sundial's Nomological Figuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines a polyhedral dial from the British Museum made by the instrument maker Ulrich Schniep, and discusses the status of multifunctional scientific instruments. It discerns a multifaceted iconic meaning considering different dimensions such as scientific functionality (astronomy), the complex allegorical figure of Justice (iconography), and the representation of the sovereign (politics), the court and the Kunstkammer of Albrecht v of Bavaria. As a numen mixtum the figure of "Justicia" touches different fields that go far beyond pure astronomical measurement and represents the power of the ruler as well as the rules of economic justice.

  10. A survey on constitutional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirollah Parvin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of supervising the conformity of statutory law with constitutional law, is due to necessities rooted in two essential principles: the supremacy of constitution and the hierarchy of the law. Constitution as the supreme law in the sense of status and legal value , is placed at the top of the legal pyramid of every political system and therefore requires a special organization and discipline that will act as the sanction of the principles and the main content incorporated in this legal instrument. this special organization and discipline known as Constitutional justice in legal Literature now and have studing in two main patterns. Firs pattern based on Supervision of courts on rules and other pattern is Apply by Emphasis on role of Political Institutions in Supervision on rules. This two patterns have common purpose but have different backgrounds and methods.

  11. The Ambiguity of Justice: Paul Ricoeur on Universalism and Evil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Dierckxsens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will examine Ricœur’s idea of the universal in his understanding of justice. Scholars recently discussed the extent to which Ricœur understands universal moral norms and universal rules of justice in his anthropology of human action (e.g., J. Michel, Paul Ricœur: une philosophie de l’agir humain, Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf, 2006, and argue that Ricœur stresses too much the idea of universal moral norms with regard to cultural and moral diversity (e.g., G. H. Taylor, “Ricoeur versus Ricoeur? Between the Universal and the Contextual,” From Ricoeur to Action. The Socio-Political Significance of Ricoeur’s Thinking, Todd S. Mei and David Lewin (eds., (London and New York: Bloomsbury, 2012. G. H. Taylor, “Reenvisioning Justice,” Lo Squarda 12 (2013: 65-80. In this article I will take part in the debate about universalism and approach Ricœur’s idea of the universal from a different angle, in placing it in light of his idea of evil. The point I will aim to make in this article is that Ricœur’s idea of the relation between justice and evil demonstrates what I understand as the ambiguity of justice, which highlights the difficulty of defining universal rules of justice. I will argue that this ambiguity is the following: justice aims at the establishment of social peace and in that sense it is the necessary remedy against human evil, but justice also implies power, and possibly violence, over others in that it relates to violent feelings of vengeance, to institutional mechanism of authority, and to a struggle of values. Yet if rules of justice relate to evil in the sense of power over others, so I argue, then it is problematic to define absolute criteria for rules of justice, i.e., for rules for social peace: because justice relates to particular values, which means that the risk of violence is inherent to institutional rules of justice, there is no ultimate universal set of such rules. This article therefore

  12. Justice John Paul Stevens and the Erotic Boomerang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Marc

    Justice John Paul Stevens of the United States Supreme Court has ruled on obscenity cases in seven instances since his appointment. His rulings reveal that he regards obscenity as a nuisance rather than as a danger threatening to undermine the nation's morality, that he supports a nationwide standard to adjudicate obscenity cases, and that he…

  13. EUROPEAN UNION SUPPORT AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE PROCESSES IN KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzije Istrefi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The legacy of systematic human rights violations committed during 1999 violent conflict and the previous repressive rule still impact the everyday life of Kosovo citizens. That is why transitional justice processes are a necessary component in Kosovo’s state building efforts. With the end of the 1999 conflict, Kosovo has been administered by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK and also supported by European Union (EU presences: the EU Special Representative in Kosovo, and European Union Rule of Law Mission known as EULEX. In the course of implementation of their mandates transitional justice processes were not a priority for UNMIK and EU presences. With the signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA the EU made transitional justice part of the Kosovo accession demands. In December 2015, the Government of Kosovo approved its National Action Plan for the Implementation of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (NAPISAA. The General Principles of the SAA, included within the NAPISAA oblige Kosovo Government to approve a National Transitional Justice Strategy. This paper analyses EU peace and institution-building support and their impact in transitional justice processes in Kosovo. Through analysing the mandate and actions on the ground it draws conclusions if EU is an active participant in transitional justice process in Kosovo or transitional justice policies are promoted by EU only as part of its enlargement strategy. Finally, the paper gives recommendations as a basis for future elaboration of an EU approach to transitional justice.

  14. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  15. Contemporary Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the contemporary expression of transitional justice, a field of practice through which global governance is exercised. It argues that transitional justice is being normalised, given the normative and empirical de-legitimisation of its premise of exceptionalism. The article...... theorises exceptionalism and normalcy in transitional justice and identifies three macro-level causes of normalisation: the legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization of the field. This argument is illustrated by a study of Uganda’s trajectory of transitional justice since 1986. Across five...... phases of transitional justice, processes of legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization have contributed to the gradual dismantling of the country’s exceptional justice. The case demonstrates, further, that normalization is a contested and incomplete process....

  16. Psychology and criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...

  17. Restorative justice and victimology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth of restorative justice has sparked debate over the future of the criminal justice system, which has historically adopted a retributive, punitive philosophy and advocated for an individualistic, treatment-orientated approach. This approach has over time failed to address the needs of crime victims, communities and.

  18. Military Justice Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    statute within the military system, persons unfamiliar with the military justice system may find the procedure something of a paradox at first blush...Manual for Courts-Martial) Is RM Nemitafinuestlitimelf.(er- V. GRAD*: c. ORGANIZATION dDT FRPR ast eiRO t: fII) EPR LCDR/ Naval Justice School

  19. Justice as Europe's Signifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Suryapratim; Kochenov, Dimitry; de Burca, Grainne; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the fact that justice is never explained in European legal discourse, but is used in conjunction with other principles and institutional decisions, this contribution argues that justice is used as a rhetorical tool to provide legitimacy to such principles and decisions. An analogous

  20. Crippling Sexual Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Exploring homosexuals' citizenship in Denmark from a justice perspective, this article critically interrogates society's supposed gay-friendliness by asking how far it has moved in achieving sexual justice, and inquiring into the gains and pains of the existing modes of achieving this end...... and representation within family law, civil society, and in the labour market. In conclusion, I suggest the possibility of different evaluations of the level of sexual justice reached, a mainly positive, partially negative one. Additionally, I discuss the gains and pains of the existing normalizing politics....

  1. 12 CFR 308.539 - Stays ordered by the Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stays ordered by the Department of Justice. 308.539 Section 308.539 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF... ordered by the Department of Justice. If at any time the Attorney General or an Assistant Attorney General...

  2. Entering the Forbidden Zone: the World Bank, Criminal Justice Reform and the Political Prohibition Clause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 7 years or so, the World Bank has expanded its rule of law agenda by moving into the area of criminal justice reform. This turn to criminal justice reform, however obvious it may be from a development perspective, was — and still is — a controversial step. This is because the World

  3. Desegregation Policy as Social Justice Leadership?: The Case for Critical Consciousness and Racial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radd, Sharon I.; Grosland, Tanetha J.

    2018-01-01

    Policy making can be viewed as a large-scale attempt at social justice leadership intended to address vast inequities that persist and are perpetuated in the U.S. K-12 education system. The study examines the text of the Minnesota Desegregation Rule to discern its underlying discourses as they relate to race, racism, and social justice. The…

  4. Circumventing the Privity Rule in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Meng, Tan

    2009-01-01

    This article briefly introduces the privity rule and its application in Malaysia which has created difficulties in relation to contracts made for the benefit of third parties. This article then investigates how Malaysian courts circumvent the privity rule to ensure that justice prevails. The mechanisms examined include among others agency, trust, tort and estoppel. This article argues that the application of these mechanisms rule are not adequate to resolve the difficulties caused by the priv...

  5. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  6. 28 CFR 68.1 - Scope of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judges of the Executive Office for Immigration Review, United States Department of Justice, with regard... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF...

  7. 187 | Page THE RULE OF LAW IN GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Benue State Independent Electoral Commission (2006) 11 NWLR ..... by reason and morality, force rules by violence and immorality. Thus, where .... always in the interest of the public, justice and the need to prevent the abuse of legal process.

  8. 29 CFR 24.115 - Special circumstances; waiver of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., the administrative law judge or the Board on review may, upon application, after three days notice to all parties, waive any rule or issue any orders that justice or the administration of any of the...

  9. 29 CFR 1981.114 - Special circumstances; waiver of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cause shown, the administrative law judge or the Board on review may, upon application, after three days notice to all parties, waive any rule or issue any orders that justice or the administration of the Act...

  10. the influence of organisational justice on employees' commitment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    five manufacturing firms from Industrial Estates in Ibadan, Oyo. States. ... payment for the performance of concrete tasks are basis ... discussions in the utilisation of organisational justice in the work place ... rules are to be applied, they are equality (to each the same) .... organization, and has implication for the decision to.

  11. Measuring Intergenerational Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Kotlikoff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern with intergenerational justice has long been a focus of economics. This essay considers the effort, over the last three decades, to quantify generational fiscal burdens using label-free fiscal gap and generational accounting. It also points out that government debt -- the conventional metric for assessing generational fiscal justice,– has no grounding in economic theory. Instead, official debt is the result of economically arbitrary government labelling decisions: whether to call receipts “taxes” rather than “borrowing” and whether to call payments “transfer payments” rather than “debt service”. Via their choice of words, governments decide which obligations to put on, and which to keep off, the books. The essay also looks to the future of generational fiscal-justice analysis. Rapid computational advances are permitting economists to understand not just direct government intergenerational redistribution, but also how such policies impact the economy that future generations will inherit.

  12. Civilisation of Criminal Justice: Restorative Justice amongst other strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Blad (John)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be

  13. Resistance to the mainlandization of criminal justice practices: a barrier to the development of restorative justice in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, T Wing

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the political and legal barriers to introducing restorative justice (RJ) in Hong Kong. It argues that the processes involved in RJ may be in conflict with the rule of law, which is regarded by the citizens of Hong Kong as sacrosanct in their resistance to the "mainlandization" of criminal justice practices after China resumed sovereignty of Hong Kong. It is argued that, because it could admit such potentially harmful Chinese criminal justice concepts as "rule by the people," "absence of the presumption of innocence," "leniency for self-confession and severity for resistance," and "toeing the party line," RJ would be devoid of any restorative substance and could breach the principles of due process.

  14. Empowering Energy Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics. PMID:27657101

  15. Empowering Energy Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1 fossil fuel divestment; (2 carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3 cap-and-trade; (4 renewable energy; and (5 energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  16. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  17. Reflexivity and social justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksimovic, Tijana; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    2017-01-01

    Career practitioners’ reflexive understanding of their professional role as change agents in career guidance and counselling practices has a major impact on how social justice can be achieved. This entitles an awareness of the way in which guidance and counselling practices are embedded in the co......Career practitioners’ reflexive understanding of their professional role as change agents in career guidance and counselling practices has a major impact on how social justice can be achieved. This entitles an awareness of the way in which guidance and counselling practices are embedded...

  18. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  19. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  20. Understanding Education for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

  1. Corrective Justice vs. Social Justice in the Aftermath of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kalmanovitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we justify the practice of corrective justice for losses suffered during armed conflicts? This article seeks to show the force and relevance of this question, and to argue that, in cases of massively destructive wars, social justice should gain priority over corrective justice. Starting from a liberal Rawlsian conception of the relationship between corrective and social justice, it is argued that, paradoxically, the more destructive a war is, the less normative force corrective rights have and the higher priority policies of social justice, which guarantee basic rights to all citizens, should have.

  2. Criminal Justice in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croddy, Marshall; And Others

    An introduction to criminal law, processes, and justice is provided in this high school level text. Content is divided into six chapters, each treating a particular aspect of criminal procedure and the social and political issues surrounding it. Chapter 1 considers the criminal, the effects of crime on its victims, and legislation to aid victims.…

  3. The Social Justice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Gladys; Pollard, William

    2010-01-01

    This article shines an important light on the continuing struggle of disabled people for dignity, citizenship rights, and access to the marketplace. Common threads bind the struggle for basic human rights among disenfranchised groups, offer experience and approaches to facilitate change, and move society towards social justice. The philosophy…

  4. Criminal Justice Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates 15 criminal justice Web sites that have been selected according to the following criteria: authority, currency, purpose, objectivity, and potential usefulness to researchers. The sites provide narrative and statistical information concerning crime, law enforcement, the judicial system, and corrections. Searching techniques are also…

  5. Publicity and Egalitarian Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the issue of publicity has surfaced in discussions of the correct interpretation of the Rawlsian principles of justice. In an intriguing critique of G.A. Cohen's preferred interpretation of the difference principle as a principle that is incompatible with incentive-based inequalities...

  6. The Child Justice Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephan

    1995-06-16

    Jun 16, 1995 ... Gallinetti "Child Justice" 648; Le Roux-Kemp 2008 Annual Survey of South African Law 298 (the. Act contains a "separate, but parallel, ... The various aspects of section 68 are then evaluated. The greatest challenges lie in the ... See also, eg, Picardi Hotels v Thekwini. Properties 2009 1 SA 493 (SCA) para ...

  7. Transitional Justice as Elite Justice? Compromise Justice and Transition in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher; Pannwitz, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects upon the ways in which transitional justice debates and processes impacted Tunisia's transition. It explores key questions such as what demands for justice emerged in the aftermath of the Tunisian revolution? Did Tunisia's transitional justice process reflect these demands?

  8. Setting standards of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author deals with the basic theoretical statements and discussions about the practical use of restorative justice. She discusses the questions of introducing and application of restorative justice in order to reach the balance of interests between a victim, society and a delinquent. There is no unique statement about the restorative justice concept, so the authors make this concept by listing certain activities with rispect of standards and principles. Also she emphasizes the values of restorative justice process. A part of the article is dedicated to the standards for restorative justice that are harmonized with the international documents of human rights. .

  9. The Effect of International Trade on Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsok Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and importsIn this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and imports as percentage of GDP, international trade and basic human rights seem to have little relationship; but trade has a close positive relationship with strong order and security. Somewhat surprisingly, regulatory transparency and effective implementation seems to have little or no effect on international trade and vice versa. International trade shows a clear positive relationship with the country’s criminal justice system, but the relationship with the civil justice system is not as clear as such. For regulatory implementation and civil justice, services trade positively affect these institutions, but these institutions in turn affect exports more strongly than services trade. Finally, the effect of trade on rule of law is stronger on a medium to long term (10-20 year time horizon.

  10. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  11. CIVIL JUSTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Loggerenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African adversarial system of civil procedure in the High Court owes its origin to that of England. As with all civil procedural systems, the South African system is not stagnant. Its primary sources, namely Acts of Parliament and rules of court, are constantly amended in an attempt to meet the changing needs of society. Court delay and costinefficient procedural mechanisms, however, contribute to public dismay. The High Court, in the exercise of its inherent power to regulate its process, do so with the purpose of enhancing access to justice. The advantage of the system lies in the fact that it is not cast in stone but could, subject to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, be developed to make it more accessible to the public whilst protecting the public’s fundamental rights entrenched in the Constitution and, in this regard, particularly the right to afair trial embedded in sec. 34 of the Constitution. This contribution gives an overview of the system with reference to the court structure, the judiciary, the process in the High Court and its underlying principles, appeals, class actions and alternative civil dispute resolution mechanisms.

  12. Choosing children: intergenerational justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyal, Len; McLean, Sheila

    2005-03-01

    In this discussion, we argue that the concept of intergenerational justice, usually used in environmental matters, is applicable to reproductive decisions also. Additionally, we propose that this permits certain reproductive choices to be made prior to conception or during the pregnancy, and that these choices should not be confined to clinical concerns. In particular, we argue that consideration of the interests of future children should be viewed from the perspective of objective well-being. That being the case, decisions about the sex of future offspring can, in terms of intergenerational justice, be legitimate. We do not argue that every reproductive choice is legitimate; for example it would not be legitimate deliberately to choose characteristics that prevent future children from potentially successful participation in social life.

  13. Criminal Justice Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    McAra, Lesley; McVie, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This report explores transitions into the adult criminal justice system amongst a large cohort of young people who were involved in the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime. It includes: a description of patterns of criminal convictions and disposals for young people up to age 19 (on average); an examination of the characteristics and institutional histories of cohort members with a criminal record as compared with youngsters with no such record; and an exploration of the profile of...

  14. Climate Change Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Posner, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    Greenhouse gas reductions would cost some nations much more than others and benefit some nations far less than others. Significant reductions would impose especially large costs on the United States, and recent projections suggest that the United States has relatively less to lose from climate change. In these circumstances, what does justice require the United States to do? Many people believe that the United States is required to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions beyond the point that is ...

  15. Will E-Justice still be Justice? Principles of a Fair Electronic Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald van den Hoogen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the years to come, our Judiciary will change drastically as a result of the possibilities of information technology. Current legal procedure, which is still dominated by paper documents, human activities and written communication, will become increasingly digitized or supported by technical applications. As a result, the administration of justice will become faster, more efficient and more effective. As electronic litigation or E-Justice becomes a reality, there will be many changes. Citizens, companies, lawyers and other legal professionals involved in the judicial process will be able to bring their cases to the court via an Internet portal. Video conferencing, which is already available, will increasingly make it possible to hear witnesses, suspects and legal experts without having to bring them to the courtroom. Courts rulings will be signed, sent and published through the use of electronic signatures, XML and web services.

  16. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  17. Justice and feelings: Toward a new era in justice research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David); K. van den Bos (Kees)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position

  18. Justice and Feelings: Toward a New Era in Justice Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, D. de; Bos, K. van den

    2007-01-01

    In this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position of past

  19. Applying Social Justice Principles through School-Based Restorative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Embse, Nathan; von der Embse, Daniel; von der Embse Meghan; Levine, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Social justice has recently received attention within the school psychology community. Yet, social justice is a nebulous term, as opined by Connelly (2009), who cautioned against searching for what is wrong and instead striving for the highest standards and recognizing needs of every unique child. Shriberg and colleagues (2008) have sought to…

  20. Doing justice to social justice in South African higher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to develop a conceptualisation of social justice in higher education based on a close reading of the current literature in the field. An important assumption we make is that higher education is a valuable mechanism for social justice. We set the literature against policy documents that detail South African ...

  1. Student Perceptions of Social Justice and Social Justice Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…

  2. Justice delayed is justice denied: Protecting Miners against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justice delayed is justice denied: Protecting Miners against Occupational ... of section 35 of Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act 130 of ... of the Mankayi case for the system of occupational health and safety in South Africa. ... KEYWORDS: Occupational health; diseases; injuries; employees; protection; ...

  3. Justice on Both Sides: Transforming Education through Restorative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Maisha T.

    2018-01-01

    Restorative justice represents "a paradigm shift in the way Americans conceptualize and administer punishment," says author Maisha T. Winn, from a focus on crime to a focus on harm, including the needs of both those who were harmed and those who caused it. Her book, "Justice on Both Sides," provides an urgently needed,…

  4. Justice in Cyberwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerd Giesen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n1p27 The text aims at providing an ethical framework for cyber warfare. The latter is changing our understanding of war (and peace as well as the relationship between the human being and the machine. Rejecting Heidegger’s fatalistic stance towards technology it is argued that norms of international justice should be formulated in order to attempt to regulate this new military dimension. The potentially considerable destructive force of cyberweapon systems for civilian infrastructure is emphasized, especially as far as the « Internet of Things » (all physical objects connected to the Internet is concerned. In a foreseeable future cyberwar operations may kill many civilians. After defining the concept of cyberwar and explainig why it is a new and important moral issue, the paper heavily relies on just war ethics in order to reach norms for justice in cyberwar. It is shown that Immanuel Kant has not just been a philosopher of (perpetual peace, but (in the Metaphysics of Morals also a just war theorist who developed his normative framework in a fruitful dialog with Aquinas (against Vitoria and Suarez. His norms for jus ad bellum and jus in bello are carefully and critically applied to cyberwar. However, Kant’s major innovation in just war theory has been the concept of jus post bellum. The paper demonstrates how important this dimension of justice is in cyberwar, and how to apply it, including through recommendations for a treaty in international law.

  5. Restorative Justice in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-06-29

    An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected. Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations. They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished. By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers, and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously. However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children--the youngest ages yet tested--the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Health Law as Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  8. Exogenous vs. endogenous governance in innovation communities: Effects on motivation, conflict and justice - An experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Störmer, Niclas; Herstatt, Cornelius

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examine the effects of exogenous vs. endogenous governance rules on a virtual community handling an innovative task. Specifically we investigate the relationship between the two modes (exogenous vs. endogenous) and factors such as motivation, conflict and justice. We conducted an experiment with 70 students, divided into teams of five. We manipulated procedural legitimacy by allowing one group to choose a set of rules and giving the other group the same rules exogenously. Our...

  9. On the dimensionality of organizational justice: a construct validation of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, J A

    2001-06-01

    This study explores the dimensionality of organizational justice and provides evidence of construct validity for a new justice measure. Items for this measure were generated by strictly following the seminal works in the justice literature. The measure was then validated in 2 separate studies. Study 1 occurred in a university setting, and Study 2 occurred in a field setting using employees in an automobile parts manufacturing company. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 4-factor structure to the measure, with distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice as distinct dimensions. This solution fit the data significantly better than a 2- or 3-factor solution using larger interactional or procedural dimensions. Structural equation modeling also demonstrated predictive validity for the justice dimensions on important outcomes, including leader evaluation, rule compliance, commitment, and helping behavior.

  10. Social welfare and restorative justice

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Darrell

    2009-01-01

    "This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice." [author's abstract

  11. Educational Administration and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard

    2006-01-01

    After observing that texts in educational administration have largely failed to address the problem of the justice and fairness of social and educational arrangements, this article goes on to examine the necessary relationships between ethical leadership, community and the notion of social justice. Such relationships are argued to be necessarily…

  12. Experiential Social Justice Judgment Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social justice can be thought of as an idea that exists within the minds of individuals and that concerns issues like what is right and wrong, what ought to be or not to be, and what is fair or unfair. This subjective quality of the justice judgment process makes it rather unpredictable how people

  13. Corporate accountability and transitional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Michalowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, transitional justice processes do not address the role of corporations in dictatorships or in armed conflicts that give rise to the need for dealing with grave and systematic human rights violations. However, there is a growing awareness that in many contexts corporations contribute to these violations, often in the form of corporate complicity with the principal violators. An argument can therefore be made that to achieve the aims of transitional justice and establish a holistic narrative of the past as well as obtain justice and reparations for victims requires investigating and addressing the role of corporate actors. This article uses the example of Colombia’s Justice and Peace process to show some of the complexities, opportunities and challenges that arise if transitional justice measures focus primarily on criminal law and create a specific legal framework, outside of the ordinary justice systems, only for a limited group of primary perpetrators, in the Colombian case for members of the armed groups who demobilised. It is argued that the exclusion of corporate actors in contexts where their role is regarded as significant leads to victims seeking alternatives ways to obtain justice and that both victims and corporations would benefit if transitional justice mechanisms addressed the role of corporations.

  14. Educational Justice and Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shahar, Tammy Harel

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the effects of incorporating information and communication technologies in schools in terms of distributive justice. To do so, four issues that are central to educational justice are discussed: scarcity of resources, the positional nature of education, peer effects, and biases in educational decision-making. The discussion…

  15. Gender Justice and School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Desheng

    2009-01-01

    Gender justice includes three basic dimensions: gender equality, respect for difference, and free choice. In reality, schools construct and reproduce the gender injustice of the social culture through multiple dimensions that include the visible and the invisible curriculum, and the teacher's behaviour. In terms of gender justice, the social…

  16. Comparative Supreme Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the great variety of Supreme Courts in the world today and presents some selected courts. Supreme Courts are found in most countries both as only apex courts or in a courts’ system where also supreme administrative courts or constitutional courts are found. The starting point is the variation of supreme justice in the Nordic countries where one apex court is the system of Denmark and Norway whereas administrative courts are found in Sweden and Finland. Constitutional courts stem from the European tradition and are most abundant in Europe and in countries with a civil law system but especially in Africa they are also found in common law countries. Mexico is mentioned as a specific example of a Supreme Court that has taken upon itself to be a main player in the endeavour to communicate the law to a general audience. The article is a presentation with samples of what is going to be a project on comparative supreme justice in which the position of supreme courts in the various states, the recruitment scheme and competence of the courts and other such factors will be analyzed on a global basis.

  17. Justice-based social assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Armando

    2016-01-01

    What are the main objectives of social protection institutions in developing countries? What should be their scope and reach? What is the source of their legitimacy? Finding appropriate answers to these questions is essential to understanding, and shaping, the emergence of welfare institutions in low- and middle-income countries. Most available answers rely on instrumental arguments. Few make reference to normative principles. This article draws on three concepts from Rawls – social justice as regulating cooperation, the social minimum, and the need for a freestanding political notion of social justice – to develop a coherent argument for grounding social assistance on social justice. In line with this argument, it identifies some parameters for a justice-based social assistance. This article then discusses, with examples, the tensions existing between a social justice-based social minimum and ‘real’ social assistance institutions emerging in developing countries. PMID:27708544

  18. EUROPEAN UNION SUPPORT AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE PROCESSES IN KOSOVO

    OpenAIRE

    Remzije Istrefi

    2017-01-01

    The legacy of systematic human rights violations committed during 1999 violent conflict and the previous repressive rule still impact the everyday life of Kosovo citizens. That is why transitional justice processes are a necessary component in Kosovo’s state building efforts. With the end of the 1999 conflict, Kosovo has been administered by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and also supported by European Union (EU) presences: the EU Special Representative in Kosovo, and European U...

