WorldWideScience

Sample records for justice information network

  1. 网络信息公正问题的研究现状及展望%A Research on Current Situation and Prospect of Network Information Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 戴艳军

    2012-01-01

    As an inter-discipline between network ethics and information ethics, network information ethics draws more and more attention of scholars, and more monographic studies about it have appeared, among which the study of justice in the field of network information ethics is an important aspect. This paper sums up the present situation of network information justice, presents a prospect, and then gives some advice for the current study of applied ethics discipline, which is of great importance to some disciplines such as network ethics and information ethics.%当前,作为网络伦理和信息伦理交叉领域的网络信息伦理得到学者们越来越多的关注,也出现越来越多的专题研究,网络信息公正问题的研究就是其中一个重要方面。本文综述了该研究领域的发展现状并对未来的发展前景做出展望,提出该研究领域研究需要注意的一些问题,对于完善网络伦理学和信息伦理学等都具有重要意义。

  2. 75 FR 56557 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... point for justice information systems integration activities in order to facilitate the coordination of... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing... meeting. SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of DOJ's Global Justice Information...

  3. 75 FR 17956 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information... collection under review; (Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection). Juvenile Residential Facility Census The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of...

  4. Religious networking organizations and social justice: an ethnographic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nathan R

    2012-09-01

    The current study provides an innovative examination of how and why religious networking organizations work for social justice in their local community. Similar to a coalition or community coordinating council, religious networking organizations are formal organizations comprised of individuals from multiple religious congregations who consistently meet to organize around a common goal. Based on over a year and a half of ethnographic participation in two separate religious networking organizations focused on community betterment and social justice, this study reports on the purpose and structure of these organizations, how each used networking to create social capital, and how religion was integrated into the organizations' social justice work. Findings contribute to the growing literature on social capital, empowering community settings, and the unique role of religious settings in promoting social justice. Implications for future research and practice also are discussed.

  5. Ecological information needs for environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Harris, Stuart; Harper, Barbara; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The concept that all peoples should have their voices heard on matters that affect their well-being is at the core of environmental justice (EJ). The inability of some people of small towns, rural areas, minority, and low-income communities, to become involved in environmental decisions is sometimes due to a lack of information. We provide a template for the ecological information that is essential to examine environmental risks to EJ populations within average communities, using case studies from South Carolina (Savannah River, a DOE site with minority impacts), Washington (Hanford, a DOE site with Native American impacts), and New Jersey (nonpoint, urbanized community pollution). While the basic ecological and public health information needs for risk evaluations and assessments are well described, less attention has been focused on standardizing information about EJ communities or EJ populations within larger communities. We suggest that information needed about EJ communities and populations includes demographics, consumptive and nonconsumptive uses of their regional environment (for example, maintenance and cosmetic, medicinal/religious/cultural uses), eco-dependency webs, and eco-cultural attributes. A purely demographics approach might not even identify EJ populations or neighborhoods, much less their spatial relation to the impact source or to each other. Using information from three case studies, we illustrate that some information is readily available (e.g., consumption rates for standard items such as fish), but there is less information about medicinal, cultural, religious, eco-cultural dependency webs, and eco-cultural attributes, all of which depend in some way on intact, functioning, and healthy ecosystems.

  6. Connecting Information Literacy and Social Justice: Why and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Libraries have a long, though not uncomplicated, history with social justice and social advocacy. The new ACRL "Framework for Information Literacy," which is more conceptual and flexible than the original Standards, offers an opportunity for librarians to approach teaching and learning from a social justice perspective. Indeed, the…

  7. 77 FR 58412 - Meeting of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... the meeting. Purpose The GAC will act as the focal point for justice information systems integration... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal Advisory... announcement of a meeting of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative (Global) Federal...

  8. Informal Justice Systems: Charting a Course for Human Rights-Based Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrigan, Fergus; McKay, Anne Louise; Kristiansen, Annali

    engagement with informal justice systems can build greater respect and protection for human rights. It highlights the considerations that development partners should have when assessing whether to implement programmes involving informal justice systems, the primary consideration being that engagement...... with the informal justice systems neither directly nor inadvertently reinforces existing societal or structural discrimination – a consideration that applies to working with formal justice systems as well. The study also examines the value of informal justice systems in offering, in certain contexts, flexible...

  9. 77 FR 44673 - Meeting of the Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice...

  10. Criminal Justice Information Policy. Privacy and the Private Employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEARCH Group, Inc., Sacramento, CA.

    Should private employers have a right of access to criminal history record information in order to make employment decisions about applicants and employees? This book addresses both legal and operational questions relating to the use of criminal justice data for private employment and decision-making purposes. The informative, non-prescriptive…

  11. 76 FR 64108 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Employee (DFE), Bureau of...

  12. On the subjective quality of social justice: The role of affect as information in the psychology of justice judgments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that it is not uncommon for people forming justice judgments to lack information that is most relevant in the particular situation. In information-uncertain conditions, people may therefore construct justice judgments by relying on how they feel about the events they have encount

  13. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  14. Informal Justice Systems: Charting a Course for Human Rights-Based Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrigan, Fergus; McKay, Anne Louise; Kristiansen, Annali;

    Providing accessible justice is a state obligation under international human rights standards, but this obligation does not require that all justice be provided through formal justice systems. If done in ways to respect and uphold human rights, the provision of justice through informal justice...... systems is not against human rights standards and can be a mechanism to enhance the fulfilment of human rights obligations by delivering accessible justice to individuals and communities where the formal justice system does not have the capacity or geographical reach. This study seeks to identify how...... engagement with informal justice systems can build greater respect and protection for human rights. It highlights the considerations that development partners should have when assessing whether to implement programmes involving informal justice systems, the primary consideration being that engagement...

  15. I've Got You Covered: Adventures in Social Justice-Informed Co-Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Cam; Sharma, Manu

    2015-01-01

    What is social justice-informed co-teaching? Why is it important? How can social justice pedagogy deepen co-teaching practices? What are the key challenges and possibilities open to teachers and learners involved in a social-justice informed co-teaching experience? These questions are useful to ask as they begin to address new pedagogical…

  16. 77 FR 70473 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (Revision of a Currently..., Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the following...

  17. Trauma histories among justice-involved youth: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly B. Dierkhising

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Up to 90% of justice-involved youth report exposure to some type of traumatic event. On average, 70% of youth meet criteria for a mental health disorder with approximately 30% of youth meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Justice-involved youth are also at risk for substance use and academic problems, and child welfare involvement. Yet, less is known about the details of their trauma histories, and associations among trauma details, mental health problems, and associated risk factors. Objective: This study describes detailed trauma histories, mental health problems, and associated risk factors (i.e., academic problems, substance/alcohol use, and concurrent child welfare involvement among adolescents with recent involvement in the juvenile justice system. Method: The National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set (NCTSN-CDS is used to address these aims, among which 658 adolescents report recent involvement in the juvenile justice system as indexed by being detained or under community supervision by the juvenile court. Results: Age of onset of trauma exposure was within the first 5 years of life for 62% of youth and approximately one-third of youth report exposure to multiple or co-occurring trauma types each year into adolescence. Mental health problems are prevalent with 23.6% of youth meeting criteria for PTSD, 66.1% in the clinical range for externalizing problems, and 45.5% in the clinical range for internalizing problems. Early age of onset of trauma exposure was differentially associated with mental health problems and related risk factors among males and females. Conclusions: The results indicate that justice-involved youth report high rates of trauma exposure and that this trauma typically begins early in life, is often in multiple contexts, and persists over time. Findings provide support for establishing trauma-informed juvenile justice systems that can respond to the needs of traumatized youth.

  18. Integrated Justice: An Information Systems Approach to Justice Sector Case Management and Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Curtis Watson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated Case Management Systems are still at an early stage of adoption in many developing countries. These are frequently standalone systems implemented with donor financing, and they often fail due to capacity constraints or as a consequence of short-term, project-based funding. But there are examples of developing countries overcoming these pitfalls and producing innovative solutions that surpass government practices in more developed countries. The Integrated Electronic Case Management System (IECMS, developed and implemented by the Ministry of Justice of Rwanda from 2015-2016, is one such innovation. This system has progressed rapidly in its level of adoption and integration between law enforcement, the prosecutor’s office, courts, and corrections. This paper will discuss the key system functionalities and the implementation methodology, including both the benefits and shortcomings of this approach, with the goal of applying lessons learned in future installations. Foremost among the successes of this project were the integrated Sector Wide Approach, the thorough business process re-engineering, and strong ownership by the Rwandan Justice Sector staff. Particularly instructive will be the analysis of the integrated approach, covering five institutions with a single system in less than two years. However, the particular success in this case may not be replicable for governments with a more decentralized approach.

  19. Econometrics Network Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Bogomolov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes to overcome the shortcomings of classical econometrics , noted economists and practitioners, scientists , using the capabilities of modern computer and information technology, network approach to the description of models and methodology agent - based modeling . The authors propose to introduce the concept of a network and the network of natural economic agent , the latter is a random event , the probability of which can be determined based on Bayesian belief networks .

  20. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information Services... INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.35 Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. (a) There is established a CJIS Advisory Policy...

  1. Information Theory of Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dehmer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper puts the emphasis on surveying information-theoretic network measures for analyzing the structure of networks. In order to apply the quantities interdisciplinarily, we also discuss some of their properties such as their structural interpretation and uniqueness.

  2. Mode of Effective Connectivity within a Putative Neural Network Differentiates Moral Cognitions Related to Care and Justice Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G. Andrew; Ely, Timothy D.; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. Methodology/Principal Findings Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. Conclusions/Significance These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses. PMID:21364916

  3. Mode of effective connectivity within a putative neural network differentiates moral cognitions related to care and justice ethics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cáceda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC and posterior (PCC cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses.

  4. NIDDK Information Network (DKnet)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Information Network serves the needs of basic and clinical investigators by providing seamless access to large pools of data relevant to the mission of...

  5. 77 FR 10573 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to the... Programs (OJP), 810 7th Street NW., Washington, DC 20531. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Todd...

  6. 75 FR 31815 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss the role of the NMVTIS Federal...) 305-1661. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Employee (DFE),...

  7. 76 FR 8778 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss the role of the NMVTIS Federal...) 305-1661. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Official (DFO),...

  8. 76 FR 38209 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Justice Assistance, Justice. ACTION... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss the role of the NMVTIS Federal Advisory...; Phone: (703) 418-6800. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Employee...

  9. 78 FR 51747 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to the... (OJP), 810 7th Street NW., Washington, DC 20531. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Todd...

  10. 76 FR 78950 - FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division; Revised User Fee Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division; Revised User Fee... Section, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, FBI, 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Module E-3... Information Act, 5 United States Code (U.S.C.) 9101, as explained at 73 FR 34908. The following tables...

  11. 75 FR 18751 - FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division User Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Part 20 RIN 1110-AA26 FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division User Fees AGENCY: Federal...- based Criminal History Record Information (CHRI) checks and other identification services submitted by... fingerprint identification and criminal justice information services and associated costs. It further...

  12. Congenital Heart Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright ©1996 - 2016 C.H.I.N. All rights reserved TX4-390-685 Original site design and HTML by Panoptic Communications

  13. Information cascade on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model by considering three different kinds of networks: a random graph, the Barabási-Albert (BA) model, and a fitness model. A voting model represents the way in which public perceptions are conveyed to voters. Our voting model is constructed by using two types of voters-herders and independents-and two candidates. Independents conduct voting based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, herders base their voting on the number of previous votes. Hence, herders vote for the majority candidates and obtain information relating to previous votes from their networks. We discuss the difference between the phases on which the networks depend. Two kinds of phase transitions, an information cascade transition and a super-normal transition, were identified. The first of these is a transition between a state in which most voters make the correct choices and a state in which most of them are wrong. The second is a transition of convergence speed. The information cascade transition prevails when herder effects are stronger than the super-normal transition. In the BA and fitness models, the critical point of the information cascade transition is the same as that of the random network model. However, the critical point of the super-normal transition disappears when these two models are used. In conclusion, the influence of networks is shown to only affect the convergence speed and not the information cascade transition. We are therefore able to conclude that the influence of hubs on voters' perceptions is limited.

  14. Weight-Control Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of resources . Alternate Language URL Weight-control Information Network (WIN) Page Content The Weight-control Information Network ( ... and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Health Information Center, Telephone: 1-800-860-8747 Contact the NIDDK Health ...

  15. Information cascade on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hisakado, Masato

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model by considering three different kinds of networks: a random graph, the Barab\\'{a}si-Albert(BA) model, and a fitness model. A voting model represents the way in which public perceptions are conveyed to voters. Our voting model is constructed by using two types of voters--herders and independents--and two candidates. Independents conduct voting based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, herders base their voting on the number of previous votes. Hence, herders vote for the majority candidates and obtain information relating to previous votes from their networks. We discussed the difference between the phases on which the networks depend. Two kinds of phase transitions, an information cascade transition and a super-normal transition, were identified. The first of these is a transition between a state in which most voters make the correct choices and a state in which most of them are wrong. The second is a transition of convergence speed. The information cascade t...

  16. Building a Shared Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanat, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of information needs in a business environment focuses on how to build a shared information network. Highlights include the evolution of corporate intelligence systems; results of a survey that examined the information networking needs of large corporations; and a case study of the development of an information network at Citibank N.A.…

  17. Information networks and worker recruitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, A.; Brandts, J.; Gërxhani, K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies experimentally how the existence of social information networks affects the ways in which firms recruit new personnel. Through such networks firms learn about prospective employees' performance in previous jobs. Assuming individualistic preferences social networks are predicted no

  18. INFORMATION SECURITY IN COMPUTER NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Мехед, Д. Б.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with computer networks, types of construction, the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of different types of networks. The basic types of information transmission, highlighted their advantages and disadvantages, losing information and methods of protection.

  19. Collecting informed consent with juvenile justice populations: issues and implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbransky, Melinda; Goldstein, Naomi E S; Giallella, Christy; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Researchers must provide participants with opportunities to make informed decisions about whether to participate in research studies. Investigators conducting research with youth in the juvenile justice system face unique ethical, legal, and practical challenges to obtaining informed consent. Juvenile justice researchers must navigate multiple legal and ethical standards for collecting informed consent, take into account youths' dual vulnerabilities as children and prisoners, and overcome practical limitations to obtaining parental/guardian permission. Given the challenges and complexity of obtaining standard informed consent of youth in juvenile justice facilities, this paper provides suggestions for overcoming obstacles to recruiting these youth for research participation. It offers guidance for fostering the enrollment of juvenile justice youth in research studies using procedures that comply with ethical and legal standards for research with this dually vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Geoscience Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Gundersen, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    Geological surveys in the USA have an estimated 2,000-3,000 databases that represent one of the largest, long- term information resources on the geology of the United States and collectively constitute a national geoscience data "backbone" for research and applications. An NSF-supported workshop in February, 2007, among representatives of the Association of American State Geologists (AASG) and the USGS, recommended that "the nation's geological surveys develop a national geoscience information framework that is distributed, interoperable, uses open source standards and common protocols, respects and acknowledges data ownership, fosters communities of practice to grow, and develops new web services and clients." The AASG and USGS have formally endorsed the workshop recommendations and formed a joint Steering Committee to pursue design and implementation of the Geoscience Information Network (GIN). GIN is taking a modular approach in assembling the network: 1. Agreement on open-source standards and common protocols through the use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. 2. A data exchange model utilizing the geoscience mark-up language GeoSciML, an OGC GML-based application. 3. A prototype data discovery tool (National Digital Catalogue - NDC) developing under the National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program run by the USGS. 4. Data integration tools developed or planned by a number of independent projects. A broader NSF-sponsored workshop in March 2007 examined what direction the geoinformatics community in the US should take towards developing a National Geoinformatics System. The final report stated that, "It was clear that developing such a system should involve a partnership between academia, government, and industry that should be closely connected to the efforts of the U. S. Geological Survey and the state geological surveys..." The GIN is collaborating with 1-G Europe, a coalition of 27 European geological surveys in the One

  1. Information sharing between the National Health Service and criminal justice system in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Charlotte; Mason, Julie; McDonnell, Sharon; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2012-09-01

    Offenders with mental health problems often have complex and interrelated needs which separately challenge the criminal justice system (CJS) and National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Consequently, interagency collaboration and timely information sharing are essential. This study focused on the sharing of information about people with mental health problems in contact with the CJS. Questionnaires were distributed to a range of health and criminal justice personnel. The results showed that there was a mismatch between what service user information criminal justice agencies felt they needed and what was routinely received. Prison Service staff received more information (between 15% and 37%) from health agencies than the police (between 6% and 22%). Health professionals received most of the information they needed from criminal justice agencies (between 55% and 85%). Sharing service user information was impeded by incompatible computer systems and restrictions due to data protection/confidentiality requirements. In the U.K., recent governmental publications have highlighted the importance of information sharing; however there remains a clear mismatch between what health related information about service users criminal justice agencies need, and what is actually received. Better guidance is required to encourage and empower people to share.

  2. Scaling-Up Youth-Led Social Justice Efforts through an Online School-Based Social Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluh, Mariah; Neal, Jennifer Watling; Ozer, Emily J

    2016-06-01

    The exploration of social networking sites (SNS) in promoting social change efforts offers great potential within the field of community psychology. Online communities on SNS provide opportunities for bridging across groups, thus fostering the exchange of novel ideas and practices. Currently, there have only been limited efforts to examine SNS within the context of youth-led efforts. To explore the potential of SNS to facilitate the diffusion of social justice efforts between distinct youth groups, we linked three school-based youth-led participatory action research projects involving 54 high school students through a SNS. This study offers an innovative methodological approach and framework, utilizing social network analysis and strategic sampling of key student informants to investigate what individual behaviors and online network features predict student adoption of social change efforts. Findings highlight prospective facilitators and barriers to diffusion processes within a youth-led online network, as well as key constructs that may inform future research. We conclude by providing suggestions for scholars and practitioners interested in examining how SNS can be used to enhance the diffusion of social justice strategies, youth-led engagement efforts, and large-scale civic organizing.

  3. Extracting information from multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ̃(S) for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  4. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  5. Information diffusion on adaptive network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ke; Tang Yi

    2008-01-01

    Based on the adaptive network,the feedback mechanism and interplay between the network topology and the diffusive process of information are studied.The results reveal that the adaptation of network topology can drive systems into the scale-free one with the assortative or disassortative degree correlations,and the hierarchical clustering.Meanwhile,the processes of the information diffusion are extremely speeded up by the adaptive changes of network topology.

  6. Extracting Information from Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iacovacci, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from Big Data. For these reasons characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function $\\widetilde{\\Theta}^{S}$ for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying thes...

  7. Information Networking in Population Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The rapidly increasing body of knowledge in population education has created the need for systematic and effective information services. Information networking entails sharing resources so that the information needs of all network participants are met. The goals of this manual are to: (1) instill in population education specialists a more…

  8. Internet Network Resource Information Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈传峰; 李增智; 唐亚哲; 刘康平

    2002-01-01

    The foundation of any network management systens is a database that con-tains information about the network resources relevant to the management tasks. A networkinformation model is an abstraction of network resources, including both managed resources andmanaging resources. In the SNMP-based management framework, management information isdefined almost exclusively from a "device" viewpoint, namely, managing a network is equiva-lent to managing a collection of individual nodes. Aiming at making use of recent advances indistributed computing and in object-oriented analysis and design, the Internet management ar-chitecture can also be based on the Open Distributed Processing Reference Model (RM-ODP).The purpose of this article is to provide an Internet Network Resource Information Model.First, a layered management information architecture will be discussed. Then the Internetnetwork resource information model is presented. The information model is specified usingObject-Z.

  9. Information thermodynamics on causal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sosuke; Sagawa, Takahiro

    2013-11-01

    We study nonequilibrium thermodynamics of complex information flows induced by interactions between multiple fluctuating systems. Characterizing nonequilibrium dynamics by causal networks (i.e., Bayesian networks), we obtain novel generalizations of the second law of thermodynamics and the fluctuation theorem, which include an informational quantity characterized by the topology of the causal network. Our result implies that the entropy production in a single system in the presence of multiple other systems is bounded by the information flow between these systems. We demonstrate our general result by a simple model of biochemical adaptation.

  10. 76 FR 9813 - Office of Justice Programs; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...; Proposed New Information Collection Activity; Comment Request, Proposed Project entitled ``Violence and..., National Institute of Justice, 810 Seventh Street, NW., Washington, DC 20531 (overnight 20001). Written... Collection: Survey. (2) The title of the Form/Collection: Violence and Victimization Experiences ] of...

  11. World-Wide Information Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Kjell A. H. W.

    The future paths of research and development towards world-wide, automated information networks in full operation are examined. From international networked planning and projects under way it appears that exploratory as well as normative approaches have been taken. To some extent adequate technolgical facilities have already come into existence…

  12. Quantum information density and network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao BI; Jin-qing FANG; Gui-ping LIU

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantum information network in which quantum information density is used for per- forming quantum computing or teleportation. The pho- tons are entangled in quantum channels and play a role of flying ebit to transmit interaction among the nodes. A particular quantum Gaussian channel is constructed; it permits photon-encoded information to transmit quan- tum signals with certain quantum parallelism. The cor- responding quantum dynamical mutual information is discussed, and the controlling nodes connectivity by driv- ing the network is studied. With regard to different driving functions, the connectivity distribution of the network is complicated. They obey positive or negative power law, and also influence the assortativity coefficient or the dynamical property of the network.

  13. Measuring information networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sneppen; A Trusina; M Rosvall

    2005-06-01

    Traffic and communication between different parts of a complex system are fundamental elements in maintaining its overall cooperativity. Because a complex system consists of many different parts, it matters where signals are transmitted. Thus signaling and traffic are in principle specific, with each message going from a unique sender to a specific recipient. In the current paper we review some measures of network topology that are related to its ability to direct specific communication.

  14. Facilitating networks of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van Mulligen (Erik); M. Diwersy; M.E. Schmidt (Marie); H. Buurman; B. Mons (Barend)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe an approach to respond to a request for information with the identification and location of the appropriate person as a source of information for answering the question. The expertise of a person is characterized using a weighted pr

  15. International Crisis Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    essence, the members will have the ability to alter, modify and update the website through the use of Wiki. Wiki ( Hawaiian word for “quick”)131 allows...combatants, women, children, weddings , and funerals. Ranking of 1 (Worst): No sharing of information and operating independently. Information is not

  16. Whether Information Network Supplements Friendship Network

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, Lili; Nie, Da-Chen; Cai, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Homophily is a significant mechanism for link prediction in complex network, of which principle describes that people with similar profiles or experiences tend to tie with each other. In a multi-relationship network, friendship among people has been utilized to reinforce similarity of taste for recommendation system whose basic idea is similar to homophily, yet how the taste inversely affects friendship prediction is little discussed. This paper contributes to address the issue by analyzing two benchmark datasets both including user's behavioral information of taste and friendship based on the principle of homophily. It can be found that the creation of friendship tightly associates with personal taste. Especially, the behavioral information of taste involving with popular objects is much more effective to improve the performance of friendship prediction. However, this result seems to be contradictory to the finding in [Q.M. Zhang, et al., PLoS ONE 8(2013)e62624] that the behavior information of taste involvi...

  17. Workplace Learning in Informal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Colin; Littlejohn, Allison; Margaryan, Anoush

    2014-01-01

    Learning does not stop when an individual leaves formal education, but becomes increasingly informal, and deeply embedded within other activities such as work. This article describes the challenges of informal learning in knowledge intensive industries, highlighting the important role of personal learning networks. The article argues that…

  18. Information network supports open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauley, G.; Hirsch, P.; Vojdani, A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Saxton, T.; Cleveland, F.

    1996-07-01

    On March 29, 1995, the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) aimed at promoting wholesale competition through nondiscriminatory open transmission access. Industry working groups were formed to define the content of the transmission services information to be communicated over an electronic network and to define the requirements of the network itself.FERC issued final rules on April 24, 1996. At this writing, the transmission services information network (TSIN) is just completing design, and initial implementation should be in place by November 1, 1996. There will be about 20--35 nodes representing all public transmission systems in the US. The network will use the Internet as a base, allowing access by all authorized users anywhere in the world. The tools used will be based on the standard Internet tools such as World-Wide Web (Web) browsers. This provides a low-cost, high-function, consistent interconnected network to provide information to all transmission customers. The network will have good performance and be secure. It will allow transmission customers to have available information on available transmission capacity, cost and tariffs for transmission capacity, and cost of ancillary services. This article outlines the content of the industry reports and the FERC rulings.

  19. Information and control in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhardsson, Bo; Rantzer, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Information and Control in Networks demonstrates the way in which system dynamics and information flows intertwine as they evolve, and the central role played by information in the control of complex networked systems. It is a milestone on the road to that convergence from traditionally independent development of control theory and information theory which has emerged strongly in the last fifteen years, and is now a very active research field. In addition to efforts in control and information theory, the text is witness to strong research in such diverse fields as computer science, mathematics, and statistics. Aspects that are given specialist treatment include: ·                 data-rate theorems; ·                 computation and control over communication networks; ·                 decentralized stochastic control; ·                 Gaussian networks and Gaussian–Markov random fields; and ·                 routability ...

  20. Information Recovery In Behavioral Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Judge, George

    2015-01-01

    In the context of agent based modeling and network theory, we focus on the problem of recovering micro behavior-related choice information from aggregate origin-destination data. As a basis for predicting agents' choices we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization and self-organized, equilibrium-seeking behavior in a dynamic system. We cast this problem in the form of a binary network and suggest information theoretic, entropy-driven methods to recover estimates of the unknown parameters connecting the behavioral data. Our objective is to recover the unknown behavioral binary parameters analytically, without explicitly sampling the configuration space. In order to do so, we enlarge the set of estimators commonly employed to make optimal use of the available information. More specifically, we consider the Cressie-Read family of entropic functionals and focus on three cases of particular interest. We then apply this information theoretic method to the analysis ...

  1. Rough Justice? Exploring the Relationship Between Information Access and Environmental and Ecological Justice Pertaining to Two Controversial Coastal Developments in North-east Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Baxter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between information access and environmental and ecological justice through an historical comparison of two controversial coastal developments in Aberdeenshire, North-east Scotland: the building of a North Sea gas reception terminal by the British Gas Council and the French exploration company Total Oil Marine in the 1970s; and the more recent construction of ‘the greatest golf course anywhere in the world’ by the American property tycoon, Donald Trump. These two projects have much in common, not least because each one has had actual or potential impacts on an environmentally sensitive site, and because each has also been affected by plans for another major structure in its immediate vicinity. But the Trump golf course project has taken place during a period when access to information and citizens’ influence on major planning decisions in Scotland has been significantly greater, at least theoretically. With these points in mind, the paper considers whether or not environmental justice (more specifically, procedural environmental justice and ecological justice are now more attainable in the current era of supposed openness, transparency and public engagement, than in the more secretive and less participative 1970s. It reveals that, at the planning application stage, information on the potential environmental impact of Trump’s golf resort was more readily obtainable, compared with that provided by the Gas Council and Total forty years earlier. However, during and after the construction stage, when considering whether or not the developments have met environmental planning conditions – and whether or not ecological justice has been done – the situation with the gas terminal has been far clearer than with Trump’s golf resort. Despite the golf course being built in an era of government openness, there remain a number of unanswered questions concerning its environmental impact.

  2. Sociological Factors Influencing the Organizational Justice Perceptions of Women in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzinger, Monica J.; Lemons, Mary A.

    There is a tremendous shortage of information technology (I') talent in the United States today. Reports suggest that the demand for such talent will continue to increase. Despite the need for qualified personnel, women are underrepresented in this field. Those entering the profession often leave. This article discusses possible sociological factors influencing the number of women entering a career in information technology and their advancements to management positions. The relationship of these variables with perceptions of organizational justice in career advancement is considered. Members of Systers, an on-line forum for women in technology, were surveyed and the results are presented.

  3. Information transport in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pu, Cunlai; Yang, Xianxia; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study information transport in multiplex networks comprised of two coupled subnetworks. The upper subnetwork, called the logical layer, employs the shortest paths protocol to determine the logical paths for packets transmission, while the lower subnetwork acts as the physical layer, in which packets are delivered by the biased random walk mechanism characterized with a parameter $\\alpha$. Through simulation, we obtain the optimal $\\alpha$ corresponding to the maximum network lifetime and the maximum number of the arrival packets. Assortative coupling is better than the random coupling and the disassortative coupling, since it achieves much better transmission performances. Generally, the more homogeneous the lower subnetwork, the better the transmission performances are, which is opposite for the upper subnetwork. Finally, we propose an attack centrality for nodes based on the topological information of both subnetworks, and further investigate the transmission performances under targeted at...

  4. Information recovery in behavioral networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; Garlaschelli, Diego; Judge, George

    2015-01-01

    In the context of agent based modeling and network theory, we focus on the problem of recovering behavior-related choice information from origin-destination type data, a topic also known under the name of network tomography. As a basis for predicting agents' choices we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization, and self-organized behavior in an open dynamic system. We cast this problem in the form of binary and weighted networks and suggest information theoretic entropy-driven methods to recover estimates of the unknown behavioral flow parameters. Our objective is to recover the unknown behavioral values across the ensemble analytically, without explicitly sampling the configuration space. In order to do so, we consider the Cressie-Read family of entropic functionals, enlarging the set of estimators commonly employed to make optimal use of the available information. More specifically, we explicitly work out two cases of particular interest: Shannon functional and the likelihood functional. We then employ them for the analysis of both univariate and bivariate data sets, comparing their accuracy in reproducing the observed trends.