  19. Distributive justice and infertility treatment in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisker, Jeff

    2008-05-01

    An exploration of distributive justice in Canadian infertility treatment requires the integration of ethical, clinical, and economic principles. In 1971, American philosopher John Rawls proposed a theoretical model for fair decision-making in which "rational" and "self-interested" citizens are behind a "veil of ignorance" with respect to both their own position and the position of other decision-makers. Rawls proposed that these self-interested decision-makers, fearing that they are among the least advantaged persons who could be affected by the decision, will agree only upon rules that encode equality of opportunity and that bestow the greatest benefit on the least advantaged citizens. Regarding health policy decision-making, Rawls' model is best illustrated by Canadian philosopher Warren Bourgeois in his panel of "volunteers." These rational and self-interested volunteers receive an amnestic drug that renders them unaware of their health, social, and financial position, but they know that they are representative of diverse spheres of citizens whose well-being will be affected by their decision. After describing fair decision-making, Bourgeois considers the lack of a distributive justice imperative in Canada's Assisted Human Reproduction Act, in contrast to legislation in European nations and Australia, summarizes the economic and clinical considerations that must be provided to the decision-makers behind the "veil of ignorance" for fair decisions to occur, and considers altruism in relation to equality of access. He concludes by noting that among countries with legislation governing assisted reproduction Canada is alone in having legislation that is void of distributive justice in providing access to clinically appropriate infertility care.

  20. Sanitary justice in scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.

  1. Organization, relational justice and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzer, Ulrich; Åborg, Carl; Johansson, Gun; Svartengren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for more knowledge on how to manage companies towards healthier and more prosperous organizations with low levels of absenteeism. Relational Justice can be a useful concept when managing such organizations. Organizational factors can help to explain why some companies have relatively low absenteeism rates, even though they are equal to other companies in many other aspects. Previous studies suggest that management may be one important factor. Efficient management may depend on good relations between the leaders and the employees. The concept of Relational Justice is designed to capture these relations. Consequently, a Relational Justice framework may be used to understand why some companies have a low incidence of absenteeism. Managers from a representative body of Swedish companies. Interviews were analyzed to explore whether the items representing the concept of Relational Justice can be used to further understand the strategies, procedures and structures that characterize organizations and management in companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. Strategies, procedures or principles related to Relational Justice were common and highlighted in companies with an incidence of absenteeism. The most frequently occurring factors were; to be treated with kindness and consideration, personal viewpoint considered and to be treated impartially. The results suggested that a Relational Justice framework could be used to increase understanding of the organizational and managerial factors typical for companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. A Relational Justice approach to organizational management may be used to successfully lower absenteeism, change organizations and promote healthy and prosperous companies.

  2. Tradeable CO{sub 2} emission permits: initial distribution as a justice problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kverndokk, S. [Stiftelsen for Samfunns- og Naeringslivsforskning, Oslo (Norway)

    1992-11-01

    Tradeable emission permits are one of the most discussed policy instruments to implement international agreements on CO{sub 2} emission reductions. One characteristic of this instrument is that it separates the questions of efficiency and justice; in an idealised world, efficiency is achieved no matter how the permits are distributed. By assuming separability of inter- and intragenerational justice, the author can discuss the initial distribution of permits as an intragenerational distributive justice problem. In contrast to efficiency, where Pareto Optimality is an overall accepted principle, there is no consensus on a ``best`` equity principle. Different principles lead to different rules for distribution. The framework is to consider what the author believe to be metaprinciples of theories of justice; ethical individualism and presentism, as well as a generally accepted principle of avoiding morally arbitrary components as standards for distribution. Using these principles in an exclusionary way, working with a list of alternative allocation rules, a distribution proportional to population is recommended. Arguments against this rule are discussed, and special attention is paid to political feasibility. Justice and political feasibility may contrast, so also in this case. Even if a distribution based only on population may be politically unacceptable, there may be prospects to use this criterion in combination with other rules, as well as to put more weight on it in the future. 26 refs.

  3. Tradeable CO[sub 2] emission permits: initial distribution as a justice problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kverndokk, S. (Stiftelsen for Samfunns- og Naeringslivsforskning, Oslo (Norway))

    1992-11-01

    Tradeable emission permits are one of the most discussed policy instruments to implement international agreements on CO[sub 2] emission reductions. One characteristic of this instrument is that it separates the questions of efficiency and justice; in an idealised world, efficiency is achieved no matter how the permits are distributed. By assuming separability of inter- and intragenerational justice, the author can discuss the initial distribution of permits as an intragenerational distributive justice problem. In contrast to efficiency, where Pareto Optimality is an overall accepted principle, there is no consensus on a ''best'' equity principle. Different principles lead to different rules for distribution. The framework is to consider what the author believe to be metaprinciples of theories of justice; ethical individualism and presentism, as well as a generally accepted principle of avoiding morally arbitrary components as standards for distribution. Using these principles in an exclusionary way, working with a list of alternative allocation rules, a distribution proportional to population is recommended. Arguments against this rule are discussed, and special attention is paid to political feasibility. Justice and political feasibility may contrast, so also in this case. Even if a distribution based only on population may be politically unacceptable, there may be prospects to use this criterion in combination with other rules, as well as to put more weight on it in the future. 26 refs.

  4. A hermeneutic of justice. Justice as discernment in Matthew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In some important dictionaries for the study of the New Testament, δικαιοσύνη has two meanings: justice in the sense of distributive justice and righteousness as a relational notion. In Matthew, we discover that the word concerns a threefold loyalty: loyalty to the law, loyalty to fellow people, and loyalty to the will of God. In the ...

  5. Organizational Justice Perception According to Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki YÜKSEKBİLGİLİ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many different researches on the subject of organizational justice, there is no research on organizational justice perception according to generations. In this study, the research subject is defined if there is a difference on the perception of organizational justice between x and y generations. After a conduct of 430 surveys the Organizational Justice Scale is used. As a result, it is proved that there is no significant difference between the organizational justice perceptions according to generations

  6. Gendering agency in transitional justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Selimovic, Johanna Mannergren

    2015-01-01

    -Herzegovina, where we point out instances of critical, creative, and transformative agency performed by women that challenge or negotiate patterns of gendered relations of domination. We collect women’s oral narratives and explore new sets of questions to capture women’s unique experiences in doing justice......Mainstream transitional justice and peacebuilding practices tend to re-entrench gendered hierarchies by ignoring women or circumscribing their presence to passive victims in need of protection. As a consequence we have limited knowledge about the multifaceted ways women do justice and build peace....... To address this lacuna we conceptualize and unpack the meaning of gendered agency, by identifying its critical elements and by locating it in space and in time. The conceptual work that we undertake is underpinned by empirical mapping of the transitional justice spaces in post-conflict Bosnia...

  7. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  9. Transgenerational epigenetics and environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Harrell, Heather L; Marchant, Gary E

    2017-07-01

    Human transmission to offspring and future generations of acquired epigenetic modifications has not been definitively established, although there are several environmental exposures with suggestive evidence. This article uses three examples of hazardous substances with greater exposures in vulnerable populations: pesticides, lead, and diesel exhaust. It then considers whether, if there were scientific evidence of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, there would be greater attention given to concerns about environmental justice in environmental laws, regulations, and policies at all levels of government. To provide a broader perspective on environmental justice the article discusses two of the most commonly cited approaches to environmental justice. John Rawls's theory of justice as fairness, a form of egalitarianism, is frequently invoked for the principle that differential treatment of individuals is justified only if actions are designed to benefit those with the greatest need. Another theory, the capabilities approach of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, focuses on whether essential capabilities of society, such as life and health, are made available to all individuals. In applying principles of environmental justice the article considers whether there is a heightened societal obligation to protect the most vulnerable individuals from hazardous exposures that could adversely affect their offspring through epigenetic mechanisms. It concludes that unless there were compelling evidence of transgenerational epigenetic harms, it is unlikely that there would be a significant impetus to adopt new policies to prevent epigenetic harms by invoking principles of environmental justice.

  10. Justice orientation as a moderator of the framing effect on procedural justice perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Justice orientation is a justice-relevant personality trait, which is referred to as the tendency to attend to fairness issues and to internalize justice as a moral virtue. This study examined the moderating role of justice orientation in the relationship between justice perception and response to a decision problem. The authors manipulated procedural justice and the outcome valence of the decision frame within a vignette, and measured justice orientation of 174 Japanese participants. As hypothesized, the results indicated an interaction between procedural justice and framing manipulation, which was moderated by individual differences in justice orientation. In negative framing, justice effects were larger for individuals with high rather than low justice orientation. The results are explained from a social justice perspective, and the contributions and limitations of this study are also discussed with respect to our sample and framing manipulation.

  11. European Union. Court of Justice of the European Union: EU Law and Fundamental Rights Preclude Requested Filtering Injunction against Hosting Provider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, K.

    2012-01-01

    On 16 February 2012, the Court of Justice of the European Union delivered its preliminary ruling in the case of SABAM v. Netlog NV. The judgment was issued on a request made by the Court of First Instance of Brussels.

  12. Empathy and motivation for justice: Cognitive empathy and concern, but not emotional empathy, predict sensitivity to injustice for others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Yoder, Keith J

    2016-01-01

    Why do people tend to care for upholding principles of justice? This study examined the association between individual differences in the affective, motivational and cognitive components of empathy, sensitivity to justice, and psychopathy in participants (N 265) who were also asked to rate the permissibility of everyday moral situations that pit personal benefit against moral standards of justice. Counter to common sense, emotional empathy was not associated with sensitivity to injustice for others. Rather, individual differences in cognitive empathy and empathic concern predicted sensitivity to justice for others, as well as the endorsement of moral rules. Psychopathy coldheartedness scores were inversely associated with motivation for justice. Moreover, hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis revealed that self-focused and other-focused orientations toward justice had opposing influences on the permissibility of moral judgments. High scores on psychopathy were associated with less moral condemnation of immoral behavior. Together, these results contribute to a better understanding of the information processing mechanisms underlying justice motivation, and may guide interventions designed to foster justice and moral behavior. In order to promote justice motivation, it may be more effective to encourage perspective taking and reasoning than emphasizing emotional sharing with the misfortune of others.

  13. Gendered Justice Gaps in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Mannergren Selimovic, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    , and reparations gaps-this article examines structural constraints for women to engage in shaping and implementing transitional justice, and unmasks transitional justice as a site for the long-term construction of the gendered post-conflict order. Thus, the gendered dynamics of peacebuilding and transitional...... justice have produced a post-conflict order characterized by gendered peace and justice gaps. Yet, we conclude that women are doing justice within the Bosnian-Herzegovina transitional justice project, and that their presence and participation is complex, multilayered, and constrained yet critical....

  14. Gaming the system. Dodging the rules, ruling the dodgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreim, E H

    1991-03-01

    Although traditional obligations of fidelity require physicians to deliver quality care to their patients, including to utilize costly technologies, physicians are steadily losing their accustomed control over the necessary resources. The "economic agents" who own the medical and monetary resources of care now impose a wide array of rules and restrictions in order to contain their costs of operation. However, physicians can still control resources indirectly through "gaming the system," employing tactics such as "fudging" that exploit resource rules' ambiguity and flexibility to bypass the rules while ostensibly honoring them. Physicians may be especially inclined to game the system where resource rules seriously underserve patients' needs, where economic agents seem to be "gaming the patient," with needless obstacles to care, or where others, such as hospitals or even physicians themselves, may be denied needed reimbursements. Though tempting, gaming is morally and medically hazardous. It can harm patients and society, offend honesty, and violate basic principles of contractual and distributive justice. It is also, in fact, usually unnecessary in securing needed resources for patients. More fundamentally, we must reconsider what physicians owe their patients. They owe what is theirs to give: their competence, care and loyalty. In light of medicine's changing economics, two new duties emerge: economic advising, whereby physicians explicitly discuss the economic as well as medical aspects of each treatment option; and economic advocacy, whereby physicians intercede actively on their patients' behalf with the economic agents who control the resources.

  15. Mathematics education for social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhendra

    2016-02-01

    Mathematics often perceived as a difficult subject with many students failing to understand why they learn mathematics. This situation has been further aggravated by the teaching and learning processes used, which is mechanistic without considering students' needs. The learning of mathematics tends to be just a compulsory subject, in which all students have to attend its classes. Social justice framework facilitates individuals or groups as a whole and provides equitable approaches to achieving equitable outcomes by recognising disadvantage. Applying social justice principles in educational context is related to how the teachers treat their students, dictates that all students the right to equal treatment regardless of their background and completed with applying social justice issues integrated with the content of the subject in order to internalise the principles of social justice simultaneously the concepts of the subject. The study examined the usefulness of implementing the social justice framework as a means of improving the quality of mathematics teaching in Indonesia involved four teacher-participants and their mathematics classes. The study used action research as the research methodology in which the teachers implemented and evaluated their use of social justice framework in their teaching. The data were collected using multiple research methods while analysis and interpretation of the data were carried out throughout the study. The findings of the study indicated that there were a number of challengesrelated to the implementation of the social justice framework. The findings also indicated that, the teachers were provided with a comprehensive guide that they could draw on to make decisions about how they could improve their lessons. The interactions among students and between the teachers and the students improved, they became more involved in teaching and learning process. Using social justice framework helped the teachers to make mathematics more

  16. Environmental justice and healthy communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The environmental justice movement has come a long way since its birth a decade ago in rural and mostly African American Warren County, North Carolina. The selection of Warren County for a PCB landfill, they brought national attention to waste facility siting inequities and galvanized African American church and civil rights leaders` support for environmental justice. The demonstrations also put {open_quotes}environmental racism{close_quotes} on the map and challenged the myth that African Americans are not concerned about or involved in environmental issues. Grassroots groups, after decades of struggle, have grown to become the core of the multi-issue, multiracial, and multi-regional environmental justice movement. Diverse community-based groups have begun to organize and link their struggles to issues of civil and human rights, land rights and sovereignty, cultural survival , racial and social justice, and sustainable development. The impetus for getting environmental justice on the nations`s agenda has come from an alliance of grassroots activists, civil rights leaders, and a few academicians who questioned the foundation of the current environmental protection paradigm--where communities of color receive unequal protection. Whether urban ghettos and barrios, rural {open_quotes}poverty pockets,{close_quotes} Native American reservations, or communities in the Third World, grassroots groups are demanding an end to unjust and nonsustainable environmental and development policies.

  17. 83 CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very .... The Nigerian criminal justice system, of which the juvenile justice system is an integral part, ... as instruments of security and justice but as weapons of oppression8.

  18. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  19. Social Justice, Research, and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T

    2016-03-01

    In what ways might research on adolescence contribute to social justice? My 2014 Presidential Address identified strategies for social justice in our field. First, we need research that is conscious of biases, power, and privilege in science, as well as in our roles as scholars. Second, we need research that attends to inequities in lives of adolescents, and as scholars we need to question the ways that our research may unwittingly reinforce those inequalities. Third, we need research that attends to urgencies, that is, issues or conditions that influence adolescents' well-being which demand attention and action. I draw from a range of concepts and theoretical perspectives to make the case for a framework of social justice in research on adolescence.

  20. Green justice in the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie

    2016-01-01

    tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment of andde...... of anddecision-making around UGS. On this basis we discuss potentials for European urban green space researchto take up a more explicit environmental justice framing to shed much-needed light on injustices inEuropean cities and inspire change in policy and practice.......tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment...

  1. A broader view of justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2008-10-01

    In this paper I argue that a narrow view of justice dominates the bioethics literature. I urge a broader view. As bioethicists, we often conceive of justice using a medical model. This model focuses attention at a particular point in time, namely, when someone who is already sick seeks access to scarce or expensive services. A medical model asks how we can fairly distribute those services. The broader view I endorse requires looking upstream, and asking how disease and suffering came about. In contrast to a medical model, a social model of justice considers how social determinants affect the health of a population. For example, social factors such as access to clean drinking water, education, safe workplaces, and police protection, profoundly affect risk for disease and early death. I examine one important social determinant of health, health care coverage, to show the limits of a medical model and the merits of a broader view.

  2. Editors' Introduction: Justice, Rights, Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles gathered in this issue are the result of papers presented at the workshop held at the Oñati International Institute for the Sociology of Law on 20-21 May 2013 on Perspectives of Justice in Literature: Perspectives from Justice and Fundamental Rights in Literature: an Approach from Legal Culture in a European context. Literature and literary fiction can act as a thread that helps different disciplines to communicate with each other and can thus help go beyond the strictly legal field opening up to questions of justice and rights. These papers deal with issues of justice - mainly Fundamental Rights, but also procedural aspects of justice and its administration, philosophical perspectives of justice - and of legal culture - local, European, Universal - as reflected through and by literature. Los artículos que conforman este número son el resultado de las ponencias presentadas en el workshop celebrado en el Instituto Internacional de Sociología Jurídica de Oñati el 20 y 21 mayo de 2013 sobre las perspectivas de la justicia en la literatura: Perspectivas desde la Justicia y los Derechos Fundamentales en la Literatura: un Enfoque de Cultura Jurídica en el Contexto Europeo. La literatura y la ficción literaria pueden ser un hilo que favorece que diferentes disciplinas se comuniquen entre sí y pueden de esta forma ayudar a ir más allá del campo jurídico estricto, planteando cuestiones sobre justicia y derechos. Estos artículos tratan sobre aspectos de la justicia (principalmente derechos fundamentales, pero también sobre procedimiento judicial y administración de la justicia, perspectivas filosóficas de la justicia y de cultura jurídica (local, europea, universal, de la forma en la que se han reflejado en la literatura.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2543450

  3. Engineering justice transforming engineering education and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leydens, Jon A

    2018-01-01

    Using social justice as a catalyst for curricular transformation, Engineering Justice presents an examination of how politics, culture, and other social issues are inherent in the practice of engineering. It aims to align engineering curricula with socially just outcomes, increase enrollment among underrepresented groups, and lessen lingering gender, class, and ethnicity gaps by showing how the power of engineering knowledge can be explicitly harnessed to serve the underserved and address social inequalities. This book is meant to transform the way educators think about engineering curricula through creating or transforming existing courses to attract, retain, and motivate engineering students to become professionals who enact engineering for social justice. Engineering Justice offers thought-provoking chapters on: why social justice is inherent yet often invisible in engineering education and practice; engineering design for social justice; social justice in the engineering sciences; social justice in human...

  4. TINDAK PIDANA KEKERASAN DALAM RUMAH TANGGA MENURUT SISTEM PERADILAN PIDANA DALAM PERSPEKTIF RESTORATIVE JUSTICE / The Act Of Domestic Violence In Criminal Justice System In Restorative Justice Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Mansyur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banyak penyelesaian perkara kekerasan dalam rumah tangga yang tidak memenuhi rasa keadilan, terutama bagi korban dan subordinat dalam rumah tangga. Dalam disertasi ini disampaikan hasil yaitu pertama, penyelesaian perkara kekerasan dalam rumah tangga pada kenyataannya diselesaikan melalui Undang-Undang No. 23 Tahun 2004 sebagai lex specialis. Penyelesaian kasus kekerasan dalam rumah tangga berdasarkan aturan tersebut, secara empiris lebih menekankan pada pemidanaannya, sehingga terlihat tujuan preventif, protektif, dan konsolidatif tidak terpenuhi. Kedua, penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa kekerasan dalam rumah tangga merupakan perkara dengan multi dimensi penyelesaian karena terdapat sisi lingkup perdata dan di sisi lain lingkup pidana. Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan suatu media di dalam sistem yang dapat mengakomodasi penyelesaian perkara tersebut, yang salah satunya adalah dengan menggunakan pendekatan restorative justice.   There are many domestic violence settlements that do not satisfy the sense of justice, especially for the victims and subordinate in the household. The dissertation results: first, the settlement of domestic violence in fact settled by Act No. 23 of 2004 as lex special. The settlements of domestic violence cases based on that rule, empirically emphasis on the criminal sanction, so that the purpose of preventive, protective and consolidative was not rise. Second, the research concluded that domestic violence is a case with the multi-dimensional settlement because there is the scope of the civil and criminal sphere on the other side. Therefore, it needs a medium in the system that can accommodate the completion of the case, which one of them is restorative justice approach.

  5. Engaging Global Justice Through Internships (Penultimate Draft)

    OpenAIRE

    Ericka Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Engaging with Global Justice through InternshipsGlobal justice, on its face, seems like an impossible task. As individuals, even citizens of wealthy and powerful countries, the task of economic, social and political justice seems to outstrip our intellectual, practical and emotional abilities. Considering the scope of 'global' justice, it would appear that a massive coordinated effort would be necessary to overcome the problems of global injustice, yet it would seem such coordination may be i...

  6. Globalization and Social Justice in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Kauder; Niklas Potrafke

    2015-01-01

    Social justice is a topic of importance to social scientists and also political decision makers. We examine the relationship between globalization and social justice as measured by a new indicator for 31 OECD countries. The results show that countries that experienced rapid globalization enjoy social justice. When the KOF index of globalization increases by one standard deviation, the social justice indicator increases by about 0.4 points (on a scale from 1 to 10). The policy implication is t...

  7. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1512] Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice and Certification Program...

  8. Restorative Justice: A Changing Community Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Ruddy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We…

  9. Common Frame of Reference and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Satyanarayana, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article "Common Frame of Reference and Social Justice" by Martijn W. Hesselink evaluates the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) of social justice. It discusses the important areas, namely a common frame of Reference in a broad sense, social justice and contract law, private law and

  10. Juvenile Justice: A Bibliographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondak, Ann

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on the background and legal framework of the juvenile justice system, the issues that confront it, and the pressures for change, as well as noting some sources of information on the system. Available from American Association of Law Libraries, 53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1201, Chicago, Illinois 60604; sc $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  11. Current Issues and Distributive Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Lorenca Consuelo

    1992-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan on the issue of distributive justice, or fairness in the ways things are distributed among individuals and groups. Includes a student reading concerning a proposed guaranteed standard of living. Proposes an activity that calls for student discussion of a constitutional amendment that would offer such a guarantee. (SG)

  12. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  13. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  14. Flaunting It for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Janna

    2010-01-01

    By examining various movements in education in "Flaunt It! Queers Organizing for Public Education and Justice," Quinn and Meiners show a systematic and intentional "straightening" of American public schools. Throughout the book, the authors explore how various public and private realms operate to try to silence queer voices, and they discuss ways…

  15. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates…

  16. Terrorism, forgiveness and restorative justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly

  17. Social Justice and Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Christine; Torrance, Deirdre

    2017-01-01

    The revised professional standards for the teaching profession in Scotland are underpinned by a set of values which includes a detailed articulation of social justice for education covering rights, diversity and sustainability. There is a future orientation in these standards that privileges the contribution of teachers and leaders to realizing a…

  18. What is Justice for Juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1997-01-01

    Provides background information and related learning activities for three areas of inquiry involving youth and violence: (1) "Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System"; (2) "The Literature of Crime and Poverty"; (3) "Youth Crime and Public Policy." Includes a list of six recommended Web sites. (MJP)

  19. Two Ideals of Educational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwaggon, James

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This essay takes up McClintock's (2004) critique of educational discourses as overly dependent upon a distributive model of justice and largely ignorant of the formative assumptions that ground educational policy and practice. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: The question that McClintock's analysis begs is…

  20. Climate change, responsibility, and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Dale

    2010-09-01

    In this paper I make the following claims. In order to see anthropogenic climate change as clearly involving moral wrongs and global injustices, we will have to revise some central concepts in these domains. Moreover, climate change threatens another value ("respect for nature") that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility.

  1. 43 CFR 4.801 - Suspension of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Review Under Part 17 of This Title-Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs of the Department of... rules. Upon notice to all parties, the responsible Department official or the administrative law judge... determination that no party will be unduly prejudiced and the ends of justice will thereby be served. ...

  2. 29 CFR 1980.115 - Special circumstances; waiver of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circumstances not contemplated by the provisions of this part, or for good cause shown, the administrative law judge or the Board on review may, upon application, after three days notice to all parties and interveners, waive any rule or issue any orders that justice or the administration of the Act requires. ...

  3. 37 CFR 11.3 - Suspension of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 11.3 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE General Provisions General Information § 11.3 Suspension of rules. (a) In an extraordinary situation, when justice requires...

  4. African Ruling Political Parties and the Making of 'Authoritarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    only contributed to corruption, violent conflict, poverty, human rights abuses and the throttling of social justice. The contradiction in Africa's democratisation is further shown by the increasing metamorphoses of many African ruling political parties into what can be called 'democratic authoritarianism'. The process of this met-.

  5. Justice with intimidation: the case of the FARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Cataño

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay sets out the rules of the farc and their administration of justice, as presented in the texts published under the titles of “statute”, “regulations”, “norms”, “programs”, “platforms” and ‘coexistence”. A large number of interviews with demobilized men and women of different ages were added to these materials to capture their vision of judicial processes, which characterizes intimidation: the use of threat and ultimatum, which provoke fear, anxiety and uneasiness.

  6. Collaboration rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  7. KEBERADAAN KONSEP RULE BY LAW (NEGARA BERDASARKAN HUKUM DIDALAM TEORI NEGARA HUKUM THE RULE OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Hendra Wijaya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research titled, the existence of the concept of rule by law (state law within thestate theories of law the rule of law, which is where the first problem: How can theadvantages of Rule by Law in the theory of law Rule of Law?, How is the dis advantages of aconcept of Rule by law in the theory of law Rule of Law.This research method using the method of normative, legal research that examines thewritten laws of the various aspects, ie aspects of the theory, history, philosophy, comparative,structure and composition, scope, and content, consistent, overview, and chapter by chapter,formality, and the binding force of a law, and the legal language used, but did not examine orimlementasi applied aspects. By using this approach of Historical analysis and approach oflegal conceptual analysis.In this research have found that the advantages of the concept of Rule by Law lies in theproviding of certainty, can also be social control for the community, thus ensuring all citizensin good order at all reciprocal relationships within the community. And Disadvantages of theconcept of Rule by Law if the Law which legalized state action is not supported by democracyand human rights, and the principles of justice, there will be a denial of human rights,widespread poverty, and racial segregation, and if the law is only utilized out by theauthorities as a means to legalize all forms of actions that violate human can inflicttotalitarian nature of the ruling

  8. Environmental Justice Is a Social Justice Issue: Incorporating Environmental Justice into Social Work Practice Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Ramona; Hacker, Alice; Begun, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Social justice education for social work practice is concerned with addressing issues of power and oppression as they impact intersections of identity, experience, and the social environment. However, little focus is directed toward the physical and natural environment despite overwhelming evidence that traditionally marginalized groups bear the…

  9. 76 FR 12082 - U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces Proposed Rules Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... the Court. (b) Any violation of this rule will be deemed a contempt of this Court and, after due... rule will be deemed a contempt of this Court and, after due notice and hearing, may be punished... Article 48, Uniform Code of Military Justice, to give express contempt power to the United States Court of...

  10. 75 FR 18403 - Rules of Procedure; Regulations Implementing the Government in the Sunshine Act; Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... to Justice Act in Proceedings Before the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission; Correction AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. [[Page 18404... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2200, 2203, and 2204 Rules of...

  11. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE DALAM SISTEM PERADILAN PIDANA ANAK / Restorative Justice In Juvenile Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Pradityo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anak sebagai generasi penerus bangsa sudah selayaknya mendapatkan perhatian khusus. Hal tersebut bertujuan dalam rangka pembinaan anak untuk mewujudkan sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas. Maka dari itu, diperlukan pula sarana dan prasarana hukum yang mengantisipasi segala permasalahan yang timbul. Sarana hukum ini bertujuan untuk mengantisipasi stigma atau cap jahat yang ditimbulkan ketika anak berhadapan dengan hukum, sekaligus memulihkan dan memasyarakatkan kembali anak tersebut. Salah satu solusinya adalah dengan mengalihkan atau menempatkan pelaku tindak pidana anak keluar dari sistem peradilan pidana serta memberikan alternatif bagi penyelesaian dengan pendekatan keadilan demi kepentingan terbaik bagi anak, yang kemudian dikenal dengan pendekatan restorative justice. Restorative justice yang merupakan implementasi konsep dari diversi telah dirumuskan dalam sistem peradilan pidana anak, namun sistem yang baik haruslah diiringi dengan suatu sikap yang dijiwai kehendak untuk memandang dan berkeyakinan bahwa dunia ini selalu menjadi lebih baik. Selain itu, hendaknya prinsip the best interest of the children selalu diutamakan ketika menangani anak yang berhadapan dengan hukum.   Children as the nation's next generation is already deserve special attention. It aims in order to develop the child to realize the quality of human resources. Therefore, it is also necessary legal infrastructure to anticipate any problems that arise. The legal means to anticipate stigma or stamp evil inflicted when the child against the law, as well as restoring and re-socialize the child. One solution is to divert or placing the offender children out of the criminal justice system as well as providing an alternative to the settlement with justice approach in the best interests of the child, who was then known as restorative justice approach. Restorative justice which is the implementation of the concept of diversion has been formulated in the juvenile justice system

  12. Australian road rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    *These are national-level rules. Australian Road Rules - 2009 Version, Part 18, Division 1, Rule 300 "Use of Mobile Phones" describes restrictions of mobile phone use while driving. The rule basically states that drivers cannot make or receive calls ...

  13. THE DIALOGUE BETWEEN ADMINISTRATIVE COURT AND COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosilja Britvić Vetma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the dialogue judges between administrative court and Court of Justice of the European Union, and determines the most important elements of this cooperation. Special attention was given preliminary ruling procedure and position of Croatian administrative courts in it. In the following paper, the relationship between tha national administrative courts, the Courts of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights after the Treaty of Lisbon. This paper also discusses the solutions adopted in other countries, special attention was paid to the influence of French administrative law on cooperation (dialogue between the courts due to a strong influence on the development of that cooperation.

  14. Wearing the crown of Solomon? Chief Justice Roberts and the Affordable Care Act "tax".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muise, Robert J; Yerushalmi, David

    2013-04-01

    Attempting to play the role of King Solomon in his PPACA decision, Chief Justice John Roberts split the baby perversely by ruling it was not a tax under the Anti-Injunction Act, which would have likely deprived the Court of jurisdiction to hear this pre-enforcement challenge to the individual mandate, but it was a tax for taxing and spending purposes even though Congress said it was a "penalty" and not a tax. And the Chief Justice had to twist further his "wisdom" to hold that it was not an unconstitutional direct tax, even though that is exactly what it is, if it is a tax in the first instance.

  15. PROCEDURAL NORMS AND SUBSTANTIVE NORMS: THE PRIMACY OF JUS COGENS NORMS AND UNDERSTANDING OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Resende Bueno Da Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the procedural rule of State immunity and substantive rule of jus cogens prohibiting torture and slave labor in the case Germany v. Italy judged by the International Court of Justice in 2012. Notwithstanding the recognized superiority of peremptory norms, in the case, its analysis was impeded by application of the procedural rule of immunity. The suppression of the rule that expresses the higher values of the international community resulted in manifest injustice and impunity. Through detailed analysis of the characteristics and effects substantive rules of jus cogens, as well as its distinction of rules of procedural character, and considering the theoretical framework humanization of international law, this work states that the contemporary international law does not allow a procedural rule prevents the application of a substantive rule of jus cogens, exactly by the supreme value this last protects: the human being.

  16. The Strangers in Criminal Procedure: Restorative Justice as a possibility to overcome the simplicity of the modern paradigm of criminal justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Acchutti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the crisis of penal procedure in the contemporary society from its epistemological basis to, then, present restorative justice as a concrete alternative to the traditional criminal procedure. The intention is to describe how criminal procedure got established since its modern scientific roots and, then, to show the impossibility of a satisfactory management of social conflicts according to its standardized rules. After it, is argued that restorative justice is able to better deal with social conflicts than criminal procedure, once that system does not have standardized rules and allows the stakeholders to decide the situation according to their own deliberation, instead of being obliged to follow a decision from another person, usually a judge. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1737851

  17. Social Justice : Perspectives from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    SOCIAL JUSTICE, HEALTH AND POVERTY IN UGANDA John Barugahare Injustice in Uganda manifests in many ways. One most serious, yet least discussed social injustice, is inequity in Health. Although there are two equally important aims of health systems – efficiency and equity, in Uganda too much focus has been on ensuring efficiency and as a consequence concerns of equity have been relegated. Ultimately, health policy in Uganda has disproportionately negatively affected the poor’s livelihoods in g...

  18. Basic Military Justice Handbook. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    unmistakable odor of burning marijuana outside the accused’s barracks room, acted correctly when he demanded entry to the room and placed all occupants under...conspirator in furtherance of the conspiracy to be the act of all the conspirators. Suppose, therefore, that A and B agree to burn down the Naval Justice...September 19CY, without authority, fail to go at the time precribed to his appointed place of duty, to wit: the 0600 restricted muster on the fantail. (2

  19. Rawlsian Justice and Palliative Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, Carl; Albertsen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care serves both as an integrated part of treatment and as a last effort to care for those we cannot cure. The extent to which palliative care should be provided and our reasons for doing so have been curiously overlooked in the debate about distributive justice in health and healthcar...... to provide pain relief to those who need it as a supplement to treatment and, without justice-based reasons to provide palliative care to those whose opportunities cannot be restored. We conclude that this makes Daniels' framework much less attractive.......Palliative care serves both as an integrated part of treatment and as a last effort to care for those we cannot cure. The extent to which palliative care should be provided and our reasons for doing so have been curiously overlooked in the debate about distributive justice in health and healthcare....... We argue that one prominent approach, the Rawlsian approach developed by Norman Daniels, is unable to provide such reasons and such care. This is because of a central feature in Daniels' account, namely that care should be provided to restore people's opportunities. Daniels' view is both unable...

  20. Food justice and Christian ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin Luther�s writings on the economy which have remained relatively unknown in the churches and in the scholarly world. The article then presented three models of Christian economic ethic: the technical economic model, the utopian economic model and the public theological economic model. On the basis of the public theological model seven challenges for international food justice were presented. The basis for these challenges is an understanding of globalisation which guarantees just participation for everyone and deals with nature in an ecologically sustainable way. The interests of small farmers are the basis for judging the activities of big agro-corporations. Public theology is the background for an active involvement of the churches as agents of a global civil society to promote international food justice.

  1. On the relationship between justice judgments, outcomes and identity orientations among Iranian EFL learners: A structural equation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ayatollah Razmjoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One problem which can be observed in the field of EFL/ESL learning is that a number of English major BA and MA students are not highly committed to their major and decide not to continue their graduate studies. Sometimes even graduate students from English majors prefer to extend their education or work in an unrelated field. This might be attributed to the extent to which they perceive evaluation procedures and outcomes as fair. Considering this, the present study investigates first the relationships between justice judgments, outcomes and identity orientations. The study, then, uses structural equation modeling in order to examine whether identity orientation has any mediating effect on the relationship between justice judgment and outcomes. Participants were74 students in Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Shiraz University selected based on convenience sampling. They filled out three questionnaires on distributive and procedural justice judgments, rule compliance and outcome satisfaction, and personal and social identity orientations. The collected data was then analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation, and structural equation modeling. Based on the obtained findings, procedural justice had significant positive correlation with rule compliance and distributive justice was significantly correlated with outcome satisfaction. The generated structural equation model also indicated that justice judgments only directly affected outcomes and identity had no mediating effect on the causal relationship between the two.

  2. Mode of effective connectivity within a putative neural network differentiates moral cognitions related to care and justice ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Ely, Timothy D; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D

    2011-02-25

    Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses.

  3. Mode of Effective Connectivity within a Putative Neural Network Differentiates Moral Cognitions Related to Care and Justice Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G. Andrew; Ely, Timothy D.; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. Methodology/Principal Findings Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. Conclusions/Significance These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses. PMID:21364916

  4. Mode of effective connectivity within a putative neural network differentiates moral cognitions related to care and justice ethics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cáceda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC and posterior (PCC cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses.

  5. 28 CFR 0.92 - National Institute of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Institute of Justice. 0.92 Section 0.92 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.92 National Institute of Justice. The National...

  6. Personality traits and perceptions of organisational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos, Maria; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2018-01-04

    This study examined the association between five-factor model personality traits and perceptions of organisational justice. The sample for the study comprised 903 participants (35-50 years old; 523 women) studied in 2007 and 2012. Measures used were the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Five-Factor Inventory questionnaire and the short organisational justice measure. The results showed that high neuroticism was associated with low distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Furthermore, high agreeableness was associated with high procedural and interactional justice and high openness with high distributive justice. This study suggests that neuroticism, agreeableness and openness are involved in perceptions of organisational justice and that personality should be considered in research and in practices at the workplace. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. The future of morality and international justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Vojin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper will be on the issue of justice, specifically in international relations. In that context, a number of existing theories of international justice will be briefly reviewed. Afterwards, I will turn to the question of what justice actually is. The assertion that justice is based on the idea of freedom will be substantiated. I will attempt to support my position with Doyle's and Kant's argumentation. It will be concluded that there are robust arguments in favor of the thesis that our historical development is marked by a gradual expansion of freedom and justice. Furthermore, we have strong reasons to aspire liberal internationalism based on the idea of humanity's gradual approximation of some form of global state because such a conception might be the best warrant of justice in international relations.

  8. Co-workers' Justice Judgments, own Justice Judgments and Employee Commitment: A multi-foci approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Stinglhamber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of 212 employees, we conducted a study to examine whether employees use their co-workers' fairness perceptions to generate their own justice judgments and to develop their subsequent affective commitment. The conceptual framework used to investigate these linkages is social exchange theory combined with a multiple foci approach. Results of the structural equation modeling analyses revealed that co-workers' procedural justice judgments strengthened employee's own procedural justice judgments, which in turn influenced their affective commitment to the organisation. Similarly, co-workers' interactional justice judgments increased employee's own interactional justice judgments, which in turn impacted on their affective commitment to both the supervisor and the organisation. As a whole, findings suggest that coworkers' justice judgments strengthened employee's affective attachments toward the justice sources by reinforcing employee's own justice perceptions.

  9. Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, J A; Conlon, D E; Wesson, M J; Porter, C O; Ng, K Y

    2001-06-01

    The field of organizational justice continues to be marked by several important research questions, including the size of relationships among justice dimensions, the relative importance of different justice criteria, and the unique effects of justice dimensions on key outcomes. To address such questions, the authors conducted a meta-analytic review of 183 justice studies. The results suggest that although different justice dimensions are moderately to highly related, they contribute incremental variance explained in fairness perceptions. The results also illustrate the overall and unique relationships among distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice and several organizational outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, organizational commitment, evaluation of authority, organizational citizenship behavior, withdrawal, performance). These findings are reviewed in terms of their implications for future research on organizational justice.

  10. Geographies of justice: preschool-childcare provision and the conceptualisation of social justice

    OpenAIRE

    S L Holloway

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990s geographers of diverse philosophical orientations have shown a renewed interest in questions of justice. The author draws on empirical work on childcare provision in Sheffield, England, in order to evaluate two different approaches to the geography of justice and hence the theories of social justice which lie behind these; in particular she explores the different geographies of childcare produced by the territorial-justice approach, which is based on a liberal conception of s...

  11. From arrest to sentencing: A comparative analysis of the criminal justice system processing for rape crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Domingues Vargas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current article is intended to demonstrate the advantages of prioritizing an analysis of court caseload processing for a given type of crime and proceeding to a comparison of the results obtained from empirical studies in different countries. The article draws on a study I performed on rape cases tried by the court system in Campinas, São Paulo State, and the study by Gary LaFree on rape cases in the United States, based on data in Indianapolis, Indiana. The comparative analysis of determinants of victims' and law enforcement agencies' decisions concerning the pursuit of legal action proved to be productive, even when comparing two different systems of justice. This allowed greater knowledge of how the Brazilian criminal justice system operates, both in its capacity to identify, try, and punish sex offenders, and in terms of the importance it ascribes to formal legal rules in trying rape cases, in comparison to the American criminal justice system.

  12. The Criminal justice system in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    As with any country, crime and justice and the contours of criminal justice have to be situated within the particular historical, social, and political context. Nowhere is this truer than in Northern Ireland, where the criminal justice system that has emerged has been shaped by a violent political conflict which spanned over three decades (from the late 1960s to the late 1990s). In the transition to peace, the reform of criminal justice agencies has been central—to a wider project of state le...

  13. Organisational justice and change in justice as predictors of employee health: the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Ferrie, Jane E; Head, Jenny; Shipley, Martin J; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G

    2004-11-01

    Organisational justice has been proposed as a new way to examine the impact of psychosocial work environment on employee health. This article studied the justice of interpersonal treatment by supervisors (the relational component of organisational justice) as a predictor of health. Prospective cohort study. Phase 1 (1985-88) measured relational justice, job demands, job control, social support at work, effort-reward imbalance, and self rated health. Relational justice was assessed again at phase 2 (1989-90) and self rated health at phase 2 and phase 3 (1991-93). 20 civil service departments originally located in London. 10 308 civil servants (6895 men, 3413 women) aged 35-55. Self rated health. Men exposed to low justice at phase 1 or adverse change in justice between phase 1 and phase 2 were at higher risk of poor health at phase 2 and phase 3. A favourable change in justice was associated with reduced risk. Adjustment for other stress indicators had little effect on results. In women, low justice at phase 1 predicted poor health at phase 2 and phase 3 before but not after adjustment for other stress indicators. Adverse change in justice was associated with worse health prospects irrespective of adjustments. The extent to which people are treated with justice in workplaces seems to predict their health independently of established stressors at work. Evidence on reduced health risk after favourable change in organisational justice implies a promising area for health interventions at workplace.

  14. Restorative Justice as Social Justice for Victims of Gendered Violence: A Standpoint Feminist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims…

  15. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational

  16. Perception on justice, trust and tax compliance behavior in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellywati Mohd Faizal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between justice and trust with tax compliance behavior in Malaysia was studied. Previous studies have acknowledged the perception that justice does have an impact on tax compliance. This study distinguishes justice into procedural justice, distributive justice, and retributive justice. Therefore, this study examined the effect of these three types of justice on tax compliance. Trust also influences the act of tax compliance and it also has a relationship to the element of justice. Perceptions from individual taxpayers were gathered using questionnaires from previous studies. The findings suggest only procedural justice and trust affect tax compliance and procedural justice was positively and significantly correlated to trust. However, trust does not mediate the relationship between justice and compliance. This research will contribute to the tax literature with widened scope on justice in Malaysia.

  17. OVERVIEW OF RUSSIAN CIVIL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Russian civil procedure is not a pure Continental model because it also has procedural features of the common law system, as well as some other original and exceptional features. This article examines the main aspects of Russian civil justice: its main principles; judicial organization, including the structure of the courts and the division between courts of general jurisdiction and arbitrazh (commercial courts, and the Intellectual Property Court; sources of procedural law; bar organization; the jurisdiction of the courts; actions and proceedings; legal costs; evidence; administrative procedure; class actions; enforcement proceedings; and arbitration and mediation.

  18. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  19. New Rules on Consumer Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Lando, Henrik; Kristensen, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The project described in this report was carried out with support from The Ministry of Justice's Research Pool. The aim of the project is to examine the effects of Amending Act no. 213/2002, amending the rules on consumer sales in the Danish Sale of Goods Act. The amendments were part of Denmark......'s implementation of Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. The Amending Act came into force on 24 April 2002, having effect on consumer sales made on and after 1 January 2002. At the time of completion...... of this report, the Amending Act had been in force for more than two and a half years. In the planning of this project, we assumed that at this point in time sufficient experience with the new rules would be available, enabling us to get an impression of its practical consequences for businesses. Also, we...

  20. A People’s Court? A Bottom-up approach to litigation before the Euopean Court of Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, J.

    2018-01-01

    Each year the European Court of Justice delivers over a thousand decisions on the basis of EU law that affect the Members States as well as the lives of their citizens. Most of these decisions are the result of requests for a preliminary ruling sent by national courts and tribunals seeking an

  1. 16 CFR 5.54 - Referral to the Office of Government Ethics and to the Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Office of Government Ethics and to the Department of Justice. 5.54 Section 5.54 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.54 Referral...

  2. Justice seems not to be for all: Exploring the scope of justice

    OpenAIRE

    Lima-Nunes, Aline; Pereira, Cícero Roberto; Correia, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The idea that “justice is for everyone” seems to be over. A justice perception can have unfair consequences for those who are perceived not to be included within the boundaries of fairness. This is what the scope of justice is all about: who is within and who is outside of the “justice boundaries”. This paper intends to clarify the concept and explain how social psychologists work with it in real-life contexts. We argue that the scope of justice is a key concept that helps us to understand a ...

  3. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.

  4. 77 FR 70473 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE [OMB Number 1121-0218] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention... Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be... Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, 810 Seventh...

  5. Formative Justice: The Regulative Principle of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Concepts of justice relevant to making personal and public decisions about education. Purpose: To clarify a concept of formative justice that persons and the public often ignore in making decisions about educational effort. Setting: "The windmills of your mind" Research Design: Reflective essay.…

  6. Social Justice, Disability, and Rehabilitation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Daniel; Smart, Julie F.

    2012-01-01

    The academic field and the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling focuses on one aspect of social justice, assisting individuals with disabilities to attain full community inclusion. Nonetheless, social justice focuses on many marginalized groups and in the related fields of counseling and psychology, those with disabilities are rarely…

  7. Prabowo and the shortcomings of international justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Nikolas Feith

    2015-01-01

    under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, temporal jurisdiction renders prosecution impossible. This article explores Prabowo’s human rights abuses, and how international criminal law has failed to achieve justice for these crimes. It concludes that Prabowo’s political rise threatens...... the aims of international criminal justice....

  8. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  9. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if, with...

  10. Social Justice Advocacy in Graduate Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Amy Gratch

    2018-01-01

    This article includes a description and analysis of a graduate teacher education course designed to engage teachers in taking action for social justice. In the course, students participate in a community of learners in which they examine their cultural identities and engage in social justice advocacy work. Students developed content knowledge and…

  11. Conceptualizing Learning in the Climate Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluttz, Jenalee; Walter, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This article extends Scandrett et al.'s conceptual framework for social movement learning to understand learning and knowledge creation in the climate justice movement. Drawing on radical pluralist theoretical approaches to social movement learning, learning in the climate justice movement is conceptualized at the micro, meso, and macro levels,…

  12. 32 CFR 989.33 - Environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental justice. 989.33 Section 989.33 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.33 Environmental justice. During the preparation of...

  13. African Transitional Justice Research Network | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... little African-led research on the cultural appropriateness and impact of such models of transitional justice. This grant will facilitate the creation and sustainable expansion of an electronically-based research network on options and lessons learned pertaining to transitional justice. A second objective is to build the capacity ...

  14. Restorative Justice: Principles, Practices, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sandra Pavelka

    2007-01-01

    A modern-day movement is transforming the way that communities and justice systems think about and respond to crime and wrongful occurrences. This response implements a holistic continuum of services, providing for prevention, intervention, diversion, commitment, probation, reentry, and aftercare. This approach--known as restorative justice--seeks…

  15. Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

  16. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: A Genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…

  17. Using the Juvenile Justice Poster. Teaching Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson that can help students review and summarize what they have learned about the juvenile justice system. Explains that the students discuss how the juvenile justice system can be improved and conduct a survey on how it might be changed in the future. Provides a copy of the survey and directions. (CMK)

  18. Strategic Activism, Educational Leadership and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the strategic activism of educational leaders who promote social justice. Given the risks, educational leaders need to be strategic about the ways in which they pursue their activism. Citing current research, this article explores the ways in which leaders strategically pursue their social justice agendas within their own…

  19. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Implications for Educational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Magnus O.

    2016-01-01

    Educational justice is a major global challenge. In most underdeveloped countries, many students do not have access to education and in most advanced democracies, school attainment and success are still, to a large extent, dependent on a student's social background. However, it has often been argued that social justice is an essential part of…

  20. Educational Justice, Segregated Schooling and Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The philosophical debate on educational justice currently focusses on the Anglo-American situation. This essay brings in an additional perspective. It provides a justice-oriented critique of the segregated education systems in German-speaking countries. First, arguments that are commonly put forward in favour of these systems are rejected. Second,…

  1. Economic globalisation and economic justice: Covenanting for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The premise of this article is that ethical moral formation or 'covenanting for justice' leads to action. The covenanting church itself, in conjunction with other movements, works for justice in all areas of life. The article uses the six aspects of ethical moral formation of Heinz Tödt to analyse some aspects of economic ...