  5. Reconciling Epidemiology and Social Justice in the Public Health Discourse Around the Sexual Networks of Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Derrick D; Smith, Justin C; Brown, Andre L; Malebranche, David J

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have implicated the sexual networks of Black men who have sex with men (MSM) as facilitating disproportionally high rates of new HIV infections within this community. Although structural disparities place these networks at heightened risk for infection, HIV prevention science continues to describe networks as the cause for HIV disparities, rather than an effect of structures that pattern infection. We explore the historical relationship between public health and Black MSM, arguing that the current articulation of Black MSM networks is too often incomplete and counterproductive. Public health can offer a counternarrative that reconciles epidemiology with the social justice that informs our discipline, and that is required for an effective response to the epidemic among Black MSM.

  6. Mining heterogeneous information networks principles and methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yizhou

    2012-01-01

    Real-world physical and abstract data objects are interconnected, forming gigantic, interconnected networks. By structuring these data objects and interactions between these objects into multiple types, such networks become semi-structured heterogeneous information networks. Most real-world applications that handle big data, including interconnected social media and social networks, scientific, engineering, or medical information systems, online e-commerce systems, and most database systems, can be structured into heterogeneous information networks. Therefore, effective analysis of large-scale

  7. Strengthening Social Justice in Informal Dispute Resolution Processes Through Cultural Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Smyth

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Professor Voyvodic’s call for cultural competence as an ethical requirement challenges perceptions of the legal profession as inherently and necessarily morally neutral. While lawyers wrestle with the boundaries of ethical mandates, alternative dispute resolution practitioners have adopted their own codes of ethics following very much in the path of the law. Although expanding dispute resolution options for disputants, many theorists have warned of the potential of informalism to undermine natural justice principals. I will argue that the choice to omit any explicit commitment to a “social justice ethic” leaves the practice of ADR vulnerable to these decades-old arguments that informalism erodes protections for marginalized populations. As such, I will argue that mediators must call for an explicit social justice mandate in their codes of conduct, training and practices to cement the place of informal processes as equitable – not just efficient – options for settlement. In doing so, informal processes, particularly mediation, may increase discourse in civil society about human rights, thus strengthening their congruence with lived realities of citizens. L’appel que fait la professeure Voyvodic en faveur de compétence culturelle comme exigence éthique lance un défi aux avocats de considérer la compétence culturelle comme étant centrale à leur rôle professionnel, et conteste les suppositions de neutralité morale qui sont centrales à la pratique juridique traditionnelle. Pendant que les avocats débattent les frontières de mandats éthiques, ceux et celles qui s’intéressent au règlement extrajudiciaire de conflits (REC ont adopté leurs propres codes de déontologie qui, suivant de près les sentiers du droit, omettent généralement toute mention de justice sociale, de compétence culturelle ou de droits de la personne. À mon avis, le choix d’omettre un engagement explicite envers la compétence culturelle et la

  8. A Study of the Impact of Perceived Organizational Justice on Employee\\\\\\'s Social Capital (Case Study: Health Network of Noshahr City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nasr Esfahani

    2013-07-01

    words, no person or organization could succeed without social capital. Because it is related to perceived sense of injustice, this study attempts to discuss the establishment of justice in organization and employees' opinion on this issue as an effective factor regarding the amount of employees' social capital in the organization. The results, if proven, could help managers employ people with more social capital and hence achieve more success by establishing organizational justice. Material and Method The present study is an applied and descriptive research attempting to offer a clear definition for the correlation of perceived organizational justice and the amount of personnel's social capital. This is a cross sectional field research. For testing empirical data, a conceptual model was designed by the authors. This model has two main parts, including organizational justice and social capital. In order to reach to research objectives, four hypotheses have been tested, investigating the relationship between perceived organizational justice and its dimensions (distributive, procedural and interactional justice with the amount of employees' social capital. Research population is composed of the personnel of the health network in Noshahr city, of whom 136 individuals were sampled randomly. For data collection, a questionnaire was made by the researchers containing 31 questions based on Likert's five-degree scale. 15 of the questions include aspects of organizational justice and the other 16 questions are relate to aspects of social capital. The questionnaire has a high reliability (0.91 which was calculated by Cronbach's alpha. Also, the content validity of the questionnaire has been assured by using advice from experts. SPSS software was used for data analysis. The statistical methods used in this research include descriptive statistical methods (such as mean and single sample tables and inferential statistics, including Pearson's correlation coefficient. Discussion of

  9. Effective information spreading based on local information in correlated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Pan, Liming; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Using network-based information to facilitate information spreading is an essential task for spreading dynamics in complex networks. Focusing on degree correlated networks, we propose a preferential contact strategy based on the local network structure and local informed density to promote the information spreading. During the spreading process, an informed node will preferentially select a contact target among its neighbors, basing on their degrees or local informed densities. By extensively implementing numerical simulations in synthetic and empirical networks, we find that when only consider the local structure information, the convergence time of information spreading will be remarkably reduced if low-degree neighbors are favored as contact targets. Meanwhile, the minimum convergence time depends non-monotonically on degree-degree correlation, and a moderate correlation coefficient results in the most efficient information spreading. Incorporating the local informed density information into contact strategy, the convergence time of information spreading can be further reduced, and be minimized by an moderately preferential selection.

  10. Campus Information Network Hardware System Design%Campus Information Network Hardware System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正勇

    2011-01-01

    The emphasis of constructing and developing the campus information network is how to design and optimize the network hardware system. This paper mainly studies the network system structure design, the server system structure design and the network export

  11. Social Change: Toward an Informed and Critical Understanding of Social Justice and the Capabilities Approach in Community Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Felix; MacLeod, Tim; Loomis, Colleen

    2016-03-01

    Community psychology has long been concerned with social justice. However, deployments of this term are often vague and undertheorized. To address this weakness in the field's knowledge body we explored John Rawls's theory of social justice and Amartya Sen's economic theory of the capabilities approach and evaluated each for its applicability to community psychology theory, research, and action. Our unpacking of the philosophical and political underpinnings of Rawlsian theory of social justice resulted in identifying characteristics that limit the theory's utility in community psychology, particularly in its implications for action. Our analysis of the capability approach proposed by Amartya Sen revealed a framework that operationalizes social justice in both research and action, and we elaborate on this point. Going beyond benefits to community psychology in adopting the capabilities approach, we posit a bi-directional relationship and discuss how community psychology might also contribute to the capabilities approach. We conclude by suggesting that community psychology could benefit from a manifesto or proclamation that provides a historical background of social justice and critiques the focus on the economic, sociological, and philosophical theories that inform present-day conceptualizations (and lack thereof) of social justice for community psychology.

  12. A Social Network Perspective on Turnover Intentions : The Role of Distributive Justice and Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltis, Scott M.; Agneessens, Filip; Sasovova, Zuzana; Labianca, Giuseppe (Joe)

    Organizations are increasingly concerned about retaining human talent, particularly within knowledge-based industries where turnover is expensive. Our study employs a social network perspective to explore the influence of employees' formal and informal workplace relationships on their turnover

  13. Local Area Networks for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, Harry M.

    This examination of the use of local area networks (LANs) by libraries summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of 600 libraries and information centers and 200 microcomputer networking system manufacturers and vendors, which was conducted to determine the relevance of currently available networking systems for library and information center…

  14. Information Propagation in Clustered Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In today's world, individuals interact with each other in more complicated patterns than ever. Some individuals engage through online social networks (e.g., Facebook, Twitter), while some communicate only through conventional ways (e.g., face-to-face). Therefore, understanding the dynamics of information propagation among humans calls for a multi-layer network model where an online social network is conjoined with a physical network. In this work, we initiate a study of information diffusion in a clustered multi-layer network model, where all constituent layers are random networks with high clustering. We assume that information propagates according to the SIR model and with different information transmissibility across the networks. We give results for the conditions, probability, and size of information epidemics, i.e., cases where information starts from a single individual and reaches a positive fraction of the population. We show that increasing the level of clustering in either one of the layers increas...

  15. Information and Communication Technology to Link Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kurth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States has the world’s highest prison population, and an estimated one in seven HIV-positive persons in the USA passes through a correctional facility annually. Given this, it is critical to develop innovative and effective approaches to support HIV treatment and retention in care among HIV-positive individuals involved in the criminal justice (CJ system. Information and communication technologies (ICTs, including mobile health (mHealth interventions, may offer one component of a successful strategy for linkage/retention in care. We describe CARE+ Corrections, a randomized controlled trial (RCT study now underway in Washington, that will evaluate the combined effect of computerized motivational interview counseling and postrelease short message service (SMS text message reminders to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and linkage and retention in care among HIV-infected persons involved in the criminal justice system. In this report, we describe the development of this ICT/mHealth intervention, outline the study procedures used to evaluate this intervention, and summarize the implications for the mHealth knowledge base.

  16. Information and Communication Technology to Link Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Ann; Kuo, Irene; Peterson, James; Azikiwe, Nkiru; Bazerman, Lauri; Cates, Alice; Beckwith, Curt G

    2013-01-01

    The United States has the world's highest prison population, and an estimated one in seven HIV-positive persons in the USA passes through a correctional facility annually. Given this, it is critical to develop innovative and effective approaches to support HIV treatment and retention in care among HIV-positive individuals involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Information and communication technologies (ICTs), including mobile health (mHealth) interventions, may offer one component of a successful strategy for linkage/retention in care. We describe CARE+ Corrections, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study now underway in Washington, that will evaluate the combined effect of computerized motivational interview counseling and postrelease short message service (SMS) text message reminders to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and linkage and retention in care among HIV-infected persons involved in the criminal justice system. In this report, we describe the development of this ICT/mHealth intervention, outline the study procedures used to evaluate this intervention, and summarize the implications for the mHealth knowledge base.

  17. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  18. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  19. A new information dimension of complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Daijun [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); School of Science, Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi 445000 (China); Wei, Bo [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Hu, Yong [Institute of Business Intelligence and Knowledge Discovery, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Haixin [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Deng, Yong, E-mail: ydeng@swu.edu.cn [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); School of Engineering, Vanderbilt University, TN 37235 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: •The proposed measure is more practical than the classical information dimension. •The difference of information for box in the box-covering algorithm is considered. •Results indicate the measure can capture the fractal property of complex networks. -- Abstract: The fractal and self-similarity properties are revealed in many complex networks. The classical information dimension is an important method to study fractal and self-similarity properties of planar networks. However, it is not practical for real complex networks. In this Letter, a new information dimension of complex networks is proposed. The nodes number in each box is considered by using the box-covering algorithm of complex networks. The proposed method is applied to calculate the fractal dimensions of some real networks. Our results show that the proposed method is efficient when dealing with the fractal dimension problem of complex networks.

  20. Effective information spreading based on local information in correlated networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Lei; Pan, Liming; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Using network-based information to facilitate information spreading is an essential task for spreading dynamics in complex networks, which will benefit the promotion of technical innovations, healthy behaviors, new products, etc. Focusing on degree correlated networks, we propose a preferential contact strategy based on the local network structure and local informed density to promote the information spreading. During the spreading process, an informed node will preferentially select a contact target among its neighbors, basing on their degrees or local informed densities. By extensively implementing numerical simulations in synthetic and empirical networks, we find that when only consider the local structure information, the convergence time of information spreading will be remarkably reduced if low-degree neighbors are favored as contact targets. Meanwhile, the minimum convergence time depends non-monotonically on degree-degree correlation, and moderate correlation coefficients result in most efficient info...

  1. Protecting information on local area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Schweitzer, James A

    1988-01-01

    Protecting Information on Local Area Networks presents the various types of networks and explains why they are being expanded at such a rapid pace. This book considers how management can gain control of the valuable network-services information resources generally available.Organized into three parts encompassing seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various networks and their operations. This text then discusses the appropriate management actions to ensure some control over the use of networks and the business information resource. Other chapters consider the management rat

  2. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kirst, Christoph; Battaglia, Demian

    2015-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this generic mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyze how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs coact to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine non-local network-wide communication. These results help...

  3. Multimedia Information Networks in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangliang; Qi, Guojun; Tsai, Shen-Fu; Tsai, Min-Hsuan; Pozo, Andrey Del; Huang, Thomas S.; Zhang, Xuemei; Lim, Suk Hwan

    The popularity of personal digital cameras and online photo/video sharing community has lead to an explosion of multimedia information. Unlike traditional multimedia data, many new multimedia datasets are organized in a structural way, incorporating rich information such as semantic ontology, social interaction, community media, geographical maps, in addition to the multimedia contents by themselves. Studies of such structured multimedia data have resulted in a new research area, which is referred to as Multimedia Information Networks. Multimedia information networks are closely related to social networks, but especially focus on understanding the topics and semantics of the multimedia files in the context of network structure. This chapter reviews different categories of recent systems related to multimedia information networks, summarizes the popular inference methods used in recent works, and discusses the applications related to multimedia information networks. We also discuss a wide range of topics including public datasets, related industrial systems, and potential future research directions in this field.

  4. Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice, Mental Health, and Education Providers' Conceptualizations of Trauma-Informed Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donisch, Katelyn; Bray, Chris; Gewirtz, Abigail

    2016-05-01

    This study systematically examined child-service providers' conceptualizations of trauma-informed practice (TIP) across service systems, including child welfare, juvenile justice, mental health, and education. Eleven focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted, totaling 126 child-service providers. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data with interrater reliability analyses indicating near perfect agreement between coders. Qualitative analysis revealed that child-service providers identified traumatic stress as an important common theme among children and families served as well as the interest in TIP in their service systems. At the same time, child-service providers generally felt knowledgeable about what they define TIP to be, although they articulated wide variations in the degree to which they are taught skills and strategies to respond to their traumatized clients. The results of this study suggest a need for a common lexicon and metric with which to advance TIP within and across child-service systems.

  5. A security architecture for health information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailar, Rajashekar; Muralidhar, Vinod

    2007-10-11

    Health information network security needs to balance exacting security controls with practicality, and ease of implementation in today's healthcare enterprise. Recent work on 'nationwide health information network' architectures has sought to share highly confidential data over insecure networks such as the Internet. Using basic patterns of health network data flow and trust models to support secure communication between network nodes, we abstract network security requirements to a core set to enable secure inter-network data sharing. We propose a minimum set of security controls that can be implemented without needing major new technologies, but yet realize network security and privacy goals of confidentiality, integrity and availability. This framework combines a set of technology mechanisms with environmental controls, and is shown to be sufficient to counter commonly encountered network security threats adequately.

  6. Econometric Information Recovery in Behavioral Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Judge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest an approach to recovering behavior-related, preference-choice network information from observational data. We model the process as a self-organized behavior based random exponential network-graph system. To address the unknown nature of the sampling model in recovering behavior related network information, we use the Cressie-Read (CR family of divergence measures and the corresponding information theoretic entropy basis, for estimation, inference, model evaluation, and prediction. Examples are included to clarify how entropy based information theoretic methods are directly applicable to recovering the behavioral network probabilities in this fundamentally underdetermined ill posed inverse recovery problem.

  7. Information sharing in Quantum Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cardillo, Alessio; Zueco, David; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the use of entanglement entropy as a tool for studying the amount of information shared between the nodes of quantum complex networks. By considering the ground state of a network of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators, we compute the information that each node has on the rest of the system. We show that the nodes storing the largest amount of information are not the ones with the highest connectivity, but those with intermediate connectivity thus breaking down the usual hierarchical picture of classical networks. We show both numerically and analytically that the mutual information characterizes the network topology. As a byproduct, our results point out that the amount of information available for an external node connecting to a quantum network allows to determine the network topology.

  8. Psychological contract breach in the anticipatory stage of change : Employee responses and the moderating role of supervisory informational justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, M.; Schalk, R.; Schaveling, Jaap; van Gelder, Daniel

    This study examined the impact of two types of psychological contract breach (organizational policies and social atmosphere breach) on resistance to change and engagement in the anticipatory phase of change and assessed whether supervisory informational justice mitigated the negative effects of

  9. Psychological contract breach in the anticipatory stage of change : Employee responses and the moderating role of supervisory informational justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ruiter, M.; Schaveling, J.; Schalk, R.; Gelder, van D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two types of psychological contract breach (organizational policies and social atmosphere breach) on resistance to change and engagement in the anticipatory phase of change and assessed whether supervisory informational justice mitigated the negative effects of

  10. Exploring network operations for data and information networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bing; Su, Jing; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiaomin; Zhao, Xiyang; Yao, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Barabási and Albert, in 1999, formulated scale-free models based on some real networks: World-Wide Web, Internet, metabolic and protein networks, language or sexual networks. Scale-free networks not only appear around us, but also have high qualities in the world. As known, high quality information networks can transfer feasibly and efficiently data, clearly, their topological structures are very important for data safety. We build up network operations for constructing large scale of dynamic networks from smaller scale of network models having good property and high quality. We focus on the simplest operators to formulate complex operations, and are interesting on the closeness of operations to desired network properties.

  11. Social Network Analysis and informal trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    networks can be applied to better understand informal trade in developing countries, with a particular focus on Africa. The paper starts by discussing some of the fundamental concepts developed by social network analysis. Through a number of case studies, we show how social network analysis can...... illuminate the relevant causes of social patterns, the impact of social ties on economic performance, the diffusion of resources and information, and the exercise of power. The paper then examines some of the methodological challenges of social network analysis and how it can be combined with other...... approaches. The paper finally highlights some of the applications of social network analysis and their implications for trade policies....

  12. The Social Side of Information Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the social issues, including manners, security, crime (fraud), and social control associated with information networking, with emphasis on the Internet. Also addresses the influence of cellular phones, the Internet and other information technologies on society. (GR)

  13. Lecture Notes on Network Information Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gamal, Abbas El

    2010-01-01

    Network information theory deals with the fundamental limits on information flow in networks and optimal coding techniques and protocols that achieve these limits. It extends Shannon's point-to-point information theory and the Ford--Fulkerson max-flow min-cut theorem to networks with multiple sources and destinations, broadcasting, interference, relaying, distributed compression and computing. Although a complete theory is yet to be developed, several beautiful results and techniques have been developed over the past forty years with potential applications in wireless communication, the Internet, and other networked systems. This set of lecture notes, which is a much expanded version of lecture notes used in graduate courses over the past eight years at Stanford, UCSD, CUHK, UC Berkeley, and EPFL, aims to provide a broad coverage of key results, techniques, and open problems in network information theory. The lectures are organized in a "top-down" manner into four parts: background, single-hop networks, multi...

  14. Can data science inform environmental justice and community risk screening for type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Allen; Burgoon, Lyle D

    2015-01-01

    Having the ability to scan the entire country for potential "hotspots" with increased risk of developing chronic diseases due to various environmental, demographic, and genetic susceptibility factors may inform risk management decisions and enable better environmental public health policies. Develop an approach for community-level risk screening focused on identifying potential genetic susceptibility hotpots. Our approach combines analyses of phenotype-genotype data, genetic prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms, and census/geographic information to estimate census tract-level population attributable risks among various ethnicities and total population for the state of California. We estimate that the rs13266634 single nucleotide polymorphism, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility genotype, has a genetic prevalence of 56.3%, 47.4% and 37.0% in Mexican Mestizo, Caucasian, and Asian populations. Looking at the top quintile for total population attributable risk, 16 California counties have greater than 25% of their population living in hotspots of genetic susceptibility for developing type 2 diabetes due to this single genotypic susceptibility factor. This study identified counties in California where large portions of the population may bear additional type 2 diabetes risk due to increased genetic prevalence of a susceptibility genotype. This type of screening can easily be extended to include information on environmental contaminants of interest and other related diseases, and potentially enables the rapid identification of potential environmental justice communities. Other potential uses of this approach include problem formulation in support of risk assessments, land use planning, and prioritization of site cleanup and remediation actions.

  15. "People's Trials" in Communist China: An Informal Approach to Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiene, Drew

    1983-01-01

    Describes the contemporary Chinese justice system highlighting the elements of "western" justice it embodies. Presents lesson plans, complete with objectives, procedures, and all required materials, for illustrating the system with two recent Chinese criminal cases which were heard in "people's courts." (JDH)

  16. Teaching Social Justice Research to Undergraduate Students in Puerto Rico: Using Personal Experiences to Inform Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginwright, Shawn A.; Cammarota, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the process of teaching undergraduate students to conduct social justice research. We were interested in understanding how to develop a social justice perspective among students while training them in conventional research methods. The following questions guided our research activities. How can the principles of social…

  17. Information Services in the International Network Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Mark E.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the internationalism of the network marketplace through case studies of the London Stock Exchange and I. P. Sharp Associates, a Canadian computer service bureau. Discussion focuses on the importance of transnational computer networks to the production of information services and marketplace expansion, and global information policy issues.…

  18. Securing Information with Complex Optical Encryption Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-11

    Encryption Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-13-1-4106 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant AOARD-134106 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S...configure complex optical encryption networks for securing information. The goal is to study/develop the architectures for a number of complex optical... encryption networks, and to provide effective and reliable solutions for information security. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Optical Encryption

  19. Federal Information in the Networked Environment: A Perspective from the Coalition for Networked Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheverie, Joan F.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the development of strategies for providing access to and services for U.S. federal government information in higher education using the global information infrastructure, from the perspective of the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI). Discusses the preservation of electronic information and networked information discovery and…

  20. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan J; Adamou, Marios; Bolea, Blanca; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Müller, Ulrich; Pitts, Mark; Thome, Johannes; Asherson, Philip

    2011-02-18

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD.This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  1. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitts Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD within the National Health Service (NHS. UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD. This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH, Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs, whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards

  2. Information Flows in Networked Engineering Design Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez, Pedro; Maier, Anja

    Complex engineering design projects need to manage simultaneously multiple information flows across design activities associated with different areas of the design process. Previous research on this area has mostly focused on either analysing the “required information flows” through activity...... networks at the project level or in studying the social networks that deliver the “actual information flow”. In this paper we propose and empirically test a model and method that integrates both social and activity networks into one compact representation, allowing to compare actual and required...... information flows between design spaces, and to assess the influence that these misalignments could have on the performance of engineering design projects....

  3. Design and Management of Networked Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havn, Erling; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we present a newly started research project at the Center for Tele-Information at the Technical University of Denmark. The project focuses on the design and management of networked information systems, that is computer-based IS linked by a wide area network and supporting...... research questions:1. What is the essence of the new managerial theories and models and how do they define the role of telecommunications and IT in organizations?2. How are these organizational theories and models implemented in practice?3. How is the design and implementation of information systems...... and implementation of networked information systems....

  4. Design and Management of Networked Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havn, Erling; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we present a newly started research project at the Center for Tele-Information at the Technical University of Denmark. The project focuses on the design and management of networked information systems, that is computer-based IS linked by a wide area network and supporting...... research questions:1. What is the essence of the new managerial theories and models and how do they define the role of telecommunications and IT in organizations?2. How are these organizational theories and models implemented in practice?3. How is the design and implementation of information systems...... and implementation of networked information systems....

  5. Noise enhances information transfer in hierarchical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Holyst, Janusz A; Sloot, Peter M A

    2013-01-01

    We study the influence of noise on information transmission in the form of packages shipped between nodes of hierarchical networks. Numerical simulations are performed for artificial tree networks, scale-free Ravasz-Barabási networks as well for a real network formed by email addresses of former Enron employees. Two types of noise are considered. One is related to packet dynamics and is responsible for a random part of packets paths. The second one originates from random changes in initial network topology. We find that the information transfer can be enhanced by the noise. The system possesses optimal performance when both kinds of noise are tuned to specific values, this corresponds to the Stochastic Resonance phenomenon. There is a non-trivial synergy present for both noisy components. We found also that hierarchical networks built of nodes of various degrees are more efficient in information transfer than trees with a fixed branching factor.

  6. Towards an Information Theory of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Mehler, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    For over a decade, complex networks have steadily grown as an important tool across a broad array of academic disciplines, with applications ranging from physics to social media. A tightly organized collection of carefully-selected papers on the subject, Towards an Information Theory of Complex Networks: Statistical Methods and Applications presents theoretical and practical results about information-theoretic and statistical models of complex networks in the natural sciences and humanities. The book's major goal is to advocate and promote a combination of graph-theoretic, information-theoreti

  7. Hierarchical social networks and information flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Luis; F. F. Mendes, Jose; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2002-12-01

    Using a simple model for the information flow on social networks, we show that the traditional hierarchical topologies frequently used by companies and organizations, are poorly designed in terms of efficiency. Moreover, we prove that this type of structures are the result of the individual aim of monopolizing as much information as possible within the network. As the information is an appropriate measurement of centrality, we conclude that this kind of topology is so attractive for leaders, because the global influence each actor has within the network is completely determined by the hierarchical level occupied.

  8. Information flow analysis of interactome networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Vasilyev Missiuro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of cellular networks have revealed modular organizations of genes and proteins. For example, in interactome networks, a module refers to a group of interacting proteins that form molecular complexes and/or biochemical pathways and together mediate a biological process. However, it is still poorly understood how biological information is transmitted between different modules. We have developed information flow analysis, a new computational approach that identifies proteins central to the transmission of biological information throughout the network. In the information flow analysis, we represent an interactome network as an electrical circuit, where interactions are modeled as resistors and proteins as interconnecting junctions. Construing the propagation of biological signals as flow of electrical current, our method calculates an information flow score for every protein. Unlike previous metrics of network centrality such as degree or betweenness that only consider topological features, our approach incorporates confidence scores of protein-protein interactions and automatically considers all possible paths in a network when evaluating the importance of each protein. We apply our method to the interactome networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that the likelihood of observing lethality and pleiotropy when a protein is eliminated is positively correlated with the protein's information flow score. Even among proteins of low degree or low betweenness, high information scores serve as a strong predictor of loss-of-function lethality or pleiotropy. The correlation between information flow scores and phenotypes supports our hypothesis that the proteins of high information flow reside in central positions in interactome networks. We also show that the ranks of information flow scores are more consistent than that of betweenness when a large amount of noisy data is added to an interactome. Finally, we

  9. 75 FR 18887 - FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division User Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... current cost of processing fingerprint identification records and name checks for noncriminal justice purposes. (2) Fee amounts and any revisions thereto shall be determined by current costs, using a method...

  10. Can data science inform environmental justice and community risk screening for type 2 diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Allen Davis

    Full Text Available Having the ability to scan the entire country for potential "hotspots" with increased risk of developing chronic diseases due to various environmental, demographic, and genetic susceptibility factors may inform risk management decisions and enable better environmental public health policies.Develop an approach for community-level risk screening focused on identifying potential genetic susceptibility hotpots.Our approach combines analyses of phenotype-genotype data, genetic prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms, and census/geographic information to estimate census tract-level population attributable risks among various ethnicities and total population for the state of California.We estimate that the rs13266634 single nucleotide polymorphism, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility genotype, has a genetic prevalence of 56.3%, 47.4% and 37.0% in Mexican Mestizo, Caucasian, and Asian populations. Looking at the top quintile for total population attributable risk, 16 California counties have greater than 25% of their population living in hotspots of genetic susceptibility for developing type 2 diabetes due to this single genotypic susceptibility factor.This study identified counties in California where large portions of the population may bear additional type 2 diabetes risk due to increased genetic prevalence of a susceptibility genotype. This type of screening can easily be extended to include information on environmental contaminants of interest and other related diseases, and potentially enables the rapid identification of potential environmental justice communities. Other potential uses of this approach include problem formulation in support of risk assessments, land use planning, and prioritization of site cleanup and remediation actions.

  11. Neural networks as perpetual information generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englisch, Harald; Xiao, Yegao; Yao, Kailun

    1991-07-01

    The information gain in a neural network cannot be larger than the bit capacity of the synapses. It is shown that the equation derived by Engel et al. [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4998 (1990)] for the strongly diluted network with persistent stimuli contradicts this condition. Furthermore, for any time step the correct equation is derived by taking the correlation between random variables into account.

  12. Information theory perspective on network robustness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, Tiago A. [Departmento de Engenharia de Produção, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Carpi, Laura [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, Terrassa, 08222, Barcelona (Spain); Frery, Alejandro C. [Laboratório de Computação Científica e Análise Numérica (LaCCAN), Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Rosso, Osvaldo A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires (ITBA), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pardalos, Panos M. [Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ravetti, Martín G., E-mail: martin.ravetti@dep.ufmg.br [Departmento de Engenharia de Produção, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Departament de Física Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-28

    A crucial challenge in network theory is the study of the robustness of a network when facing a sequence of failures. In this work, we propose a dynamical definition of network robustness based on Information Theory, that considers measurements of the structural changes caused by failures of the network's components. Failures are defined here as a temporal process defined in a sequence. Robustness is then evaluated by measuring dissimilarities between topologies after each time step of the sequence, providing a dynamical information about the topological damage. We thoroughly analyze the efficiency of the method in capturing small perturbations by considering different probability distributions on networks. In particular, we find that distributions based on distances are more consistent in capturing network structural deviations, as better reflect the consequences of the failures. Theoretical examples and real networks are used to study the performance of this methodology. - Highlights: • A novel methodology to measure the robustness of a network to component failure or targeted attacks is proposed. • The use of the network's distance PDF allows a precise analysis. • The method provides a dynamic robustness profile showing the response of the topology to each failure event. • The measure is capable to detect network's critical elements.