  2. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  3. Operationalizing Social Justice Counseling: Paradigm to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice counseling, like all humanistic models, recognizes the dignity of each human being, affirms the right of all people to choose and work toward their own goals, and asserts the importance of service to community. The social justice paradigm brings a special emphasis on the role of the environment. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  4. The Law of Peoples and Global Justice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 135-150 ISSN 1210-3055 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : international justice * global justice * Rawls * recognition Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. Implementation Of Law Number 11 Of 2012 Concerning Child Related Criminal Justice System Concept Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Karangan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine how the application of the concept of restorative justice in accordance with Law No. 11 of 2012 on Child Criminal Justice system. This study uses normative namely a study that discusses the problem based on the literature and legislation relating to the matter to be investigated. Law No. 11 of 2012 on the Criminal Justice System Child has provided a new concept in the criminal justice system, especially those in the juvenile justice system. Related to the concept of Restorative Justice or restorative justice is a resolution processes involving perpetrators, victims, families, and other relevant parties in a criminal act, jointly seek solutions to the offense and its implications by emphasizing restoration and not retribution

  6. An Introduction to Generative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Eglash

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marx proposed that capitalism’s destructive force is caused, at root, by the alienation of labor value from its generators. Environmentalists have added the concept of unalienated ecological value, and rights activists added the unalienated expressive value of free speech, sexuality, spirituality, etc. Marx’s vision for restoring an unalienated world by top-down economic governance was never fulfilled. But in the last 30 years, new forms of social justice have emerged that operate as “bottom-up”. Peer-to-peer production such as open source software or wikipedia has challenged the corporate grip on IP in a “gift exchange” of labor value; community based agroecology establishes a kind of gift exchange with our nonhuman allies in nature. DIY citizenship from feminist makerspaces to queer biohacking has profound implications for a new materialism of the “knowledge commons”; and restorative approaches to civil rights can challenge the prison-industrial complex. In contrast to top-down “distributive justice,” all of the above are cases of bottom-up or “generative justice” 

  7. Child poverty and environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberg, Claudia; Pauli, Andrea

    2007-10-01

    Child poverty and social inequality in Western countries are growing both in scope and in complexity. The clustering of income poverty in urban settings reflects the complex process of residential segregation. Living in segregated neighbourhoods with much poverty and predominantly substandard housing is usually associated with poor physical, chemical and social environmental living conditions at the individual and community level which influence and shape children's health both directly and indirectly. This paper shows research data on the link between child poverty and income-related health inequalities according to the unequal exposure to environmental hazards as well as the unequal distribution of environmental resources in the domestic environment and within the local context as an increasing public health issue in Germany. The links between these factors are drawn from the conceptual framework of environmental justice. Examples are shown of integrated approaches to alleviate social and environmental disparities at the community level. The implications of environmental justice for public health include the need to uncover the link between socioeconomic factors and environmental health disparities related to the man-made environment. Developing relevant indicators for environmental inequalities in the context of housing and health is an important task for public health research. More emphasis should be placed on a comprehensive holistic approach to understand the mechanisms by which socioeconomic factors modify children's susceptibility and exposure to environmental hazards, particularly in low-income areas.

  8. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D. [National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class.

  9. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class

  10. Online dispute resolution and models of relational law and justice: a table of ethical principles

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas, Pompeu

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory systems constitute a set of coordinated complex behavior (individual and collective) which can be grasped through rules, values and principles that constitute the social framework of the law. Relational law, relational justice and the design of regulatory models can be linked to emergent agreement technologies and new versions of Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) and Negotiation Support Systems (NSS). We define the notions of public space and information principles, extending the con...

  11. 75 FR 19659 - Bureau of Justice Assistance; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Notice of Information Collection Under Review: New Collection Bureau of Justice Assistance Application Form: Federal Law Enforcement Officers Congressional Badge of Bravery. The Department of Justice... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OMB Number 1121-NEW] Bureau of Justice...

  12. Institutions and Mechanisms for Internal Conflict Resolution: Legal and Non-Legal Means in Resolving Dispute and Attaining Justice in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Azmin Mokhtar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Seeking justice is a noble cause and dispensing justice is an obligation that the state must fulfill. Under the doctrine of separation of powers courts exist to protect people and their rights, to guarantee fairness and justice for all. The task to combat injustices, produce a just ordering of society, ensure a fair distribution of material and legal resources, safeguard the rule of law, promote equality, ensure proportionality in punishment, and protect entitlements and legitimate expectations should not be put on the shoulders of judges and courts only. It must be spread out and shared by other institutions and by whatever means available

  13. Rulings in Argentinean and Colombian courts decriminalize possession of small amounts of narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozac, David

    2009-12-01

    Two recent court decisions in South America have reflected a growing backlash in the region against the so-called, U.S.-led "war on drugs". In Argentina, the Supreme Court of Justice ruled unanimously on 25 August 2009 that the second paragraph of Article 14 of the country's drug control legislation, which punishes the possession of drugs for personal consumption, was unconstitutional. In Colombia, the Supreme Court of Justice ruled on 8 July 2009 that the possession of illegal drugs for personal use was not a criminal offence.

  14. Priority to organ donors: Personal responsibility, equal access and the priority rule in organ procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    recently and the preliminary reports indicate increased donation rates. How should we evaluate such initiatives from an ethical perspective? Luck egalitarianism, a responsibility-sensitive approach to distributive justice, provides one possible justification: Those who decide against being organ donors...... limit the health care resources available to others. As such, a priority rule can be justified by a luck egalitarian approach to distributive justice. Furthermore, a priority rule inspired by luck egalitarianism is well equipped to avoid prominent criticisms of such a procurement system. Luck...

  15. Global Poverty, Justice and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Niţu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of poverty and justice inside global economic system has received three major types of responses in political theory. The communitarian perspective considers political culture of a society as the main cause of the wealth of that society, and accordingly limits the redistributive duty to the nation-state borders. A second view, which can be called liberal internationalism, claims that trade liberalization is the best way to reduce poverty in developing countries and create a more equitable and stable economic order. This paper argues that a third perspective seems to be a better approach. The cosmopolitan perspective points out that international economic system should be reformed by building up a global tax regime.

  16. Criminal Courts of Justice, Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tooth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The newly completed Criminal Courts of Justice (CCJ at Parkgate Street in Dublin 8 is the largest courts project undertaken in the history of the Irish State. The design of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems was based on computer simulated modelling of the build ing to determine the optimum plant selection and operation based on the contract conditions and energy targets. The report will analyse the computer simulated energy targets versus the actual energy consumption and assess the benefit of engineering solutions such as twin-skin facades and heat recovery based on real data. The report will draw conclusions on the real benefit of such systems with in the built environment. In addition to the energy targets, the report will discuss the commission ing processes involved in delivering the energy targets required and the importance of designing metering strategies to enable the data to be collected and analysed.

  17. Environmental assessment and social justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hardee, H. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe an approach to assessing environmental justice issues at the start of proposed project. It is a structural approach to screening using readily available census data and commercial products that emphasizes the ability to replicate results and provide systematic data that can be used to identify spatial inequities. While our discussion of the methodology addresses only public health and safety issues related to certain minority and cohort sub-groups, systematic use of methodology could provide a valuable screening tool for identifying impacts particular to low-income groups. While the assumptions can be questioned as to applicability, they are based both on theory and practical knowledge.

  18. Restorative Justice in Indonesia: Traditional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Achjani Zulfa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available “Restorative Justice” is a model approach which emerged in the 1960s in an effort to solve criminal cases. Unlike the approach used in conventional criminal justice system, this approach focuses on the direct participation of perpetrators, victims and society in the settlement process. This theory of the approach is still debated, but the view is in fact growing and it exercises a lot of influence on legal policies and practices in several countries. The UN through its basic principles considers the approach of restorative justice as the approach which could be used in the rational criminal justice system. Restorative justice is a concept of thinking that supports the development of the criminal justice system with emphasis on the required involvement of the community. It is also involving the casualties who with the current criminal justice system are excluded. In several countries, restorative justice has been translated into a variety of formulations to accommodate a variety of values, philosophical basis, terms, strategies, mechanisms, and programs. Good consultation with the perpetrators and the victims themselves may provide the public with a different mindset in preventing emerging problems. This process can involve the police, prosecutorial institution or the traditional institutions. Therefore, without excluding the work in the formal legal system, the institutional mechanism for resolution through consultation was working in the community. In the various principles and models of the restorative justice approach, the process of dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim is a fundamental and the also the most important part of the application of the restorative justice. The direct dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim gave the victim the opportunity to express what he/she felt, hope for human rights and the desire to reach a criminal settlement.

  19. FeynRules - Feynman rules made easy

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Neil D.; Duhr, Claude

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present FeynRules, a new Mathematica package that facilitates the implementation of new particle physics models. After the user implements the basic model information (e.g. particle content, parameters and Lagrangian), FeynRules derives the Feynman rules and stores them in a generic form suitable for translation to any Feynman diagram calculation program. The model can then be translated to the format specific to a particular Feynman diagram calculator via F...

  20. Delayed rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...

  1. The Anders Behring Breivik Trial: Performing Justice, Defending Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On 24 August 2012, the judges of the Oslo District Court passed their final verdict in the case of Anders Behring Breivik, declaring Breivik criminally sane and legally responsible for the killing of 77 people during the bombing of government buildings in Oslo and the shooting spree on the island of Utøya on 22 July 2011. This Research Paper examines to what extent the Breivik trial attained the goals of criminal justice: retribution, prevention, restoring democratic order and upholding the rule of law. Furthermore, it aims to determine if the trial contributed to the need for closure in society. The Research Paper concludes that the trial did indeed have a positive impact on the coping mechanisms in Norwegian society and that most Norwegians viewed the trial as a positive counter-weight to the brutality of Breivik’s acts. Overall, the trial was viewed as an example of justice and as a trial that upheld the democratic values of Norwegian society – in stark contrast to Breivik’s values.

  2. The Death of Military Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Military Court of Appeals ruled in United States v. Beeker that “the use or possession of marihuana was service connected because the use or...possession . . . of marihuana and narcotics has a special military significance since their use has ‘disastrous effects on the health, morale and fitness

  3. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice...

  4. Gilabert on the Feasibility of Global Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin M. Macleod

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss the analysis of the feasibility of global justice developed by Pablo Gilabert in his recent book From Global Poverty to Global Equality: A Philosophical Exploration. Gilabert makes many valuable contributions to this topic and I agree with most of his analysis. However, I identify a distinction between strategic justification and moral justification that Gilabert neglects. I show how this distinction is useful in addressing objections to the feasibility of global justice. I also claim that Gilabert makes some problematic assumptions concerning the way in which global justice is morally demanding.

  5. The first year of implementation of the Child Justice Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 mandates the Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development to report annually on the implementation of the Child Justice Act to the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Justice and Constitutional Development. On 1 April 2011 a year had passed since the implementation of the Child ...

  6. 24 CFR 17.9 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Referral to Department of Justice... Procedures § 17.9 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 17.8, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the...

  7. 5 CFR 177.108 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to Department of Justice. 177... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 177.108 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required, or the advice of the Department of Justice is...

  8. 44 CFR 11.17 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Justice. 11.17 Section 11.17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 11.16, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the Chief Counsel...

  9. 10 CFR 1014.7 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to Department of Justice. 1014.7 Section 1014.7... § 1014.7 Referral to Department of Justice. (a) When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 1014.6, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the...

  10. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees and...

  11. 40 CFR 1620.8 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Department of Justice... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.8 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required, or the advice of the Department of Justice is...

  12. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau...

  13. 28 CFR 0.93 - Bureau of Justice Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bureau of Justice Statistics. 0.93...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.93 Bureau of Justice Statistics. The Bureau of Justice Statistics is headed by a Director appointed by the President. Under the general authority of the...

  14. Human rights in childbirth, narratives and restorative justice: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokugamage, A U; Pathberiya, S D C

    2017-02-02

    This review describes the emerging global debate on the role of human rights childbirth. It is also tailored to a UK perspective in view of the Montgomery v. Lanarkshire [2015] legal ruling and it implications to practice. We can never underestimate the power of humane care on health. The compassion and evidence based medicine agenda in healthcare is interconnected with human rights in healthcare, feeding into the principles of decision making and patient centred care. When this has not happened and there is been healthcare conflict, the power of storytelling serves to connect disparate parties to their common humanity. Narratives are an important aspect of restorative justice processes and we suggest that this could be beneficial in the field of human rights in childbirth.

  15. On the relationship between justice and forgiveness: are all forms of justice made equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G

    2014-09-01

    This research investigates whether, following a wrongdoing, the restoration of justice promotes forgiveness. Three studies - one correlational recall study and two experimental scenario studies - provide evidence that while a restored sense of justice is overall positively related to forgiveness, forgiveness is highly dependent on the means of justice restoration being retributive (punitive) versus restorative (consensus-seeking) in nature. The findings showed that, overall, restorative but not retributive responses led to greater forgiveness. Although both retributive and restorative responses appeared to increase forgiveness indirectly through increased feelings of justice, for retributive responses these effects were counteracted by direct effects on forgiveness. Moreover, the experimental evidence showed that, while feelings of justice derived from restorative responses were positively related to forgiveness, feelings of justice derived from retributive responses were not. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Infertility Treatments and Determination of Fetus Gender don’t Challenge God’s Justice and Wisdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhkam, L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of modern technology to cure barrenness has arisen challenges in various aspects some of which are ethical, legal and ideological. One of the ideological challenges, inserted in the above topic, has been discussed through this essay. The cause-effect system ruling the universe, helps a lot to determine God’s; the Almighty; Justice and Wisdom in creation. Therefore, the creation of the barren person, in the framework of that system, doesn’t conflict with His Justice and Wisdom. Of course, based on the penal justice, God will compensate these deficiencies by either giving rewards or mitigating the punishment. So, unveiling the creation mysteries-and the infertility of some diseases or the ability to do some affairs such as the selection of fetus gender doesn’t derange the best Divine system ruling the universe. Besides, these Facts prove the existence of such a system because if the relations weren’t established in the system, how could we access to these facts.By understanding the best system and the accurate determining of the ordination ruling it, we conclude that fetus gender selection and modern infertility treatments can’t be judged as the interference in God’s creation and the conflict with God’s Justice; rather the stability of the best system is proved through the occurance of such affairs.

  17. Infertility Treatments and Determination of Fetus Gender don’t Challenge God’s Justice and Wisdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfollah Dezhkam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available   Application of modern technology to cure barrenness has arisen challenges in various aspects some of which are ethical, legal and ideological. One of the ideological challenges, inserted in the above topic, has been discussed through this essay.   The cause-effect system ruling the universe, helps a lot to determine God’s the Almighty Justice and Wisdom in creation. Therefore, the creation of the barren person, in the framework of that system, doesn’t conflict with His Justice and Wisdom. Of course, based on the penal justice, God will compensate these deficiencies by either giving rewards or mitigating the punishment. So, unveiling the creation mysteries-and the infertility of some diseases or the ability to do some affairs such as the selection of fetus gender doesn’t derange the best Divine system ruling the universe. Besides, these Facts prove the existence of such a system because if the relations weren’t established in the system, how could we access to these facts.   By understanding the best system and the accurate determining of the ordination ruling it, we conclude that fetus gender selection and modern infertility treatments can’t be judged as the interference in God’s creation and the conflict with God’s Justice rather the stability of the best system is proved through the occurance of such affairs.

  18. What is justice in education? Sketch of answer based on theories of justice and economics.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Waltenberg , Fábio

    2004-01-01

    D. Waltenberg, F. (2004). What is justice in education? Sketch of answer based on theories of justice and economics. Les Cahiers de Recherche du Girsef, 32.; What is justice in education? How can we evaluate whether given distributions of educational inputs or educational outcomes are just or not? How should a society distribute its educational resources? How can we evaluate the level of (un)fairness of a schooling system? In this paper, we try to provide a basic framework for thinking about ...

  19. From distributive to procedural justice. Justice as a constitutive value of public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio SANDU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The justice as an ethical value can be considered constitutive for contemporary administrative systems. These ones are asked to transpose into practice the ideal of justice in the community. The functioning of a modern state cannot be conceived without a series of institutions that would guarantee the achievement of justice. The legal system was established specifically to administer justice. Modern democratic systems felt the need for certain courts and extrajudicial procedures to create justice. The institutions required to implement the extrajudicial distribution of justice are part of the public administration, representing a central element of it. The model of a political system based on justice is a minimalist one; the role of the state is limited to making it possible for individuals to follow their own ideal of welfare. Opposed to justice, the ideal of welfare requests the state, and implicitly the administration, to ensure the individual the minimum conditions to live in that community. The minimal state centered on justice is the result of a modern paradigm with post-Kantian reverberations, which emphasize the rationality of human action. If the individual is rational, he only needs fair conditions in order to pursue his own welfare. The role of the administration is to ensure those conditions and to oversee the distribution of goods and services, as well as the distribution and redistribution of added value.

  20. THE CHILD JUSTICE ACT: PROCEDURAL SENTENCING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan S Terblanche

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution a number of procedural issues related to the sentencing of child offenders and emanating from the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 are considered in some detail. As a general rule, the Act requires pre-sentence reports to be obtained from probation officers before sentencing any child offender, with only a limited number of exceptions. The article argues that the peremptory nature of the Act means that a probation report is always required, even if reports by other experts are also available. The exceptions are limited to instances other than those where the child offender is sentenced to any form of imprisonment or to residence in a care centre. The article addresses the question of whether or not the reference to imprisonment includes alternative imprisonment which is imposed only as an alternative to a fine. It suggests that alternative imprisonment should, generally, not be imposed on child offenders. When an exception is not prevented because of the sentence, a pre-sentence report may be dispensed with only when the offence is a schedule-1 offence (the least serious class of offences or when obtaining a report would prejudice the child. It is argued that these exceptions are likely to occur rather rarely. A final aspect of the Act’s provisions on pre-sentence reports is the requirement that reasons be given for a departure from the recommendations in a pre-sentence report. This requirement merely confirms the status quo.The Act permits the prosecutor to provide the court with a victim impact statement. Such a statement is defined in the Act. It is a sworn statement by a victim or someone authorised by the victim explaining the consequences to the victim of the commission of the crime. The article also addresses the issue of whether or not the child justice court might mero motu obtain a victim impact statement when the prosecution does not do so.Finally, the article addresses appeals against and reviews of the trial

  1. What Justice for Rwanda? Gacaca versus Truth Commission?

    OpenAIRE

    Reuchamps, Min

    2008-01-01

    In post-genocide Rwanda, in addition to gacaca courts, a truth commission is needed in order to promote justice and foster reconciliation. In the context of transitional justice, retributive justice, which seeks justice and focuses on the perpetrators, appears to be inadequate to lead a society towards reconciliation. Therefore, some forms of restorative justice, which emphasize the healing of the whole society, seem necessary. In Rwanda, gacaca courts and a truth commission are complementary...

  2. Temporal Justice, Youth Quotas and Libertarianism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissenburg, M.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Quotas, including youth quotas for representative institutions, are usually evaluated from within the social justice discourse. That discourse relies on several questionable assumptions, seven of which I critically address and radically revise in this contribution from a libertarian perspective.

  3. Governance and Justice | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This program fosters better governance and justice systems so people can lead ... A man peers through a hole in a wall that separates Tijuana, Mexico, from the United States. ... Denial of health care or an education is unthinkable for most.

  4. Justice And Legal Certainty For Child Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Setiadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Focus of attention in the criminal justice system so far has always been to the perpetrator, whereas parties related to a process of criminal justice encompasses the perpetrator, the victim, and the community. A crime victim, in particular, would suffer more since he/she could experience secondary victimization in the criminal justice system. The law concerning victim and witness protection only states the limitation for the criminal victim to ask for compensation to criminal justice system, either as a victim of direct criminal or a victim of abuse power done by law enforcement officers. Child victims are treated the same way as to adult victims, whilst they have a greater dimension of the problem and effects to be dealt with Mechanism and procedures to be followed are ius constituendum (intended/desirable law, as they only share expectation of indemnity, compensation, and rehabilitation which have not been empirically tested in a real situation.

  5. Justice and Social Cohesion: Some conservative perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of recent debates on multiculturalism and value-pluralism, the pressing questions now focuses on whether social cohesion and the notion of justice are sustainable and can be upheld, at least from a European perspective. There are many theoretical and academic responses, mainly from...... liberals, on how to accommodate the different demands of various ethnic and religious groups and at the same time sustain a minimum of social cohesion and justice. One voice is missing and that is a conservative perspective. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a modern conservative analysis...... of this problem. The argument presented in this paper will, first, take its point of departure from David Hume’s notion of sympathy and how this makes social cohesion possible. Second, it will be argued that social cohesion is a prerequisite for the existence of justice, and therefore justice is a derivative...

  6. REFORMATIONS IN ZIMBABWE'S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    1996-05-23

    May 23, 1996 ... The article is based on a desk review of existing literature on juvenile crime in the country. ... that Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system is transforming from being ... recommendations include expanding the Pre-trial Diversion ...

  7. Climate Justice and the Paris Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelot, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    The concept of climate justice has been, for the first time, used in an international agreement - namely, the Paris Agreement. But this recognition of the notion of climate justice is extremely restricted by the very way it is formulated. Preamble of the Paris Agreement 'notes' that climate justice is recognized by 'certain cultures'. Does it mean that particular and concrete stakes of climate justice of the pre-COP21 agenda have been recognized or, on the contrary, that the notion so introduced is actually an empty shell without any genuine legal perspective? Considering this uncertainty, it appears relevant to analyze the Paris Agreement through the claims of various groups and coalitions, which influenced the COP21 negotiations

  8. Justice et miséricorde

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, René

    2012-01-01

    On n’imagine pas de justice sans possibilité de faire miséricorde ; inversement, une miséricorde qui ne tiendrait pas compte de la justice ne serait plus la miséricorde. Les deux notions sont liées, mais sur un socle inégal : car la justice inspirée par la loi naturelle déborde la justice positive, de même que la misère des miséreux ne se laisse pas ramener au mal commis par le misérable. En découlent des variations où l’on peut voir se profiler trois moments : 1. La loi coutumière est bouscu...

  9. Equal Access to Justice Act Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A dataset containing payment amounts made by the Social Security Administration for court-approved Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) payments for fiscal year 2010...

  10. Enviromental Justice (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data (USEPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating "EJ...

  11. Environmental Justice (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data (USEPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating "EJ...

  12. 77 FR 42077 - Environmental Justice: Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ..., rulemaking, and policy formulation. The DOT Order sets forth steps to prevent disproportionately high and... Circular as a whole. Some commenters expressed concerns about perceived administrative and financial... Engagement With Environmental Justice Populations Chapter III contains recommended strategies and techniques...

  13. Restorative justice: a changing community response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We draw attention to this emerging trend via current research and resources that enable us to put forward a definition, theoretical background and list the characteristic traits of this alternative mode of life consequence. Finally, we argue that the use of restorative justice in schools is a focus that is really a paradigm shift within the landscape of the educational enterprise.

  14. Problematising Development in Sustainability: Epistemic Justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. ... justice in education for sustainable development (ESD) and presents alternative ... that global definitions of development cement the dominant hegemonic discourse .... constituted by collective community and ecological components, social responsibility becomes.

  15. Climate Change, Social Justice and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Barker; Şerban Scrieciu; David Taylor

    2008-01-01

    Terry Barker, Şerban Scrieciu and David Taylor discuss the implications of climate change for social justice and the prospects for more sustainable development pathways. They state that the analysis and discussions surrounding the climate change problem, particularly those drawing on the traditional economics literature, have relied on a crude economic utilitarianism that no moral philosopher would endorse. Such arguments have typically ignored the concept of justice itself and wider e...

  16. Incorporating environmental justice into environmental decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Vogt, D.P.; Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Executive Order 12898, signed on February 11, 1994, broadly states that federal activities, programs, and policies should not produce disproportionately high and adverse impacts on minority and low-income populations. Moreover, the Order indicates that these populations should not be denied the benefits of, or excluded from participation in, these activities, programs, and policies. Because a presidential memorandum accompanying the order said that National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents should begin to address environmental justice immediately, much attention has been paid to assessment-related issues. Also important, a topic that appears to have received relatively little attention, is how decision makers should be expected to use information about environmental justice in their decision making. This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of environmental justice information in the decision-making process by focusing on the following five main topics: (1) the importance, or weight, attached to environmental justice within larger decision-making contexts; (2) the potential tension between localized environmental justice issues and regional or national issues and needs; (3) the use of environmental justice information to develop (perhaps in concert with affected minority and low-income communities) appropriate mitigation strategies, or to establish conditions under which activities, programs, and policies may be accepted locally; (4) the general implications of shifting the distribution of broadly defined risks, costs, and benefits among different population groups; and (5) the implications of implementing environmental justice on an individual, ad hoc basis rather than within a larger environmental justice framework. This paper raises the issues and discusses the implications of alternative approaches to them.

  17. Putting the "social" back in legal socialization: procedural justice, legitimacy, and cynicism in legal and nonlegal authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, legal socialization theory and research has been dominated by a cognitive developmental approach. However, more recent work (e.g., Fagan & Tyler, 2005) has used procedural justice to explain the legal socialization process. This article presents 2 studies that expand this approach by testing a procedural justice model of legal socialization in terms of legal and nonlegal authority. In Study 1, participants completed surveys assessing the degree to which they perceived 3 authorities (police officers, parents, and teachers) as procedurally fair, the degree to which they perceived the authorities as legitimate, how cynical they were about laws, and the extent of their rule violation during the past 6 months. Across all 3 authorities, legitimacy and legal cynicism mediated the relation between procedural justice and rule violation. Study 2 examined the model with the same 3 authority types using experimental methods. Participants read 3 scenarios describing an interaction between an adolescent and an authority figure where a rule is enforced. Within each scenario, we manipulated whether the adolescent had a voice and whether the authority enforced the rule impartially. After reading each scenario, participants rated the authority's legitimacy, their cynicism toward the authority's rule, and the likelihood they would violate the rule. Again, legitimacy and rule cynicism mediated the relation between impartiality, voice, and rule violation. In addition, impartiality had a stronger effect in the parent and teacher scenarios, whereas voice had a stronger effect in the police scenario. Results are discussed in terms of expanding legal socialization to nonlegal contexts and applying legal socialization research to prevention and intervention strategies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. SOCIAL JUSTICE FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazire Diker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to question the living conditions of disabled people in the 21st century from  the framework of social justice. The concept of “social justice” has a long history, influenced  by the works of numerous writers including Rawls (1971, Miller (1999, Reeves (2005, Fainstein (2009, Marcuse (2009 and Harvey (1992, 2009 and by the recent debates on  inequality, diversity, segregation, exclusion, and discrimination. The debates on segregation, exclusion and discrimination are generally focused on inequalities in terms of economic,  ethnic and gender dimensions; however, in these debates, there is very little reference to unequal opportunities of disabled people. On the other hand, the diversity issue is generally discussed with respect to ethnic and cultural elements, again with very little concern for the  rights of disabled people. In many developing countries, including Turkey, a legal framework  for addressing disability issues has started to be put in place. Awareness among governments and society of the needs and rights of people with disabilities is growing. In the  last decade in Turkey, the difficulties faced by disabled people have started to be taken into  consideration seriously. Before that, the only information about the disabled population could  be obtained from General Population Census in Turkey. In 2002 “Turkey Disability Survey” was carried out collectively by the State Institute of Statistics and the Presidency of  Administration on Disabled People. In this survey, it has been targeted to estimate the number of disabled people and comprehend their socio-economic characteristics, their  problems in social life, expectations, types and causes of disability, regional differences and also the proportion of population having chronic illnesses. After this survey, many projects  have started to be realized in order to propose strategies for eliminating discrimination in  Turkey. In this paper, we will

  19. Fiber Arts and Generative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kuhn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fiber arts, because they are practiced in different forms around the globe, have the potential to teach us much about generative justice that unites labor, ecological, and expressive values. The ecological mutualism documented in Navajo corrals supports traditional weaving, dyeing, food, and medicinal practices in a sustainable and generative cycle that survives despite disruption and exploitation. The network of fiber craftspeople, retailers, ranchers, teachers, spinners, and dyers and their organizations supports the social mutualism of fiber communities. Fiber arts practices can benefit individuals, communities, the environment, and public health, among other things. Conscious fiber activism and critical making can also be used to explicitly draw attention to problems such as overconsumption, waste, industrial “fast fashion,” labor exploitation, environmental degradation, toxic risks, intolerance, and the devaluing of women and their work. Fiber arts have the potential to support environmental and social mutualism and catalyze a new aesthetic of long-term attachment to meaningful objects and communities, reinforcing the creation and conservation of expressive, ecological, and labor value. 

  20. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  1. Towards Communicative Justice in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    This article approaches care from a different angle by looking ethnographically at how it is shaped by structural differences in the power to control the circulation of knowledge. I focus on an investigation conducted by people classified as "indigenous", of an epidemic that killed 38 children and young adults in a Venezuelan rainforest. I trace how health/communicative inequities structured clinical interactions, documents, epidemiological investigations, news stories, and dialogues with healers, thwarting the identification of the epidemic, clinically identified as rabies. Although the Bolivarian socialist government provided access to care, professionals denigrated parents' contributions to care and communication and reduced complex, unequal relations between languages to practical problems of translation. Pointing to parallels with US social movements, I suggest that responding to demands for communicative justice in health requires seeing how health inequities are entangled with health/communicative inequities. The typographical slash points to importance of challenging the subdisciplinary boundary-work that relegates their study to non-overlapping conversations in medical and linguistic anthropology.

  2. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  3. New jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice in resolving monetary and fiscal disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has caused the need for a stronger positioning of the European Court of Justice in the new model of economic governance in the European Union. The Jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice contributes in creating the optimal legal control mechanism of budget spending in the European monetary law and ensure maintenance of euro-zone fiscal framework. The role of the European Court of Justice in the EMU in earlier periods was secondary, but in times of crisis, it points to the growing need of Jurisdiction's extending in the field of monetary relations between member states and respect of convergence rules. Court's Jurisdiction in resolving of monetary and fiscal disputes is increasingly implemented in determining the legal nature of international agreements, whose ratio is economic stability, where the Judgments regarding complementarities of these legal documents with primary law provisions have the crucial impact on the future direction of national fiscal policies coordination. Although, the Court's Jurisdiction in this area is still underdeveloped and Judgments are often conditioned by pragmatism reasons, by development of credible macroeconomic dialogue between Court of Justice, European Central Bank and European Court of Auditors may establish conditions for fullfiling legal gaps in the performance of monetary and fiscal Jurisdiction of the Court.

  4. A Better Budget Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  5. Assessment for Social Justice: The Role of Assessment in Achieving Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for "assessment for social justice", through which a greater focus is given to the role of assessment in achieving the social justice aspirations of higher education. It takes inspiration from work on assessment for learning to propose that as assessment is a powerful driver of how and what students…

  6. Restorative Justice at Work: Examining the Impact of Restorative Justice Resolutions on Juvenile Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Programs with restorative justice ideals attempt to incorporate victims and community members into the administration of justice. Although these programs have become increasingly popular, only a few programs in the United States have been the focus of prior studies. Using official juvenile court data from an urban, metropolitan area, this study…

  7. "The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

  8. The Administration of Justice in al-Andalus and the Principles of Justice in Constitutional Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    exanimating some of the distinctive elements of the Andalusian administration of justice and the role that specialized judges developed. The paper then exposes the meaning and scope of modern principles of justice, as prescribed by Article 10 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in Article 14...

  9. Navigating the Meanings of Social Justice, Teaching for Social Justice, and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunhee

    2017-01-01

    This article uses well-received contemporary scholarship--works by Iris Young, Nancy Fraser, Morva McDonald, Connie North, and Geneva Gay--to illuminate a high degree of coherence among the substantive meanings of social justice, teaching for social justice, and multicultural education. Based on these relationships, the article suggests that…

  10. Rethinking Discussions of Justice in Educational Research: Formative Justice, Educational Liberalism, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Winston C.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Educational research tends to borrow accounts of justice from scholarship embedded within the structures and commitments of other disciplines or fields of study. This has created a body of educational research that largely responds to the "justice" goals of those disciplines rather than education qua education.…

  11. Commentary: School Psychologists as Advocates for Racial Justice and Social Justice: Some Proposed Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, David

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Shriberg acknowledges that social justice and racial justice are critical frameworks from which to view school psychology. Individually and collectively, the works in this special issue of "School Psychology Forum" have added a tremendous service to the field. In addition to advancing research, the articles challenge…

  12. Privileged Pursuits of Social Justice: Exploring Privileged College Students' Motivation for Engaging in Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The author of this article explores the motivation factors that lead privileged college students to be involved in social justice efforts. The students participating in this study identified multiple reasons for their initial and continued involvement in social justice work, but all students identified three main sources of motivation: responding…

  13. The concept of energy justice across the disciplines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffron, Raphael J.; McCauley, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, ‘Energy Justice’ is a concept that has emerged in research across many disciplines. This research explores the role and value of the energy justice concept across the disciplines. It provides the first critical account of the emergence of the energy justice concept in both research and practice. A diagrammatical image for examining the energy justice concepts is presented and this is a tool for interdisciplinary engagement with the concept. In this context, restorative justice is introduced and how it results in energy justice applying in practice is detailed. Energy research scholarship at universities is assessed and it is clear that through universities there is a platform for energy justice scholarship to build on the interdisciplinary energy scholarship at universities. Further, the role of education is vital to policy-making, and the understanding and development of the energy justice concept. Finally, in analysing how the energy justice concept can impact on policy-making, there is a critical examination of the energy justice and its relationship with economics, and how it can transfer directly into practice by assisting in balancing the competing aims of the energy trilemma. - Highlights: • Presents the value of the energy justice concept itself. • Introduces restorative justice as having a key role across the energy justice concept. • Expresses the need to develop a ‘common approach’ for the energy justice concept Advances the conceptual framework for energy justice – from theory to practice.

  14. Skepticism of the Western System on Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Farihah Mohd Noor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Justice is an elusive concept; it is controversial,yet very important to mankind. This paper seeks to explain the challenges found in the work of justice and to explore justice as defined by the West and by Islam. The findings show that there is stark difference especially in the philosophical aspect in how justice is interpreted and applied from the viewpoint of the West and Islam. Findings also show that Islamic approach to justice is more durable and dynamic as theguidance is deeply entrenched in the divine revelation of the Holy Quran; since no human being has the ability of creating, being by nature, fallible and as such produces excellent impact. The impact of justice in Islam can be seen from the Islamic history itself. Unfortunately, since the world has been dominated by the secularsystem; divine law has slowly been rejected and has been taken as irrelevant and backdated. The researcher also seeks to show why Muslims fail despite of the existence of rich and forceful Islamic ways. In order to overcome the setback, the researcher proposes some reforms for Muslims to return to its original state of Islam that encourages just and good governance. This finding is important as it can provide insights to the government as tools in combating acts ofinjustice more consistently and forcefully. As injustice is an endemic and the main reason for the collapse of society, this discussion attempts to show that Islamic idea of justice is actuallyable to solve all problems no matter how big the scale is. The positive and incredible impact not only will be enjoyed by the ruler and the governed, but also by the whole nation, Muslims and non-Muslims alike.

  15. Relationships are building blocks to social justice: Cases of biblical justice and African Ubuntu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selaelo T. Kgatla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The entire Bible is full of themes calling humans to live justly with one another and fear God who is the author of justice. The first book of the Bible, Genesis, carries the story of God’s relationship with his people. Their relationship is bound by social justice and mutual love in reciprocity. This article argues that African Ubuntu has an affinity with the Bible’s message of justice and mutual caring for one another. Ubuntu presupposes that humans were created in God’s image and indicates that characteristics such as kindness, charity, equality, love of one’s neighbours and voluntarily dispensing justice to others are present in human life. God created humans to be bound to one another in caring love, coexistence and total dependence. In today’s world, social justice requires good judgement from those who are in privileged positions to implement it.

  16. How does justice smell? Reflections on space and place, justice and the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Meiring

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flowing from a joint consultation on Spatial Justice and Reconciliation on 21–22 September 2015, hosted by the Centre for Contextual Ministry and the Ubuntu Research Project of the University of Pretoria, this article reflects on the notions of space and justice from the perspective of a contemporary theological anthropology as ‘embodied sensing’, where the making of meaning is sensed in the body. The argument is put forward that spatial justice is an embodied endeavour and that it cannot be achieved disconnected from the bodies of the persons in the concrete context where justice is strived for and where bodies can flourish. The relation between spatial justice, sense of place, human flourishing and the embodied sensing of meaning is explored.

  17. 28 CFR 42.606 - General rules concerning EEOC action on complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... title VII and the Equal Pay Act, the date such a complaint was received by an agency shall be deemed the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General rules concerning EEOC action on complaints. 42.606 Section 42.606 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL...

  18. 28 CFR 16.28 - Procedure in the event of an adverse ruling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure in the event of an adverse ruling. 16.28 Section 16.28 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Production or Disclosure in Federal and State Proceedings § 16.28 Procedure in the...

  19. Terrorism, Forgiveness and Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Pemberton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly public nature of terrorism, in which the attack on the direct victims is intended to influence a (far larger group of so-called vicarious victims. This means that the public is likely to experience terrorist attacks as attacks on themselves. As a consequence the public can feel entitled to processes of forgiveness which in turn can conflict with the direct victims’ own experience. To illuminate this issue the paper proposes a novel distinction in third party forgiveness processes: between public forgiveness, i.e. forgiveness relating to the public wrongfulness inherent in crime, and vicarious forgiveness, i.e. the public’s experience of forgiveness itself. The complexities for restorative justice after terrorism can be then be viewed in terms of the tensions between the direct victims’ private and the publics’ vicarious forgiveness processes. Este artículo pretende facilitar la comprensión de las complejidades de la justicia restaurativa en casos de terrorismo desde una perspectiva victimológica. Lo hace primero mediante el análisis de lo que separa el terrorismo de otras formas de delincuencia. El autor sostiene que la distinción principal se refiere a la naturaleza pública específica del terrorismo, ya que mediante el ataque a las víctimas directas se pretende influir en el grupo (mucho más grande de las llamadas víctimas vicarias. Esto significa que es probable que el público sienta los ataques terroristas como ataques contra ellos mismos. De esta forma, el público puede sentirse con derecho sobre los procesos de perdón, lo que, a su vez, puede entrar en conflicto con la propia experiencia de las víctimas directas. Para iluminar

  20. The Prisoners' Rights Protection in Indonesia Law System of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidan Haidan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine the provision of the prisoner’s rights protection in Indonesia law system of justice and its relation to the exemption conditional (EC in correctional institution. As an important issue, here is if the defendant override rules associated with the controversial issue in society, they will both at national and international level, such as human rights issues. The case was appeared recently, especially in the connection with the cases of exemption conditional, i.e. Pollycarpus Budihari Priyanto’s case. The case has become the center of public attention, especially after release of the Ministry of Law and Human Rights, who has been freeing the prisoners that related to the homicides Human Rights Activists (HRA i.e Munir Said Thalib. In the community, this decision raises the pro and contra. This paper concludes that all persons deprived of their liberty will be treated with humanity and guaranteed them with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person to be in accordance with the existing rules. In this case, the government of Indonesia has given the rights of prisoners through the stages of development of the inmates according to the stage of the penal process that refers to laws and regulations and implementation of technical regulations. The paper also recommends that the need for the government to deliver data either traditionally or electronically linked plan of exemption conditional.

  1. UN Security Council Practice and Regional Arrangements: Procedure, Legitimacy and International Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    When the United Nations Security Council first met in January 1946, it was unable to reach agreement on rules of procedure to govern its operation. Instead, “provisional” rules were adopted in anticipation of further negotiation at a later date. The same provisional rules govern the Council’s work...... today, but provide only the skeletal framework of its contemporary practice. From the early 1990s, the Council increasingly implemented informal working methods to expedite its decision-making. This paper will critically examine the tension between the procedural practice of the Security Council...... to act ‘in conformity with the principles of justice and international law’ as stipulated in the very first provision of the United Nations Charter. Scholarship to date has largely ignored the procedural context of Security Council decisions, notwithstanding it provides the very structure within which...

  2. Values and religiosity as predictors of engagement in social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R; Carollo, Olivia; Schamberger, Antú; Clifton-Soderstrom, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Some researchers have suggested that values, including religious values and motivations, might facilitate social justice work. Individuals might view social justice work as an expression of religious beliefs, values, and practices, or as an expression of their personal morals and values. The current study examined the role of religious variables and secular values to predict attitudes, intentions to engage in social justice, perceived norms around social justice, and perceived ability to engage in social justice within a culturally and religiously diverse student population. Implications of the study results for social justice education are presented and discussed.

  3. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  4. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  5. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent with its caption, the text of the rule controls. [Order 376, 49 FR 21705, May 23, 1984] ...

  6. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinda Duraj (Male

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The participation of children in international criminal justice and other accountability mechanisms is now one of the major issues facing criminal justice today. In this sense, this paper presents a short overview on the issue of children and their participation in international criminal justice. The paper thus focuses on giving a definition of “child/children” according to international norms, which are the key principles of children’s rights, their participation in the criminal justice system, the different international crimes committed by them or against them etc. Also, this paper briefly addresses the main contours of the normative framework regarding the criminal responsibility of children for their alleged participation in international crimes. It reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves (as child soldiers and identifies their criminal responsibility for such acts. Finally, this paper acknowledges the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children.

  7. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  8. Environmental Justice: A Panoptic Overview Using Scientometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake R. Nelson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its initial introduction in the 1970s, the field of environmental justice (EJ continues to grow, with significant contributions from the disciplines of sustainability science, geography, political science, public policy and administration, urban planning, law, and many others. Each of these disciplines approach EJ research from slightly different perspectives, but all offer unique and valuable insight to the EJ knowledge domain. Although the interdisciplinary nature of environmental justice should be viewed as a strength, it presents a challenge when attempting to both summarize and synthesize key contributions to the field, due to disciplinary bias, narrow subfield foci, or gaps in knowledge by a research team without a representative disciplinary composition. The purpose of this paper is to provide a succinct, panoptic review of key research contributions to environmental justice, while simultaneously minimizing common problems associated with traditional reviews. In particular, this paper explores the utility of co-citation network analysis, to provide insight into the most important subdomains of environmental justice research. The results suggest that while early EJ research is initially focused on environmental disamenities and a continued focus on race and inequality, the research gradually shifts to foci more concerned with environmental amenities, such as parks and greenspace. We also find that race and inequality remain an important and consist line of research over the duration of the study time period. Implications for environmental justice research and its allied subfields are discussed.

  9. 78 FR 2443 - Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1612] Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements, and... three draft documents related to Interview Room Recording Systems (IRRS) used by criminal justice...

  10. 76 FR 79220 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention... component of the Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of science and statistics for the...

  11. 75 FR 16177 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1514] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of...

  12. 39 CFR 230.21 - May the General Counsel to the Inspector General and/or a U.S. Department of Justice attorney...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the General Counsel to the Inspector General and/or a U.S. Department of Justice attorney represent the employee in any appearance? 230.21 Section... GENERAL Rules Governing Compliance With Subpoenas, Summonses, and Court Orders by Postal Employees Within...

  13. On financial losses, prospectuses, liability, jurisdiction (clauses) and applicable law : European Court of Justice 28 January 2015, Case C-375/13 (Kolassa/Barclays Bank)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arons, T.M.C.

    The difficult question of where financial losses are directly sustained has been (partly) solved by the European Court of Justice on 28 January 2015. In Kolassa the ECJ ruled that an investor suffers direct financial losses as a result of corporate misinformation (i.e. misleading information

  14. The Court of Justice and The Data Retention Directive in Digital Rights Ireland: Telling Off The EU Legislator and Teaching a Lesson in Privacy and Data Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granger, M.-P.; Irion, K.

    2014-01-01

    In Digital Rights Ireland, the Court of Justice invalidated the 2006 Data Retention Directive, which required private providers to retain for a considerable period electronic communication metadata for law enforcement purposes. In this landmark ruling, the EU judiciary introduced a strict scrutiny

  15. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  16. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  17. Pardon in the light of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Dušica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to consider pardon in the restorative justice context. Beginning from the basic standpoint that restorative justice imposes request for interests-balancing of different subjects connected by criminal act, the author tries to examine the articulation of the aforementioned standpoint through the pardon concept, accepted in domestic positive law. There is no doubt that the institute is designed in favour of the crime perpetrator, which is confirmed by the analysis of different legal effects produced by its content, while the victim- and society interests remained, at least, insufficiently protected. Therefore, the author points to some positive examples from comparative law and poses certain suggestions, that can be of use for eventual reforming of the institute, in order to achieve values of restorative justice. .

  18. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice...... practitioners have to take account of a rather more complex picture than it had hitherto been thought. Restorative conferences are not simply about "shame management," though practitioners must certainly avoid shaming and humiliation. Given the nature of shame, guilt, and restorative conferences...

  19. The feasibility Problem in Theorizing Social Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Huzum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available G. A. Cohen and Andrew Mason have recently argued, against many contemporary philosophers, that feasibility is not a legitimate constraint in theorizing about social justice. Their main argument is that principles of justice are logically independent of issues of feasibility and, consequently, feasibility has no bearing on the correctness of these principles. This article is a critical examination of three attempts to show that Cohen and Mason’s argument is unsound. The examined attempts are those of Harry Brighouse, Collin Farrelly, and David Miller. I argue that all these arguments are based on false, unjustified or implausible, premises and/or assumptions. Consequently, they cannot discredit the soundness of Cohen and Mason’s argument and of the thesis that feasibility is not, in fact, a legitimate constraint in theorizing about social justice.

  20. Reducing the cost of administrative justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourtellotte, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    In virtually every sector of government regulation, the complaint has been lodged that the costs of administrative justice are too high. These costs in time, money, resources, and productivity can have a profound effect on the individual consumer. When applied to an energy technology such as nuclear power, costs of administrative justice can transcent time and money to have even more profound and pervasive soeietal effects. Societal costs can be expressed in terms of their impact on important national concerns, that is, the standard of living, technological superiority, and the national energy equation. Some views are presented on the interests involved in the regulation of nuclear power and what can be done to bring those interests into better balance so as to reduce the cost of administrative justice

  1. Rural science education as social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Karen

    2017-03-01

    What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.

  2. Trying to restore justice: bureaucracies, risk management, and disciplinary boundaries in New Zealand criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathryn J

    2015-05-01

    New Zealand is well known for its restorative justice conferences in the youth justice system. However, restorative justice has yet to overwhelm the adult criminal justice system. Based on interviews in New Zealand with correctional staff, restorative justice providers, and others, this article explores the reason for the modest inroads that restorative practice has made, and suggests that the general context may explain the limits of restorative justice in other places. The article argues that bureaucratic silos make it challenging to determine if restorative practice might fit within a rehabilitation or reintegration framework. In addition, because of the dominance of psychological modes for assessing and treating criminal behavior, an overarching preoccupation with risk management orients correctional practice toward treatment. Moreover, restorative justice's affiliation with victims' perspectives has made its placement within offender reintegration difficult to imagine. Finally, the penal populism that frames correctional practice in New Zealand, and other Anglophone countries, makes alternative to punishment harder to sell. However, the current liminal state of correctional practice creates an opportunity to conceive of more humanistic ways of repairing the harm caused by crime. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Restorative justice as social justice for victims of gendered violence: a standpoint feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2009-04-01

    This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims and their advocates with the current system of mandatory law enforcement opens the door for consideration of alternative forms of dealing with domestic violence. Restorative justice strategies, as argued here, have several major advantages. Like social work, these strategies are solution-based rather than problem-based processes, give voice to marginalized people, and focus on healing and reconciliation. Moreover, restorative justice offers an avenue through which the profession of social work can re-establish its historic role in criminal justice. The four models most relevant to women's victimization are victim-offender conferencing, family group conferencing, healing circles, and community reparations. Each model is examined separately from a feminist standpoint. The discussion is informed by insights from the teachings of standpoint feminist theory and social work values, especially social justice.

  4. Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosilong, KP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Chapter Title: Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa Bosilong, KP: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria Mbecke, P: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria ABSTRACT: This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics...

  5. International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance provides a comprehensive study of compliance with legal obligations derived from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia's (ICTY) Statute and integrates theoretical debates on compliance into international justice

  6. The Bolivian public justice performance research study | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , inside and outside of the justice system, about the justice system's ... IDRC is investing in local solutions to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  7. Justice: A Problem for Military Ethics during Irregular War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, John W

    2008-01-01

    ... is?" or "Justice according to whom?" The relative nature of the term "justice" creates a problem for military ethics, particularly when soldiers try to determine what actions are morally acceptable when they are engaged in irregular warfare...

  8. Air Pollution and Environmental Justice Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution is not equally dispersed in all neighborhoods and this raises many social concerns, such as environmental justice. "Real world" data, whether extracted from online databases or collected in the field, can be used to demonstrate air quality patterns. When students explore these trends, they not only learn about atmospheric chemistry, but they also become socially aware of any inequities. This presentation outlines specific ways to link air pollution and environmental justice suitable for an undergraduate upper division Air Pollution or Atmospheric Chemistry course.

  9. Constructing a justice model based on Sen's capability approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel, Sevgi; Yuksel, Sevgi

    2008-01-01

    The thesis provides a possible justice model based on Sen's capability approach. For this goal, we first analyze the general structure of a theory of justice, identifying the main variables and issues. Furthermore, based on Sen (2006) and Kolm (1998), we look at 'transcendental' and 'comparative' approaches to justice and concentrate on the sufficiency condition for the comparative approach. Then, taking Rawls' theory of justice as a starting point, we present how Sen's capability approach em...

  10. 76 FR 53965 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1556] Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U. S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  11. 77 FR 61641 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1608] Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  12. 75 FR 70293 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1532] Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile...

  13. 78 FR 43920 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1614] Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar...

  14. 77 FR 39511 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1594] Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar...

  15. 77 FR 20649 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1585] Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting...

  16. 76 FR 2135 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Proposed Plan for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1544] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Proposed Plan for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Department of Justice...

  17. Technical rules in law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelius, J

    1978-08-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself.

  18. Technical rules in law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelius, J.

    1978-01-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.) [de

  19. 75 FR 70122 - Office of Tribal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ...-government basis. This rule, which sets forth the Office's organization, mission and functions, amends the... structure. DATES: Effective Date: November 17, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tracy Toulou, Director... statutory directive. Administrative Procedure Act 5 U.S.C. 553 This rule is a rule of agency organization...

  20. 7 CFR 3.21 - Referrals of Debts to Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referrals of Debts to Justice. 3.21 Section 3.21... and Compromise of Claims § 3.21 Referrals of Debts to Justice. An agency shall promptly refer to Justice for litigation debts on which aggressive collection activity has been taken in accordance with...

  1. 29 CFR 8.19 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal Access to Justice Act. 8.19 Section 8.19 Labor Office... SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.19 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under the... Access to Justice Act (Pub. L. 96-481). Accordingly, in any proceeding conducted pursuant to the...