  13. Information and influence propagation in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Lakshmanan, Laks V S

    2013-01-01

    Research on social networks has exploded over the last decade. To a large extent, this has been fueled by the spectacular growth of social media and online social networking sites, which continue growing at a very fast pace, as well as by the increasing availability of very large social network datasets for purposes of research. A rich body of this research has been devoted to the analysis of the propagation of information, influence, innovations, infections, practices and customs through networks. Can we build models to explain the way these propagations occur? How can we validate our models

  14. National Network for Immunization Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worry that the vaccines their child receives may overload his or her immune system. But a new ... on the latest immunization research and downloadable vaccine information fact sheets. Evaluating Info on the Web Are ...

  15. WARP Weather Information Network Server

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — WINS is the dissemination module of the WARP system that provides an interface to various NAS Users/systems that require weather data/products/information from WARP...

  16. Information spreading on dynamic social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chuang

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, information spreading on social networks has triggered an explosive attention in various disciplines. Most of previous related works in this area mainly focus on discussing the effects of spreading probability or immunization strategy on static networks. However, in real systems, the peer-to-peer network structure changes constantly according to frequently social activities of users. In order to capture this dynamical property and study its impact on information spreading, in this Letter, a link rewiring strategy based on the Fermi function is introduced. In the present model, the informed individuals tend to break old links and reconnect to ones with more uninformed neighbors. Simulation results on the susceptible-infected (\\textit{SI}) model with non-redundancy contacts indicate that the information spread more faster and broader with the rewiring strategy. Extensive analyses of the information cascading show that the spreading process of the initial steps plays a very important role, that is to s...

  17. Information transfer in community structured multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The study of complex networks that account for different types of interactions has become a subject of interest in the last few years, specially because its representational power in the description of users interactions in diverse online social platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.). The mathematical description of these interacting networks has been coined under the name of multilayer networks, where each layer accounts for a type of interaction. It has been shown that diffusive processes on top of these networks present a phenomenology that cannot be explained by the naive superposition of single layer diffusive phenomena but require the whole structure of interconnected layers. Nevertheless, the description of diffusive phenomena on multilayer networks has obviated the fact that social networks have strong mesoscopic structure represented by different communities of individuals driven by common interests, or any other social aspect. In this work, we study the transfer of information in multilayer ...

  18. Networking and Information Technology Workforce Study: Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This report presents the results of a study of the global Networking and Information Technology NIT workforce undertaken for the Networking and Information...

  19. Improving information filtering via network manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Fuguo

    2012-01-01

    Recommender system is a very promising way to address the problem of overabundant information for online users. Though the information filtering for the online commercial systems received much attention recently, almost all of the previous works are dedicated to design new algorithms and consider the user-item bipartite networks as given and constant information. However, many problems for recommender systems such as the cold-start problem (i.e. low recommendation accuracy for the small degree items) are actually due to the limitation of the underlying user-item bipartite networks. In this letter, we propose a strategy to enhance the performance of the already existing recommendation algorithms by directly manipulating the user-item bipartite networks, namely adding some virtual connections to the networks. Numerical analyses on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, show that our method can remarkably improve the recommendation performance. Specifically, it not only improve the recommendations accur...

  20. Fisheries Information Network in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Sarojini

    During the early 1980s the Indonesian government made a policy decision to develop fisheries as an important sector of the national economy. In doing so, it recognized the need for the collection and dissemination of fisheries research information not only for the scientists themselves, but also for the ultimate transfer of technology through…

  1. Fisheries Information Network in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Sarojini

    During the early 1980s the Indonesian government made a policy decision to develop fisheries as an important sector of the national economy. In doing so, it recognized the need for the collection and dissemination of fisheries research information not only for the scientists themselves, but also for the ultimate transfer of technology through…

  2. Organizing for Networked Information Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book provides seven practical examples of how Danish companies implemented new information technology in order to transform their internal and external business processes. The purpose is to share some of the companies' concerns and hopes during this implementation process, with each case...

  3. PERSONIFICATION OF INFORMATION IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Kadyrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to a phenomenon of personification of information in social networks, which are becoming an important media space not only for users, but also for the mass media. Many of the events that have got a response in popular social networks are further reflected in the journalistic articles. The famous personalities acting as newsmakers express their position on any relevant issue on their personal pages. In many popular social networks are presented the official communities of federal and regional mass media. Thus, the content of social networks becomes some kind of media resource and media platform for audience and traditional mass media. Today social networks act as a peculiar source of information through which users receive information corresponding to specific classroom expectations. In this article the author connects such “point wise” oriented content with concept of personification of information – feature of the communication allowing to connect content of the information with perception of an image of the communicant. The presence of journalists and edition in social networks becomes necessary in new mass media space because a modern media text ceases to be distanced from the audience. The space of social networks initially allows Internet users to personalize information posting personal data, commenting on actual events. In this article author considers the peculiarities of this phenomenon on the example of personal pages of different types of users. Depending on the types of users (public personalities, representatives of professional community, ordinary users publications can have the character of information occasion, transmit personal attitude of journalists to the described events, allow to the actual important social and political issues.

  4. Child Rights Information Network Newsletter, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbrick, Becky, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These three newsletter issues communicate activities of the Child Rights Information Network (CRIN) and report on information resources and worldwide activities concerning children and child rights. The January 1997 issue profiles CRIN members in Costa Rica, Tanzania, Germany, and Switzerland; and provides updates on the activities of projects…

  5. Protecting Personal Information on Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Almost everyone uses social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace, and LinkedIn. Since Facebook is the most popular site in the history of the Internet, this article will focus on how one can protect his/her personal information and how that extends to protecting the private information of others.

  6. Disseminating Traffic Information in Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alyas Shahid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Wifi based system is described for disseminating traffic information in vehicular networks. Basic aim of this approach is to distribute information regarding the traffic conditions such as traffic congestions or safety warnings to vehicles in an effective way.

  7. Information transfer in community structured multiplex networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert eSolé Ribalta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of complex networks that account for different types of interactions has become a subject of interest in the last few years, specially because its representational power in the description of users interactions in diverse online social platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.. The mathematical description of these interacting networks has been coined under the name of multilayer networks, where each layer accounts for a type of interaction. It has been shown that diffusive processes on top of these networks present a phenomenology that cannot be explained by the naive superposition of single layer diffusive phenomena but require the whole structure of interconnected layers. Nevertheless, the description of diffusive phenomena on multilayer networks has obviated the fact that social networks have strong mesoscopic structure represented by different communities of individuals driven by common interests, or any other social aspect. In this work, we study the transfer of information in multilayer networks with community structure. The final goal is to understand and quantify, if the existence of well-defined community structure at the level of individual layers, together with the multilayer structure of the whole network, enhances or deteriorates the diffusion of packets of information.

  8. Comparing network covers using mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, Alcides Viamontes

    2012-01-01

    In network science, researchers often use mutual information to understand the difference between network partitions produced by community detection methods. Here we extend the use of mutual information to covers, that is, the cases where a node can belong to more than one module. In our proposed solution, the underlying stochastic process used to compare partitions is extended to deal with covers, and the random variables of the new process are simply fed into the usual definition of mutual information. With partitions, our extended process behaves exactly as the conventional approach for partitions, and thus, the mutual information values obtained are the same. We also describe how to perform sampling and do error estimation for our extended process, as both are necessary steps for a practical application of this measure. The stochastic process that we define here is not only applicable to networks, but can also be used to compare more general set-to-set binary relations.

  9. 信息网络管理%Information Network Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温有奎

    2000-01-01

    Information network is becoming a remarkable feature of information society.The construction,maintenance,extension and optimization of the network have become the major concern of both computer science and information service community.The paper discusses the basic concepts and models of network management.It's pointed out that information network management will become an important subject for research for information studies.

  10. Social Justice and Informal Learning: Breaking the Social Comfort Zone and Facilitating Positive Ethnic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Social justice and diversity have been accepted as significant goals for educating today's students. This article provides a description of a community-based diversity project in which students develop knowledge, skills, and dispositions by participating in meetings and discourses with individuals or groups of people from other ethnic and racial…

  11. Origin of cells and network information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihori Tanabe

    2015-01-01

    All cells are derived from one cell, and the origin ofdifferent cell types is a subject of curiosity. Cells constructlife through appropriately timed networks at each stageof development. Communication among cells andintracellular signaling are essential for cell differentiationand for life processes. Cellular molecular networksestablish cell diversity and life. The investigation ofthe regulation of each gene in the genome within thecellular network is therefore of interest. Stem cellsproduce various cells that are suitable for specificpurposes. The dynamics of the information in thecellular network changes as the status of cells isaltered. The components of each cell are subject toinvestigation.

  12. Strategic Path Reliability in Information Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, Rajgopal; Sarangi, Sudipta; Iyengar, Sundaraja Sitharama

    2002-01-01

    We consider a model of an information network where nodes can fail and transmission of information is costly. The formation of paths in such networks is modeled as the Nash equilibrium of an N player routing game. The task of obtaining this equilibrium is shown to be NP-Hard. We derive analytical results to identify conditions under which the equilibrium path is congruent to well known paths such as the most reliable or cheapest neighbor path. The issue of characterizing off-equilibrium paths...

  13. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Call interception additional network feature

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Call interception additional network feature

  14. Information filtering on coupled social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Kui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the coupled social networks (CSN), we propose a hybrid algorithm to nonlinearly integrate both social and behavior information of online users. Filtering algorithm, based on the coupled social networks, considers the effects of both social similarity and personalized preference. Experimental results based on two real datasets, Epinions and Friendfeed, show that the hybrid pattern can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also enlarge the recommendation coverage while adopting global metric. Further empirical analyses demonstrate that the mutual reinforcement and rich-club phenomenon can also be found in coupled social networks where the identical individuals occupy the core position of the online system. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of coupled social networks.

  15. Information filtering on coupled social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Cheng Nie

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on the coupled social networks (CSN, we propose a hybrid algorithm to nonlinearly integrate both social and behavior information of online users. Filtering algorithm, based on the coupled social networks, considers the effects of both social similarity and personalized preference. Experimental results based on two real datasets, Epinions and Friendfeed, show that the hybrid pattern can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also enlarge the recommendation coverage while adopting global metric. Further empirical analyses demonstrate that the mutual reinforcement and rich-club phenomenon can also be found in coupled social networks where the identical individuals occupy the core position of the online system. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of coupled social networks.

  16. Practice informs the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Nancy; Frueh, B Christopher; Huening, Jessica; Shi, Jing; Epperson, Matthew W; Morgan, Robert; Fisher, William

    2013-01-01

    Specialized interventions, such as police and jail diversion, mental health courts, specialized probation, forensic assertive community treatment, designed to engage justice-involved persons with serious mental illnesses, have expanded over the past two decades. Some of these "first generation" interventions have demonstrated efficacy and several have earned recognition as evidence-based practices. Yet, overall, they have not appreciably reduced the prevalence of persons with serious mental illnesses involved in the criminal justice system. To understand how to make the next generation of interventions more effective, a survey of a national sample of community-based programs serving these clients was conducted. Surveys were completed on-line by direct service staff affiliated with 85 programs and collected data on the characteristics and needs of the client base; characteristics and challenges associated with difficult-to-engage clients; service needs and obstacles; and recommendations for improving program effectiveness. A sample of the survey participants (19 programs from 18 states) attended a day-long workshop to discuss the survey findings and ways to improve treatment adherence and client services. Respondents reported that their clients have a constellation of problems with different origins, etiologies, and symptoms, often crossing over the boundaries of mental illness, addictions, and antisocial pathologies. According to the practitioners working with justice-involved clients with mental illnesses, responding effectively requires knowledge of many different problems, expertise to respond to them, and an understanding of how these problems interact when they co-occur. The poly-problems of these clients suggest the need for an integrated and comprehensive approach, which is challenged by the fragmented and diverse ideologies of the behavioral health, criminal justice, and social service systems.

  17. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  18. Information diffusion in structured online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.

  19. Improving information filtering via network manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuguo; Zeng, An

    2012-12-01

    The recommender system is a very promising way to address the problem of overabundant information for online users. Although the information filtering for the online commercial systems has received much attention recently, almost all of the previous works are dedicated to design new algorithms and consider the user-item bipartite networks as given and constant information. However, many problems for recommender systems such as the cold-start problem (i.e., low recommendation accuracy for the small-degree items) are actually due to the limitation of the underlying user-item bipartite networks. In this letter, we propose a strategy to enhance the performance of the already existing recommendation algorithms by directly manipulating the user-item bipartite networks, namely adding some virtual connections to the networks. Numerical analyses on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, show that our method can remarkably improves the recommendation performance. Specifically, it not only improves the recommendations accuracy (especially for the small-degree items), but also helps the recommender systems generate more diverse and novel recommendations.

  20. 78 FR 17418 - Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... award under the Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant (RHITND) to Grace... relinquishing its fiduciary responsibilities for the Rural Health Information Technology Network Development... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Rural Health Information Technology...

  1. 76 FR 67750 - Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Homeland Security... Applicants for Appointment to Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Homeland Security has determined that the renewal of the Homeland Security Information...

  2. Information and material flows in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk; Armbruster, Dieter; Mikhailov, Alexander S.; Lefeber, Erjen

    2006-04-01

    In this special issue, an overview of the Thematic Institute (TI) on Information and Material Flows in Complex Systems is given. The TI was carried out within EXYSTENCE, the first EU Network of Excellence in the area of complex systems. Its motivation, research approach and subjects are presented here. Among the various methods used are many-particle and statistical physics, nonlinear dynamics, as well as complex systems, network and control theory. The contributions are relevant for complex systems as diverse as vehicle and data traffic in networks, logistics, production, and material flows in biological systems. The key disciplines involved are socio-, econo-, traffic- and bio-physics, and a new research area that could be called “biologistics”.

  3. Mapping information flow in sensorimotor networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lungarella

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological organisms continuously select and sample information used by their neural structures for perception and action, and for creating coherent cognitive states guiding their autonomous behavior. Information processing, however, is not solely an internal function of the nervous system. Here we show, instead, how sensorimotor interaction and body morphology can induce statistical regularities and information structure in sensory inputs and within the neural control architecture, and how the flow of information between sensors, neural units, and effectors is actively shaped by the interaction with the environment. We analyze sensory and motor data collected from real and simulated robots and reveal the presence of information structure and directed information flow induced by dynamically coupled sensorimotor activity, including effects of motor outputs on sensory inputs. We find that information structure and information flow in sensorimotor networks (a is spatially and temporally specific; (b can be affected by learning, and (c can be affected by changes in body morphology. Our results suggest a fundamental link between physical embeddedness and information, highlighting the effects of embodied interactions on internal (neural information processing, and illuminating the role of various system components on the generation of behavior.

  4. Boundary Depth Information Using Hopfield Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Wang, Ruisheng

    2016-06-01

    Depth information is widely used for representation, reconstruction and modeling of 3D scene. Generally two kinds of methods can obtain the depth information. One is to use the distance cues from the depth camera, but the results heavily depend on the device, and the accuracy is degraded greatly when the distance from the object is increased. The other one uses the binocular cues from the matching to obtain the depth information. It is more and more mature and convenient to collect the depth information of different scenes by stereo matching methods. In the objective function, the data term is to ensure that the difference between the matched pixels is small, and the smoothness term is to smooth the neighbors with different disparities. Nonetheless, the smoothness term blurs the boundary depth information of the object which becomes the bottleneck of the stereo matching. This paper proposes a novel energy function for the boundary to keep the discontinuities and uses the Hopfield neural network to solve the optimization. We first extract the region of interest areas which are the boundary pixels in original images. Then, we develop the boundary energy function to calculate the matching cost. At last, we solve the optimization globally by the Hopfield neural network. The Middlebury stereo benchmark is used to test the proposed method, and results show that our boundary depth information is more accurate than other state-of-the-art methods and can be used to optimize the results of other stereo matching methods.

  5. Wireless Network Information Flow: A Deterministic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Avestimehr, Salman; Tse, David

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to wireline networks, not much is known about the flow of information over wireless networks. The main barrier is the complexity of the signal interaction in wireless channels in addition to the noise in the channel. A widely accepted model is the the additive Gaussian channel model, and for this model, the capacity of even a network with a single relay node is open for 30 years. In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to this problem by focusing on the signal interaction rather than the noise. To this end, we propose a deterministic channel model which is analytically simpler than the Gaussian model but still captures two key wireless channel properties of broadcast and superposition. We consider a model for a wireless relay network with nodes connected by such deterministic channels, and present an exact characterization of the end-to-end capacity when there is a single source and one or more destinations (all interested in the same information) and an arbitrary number of relay nodes....

  6. Using information networks for competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, R L

    1995-01-01

    Although the healthcare "information superhighway" has received considerable attention, the use of information technology to create a sustainable competitive advantage is not new to other industries. Economic survival in the new world of managed care may depend on a healthcare delivery system's ability to use network-based communications technologies to differentiate itself in the market, especially through cost savings and demonstration of desirable outcomes. The adaptability of these technologies can help position healthcare organizations to break the paradigms of the past and thrive in a market environment that stresses coordination, efficiency, and quality in various settings.

  7. Transmission of information in active networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M. S.; Kurths, J.

    2008-02-01

    Shannon’s capacity theorem is the main concept behind the theory of communication. It says that if the amount of information contained in a signal is smaller than the channel capacity of a physical media of communication, it can be transmitted with arbitrarily small probability of error. This theorem is usually applicable to ideal channels of communication in which the information to be transmitted does not alter the passive characteristics of the channel that basically tries to reproduce the source of information. For an active channel, a network formed by elements that are dynamical systems (such as neurons, chaotic or periodic oscillators), it is unclear if such theorem is applicable, once an active channel can adapt to the input of a signal, altering its capacity. To shed light into this matter, we show, among other results, how to calculate the information capacity of an active channel of communication. Then, we show that the channel capacity depends on whether the active channel is self-excitable or not and that, contrary to a current belief, desynchronization can provide an environment in which large amounts of information can be transmitted in a channel that is self-excitable. An interesting case of a self-excitable active channel is a network of electrically connected Hindmarsh-Rose chaotic neurons.

  8. Function Analyses of Geographic Information System on Rural Distribution Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Junlong; FAN Yongcun; ZHANG Chunmei; GU Shumin

    2006-01-01

    With the actuality and characteristic and requirement of rural power enterprise distribution network management, this article introduced the function of geographic information system on the framework of distribution network, in order to develop rural distribution network.

  9. Maximizing information exchange between complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J.; Geneston, Elvis L.; Grigolini, Paolo

    2008-10-01

    modern research overarching all of the traditional scientific disciplines. The transportation networks of planes, highways and railroads; the economic networks of global finance and stock markets; the social networks of terrorism, governments, businesses and churches; the physical networks of telephones, the Internet, earthquakes and global warming and the biological networks of gene regulation, the human body, clusters of neurons and food webs, share a number of apparently universal properties as the networks become increasingly complex. Ubiquitous aspects of such complex networks are the appearance of non-stationary and non-ergodic statistical processes and inverse power-law statistical distributions. Herein we review the traditional dynamical and phase-space methods for modeling such networks as their complexity increases and focus on the limitations of these procedures in explaining complex networks. Of course we will not be able to review the entire nascent field of network science, so we limit ourselves to a review of how certain complexity barriers have been surmounted using newly applied theoretical concepts such as aging, renewal, non-ergodic statistics and the fractional calculus. One emphasis of this review is information transport between complex networks, which requires a fundamental change in perception that we express as a transition from the familiar stochastic resonance to the new concept of complexity matching.

  10. Maximizing information exchange between complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Bruce J. [Mathematical and Information Science, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC 27708 (United States); Physics Department, Duke University, Durham, NC 27709 (United States)], E-mail: bwest@nc.rr.com; Geneston, Elvis L. [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Physics Department, La Sierra University, 4500 Riverwalk Parkway, Riverside, CA 92515 (United States); Grigolini, Paolo [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Istituto di Processi Chimico Fisici del CNR, Area della Ricerca di Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi, 56124, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' Universita' di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    modern research overarching all of the traditional scientific disciplines. The transportation networks of planes, highways and railroads; the economic networks of global finance and stock markets; the social networks of terrorism, governments, businesses and churches; the physical networks of telephones, the Internet, earthquakes and global warming and the biological networks of gene regulation, the human body, clusters of neurons and food webs, share a number of apparently universal properties as the networks become increasingly complex. Ubiquitous aspects of such complex networks are the appearance of non-stationary and non-ergodic statistical processes and inverse power-law statistical distributions. Herein we review the traditional dynamical and phase-space methods for modeling such networks as their complexity increases and focus on the limitations of these procedures in explaining complex networks. Of course we will not be able to review the entire nascent field of network science, so we limit ourselves to a review of how certain complexity barriers have been surmounted using newly applied theoretical concepts such as aging, renewal, non-ergodic statistics and the fractional calculus. One emphasis of this review is information transport between complex networks, which requires a fundamental change in perception that we express as a transition from the familiar stochastic resonance to the new concept of complexity matching.

  11. Integrating Information Networks for Collective Planetary Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.

    2016-12-01

    Responsible behaviour resulting from climate literacy in global environmental movement is limited to policy and planning institutions in the Global South, while remaining absent for ends-user. Thus, planetary stewardship exists only at earth system boundaries where pressures sink to the local scale while ethics remains afloat. Existing citizen participation is restricted within policy spheres, appearing synonymous to enforcements in social psychology. Much, accounted reason is that existing information mechanisms operate mostly through linear exchanges between institutions and users, therefore reinforcing only hierarchical relationships. This study discloses such relationships that contribute to broad networking gaps through information demand assessment of stakeholders in a dozen development projects based in South Asia. Two parameters widely used for this purpose are: a. Feedback: Ends-user feedback to improve consumption literacy of climate sensitive resources (through consumption displays, billing, advisory services ecolabelling, sensors) and, b. Institutional Policy: Rewarding punishing to enforce desired behaviour (subsidies, taxation). Research answered: 1. Who gets the information (Equity in Information Distribution)? As existing information publishing mechanisms are designed by and for analysts, 2. How information translates to climate action Transparency of Execution)? Findings suggested that climate goals manifested in economic policy, than environmental policy, have potential clear short-term benefits and costs, and coincide with people's economic goals Also grassroots roles for responsible behaviour are empowered with presence of end user information. Barier free climate communication process and decision making is ensured among multiplicity of stakeholders with often conflicting perspectives. Research finds significance where collaboration among information networks can better translate regional policies into local action for climate adaptation and

  12. Identification of Boolean Networks Using Premined Network Topology Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Han, Huaxiang; Zhang, Weidong

    2017-02-01

    This brief aims to reduce the data requirement for the identification of Boolean networks (BNs) by using the premined network topology information. First, a matching table is created and used for sifting the true from the false dependences among the nodes in the BNs. Then, a dynamic extension to matching table is developed to enable the dynamic locating of matching pairs to start as soon as possible. Next, based on the pseudocommutative property of the semitensor product, a position-transform mining is carried out to further improve data utilization. Combining the above, the topology of the BNs can be premined for the subsequent identification. Examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of reducing the data requirement. Some excellent features, such as the online and parallel processing ability, are also demonstrated.

  13. Research on Modeling of Genetic Networks Based on Information Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-wei; SHAO Shi-huang; ZHANG Ying; LI Hai-ying

    2006-01-01

    As the basis of network of biology organism, the genetic network is concerned by many researchers.Current modeling methods to genetic network, especially the Boolean networks modeling method are analyzed. For modeling the genetic network, the information theory is proposed to mining the relations between elements in network. Through calculating the values of information entropy and mutual entropy in a case, the effectiveness of the method is verified.

  14. Ethical Considerations of Computer Network Attack in Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-16

    attack/destruction, and special information operations (SIO). CNA and the other methods of offensive IO represent the incorporation of information...psychological operations, electronic warfare, physical attack and/or destruction, and special information operations, and could include computer network...to computer networks to record information sent over them. 41 special information operations. Information operations that by their sensitive nature

  15. Optimal learning paths in information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodi, G C; Loreto, V; Servedio, V D P; Tria, F

    2015-06-01

    Each sphere of knowledge and information could be depicted as a complex mesh of correlated items. By properly exploiting these connections, innovative and more efficient navigation strategies could be defined, possibly leading to a faster learning process and an enduring retention of information. In this work we investigate how the topological structure embedding the items to be learned can affect the efficiency of the learning dynamics. To this end we introduce a general class of algorithms that simulate the exploration of knowledge/information networks standing on well-established findings on educational scheduling, namely the spacing and lag effects. While constructing their learning schedules, individuals move along connections, periodically revisiting some concepts, and sometimes jumping on very distant ones. In order to investigate the effect of networked information structures on the proposed learning dynamics we focused both on synthetic and real-world graphs such as subsections of Wikipedia and word-association graphs. We highlight the existence of optimal topological structures for the simulated learning dynamics whose efficiency is affected by the balance between hubs and the least connected items. Interestingly, the real-world graphs we considered lead naturally to almost optimal learning performances.

  16. Pairwise network information and nonlinear correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elliot A.; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Davidsen, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    Reconstructing the structural connectivity between interacting units from observed activity is a challenge across many different disciplines. The fundamental first step is to establish whether or to what extent the interactions between the units can be considered pairwise and, thus, can be modeled as an interaction network with simple links corresponding to pairwise interactions. In principle, this can be determined by comparing the maximum entropy given the bivariate probability distributions to the true joint entropy. In many practical cases, this is not an option since the bivariate distributions needed may not be reliably estimated or the optimization is too computationally expensive. Here we present an approach that allows one to use mutual informations as a proxy for the bivariate probability distributions. This has the advantage of being less computationally expensive and easier to estimate. We achieve this by introducing a novel entropy maximization scheme that is based on conditioning on entropies and mutual informations. This renders our approach typically superior to other methods based on linear approximations. The advantages of the proposed method are documented using oscillator networks and a resting-state human brain network as generic relevant examples.

  17. Information Sharing in a Nonprofit Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The civil rights and other social justice movements, neighborhood watches, local garden cooperatives, and so forth are examples of a grassroots context that is largely understudied in CSCW. In recent history, movements to fight child sex trafficking, end hunger in New York City, advocate for financial reform, or even overthrow governments have…

  18. Information Sharing in a Nonprofit Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The civil rights and other social justice movements, neighborhood watches, local garden cooperatives, and so forth are examples of a grassroots context that is largely understudied in CSCW. In recent history, movements to fight child sex trafficking, end hunger in New York City, advocate for financial reform, or even overthrow governments have…

  19. Obtaining informedness in collaborative networks through automated information provisioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thimm, Heiko; Rasmussen, Karsten Boye

    2013-01-01

    Successful collaboration in business networks calls for well-informed network participants. Members who know about the many aspects of the network are an effective vehicle to successfully resolve conflicts, build a prospering collaboration climate and promote trust within the network. The importa......Successful collaboration in business networks calls for well-informed network participants. Members who know about the many aspects of the network are an effective vehicle to successfully resolve conflicts, build a prospering collaboration climate and promote trust within the network...

  20. Profile: the Philippine Population Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The profile of Philippine Population Information Network (POPIN) is described in this article as having changed management structure from the Population Center Foundation to the Government's Population Commission, Information Management and Research Division (IMRD) in 1989. This restructuring resulted in the transfer in 1990 of the Department of Social Welfare and Development to the Office of the President. POPIN also serves Asia/Pacific POPIN. POPCOM makes policy and coordinates and monitors population activities. POPIN's goal is to improve the flow and utilization of population information nationwide. The National Population Library was moved in 1989 to the POPCOM Central Office Building and became the Philippine Information Center. The collection includes 6000 books, 400 research reports, and 4000 other documents (brochures, reprints, conference materials, and so on); 42 video tapes about the Philippine population program and a cassette player are available. In 1989, 14 regional centers were set up in POPCOM regional offices and designated Regional Population Information Centers. There are also school-based information centers operating as satellite information centers. The Regional and school-based centers serve the purpose of providing technical information through collection development, cataloguing, classification, storage and retrieval, and circulation. The target users are policy makers, government and private research agencies, researchers, and faculty and students. Publications developed and produced by the Center include the 3rd Supplement of the Union Catalogue of Population Literature, the 1987-88 Annotated Bibliography of Philippine Population Literature (PPL), the forthcoming 1989-90 edition of the Annotated Bibliography of PPL, and a biyearly newsletter, POPINEWS. Microcomputers have been acquired for the Regional Centers, with the idea of computerizing POPIN. Computer upgrading is also being done within the IMRD to provide POPLINE CD

  1. Future Wireless Networks and Information Systems Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in ICFWI 2011 conference. The 2011 International Conference on Future Wireless Networks and Information Systems (ICFWI 2011) has been held on November 30 ~ December 1, 2011, Macao, China. Topics covered include Wireless Information Networks, Wireless Networking Technologies, Mobile Software and Services, intelligent computing, network management, power engineering, control engineering, Signal and Image Processing, Machine Learning, Control Systems and Applications, The book will offer the states of arts of tremendous advances in Wireless Networks and Information Systems and also serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working on Wireless Networks and Information Systems.