  2. 29 CFR 530.414 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 530.414 Section 530.414 Labor... OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Administrative Procedures § 530.414 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the provisions of the Equal Access to Justice Act. In any...

  3. Civic Virtue, Social Justice and Catholic Schools: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognibene, Richard; Paulli, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Details the history of the Catholic Church's involvement in social justice issues from the Second Vatican Council (1962-65) on. Describes social justice programs in schools in the diocese of Albany, New York, as well as other programs. Stresses that social justice activity rises out gratitude for the gift of life and should be seen in the context…

  4. The Productivity of Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeZee, Matthew R.

    The scholarly productivity of criminology and criminal justice faculty and programs was investigated. The methodologies that were used to rate journals that publish articles in the criminology/criminal justice field and to select 71 schools with graduate programs in criminology or criminal justice are described. Primary interest focused on…

  5. Organizational Justice and Employee Satisfaction in Performance Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologos, Anastasios; Papazekos, Panagiotis; Panayotopoulou, Leda

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the performance appraisal (PA) aspects that are connected with organizational justice, and more specifically three kinds of justice, namely distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a sample of 170 respondents who answered a questionnaire giving…

  6. Restorative Justice: New Horizons in Juvenile Offender Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, John S. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Treatment strategies of the juvenile justice system focus singularly on rehabilitation of offenders, and victims and communities are excluded from the rehabilitative process. Restorative justice views victims and communities as essential components in rehabilitative efforts. In this article, the principles and practices of restorative justice,…

  7. 28 CFR 16.76 - Exemption of Justice Management Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Justice Management Division. 16.76 Section 16.76 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.76 Exemption of Justice...

  8. 76 FR 62434 - HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Justice Strategy AGENCY: Office of the Sustainable Housing and Communities, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Through this notice, HUD announces the release of its draft Environmental Justice Strategy for review and... federal agency, with the law as its guide, should make environmental justice part of its mission. In this...

  9. Teacher Activism: Enacting a Vision for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picower, Bree

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on educators who participated in grassroots social justice groups to explore the role teacher activism can play in the struggle for educational justice. Findings show teacher activists made three overarching commitments: to reconcile their vision for justice with the realities of injustice around them; to work within…

  10. In Pursuit of Educational Justice and Liberated Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirci, Philip S.

    2008-01-01

    This article contributes to a discussion about educational leadership programs related to social justice and diversity. It focuses on the development of social justice leaders through a doctoral program that culminates in a Doctorate in Educational Justice. The program's design is intended to empower graduates to act with hearts liberated through…

  11. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  12. Robert Nozick's entitlement theory of justice: a critique | Nnajiofor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of this paper is to critique Robert Nozick's entitlement theory of justice which was drafted as an argument against traditional distribution theories. Nozick's theory of justice claims that whether a distribution is just or not depend entirely on how it came about. By contrast, justice according to equality, need, desert or ...

  13. Challenges and prospects of the juvenile justice administration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very little priority, despite Nigeria being signatory to the major international instruments relevant to the administration of juvenile justice. This is attributable to the history of the penal system of Nigeria, with laws guiding juvenile justice administration having ...

  14. Justice according to Nsoyenyoni: An analysis of conflict resolution in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Readers of the anthology AbaseGuswini LeZothamlilo may wonder if Nsoyenyoni's justice is jungle justice or something of his own making. Justice, punishment and revenge are discussed as concepts to establish their full meanings. This article also explores circumstances where Nsoyenyoni is involved in trying to level the ...

  15. Justice: A Problem for Military Ethics during Irregular War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    101 See Hans Kelsen , What is Justice? Justice, Law, and Politics in the Mirror of Science...Publishing Company, 1983. Keegan, John, ed. Atlas of the Second World War. New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1989. Kelsen , Hans. What is Justice

  16. 76 FR 13226 - Meeting of the Department of Justice Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... coordination of national policy, practices, and technical solutions in support of the Administration's justice priorities. The GAC will guide and monitor the development of the Global information sharing concept. It will...

  17. The Geography of Justice: Assessing Local Justice in Colombia’s Post-Conflict Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio García-Villegas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article combines descriptive empirical research with theoretical reflections to offer policy guidelines on what the role of local justice institutions in Colombia’s post-conflict phase should be. The article is divided into two parts. In the first, we present empirical evidence to illustrate the ways in which justice operates differently across the territory. In addition to illustrating these disparities, we also demonstrate the connection between these disparities and some phenomena relevant to understanding the Colombian conflict. Based on these findings, the second part of this article defines the state-building challenge confronted by the Colombian State during the post-conflict phase. Following this part, we propose a solution to this state-building challenge: the State must adopt a combination of efficacy and justice, and we provide guidelines on how a post-conflict justice system can operate to achieve that combination.

  18. Justice In Granting Remission For Corruption Prisoners A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mispansyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prisoners are entitled to have a reduction in criminal past remission as stipulated in the Indonesian Criminal Justice System still being debated to this day. This research reviews the essence of the implementation of the substantive law in granting remission against inmate corruption cases from the perspective of public and individual interests. The type of research used in this paper is socio-legal research reviewing remission policy from the perspective of the criminal law system with philosophical and statute approach. The outcomes of the research indicate that the implementation of granting remission for corruption prisoners does not provide justice both procedural and substantive does not provide legal expediency and arising imbalance of justice for individuals communities and countries. The need to implement remissions with impartial justice for corruption prisoners in granting remission to be useful for individuals communities and countries.

  19. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  20. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  1. Teaching social justice: Reframing some common pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on scholarship in Critical Pedagogy, this article speaks to the debate about pedagogical approaches within social justice education (SJE). The article addresses itself to privileged positionality within the context of university-based SJE, with a specific focus on race and whiteness. As a conceptual piece, it addresses ...

  2. Social justice praxis in education: Towards sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    2015-05-29

    May 29, 2015 ... A lack of education leadership and management invariably contributes to this situation (Bush, Kiggundu & Moorosi,. 2011). ... they necessarily lead to reforms as the outcomes- ... privileged ought to share in the promise of ..... justice remains a challenge. ... who needed to work together and take care of one.

  3. Making Commitments to Racial Justice Actionable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Rasha; Ferrel, Thomas; Godbee, Beth; Simpkins, Neil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we articulate a framework for making our commitments to racial justice actionable, a framework that moves from narrating confessional accounts to articulating our commitments and then acting on them through both self-work and work-with-others, a dialectic possibility we identify and explore. We model a method for moving beyond…

  4. Social Justice Leadership and Family Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMatthews, David E.; Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Rincones, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Research Approach: This in-depth qualitative case study explores one school leader's enactment of social justice leadership in an elementary school in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Analysis of interviews and observations revealed how this leader adapted her leadership to prioritize the severe needs of families and students in one of the world's most…

  5. Access to justice : An economic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.

    2010-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of a collection of four independent papers on economic analysis of access to justice. The research methodologies involve game theoretical and empirical analysis of litigation and settlement. Chapter two investigates the institutional causes of delay in litigation. Using

  6. The ecological crisis: a question of justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, H.

    2010-01-01

    The question of ecology has become a major issue for international relations in the next half-century. But it poses new problems of worldwide justice more than questions of power politics, and its solution will always be a reflection of internal social issues in the countries concerned. (author)

  7. Desert, Liberalism and Justice in Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Olafur Pall

    2012-01-01

    Liberal democratic education, as advocated in recent accounts of citizenship education or civic education, is often seen as incompatible with moral education or character education rooted in specific views regarding the virtues. This contrast relies on well established philosophical differences between liberal views of justice and democracy, on…

  8. Enacting Social Justice Leadership through Teacher Hiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Crystal T.

    2018-01-01

    Drawn from a compendium of multiple cases, this single-subject qualitative study offers a nuanced depiction of the ways school principals advocate for social justice through teacher hiring. The hiring experiences of one Hispanic female high school principal was used to explore: (a) the principal's approach to school personnel administration to…

  9. Training Social Justice Journalists: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jacob L.; Lewis, Dan A.

    2015-01-01

    Journalism schools are in the midst of sorting through what it means to prepare journalists for a rapidly transitioning field. In this article, we describe an effort to train students in "social justice journalism" at an elite school of journalism. In our ethnographic analysis of its first iteration, we found that this effort failed to…

  10. Violence Prevention, Access to Justice, and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Solutions to empower women, reduce violence Researchers will identify and analyze interventions in Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. They will assess the impact of efforts on: -preventing violence against women -reducing victimization -improving women's access to justice The results will guide governments, civil ...

  11. Improving the Performance of Justice Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Klaus; Mohlen, Christian; Varela, David F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a selection of experiences from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in managing justice institutions which are the most relevant for performance improvement of their counterparts in Latin America. The scope of the paper is mostly limited to the courts, but comprises all types of courts: specialized courts as well as courts of general j...

  12. Counseling Psychology in the Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Arnold; Binder, Virginia L.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an overview of pscyhological counseling for offenders. The 12 articles of this special issue deal with counseling before trial, in prison, and after release and also crisis intervention for police officers. Other topics include the juvenile justice system, juvenile diversion, ethics, and the economics of service delivery. (JAC)

  13. Social justice praxis in education: Towards sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lastly, these practitioners aligned their management strategies with human rights values, as well as human dignity and equality, and their strategies found pride of place in extant ubuntu principles. Keywords: determinants; education; human rights; management strategies; restorative; social justice praxis; sustainable ...

  14. Social Justice Competencies and Career Development Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra; Marshall, Catherine; McMahon, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The recent focus on social justice issues in career development is primarily conceptual in nature and few resources account for the challenges or successes experienced by career development practitioners. The purpose of this article is to report the results of a research study of career practitioners in Canada regarding the competencies they use…

  15. Social Justice and Media. Media Corner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph A., III, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the end of slavery, women's suffrage, and the civil rights movement were watershed events of social justice in U.S. history. Provides reviews of two media-based sets of instructional materials that can help students understand the struggle by disenfranchised groups to become full participants in society. (CFR)

  16. Social Justice and Education as Discursive Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Krassimir

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Krassimir Stojanov attempts first to reconstruct the "heart" of Jürgen Habermas's discourse ethics, namely the so-called "principle of universalization" of ethical norms. This principle grounds Habermas's proceduralist account of social justice via equal access of all concerned to the practices of deliberative…

  17. A Schizoanalytical Praxis for Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Delphi

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses Deleuzoguattarian schizoanalysis to interrogate concepts of social justice in relation to the crisis of neo-liberal capitalism by referring to the work of the Situationist International movement, the posthuman philosophy of Giles Deleuze and Félix Guattari as well as Afrofuturism. Providing an array of new theoretical responses as…

  18. Environmental Justice and Green-Technology Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an environmental justice (EJ) program adopted by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) as a part of its regulation to phase out a toxic chemical used by dry cleaners. SCAQMD provided financial incentives to switch early and gave establishments in EJ neighborhoods priority in applying for…

  19. The Hispanic Experience of Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissons, Peter L.

    This monograph explores the Hispanic experience of the criminal justice system by examining statistics provided by Federal, State, and local agencies. A review of the literature provides a theoretical perspective from which to view the data. Examination of the first set of data begins with a description of the experiences of Puerto Ricans in the…

  20. Criminal Justice Research Is about People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, John P.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that the Golden Age of criminal justice research has ended with an impending era of austerity. Reviews the work done in the past forty years and recommends a return to the people-oriented research that characterized the Chicago School of the early '20s rather than systems research. (Author/JAC)

  1. Economic Justice: Necessary Condition for Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Economic justice means taking the personhood of poor people into account; respecting their needs, personal ambitions, rights, and dignity; and affording equal opportunity and equal access to education, health care, housing, and jobs. Examples of injustice to minority groups are provided, citing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (SLD)

  2. 32 CFR 651.17 - Environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental justice. 651.17 Section 651.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and the Decision Process...

  3. Ending Sexual Violence Through Transformative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Armatta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence is used to maintain what Dr. Riane Eisler (1990 conceptualizes as the dominator model of society. The early days of the feminist anti-violence movement focused on changing the dominator model, but, in part, this focus was co-opted by seeking criminal justice solutions, contributing to punitive responses and mass incarceration that have been ineffective in ending sexual violence. The racist history of the rape charge and its disproportionate effect on people of color, an effect that continues today. Legislators have passed draconian laws that uniquely apply to anyone convicted of a sex offense, the definition of which has been broadened to encompass harmless behavior. A separate legal regime for sex offenders that isolates them from society and marks them for life as monsters obfuscates the causes of sexual violence and contributes to the problem. The feminist anti-violence movement remains influential, though little recognized, in today’s efforts to respond to sexual violence through restorative justice and transformative justice. A number of groups have adopted the RJ/TJ model, in particular women of color. The article provides examples of successful and unsuccessful implementation of RJ/TJ and discusses impediments to wider adoption of this approach. RJ/TJ is a promising alternative to the current criminal justice response to sexual assault, one that will bring us closer to a partnership culture.

  4. Negotiating Justice: American Muslim Women Navigating Islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A common challenge my interlocutors faced in divorce was establishing an access to Islamic divorce and a divorce on equitable terms. Using their understanding of Islamic law as a standard for justice, my interlocutors employed both civil law and religio-legal strategies to re-defi ne the terms of Islamic divorce for themselves ...

  5. Gender and Workplace Justice: A Field Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Dan R.; Todor, William D.

    1985-01-01

    Studied workplace justice proceedings (N=361) in a field setting. Results strongly suggest that men and women receive substantially different outcomes, i.e., women are over 50 percent more likely to prevail compared to male grievants. Results are invariant across differences in the severity and viability of the contested issues. (BH)

  6. Contextualizing Restorative Justice for Hate Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and…

  7. Restorative Justice: Pedagogy, Praxis, and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Brenda E.; Vaandering, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    In the ongoing effort of designing school contexts in support of proactive discipline, a range of practices and theoretical frameworks have been advanced, from behaviorist approaches to social and emotional learning. This article describes the theory and practice of restorative justice with the aim of defining this distinctive paradigm, in…

  8. Restorative Justice for Discipline with Respect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Expulsion is commonly schools' last resort to maintain discipline and keep schools safe. But increasingly, educators are turning to "restorative justice"--an alternative method from the field of criminology--with promising results. According to Randall Comfort, assistant upper-school director, Mounds Park Academy, St. Paul, Minnesota, using this…

  9. Solidarity, justice, and recognition of the other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Meulen, Ruud

    2016-12-01

    Solidarity has for a long time been referred to as the core value underpinning European health and welfare systems. But there has been debate in recent years about whether solidarity, with its alleged communitarian content, can be reconciled with the emphasis on individual freedom and personal autonomy. One may wonder whether there is still a place for solidarity, and whether the concept of justice should be embraced to analyse the moral issues regarding access to health care. In this article, I will answer this question by analysing the normative foundations of the concept of justice, followed by a deeper examination of the concept of solidarity in continental philosophy. More specifically, I will compare the philosophical traditions rooted in Kant (with emphasis on autonomy and individual rights) to approaches rooted in Hegel (with emphasis on individual relations of recognition). In addition, I will present the work of Avishai Margalit on the decent society to criticize a predominantly liberal approach to access to health care. The importance of solidarity lies particularly in its emphasis on relational aspects and the role of recognition in care practices, which are usually ignored in liberal approaches to justice. However, the article will argue that solidarity is not an alternative to a rights-based concept of justice, but must be considered as a necessary complement to it.

  10. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  11. Procedural Justice in Dutch Administrative Law Proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, André|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355246236; Schueler, Ben|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126262586

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss recent developments in administrative court proceedings in the Netherlands, called the New Approach. Along with developments leading to the New Approach, it became clear that the insights from research on procedural justice deserve particular attention. The goals of the

  12. Ethics and Justice in Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Alan

    2017-01-01

    The many complex challenges posed by learning analytics can best be understood within a framework of structural justice, which focuses on the ways in which the informational, operational, and organizational structures of learning analytics influence students' capacities for self-development and self-determination. This places primary…

  13. Is Diversity Necessary for Educational Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, William S.; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article William New and Michael Merry challenge the notion that diversity serves as a good proxy for educational justice. First, they maintain that the story about how diversity might be accomplished and what it might do for students and society is internally inconsistent. Second, they argue that a disproportionate share of the benefits…

  14. Is diversity necessary for educational justice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    New, W.S.; Merry, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article William New and Michael Merry challenge the notion that diversity serves as a good proxy for educational justice. First, they maintain that the story about how diversity might be accomplished and what it might do for students and society is internally inconsistent. Second, they argue

  15. Does educational privatisation promote social justice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levin, Henry M.; Cornelisz, Ilja; Hanisch-Cerda, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Social justice in education refers to the expectation that the education system provides fairness in its access to opportunities and results. Proponents of educational privatisation believe this would not only open up opportunities for those that otherwise are restricted from attending good schools,

  16. Resistance, Justice, and Commitment to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rex D.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on individual responses to organizational change by exploring the relationships among individual resistance, organizational justice, and commitment to change following organizational change implementations in three organizations. To accomplish this, Web-based questionnaires were used to gather individual-level quantitative…

  17. How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

    2011-01-01

    The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

  18. Transitional Justice and Peacebuilding : International Center for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Currently, the United Nations and other agencies advance a broad set of empirical claims concerning the power of transitional justice to promote peace in post-conflict situations. One of the most important is that prosecutions, reparations, official truth-telling, apologies, memorials and reform of abusive security institutions ...

  19. Transitional justice and democratisation nexus: Challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major recommendations of Kenya's Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation Commission (TJRC) is the creation of institutions and mechanisms for peacebuilding, reconciliation, and early warning with a view towards harmonising their activities and adopting a coordinated approach. This article explicates the centrality ...

  20. Thomas Piketty and the Justice of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøyum, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century" is best known for its documentation of increasing social inequality, but it also has a notable normative aspect. Although Piketty is far less clear on the normative level than on the empirical, his view of justice can be summarised as meritocratic luck egalitarianism. This leads him…

  1. Social Justice and Cultural Diversity Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Debra A.; Alston, Reginald J.; Turner-Whittaker, Tyra

    2008-01-01

    Early definitions of cultural diversity focused primarily on race/ethnicity, with subsequent inclusion of age, gender, sexual orientation, class, religion, geography, and a combination of positionalities. More recently, social justice has resurfaced as a component of cultural diversity to explain experiences of people of color, women, and…

  2. Reformations in Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system | Ruparanganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children in conflict with the law are often stigmatized and shunned by society as they are perceived as a threat to society. Historically, Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system has been retributive and focused on punishing the juvenile offender. As a result, it has been criticised from a number of viewpoints, including the need to ...

  3. Teaching for Social Justice: Experiences and Epiphanies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringo, Saroja

    2008-01-01

    If people believe that identities are in large part socially constructed, they might also agree that the morals and values they each hold may also be a product of their experiences as social beings. The author's experiences with othering led her to an epiphany about the importance of teaching for social justice and guided her work as a teacher…

  4. Common Frame of Reference & social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) in terms of social justice. It concludes the DCFR has all the characteristics of a typical European compromise. Ideological and esthetical purists will certainly be disappointed. In this respect, it has much in common with the

  5. Poverty: Teaching Mathematics and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Leah P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three mathematics lessons in a social justice setting of learning about poverty. Student activities include budgeting, graphic data representation, and linear regression, all in the context of connecting, communicating, and reasoning about poverty. (Contains 1 table, 5 figures and 6 online resources.)

  6. Harm reduction through a social justice lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Bernadette

    2008-02-01

    People who are street involved such as those experiencing homelessness and drug use face multiple inequities in health and access to health care. Morbidity and mortality are significantly increased among those who are street involved. Incorporation of a harm reduction philosophy in health care has the potential to shift the moral context of health care delivery and enhance access to health care services. However, harm reduction with a primary focus on reducing the harms of drug use fails focus on the harms associated with the context of drug use such as homelessness, violence and poverty. Ethical analysis of the underlying values of harm reduction and examination of different conceptions of justice are discussed as a basis for action that addresses a broad range of harms associated with drug use. Theories of distributive justice that focus primarily on the distribution of material goods are limited as theoretical frameworks for addressing the root causes of harm associated with drug use. Social justice, reconceptualised and interpreted through a critical lens as described by Iris Marion Young, is presented as a promising alternative ethical framework. A critical reinterpretation of social justice leads to insights that can illuminate structural inequities that contribute to the harms associated with the context of drug use. Such an approach provides promise as means of informing policy that aims to reduce a broad range of harms associated with drug use such as homelessness and poverty.

  7. Music Teacher Educator Perspectives on Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Karen; Kelly-McHale, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Given the shifting demographics in American education, the rising likelihood of students with special needs being taught in inclusive classrooms, and the increasing openness with which students are challenging gender and sex norms, social justice has become a prevalent research topic in music education. This survey sought to investigate the…

  8. Teaching for social justice education: the intersection between identity, critical agency, and social justice education

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Francis; Adré le Roux

    2011-01-01

    In line with national policy requirements, educators are increasingly addressing forms of social justice education by focusing on classroom pedagogies and educational practices to combat different forms of oppression such as racism and sexism. As all educators have a role to play in dismantling oppression and generating a vision for a more socially just future, teacher education has the responsibility to capacitate pre-service teachers to work in areas of social justice education. It is, howe...

  9. Justice mechanisms and the question of legitimacy: the example of Rwanda's multi-layered justice mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Oomen, B.; Ambos, K.; Large, J.; Wierda, M.

    2009-01-01

    Legitimacy, this contribution argues, plays a key role in connecting transitional justice mechanisms to sustainable peace, and strengthening people's perceptions of legitimacy should be of concern to all those involved in these institutions. Here, it is important to take an empirical, people-based approach to legitimacy, with regard for its dynamic quality. This approach should focus on all three dimensions of legitimacy: the input into transitional justice mechanisms, the popular adherence t...

  10. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansori Ansori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of the children will determine the future of the nation. The increasing problem of juvenile delinquency in this globalization and information technology era, requires the state to give more attention to the child's future. Application of the criminal justice system for children in Indonesia is as stipulated in Law Number 3 of 1997 potentially detrimental to the child's interests. In practice, the judicial system had many problems, among them is a violation of the rights of children, such as: physical and psychological violence, as well as deprivation of the right to education and welfare. It happened because the juvenile justice system is against to national and international regulations on the protection of children’s rights. Besides that, theory of punishment for the juvenile delinquency still refers to the concept of retribution for the crimes. This concept is not very useful for the development of the child, so the concept need to be repaired with the concept of restorative justice. With this concept, the criminal justice system for the juvenile delinquency, leads to the restoration of the state and the settlement pattern, involving the perpetrator, the victim, their families and engage with the community. This is done with consideration for the protection of children against the law. Whereas in line with this spirit of the restorative justice, it gives birth to the Law No. 11 of 2012 on The Criminal Justice System of Children. How To Cite: Ansori, A. (2014. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 11-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.95

  11. The Ethics of Teaching for Social Justice: A Framework for Exploring the Intellectual and Moral Virtues of Social Justice Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Pursuing social justice in education raises ethical questions about teaching practice that have not been fully addressed in the social justice literature. Hytten (2015) initiated a valuable way forward in developing an ethics of social justice educators, drawing on virtue ethics. In this paper, I provide additional support to this effort by…

  12. Leadership Education and Development for Justice Using the Canonical Framework of John Rawls's, "A Theory of Justice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Brandon; Zacharakis, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Higher education that presupposes a specific conception of justice does well in preparing students to make claims of justice from specific perspectives or positions. However, civic leadership students with a strong background in specific conceptions of justice are often not equipped with necessary skills, dispositions, and habits to exercise…

  13. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  14. Delayed rule following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D R

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.

  15. "Chaos Rules" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…

  16. OUTLAWING AMNESTY: THE RETURN OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE SCHEMES*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Laplante, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This Article responds to an apparent gap in the scholarly literature which fails to merge the fields of human rights law and international criminal law—a step that would resolve the current debate as to whether any amnesty in transitional justice settings is lawful. More specifically, even though both fields are a subset of transitional justice in general, the discipline of international criminal law still supports the theory of “qualified amnesties” in transitional justice schemes, while international human rights law now stands for the proposition that no amnesty is lawful in those settings. This Article brings attention to this new development through a discussion of the Barrios Altos case. This Article seeks to reveal how an international human rights decision can dramatically impact state practice, thus also contributing to a pending question in international human rights law as to whether such jurisprudence is effective in increasing human rights protections. The Article concludes by looking at the implications of this new legal development in regard to amnesties in order to encourage future research regarding the role of criminal justice in transitional justice schemes. Keywords: Amnesty in the Americas. Transitional Justice. Human Rights Violations

  17. The Space for Restorative Justice in the Ethiopian Criminal Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalew Lijalem Enyew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative Justice (RJ is an alternative way of apprehending crime and justice which views crime as a violation of a relationship among victims, offenders and community, and which allows the active participation of the crime’s stakeholders. It has the objective of ‘putting right’ the wrong done, to restore the broken relationship and to reintegrate the offender back into society. The Ethiopian criminal justice system views crime primarily as a violation of the state’s criminal laws, either in the form of a commission or omission. It excludes the community from participation, and gives no opportunity to the victim to fully participate in the process. Nor is there a satisfactory legal procedure which enables the public prosecutor to adequately protect the victim’s interest. The focus of the public prosecutor is to have the accused convicted and punished, instead of encouraging them to take responsibility to undo the wrong they have committed. This article thus examines whether restorative justice has a place in the formal legal framework of the existing Ethiopian criminal justice system; and analyses the prospects for, and the challenges that may hinder, the implementation of restorative justice practice in this framework.