  2. Essential elements of online information networks on invasive alien species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, A.; Sellers, E.; Grosse, A.; Xie, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In order to be effective, information must be placed in the proper context and organized in a manner that is logical and (preferably) standardized. Recently, invasive alien species (IAS) scientists have begun to create online networks to share their information concerning IAS prevention and control. At a special networking session at the Beijing International Symposium on Biological Invasions, an online Eastern Asia-North American IAS Information Network (EA-NA Network) was proposed. To prepare for the development of this network, and to provide models for other regional collaborations, we compare four examples of global, regional, and national online IAS information networks: the Global Invasive Species Information Network, the Invasives Information Network of the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network, the Chinese Species Information System, and the Invasive Species Information Node of the US National Biological Information Infrastructure. We conclude that IAS networks require a common goal, dedicated leaders, effective communication, and broad endorsement, in order to obtain sustainable, long-term funding and long-term stability. They need to start small, use the experience of other networks, partner with others, and showcase benefits. Global integration and synergy among invasive species networks will succeed with contributions from both the top-down and the bottom-up. ?? 2006 Springer.

  3. Information Extraction from Large-Multi-Layer Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    paper we introduce a novel method to extract information from such multi-layer networks, where each type of link forms its own layer. Using the concept...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Information extraction from large-multi-layer social networks The views, opinions and/or findings...Information extraction from large-multi-layer social networks Report Title Social networks often encode community structure using multiple distinct

  4. Semantic Network in Information Processing for the Pork Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rydval

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to capture the elements of individual information frames and their relations using semantic network; and to express the loss of information and information asymmetry in the market environment. Preferences of elements in the network are evaluated by the Analytical network process. The benefits of applying semantic networks in the market environment are in increasing consumer information and reducing information asymmetry. The use of semantic networks will be shown in the analysis of the information frames of the producer, distributor and consumer in the pork market. The consumer’s frame expresses expectations and preferences, according to which decisions are made. Producer operates with greater range of information about the product than is available to the consumer. Distributor receives information from both the producer and from the consumer, but this information is not usually fully shared to the consumers or producers. This creates information asymmetry.

  5. Deep Space Network information system architecture study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, C. A.; Markley, R. W. (Editor); Atkinson, D. J.; Cooper, L. P.; Tausworthe, R. C.; Masline, R. C.; Jenkins, J. S.; Crowe, R. A.; Thomas, J. L.; Stoloff, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an architecture for the DSN information system in the years 2000-2010 and to provide guidelines for its evolution during the 1990's. The study scope is defined to be from the front-end areas at the antennas to the end users (spacecraft teams, principal investigators, archival storage systems, and non-NASA partners). The architectural vision provides guidance for major DSN implementation efforts during the next decade. A strong motivation for the study is an expected dramatic improvement in information-systems technologies--i.e., computer processing, automation technology (including knowledge-based systems), networking and data transport, software and hardware engineering, and human-interface technology. The proposed Ground Information System has the following major features: unified architecture from the front-end area to the end user; open-systems standards to achieve interoperability; DSN production of level 0 data; delivery of level 0 data from the Deep Space Communications Complex, if desired; dedicated telemetry processors for each receiver; security against unauthorized access and errors; and highly automated monitor and control.

  6. Parsimonious modeling with information filtering networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfuss, Wolfram; Massara, Guido Previde; Di Matteo, T.; Aste, Tomaso

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a methodology to construct parsimonious probabilistic models. This method makes use of information filtering networks to produce a robust estimate of the global sparse inverse covariance from a simple sum of local inverse covariances computed on small subparts of the network. Being based on local and low-dimensional inversions, this method is computationally very efficient and statistically robust, even for the estimation of inverse covariance of high-dimensional, noisy, and short time series. Applied to financial data our method results are computationally more efficient than state-of-the-art methodologies such as Glasso producing, in a fraction of the computation time, models that can have equivalent or better performances but with a sparser inference structure. We also discuss performances with sparse factor models where we notice that relative performances decrease with the number of factors. The local nature of this approach allows us to perform computations in parallel and provides a tool for dynamical adaptation by partial updating when the properties of some variables change without the need of recomputing the whole model. This makes this approach particularly suitable to handle big data sets with large numbers of variables. Examples of practical application for forecasting, stress testing, and risk allocation in financial systems are also provided.

  7. Business information query expansion through semantic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiguo; Muyeba, Maybin; Guo, Jingzhi

    2010-02-01

    In this article, we propose a method for business information query expansions. In our approach, hypernym/hyponymy and synonym relations in WordNet are used as the basic expansion rules. Then we use WordNet Lexical Chains and WordNet semantic similarity to assign terms in the same query into different groups with respect to their semantic similarities. For each group, we expand the highest terms in the WordNet hierarchies with hypernym and synonym, the lowest terms with hyponym and synonym and all other terms with only synonym. In this way, the contradictory caused by full expansion can be well controlled. Furthermore, we use collection-related term semantic network to further improve the expansion performance. And our experiment reveals that our solution for query expansion can improve the query performance dramatically.

  8. Bayesian information fusion networks for biosurveillance applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnatsakanyan, Zaruhi R; Burkom, Howard S; Coberly, Jacqueline S; Lombardo, Joseph S

    2009-01-01

    This study introduces new information fusion algorithms to enhance disease surveillance systems with Bayesian decision support capabilities. A detection system was built and tested using chief complaints from emergency department visits, International Classification of Diseases Revision 9 (ICD-9) codes from records of outpatient visits to civilian and military facilities, and influenza surveillance data from health departments in the National Capital Region (NCR). Data anomalies were identified and distribution of time offsets between events in the multiple data streams were established. The Bayesian Network was built to fuse data from multiple sources and identify influenza-like epidemiologically relevant events. Results showed increased specificity compared with the alerts generated by temporal anomaly detection algorithms currently deployed by NCR health departments. Further research should be done to investigate correlations between data sources for efficient fusion of the collected data.

  9. Integrated condition monitoring of space information network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilin; Li, Xinming; Li, Yachen; Yu, Shaolin

    2015-11-01

    In order to solve the integrated condition monitoring problem in space information network, there are three works finished including analyzing the characteristics of tasks process and system health monitoring, adopting the automata modeling method, and respectively establishing the models for state inference and state determination. The state inference model is a logic automaton and is gotten by concluding engineering experiences. The state determination model is a double-layer automaton, the lower automaton is responsible for parameter judge and the upper automaton is responsible for state diagnosis. At last, the system state monitoring algorithm has been proposed, which realizes the integrated condition monitoring for task process and system health, and can avoid the false alarm.

  10. Constructing the Caribbean Court of Justice: How Ideas Inform Institutional Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Kocken

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ is a relatively new legal institution in the Caribbean. This article explores the question of where this specific way of institutionalizing conflict resolution came from and in which way its success (or lack of it can be accounted for. The authors analyse the support for and opposition to the CCJ found in four issues: economic progress, sovereignty, identity and trust. Their approach to institutionalization shows that only one of the four issues discussed – economic progress – has led to substantial and decisive support for the CCJ in its original jurisdiction as aCARICOM court. Lacking such economic drive, the other function of CCJ, which is becoming the successor of the British Privy Council as the shared regional appellate court, is still by and large withheld regional support. In general, the absence of common sovereignty, identity and trust continues to hamper regional cooperation in the Caribbean.Resumen: Construyendo la Corte de Justicia del Caribe: Cómo las ideas fundamentan las decisiones institucionalesLa Corte Caribeña de Justicia (CCJ es una institución legal relativamente nueva en el Caribe. Este artículo explora la cuestión de dónde viene esta forma específica de institucionalizar la resolución de conflictos y de qué manera su éxito (o falta de ella puede tomarse en cuenta. Los autores analizan el apoyo y la oposición a la CCJ encontrados en cuatro temas: el progreso económico, la soberanía, la identidad y la confianza. Su acercamiento a la institucionalización muestra que sólo uno de los cuatro temas tratados – el progreso económico – ha conducido a un apoyo sustancial y decisivo para la CCJ en su jurisdicción original como tribunal CARICOu. A falta de dinamismo económico, la otra función de la CCJ, la cual se convirtió en el sucesor del Consejo Privado británico como el tribunal de apelación regional compartida, sigue siendo en general el apoyo regional

  11. 76 FR 21780 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Bureau of Justice Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... be asked to fill out an online survey gathering facility-level characteristics. Sampled youth in... burden hours associated with this collection (including gathering facility-level information,...

  12. Opportunistic Beacon Networks: Information Dissemination via Wireless Network Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents OBN, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model particularly intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the utilization of universally-available wireless network identifiers. As a ubiquitous

  13. Opportunistic Beacon Networks: Information Dissemination via Wireless Network Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents OBN, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model particularly intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the utilization of universally-available wireless network identifiers. As a ubiquitous

  14. 75 FR 9928 - Bureau of Justice Assistance; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting... PSOEA benefits. Eligibility is dependent on several factors, including the applicant having received or.... In addition, information to help BJA identify an individual is collected, such as Social...

  15. Generic, network schema agnostic sparse tensor factorization for single-pass clustering of heterogeneous information networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinggang; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin; Wu, Yahui; Badii, Atta

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous information networks (e.g. bibliographic networks and social media networks) that consist of multiple interconnected objects are ubiquitous. Clustering analysis is an effective method to understand the semantic information and interpretable structure of the heterogeneous information networks, and it has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. However, most studies assume that heterogeneous information networks usually follow some simple schemas, such as bi-typed networks or star network schema, and they can only cluster one type of object in the network each time. In this paper, a novel clustering framework is proposed based on sparse tensor factorization for heterogeneous information networks, which can cluster multiple types of objects simultaneously in a single pass without any network schema information. The types of objects and the relations between them in the heterogeneous information networks are modeled as a sparse tensor. The clustering issue is modeled as an optimization problem, which is similar to the well-known Tucker decomposition. Then, an Alternating Least Squares (ALS) algorithm and a feasible initialization method are proposed to solve the optimization problem. Based on the tensor factorization, we simultaneously partition different types of objects into different clusters. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world datasets have demonstrated that our proposed clustering framework, STFClus, can model heterogeneous information networks efficiently and can outperform state-of-the-art clustering algorithms as a generally applicable single-pass clustering method for heterogeneous network which is network schema agnostic. PMID:28245222

  16. Generic, network schema agnostic sparse tensor factorization for single-pass clustering of heterogeneous information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jibing; Meng, Qinggang; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin; Wu, Yahui; Badii, Atta

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous information networks (e.g. bibliographic networks and social media networks) that consist of multiple interconnected objects are ubiquitous. Clustering analysis is an effective method to understand the semantic information and interpretable structure of the heterogeneous information networks, and it has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. However, most studies assume that heterogeneous information networks usually follow some simple schemas, such as bi-typed networks or star network schema, and they can only cluster one type of object in the network each time. In this paper, a novel clustering framework is proposed based on sparse tensor factorization for heterogeneous information networks, which can cluster multiple types of objects simultaneously in a single pass without any network schema information. The types of objects and the relations between them in the heterogeneous information networks are modeled as a sparse tensor. The clustering issue is modeled as an optimization problem, which is similar to the well-known Tucker decomposition. Then, an Alternating Least Squares (ALS) algorithm and a feasible initialization method are proposed to solve the optimization problem. Based on the tensor factorization, we simultaneously partition different types of objects into different clusters. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world datasets have demonstrated that our proposed clustering framework, STFClus, can model heterogeneous information networks efficiently and can outperform state-of-the-art clustering algorithms as a generally applicable single-pass clustering method for heterogeneous network which is network schema agnostic.

  17. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  18. Justice sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemain, Marc

    2007-01-01

    At first glance "social justice" cannot be considered as a "new word of power" since all powers have been reluctant to apply social justice. But if it is used to organize the "evaporation" of the reflexion on equality, then it can take a clearly conservative tone

  19. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  20. Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their interactions…

  1. Organizational Application of Social Networking Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative research study using the Delphi method is to provide a framework for leaders to develop their own social networks. By exploring concerns in four areas, leaders may be able to better plan, implement, and manage social networking systems in organizations. The areas addressed are: (a) social networking using…

  2. Mechanisms of protection of information in computer networks and systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Petrovich Evseev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Protocols of information protection in computer networks and systems are investigated. The basic types of threats of infringement of the protection arising from the use of computer networks are classified. The basic mechanisms, services and variants of realization of cryptosystems for maintaining authentication, integrity and confidentiality of transmitted information are examined. Their advantages and drawbacks are described. Perspective directions of development of cryptographic transformations for the maintenance of information protection in computer networks and systems are defined and analyzed.

  3. Extraction of hidden information by efficient community detection in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Juyong; Lee, Jooyoung

    2012-01-01

    Currently, we are overwhelmed by a deluge of experimental data, and network physics has the potential to become an invaluable method to increase our understanding of large interacting datasets. However, this potential is often unrealized for two reasons: uncovering the hidden community structure of a network, known as community detection, is difficult, and further, even if one has an idea of this community structure, it is not a priori obvious how to efficiently use this information. Here, to address both of these issues, we, first, identify optimal community structure of given networks in terms of modularity by utilizing a recently introduced community detection method. Second, we develop an approach to use this community information to extract hidden information from a network. When applied to a protein-protein interaction network, the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art methods that use only the local information of a network. The method is generally applicable to networks from many areas.

  4. Network Infusion to Infer Information Sources in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feizi, Soheil; Quon, Gerald; Kellis, Manolis; Duffy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Several significant models have been developed that enable the study of diffusion of signals across biological, social and engineered networks. Within these established frameworks, the inverse problem of identifying the source of the propagated signal is challenging, owing to the numerous alternative possibilities for signal progression through the network. In real world networks, the challenge of determining sources is compounded as the true propagation dynamics are typically unknown, and when they have been directly measured, they rarely conform to the assumptions of any of the well-studied models. In this paper we introduce a method called Network Infusion (NI) that has been designed to circumvent these issues, making source inference practical for large, complex real world networks. The key idea is that to infer the source node in the network, full characterization of diffusion dynamics, in many cases, may not be necessary. This objective is achieved by creating a diffusion kernel that well-approximates s...

  5. Inferring Boolean network states from partial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Networks of molecular interactions regulate key processes in living cells. Therefore, understanding their functionality is a high priority in advancing biological knowledge. Boolean networks are often used to describe cellular networks mathematically and are fitted to experimental datasets. The fitting often results in ambiguities since the interpretation of the measurements is not straightforward and since the data contain noise. In order to facilitate a more reliable mapping between datasets and Boolean networks, we develop an algorithm that infers network trajectories from a dataset distorted by noise. We analyze our algorithm theoretically and demonstrate its accuracy using simulation and microarray expression data. PMID:24006954

  6. Navigation Support for Learners in Informal Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    Drachsler, H. (2009). Navigation Support for Learners in Informal Learning Networks. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Oktober, 16, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands/CELSTEC.

  7. Information diversity in structure and dynamics of simulated neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki-Marttunen, Tuomo; Aćimović, Jugoslava; Nykter, Matti; Kesseli, Juha; Ruohonen, Keijo; Yli-Harja, Olli; Linne, Marja-Leena

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal networks exhibit a wide diversity of structures, which contributes to the diversity of the dynamics therein. The presented work applies an information theoretic framework to simultaneously analyze structure and dynamics in neuronal networks. Information diversity within the structure and dynamics of a neuronal network is studied using the normalized compression distance. To describe the structure, a scheme for generating distance-dependent networks with identical in-degree distribution but variable strength of dependence on distance is presented. The resulting network structure classes possess differing path length and clustering coefficient distributions. In parallel, comparable realistic neuronal networks are generated with NETMORPH simulator and similar analysis is done on them. To describe the dynamics, network spike trains are simulated using different network structures and their bursting behaviors are analyzed. For the simulation of the network activity the Izhikevich model of spiking neurons is used together with the Tsodyks model of dynamical synapses. We show that the structure of the simulated neuronal networks affects the spontaneous bursting activity when measured with bursting frequency and a set of intraburst measures: the more locally connected networks produce more and longer bursts than the more random networks. The information diversity of the structure of a network is greatest in the most locally connected networks, smallest in random networks, and somewhere in between in the networks between order and disorder. As for the dynamics, the most locally connected networks and some of the in-between networks produce the most complex intraburst spike trains. The same result also holds for sparser of the two considered network densities in the case of full spike trains.

  8. 75 FR 11910 - Justice Management Division; Office of Attorney Recruitment and Management; Agency Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... and/or hotel accommodations, which in turn provides the estimated travel costs required by the Travel... their travel costs and/or hotel accommodations (if applicable) in order for the Department to prepare..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology...

  9. 75 FR 13573 - Justice Management Division, Office of Attorney Recruitment and Management; Agency Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ..., including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) Enhance the quality, utility, and..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g... completed. The first new form is the Travel Survey--used by the Department in scheduling travel and/or hotel...

  10. Spatial anomaly detection in sensor networks using neighborhood information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, H.H.W.J.; Iacca, G.; Tejada, A.; Wörtche, H.J.; Liotta, A.

    2016-01-01

    The field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), embedded systems with sensing and networking capabil- ity, has now matured after a decade-long research effort and technological advances in electronics and networked systems. An important remaining challenge now is to extract meaningful information from

  11. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  12. Information Dynamics as Foundation for Network Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    built several efficient implementations of network coding libraries on android , both in Java and one in C++. In addition, and perhaps even more...probes. IMPLEMENTATION OF NETWORK CODING ON ANDROID PHONES As part of this MURI, we started a thread on implementation of network coding on Android ...specifically for Android phones. This work led to a spin-off from UC Irvine and EPFL, www.shoelacewireless.com, see Commercialization section later

  13. Discovery of Information Diffusion Process in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanho; Jung, Jae-Yoon; Park, Jonghun

    Information diffusion analysis in social networks is of significance since it enables us to deeply understand dynamic social interactions among users. In this paper, we introduce approaches to discovering information diffusion process in social networks based on process mining. Process mining techniques are applied from three perspectives: social network analysis, process discovery and community recognition. We then present experimental results by using a real-life social network data. The proposed techniques are expected to employ as new analytical tools in online social networks such as blog and wikis for company marketers, politicians, news reporters and online writers.

  14. Discussion on The Construction of The Circumpacific Documents Information Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYan

    1994-01-01

    While entering an information society, the humanity how to construct a circumpacific doctmlent information network has become an topic of conmmon interest to nations across the circumpacific. I think the following points are worth discussing:

  15. Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN): A conceptual model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN), its structure and scope, is discussed in this paper. Establishment of National Mangrove Information Centers (NMIC) in 20 Asia-Pacific countries, would contribute towards development of databases...

  16. Multiagent Based Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Manvi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs are a compelling application of ad hoc networks, because of the potential to access specific context information (e.g. traffic conditions, service updates, route planning and deliver multimedia services (Voice over IP, in-car entertainment, instant messaging, etc.. This paper proposes an agent based information dissemination model for VANETs. A two-tier agent architecture is employed comprising of the following: 1 'lightweight', network-facing, mobile agents; 2 'heavyweight', application-facing, norm-aware agents. The limitations of VANETs lead us to consider a hybrid wireless network architecture that includes Wireless LAN/Cellular and ad hoc networking for analyzing the proposed model. The proposed model provides flexibility, adaptability and maintainability for traffic information dissemination in VANETs as well as supports robust and agile network management. The proposed model has been simulated in various network scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.

  17. Optimal multi-community network modularity for information diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaocan; Du, Ruping; Zheng, Yingying; Liu, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Studies demonstrate that community structure plays an important role in information spreading recently. In this paper, we investigate the impact of multi-community structure on information diffusion with linear threshold model. We utilize extended GN network that contains four communities and analyze dynamic behaviors of information that spreads on it. And we discover the optimal multi-community network modularity for information diffusion based on the social reinforcement. Results show that, within the appropriate range, multi-community structure will facilitate information diffusion instead of hindering it, which accords with the results derived from two-community network.

  18. Shadow networks: Discovering hidden nodes with models of information flow

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrow, James P; Frank, Morgan R; Manukyan, Narine; Mitchell, Lewis; Reagan, Andrew; Bloedorn, Eric E; Booker, Lashon B; Branting, Luther K; Smith, Michael J; Tivnan, Brian F; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter S; Bongard, Joshua C

    2013-01-01

    Complex, dynamic networks underlie many systems, and understanding these networks is the concern of a great span of important scientific and engineering problems. Quantitative description is crucial for this understanding yet, due to a range of measurement problems, many real network datasets are incomplete. Here we explore how accidentally missing or deliberately hidden nodes may be detected in networks by the effect of their absence on predictions of the speed with which information flows through the network. We use Symbolic Regression (SR) to learn models relating information flow to network topology. These models show localized, systematic, and non-random discrepancies when applied to test networks with intentionally masked nodes, demonstrating the ability to detect the presence of missing nodes and where in the network those nodes are likely to reside.

  19. Information transmission in genetic regulatory networks: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkačik, Gašper; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2011-04-01

    Genetic regulatory networks enable cells to respond to changes in internal and external conditions by dynamically coordinating their gene expression profiles. Our ability to make quantitative measurements in these biochemical circuits has deepened our understanding of what kinds of computations genetic regulatory networks can perform, and with what reliability. These advances have motivated researchers to look for connections between the architecture and function of genetic regulatory networks. Transmitting information between a network's inputs and outputs has been proposed as one such possible measure of function, relevant in certain biological contexts. Here we summarize recent developments in the application of information theory to gene regulatory networks. We first review basic concepts in information theory necessary for understanding recent work. We then discuss the functional complexity of gene regulation, which arises from the molecular nature of the regulatory interactions. We end by reviewing some experiments that support the view that genetic networks responsible for early development of multicellular organisms might be maximizing transmitted 'positional information'.

  20. Information transmission in genetic regulatory networks: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkačik, Gašper; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2011-04-20

    Genetic regulatory networks enable cells to respond to changes in internal and external conditions by dynamically coordinating their gene expression profiles. Our ability to make quantitative measurements in these biochemical circuits has deepened our understanding of what kinds of computations genetic regulatory networks can perform, and with what reliability. These advances have motivated researchers to look for connections between the architecture and function of genetic regulatory networks. Transmitting information between a network's inputs and outputs has been proposed as one such possible measure of function, relevant in certain biological contexts. Here we summarize recent developments in the application of information theory to gene regulatory networks. We first review basic concepts in information theory necessary for understanding recent work. We then discuss the functional complexity of gene regulation, which arises from the molecular nature of the regulatory interactions. We end by reviewing some experiments that support the view that genetic networks responsible for early development of multicellular organisms might be maximizing transmitted 'positional information'.

  1. How to efficiently destroy a network with limited information

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, T M; da Silva, L R

    2014-01-01

    We address the general problem of how best to attack and destroy a network by node removal, given limited or no prior information about the edges. We consider a family of strategies in which nodes are randomly chosen, but not removed. Instead, a random acquaintance (i.e., a first neighbour) of the chosen node is removed from the network. By assigning an informal cost to the information about the network structure, we show using cost-benefit analysis that acquaintance removal is the optimal strategy to destroy networks efficiently.

  2. The Elderly and Their Informal Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. Victor

    1989-01-01

    A sample of 334 people aged 56 and older living in British Columbia were interviewed about their supportive social network. Four supportive roles were investigated: caretaker, helper, confident, and advisor. The research supports earlier findings about the vulnerability of widows over 74 years old. They are most in need of networks. (Author/JOW)

  3. Blending Formal and Informal Learning Networks for Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betül C.

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of social software and the advance of web-based technologies, online learning networks provide invaluable opportunities for learning, whether formal or informal. Unlike top-down, instructor-centered, and carefully planned formal learning settings, informal learning networks offer more bottom-up, student-centered participatory…

  4. Applying Information Theory to Neuronal Networks: From Theory to Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, T.I.; Vogiatzian, F.; Har-Shemesh, O.; Fitzsimons, C.P.; Quax, R.

    2014-01-01

    Information-theory is being increasingly used to analyze complex, self-organizing processes on networks, predominantly in analytical and numerical studies. Perhaps one of the most paradigmatic complex systems is a network of neurons, in which cognition arises from the information storage, transfer,

  5. 78 FR 7797 - Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee (HSINAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee (HSINAC) AGENCY: OPS/OCIO, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee (HSIN AC) will meet on February 27th-28th, 2013 in Washington, DC....

  6. Hodge Decomposition of Information Flow on Small-World Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Taichi; Fujiki, Yuuya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the small-world topology on the composition of information flow on networks. By appealing to the combinatorial Hodge theory, we decompose information flow generated by random threshold networks on the Watts-Strogatz model into three components: gradient, harmonic and curl flows. The harmonic and curl flows represent globally circular and locally circular components, respectively. The Watts-Strogatz model bridges the two extreme network topologies, a lattice network and a random network, by a single parameter that is the probability of random rewiring. The small-world topology is realized within a certain range between them. By numerical simulation we found that as networks become more random the ratio of harmonic flow to the total magnitude of information flow increases whereas the ratio of curl flow decreases. Furthermore, both quantities are significantly enhanced from the level when only network structure is considered for the network close to a random network and a lattice network, respectively. Finally, the sum of these two ratios takes its maximum value within the small-world region. These findings suggest that the dynamical information counterpart of global integration and that of local segregation are the harmonic flow and the curl flow, respectively, and that a part of the small-world region is dominated by internal circulation of information flow. PMID:27733817

  7. Network selection, Information filtering and Scalable computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Changqing

    This dissertation explores two application scenarios of sparsity pursuit method on large scale data sets. The first scenario is classification and regression in analyzing high dimensional structured data, where predictors corresponds to nodes of a given directed graph. This arises in, for instance, identification of disease genes for the Parkinson's diseases from a network of candidate genes. In such a situation, directed graph describes dependencies among the genes, where direction of edges represent certain causal effects. Key to high-dimensional structured classification and regression is how to utilize dependencies among predictors as specified by directions of the graph. In this dissertation, we develop a novel method that fully takes into account such dependencies formulated through certain nonlinear constraints. We apply the proposed method to two applications, feature selection in large margin binary classification and in linear regression. We implement the proposed method through difference convex programming for the cost function and constraints. Finally, theoretical and numerical analyses suggest that the proposed method achieves the desired objectives. An application to disease gene identification is presented. The second application scenario is personalized information filtering which extracts the information specifically relevant to a user, predicting his/her preference over a large number of items, based on the opinions of users who think alike or its content. This problem is cast into the framework of regression and classification, where we introduce novel partial latent models to integrate additional user-specific and content-specific predictors, for higher predictive accuracy. In particular, we factorize a user-over-item preference matrix into a product of two matrices, each representing a user's preference and an item preference by users. Then we propose a likelihood method to seek a sparsest latent factorization, from a class of over

  8. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Inter-exchange signalling protocol - Path replacement additional network feature

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Inter-exchange signalling protocol - Path replacement additional network feature

  9. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private Integrated Services Network - Inter-exchange signalling protocol - Call interception additional network feature

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private Integrated Services Network - Inter-exchange signalling protocol - Call interception additional network feature

  10. Information processing by biochemical networks: a dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowsher, Clive G

    2011-02-06

    Understanding how information is encoded and transferred by biochemical networks is of fundamental importance in cellular and systems biology. This requires analysis of the relationships between the stochastic trajectories of the constituent molecular (or submolecular) species that comprise the network. We describe how to identify conditional independences between the trajectories or time courses of groups of species. These are robust network properties that provide important insight into how information is processed. An entire network can then be decomposed exactly into modules on informational grounds. In the context of signalling networks with multiple inputs, the approach identifies the routes and species involved in sequential information processing between input and output modules. An algorithm is developed which allows automated identification of decompositions for large networks and visualization using a tree that encodes the conditional independences. Only stoichiometric information is used and neither simulations nor knowledge of rate parameters are required. A bespoke version of the algorithm for signalling networks identifies the routes of sequential encoding between inputs and outputs, visualized as paths in the tree. Application to the toll-like receptor signalling network reveals that inputs can be informative in ways unanticipated by steady-state analyses, that the information processing structure is not well described as a bow tie, and that encoding for the interferon response is unusually sparse compared with other outputs of this innate immune system.

  11. A proposed concept for a crustal dynamics information management network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, G. M.; Renfrow, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    The findings of a requirements and feasibility analysis of the present and potential producers, users, and repositories of space-derived geodetic information are summarized. A proposed concept is presented for a crustal dynamics information management network that would apply state of the art concepts of information management technology to meet the expanding needs of the producers, users, and archivists of this geodetic information.

  12. On information flow in relay networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamal, A.

    Preliminary investigations conducted by El Gamal and Cover (1980) have shown that a max-flow min-cut interpretation for the capacity expressions of the classes of degraded and semideterministic relay channels can be found. In this paper it is shown that such an interpretation can also be found for fairly general classes of discrete memoryless relay networks. Cover and El Gamal (1979) have obtained general lower and upper bounds to capacity. However, the capacity of the general relay channel is not known. Past results are here extended to establish the capacity of deterministic relay networks with no interference and degraded relay networks. A general upper bound is given to the capacity of any relay network with this upper bound being a natural generalization of Theorem 4 in the study conducted by Cover and El Gamal (1979).