  18. The German Federal Constitutional Court's Ruling on Outright Monetary Transactions (OMT) - Another Step Towards National Closure?

    OpenAIRE

    Schiek, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    The German Federal Constitutional Court (FCC) ruling of 14 January 2014 deserves a thorough evaluation on several accounts: It is the first ever reference by the FCC to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), it represents a continuation of FCC case law aimed at restricting the impact of European Union law as interpreted by the Court of Justices of the European Union (CJEU) on German law as well as questioning Germany’s participation in an ever closer European Union, and it has the...

  19. Electronuclear sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenhoevel, H.; Drechsel, D.; Weber, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Generalized sum rules are derived by integrating the electromagnetic structure functions along lines of constant ratio of momentum and energy transfer. For non-relativistic systems these sum rules are related to the conventional photonuclear sum rules by a scaling transformation. The generalized sum rules are connected with the absorptive part of the forward scattering amplitude of virtual photons. The analytic structure of the scattering amplitudes and the possible existence of dispersion relations have been investigated in schematic relativistic and non-relativistic models. While for the non-relativistic case analyticity does not hold, the relativistic scattering amplitude is analytical for time-like (but not for space-like) photons and relations similar to the Gell-Mann-Goldberger-Thirring sum rule exist. (Auth.)

  20. Organizational Justice as an Antecedent of Job Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research examines the influence of organizational justice (distributive justice and procedural justice on predicting job performance (task performance and contextual performance. Survey data were drawn from a sample of 136 customer-contact employees within the telecommunications industry in Malaysia. Results of the regression analysis illustrate that distributive justice alone has a significant and positive relationship with task performance. On the other hand, only procedural justice is found to be significantly and positively related to contextual performance. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are highlighted.

  1. Distributional Benefit Analysis of a National Air Quality Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Huang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Under Executive Order 12898, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA must perform environmental justice (EJ reviews of its rules and regulations. EJ analyses address the hypothesis that environmental disamenities are experienced disproportionately by poor and/or minority subgroups. Such analyses typically use communities as the unit of analysis. While community-based approaches make sense when considering where polluting sources locate, they are less appropriate for national air quality rules affecting many sources and pollutants that can travel thousands of miles. We compare exposures and health risks of EJ-identified individuals rather than communities to analyze EPA’s Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD rule as an example national air quality rule. Air pollutant exposures are estimated within grid cells by air quality models; all individuals in the same grid cell are assigned the same exposure. Using an inequality index, we find that inequality within racial/ethnic subgroups far outweighs inequality between them. We find, moreover, that the HDD rule leaves between-subgroup inequality essentially unchanged. Changes in health risks depend also on subgroups’ baseline incidence rates, which differ across subgroups. Thus, health risk reductions may not follow the same pattern as reductions in exposure. These results are likely representative of other national air quality rules as well.

  2. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  3. The antecedents of buyers' perceived justice in online markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shun-Po; Chou, Huey-Wen; Chiu, Chao-Min

    2013-07-01

    The success of a business largely depends upon customers' intentions to continue to purchase, but this can be a challenge for vendors in online markets. This study proposes a model which identifies an initial set of justice antecedents and evaluates their relation to perceived justice, trust, and repurchase intention in online markets. The theoretical model is tested by using structural equation modeling on a data set of 424 buyers in Yahoo! Kimo online auction market. The results demonstrate that three dimensions of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) are positively and significantly related to trust, which in turn affects buyers' intention to repurchase. Moreover, among the three dimensions of justice judgments, distributive justice and interactional justice are relatively more important than procedural justice in predicting buyers' trust in sellers. In terms of the antecedents of justice, this study provides evidence that product quality and delivery performance are significantly related to distributive justice, while information quality and contact channel are important antecedents of procedural justice. This study also finds that responsiveness is important in enhancing buyers' judgments of interactional justice.

  4. The design of a medical school social justice curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, Alexandra; McKelvey, T Greg; Charlton, Paul; Woodworth, Michael; Lahey, Timothy

    2013-10-01

    The acquisition of skills to recognize and redress adverse social determinants of disease is an important component of undergraduate medical education. In this article, the authors justify and define "social justice curriculum" and then describe the medical school social justice curriculum designed by the multidisciplinary Social Justice Vertical Integration Group (SJVIG) at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth. The SJVIG addressed five goals: (1) to define core competencies in social justice education, (2) to identify key topics that a social justice curriculum should cover, (3) to assess social justice curricula at other institutions, (4) to catalog institutionally affiliated community outreach sites at which teaching could be paired with hands-on service work, and (5) to provide examples of the integration of social justice teaching into the core (i.e., basic science) curriculum. The SJVIG felt a social justice curriculum should cover the scope of health disparities, reasons to address health disparities, and means of addressing these disparities. The group recommended competency-based student evaluations and advocated assessing the impact of medical students' social justice work on communities. The group identified the use of class discussion of physicians' obligation to participate in social justice work as an educational tool, and they emphasized the importance of a mandatory, longitudinal, immersive, mentored community outreach practicum. Faculty and administrators are implementing these changes as part of an overall curriculum redesign (2012-2015). A well-designed medical school social justice curriculum should improve student recognition and rectification of adverse social determinants of disease.

  5. Mãori Customary Law: A Relational Approach to Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Vieille

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper examines the philosophy of justice embodied in tikanga Mãori, the Mãori traditional mechanism and approach to doing justice. Based on several months of fieldwork in New Zealand, this study contends that the Mãori approach to justice adopts a holistic and relational lens, which requires that justice be seen in the context of relationships and crimes dealt with in terms of the relationships they have affected. As a result, justice must be carried out within the community and the process owned by community members. Further discussion draws attention to the response of Mãori communities to the New Zealand government’s attempt to accommodate their traditions and warns against the global tendency to render traditional Indigenous approaches to justice ahistorical through their representation as restorative justice mechanisms.

  6. 77 FR 6760 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings; Rules Implementing the Equal Access to Justice Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    .... Privacy: We will post all comments we receive, without change, to http://www.regulations.gov , including... the Administrator's order, and assuming the truth of such factual allegations, the Administrator's...' assumption of the truth of the FAA's allegations of fact prompted much feedback from commenters. \\1\\ Public...

  7. 77 FR 63245 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings; Rules Implementing the Equal Access to Justice Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... providing due process, appropriate checks and balances and the type of meaningful, impartial and independent... scheduling of the hearing. Issuing a well-reasoned decision following the receipt of evidence and testimony... and intended filing.'' The FAA also recommends establishing an automatic receipt to be transmitted in...

  8. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  9. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  10. Infertility Treatments and Determination of Fetus Gender don’t Challenge God’s Justice and Wisdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbaszadeh Jahromi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of modern technology to cure barrenness has arisen challenges in various aspects some of which are ethical, legal and ideological. One of the ideological challenges, inserted in the above topic, has been discussed through this essay.   The cause-effect system ruling the universe, helps a lot to determine God’s the Almighty Justice and Wisdom in creation. Therefore, the creation of the barren person, in the framework of that system, doesn’t conflict with His Justice and Wisdom. Of course, based on the penal justice, God will compensate these deficiencies by either giving rewards or mitigating the punishment. So, unveiling the creation mysteries-and the infertility of some diseases or the ability to do some affairs such as the selection of fetus gender doesn’t derange the best Divine system ruling the universe. Besides, these Facts prove the existence of such a system because if the relations weren’t established in the system, how could we access to these facts.   By understanding the best system and the accurate determining of the ordination ruling it, we conclude that fetus gender selection and modern infertility treatments can’t be judged as the interference in God’s creation and the conflict with God’s Justice rather the stability of the best system is proved through the occurance of such affairs.

  11. Transitional Justice: History-Telling, Collective Memory, and the Victim-Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisje Brants

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the complex, inherently political, and often contradictory processes of truth-finding, history-telling, and formation of collective memory through transitional justice. It explores tensions between history-telling and the normative goals of truth commissions and international criminal courts, taking into account the increasing importance attributed to victims as witnesses of history. The legal space these instruments of transitional justice offer is determined by both their historical and political roots, and specific goals and procedures. Because the legal space that truth commissions offer for history-telling ismore flexible and their report open to public debate, they may open up alternative public spaces and enable civil society to contest the master narrative. The legal truth laid down in the rulings of an international criminal court is by definition closed. The verdict of a court is definite and authoritative; closure, not continued debate about what it has established as the truth, is its one and only purpose. In conclusion, the article calls for a critical appraisal of transitional justice as acclaimed mediator of collective memories in post-conflict societies.

  12. Socio-psychological factors of formation of some elements of justice in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyagin Y.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study conducted to identify the relationship of personal qualities of students of Moscow universities, with some elements of justice. The study suggests the existence of the relationship between personal qualities of students and their perceptual attitudes toward the image of a terrorist. In particular, the high intellectual level is associated with a lower propensity to attribute criminal traits such as radicalism, sensitivity, anxiety. It is shown that the level of legal awareness of students is more dependent on social factors, the dominant role of which is presented in the form of training in educational institutions of various kinds. Results of the study show that the training of students in higher education institutions of various kinds of different forms of justice in the context of this rule of law. Results of the study suggest that students lawyers have more active citizenship and severe levels of justice. The article demonstrated the prospects for further research in this direction, the ways of correction proven in the study questionnaire.

  13. Following the Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Anne

    2016-05-01

    I am getting better at following the rules as I grow older, although I still bristle at many of them. I was a typical rebellious teenager; no one understood me, David Bowie was my idol, and, one day, my generation was going to change the world. Now I really want people to understand me: David Bowie remains one of my favorite singers and, yes, my generation has changed the world, and not necessarily for the better. Growing up means that you have to make the rules, not just follow those set by others, and, at times, having rules makes a lot of sense.
.

  14. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    , the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected......Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 1999...

  15. The European Union Court of Justice after the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Created by the Treaty of Paris as a judicial authority which ensures respect for the law when interpreting and applying this treaty, the European Court of Justice has so far been repeatedly reformed. The latest reform of the judicial system of the European Union, put into effect by the Lisbon Treaty, largely relies on solutions contained in the unaccepted Treaty on the Constitution for Europe. Novelties that this treaty brings could be grosso modo divided into several basic categories. First, there are organizational changes related to the different name and composition of the courts, appointment of judges and advocates-general and the formation of specialized courts. The new terminology and organization aims to provide a clear distinction between the Court of Justice of the EU, which is an aggregate term or generic designation for the entire judicial system of the Union, and special judicial bodies that enter into its composition. These are the Court of Justice as the highest authority, the General Court which is actually the renamed Court of First Instance, and specialized courts that replaced the judicial panels. The second category includes changes that expand the jurisdiction of the Court to certain new areas owing to the abolition of the former EU pillar structure and the dissolution of the European Community. On such a basis, an integration of court jurisdiction regarding the first and third pillar ensued, as the Court of Justice was vested with general and compulsory jurisdiction over the entire law created in the newly established area of freedom, security and justice. The exception is the area of common foreign and security policy, in which the Court's jurisdiction still remains excluded. The third type of amendment extends the scope of judicial reviews of the validity of acts adopted by EU institutions and enables authorized subjects an easier access to the Court. Their aim is to strengthen the rule of law within the legal system of

  16. The Court of Justice of the European Union and Fixed-term Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Porte, Caroline; Emmenegger, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    permanent workers and aims to prevent abuse of this contract form. Surprisingly, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) rulings in this area have by and large been neglected in comparative labour market research. We fill this gap by systematically analysing the CJEU case law concerning fixed......While fixed-term work benefits employers and increases the prospects of employability of various categories of workers, it is inherently precarious. The European Union (EU) directive on fixed-term work emphasizes the importance of equal treatment of workers on fixed-term contracts with comparable...... show that the equal treatment is affirmed in all cases under analysis for different provisions of labour contracts. With regard to abuse of recourse to fixed-term contracts, by contrast, the rulings still represent a zone of legal uncertainty, whereby some judgments allow for fixed-term contracts...

  17. Nuclear weapons and the World Court ruling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    based on the initiatives by non-governmental organizations, the World Health Organisation (WHO) Assembly asked the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion in 1993 whether, considering the environmental and health consequences, the use of nuclear weapons by a state in war or other armed conflict would be a breach of its obligations under international law. The World Court decided that it was not able to give an advisory opinion as requested, because of the fact that questions of use of force and such like were beyond the scope of specialized agencies like the WHO. The Court has ruled that the international community, especially the five nuclear weapon states have not only an obligation to negotiate a treaty for total nuclear disarmament, but also have an obligation to conclude such treaty. We may expect that the nuclear weapon states will cynically disregard the ruling of the World Court as they have been doing to the basic obligation itself in pursuit of nuclear hegemony. But the remaining 150 countries or so also bear a responsibility to keep nudging the recalcitrant states into implementing their commitments to disarm

  18. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  19. Social Justice and the Environmental Commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A; Byington, Rachel; Gallay, Erin; Sambo, Allison

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we build on the scholarship on youth civic engagement by turning attention to the environmental commons as a space for political action. We begin with a definition of the term and arguments about ways that social justice is implied in it. Following that, we raise several psychological challenges to motivating action on behalf of the environmental commons and discuss the critical experiences and actions that can defy those challenges. Finally, drawing from Ostrom's empirical evidence opposing a tragedy of the commons, we discuss practices consistent with a social justice approach that nurture in younger generations an identification with and commitment to the environmental commons and discuss how this orientation would benefit human beings, democracies, and the earth. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Democratization and Transitional Justice in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula NASCIMENTO ARAUJO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil experienced a long process of political transition featured by an intense game of political and social forces, in which different actors with different democratization projects clashed. Despite the leadership of the transition process have been in the hands of conservative elites linked to the military dictatorship, broad sectors of the oposition and of the lefts, as well as representants of social movements, disputed the transitional space and expanded the initial design of the regime. This long transition —marked by negotiations, frustrations and resilience— reflected on the transitional justice model adopted by the country. Almost 30 years after the end of military dictatorship, the Truth Commission established by President Dilma Rousseff in 2012, drew attention to issues related to memory, justice and reparation and showed that the democratization process, in some respects, is still incloncluded. This article aims to restore this historical process highlighting some of its characteristics and specificities.

  1. Basins of Attraction for Generative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglash, Ron; Garvey, Colin

    It has long been known that dynamic systems typically tend towards some state - an "attractor" - into which they finally settle. The introduction of chaos theory has modified our understanding of these attractors: we no longer think of the final "resting state" as necessarily being at rest. In this essay we consider the attractors of social ecologies: the networks of people, technologies and natural resources that makeup our built environments. Following the work of "communitarians" we posit that basins of attraction could be created for social ecologies that foster both environmental sustainability and social justice. We refer to this confluence as "generative justice"; a phrase which references both the "bottom-up", self-generating source of its adaptive meta stability, as well as its grounding in the ethics of egalitarian political theory.

  2. Caring, objectivity and justice: an integrative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, Stan

    2011-03-01

    The argument of this article is framed by a debate between the principle of humanity and the principle of justice. Whereas the principle of humanity requires us to care about others and to want to help them meet their vital needs, and so to be partial towards those others, the principle of justice requires us to consider their needs without the intrusion of our subjective interests or emotions so that we can act with impartiality. I argue that a deep form of caring lies behind both approaches and so unites them. In the course of the argument, I reject Michael Slote's sentimentalist form of an ethics of care, and expound Thomas Nagel's moral theory, which seems to lie at the opposite end of a spectrum ranging from moral sentiments to impersonal objectivity. Nevertheless, Nagel's theory of normative realism provides unexpected support for the thesis that a deep and subjective form of caring lies at the base of even our most objective moral reasons.

  3. Women, truth, justice and reparation in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Ibarra Melo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper account for the main collective actions undertaken by two women networks in Colombia: Women’s Peace Route and the Colombian Women Initiative for Peace, during transition justice process and the implementation of the Justice and Peace Law (2004-2009. From a sociological approach to the political process and the gender category, this paper discusses how gender ideologies inform new ways of mobilization affecting discourses, purposes and repertoires of those claiming identities and defending human rights. The main conclusion here is that the feminist influence in redistribution and acknowledgement claims for victims from the armed conflict have encouraged collective actions that begin to modify their relationship to the State. This is proved by their achievements at Court and social acknowledgement victims have gained as social actors.

  4. Alternative Dispute Resolution – Justice without Trial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Roşu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is proposed to analyze the alternative means of dispute resolution, as an alternativeof justice, or as a justice alternative, after studying both European critical literature and national one. Thephrase „alternative dispute resolution” means any alternative way of dispute resolution method whereby two ormore people try using a third party to reach a solution to the problem that precludes them, whether it ismediation, conciliation, assisted negotiation. In this research, we proposed to use the observation as a commonmethod. We concluded that the main reason of the alternative means for dispute resolution results from thepossibility to avoid the judicial system that makes it available for the litigants. It was also shown that users ofalternative means for dispute resolution not seek to resolve the dispute outside a court as an amicablesettlement, negotiated, consensual of their dispute.

  5. Crime and criminal justice in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Azevedo

    Full Text Available After a presentation of indicators that allow assessing the degree of democratization of the criminal justice system in the context of democratization process in Latin America, this article points out the discrepancy existing in that domain, in the several instances that make up the justice system, from criminal legislation to the prison system. Examining the specific situation of Brazil and Argentina, problems in the functioning of institutions responsible by crime as well as the increase in crime control are pointed out as factors that cause a growing loss of legitimacy for the system, which is unable to justify its high degree of selectivity and authoritarianism. Some efforts under way to approach that phenomenon are listed. Finally, a few alternatives for institutional improvement are presented, among which the action of social scientists by producing research and analyses, as a crucial instrument to enlarge institutional ability to deal with current social conflict on democratic bases.

  6. „FRAMES OF TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE: SOME APPLICATION IN INTERGENERATIONAL JUSTICE AND RETROACTIVITY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL RADU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to evaluate the concept of transitional justice in the sphere of public and academical debates, in different social environments during the transition period in the recent history. The approach will include an overflight over some definitions and interpretation of that concept and an assessment of possible applications of this concept in the reparative (corrective theories during the political transition. The evaluation of operational dimension of transitional justice will focus primarily the moral grounds invoked in political and juridical debates, and will pursue some applications of the transitional justice in intergenerational justice realm and at the level of the institution of retroactivity. Also, the assessment will focus the moral core of the motivation of judicial decisions in the space of positive law debates, concerning the constitutional and normative dimension.Examination of particular aspects of the transition has raised particular interest in the public agenda of romanian political change. Reparation issues in dealing with the past had always occupied a privileged role in public debate, in social and political problems. Justification for corrective measures during transition period were presented on various occasions in different points of view, but tools and proper institutions in generating legitimate formal-political obligations were absent, threatening the strength of the the political stability. Requirements for application of a corrective, reparative justice, appeared as a consequence of subjective awareness of rights and liberties that positive law of the communist system ignored or assign them like law infrigement. An approach of such rights, with their features should be evaluated in the context of both totalitarian and democratic state. A dialogue with the past becomes more necesary and will contribute to the success of any public policy designed for any possible reparation in the future

  7. Free movement of People and Cross-Border Welfare in the European Union: Dynamic Rules, Limited Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Pons Rotger, Gabriel; Thierry, Jessica Maria Sampson

    2018-01-01

    For decades, the European legislators and the Court of Justice have extended the rights to free movement and cross-border welfare in the European Union (EU). Strong assumptions on the impact of these rules have been posed, by some held to lead to welfare migration and thus to be a fundamental cha...

  8. Data breaches. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  9. The notion and basic principles of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important achievements of the contemporary criminal justice system and criminal policy is development of the concept of restorative justice. Contemporary concept of restorative justice was developed in 1970s on the basis of the criticism of the traditional criminal law and criminal justice system. Since that time, it has been developing through different programs in many countries. Reform of the criminal justice system in Serbia staring from 2002 went into direction of entering elements of restorative justice into existing criminal justice system. In that sense, development of restorative justice is still at the beginning in our country. However, it can be noticed that there is a low level of awareness on the nature and importance of restorative forms of response to crime among our professionals, as well as a lack of understanding of the concept itself. Due to that, the aim of the paper is to enable better understanding of restorative concept in general through defining restorative justice and basic principles it relies on. That may put a basis for further recognition of restorative elements in our criminal justice system, which may provide adequate implementation of relevant provisions of restorative character in practice. .

  10. Religious Education towards Justice: What Kind of Justice Is to Be Taught in a Christian Context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bobbert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Education is a human right. It prepares human beings for life, helps to develop individual abilities and opens up social opportunities—e.g., earning one’s own living. Religion interprets our human existence in connection to a transcendental dimension. Religion can also influence moral values and behavior. The Christian religion established a basis for social life, and thus deals with religious and moral justice. As the Christian faith is understood as the identity of the qualities of love of God, of your neighbor and even of your enemy, it has to look for justice in the world. Modern Christian ethics does unfold interpersonal and global justice for all people and tries to give good reasons for moral claims. Religious education in a Christian context has to answer the question of what kind of justice is to be taught and by what means justice, as a goal of education, can be reached within such a setting. This article will unfold, from an ethical point of view, what kind of knowledge and competence teachers must have and what kind of goals can be followed with regard to their pupils or students. The results of this reflection imply certain pedagogical methods and means and exclude others—although it is not possible to go more deeply into a pedagogical discussion.

  11. Social Justice for Crossover Youth: The Intersection of the Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivoski, Karen M; Goodkind, Sara; Shook, Jeffrey J

    2017-10-01

    Social workers are critical to promoting racial and social justice. "Crossover youth," a term used to describe youths who have contact with both the child welfare and juvenile justice systems, are an especially vulnerable but often overlooked population with whom social workers engage. A disproportionate number of crossover youth are African American. Empirical research on crossover youth is growing, but such scholarship rarely engages with a human rights and social justice perspective. African American children and youths have a distinct place within the history and current context of the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. These systems have historically excluded them or treated them differently; now, African American youths are overrepresented in each of them, and evidence suggests they are more likely to cross over. The purpose of this article is to describe the historical and current context of crossover youth, with a particular focus on African American youths, to provide the foundation for a discussion of what social workers can do to promote racial and social justice for crossover youth, including specific implications for practice and policy, as well as broader implications for human and civil rights. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  12. Handbook for Military Justice and Civil Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    XXIX DRUNKENNESS XXX MISCONDUCT BY A SENTINEL OR LOOKOUT XXXI BREACHES OF RESTRAINT XXXII FALSIFICATION OFFENSES XXXIII DEFENSES Naval Justice...shirts, two quarts of milk , five steaks, a case of beer, and two tires. To charge Grabb with 26 separate specifications of larceny (one for each...and three shirts; one for the two quarts of milk and five steaks; one for the case of beer; and another for the two tires) may not be unnecessary

  13. Mobilising for environmental justice in China

    OpenAIRE

    Balme, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the situation of environmental rights in China in terms of political interactions and their implications for Chinese politics. Environmental justice is primarily conceived as equity in access to environmental goods and fairness in social processes dealing with market or government failures to provide environmental security. The argument is that environmental deterioration has a significant influence on the pattern of inequalities in the PRC, occasionally creating situati...

  14. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Erinda Duraj (Male)

    2015-01-01

    Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The partic...

  15. CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES IN LATIN AMERICAN ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Perlingeiro

    2016-01-01

    This study consists of a critical comparative analysis of the administrative justice systems in eighteen Latin-American signatory countries of the American Convention on Human Rights (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay, and Venezuela). According to this article, the excessive litigation in Latin-American courts that has seriously hampered the effectivenes...

  16. New frontiers and conceptual frameworks for energy justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Burke, Matthew; Baker, Lucy; Kotikalapudi, Chaitanya Kumar; Wlokas, Holle

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how concepts from justice and ethics can inform energy decision-making and highlight the moral and equity dimensions of energy production and use. It defines “energy justice” as a global energy system that fairly distributes both the benefits and burdens of energy services, and one that contributes to more representative and inclusive energy decision-making. The primary contribution of the article is its focus on six new frontiers of future energy justice research. First is making the case for the involvement of non-Western justice theorists. Second is expanding beyond humans to look at the Rights of Nature or non-anthropocentric notions of justice. Third is focusing on cross-scalar issues of justice such as embodied emissions. Fourth is identifying business models and the co-benefits of justice. Fifth is better understanding the tradeoffs within energy justice principles. Sixth is exposing unjust discourses. In doing so, the article presents an agenda constituted by 30 research questions as well as an amended conceptual framework consisting of ten principles. The article argues in favor of “justice-aware” energy planning and policymaking, and it hopes that its (reconsidered) energy justice conceptual framework offers a critical tool to inform decision-making. - Highlights: • We need “justice-aware” energy policy. • A revised energy justice conceptual framework offers a critical tool to inform decision making. • New fields of inquiry for energy justice research and practice exist. • Tradeoffs and weighing competing justice claims occur in practice.