  13. Complex Dynamics in Information Sharing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Bruce

    This study examines the roll-out of an electronic knowledge base in a medium-sized professional services firm over a six year period. The efficiency of such implementation is a key business problem in IT systems of this type. Data from usage logs provides the basis for analysis of the dynamic evolution of social networks around the depository during this time. The adoption pattern follows an "s-curve" and usage exhibits something of a power law distribution, both attributable to network effects, and network position is associated with organisational performance on a number of indicators. But periodicity in usage is evident and the usage distribution displays an exponential cut-off. Further analysis provides some evidence of mathematical complexity in the periodicity. Some implications of complex patterns in social network data for research and management are discussed. The study provides a case study demonstrating the utility of the broad methodological approach.

  14. A novel approach to characterize information radiation in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Lin; Li, Chao

    2016-06-01

    The traditional research of information dissemination is mostly based on the virus spreading model that the information is being spread by probability, which does not match very well to the reality, because the information that we receive is always more or less than what was sent. In order to quantitatively describe variations in the amount of information during the spreading process, this article proposes a safety information radiation model on the basis of communication theory, combining with relevant theories of complex networks. This model comprehensively considers the various influence factors when safety information radiates in the network, and introduces some concepts from the communication theory perspective, such as the radiation gain function, receiving gain function, information retaining capacity and information second reception capacity, to describe the safety information radiation process between nodes and dynamically investigate the states of network nodes. On a micro level, this article analyzes the influence of various initial conditions and parameters on safety information radiation through the new model simulation. The simulation reveals that this novel approach can reflect the variation of safety information quantity of each node in the complex network, and the scale-free network has better "radiation explosive power", while the small-world network has better "radiation staying power". The results also show that it is efficient to improve the overall performance of network security by selecting nodes with high degrees as the information source, refining and simplifying the information, increasing the information second reception capacity and decreasing the noises. In a word, this article lays the foundation for further research on the interactions of information and energy between internal components within complex systems.

  15. Political ecology and environmental justice analysis of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wang-Jin

    There has been rapid growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development during the last decades. Worldwide PC numbers will rise to 2 billion by 2015, with more than 1 billion in use by the end of 2008. Over 4 billion subscribers use mobile cellular telephones, translating into a worldwide penetration rate of 61 percent by the end of 2008. Analyses have shown evidence that ICT has significantly contributed to capitalist growth economy. Regarding the environmental impacts of ICT, optimists hail a rosy future of a weightless knowledge economy, critics, however, point out that ICT also threatens environment through reinforcing capitalist growth economy and accelerating commodification of nature. Although some case studies have shown the potential environmental benefits through ICT application, these approaches need to be balanced against a range of countervailing effects, including negative direct impacts of ICT manufacture, use, and disposal, effects of incomplete substitution of ICT for existing services, and rebound effects. In addition, the migration of ICT, which includes not only manufacturing facilities of ICT devices, but electronic wastes, coincides with the distribution of environmental and social problems of high technology. Examples of how ICT reinforces economic growth, and at the same time, results in environmental problems are evident in a Korean context. Since the middle of the 1990s, the ICT industry has been a new growth driver in the Korean economy, and has played a critical role in restoring economic activity after the financial crisis in 1997. Due to the rapid diffusion of ICT products and a market trend that makes the life span of the products become shorter, the amount of e-waste has drastically increased in Korea. However, society's concern over environmental problems caused by ICT is at a rudimentary stage in Korea. Although Korea has established the EPR program to manage the e-waste problem, limited scope of e-waste items for

  16. Structural prediction of dynamic Bayesian network with partial prior information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Aniruddha; Reddy, Ramakanth; Mukherjee, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of the structure of a hidden dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) from a noisy dataset is an important and challenging task. This work presents a generalized framework to infer the DBN network structure with partial prior information. In the proposed framework, the partial information about the network structure is provided in the form of prior. The proposed method makes use of the prior information regarding the presence and as well as absence of some of the edges. Using the noisy dataset and partial prior information, this method is able to infer nearly accurate structure of the network. The proposed method is validated using simulated datasets. In addition, two real biological datasets are used to infer hidden biological interaction networks.

  17. Dimensionality of organizational justice in a call center context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Douglas; Haley, Lynn M; McNally, Jeffrey J

    2012-04-01

    Summary.-Employees in three call centers were surveyed about their perceptions of organizational justice. Four factors were measured: distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice, and informational justice. Structural equation modeling was employed to test whether a two-, three-, or four-factor model best fit the call center data. A three-factor model of distributive, procedural, and informational justice provided the best fit to these data. The three-factor model that showed the best fit does not conform to any of the more traditional models identified in the organizational justice literature. This implies that the context in which organizational justice is measured may play a role in identifying which justice factors are relevant to employees. Findings add to the empirical evidence on the dimensionality of organizational justice and imply that dimensionality of organizational justice is more context-dependent than previously thought.

  18. Mutual information in a dilute, asymmetric neural network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Elliot

    We study the computational properties of a neural network consisting of binary neurons with dilute asymmetric synaptic connections. This simple model allows us to simulate large networks which can reflect more of the architecture and dynamics of real neural networks. Our main goal is to determine the dynamical behavior that maximizes the network's ability to perform computations. To this end, we apply information theory, measuring the average mutual information between pairs of pre- and post-synaptic neurons. Communication of information between neurons is an essential requirement for collective computation. Previous workers have demonstrated that neural networks with asymmetric connections undergo a transition from ordered to chaotic behavior as certain network parameters, such as the connectivity, are changed. We find that the average mutual information has a peak near the order-chaos transition, implying that the network can most efficiently communicate information between cells in this region. The mutual information peak becomes increasingly pronounced when the basic model is extended to incorporate more biologically realistic features, such as a variable threshold and nonlinear summation of inputs. We find that the peak in mutual information near the phase transition is a robust feature of the system for a wide range of assumptions about post-synaptic integration.

  19. Processing information system for highly specialized information in corporate networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, M. O.; Kovalev, I. V.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Brezitskaya, VV; Prohorovich, G. A.

    2016-11-01

    The new structure for formation system and management system for highly specialized information in corporate systems is offered. The main distinguishing feature of this structure is that it involves the processing of multilingual information in a single user request.

  20. Women, truth, justice and reparation in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Ibarra Melo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper account for the main collective actions undertaken by two women networks in Colombia: Women’s Peace Route and the Colombian Women Initiative for Peace, during transition justice process and the implementation of the Justice and Peace Law (2004-2009. From a sociological approach to the political process and the gender category, this paper discusses how gender ideologies inform new ways of mobilization affecting discourses, purposes and repertoires of those claiming identities and defending human rights. The main conclusion here is that the feminist influence in redistribution and acknowledgement claims for victims from the armed conflict have encouraged collective actions that begin to modify their relationship to the State. This is proved by their achievements at Court and social acknowledgement victims have gained as social actors.

  1. Information hiding in communication networks fundamentals, mechanisms, applications, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Zander, Sebastian; Houmansadr, Amir; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Describes Information Hiding in communication networks, and highlights their important issues, challenges, trends, and applications. This book provides the fundamental concepts, terminology, and classifications of information hiding in communication networks along with its historical background. Information Hiding In Communication Networks: Fundamentals, Mechanisms, Applications, and Countermeasures begins with introducing data concealment methods and their evolution. Chapter two discusses the existing terminology and describes the model for hidden communication and related communication scenarios. Chapters three to five present the main classes of information hiding in communication networks accompanied by a discussion of their robustness and undetectability. The book concludes with a discussion of potential countermeasures against information hiding techniques, which includes different types of mechanisms for the detection, limitation and prevention of covert co munication channels.

  2. Improving gene regulatory network inference using network topology information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ajay; Chetty, Madhu; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2015-09-01

    Inferring the gene regulatory network (GRN) structure from data is an important problem in computational biology. However, it is a computationally complex problem and approximate methods such as heuristic search techniques, restriction of the maximum-number-of-parents (maxP) for a gene, or an optimal search under special conditions are required. The limitations of a heuristic search are well known but literature on the detailed analysis of the widely used maxP technique is lacking. The optimal search methods require large computational time. We report the theoretical analysis and experimental results of the strengths and limitations of the maxP technique. Further, using an optimal search method, we combine the strengths of the maxP technique and the known GRN topology to propose two novel algorithms. These algorithms are implemented in a Bayesian network framework and tested on biological, realistic, and in silico networks of different sizes and topologies. They overcome the limitations of the maxP technique and show superior computational speed when compared to the current optimal search algorithms.

  3. Tensegrity II. How structural networks influence cellular information processing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    The major challenge in biology today is biocomplexity: the need to explain how cell and tissue behaviors emerge from collective interactions within complex molecular networks. Part I of this two-part article, described a mechanical model of cell structure based on tensegrity architecture that explains how the mechanical behavior of the cell emerges from physical interactions among the different molecular filament systems that form the cytoskeleton. Recent work shows that the cytoskeleton also orients much of the cell's metabolic and signal transduction machinery and that mechanical distortion of cells and the cytoskeleton through cell surface integrin receptors can profoundly affect cell behavior. In particular, gradual variations in this single physical control parameter (cell shape distortion) can switch cells between distinct gene programs (e.g. growth, differentiation and apoptosis), and this process can be viewed as a biological phase transition. Part II of this article covers how combined use of tensegrity and solid-state mechanochemistry by cells may mediate mechanotransduction and facilitate integration of chemical and physical signals that are responsible for control of cell behavior. In addition, it examines how cell structural networks affect gene and protein signaling networks to produce characteristic phenotypes and cell fate transitions during tissue development.

  4. Creating Intelligent Linking for Information Threading in Knowledge Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Dr T R Gopalakrishnan; 10.1109/INDCON.2011.6139335

    2012-01-01

    Informledge System (ILS) is a knowledge network with autonomous nodes and intelligent links that integrate and structure the pieces of knowledge. In this paper, we aim to put forward the link dynamics involved in intelligent processing of information in ILS. There has been advancement in knowledge management field which involve managing information in databases from a single domain. ILS works with information from multiple domains stored in distributed way in the autonomous nodes termed as Knowledge Network Node (KNN). Along with the concept under consideration, KNNs store the processed information linking concepts and processors leading to the appropriate processing of information.

  5. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    , age, and socioeconomic classes. The results indicate that changing the scale of the analysis can change the equitable relationship between pollution and demographics. The scientific findings of the scale-dependent relationships among air pollution patterns, network design, and population demographics, brought to light through this study, can help policymakers make informed decisions for protecting the human health and the urban environment in the Phoenix metropolitan region and beyond.

  6. Vulnerability Assessment Tools for Complex Information Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Chi Ho, Avrom Pfeffer Harvard University Office of Sponsored Research 1350 Massachusetts Ave. Holyoke 727 Cambridge, MA 02138 - Vulnerability...security to allow network administrators to determine when a security problem exists; Identification of actual, possible, or potential areas of...domain; the identification and exploitation of architectural structures that facilitate security modeling testing and management decomposition; the

  7. Social Networks: Rational Learning and Information Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    else who lived at 109. I dedicate this dissertation to the four people who make my life wonderful. My parents, Robert and Lucia , have showered me...Steger A., “Observational Learning in Random Networks,” chapter in “Learning Theory”, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2007. [35] Montgomery J.D., “Social

  8. Finding Quasi-Optimal Network Topologies for Information Transmission in Active Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Murilo S.; de Carvalho, Josué X.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2008-01-01

    This work clarifies the relation between network circuit (topology) and behaviour (information transmission and synchronization) in active networks, e.g. neural networks. As an application, we show how one can find network topologies that are able to transmit a large amount of information, possess a large number of communication channels, and are robust under large variations of the network coupling configuration. This theoretical approach is general and does not depend on the particular dynamic of the elements forming the network, since the network topology can be determined by finding a Laplacian matrix (the matrix that describes the connections and the coupling strengths among the elements) whose eigenvalues satisfy some special conditions. To illustrate our ideas and theoretical approaches, we use neural networks of electrically connected chaotic Hindmarsh-Rose neurons. PMID:18941516

  9. Finding quasi-optimal network topologies for information transmission in active networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S Baptista

    Full Text Available This work clarifies the relation between network circuit (topology and behaviour (information transmission and synchronization in active networks, e.g. neural networks. As an application, we show how one can find network topologies that are able to transmit a large amount of information, possess a large number of communication channels, and are robust under large variations of the network coupling configuration. This theoretical approach is general and does not depend on the particular dynamic of the elements forming the network, since the network topology can be determined by finding a Laplacian matrix (the matrix that describes the connections and the coupling strengths among the elements whose eigenvalues satisfy some special conditions. To illustrate our ideas and theoretical approaches, we use neural networks of electrically connected chaotic Hindmarsh-Rose neurons.

  10. Information transmission in genetic regulatory networks: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2011-01-01

    Genetic regulatory networks enable cells to respond to the changes in internal and external conditions by dynamically coordinating their gene expression profiles. Our ability to make quantitative measurements in these biochemical circuits has deepened our understanding of what kinds of computations genetic regulatory networks can perform and with what reliability. These advances have motivated researchers to look for connections between the architecture and function of genetic regulatory networks. Transmitting information between network's inputs and its outputs has been proposed as one such possible measure of function, relevant in certain biological contexts. Here we summarize recent developments in the application of information theory to gene regulatory networks. We first review basic concepts in information theory necessary to understand recent work. We then discuss the functional complexity of gene regulation which arrises from the molecular nature of the regulatory interactions. We end by reviewing som...

  11. Incorporating profile information in community detection for online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Yeung, K. H.

    2014-07-01

    Community structure is an important feature in the study of complex networks. It is because nodes of the same community may have similar properties. In this paper we extend two popular community detection methods to partition online social networks. In our extended methods, the profile information of users is used for partitioning. We apply the extended methods in several sample networks of Facebook. Compared with the original methods, the community structures we obtain have higher modularity. Our results indicate that users' profile information is consistent with the community structure of their friendship network to some extent. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to discuss how profile information can be used to improve community detection in online social networks.

  12. Towards Increasing Feedbacks and Diffusion of Information in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohcine Kodad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this document is to highlight two strategies which increased feedbacks and stimulated the diffusion of information in social networks. Starting by an online survey, which assists searchers in understanding the behavior of social network users, to define the problem. The information received with this survey has been tested on validation by an analyze on the most popular type of posting on social networks. The results of this study provided two strategies as a solution for the problem of dissatisfaction among users of social networks and to increase feedbacks and diffusion of information on social network. One strategy is manual and is based on the type of publication and the second strategy is automatically and takes the concept of collaborative work in to account

  13. Information Network Systems and Information Sharing on Administrative Websites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HIROTA Denjiro

    2004-01-01

    In Japanese "e-government" policy, called "e-Japan", the "administrative document management system" is functioning as information searching systems. On the other hand, this system has also generated the problem that it is not fully functioning as a means for the information sharing in a governmental agency. So, the purpose of this research is to find how the administrative document management system can function as information sharing in administrative organization. For this purpose,this paper considers the current status and some problems firstly. And secondary, this paper proposes the idea and constructs some information systems using administrative official Website. This is the method and approach of this research. As a conclusion, this proposal information system functions as information sharing support systems.

  14. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  15. Adaptive Information Access on Multiple Applications Support Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    information is challenged by dynamic nature of information elements. These challenges are more prominent in case of wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, as the information that the sensor node collects are mostly dynamic in nature (say, temperature). Therefore, it is likely that there can be a mismatch...... information access mechanism and show how trade-off between energy consumption and information reliability can be achieved....

  16. Information Diffusion and Provenance in Online Social Media Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naman Goel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional data mining techniques are going through an extensive research so as to suit their application in the dynamically evolving social media networks which are not only large in size but also require real time processing of data streams. One such application which is of social, industrial and political interest is to maximize (sometimes even minimize information diffusion in online social media networks. Word-of-mouth (w-o-m communications have been largely employed in a wide range of application scenarios ranging from marketing strategies to creating mass awareness. In recent years, we saw an explosion in the growth of online social networks with many successful service providers like Facebook, twitter,YouTube, LinkedIn etc. ruling the market. The use of online social networks is not limited to fun and building professional networks. Online social networks are now seen as a powerful medium to effect the social and political environment of a country and the world as a whole. Information on these social networking sites sometimes needs to be propagated very effectively and quickly to fulfill the concerned strategies. It is equally important that given some information present on social network, we are able to derive its origin so that rumours can be distinguished from truth. In this paper, we discuss some of the issues and challenges in information diffusion and provenance from online social networks point of view. We also discuss some of the approaches and models that have been used for information diffusion and provenance in online social networks in recent past. Some of these approaches have been evaluated by researchers for specific social network services but we will discuss them in a general sense.

  17. Digital Denmark: From Information Society to Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Falch, Morten

    2000-01-01

    The Danish Government recently issued a new policy report, Digital Denmark, on the "conversion to a network society", as a successor to its Information Society 2000 report (1994). This is part of a new round of information society policy vision statements that are, or will be forthcoming from...... for the next phase of information society development. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web…

  19. Adaptive Information Access on Multiple Applications Support Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    information is challenged by dynamic nature of information elements. These challenges are more prominent in case of wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, as the information that the sensor node collects are mostly dynamic in nature (say, temperature). Therefore, it is likely that there can be a mismatch...

  20. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web…

  1. A New Network Robustness Topology Measure based on Information Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schieber, Tiago A; Frery, Alejandro C; Rosso, Osvaldo A; Pardalos, Panos M; Ravetti, Martin G

    2014-01-01

    A crucial challenge in network theory is to study how robust a network is when facing failures or attacks. In this work, we propose a novel methodology to measure the topological resilience and robustness of a network based on Information Theory quantifiers. This measure can be used with any probability distribution able to represent the network's properties. In particular, we analyze the efficiency in capturing small perturbations in the network's topology when using the degree and distance distributions. Theoretical examples and real networks are used to study the performance of this methodology. Although both cases show to be able to detect any single topological change, the distance distribution seems to be more consistent to reflect the network structural deviations. In all cases, the novel resilience and robustness measures computed by using the distance distribution reflect better the consequences of the failures, outperforming other methods.

  2. Security Evaluation of Power Network Information System Based on Analytic Network Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchang Lu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available After the building of the power network, many enterprises are faced with a potential information security issue, the unstable factors threaten to the normal operation of the network information system, which is caused by the computer network defects. Aiming at this point, potential security dangers of power network information system were analyzed. Then an index system based on the security evaluation of power network information systems was established. Applying the analytic network process to get the weights of each index, the evaluation process can be accessed by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The weights of each index are decided by ANP, which can remedy the defects of analytic hierarchy process that the interaction among indexes cannot be reflected. Example analysis is performed by the Super Decisions software to verify feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed evaluation model mentioned in the paper.

  3. Qualia could arise from information processing in local cortical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Orpwood

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Re-entrant feedback, either within sensory cortex or arising from prefrontal areas, has been strongly linked to the emergence of consciousness, both in theoretical and experimental work. This idea, together with evidence for local micro-consciousness, suggests the generation of qualia could in some way result from local network activity under re-entrant activation. This paper explores the possibility by examining the processing of information by local cortical networks. It highlights the difference between the information structure (how the information is physically embodied, and the information message (what the information is about. It focuses on the network’s ability to recognise information structures amongst its inputs under conditions of extensive local feedback, and to then assign information messages to those structures. It is shown that if the re-entrant feedback enables the network to achieve an attractor state, then the message assigned in any given pass of information through the network is a representation of the message assigned in the previous pass-through of information. Based on this ability the paper argues that as information is repeatedly cycled through the network, the information message that is assigned evolves from a recognition of what the input structure is, to what it is like, to how it appears, to how it seems. It could enable individual networks to be the site of qualia generation. The paper goes on to show networks in cortical layers 2/3 and 5a have the connectivity required for the behaviour proposed, and reviews some evidence for a link between such local cortical cyclic activity and conscious percepts. It concludes with some predictions based on the theory discussed.

  4. Are Social Networking Websites Educational? Information Capsule. Volume 0909

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    More and more school districts across the country are joining social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace. This Information Capsule discusses the frequency with which school districts are using social networking sites, how districts are using the sites, and potential drawbacks associated with their use. Issues for districts to consider…

  5. Agent-based model of information spread in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, D V; Berezin, B O

    2016-01-01

    We propose evolution rules of the multiagent network and determine statistical patterns in life cycle of agents - information messages. The main discussed statistical pattern is connected with the number of likes and reposts for a message. This distribution corresponds to Weibull distribution according to modeling results. We examine proposed model using the data from Twitter, an online social networking service.

  6. Emerging Communities: Integrating Networked Information into Library Services (Book Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Marianne

    1995-01-01

    Reviews this collection of papers, edited by Ann P. Bishop, which present the current state of networking as it relates to libraries and the community. Recommends the book as a compendium of lessons, learned and to be learned, as networked information becomes an integral and necessary part of the library world. (JMV)

  7. The Network Information Management System (NIMS) in the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    In an effort to better manage enormous amounts of administrative, engineering, and management data that is distributed worldwide, a study was conducted which identified the need for a network support system. The Network Information Management System (NIMS) will provide the Deep Space Network with the tools to provide an easily accessible source of valid information to support management activities and provide a more cost-effective method of acquiring, maintaining, and retrieval data.

  8. Navigation Support for Learners in Informal Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    Drachsler, H. (2009). Navigation Support for Learners in Informal Learning Networks. October, 16, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, CELSTEC. SIKS Dissertation Series No. 2009-37. ISBN 9789079447312.

  9. Information jet: Handling noisy big data from weakly disconnected network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurongzeb, Deeder

    Sudden aggregation (information jet) of large amount of data is ubiquitous around connected social networks, driven by sudden interacting and non-interacting events, network security threat attacks, online sales channel etc. Clustering of information jet based on time series analysis and graph theory is not new but little work is done to connect them with particle jet statistics. We show pre-clustering based on context can element soft network or network of information which is critical to minimize time to calculate results from noisy big data. We show difference between, stochastic gradient boosting and time series-graph clustering. For disconnected higher dimensional information jet, we use Kallenberg representation theorem (Kallenberg, 2005, arXiv:1401.1137) to identify and eliminate jet similarities from dense or sparse graph.

  10. Tufts academic health information network: concept and scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, N S

    1986-04-01

    Tufts University School of Medicine's new health sciences education building, the Arthur M. Sackler Center for Health Communications, will house a modern medical library and computer center, classrooms, auditoria, and media facilities. The building will also serve as the center for an information and communication network linking the medical school and adjacent New England Medical Center, Tufts' primary teaching hospital, with Tufts Associated Teaching Hospitals throughout New England. Ultimately, the Tufts network will join other gateway networks, information resource facilities, health care institutions, and medical schools throughout the world. The center and the network are intended to facilitate and improve the education of health professionals, the delivery of health care to patients, the conduct of research, and the implementation of administrative management approaches that should provide more efficient utilization of resources and save dollars. A model and scenario show how health care delivery and health care education are integrated through better use of information transfer technologies by health information specialists, practitioners, and educators.

  11. Architectural Design for the Global Legal Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakis, Konstantinos

    1999-01-01

    In this report, we provide a summary of our activities regarding the goals, requirements analysis, design, and prototype implementation for the Global Legal Information Network, a joint effort between the Law Library of Congress and NASA.

  12. Suppressing disease spreading by using information diffusion on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Braunstein, Lidia A; Stanley, H Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Although there is always an interplay between the dynamics of information diffusion and disease spreading, the empirical research on the systemic coevolution mechanisms connecting these two spreading dynamics is still lacking. Here we investigate the coevolution mechanisms and dynamics between information and disease spreading by utilizing real data and a proposed model on multiplex network. Our empirical analysis finds asymmetrical interactions between the information and disease spreading dynamics. Our results obtained from both the theoretical framework and intensive stochastic numerical simulations suggest that an information outbreak can be triggered on a communication network by its own spreading dynamics or the disease outbreak on a contact network, but that the disease threshold is not affected by information spreading. Our key finding is that there is an optimal information transmission rate that markedly suppresses the disease speading. We find that the time evolution of the dynamics in the proposed...

  13. Information Dynamics in Networks: Models and Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER Kamesh...Suite 1204, Arlington VA, 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to...buyers on the quality of the good. For example choosing a phone plan over other competing brands depends on the number of users each network has. • An

  14. Coordinated Economic Development and the Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, D. K.

    This is a discussion of some of the problems that the Advisory Organization for Gulf Industries (AOGI) will face when it undertakes (1) to organize both an information center (node) that will serve the information needs of the Gulf States of Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Oman; and (2) to compile an…

  15. MINDS - Medical Information Network Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Information Technology, Department of Health and Human Services, 2005 7. The Lewin Group, Inc., “Health Information Technology Leadership Panel: Final...University of Chicago Kurt Rossman Laboratories for Radiologic Image Research (www- radiology.uchicago.edu/krl/) 8. University of Michigan Department

  16. An information theoretic approach for combining neural network process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, D V.; Bartlett, E B.; Seagrave, R C.

    1999-07-01

    Typically neural network modelers in chemical engineering focus on identifying and using a single, hopefully optimal, neural network model. Using a single optimal model implicitly assumes that one neural network model can extract all the information available in a given data set and that the other candidate models are redundant. In general, there is no assurance that any individual model has extracted all relevant information from the data set. Recently, Wolpert (Neural Networks, 5(2), 241 (1992)) proposed the idea of stacked generalization to combine multiple models. Sridhar, Seagrave and Barlett (AIChE J., 42, 2529 (1996)) implemented the stacked generalization for neural network models by integrating multiple neural networks into an architecture known as stacked neural networks (SNNs). SNNs consist of a combination of the candidate neural networks and were shown to provide improved modeling of chemical processes. However, in Sridhar's work SNNs were limited to using a linear combination of artificial neural networks. While a linear combination is simple and easy to use, it can utilize only those model outputs that have a high linear correlation to the output. Models that are useful in a nonlinear sense are wasted if a linear combination is used. In this work we propose an information theoretic stacking (ITS) algorithm for combining neural network models. The ITS algorithm identifies and combines useful models regardless of the nature of their relationship to the actual output. The power of the ITS algorithm is demonstrated through three examples including application to a dynamic process modeling problem. The results obtained demonstrate that the SNNs developed using the ITS algorithm can achieve highly improved performance as compared to selecting and using a single hopefully optimal network or using SNNs based on a linear combination of neural networks.

  17. Study on control information network and its real-time property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴转峰; 刘卫国; 骆光照; 吴浦升

    2008-01-01

    The control network is an important developmental orientation in the remote control system. As the control network and information network are comparatively alike in the framework and technology, we can build a control network which is similar to the common information network. In the era when the information network is becoming increasingly mature, it is a royal road to construct or rebuild a control information network in the development of the control network by relying on the achievements made in the in...

  18. Information routing driven by background chatter in a signaling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Domedel-Puig

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Living systems are capable of processing multiple sources of information simultaneously. This is true even at the cellular level, where not only coexisting signals stimulate the cell, but also the presence of fluctuating conditions is significant. When information is received by a cell signaling network via one specific input, the existence of other stimuli can provide a background activity -or chatter- that may affect signal transmission through the network and, therefore, the response of the cell. Here we study the modulation of information processing by chatter in the signaling network of a human cell, specifically, in a Boolean model of the signal transduction network of a fibroblast. We observe that the level of external chatter shapes the response of the system to information carrying signals in a nontrivial manner, modulates the activity levels of the network outputs, and effectively determines the paths of information flow. Our results show that the interactions and node dynamics, far from being random, confer versatility to the signaling network and allow transitions between different information-processing scenarios.

  19. Recent developments in quantitative graph theory: information inequalities for networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dehmer

    Full Text Available In this article, we tackle a challenging problem in quantitative graph theory. We establish relations between graph entropy measures representing the structural information content of networks. In particular, we prove formal relations between quantitative network measures based on Shannon's entropy to study the relatedness of those measures. In order to establish such information inequalities for graphs, we focus on graph entropy measures based on information functionals. To prove such relations, we use known graph classes whose instances have been proven useful in various scientific areas. Our results extend the foregoing work on information inequalities for graphs.

  20. The analysis of network transmission method for welding robot information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weide; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Donghua; Wang, Hongbo

    2012-01-01

    On the asis of User Datagram Protocol (UserDatagram Protocol, UDP), to do some improvement and design a welding robot network communication protocol (welding robot network communicate protocol: WRNCP), working on the fields of the transport layer and application layer of TCP / IP protocol. According to the characteristics of video data, to design the radio push-type (Broadcast Push Model, BPM) transmission method, improving the efficiency and stability of video transmission.and to designed the network information transmission system, used for real-time control of welding robot network.

  1. Study on Service Level Management in Integrated Satellite Information Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Rui-qiang; ZHAO Jian-li; WANG Guang-xing

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Satellite Information Network (ISIN) includes those nodes in space and those on ground. It is the way to realize the fusion of satellite communication and traditional network technology. A satellite network management system based on Multiplex Network Management Protocol (MNMP) has accomplished traditional management, such as configuration, performance and fault management. An architecture of Service Level Management (SLM) in ISIN is proposed, and a service topology management and Service Level Agreement (SLA) are deeply researched. At last, service security and fault management are briefly discussed, and a simulation system is accomplished.

  2. Sailor: Maryland's Online Public Information Network. Sailor Network Assessment Final Report: Findings and Future Sailor Network Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    This report describes the results of an assessment of Sailor, Maryland's Online Public Information Network, which provides statewide Internet connection to 100% of Maryland public libraries. The concept of a "statewide networked environment" includes information services, products, hardware and software, telecommunications…

  3. Phase transitions for information diffusion in random clustered networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungsu; Shin, Joongbo; Kwak, Namju; Jung, Kyomin

    2016-09-01

    We study the conditions for the phase transitions of information diffusion in complex networks. Using the random clustered network model, a generalisation of the Chung-Lu random network model incorporating clustering, we examine the effect of clustering under the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic diffusion model with heterogeneous contact rates. For this purpose, we exploit the branching process to analyse information diffusion in random unclustered networks with arbitrary contact rates, and provide novel iterative algorithms for estimating the conditions and sizes of global cascades, respectively. Showing that a random clustered network can be mapped into a factor graph, which is a locally tree-like structure, we successfully extend our analysis to random clustered networks with heterogeneous contact rates. We then identify the conditions for phase transitions of information diffusion using our method. Interestingly, for various contact rates, we prove that random clustered networks with higher clustering coefficients have strictly lower phase transition points for any given degree sequence. Finally, we confirm our analytical results with numerical simulations of both synthetically-generated and real-world networks.

  4. The information transmission in community networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Chuan-Jian; Wu, Jian-Liang; Liu, Bin

    2013-09-01

    The community structure has been empirically found in many real networks. This paper proposes an efficient Double Shortest Path routing strategy trying to avoid the modules of traffic congestion, which means that we adopt the shortest routing strategy both in the inter-modules and in the intra-module. Simulations show that this routing algorithm is superior to the traditional shortest path routing protocol with appropriate selection of the tunable parameters. In addition, this algorithm can also be improved by integrating it with several alternative routing strategies.

  5. Reconstruction of transcriptional network from microarray data using combined mutual information and network-assisted regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-D; Qi, Y-X; Jiang, Z-L

    2011-03-01

    Many methods had been developed on inferring transcriptional network from gene expression. However, it is still necessary to design new method that discloses more detailed and exact network information. Using network-assisted regression, the authors combined the averaged three-way mutual information (AMI3) and non-linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) model to infer the transcriptional network, and to obtain both the topological structure and the regulatory dynamics. Synthetic and experimental data were used to evaluate the performance of the above approach. In comparison with the previous methods based on mutual information, AMI3 obtained higher precision with the same sensitivity. To describe the regulatory dynamics between transcription factors and target genes, network-assisted regression and regression without network, respectively, were applied in the steady-state and time series microarray data. The results revealed that comparing with regression without network, network-assisted regression increased the precision, but decreased the fitting goodness. Then, the authors reconstructed the transcriptional network of Escherichia coli and simulated the regulatory dynamics of genes. Furthermore, the authors' approach identified potential transcription factors regulating yeast cell cycle. In conclusion, network-assisted regression, combined AMI3 and ODE model, was a more precisely to infer the topological structure and the regulatory dynamics of transcriptional network from microarray data. [Includes supplementary material].

  6. FCoE Application on Network Service of Geographic Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Di

    2008-01-01

    The network service of geographic information has developed rapidly based data sharing on the web. It has an basic capability to satisfy the requirements from various users, but the network transporting efficiency of sharing data is affected greatly by the distinct environment of network resources. The emergence of fibre channel over Ethernet(FCoE) technology solves the problem preferably. FCoE allows IP protocol and fibre channel network traffic to be carried over existing FCoE-aware drivers, NICs, and switches. It also allows an evolutionary approach towards input/output(I/O) consolidation by preserving all fibre channel constructs. FCoE simplifies customer environments by using Ethernet and allowing the industry to avoid creating another, separate protocol for I/O consolidation. The advantages of FCoE increase network transport efficiency of geographic information.

  7. Extraction of hidden information by efficient community detection in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooyoung; Lee, Juyong; Gross, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Currently, we are overwhelmed by a deluge of experimental data, and network physics has the potential to become an invaluable method to increase our understanding of large interacting datasets. However, this potential is often unrealized for two reasons: uncovering the hidden community structure of a network, known as community detection, is difficult, and further, even if one has an idea of this community structure, it is not a priori obvious how to efficiently use this information. Here, to address both of these issues, we, first, identify optimal community structure of given networks in terms of modularity by utilizing a recently introduced community detection method. Second, we develop an approach to use this community information to extract hidden information from a network. When applied to a protein-protein interaction network, the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art methods that use only the local information of a network. The method is generally applicable to networks from many areas. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 20120001222).

  8. Gene Regulatory Network Reconstruction Using Conditional Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The inference of gene regulatory network from expression data is an important area of research that provides insight to the inner workings of a biological system. The relevance-network-based approaches provide a simple and easily-scalable solution to the understanding of interaction between genes. Up until now, most works based on relevance network focus on the discovery of direct regulation using correlation coefficient or mutual information. However, some of the more complicated interactions such as interactive regulation and coregulation are not easily detected. In this work, we propose a relevance network model for gene regulatory network inference which employs both mutual information and conditional mutual information to determine the interactions between genes. For this purpose, we propose a conditional mutual information estimator based on adaptive partitioning which allows us to condition on both discrete and continuous random variables. We provide experimental results that demonstrate that the proposed regulatory network inference algorithm can provide better performance when the target network contains coregulated and interactively regulated genes.

  9. Competition between Homophily and Information Entropy Maximization in Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jichang; Liang, Xiao; Xu, Ke

    2015-01-01

    In social networks, it is conventionally thought that two individuals with more overlapped friends tend to establish a new friendship, which could be stated as homophily breeding new connections. While the recent hypothesis of maximum information entropy is presented as the possible origin of effective navigation in small-world networks. We find there exists a competition between information entropy maximization and homophily in local structure through both theoretical and experimental analysis. This competition suggests that a newly built relationship between two individuals with more common friends would lead to less information entropy gain for them. We demonstrate that in the evolution of the social network, both of the two assumptions coexist. The rule of maximum information entropy produces weak ties in the network, while the law of homophily makes the network highly clustered locally and the individuals would obtain strong and trust ties. A toy model is also presented to demonstrate the competition and evaluate the roles of different rules in the evolution of real networks. Our findings could shed light on the social network modeling from a new perspective.

  10. Social networks predict selective observation and information spread in ravens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Bugnyar, Thomas; Hoppitt, William; Mikus, Nace; Schwab, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Animals are predicted to selectively observe and learn from the conspecifics with whom they share social connections. Yet, hardly anything is known about the role of different connections in observation and learning. To address the relationships between social connections, observation and learning, we investigated transmission of information in two raven (Corvus corax) groups. First, we quantified social connections in each group by constructing networks on affiliative interactions, aggressive interactions and proximity. We then seeded novel information by training one group member on a novel task and allowing others to observe. In each group, an observation network based on who observed whose task-solving behaviour was strongly correlated with networks based on affiliative interactions and proximity. Ravens with high social centrality (strength, eigenvector, information centrality) in the affiliative interaction network were also central in the observation network, possibly as a result of solving the task sooner. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that the order that ravens first solved the task was best predicted by connections in the affiliative interaction network in a group of subadult ravens, and by social rank and kinship (which influenced affiliative interactions) in a group of juvenile ravens. Our results demonstrate that not all social connections are equally effective at predicting the patterns of selective observation and information transmission. PMID:27493780

  11. Social networks predict selective observation and information spread in ravens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulahci, Ipek G; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Bugnyar, Thomas; Hoppitt, William; Mikus, Nace; Schwab, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Animals are predicted to selectively observe and learn from the conspecifics with whom they share social connections. Yet, hardly anything is known about the role of different connections in observation and learning. To address the relationships between social connections, observation and learning, we investigated transmission of information in two raven (Corvus corax) groups. First, we quantified social connections in each group by constructing networks on affiliative interactions, aggressive interactions and proximity. We then seeded novel information by training one group member on a novel task and allowing others to observe. In each group, an observation network based on who observed whose task-solving behaviour was strongly correlated with networks based on affiliative interactions and proximity. Ravens with high social centrality (strength, eigenvector, information centrality) in the affiliative interaction network were also central in the observation network, possibly as a result of solving the task sooner. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that the order that ravens first solved the task was best predicted by connections in the affiliative interaction network in a group of subadult ravens, and by social rank and kinship (which influenced affiliative interactions) in a group of juvenile ravens. Our results demonstrate that not all social connections are equally effective at predicting the patterns of selective observation and information transmission.

  12. A Holistic Approach to Information Distribution in Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Casetti, Claudio; Fiore, Marco; La, Chi-Anh; Michiardi, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the problem of spreading information contents in a wireless ad hoc network with mechanisms embracing the peer-to-peer paradigm. In our vision, information dissemination should satisfy the following requirements: (i) it conforms to a predefined distribution and (ii) it is evenly and fairly carried by all nodes in their turn. In this paper, we observe the dissemination effects when the information moves across nodes according to two well-known mobility models, namely random walk and random direction. Our approach is fully distributed and comes at a very low cost in terms of protocol overhead; in addition, simulation results show that the proposed solution can achieve the aforementioned goals under different network scenarios, provided that a sufficient number of information replicas are injected into the network. This observation calls for a further step: in the realistic case where the user content demand varies over time, we need a content replication/drop strategy to adapt the number of inform...

  13. Information theory and the ethylene genetic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, José S; Díaz, José

    2011-10-01

    The original aim of the Information Theory (IT) was to solve a purely technical problem: to increase the performance of communication systems, which are constantly affected by interferences that diminish the quality of the transmitted information. That is, the theory deals only with the problem of transmitting with the maximal precision the symbols constituting a message. In Shannon's theory messages are characterized only by their probabilities, regardless of their value or meaning. As for its present day status, it is generally acknowledged that Information Theory has solid mathematical foundations and has fruitful strong links with Physics in both theoretical and experimental areas. However, many applications of Information Theory to Biology are limited to using it as a technical tool to analyze biopolymers, such as DNA, RNA or protein sequences. The main point of discussion about the applicability of IT to explain the information flow in biological systems is that in a classic communication channel, the symbols that conform the coded message are transmitted one by one in an independent form through a noisy communication channel, and noise can alter each of the symbols, distorting the message; in contrast, in a genetic communication channel the coded messages are not transmitted in the form of symbols but signaling cascades transmit them. Consequently, the information flow from the emitter to the effector is due to a series of coupled physicochemical processes that must ensure the accurate transmission of the message. In this review we discussed a novel proposal to overcome this difficulty, which consists of the modeling of gene expression with a stochastic approach that allows Shannon entropy (H) to be directly used to measure the amount of uncertainty that the genetic machinery has in relation to the correct decoding of a message transmitted into the nucleus by a signaling pathway. From the value of H we can define a function I that measures the amount of

  14. Information theory and the ethylene genetic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, José S

    2011-01-01

    The original aim of the Information Theory (IT) was to solve a purely technical problem: to increase the performance of communication systems, which are constantly affected by interferences that diminish the quality of the transmitted information. That is, the theory deals only with the problem of transmitting with the maximal precision the symbols constituting a message. In Shannon's theory messages are characterized only by their probabilities, regardless of their value or meaning. As for its present day status, it is generally acknowledged that Information Theory has solid mathematical foundations and has fruitful strong links with Physics in both theoretical and experimental areas. However, many applications of Information Theory to Biology are limited to using it as a technical tool to analyze biopolymers, such as DNA, RNA or protein sequences. The main point of discussion about the applicability of IT to explain the information flow in biological systems is that in a classic communication channel, the symbols that conform the coded message are transmitted one by one in an independent form through a noisy communication channel, and noise can alter each of the symbols, distorting the message; in contrast, in a genetic communication channel the coded messages are not transmitted in the form of symbols but signaling cascades transmit them. Consequently, the information flow from the emitter to the effector is due to a series of coupled physicochemical processes that must ensure the accurate transmission of the message. In this review we discussed a novel proposal to overcome this difficulty, which consists of the modeling of gene expression with a stochastic approach that allows Shannon entropy (H) to be directly used to measure the amount of uncertainty that the genetic machinery has in relation to the correct decoding of a message transmitted into the nucleus by a signaling pathway. From the value of H we can define a function I that measures the amount of

  15. Multiple Access Network Information-flow And Correction codes

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Hongyi; Jaggi, Sidharth; Ho, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    The network communication scenario where one or more receivers request all the information transmitted by different sources is considered. We introduce distributed polynomial-time network codes in the presence of malicious nodes. Our codes can achieve any point inside the rate region of multiple-source multicast transmission scenarios both in the cases of coherent and non-coherent network coding. For both cases the encoding and decoding algorithm runs in poly(|E|)exp(s) time, where poly(|E|) is a polynomial function of the number of edges |E| in the network and exp(s) is an exponential function of the number of sources s. Our codes are fully distributed and different sources require no knowledge of the data transmitted by their peers. Our codes are "end-to-end", that is, all nodes apart from the sources and the receivers are oblivious to the adversaries present in the network and simply implement random linear network coding.

  16. 75 FR 57521 - Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... FOUNDATION Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010 Strategic Plan--URL Correction AGENCY: The National Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information... Coordination Office for Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD)...

  17. 78 FR 71631 - Committee Name: Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee (HSINAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... SECURITY Committee Name: Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee (HSINAC) AGENCY... Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Information Network... Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee (HSINAC) is an advisory body to the...

  18. 75 FR 44800 - Notice of Meeting of the Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee, Tuesday...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... SECURITY Notice of Meeting of the Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee, Tuesday, August... meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee (HSINAC) will meet from... Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee is to identify issues and provide to...

  19. Estimating topological properties of weighted networks from limited information

    CERN Document Server

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in studying and modeling economic and financial systems is represented by privacy issues, which put severe limitations on the amount of accessible information. Here we investigate a novel method to reconstruct the structural properties of complex weighted networks using only partial information: the total number of nodes and links, and the values of the strength for all nodes. The latter are used first as fitness to estimate the unknown node degrees through a standard configuration model; then, degrees and strengths are employed to calibrate an enhanced configuration model in order to generate ensembles of networks intended to represent the real system. The method, which is tested on the World Trade Web, while drastically reducing the amount of information needed to infer network properties, turns out to be remarkably effective$-$thus representing a valuable tool for gaining insights on privacy-protected socioeconomic networks.

  20. A Comparison of Geographic Information Systems, Complex Networks, and Other Models for Analyzing Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Technical Monitor); Kuby, Michael; Tierney, Sean; Roberts, Tyler; Upchurch, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews six classes of models that are used for studying transportation network topologies. The report is motivated by two main questions. First, what can the "new science" of complex networks (scale-free, small-world networks) contribute to our understanding of transport network structure, compared to more traditional methods? Second, how can geographic information systems (GIS) contribute to studying transport networks? The report defines terms that can be used to classify different kinds of models by their function, composition, mechanism, spatial and temporal dimensions, certainty, linearity, and resolution. Six broad classes of models for analyzing transport network topologies are then explored: GIS; static graph theory; complex networks; mathematical programming; simulation; and agent-based modeling. Each class of models is defined and classified according to the attributes introduced earlier. The paper identifies some typical types of research questions about network structure that have been addressed by each class of model in the literature.

  1. On Information Aggregation and Interim Efficiency in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jimenez-Martinez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a population of agents that are engaged in a listening network. The agents wish to match their actions to the true value of some uncertain (exogenous parameter and to the actions of the other agents. Each agent begins with some initial information about the parameter and, in addition, is able to receive further information from their neighbors in the network. I derive a closed expression for the (interim social welfare loss that depends on the initial information structure and on the possible pieces of information that can be gathered under the network. Then, I explore how changes in the network may affect social welfare for extreme levels of complementarity in the agents’ actions. When the level of complementarity is very high, efficiency is achieved regardless of the network structure. For very low levels of complementarity in actions, efficiency can be either associated to more sparse or denser networks, depending on the size of the induced informative gains. The implications of this paper are relevant in security environments where agents are naturally interpreted as analysts who try to forecast the value of a parameter that describes a threat to security.

  2. Scholarly information discovery in the networked academic learning environment

    CERN Document Server

    Li, LiLi

    2014-01-01

    In the dynamic and interactive academic learning environment, students are required to have qualified information literacy competencies while critically reviewing print and electronic information. However, many undergraduates encounter difficulties in searching peer-reviewed information resources. Scholarly Information Discovery in the Networked Academic Learning Environment is a practical guide for students determined to improve their academic performance and career development in the digital age. Also written with academic instructors and librarians in mind who need to show their students how to access and search academic information resources and services, the book serves as a reference to promote information literacy instructions. This title consists of four parts, with chapters on the search for online and printed information via current academic information resources and services: part one examines understanding information and information literacy; part two looks at academic information delivery in the...

  3. Dismantling the Justice Silos: avoiding the pitfalls and reaping the benefits of information-sharing between forensic science, medicine and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Ross, Alastair

    2013-07-10

    Forensic science is increasingly relied on by police and the courts to exonerate the innocent and to establish links to crime. With this increased reliance the potential for unjust outcomes increases, especially in serious matters for two reasons. The more serious the matter, the more likely that evidence mishandling can lead to wrongful imprisonment, and the more likely the personnel involved will be multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational (Health, Justice, private legal/medical, police). The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational interactions was highlighted in the recent wrongful imprisonment of an Australian male for a sexual assault he did not commit. One factor that led to this unjust outcome was the justice silo effect: where forensic practitioners from different agencies operate in isolation (rarely communicating or sharing information/knowledge). In this paper we discuss findings from the Interfaces Project designed to assess the extent of the justice silos within Australia. We interviewed 103 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians Australian-wide. Five main themes were identified in the data: the silo effect was only partial and in each jurisdiction some form of inter-agency communication was actively occurring; inter-agency meetings were more common in homicide than sexual assault cases; forensic physicians were semi-invisible; there had been considerable momentum over the past ten years for practice improvement groups, and; practitioners gain more benefits than pitfalls from inter-agency information-sharing. Based on these findings, five recommendations are made for improving practice.

  4. Preventing Terrorism Using Information Sharing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    in fusing information and providing valuable intelligence that thwarted a terrorist attack at Disneyland . A videotape was received that contained a...creditable threat of a Sarin gas attack at Disneyland . The LA TEW conducted the initial analysis of the tape and the initial investigation that

  5. Social networks and receiving informal care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A. de; Klerk, M. de; Cardol, M.; Westert, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, roughly half a million people (4% of the Dutch population) received informal care from family members living outside their home, and a quarter of a million (2% of the Dutch population) received this care from acquaintances, such as friend, neighbours and work colleagues. The potential suppl

  6. TRISNET; a Network of Transportation Information Services and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Systems Development and Technology.

    A national Transportation Research Information Services Network (TRISNET) is being developed by the Department of Transportation (DOT) linking libraries, data bases, and retrieval services with DOT information activities. Core services provide switch and referral, indexing and abstracting, online retrieval, and document delivery. (JY)

  7. Applying Real Options Thinking to Information Security in Networked Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, M.

    2006-01-01

    An information security strategy of an organization participating in a networked business sets out the plans for designing a variety of actions that ensure confidentiality, availability, and integrity of company’s key information assets. The actions are concerned with authentication and nonrepudiati

  8. Information Sharing During Crisis Management in Hierarchical vs. Network Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Veld, M.H.I.T.; Koning, L. de

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the differences between hierarchical and network teams in emergency management. A controlled experimental environment was created in which we could study teams that differed in decision rights, availability of information, information sharing, and task division. Thirty-two teams

  9. Information sharing during crisis management in hierachival vs. network teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Huis in 't Veld, Mirjam; Koning, de Lisette

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the differences between hierarchical and network teams in emergency management. A controlled experimental environment was created in which we could study teams that differed in decision rights, availability of information, information sharing, and task division. Thirty-two teams

  10. Reducing Computational Overhead of Network Coding with Intrinsic Information Conveying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Pedersen, Morten V.;

    is RLNC (Random Linear Network Coding) and the goal is to reduce the amount of coding operations both at the coding and decoding node, and at the same time remove the need for dedicated signaling messages. In a traditional RLNC system, coding operation takes up significant computational resources and adds......This paper investigated the possibility of intrinsic information conveying in network coding systems. The information is embedded into the coding vector by constructing the vector based on a set of predefined rules. This information can subsequently be retrieved by any receiver. The starting point...

  11. Adaptive topology evolution in information-sharing social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Duanbing; Lu, Linyuan; Medo, Matus; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2011-01-01

    The advent of Internet and World Wide Web has led to unprecedent growth of the information available. People usually face the information overload by following a limited number of sources which best fit their interests. In order to get the picture it is important to address issues like who people do follow and how they search for better information sources. In this work we conduct an empirical analysis on different on-line social networking sites, and draw inspiration from its results to present different source selection strategies in an adaptive model for social recommendation. We show that local search rules which enhance the typical topological features of real social communities give rise to network configurations that are globally optimal. Hence these abstract rules help to create networks which are both effective in information diffusion and people friendly.

  12. Using Bayesian networks to support decision-focused information retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, P.; Elsaesser, C.; Seligman, L. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper has described an approach to controlling the process of pulling data/information from distributed data bases in a way that is specific to a persons specific decision making context. Our prototype implementation of this approach uses a knowledge-based planner to generate a plan, an automatically constructed Bayesian network to evaluate the plan, specialized processing of the network to derive key information items that would substantially impact the evaluation of the plan (e.g., determine that replanning is needed), automated construction of Standing Requests for Information (SRIs) which are automated functions that monitor changes and trends in distributed data base that are relevant to the key information items. This emphasis of this paper is on how Bayesian networks are used.

  13. An information search model for online social Networks - MOBIRSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Astaiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Online Social Networks (OSNs have been gaining great importance among Internet users in recent years. These are sites where it is possible to meet people, publish, and share content in a way that is both easy and free of charge. As a result, the volume of information contained in these websites has grown exponentially, and web search has consequently become an important tool for users to easily find information relevant to their social networking objectives. Making use of ontologies and user profiles can make these searches more effective. This article presents a model for Information Retrieval in OSNs (MOBIRSE based on user profile and ontologies which aims to improve the relevance of retrieved information on these websites. The social network Facebook was chosen for a case study and as the instance for the proposed model. The model was validated using measures such as At-k Precision and Kappa statistics, to assess its efficiency.

  14. Information Delivery System through Bluetooth in Ubiquitous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Asha Devi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous and pervasive computing (UPC is a popular paradigm whose purpose is to emerge computers into the real world, to serve humans where the ubiquitous network is the underneath infrastructure. In order to provide ubiquitous services (u-Service which deliver useful information to service users without human intervention, this paper implements a proactive information delivery system using Bluetooth technology. Bluetooth is a lowpowered networking service that supports several protocol profiles, most importantly file transfer.Combined together, ubiquitous computing and Bluetooth have the potential to furnish ubiquitous solutions (u-Solutions that are efficient, employ simplified design characteristics, and collaboratively perform functions they are otherwise not capable. Thus, this paper first addresses the current Bluetooth technology. Then, it suggests and develops the proactive information delivery system utilizing Bluetooth and ubiquitous computing network concepts. The proactive information delivery system can be used in many ubiquitous applications such as ubiquitous commerce (u-Commerce and ubiquitous education (u- Education.

  15. Information Delivery System through Bluetooth in Ubiquitous Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Devi, D Asha; Pavani, V L; Geethanjali, N

    2010-01-01

    computers into the real world, to serve humans where the ubiquitous network is the underneath infrastructure. In order to provide ubiquitous services (u-Service) which deliver useful information to service users without human intervention, this paper implements a proactive information delivery system using Bluetooth technology. Bluetooth is a lowpowered networking service that supports several protocol profiles, most importantly file transfer.Combined together, ubiquitous computing and Bluetooth ha e the potential to furnish ubiquitous solutions (u-Solutions) that are efficient, employ simplified design characteristics, and collaboratively perform functions they are otherwise not capable. Thus, this paper first addresses the current Bluetooth technology. Then, it suggests and develops the proactive information delivery system utilizing Bluetooth and ubiquitous computing network concepts. The proactive information delivery system can be used in many ubiquitous applications such as ubiquitous commerce (u-Commer...

  16. Brain networks underlying mental imagery of auditory and visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Clemens, Benjamin; Chechko, Natalya; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sack, Alexander T; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    Mental imagery is a complex cognitive process that resembles the experience of perceiving an object when this object is not physically present to the senses. It has been shown that, depending on the sensory nature of the object, mental imagery also involves correspondent sensory neural mechanisms. However, it remains unclear which areas of the brain subserve supramodal imagery processes that are independent of the object modality, and which brain areas are involved in modality-specific imagery processes. Here, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to reveal supramodal and modality-specific networks of mental imagery for auditory and visual information. A common supramodal brain network independent of imagery modality, two separate modality-specific networks for imagery of auditory and visual information, and a common deactivation network were identified. The supramodal network included brain areas related to attention, memory retrieval, motor preparation and semantic processing, as well as areas considered to be part of the default-mode network and multisensory integration areas. The modality-specific networks comprised brain areas involved in processing of respective modality-specific sensory information. Interestingly, we found that imagery of auditory information led to a relative deactivation within the modality-specific areas for visual imagery, and vice versa. In addition, mental imagery of both auditory and visual information widely suppressed the activity of primary sensory and motor areas, for example deactivation network. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms that are involved in generation of mental imagery. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Scalable Networked Information Processing Environment (SNIPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagg, G.E.; Moore, K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Dongarra, J.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Geist, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.

    1997-11-01

    SNIPE is a metacomputing system that aims to provide a reliable, secure, fault tolerant environment for long term distributed computing applications and data stores across the global Internet. This system combines global naming and replication of both processing and data to support large scale information processing applications leading to better availability and reliability than currently available with typical cluster computing and/or distributed computer environments.

  18. Communities, roles, and informational organigrams in directed networks: the Twitter network of the UK riots

    CERN Document Server

    Beguerisse-Díaz, Mariano; Vangelov, Borislav; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Directionality is a crucial ingredient in many complex networks, in which information, energy or influence are transmitted. We showcase a framework for flow-based analysis for directed networks through the study of a network of influential Twitter users during the 2011 riots in England. Our analysis extracts nuanced descriptions of the network in terms of a multiresolution structure of interest communities within which flows of information are contained and reinforced. Such communities identify groups according to location, profession, employer, and topic, and are largely undetected if edge directionality is ignored. The flow structure also allows us to generate an interest distance, affording a personalised view of the network from any given user. A complementary flow-based analysis leads to a classification of users into five roles beyond the standard leader-follower dichotomy. Integrating both viewpoints, we find that interest communities fall into distinct informational organigrams, which reflect their mi...

  19. Scalable Hierarchical Network Management System for Displaying Network Information in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jude (Inventor); Schlecht, Leslie (Inventor); McCabe, James D. (Inventor); LeKashman, John Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A network management system has SNMP agents distributed at one or more sites, an input output module at each site, and a server module located at a selected site for communicating with input output modules, each of which is configured for both SNMP and HNMP communications. The server module is configured exclusively for HNMP communications, and it communicates with each input output module according to the HNMP. Non-iconified, informationally complete views are provided of network elements to aid in network management.

  20. Stimulus information stored in lasting active and hidden network states is destroyed by network bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranias, Mark R; Westover, M Brandon; Cash, Sidney; VanDongen, Antonius M J

    2015-01-01

    In both humans and animals brief synchronizing bursts of epileptiform activity known as interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) can, even in the absence of overt seizures, cause transient cognitive impairments (TCI) that include problems with perception or short-term memory. While no evidence from single units is available, it has been assumed that IEDs destroy information represented in neuronal networks. Cultured neuronal networks are a model for generic cortical microcircuits, and their spontaneous activity is characterized by the presence of synchronized network bursts (SNBs), which share a number of properties with IEDs, including the high degree of synchronization and their spontaneous occurrence in the absence of an external stimulus. As a model approach to understanding the processes underlying IEDs, optogenetic stimulation and multielectrode array (MEA) recordings of cultured neuronal networks were used to study whether stimulus information represented in these networks survives SNBs. When such networks are optically stimulated they encode and maintain stimulus information for as long as one second. Experiments involved recording the network response to a single stimulus and trials where two different stimuli were presented sequentially, akin to a paired pulse trial. We broke the sequential stimulus trials into encoding, delay and readout phases and found that regardless of which phase the SNB occurs, stimulus-specific information was impaired. SNBs were observed to increase the mean network firing rate, but this did not translate monotonically into increases in network entropy. It was found that the more excitable a network, the more stereotyped its response was during a network burst. These measurements speak to whether SNBs are capable of transmitting information in addition to blocking it. These results are consistent with previous reports and provide baseline predictions concerning the neural mechanisms by which IEDs might cause TCI.