  17. Mechanisms of rule acquisition and rule following in inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; De Pisapia, Nicola; Jovicich, Jorge; Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-05-25

    Despite the recent interest in the neuroanatomy of inductive reasoning processes, the regional specificity within prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the different mechanisms involved in induction tasks remains to be determined. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the contribution of PFC regions to rule acquisition (rule search and rule discovery) and rule following. Twenty-six healthy young adult participants were presented with a series of images of cards, each consisting of a set of circles numbered in sequence with one colored blue. Participants had to predict the position of the blue circle on the next card. The rules that had to be acquired pertained to the relationship among succeeding stimuli. Responses given by subjects were categorized in a series of phases either tapping rule acquisition (responses given up to and including rule discovery) or rule following (correct responses after rule acquisition). Mid-dorsolateral PFC (mid-DLPFC) was active during rule search and remained active until successful rule acquisition. By contrast, rule following was associated with activation in temporal, motor, and medial/anterior prefrontal cortex. Moreover, frontopolar cortex (FPC) was active throughout the rule acquisition and rule following phases before a rule became familiar. We attributed activation in mid-DLPFC to hypothesis generation and in FPC to integration of multiple separate inferences. The present study provides evidence that brain activation during inductive reasoning involves a complex network of frontal processes and that different subregions respond during rule acquisition and rule following phases.

  18. Environmental justice at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flemming, R.; Hooker, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental justice is the conscious commitment to ensure that poor and/or minority communities are not disproportionately bearing adverse human health and environmental effects from the production, processing, or disposal of hazardous or toxic waste. To focus federal attention on assessing the environmental and human health conditions in minority and/or low-income communities surrounding federal facilities, on February 11, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order (EO) 12898. As part of the strategy to comply with EO 12898, the President required all federal agencies to develop localized strategies to ensure that their programs and policies are consistent with EO 12898. This would incorporate mechanisms for increasing public participation opportunities for involvement in the decision making, easier access to information, and the collection and analysis of economic, demographic, and food consumption data in surrounding communities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) responded by issuing its Environmental Justice Strategy 2 (April 1995), although many of its field offices had been actively implementing activities in support of the executive order since its issuance. One DOE facility, the Savannah River Site (SRS), which is located in west central South Carolina, is making great strides toward implementing a successful public participation program, which includes environmental justice initiatives

  19. Procedural Justice in Dutch Administrative Court Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Verburg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss recent developments in administrative court proceedings in the Netherlands, called the New Approach. Along with developments leading to the New Approach, it became clear that the insights from research on procedural justice deserve particular attention. The goals of the judge's actions in this respect are both that the proceedings are fair and just and that parties perceive the way they are being treated during proceedings as fair and just.Within the New Approach we discern five procedural justice elements: (1 respect, (2 voice and due consideration, (3 some influence on how proceedings will continue, (4 an explanation of how the proceedings will continue and (5 direct interpersonal contact.The introduction of the New Approach shows two important bottlenecks in Dutch administrative court proceedings, which are (i the possible or supposed collision between legally right outcomes and  procedural justice and (ii the lack of uniformity and predictability.Although what we describe and discuss in this paper focuses on the Dutch situation, many of these considerations apply to administrative court proceedings in other countries. The themes and difficulties that face the administrative law judge seem to be common to many countries.

  20. Environmental justice research shows the importance of social feedbacks in ecosystem service trade-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. Dawson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shine a spotlight on approaches to research ecosystem service trade-offs and critically assess their representation of relevant social dynamics. Although studies linking ecosystem services and human well-being have provided theoretical insights into social and ecological trade-offs, we argue that ecosystem services research has paid insufficient attention to "social feedbacks," people's cognitive and behavioral responses to change. We demonstrate that augmenting ecosystem services research with environmental justice approaches (exploring perceptions of the distribution of costs and benefits, decision making procedures, and recognition of different values and identities can more effectively capture important responses to ecosystem governance. Spatial analysis of land use change, mixed-method assessment of multidimensional well-being, and qualitative environmental justice research were applied in three villages adjacent to Nam Et-Phou Louey National Protected Area in northern Laos. Spatial analysis showed that, from 2006 to 2015, forest clearance for cultivation remained stable within the protected area. Well-being assessment revealed the local population benefited from rapidly increasing incomes, asset ownership, and reduced poverty during that time. In combination, spatial and well-being analyses paint a picture of limited trade-offs, despite growing incentives to exploit protected land and resources through cash crops and high-value forest products. In contrast, results from environmental justice research revealed profound trade-offs between conservation and local practices, and highlight governance deficiencies relating to procedure and recognition. Consequently, formal protected area rules were perceived to be illegitimate by many and actively undermined, for example through negotiated access with alternative authorities. We conclude that although well-being research provides an essential foundation to understand diverse

  1. A Multiple Source Approach to Organisational Justice: The Role of the Organisation, Supervisors, Coworkers, and Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Molina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The vast research on organisational justice has focused on the organisation and the supervisor. This study aims to further this line of research by integrating two trends within organisational justice research: the overall approach to justice perceptions and the multifoci perspective of justice judgments. Specifically, this study aims to explore the effects of two additional sources of justice, coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice, on relevant employees’ outcomes—burnout, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and workplace deviance— while controlling the effect of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Given the increased importance attributed to coworkers and customers, we expect coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice to explain incremental variance in the measured outcomes, above and beyond the effects of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Participants will be university students from Austria and Germany employed by service organisations. Data analysis will be conducted using structural equation modeling.

  2. Asserting their Justice. The Shuar Vindicatory System and the Development of Indigenous Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Márquez Porras

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In Ecuador, the State’s recognition of indigenous justice systems takes place in a context where the legal framework is only partially made explicit, native communities debate their own legal model and their relationship with the State legal system remains ambiguous. This paper addresses the legal realities of one of these groups, the Shuar, drawing on a case study carried out in Nangaritza and on bibliographic work. First, a characterisation of the Shuar traditional justice is attempted. Then, certain dynamics of change, as well as the relationship between the Shuar and the State’s representatives, is described. Finally, hypotheses are proposed concerning the adaptation of Shuar justice to the new constitutional framework and its formalisation process.

  3. 75 FR 33636 - Bureau of Justice Assistance; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Notice of Information Collection Under Review: New Collection Bureau of Justice Assistance Application Form: Federal Law Enforcement Officers Congressional Badge of Bravery. The Department of Justice (DOJ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OMB Number 1121-NEW] Bureau of Justice...

  4. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P

    2006-11-01

    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  5. 2017 Military Investigation and Justice Experience Survey: Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-30

    Experience Respondents were asked to provide their evaluations of aspects of the military justice process as a whole. This comprehensive analysis of...justice process. Respondents indicated these resource provided support during the military justice process by listening and “being there” for the...also provide direct assistance to military members who bring forward a report of sexual assault, listen to their needs, and then connect them with

  6. COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION - INTERNATIONAL COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU performs according to its competence, the position of International Justice in solving disputes between two or more subjects of international law. International jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the EU is - mandatory that each Member State has the opportunity to seize this court if it considers that another state violated an obligation incumbent upon it under Union Treaties; - optional in disputes between Member States in connection with the subject Union Treaties.

  7. Solidarity, space, and race: toward geographies of agrifood justice

    OpenAIRE

    Slocum , Rachel; Cadieux , Kirsten ,; Blumberg , Renata

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The editors of this special issue pose the cogent overarching question, what are the spatial dimensions of food justice? In essence, the questions 'what is food justice and how is it practiced?' cannot fully be answered without understanding space. The radical analysis implicit in food justice draws on an understanding of the social structures underlying inequalities evident in the socio-spatial organization of food systems. We suggest there are four interrelated nodes...

  8. Constitutional Justice Procedure in Lithuania: a Search for Optimal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pūraitė-Andrikienė, Dovilė

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation systematically analyzes the preconditions for optimising the existing constitutional justice model, i.e. whether the current model meets the expectations of Lithuanian society and the legal community, corresponds to the capabilities of the legal system, and is in line with the tendencies of constitutional justice in European states, identifies the problematic aspects of the existing constitutional justice model and brings forward proposals regarding how the legal regulation c...

  9. Ethical commitment to women's participation in transitional justice

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Ethical issues of justice and human rights are central to countries emerging from conflict. Yet involving women in transitional justice processes rarely is articulated in ethical terms. To make a case for an ethical commitment to improving women’s participation in these processes, the paper begins by exploring why transitional justice strategies should bother with gender. Women and men often experience conflict and injustices differently which may require different responses to redress harms ...

  10. Life fraction rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maile, K.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluations for lifetime estimation of high temperature loaded HTR-components under creep fatigue load had been performed. The evaluations were carried out on the basis of experimental data of strain controlled fatigue tests with respectively without hold times performed on material NiCr 22 Co 12 Mo (Inconel 617). Life prediction was made by means of the linear damage accumulation rule. Due to the high temperatures no realistic estimates of creep damage can be obtained with this rule. Therefore the rule was modified. The modifications consist in a different analysis of the relaxation curve including different calculation of the creep damage estimate resp. in an extended rule, taking into consideration the interaction between creep and fatigue. In order to reach a better result transparency and to reduce data set dependent result scattering a round robin with a given data set was carried out. The round robin yielded that for a given test temperature of T = 950deg C realistic estimate of damage can be obtained with each modification. Furthermore a reduction of resulting scatterbands in the interaction diagram can be observed, i.e. the practicability of the rule has been increased. (orig.)

  11. 77 FR 40366 - Glen R. Justice: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... bribery, payment of illegal gratuities, fraud, perjury, false statement, racketeering, blackmail... of Dr. Justice's fraudulent business practices, health care benefit programs suffered losses between...

  12. Gendered violence and restorative justice: the views of victim advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis-Fawley, Sarah; Daly, Kathleen

    2005-05-01

    The use of restorative justice for gendered violence has been debated in the feminist literature for some time. Critics warn that it is inappropriate because the process and outcomes are not sufficiently formal or stringent, and victims may be revictimized. Proponents assert that a restorative justice process may be better for victims than court because it holds offenders accountable and gives victims greater voice. This article presents what victim advocates in two Australian states think about using restorative justice for gendered violence. We find that although victim advocates have concerns and reservations about restorative justice, most saw positive elements.

  13. Emancipatory Nursing Praxis: A Theory of Social Justice in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Robin R

    Emancipatory nursing praxis (ENP) is a middle-range nursing theory of social justice developed from an international, grounded theory study of the critical factors influencing nurses' perceptions of their role in social justice. The ENPs implementing processes (becoming, awakening, engaging, and transforming) and 2 conditional contexts (relational and reflexive) provide an in-depth understanding of the transformative learning process that determines nurse engagement in social justice. Interpretive findings include the voice of Privilege primarily informed ENP theory, the lack of nursing educational and organizational support in social justice role development, and the advocate role should expand to include the role of an ally.

  14. Traditional justice in the reconciliation between Rwanda and Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Castel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of traditional justice in two post-conflicts in the Great Lakes region: those of Rwanda and Burundi. In Rwanda, the government, led by the Rwanda Patriotic Front (FPR, has modernised and shaped for its own interests the gacaca, who are responsible for seeking justice for the victims of the 1994 genocide. In Burundi, the government has yet not deployed all the transitional justice mechanisms as envisaged in the Arusha agreement. The bushingantahe (the rehabilitation of whom is also envisaged in the agreement have not yet been incorporated into transitional justice.

  15. Organization structure as a moderator of the relationship between procedural justice, interactional justice, perceived organizational support, and supervisory trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen L; Schminke, Marshall

    2003-04-01

    Organizational justice researchers recognize the important role organization context plays in justice perceptions, yet few studies systematically examine contextual variables. This article examines how 1 aspect of context--organizational structure--affects the relationship between justice perceptions and 2 types of social exchange relationships, organizational and supervisory. The authors suggest that under different structural conditions, procedural and interactional justice will play differentially important roles in determining the quality of organizational social exchange (as evidenced by perceived organizational support [POS]) and supervisory social exchange (as evidenced by supervisory trust). In particular, the authors hypothesized that the relationship between procedural justice and POS would be stronger in mechanistic organizations and that the relationship between interactional justice and supervisory trust would be stronger in organic organizations. The authors' results support these hypotheses.

  16. The role of traffic rules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Experienced road users seem to have their own set of traffic rules (including rules about when to violate the official rules). The number of violations is enormous, causing great concern for the authorities. The situation could be improved by separating a set of rules with the aim of deterring road

  17. Communicating rules in recreation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Ross; George H. Moeller

    1974-01-01

    Five hundred fifty-eight campers were surveyed on the Allegheny National Forest to determine their knowledge of rules governing recreation behavior. Most of them were uninformed about the rules. Results of the study suggest that previous camping experience, age, camping style, and residence significantly affect knowledge of rules. Campers who received rule brochures or...

  18. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  19. Robert's rules of order

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Henry M; Balch, Thomas J; Seabold, Daniel E; Gerber, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    The only authorized edition of the classic work on parliamentary procedure, with new and enhanced features, including how to conduct electronic meetings. Robert's Rules of Order is the book on parliamentary procedure for parliamentarians and anyone involved in an organization, association, club, or group and the authoritative guide to smooth, orderly, and fairly conducted meetings and assemblies. This newly revised edition is the only book on parliamentary procedure to have been updated since 1876 under the continuing program of review established by General Henry M. Robert himself, in cooperation with the official publisher of Robert's Rules. The eleventh edition has been thoroughly revised to address common inquiries and incorporate new rules, interpretations, and procedures made necessary by the evolution of parliamentary procedure, including new material relating to electronic communication and "electronic meetings."

  20. Procedural Justice for ‘Weaker Parties’ in Cross-Border Litigation under the EU Regulatory Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lazić

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how procedural justice for consumers, employees and insurance policy holders or other beneficiaries under insurance contracts has been ensured in the legal instruments of the EU legislator. The analysis focuses on the Brussels Jurisdiction Regulation, both under the current regulatory scheme and in its recently revised version. Thereby, the rules on jurisdiction, the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, as well as instruments that unify certain rules of civil procedure have been analysed. Within the context of the rules on jurisdiction, the relevance of the EU legislation for the validity and enforceability of jurisdictional clauses against weaker parties is addressed. Thereby express provisions in EU legislation, as well as relevant case law of the CJEU, have been the subject of the analysis. The changes introduced by the revised Regulation are discussed in great detail.

  1. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  2. Beyond the 2008 Justice Reforms: Establishing a Legitimate Rule of Law in Mexico with Jury Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    States with separation of powers , including executive, legislative, and judicial branches, granted by the 1917 Constitution. The executive branch role...law system prevents an overreaching judicial branch from legislating new laws. This provides a strong separation of powers . However, when coupled

  3. Association of rule of law and health outcomes: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Attaran, Amir; Botero, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Sternberg, Angela Maria

    2015-10-29

    To explore whether the rule of law is a foundational determinant of health that underlies other socioeconomic, political and cultural factors that have been associated with health outcomes. Global project. Data set of 96 countries, comprising 91% of the global population. The following health indicators, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, were included to explore their association with the rule of law. We used a novel Rule of Law Index, gathered from survey sources, in a cross-sectional and ecological design. The Index is based on eight subindices: (1) Constraints on Government Powers; (2) Absence of Corruption; (3) Order and Security; (4) Fundamental Rights; (5) Open Government; (6) Regulatory Enforcement, (7) Civil Justice; and (8) Criminal Justice. The rule of law showed an independent association with infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, after adjusting for the countries' level of per capita income, their expenditures in health, their level of political and civil freedom, their Gini measure of inequality and women's status (plaw remained significant in all the multivariate models, and the following adjustment for potential confounders remained robust for at least one or more of the health outcomes across all eight subindices of the rule of law. Findings show that the higher the country's level of adherence to the rule of law, the better the health of the population. It is necessary to start considering the country's adherence to the rule of law as a foundational determinant of health. Health advocates should consider the improvement of rule of law as a tool to improve population health. Conversely, lack of progress in rule of law may constitute a structural barrier to health improvement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  4. Looking to Hume for justice: on the utility of Hume's view of justice for American health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, L R

    1999-08-01

    This essay argues that Hume's theory of justice can be useful in framing a more persuasive case for universal access in health care. Theories of justice derived from a Rawlsian social contract tradition tend to make the conditions for deliberation on justice remote from the lives of most persons, while religiously-inspired views require superhuman levels of benevolence. By contrast, Hume's theory derives justice from the prudent reflections of socially-encumbered selves. This provides a more accessible moral theory and a more realistic path to the establishment of universal access.

  5. From justice in planning toward planning for justice: A capability approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basta, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of Rawls’ Theory and Sen’s Idea of justice to contemporary planning theory by drawing on the writings of the two philosophers. Besides providing a comprehensive account of what the two respective frameworks imply for the foundation of public planning and for the

  6. Justice mechanisms and the question of legitimacy: the example of Rwanda's multi-layered justice mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, B.; Ambos, K.; Large, J.; Wierda, M.

    2009-01-01

    Legitimacy, this contribution argues, plays a key role in connecting transitional justice mechanisms to sustainable peace, and strengthening people's perceptions of legitimacy should be of concern to all those involved in these institutions. Here, it is important to take an empirical, people-based

  7. 'No Peace without Justice or No Justice without Peace?' : Some reflections on a Complex Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2017-01-01

    This essay addresses the convoluted relationship between international criminal justice and peace by drawing parallels with the dialectics between these concepts within a domestic legal order. While it is acknowledged that national criminal law enforcement is functional in keeping and restoring the

  8. Teaching for Social Justice Education: The Intersection between Identity, Critical Agency, and Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Dennis; le Roux, Adré

    2011-01-01

    In line with national policy requirements, educators are increasingly addressing forms of social justice education by focusing on classroom pedagogies and educational practices to combat different forms of oppression such as racism and sexism. As all educators have a role to play in dismantling oppression and generating a vision for a more…

  9. Making restorative justice work for women who have offended: A Restorative Justice Council research report

    OpenAIRE

    Osterman, Linnéa; Masson, Isla

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses a major gap in research and knowledge regarding female offenders' experiences of, and access to, restorative justice. The research was funded by Barrow Cadbury Trust and conducted with the support of the RJC, in association with Coventry University.

  10. Expanding reproductive justice through a supportability reparative justice framework: the case of abortion in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Catriona Ida

    2018-04-03

    Theoretical refinement of the concept of reproductive justice has been called for. In this paper, I propose the use of a supportability reparative justice approach. Drawing on intra-categorical intersectionality, the supportability aspect starts from the event of a pregnancy to unravel the interwoven embodied and social realities implicated in women experiencing pregnancy as personally supportable/unsupportable, and socially supported/unsupported. The reparative justice aspect highlights the need for social repair in the case of unsupportable pregnancies and relies on Ernesto Verdeja's critical theory of reparative justice in which he outlines four reparative dimensions. Using abortion within the South African context, I show how this framework may be put to use: (1) the facilitation of autonomous decision-making (individual material dimension) requires understanding women within context, and less emphasis on individual-driven 'choice'; (2) the provision of legal, safe state-sponsored healthcare resources (collective material dimension) demands political will and abortion service provision to be regarded as a moral as well as a healthcare priority; (3) overcoming stigma and the spoiled identities (collective symbolic dimension) requires significant feminist action to deconstruct negative discourses and to foreground positive narratives; and (4) understanding individual lived experiences (individual symbolic dimension) means deep listening within the social dynamics of particular contexts.

  11. Ironies and Limitations of Educational Leadership for Social Justice: A Call to Social Justice Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capper, Colleen A.; Young, Michelle D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article that reviews this special issue, we identify 5 ironies and limitations of educational leadership for social justice: (a) the meaning of inclusive practice, (b) the intersection of identity and difference, (c) the emphasis given to student achievement, (d) the lack of policy and practice coherence, and (e) the separation of…

  12. Alternative Education and Social Justice: Considering Issues of Affective and Contributive Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda; Baroutsis, Aspa; Te Riele, Kitty; Hayes, Debra

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the ways in which three alternative education sites in Australia support socially just education for their students and how injustice is addressed within these schools. The article begins with recognition of the importance of Nancy Fraser's work to understandings of social justice. It then goes on to argue that her framework…

  13. Justice foundations for the Comprehensive Law Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Authors examining the developing dispute resolution alternatives to the adversarial system have identified nine converging "vectors" or alternatives in what has been termed the Comprehensive Law Movement. These authors have sought to understand how the developing vectors can remain separate and vibrant movements while sharing common ground. Some analyze these developments as being within law and legal practice, others see them as alternative approaches to law, and still others take a combined approach. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful differences from law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking within law and legal practice. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful commonalities with law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking external to law and legal practice. Instead of comparing the vectors with the adversarial system, higher order criteria are required. What is needed is a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; one that can be used to evaluate the adversarial system and the evolving vectors on an equal footing. An Aristotelian natural law virtue theory of justice can: (a) provide a functional guiding definition of justice; (b) serve as a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; and (c) provide the theoretical and evaluative foundation required to clarify the relationships among the adversarial system and the developing vectors. Finally, it will become clear why the Comprehensive Law Movement might be more appropriately conceptualized as the Comprehensive Justice Movement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 77 FR 32999 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP); Bureau... Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of science and statistics for the purpose of...

  15. 78 FR 77168 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ...); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP); Bureau... Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of science and statistics for the purpose of...

  16. 77 FR 73497 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP); Bureau... Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of science and statistics for the purpose of...

  17. 76 FR 31991 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ...); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP... Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of science and statistics for the purpose of...

  18. 78 FR 17184 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1620] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  19. 75 FR 53958 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1529] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  20. 78 FR 58288 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1634] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  1. 78 FR 65297 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1637] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  2. 78 FR 38014 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1625] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  3. 75 FR 70216 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1533] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  4. 77 FR 24687 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1587] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  5. 75 FR 17956 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments... of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the... information, please contact Janet Chiancone, (202) 353-9258, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  6. 77 FR 3453 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1581] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  7. 77 FR 70994 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1510] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  8. 76 FR 26280 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1549] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  9. 76 FR 61672 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1570] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  10. 76 FR 39075 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1562] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  11. 77 FR 50486 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1601] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  12. Genetics, criminal justice, and the minority community: An introduction for professionals in criminal justice. A report on the third annual convocation of the Justice George Lewis Ruffin Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croatti, R.D.

    1994-10-15

    The Justice George Lewis Ruffin Society is an organization founded in 1984 to support minority professionals in the Massachusetts criminal justice system. The Society began the sponsorship of statewide Convocations in 1992. These events provide minority criminal justice professionals with the opportunity to focus on pertinent topics through expert presentations, panel discussions, and peer interactions. Because of its increasing importance in the criminal justice process at large, and growing significance to the minority community in particular, the committee determined that the 1994 Convocation would focus on DNA. A decision was made to concentrate both on the science and the ethical and moral considerations pertinent to its application. The committee determined that along with expert presentations, a large portion of each day`s program should be devoted to workshops, designed to provide participants with an opportunity to review, test and discuss the material in a small group environment. Overall objectives of the Convocation were to provide minority and non-minority criminal justice professionals with a basic foundation in the science of genetics as well as current developments in genetic diagnostic technology, to highlight the actual and potential application of DNA technology to the criminal justice system and elsewhere, and to underscore the implications of these developments for criminal justice policy and the law.

  13. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T

    2015-07-01

    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Crime, In/Security and Mob Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2014-01-01

    from violent crime. The widespread sense of anxiety over various forms of violent crime and state failure to guarantee protection for citizens generates a quest for alternative practices of safety-making that, in turn, evoke serious concerns over state power and sovereignty in Africa. Focusing on mob...... justice in Cameroon, this article argues that the political contextualisation of sovereignty must pay attention not only to the sovereign’s right to kill and let live, but also its responsibility to guarantee safety for those citizens it chooses to let live. The paper demonstrates that in Cameroon mob...

  15. The Virtual Water Transactions Promote Environmental Justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Dalla Corte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As natural water, virtual water is essential for the dynamics of life. It, that correspond to the total volume of fresh water used in the production process in one place and that was incorporated into the final goods, is a calculation that can contribute to human access to water be assured in sufficient quantities for a dignified life. Therefore, the objective of this research is, through the hypothetical-deductive method of approach, evaluate virtual water transfers from the perspective of environmental justice in a globalized world in the Anthropocene.

  16. Health, personal responsibility, and distributive justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    explains why we have justice-based reasons to reduce social inequality in health. In my second article I investigate and (partly) object to a suggestion put forward by Shlomi Segall, according to which we should exchange the notion of responsibility with a notion of Reasonable Avoidability in the luck...... responsibility is generally impossible. I argue, nonetheless, that this approach is plausible. In my fourth and final article I proceed under the assumption that responsibility is possible. I examine the relation between responsibility (for one’s own health condition) and cost-responsibility (for health care...

  17. Department of Justice Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... design and construction of accessible facilities that are consistent with the ADA Accessibility..., the social and economic realities faced by Americans with disabilities dictate the need for the rule...

  18. Cramer's Rule Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2005-01-01

    In 1750, the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer published a well-written algebra book entitled "Introduction a l'Analyse des Lignes Courbes Algebriques." In the appendix to this book, Cramer gave, without proof, the rule named after him for solving a linear system of equations using determinants (Kosinki, 2001). Since then several derivations of…

  19. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  20. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...