  1. Stimulus information stored in lasting active and hidden network states is destroyed by network bursts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Dranias

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In both humans and animals brief synchronizing bursts of epileptiform activity known as interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs can, even in the absence of overt seizures, cause transient cognitive impairments (TCI that include problems with perception or short-term memory. While no evidence from single units is available, it has been assumed that IEDs destroy information represented in neuronal networks. Cultured neuronal networks are a model for generic cortical microcircuits, and their spontaneous activity is characterized by the presence of synchronized network bursts (SNBs, which share a number of properties with IEDs, including the high degree of synchronization and their spontaneous occurrence in the absence of an external stimulus. As a model approach to understanding the processes underlying IEDs, optogenetic stimulation and multielectrode array recordings of cultured neuronal networks were used to study whether stimulus information represented in these networks survives SNBs. When such networks are optically stimulated they encode and maintain stimulus information for as long as one second. Experiments involved recording the network response to a single stimulus and trials where two different stimuli were presented sequentially, akin to a paired pulse trial. We broke the sequential stimulus trials into encoding, delay and readout phases and found that regardless of which phase the SNB occurs, stimulus-specific information was impaired. SNBs were observed to increase the mean network firing rate, but this did not translate monotonically into increases in network entropy. It was found that the more excitable a network, the more stereotyped its response was during a network burst. These measurements speak to whether SNBs are capable of transmitting information in addition to blocking it. These results are consistent with previous reports and provide baseline predictions concerning the neural mechanisms by which IEDs might cause TCI.

  2. Models, Entropy and Information of Temporal Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Márton; Bianconi, Ginestra

    Temporal social networks are characterized by heterogeneous duration of contacts, which can either follow a power-law distribution, such as in face-to-face interactions, or a Weibull distribution, such as in mobile-phone communication. Here we model the dynamics of face-to-face interaction and mobile phone communication by a reinforcement dynamics, which explains the data observed in these different types of social interactions. We quantify the information encoded in the dynamics of these networks by the entropy of temporal networks. Finally, we show evidence that human dynamics is able to modulate the information present in social network dynamics when it follows circadian rhythms and when it is interfacing with a new technology such as the mobile-phone communication technology.

  3. A DNA Network as an Information Processing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M. Tyrrell

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomolecular systems that can process information are sought for computational applications, because of their potential for parallelism and miniaturization and because their biocompatibility also makes them suitable for future biomedical applications. DNA has been used to design machines, motors, finite automata, logic gates, reaction networks and logic programs, amongst many other structures and dynamic behaviours. Here we design and program a synthetic DNA network to implement computational paradigms abstracted from cellular regulatory networks. These show information processing properties that are desirable in artificial, engineered molecular systems, including robustness of the output in relation to different sources of variation. We show the results of numerical simulations of the dynamic behaviour of the network and preliminary experimental analysis of its main components.

  4. Models, Entropy and Information of Temporal Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kun; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    Temporal social networks are characterized by {heterogeneous} duration of contacts, which can either follow a power-law distribution, such as in face-to-face interactions, or a Weibull distribution, such as in mobile-phone communication. Here we model the dynamics of face-to-face interaction and mobile phone communication by a reinforcement dynamics, which explains the data observed in these different types of social interactions. We quantify the information encoded in the dynamics of these networks by the entropy of temporal networks. Finally, we show evidence that human dynamics is able to modulate the information present in social network dynamics when it follows circadian rhythms and when it is interfacing with a new technology such as the mobile-phone communication technology.

  5. Introduction to spiking neural networks: Information processing, learning and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponulak, Filip; Kasinski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The concept that neural information is encoded in the firing rate of neurons has been the dominant paradigm in neurobiology for many years. This paradigm has also been adopted by the theory of artificial neural networks. Recent physiological experiments demonstrate, however, that in many parts of the nervous system, neural code is founded on the timing of individual action potentials. This finding has given rise to the emergence of a new class of neural models, called spiking neural networks. In this paper we summarize basic properties of spiking neurons and spiking networks. Our focus is, specifically, on models of spike-based information coding, synaptic plasticity and learning. We also survey real-life applications of spiking models. The paper is meant to be an introduction to spiking neural networks for scientists from various disciplines interested in spike-based neural processing.

  6. Quantify and Maximise Global Viral Influence Through Local Network Information

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yanqing; Feng, Ling; Jin, Yuliang

    2015-01-01

    Measuring and maximising the influence of individuals is the key to understand and leverage the multiplicative potential of viral spreading over social networks. Yet these have been recognized as problems requiring global structural information, and extremely difficult for the enormous size and complexity of online social networks. Based on the percolation phenomenon, we show that they can be essentially reduced to local problems. Our estimated global influence of individuals based on local structural information matches that of brute-force search. Furthermore this measure leads to an efficient algorithm to identify the best seed spreaders for maximum viral influence. Its time complexity is independent of network size, making it practically useful for real networks. The underlying theoretical framework enables a thorough analytical assessment of the prediction accuracy and the absolute performance of the proposed methods.

  7. Construction of the NIFS campus information network, NIFS-LAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kato, Takeo; Nakamura, Osamu; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Reiko; Tsugawa, Kazuko; Kamimura, Tetsuo

    2000-10-01

    The advanced NIFS campus information network, NIFS-LAN, was designed and constructed as an informational infrastructure in 1996, 1997 and 1998 fiscal year. NIFS-LAN was composed of three autonomous clusters classified from research purpose; Research Information cluster, Large Helical Device Experiment cluster and Large-Scale Computer Simulation Research cluster. Many ATM(Asychronous Transfer Mode) switching systems and switching equipments were used for NIFS-LAN. Here, the outline of NIFS-LAN is described. (author)

  8. Hierarchy and information in feedforward networks

    CERN Document Server

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos; Solé, Ricard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we define a hierarchical index for feedforward structures taking, as the starting point, three fundamental concepts underlying hierarchy: order, predictability and pyramidal structure. Our definition applies to the so called causal graphs, i.e., connected, directed acyclic graphs in which the arrows depict a direct causal relation between two elements defining the nodes. The estimator of hierarchy is obtained by evaluating the complexity of causal paths against the uncertainty in recovering them from a given end point. This naturally leads us to a definition of mutual information which, properly normalized and weighted through the layered structure of the graph, results in suitable index of hierarchy with strong theoretical grounds.

  9. Issues in the use of neural networks in information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Iatan, Iuliana F

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the ability of neural networks (NNs) to be excellent pattern matchers and their importance in information retrieval (IR), which is based on index term matching. The book defines a new NN-based method for learning image similarity and describes how to use fuzzy Gaussian neural networks to predict personality. It introduces the fuzzy Clifford Gaussian network, and two concurrent neural models: (1) concurrent fuzzy nonlinear perceptron modules, and (2) concurrent fuzzy Gaussian neural network modules. Furthermore, it explains the design of a new model of fuzzy nonlinear perceptron based on alpha level sets and describes a recurrent fuzzy neural network model with a learning algorithm based on the improved particle swarm optimization method.

  10. Extracting Backbones from Weighted Complex Networks with Incomplete Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The backbone is the natural abstraction of a complex network, which can help people understand a networked system in a more simplified form. Traditional backbone extraction methods tend to include many outliers into the backbone. What is more, they often suffer from the computational inefficiency—the exhaustive search of all nodes or edges is often prohibitively expensive. In this paper, we propose a backbone extraction heuristic with incomplete information (BEHwII to find the backbone in a complex weighted network. First, a strict filtering rule is carefully designed to determine edges to be preserved or discarded. Second, we present a local search model to examine part of edges in an iterative way, which only relies on the local/incomplete knowledge rather than the global view of the network. Experimental results on four real-life networks demonstrate the advantage of BEHwII over the classic disparity filter method by either effectiveness or efficiency validity.

  11. Integrating network structure and dynamic information for better routing strategy on scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Gai; Wong, Eric W. M.; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2009-06-01

    We study information packet routing processes on scale-free networks by mimicking the Internet traffic delivery strategies. We incorporate both the global network structure information and local queuing information in the dynamic processes. We propose several new routing strategies to guide the packet routing. The performance of the routing strategies is measured by the average transit time of the packets as well as their dependence on the traffic amount. We find that the routing strategies which integrate both global network structure information and local dynamic information perform much better than the traditional shortest-path routing protocol which takes into account only the global topological information. Moreover, from comparative studies of these routing strategies, we observe that some of our proposed methods can decrease the average transit time of packets but the performance is closely dependent on the total amount of traffic while some other proposed methods can have good performance independent of the total amount of traffic with hyper-excellent average transit time of packets. Also, numerical results show that our proposed methods integrating network structure information and local dynamic information can work much better than the methods recently proposed in [S. Sreenivasan, R. Cohen, E. López, Z. Toroczkai, H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. E 75 (2007) 036105, Zhi-Xi Wu, Gang Peng, Eric W.M. Wong, Kai-Hau Yeung, J. Stat. Mech. (2008) P11002.], which only considered network structure information.

  12. Information theoretic derivation of network architecture and learning algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.D.; Barnes, C.W.; Lee, Y.C.; Mead, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using variational techniques, we derive a feedforward network architecture that minimizes a least squares cost function with the soft constraint that the mutual information between input and output be maximized. This permits optimum generalization for a given accuracy. A set of learning algorithms are also obtained. The network and learning algorithms are tested on a set of test problems which emphasize time series prediction. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  14. Enhanced reliable transmission control protocol for spatial information networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhihong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Junfeng

    2009-12-01

    Satellites channels are generally featured by high bit error rate (BER), long propagation delay, large bandwidth-delay product (BDP) and so on. This tends to make the traditional TCP suffer from serious performance degradation in satellite networks. Therefore, a TCP-compatible reliable transmission protocol (i.e., TCP-AX) for spatial information networks is proposed in this paper. And a bandwidth probing mechanism is designed to distinguish network congestion and link error. Simulation results show that TCP-AX has better performance than some popular enhanced TCP protocols.

  15. Gravity effects on information filtering and network evolving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Chen, Lingjiao; Liu, Chuang; Yang, Chengcheng; Wang, Xueqi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the gravity principle of classical physics, we propose a tunable gravity-based model, which considers tag usage pattern to weigh both the mass and distance of network nodes. We then apply this model in solving the problems of information filtering and network evolving. Experimental results on two real-world data sets, Del.icio.us and MovieLens, show that it can not only enhance the algorithmic performance, but can also better characterize the properties of real networks. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the effect of gravity model.

  16. Gravity Effects on Information Filtering and Network Evolving

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Yang, Chengcheng; Chen, Lingjiao; Liu, Chuang; Wang, Xueqi

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter, based on the gravity principle of classical physics, we propose a tunable gravity-based model, which considers tag usage pattern to weigh both the mass and distance of network nodes. We then apply this model in solving the problems of information filtering and network evolving. Experimental results on two real-world data sets, Del.icio.us and MovieLens, show that it can not only enhance the algorithmic performance, but also can better characterize the properties of real networks. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding the gravity effect

  17. Adaptive Local Information Transfer in Random Boolean Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Taichi

    2017-01-01

    Living systems such as gene regulatory networks and neuronal networks have been supposed to work close to dynamical criticality, where their information-processing ability is optimal at the whole-system level. We investigate how this global information-processing optimality is related to the local information transfer at each individual-unit level. In particular, we introduce an internal adjustment process of the local information transfer and examine whether the former can emerge from the latter. We propose an adaptive random Boolean network model in which each unit rewires its incoming arcs from other units to balance stability of its information processing based on the measurement of the local information transfer pattern. First, we show numerically that random Boolean networks can self-organize toward near dynamical criticality in our model. Second, the proposed model is analyzed by a mean-field theory. We recognize that the rewiring rule has a bootstrapping feature. The stationary indegree distribution is calculated semi-analytically and is shown to be close to dynamical criticality in a broad range of model parameter values.

  18. Reverse Engineering Cellular Networks with Information Theoretic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio R. Banga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Building mathematical models of cellular networks lies at the core of systems biology. It involves, among other tasks, the reconstruction of the structure of interactions between molecular components, which is known as network inference or reverse engineering. Information theory can help in the goal of extracting as much information as possible from the available data. A large number of methods founded on these concepts have been proposed in the literature, not only in biology journals, but in a wide range of areas. Their critical comparison is difficult due to the different focuses and the adoption of different terminologies. Here we attempt to review some of the existing information theoretic methodologies for network inference, and clarify their differences. While some of these methods have achieved notable success, many challenges remain, among which we can mention dealing with incomplete measurements, noisy data, counterintuitive behaviour emerging from nonlinear relations or feedback loops, and computational burden of dealing with large data sets.

  19. Shifts in the architecture of the Nationwide Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Leslie; Sundwall, David; Lenert, Michael Edward

    2012-01-01

    In the midst of a US $30 billion USD investment in the Nationwide Health Information Network (NwHIN) and electronic health records systems, a significant change in the architecture of the NwHIN is taking place. Prior to 2010, the focus of information exchange in the NwHIN was the Regional Health Information Organization (RHIO). Since 2010, the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) has been sponsoring policies that promote an internet-like architecture that encourages point to-point information exchange and private health information exchange networks. The net effect of these activities is to undercut the limited business model for RHIOs, decreasing the likelihood of their success, while making the NwHIN dependent on nascent technologies for community level functions such as record locator services. These changes may impact the health of patients and communities. Independent, scientifically focused debate is needed on the wisdom of ONC's proposed changes in its strategy for the NwHIN.

  20. Dynamics of sensory thalamocortical synaptic networks during information processing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A

    2004-11-01

    The thalamocortical network consists of the pathways that interconnect the thalamus and neocortex, including thalamic sensory afferents, corticothalamic and thalamocortical pathways. These pathways are essential to acquire, analyze, store and retrieve sensory information. However, sensory information processing mostly occurs during behavioral arousal, when activity in thalamus and neocortex consists of an electrographic sign of low amplitude fast activity, known as activation, which is caused by several neuromodulator systems that project to the thalamocortical network. Logically, in order to understand how the thalamocortical network processes sensory information it is essential to study its response properties during states of activation. This paper reviews the temporal and spatial response properties of synaptic pathways in the whisker thalamocortical network of rodents during activated states as compared to quiescent (non-activated) states. The evidence shows that these pathways are differentially regulated via the effects of neuromodulators as behavioral contingencies demand. Thus, during activated states, the temporal and spatial response properties of pathways in the thalamocortical network are transformed to allow the processing of sensory information.

  1. Interspecific social networks promote information transmission in wild songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Aplin, Lucy M; Sheldon, Ben C; Hoppitt, William

    2015-03-22

    Understanding the functional links between social structure and population processes is a central aim of evolutionary ecology. Multiple types of interactions can be represented by networks drawn for the same population, such as kinship, dominance or affiliative networks, but the relative importance of alternative networks in modulating population processes may not be clear. We illustrate this problem, and a solution, by developing a framework for testing the importance of different types of association in facilitating the transmission of information. We apply this framework to experimental data from wild songbirds that form mixed-species flocks, recording the arrival (patch discovery) of individuals to novel foraging sites. We tested whether intraspecific and interspecific social networks predicted the spread of information about novel food sites, and found that both contributed to transmission. The likelihood of acquiring information per unit of connection to knowledgeable individuals increased 22-fold for conspecifics, and 12-fold for heterospecifics. We also found that species varied in how much information they produced, suggesting that some species play a keystone role in winter foraging flocks. More generally, these analyses demonstrate that this method provides a powerful approach, using social networks to quantify the relative transmission rates across different social relationships.

  2. Social information processing, subtypes of violence, and a progressive construction of culpability and punishment in juvenile justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Reid Griffith

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with core principles of liberal theories of punishment (including humane treatment of offenders, respecting offender rights, parsimony, penal proportionality, and rehabilitation), progressive frameworks have sought to expand doctrines of mitigation and excuse in order to reduce culpability and punishment. With respect to juvenile justice, scholars have proposed that doctrinal mitigation be broadened, and that adolescents, due to aspects of developmental immaturity (such as decision-making capacity), be punished less severely than adults who commit the same crimes. One model of adolescent antisocial behavior that may be useful to a progressive theory of punishment in juvenile justice distinguishes between instrumental violence, by which the actor behaves thoughtfully and calmly to achieve personal gain, and reactive violence, which is characterized as impulsive, emotional retaliation toward a perceived threat or injustice. In particular, social cognitive differences between instrumental and reactive violence have implications for responsibility, length and structure of incarceration, rehabilitation, and other issues that are central to a progressive theory of juvenile culpability and punishment.

  3. MIDER: network inference with mutual information distance and entropy reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro F Villaverde

    Full Text Available The prediction of links among variables from a given dataset is a task referred to as network inference or reverse engineering. It is an open problem in bioinformatics and systems biology, as well as in other areas of science. Information theory, which uses concepts such as mutual information, provides a rigorous framework for addressing it. While a number of information-theoretic methods are already available, most of them focus on a particular type of problem, introducing assumptions that limit their generality. Furthermore, many of these methods lack a publicly available implementation. Here we present MIDER, a method for inferring network structures with information theoretic concepts. It consists of two steps: first, it provides a representation of the network in which the distance among nodes indicates their statistical closeness. Second, it refines the prediction of the existing links to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions and to assign directionality. The method accepts as input time-series data related to some quantitative features of the network nodes (such as e.g. concentrations, if the nodes are chemical species. It takes into account time delays between variables, and allows choosing among several definitions and normalizations of mutual information. It is general purpose: it may be applied to any type of network, cellular or otherwise. A Matlab implementation including source code and data is freely available (http://www.iim.csic.es/~gingproc/mider.html. The performance of MIDER has been evaluated on seven different benchmark problems that cover the main types of cellular networks, including metabolic, gene regulatory, and signaling. Comparisons with state of the art information-theoretic methods have demonstrated the competitive performance of MIDER, as well as its versatility. Its use does not demand any a priori knowledge from the user; the default settings and the adaptive nature of the method provide good

  4. MIDER: network inference with mutual information distance and entropy reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Alejandro F; Ross, John; Morán, Federico; Banga, Julio R

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of links among variables from a given dataset is a task referred to as network inference or reverse engineering. It is an open problem in bioinformatics and systems biology, as well as in other areas of science. Information theory, which uses concepts such as mutual information, provides a rigorous framework for addressing it. While a number of information-theoretic methods are already available, most of them focus on a particular type of problem, introducing assumptions that limit their generality. Furthermore, many of these methods lack a publicly available implementation. Here we present MIDER, a method for inferring network structures with information theoretic concepts. It consists of two steps: first, it provides a representation of the network in which the distance among nodes indicates their statistical closeness. Second, it refines the prediction of the existing links to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions and to assign directionality. The method accepts as input time-series data related to some quantitative features of the network nodes (such as e.g. concentrations, if the nodes are chemical species). It takes into account time delays between variables, and allows choosing among several definitions and normalizations of mutual information. It is general purpose: it may be applied to any type of network, cellular or otherwise. A Matlab implementation including source code and data is freely available (http://www.iim.csic.es/~gingproc/mider.html). The performance of MIDER has been evaluated on seven different benchmark problems that cover the main types of cellular networks, including metabolic, gene regulatory, and signaling. Comparisons with state of the art information-theoretic methods have demonstrated the competitive performance of MIDER, as well as its versatility. Its use does not demand any a priori knowledge from the user; the default settings and the adaptive nature of the method provide good results for a wide

  5. Information Source Selection and Management Framework in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    information source selection and management framework and presents an algorithm which selects the information source based on the information mismatch probability [1]. The sampling rate for every access is decided as per the maximum allowable power consumption limit. Index Terms-wireless sensor network...... applications. Different properties and characteristics like sensitivity, response time etc., of these different sensors will result in generating information at difl'erent rates. When these different types of sensors are deployed to collect same information, the users have choice to select from different...... information sources based on their preferences and requirement. In addition, the user can also switch from one information source to another when the current information source either becomes unavailable or the users requirement changes. In this paper, based on above argument, we develop a reliable...

  6. Information Source Selection and Management Framework in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    information source selection and management framework and presents an algorithm which selects the information source based on the information mismatch probability [1]. The sampling rate for every access is decided as per the maximum allowable power consumption limit. Index Terms-wireless sensor network...... applications. Different properties and characteristics like sensitivity, response time etc., of these different sensors will result in generating information at difl'erent rates. When these different types of sensors are deployed to collect same information, the users have choice to select from different...... information sources based on their preferences and requirement. In addition, the user can also switch from one information source to another when the current information source either becomes unavailable or the users requirement changes. In this paper, based on above argument, we develop a reliable...

  7. Technique of information hiding based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Tao, Gu

    2007-04-01

    A neural network algorithm is proposed which can conceal different files effectively such as *.exe, *.com, *.doc, *.txt and self-defined file formats. First, the important contents of the file are coded into a binary array. The total number of 0s and 1s is N. Second, to make the neural network learn the sample space, N pixel values and their closely relevant pixel values are randomly chosen from a color BMP format image and used to train the neural network, thus we get a group of network parameters and its outputs Y1. Each element of Y1 is increased by 0 or 1 according to the zeros and ones from the array, the increased Y1is called Y2. Third, using the transmitted parameters, a receiver can restore the neural network. Network outputs Y3(Y1) can also be obtained by simulating the restored neural network with the seed pixel values. Finally, the encrypted information can be decoded by Y2 and Y3. The acquisition of parameters and Y1 is different when the neural network is trained each time, so the algorithm has the characteristic of a one-time pad, which can enhance the correspondence security. Because the network colligates the chosen pixel values and their closely relevant pixel values, a cryptanalyst can not restore the network parameters and Y3 easily. Without the seed picture and the password, he does not know the encrypted data even if he knows the network parameters and Y2. If he only has the seed picture, he does not know the encrypted contents either, because there is no other information in the picture, which just is used to train the network. Using the same algorithm, the fragile watermark can be embedded into Y1 simultaneously. Besides telling you whether Y2 or network parameters have been tampered with, the fragile watermark could as well, reflecting the distortion status in the spatial domain of the tampered image. Therefore, the proposed method is of significance in practice.

  8. Towards a Framework to Analyze Causal Relations From Digital Information Networks To Micro Economic Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madureira, A.; Baken, N.; Bouwman, H.

    2009-01-01

    Digital Information Networks (DINs) refer to information networks supported by telecommunication infrastructures and terminated by microprocessors. In the recent past, there is a consolidated recognition that the public digital network infrastructure is of high economic importance, being generally r

  9. Information dynamics of brain-heart physiological networks during sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, L.; Nollo, G.; Jurysta, F.; Marinazzo, D.

    2014-10-01

    This study proposes an integrated approach, framed in the emerging fields of network physiology and information dynamics, for the quantitative analysis of brain-heart interaction networks during sleep. With this approach, the time series of cardiac vagal autonomic activity and brain wave activities measured respectively as the normalized high frequency component of heart rate variability and the EEG power in the δ, θ, α, σ, and β bands, are considered as realizations of the stochastic processes describing the dynamics of the heart system and of different brain sub-systems. Entropy-based measures are exploited to quantify the predictive information carried by each (sub)system, and to dissect this information into a part actively stored in the system and a part transferred to it from the other connected systems. The application of this approach to polysomnographic recordings of ten healthy subjects led us to identify a structured network of sleep brain-brain and brain-heart interactions, with the node described by the β EEG power acting as a hub which conveys the largest amount of information flowing between the heart and brain nodes. This network was found to be sustained mostly by the transitions across different sleep stages, as the information transfer was weaker during specific stages than during the whole night, and vanished progressively when moving from light sleep to deep sleep and to REM sleep.

  10. Enabling information management systems in tactical network environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Marco; Uszok, Andrzej; Suri, Niranjan; Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Ceccio, Philip J.; Hanna, James P.; Sinclair, Asher

    2009-05-01

    Net-Centric Information Management (IM) and sharing in tactical environments promises to revolutionize forward command and control capabilities by providing ubiquitous shared situational awareness to the warfighter. This vision can be realized by leveraging the tactical and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) which provide the underlying communications infrastructure, but, significant technical challenges remain. Enabling information management in these highly dynamic environments will require multiple support services and protocols which are affected by, and highly dependent on, the underlying capabilities and dynamics of the tactical network infrastructure. In this paper we investigate, discuss, and evaluate the effects of realistic tactical and mobile communications network environments on mission-critical information management systems. We motivate our discussion by introducing the Advanced Information Management System (AIMS) which is targeted for deployment in tactical sensor systems. We present some operational requirements for AIMS and highlight how critical IM support services such as discovery, transport, federation, and Quality of Service (QoS) management are necessary to meet these requirements. Our goal is to provide a qualitative analysis of the impact of underlying assumptions of availability and performance of some of the critical services supporting tactical information management. We will also propose and describe a number of technologies and capabilities that have been developed to address these challenges, providing alternative approaches for transport, service discovery, and federation services for tactical networks.

  11. Temporal Evolution Of Information In Neural Networks With Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giahi Saravani, Aram; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent neural networks are pivotal for information processing in the brain. Here we analyze how the information content of a neural population is altered by dynamic feedback of a stimulus estimated from the network activity. We find that the temporal evolution of the Fisher information in the model with feedback is bounded by the Fisher information in a network of pure integrators. The available information in the feedback model saturates with a time constant and to a final level both determined by the match between the estimator weights and the feedback weights. This network then encodes signals specifically from either the beginning or the end of the stimulus presentation, depending on this match. These results are relevant to recent experimental measurements of psychophysical kernels indicating that earlier stimuli have a stronger influence on perceptual discriminations than more recent stimuli. We discuss consequences of this description for choice correlations, a measure of how individual neuronal responses relate to perceptual estimates. McNair Foundation, Baylor College of Medicine, Rice University.

  12. Research of multi-path routing based on network coding in space information networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Geng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-path routing algorithm based on network coding is proposed for combating long propagation delay and high bit error rate of space information networks. On the basis of traditional multi-path routing, the algorithm uses a random linear network coding strategy to code data packets. Code number is determined by the next hop link status and the number of current received packets sent by the upstream node together. The algorithm improves retransmission and cache mechanisms through using redundancy caused by network coding. Meanwhile, the algorithm also adopts the flow distribution strategy based on time delay to balance network load. Simulation results show that the proposed routing algorithm can effectively improve packet delivery rate, reduce packet delay, and enhance network performance.

  13. Seeking Social Justice in the ACRL Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Battista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to address the possibilities and challenges librarians concerned with social justice may face when working with the ACRL Framework. While the Framework recognizes that information emerges from varied contexts that reflect uneven distributions of power, privilege, and authority, it is missing a cogent statement that connects information literacy to social justice. In this article, authors concerned with social justice and civic engagement will share their reflections on the Framework from a critical pedagogical and social justice orientation.

  14. Towards the understanding of network information processing in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay

    Living organisms perform incredibly well in detecting a signal present in the environment. This information processing is achieved near optimally and quite reliably, even though the sources of signals are highly variable and complex. The work in the last few decades has given us a fair understanding of how individual signal processing units like neurons and cell receptors process signals, but the principles of collective information processing on biological networks are far from clear. Information processing in biological networks, like the brain, metabolic circuits, cellular-signaling circuits, etc., involves complex interactions among a large number of units (neurons, receptors). The combinatorially large number of states such a system can exist in makes it impossible to study these systems from the first principles, starting from the interactions between the basic units. The principles of collective information processing on such complex networks can be identified using coarse graining approaches. This could provide insights into the organization and function of complex biological networks. Here I study models of biological networks using continuum dynamics, renormalization, maximum likelihood estimation and information theory. Such coarse graining approaches identify features that are essential for certain processes performed by underlying biological networks. We find that long-range connections in the brain allow for global scale feature detection in a signal. These also suppress the noise and remove any gaps present in the signal. Hierarchical organization with long-range connections leads to large-scale connectivity at low synapse numbers. Time delays can be utilized to separate a mixture of signals with temporal scales. Our observations indicate that the rules in multivariate signal processing are quite different from traditional single unit signal processing.

  15. Directedness of information flow in mobile phone communication networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peruani

    Full Text Available Without having direct access to the information that is being exchanged, traces of information flow can be obtained by looking at temporal sequences of user interactions. These sequences can be represented as causality trees whose statistics result from a complex interplay between the topology of the underlying (social network and the time correlations among the communications. Here, we study causality trees in mobile-phone data, which can be represented as a dynamical directed network. This representation of the data reveals the existence of super-spreaders and super-receivers. We show that the tree statistics, respectively the information spreading process, are extremely sensitive to the in-out degree correlation exhibited by the users. We also learn that a given information, e.g., a rumor, would require users to retransmit it for more than 30 hours in order to cover a macroscopic fraction of the system. Our analysis indicates that topological node-node correlations of the underlying social network, while allowing the existence of information loops, they also promote information spreading. Temporal correlations, and therefore causality effects, are only visible as local phenomena and during short time scales. Consequently, the very idea that there is (intentional information spreading beyond a small vecinity is called into question. These results are obtained through a combination of theory and data analysis techniques.

  16. Suppressing disease spreading by using information diffusion on multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Quan-Hui; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Braunstein, Lidia A.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-07-01

    Although there is always an interplay between the dynamics of information diffusion and disease spreading, the empirical research on the systemic coevolution mechanisms connecting these two spreading dynamics is still lacking. Here we investigate the coevolution mechanisms and dynamics between information and disease spreading by utilizing real data and a proposed spreading model on multiplex network. Our empirical analysis finds asymmetrical interactions between the information and disease spreading dynamics. Our results obtained from both the theoretical framework and extensive stochastic numerical simulations suggest that an information outbreak can be triggered in a communication network by its own spreading dynamics or by a disease outbreak on a contact network, but that the disease threshold is not affected by information spreading. Our key finding is that there is an optimal information transmission rate that markedly suppresses the disease spreading. We find that the time evolution of the dynamics in the proposed model qualitatively agrees with the real-world spreading processes at the optimal information transmission rate.

  17. Probing models of information spreading in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zoller, J

    2014-01-01

    We apply signal processing analysis to the information spreading in scale-free network. To reproduce typical behaviors obtained from the analysis of information spreading in the world wide web we use a modified SIS model where synergy effects and influential nodes are taken into account. This model depends on a single free parameter that characterize the memory-time of the spreading process. We show that by means of fractal analysis it is possible -from aggregated easily accessible data- to gain information on the memory time of the underlying mechanism driving the information spreading process.

  18. Information processing and routing in wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yang; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2006-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art cross-layer optimization techniques for energy-efficient information processing and routing in wireless sensor networks. Besides providing a survey on this important research area, three specific topics are discussed in detail - information processing in a collocated cluster, information transport over a tree substrate, and information routing for computationally intensive applications. The book covers several important system knobs for cross-layer optimization, including voltage scaling, rate adaptation, and tunable compression. By exploring tradeoffs of en

  19. Information flow among neural networks with Bayesian estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; LI XiaoLi; OUYANG GaoXiang; GUAN XinPing

    2007-01-01

    Estimating the interaction among neural networks is an interesting issue in neuroscience. Some methods have been proposed to estimate the coupling strength among neural networks; however, few estimations of the coupling direction (information flow) among neural networks have been attempted. It is known that Bayesian estimator is based on a priori knowledge and a probability of event occurrence. In this paper, a new method is proposed to estimate coupling directions among neural networks with conditional mutual information that is estimated by Bayesian estimation. First, this method is applied to analyze the simulated EEG series generated by a nonlinear lumped-parameter model. In comparison with the conditional mutual information with Shannon entropy, it is found that this method is more successful in estimating the coupling direction, and is insensitive to the length of EEG series. Therefore, this method is suitable to analyze a short time series in practice. Second, we demonstrate how this method can be applied to the analysis of human intracranial epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, and to indicate the coupling directions among neural networks. Therefore, this method helps to elucidate the epileptic focus localization.

  20. Analysis of co-occurrence networks with clique occurrence information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Li, Yixiao

    2014-12-01

    Most of co-occurrence networks only record co-occurrence relationships between two entities, and ignore the weights of co-occurrence cliques whose size is bigger than two. However, this ignored information may help us to gain insight into the co-occurrence phenomena of systems. In this paper, we analyze co-occurrence networks with clique occurrence information (CNCI) thoroughly. First, we describe the components of CNCIs and discuss the generation of clique occurrence information. And then, to illustrate the importance and usefulness of clique occurrence information, several metrics, i.e. single occurrence rate, average size of maximal co-occurrence cliques and four types of co-occurrence coefficients etc., are given. Moreover, some applications, such as combining co-occurrence frequency with structure-oriented centrality measures, are also discussed.

  1. Strategies on the Implementation of China's Logistics Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yahui; Li, Wei; Guo, Xuwen

    The economic globalization and trend of e-commerce network have determined that the logistics industry will be rapidly developed in the 21st century. In order to achieve the optimal allocation of resources, a worldwide rapid and sound customer service system should be established. The establishment of a corresponding modern logistics system is the inevitable choice of this requirement. It is also the inevitable choice for the development of modern logistics industry in China. The perfect combination of modern logistics and information network can better promote the development of the logistics industry. Through the analysis of Status of Logistics Industry in China, this paper summed up the domestic logistics enterprise logistics information system in the building of some common problems. According to logistics information systems planning methods and principles set out logistics information system to optimize the management model.

  2. Polarization of perceived Procedural Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Douglas H; Hernandez-Marrero, Pablo; Wielemaker, Martin

    2006-02-01

    This study examined polarization of perceptions of Procedural Justice. Two polarization mechanisms are examined, Persuasive Arguments and Social Comparisons. Participants were students enrolled in a first-year introductory business class. There were 216 participants in the Persuasive Arguments study, 429 in the Social Comparisons study. The average age of all participants was 22.3 yr. (SD = 2.1); 56% were women. Fields of study represented were business, engineering, information technology, and sports. Analysis showed under conditions of low Procedural Justice, polarization effects were only found with the Persuasive Arguments mechanism. Under conditions of high Procedural Justice, polarization effects were only found with Social Comparisons. Implications for group polarization and Procedural Justice theories are considered.

  3. Analyzing complex networks evolution through Information Theory quantifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpi, Laura C., E-mail: Laura.Carpi@studentmail.newcastle.edu.a [Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil); Rosso, Osvaldo A., E-mail: rosso@fisica.ufmg.b [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil); Chaos and Biology Group, Instituto de Calculo, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saco, Patricia M., E-mail: Patricia.Saco@newcastle.edu.a [Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia); Departamento de Hidraulica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avenida Pellegrini 250, Rosario (Argentina); Ravetti, Martin Gomez, E-mail: martin.ravetti@dep.ufmg.b [Departamento de Engenharia de Producao, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil)

    2011-01-24

    A methodology to analyze dynamical changes in complex networks based on Information Theory quantifiers is proposed. The square root of the Jensen-Shannon divergence, a measure of dissimilarity between two probability distributions, and the MPR Statistical Complexity are used to quantify states in the network evolution process. Three cases are analyzed, the Watts-Strogatz model, a gene network during the progression of Alzheimer's disease and a climate network for the Tropical Pacific region to study the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamic. We find that the proposed quantifiers are able not only to capture changes in the dynamics of the processes but also to quantify and compare states in their evolution.

  4. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Call priority interruption and call priority interruption protection supplementary services

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Call priority interruption and call priority interruption protection supplementary services

  5. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private Integrated Services Network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Call transfer supplementary service

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private Integrated Services Network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Call transfer supplementary service

  6. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Recall supplementary service

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Recall supplementary service

  7. MIMO Cellular Networks with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we introduce a mathematical approach for system-level analysis and optimization of densely deployed multiple-antenna cellular networks, where low-energy devices are capable of decoding information data and harvesting power simultaneously. The base stations are assumed to be deployed according to a Poisson point process and tools from stochastic geometry are exploited to quantify the trade-off in terms of information rate and harvested power. It is shown ...

  8. Networks in financial markets based on the mutual information rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedor, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    In the last few years there have been many efforts in econophysics studying how network theory can facilitate understanding of complex financial markets. These efforts consist mainly of the study of correlation-based hierarchical networks. This is somewhat surprising as the underlying assumptions of research looking at financial markets are that they are complex systems and thus behave in a nonlinear manner, which is confirmed by numerous studies, making the use of correlations which are inherently dealing with linear dependencies only baffling. In this paper we introduce a way to incorporate nonlinear dynamics and dependencies into hierarchical networks to study financial markets using mutual information and its dynamical extension: the mutual information rate. We show that this approach leads to different results than the correlation-based approach used in most studies, on the basis of 91 companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange 100 between 2003 and 2013, using minimal spanning trees and planar maximally filtered graphs.

  9. Topology for efficient information dissemination in ad-hoc networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, E.; Okino, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the information dissemination problem in ad-hoc wirless networks. First, we analyze the probability of successful broadcast, assuming: the nodes are uniformly distributed, the available area has a lower bould relative to the total number of nodes, and there is zero knowledge of the overall topology of the network. By showing that the probability of such events is small, we are motivated to extract good graph topologies to minimize the overall transmissions. Three algorithms are used to generate topologies of the network with guaranteed connectivity. These are the minimum radius graph, the relative neighborhood graph and the minimum spanning tree. Our simulation shows that the relative neighborhood graph has certain good graph properties, which makes it suitable for efficient information dissemination.

  10. Localization with Imprecise Distance Information in Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, M.; Anderson, B.D.O.; Morse, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    An approach to formulate geometric relations among distances between nodes as equality constraints is introduced in this paper to study the localization problem with imprecise distance information in sensor networks. These constraints can be further used to formulate optimization problems for distan

  11. Maximizing Information Diffusion in the Cyber-physical Integrated Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Lu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, our living environment has been embedded with smart objects, such as smart sensors, smart watches and smart phones. They make cyberspace and physical space integrated by their abundant abilities of sensing, communication and computation, forming a cyber-physical integrated network. In order to maximize information diffusion in such a network, a group of objects are selected as the forwarding points. To optimize the selection, a minimum connected dominating set (CDS strategy is adopted. However, existing approaches focus on minimizing the size of the CDS, neglecting an important factor: the weight of links. In this paper, we propose a distributed maximizing the probability of information diffusion (DMPID algorithm in the cyber-physical integrated network. Unlike previous approaches that only consider the size of CDS selection, DMPID also considers the information spread probability that depends on the weight of links. To weaken the effects of excessively-weighted links, we also present an optimization strategy that can properly balance the two factors. The results of extensive simulation show that DMPID can nearly double the information diffusion probability, while keeping a reasonable size of selection with low overhead in different distributed networks.

  12. Jumpstarting the Information Design for a Community Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Misha W.; Schwartz, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Describes the process and outcome of an effort to develop an information design for a community network's Web site. Topics include user-centered design techniques, diffusion of innovations literature, targeting innovators and early adopters, the use of focus groups, and usability tests. (Author/LRW)

  13. Audit Trail Management System in Community Health Care Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Nakayama, Masaharu; Nakaya, Jun; Tominaga, Teiji; Suganuma, Takuo; Shiratori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake we constructed a community health care information network system. Focusing on the authentication server and portal server capable of SAML&ID-WSF, we proposed an audit trail management system to look over audit events in a comprehensive manner. Through implementation and experimentation, we verified the effectiveness of our proposed audit trail management system.

  14. Factors enabling information propagation in a Social Network Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Montesi, Danilo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    , and because of the very large amount of people that can potentially be exposed to information items. While many general formal models of network propagation have been developed in different research fields, in this chapter we present the result of an empirical study on a Large Social Database (LSD) aimed...

  15. Determinants of Informal Coordination in Networked Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogulin, R.; Selen, W.; Ashayeri, J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Provide insight into the determinants or constructs that enable informally networked supply chains to operate in order to achieve improved operational performance. Design/methodology/approach – The research is based on a wide literature review, focused on the identification of dimensions o

  16. Maximizing Information Diffusion in the Cyber-physical Integrated Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongliang; Lv, Shaohe; Jiao, Xianlong; Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Juan

    2015-11-11

    Nowadays, our living environment has been embedded with smart objects, such as smart sensors, smart watches and smart phones. They make cyberspace and physical space integrated by their abundant abilities of sensing, communication and computation, forming a cyber-physical integrated network. In order to maximize information diffusion in such a network, a group of objects are selected as the forwarding points. To optimize the selection, a minimum connected dominating set (CDS) strategy is adopted. However, existing approaches focus on minimizing the size of the CDS, neglecting an important factor: the weight of links. In this paper, we propose a distributed maximizing the probability of information diffusion (DMPID) algorithm in the cyber-physical integrated network. Unlike previous approaches that only consider the size of CDS selection, DMPID also considers the information spread probability that depends on the weight of links. To weaken the effects of excessively-weighted links, we also present an optimization strategy that can properly balance the two factors. The results of extensive simulation show that DMPID can nearly double the information diffusion probability, while keeping a reasonable size of selection with low overhead in different distributed networks.

  17. Factors enabling information propagation in a Social Network Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Montesi, Danilo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    , and because of the very large amount of people that can potentially be exposed to information items. While many general formal models of network propagation have been developed in different research fields, in this chapter we present the result of an empirical study on a Large Social Database (LSD) aimed...

  18. Networking the Land: Rural America in the Information Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Christopher

    This report describes 10 projects funded by the federal Technology Opportunities Program, in which people in isolated regions are finding ways to connect to new information networks and are reaping social, economic, and educational benefits. In the sprawling Navajo Nation, where many families lack even basic telephone service, local tribal…

  19. A Provisional Framework for Studying Information Connectivity in Food Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Engelseth, Per; Karlsen, Anniken

    2008-01-01

    Through a discussion of peculiarities of food supply, involving focus on information connectivity, a preliminary framework is sought that underlines joint responsibility in a complete supply chain of actors working in network context to achieve safe, quality and economic provision of products to end-use.

  20. Self-Organized Information Processing in Neuronal Networks: Replacing Layers in Deep Networks by Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Christoph

    It is astonishing how the sub-parts of a brain co-act to produce coherent behavior. What are mechanism that coordinate information processing and communication and how can those be changed flexibly in order to cope with variable contexts? Here we show that when information is encoded in the deviations around a collective dynamical reference state of a recurrent network the propagation of these fluctuations is strongly dependent on precisely this underlying reference. Information here 'surfs' on top of the collective dynamics and switching between states enables fast and flexible rerouting of information. This in turn affects local processing and consequently changes in the global reference dynamics that re-regulate the distribution of information. This provides a generic mechanism for self-organized information processing as we demonstrate with an oscillatory Hopfield network that performs contextual pattern recognition. Deep neural networks have proven to be very successful recently. Here we show that generating information channels via collective reference dynamics can effectively compress a deep multi-layer architecture into a single layer making this mechanism a promising candidate for the organization of information processing in biological neuronal networks.

  1. Study on control information network and its real-time property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhuanfeng; Liu Weiguo; Luo Guangzhao; Wu Pusheng

    2008-01-01

    The control network is an important developmental orientation in the remote control system. As the control network and information network are comparatively alike in the framework and technology, we can build a control network which is similar to the common information network. In the era when the information network is becoming increasingly mature, it is a royal road to construct or rebuild a control information network in the development of the control network by relying on the achievements made in the information network or current information resources. This paper expounds the construction idea of the control information network, gives the idiographic realization method and then researches into the real-time problem encountered in the control information network, and presents a three-closed-loop control system based on virtualized reality. The feasibility of the idea is validated via experiments and simulations separately.

  2. Estimating topological properties of weighted networks from limited information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Andrea; Cimini, Giulio; Garlaschelli, Diego; Squartini, Angelo

    A typical problem met when studying complex systems is the limited information available on their topology, which hinders our understanding of their structural and dynamical properties. A paramount example is provided by financial networks, whose data are privacy protected. Yet, the estimation of systemic risk strongly depends on the detailed structure of the interbank network. The resulting challenge is that of using aggregate information to statistically reconstruct a network and correctly predict its higher-order properties. Standard approaches either generate unrealistically dense networks, or fail to reproduce the observed topology by assigning homogeneous link weights. Here we develop a reconstruction method, based on statistical mechanics concepts, that exploits the empirical link density in a highly non-trivial way. Technically, our approach consists in the preliminary estimation of node degrees from empirical node strengths and link density, followed by a maximum-entropy inference based on a combination of empirical strengths and estimated degrees. Our method is successfully tested on the international trade network and the interbank money market, and represents a valuable tool for gaining insights on privacy-protected or partially accessible systems. Acknoweledgement to ``Growthcom'' ICT - EC project (Grant No: 611272) and ``Crisislab'' Italian Project.

  3. A Proposed Precision Network Measurements Architecture for the Philippine Research, Education, and Government Information Network (PREGINET)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes a network measurements architecture for the Philippine research, education, and government information network (PREGINET). The proposed architecture is an NTP-based hybrid network measurements system, which offers precise measurements, easily managed, and less bandwidth-consuming system. An NTP via GPS setup is included in the architecture to provide precise time synchronization all over the network. This setup provides a precise time reference for both the source of the measurements data and the collecting or processing machines.The current network measurements implementations in PREGINET, as presented in the latter part of the paper, will provide a hint on what tools have to be developed in order to implement the proposed architecture.

  4. Part mutual information for quantifying direct associations in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Zhou, Yiwei; Zhang, Xiujun; Chen, Luonan

    2016-05-03

    Quantitatively identifying direct dependencies between variables is an important task in data analysis, in particular for reconstructing various types of networks and causal relations in science and engineering. One of the most widely used criteria is partial correlation, but it can only measure linearly direct association and miss nonlinear associations. However, based on conditional independence, conditional mutual information (CMI) is able to quantify nonlinearly direct relationships among variables from the observed data, superior to linear measures, but suffers from a serious problem of underestimation, in particular for those variables with tight associations in a network, which severely limits its applications. In this work, we propose a new concept, "partial independence," with a new measure, "part mutual information" (PMI), which not only can overcome the problem of CMI but also retains the quantification properties of both mutual information (MI) and CMI. Specifically, we first defined PMI to measure nonlinearly direct dependencies between variables and then derived its relations with MI and CMI. Finally, we used a number of simulated data as benchmark examples to numerically demonstrate PMI features and further real gene expression data from Escherichia coli and yeast to reconstruct gene regulatory networks, which all validated the advantages of PMI for accurately quantifying nonlinearly direct associations in networks.

  5. FCJ-145 Temporal Utopianism and Global Information Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew White

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the late nineteenth century western circumnavigation of the globe and ever more accurate cartography shifted the utopian genre from the spatial to the temporal – humans’ mastery of place and space developed in contradistinction to their inability to control time, a phenomena that has become seemingly more pronounced in our modern networked societies. But does this increasing temporal instability contain utopian possibilities as well as dystopian threat? This paper engages with ideas in contemporary sociology on the nature of time to identify its potential for utopian thinking and asks whether this can be realised through global information networks.

  6. The Value of Information in Distributed Decision Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    the network. To illustrate the theoretical issues arising in this context, let us consider a learning problem over a social network of rational agents...and WH > WL, and suppose that each individual receives an imperfectly informative signal about the value of W (also referred to as his private belief ...another and have a common support [σ̃, σ̄] ⊆ [[0, 1]. We say that the private beliefs are bounded if 0 < σ̃ < σ̄ < 1; and unbounded if [σ̃, σ̄] = [0, 1

  7. Conceptual Framework for Developing a Diabetes Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, Hossein; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Larijani, Bagher; Shahmoradi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To provide a conceptual framework for managing diabetic patient care, and creating an information network for clinical research. Background: A wide range of information technology (IT) based interventions such as distance learning, diabetes registries, personal or electronic health record systems, clinical information systems, and clinical decision support systems have so far been used in supporting diabetic care. Previous studies demonstrated that IT could improve diabetes care at its different aspects. There is however no comprehensive conceptual framework that defines how different IT applications can support diverse aspects of this care. Therefore, a conceptual framework that combines different IT solutions into a wide information network for improving care processes and for research purposes is widely lacking. In this study we describe the theoretical underpin of a big project aiming at building a wide diabetic information network namely DIANET. Research design and methods: A literature review and a survey of national programs and existing regulations for diabetes management was conducted in order to define different aspects of diabetic care that should be supported by IT solutions. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in this study. In addition to the results of a previous systematic literature review, two brainstorming and three expert panel sessions were conducted to identify requirements of a comprehensive information technology solution. Based on these inputs, the requirements for creating a diabetes information network were identified and used to create a questionnaire based on 9-point Likert scale. The questionnaire was finalized after removing some items based on calculated content validity ratio and content validity index coefficients. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient was also calculated (αTotal= 0.98, P<0.05, CI=0.95). The final questionnaire was containing 45 items. It was sent to 13 clinicians at two

  8. The Networking and Information Technology Research and Development NITRD Program 2012 Strategic Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Information technology IT computers, wired and wireless digital networks, electronic data and information, IT devices and systems, and software applications?today...

  9. 76 FR 39417 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Tenant Resource Network Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Tenant Resource Network Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The proposed... following information: Title of Proposal: Tenant Resource Network Program. OMB Approval Number:...

  10. 77 FR 33229 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; National Resource Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; National Resource Network.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: National Resource Network. OMB.... SUMMARY: The proposed information collection requirement described below will be submitted to the...

  11. Survey on the information network for environmental technology transfer; Kankyo gijutsu iten joho network chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In order to promote the interchange of environmental technologies mainly with developing countries (APEC countries), the concrete survey on construction of the information network for technology transfer was carried out. The useful information about environmental technologies for developing countries are not the latest Japanese information but actual field information in practical use which have been developed on the basis of constant improvements. Developing countries want clean technologies with less environmental burden, and difficult-to-obtain information for small and medium-sized businesses. Data were thus collected mainly in the Chubu district, and the information system was composed of an Internet server and in-house LAN. The system featured by easy retrieval and maintenance of the database was adopted. In addition, Internet connection environment and information needs in developing countries were surveyed. Expansion of the database and information supply, and constant addition of fresh information by continuous maintenance are essential in the future. 6 figs.

  12. A new learning method using prior information of neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Baiquan; Junichi Murata; Kotaro Hirasawa

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new learning method using prior information for three-layered neural networks. Usually when neural networks are used for identification of systems, all of their weights are trained independently, without considering their inter-relation of weight values. Thus the training results are not usually good. The reason for this is that each parameter has its influence on others during the learning. To overcome this problem, first, we give an exact mathematical equation that describes the relation between weight values given by a set of data conveying prior information. Then we present a new learning method that trains a part of the weights and calculates the others by using these exact mathematical equations. In almost all cases, this method keeps prior information given by a mathematical structure exactly during the learning. In addition, a learning method using prior information expressed by inequality is also presented. In any case, the degree of freedom of networks (the number of adjustable weights) is appropriately limited in order to speed up the learning and ensure small errors. Numerical computer simulation results are provided to support the present approaches.

  13. Directedness of information flow in mobile phone communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Peruani, Fernando; 10.1371/journal.pone.0028860

    2013-01-01

    Without having direct access to the information that is being exchanged, traces of information flow can be obtained by looking at temporal sequences of user interactions. These sequences can be represented as causality trees whose statistics result from a complex interplay between the topology of the underlying (social) network and the time correlations among the communications. Here, we study causality trees in mobile-phone data, which can be represented as a dynamical directed network. This representation of the data reveals the existence of super-spreaders and super-receivers. We show that the tree statistics, respectively the information spreading process, are extremely sensitive to the in-out degree correlation exhibited by the users. We also learn that a given information, e.g., a rumor, would require users to retransmit it for more than 30 hours in order to cover a macroscopic fraction of the system. Our analysis indicates that topological node-node correlations of the underlying social network, while ...

  14. Mutual information model for link prediction in heterogeneous complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibian, Hadi; Moghadam Charkari, Nasrollah

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a number of meta-path based similarity indices like PathSim, HeteSim, and random walk have been proposed for link prediction in heterogeneous complex networks. However, these indices suffer from two major drawbacks. Firstly, they are primarily dependent on the connectivity degrees of node pairs without considering the further information provided by the given meta-path. Secondly, most of them are required to use a single and usually symmetric meta-path in advance. Hence, employing a set of different meta-paths is not straightforward. To tackle with these problems, we propose a mutual information model for link prediction in heterogeneous complex networks. The proposed model, called as Meta-path based Mutual Information Index (MMI), introduces meta-path based link entropy to estimate the link likelihood and could be carried on a set of available meta-paths. This estimation measures the amount of information through the paths instead of measuring the amount of connectivity between the node pairs. The experimental results on a Bibliography network show that the MMI obtains high prediction accuracy compared with other popular similarity indices. PMID:28344326

  15. Role of information and communication networks in malaria survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marathe Achla

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quite often symptoms of malaria go unrecognized or untreated. According to the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria, 70% of the malaria cases that are treated at home are mismanaged. Up to 82% of all malaria episodes in sub-Saharan Africa are treated outside the formal health sector. Fast and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria is extremely important in reducing morbidity and mortality. Method Data from 70 different countries is pooled together to construct a panel dataset of health and socio-economic variables for a time span of (1960–2004. The generalized two-stage least squares and panel data models are used to investigate the impact of information and communication network (ICN variables on malaria death probability. The intensity of ICN is represented by the number of telephone main lines per 1,000 people and the number of television sets per 1,000 people. Results The major finding is that the intensity of ICN is associated with reduced probability of deaths of people that are clinically identified as malaria infected. The results are robust for both indicators i.e. interpersonal and mass communication networks and for all model specifications examined. Conclusion The results suggest that information and communication networks can substantially scale up the effectiveness of the existing resources for malaria prevention. Resources spent in preventing malaria are far less than needed. Expanded information and communication networks will widen the avenues for community based "participatory development", that encourages the use of local information, knowledge and decision making. Timely information, immediate care and collective knowledge based treatment can be extremely important in reducing child mortality and achieving the millennium development goal.

  16. Cooperative Routing for Wireless Networks using Mutual-Information Accumulation

    CERN Document Server

    Draper, Stark C; Molisch, Andreas F; Yedidia, Jonathan S

    2009-01-01

    Cooperation between the nodes of wireless multihop networks can increase communication reliability, reduce energy consumption, and decrease latency. The possible improvements are even greater when nodes perform mutual information accumulation using rateless codes. In this paper, we investigate routing problems in such networks. Given a network, a source, and a destination, our objective is to minimize end-to-end transmission delay under energy and bandwidth constraints. We provide an algorithm that determines which nodes should participate in forwarding the message and what resources (time, energy, bandwidth) should be allocated to each. Our approach factors into two sub-problems, each of which can be solved efficiently. For any transmission order we show that solving for the optimum resource allocation can be formulated as a linear programming problem. We then show that the transmission order can be improved systematically by swapping nodes based on the solution of the linear program. Solving a sequence of l...

  17. Query-Based Outlier Detection in Heterogeneous Information Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuck, Jonathan; Zhuang, Honglei; Yan, Xifeng; Cam, Hasan; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Outlier or anomaly detection in large data sets is a fundamental task in data science, with broad applications. However, in real data sets with high-dimensional space, most outliers are hidden in certain dimensional combinations and are relative to a user’s search space and interest. It is often more effective to give power to users and allow them to specify outlier queries flexibly, and the system will then process such mining queries efficiently. In this study, we introduce the concept of query-based outlier in heterogeneous information networks, design a query language to facilitate users to specify such queries flexibly, define a good outlier measure in heterogeneous networks, and study how to process outlier queries efficiently in large data sets. Our experiments on real data sets show that following such a methodology, interesting outliers can be defined and uncovered flexibly and effectively in large heterogeneous networks. PMID:27064397

  18. Information dynamics algorithm for detecting communities in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, E; Bagnoli, F; Liò, P

    2011-01-01

    The problem of community detection is relevant in many scientific disciplines, from social science to statistical physics. Given the impact of community detection in many areas, such as psychology and social sciences, we have addressed the issue of modifying existing well performing algorithms by incorporating elements of the domain application fields, i.e. domain-inspired. We have focused on a psychology and social network - inspired approach which may be useful for further strengthening the link between social network studies and mathematics of community detection. Here we introduce a community-detection algorithm derived from the van Dongen's Markov Cluster algorithm (MCL) method by considering networks' nodes as agents capable to take decisions. In this framework we have introduced a memory factor to mimic a typical human behavior such as the oblivion effect. The method is based on information diffusion and it includes a non-linear processing phase. We test our method on two classical community benchmark ...

  19. From cellular information networks to digital molecular medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rangel-Aldao

    2008-07-01

    participation or even that of healthy individuals in their own care. This so-called P4 medicine (predictive, preventative, personalised and participatory essentially reflects people’s social life in informational biological molecules which are arranged in complex networks following a power law by which very few nodes or hubs made of either genes or their transcription and translation products dominate the entire network through unequal distribution of links or edges. Around one dozen publications of genome-wide association studies (GWAS have shown how the genomic variations of some of these hubs can be applied to predicting the risk of contracting multigenic and common diseases. Moreover, combining GWAS with clinical and metabolic indices of risk significantly improves the power of such techniques for personalised medicine. Key words: Proteome; systems; networks; biotechnology; medicine

  20. Learning Equilibria with Partial Information in Decentralized Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Luca; Lasaulce, Samson; Debbah, Mérouane

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a survey of several important equilibrium concepts for decentralized networks is presented. The term decentralized is used here to refer to scenarios where decisions (e.g., choosing a power allocation policy) are taken autonomously by devices interacting with each other (e.g., through mutual interference). The iterative long-term interaction is characterized by stable points of the wireless network called equilibria. The interest in these equilibria stems from the relevance of network stability and the fact that they can be achieved by letting radio devices to repeatedly interact over time. To achieve these equilibria, several learning techniques, namely, the best response dynamics, fictitious play, smoothed fictitious play, reinforcement learning algorithms, and regret matching, are discussed in terms of information requirements and convergence properties. Most of the notions introduced here, for both equilibria and learning schemes, are illustrated by a simple case study, namely, an interfe...

  1. Gender Differences and Informal Networks in a Scandinavian Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    2001-01-01

    important competencies stated by male and female managers in Danish companies. While the results seem to indicate that there are fewer differences between the genders than might be expected, using a factor analysis indicates that there are some structural differences suggesting that the proposition about...... performed empirical analyses using networks theory. This has resulted in a number of well-founded propositions about how male and female managers develop and use different informal networks. One key finding, among others, is the proposition that female managers seem to develop dual networks (one with other...... women for friendship and one primarily with men for career development), while their male colleagues only develop one, which seems to satisfy both needs. In the empirical part of this paper, data from the Danish Management Barometer are used to gain an insight into the main differences between the most...

  2. Reducing Computational Overhead of Network Coding with Intrinsic Information Conveying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Pedersen, Morten V.

    This paper investigated the possibility of intrinsic information conveying in network coding systems. The information is embedded into the coding vector by constructing the vector based on a set of predefined rules. This information can subsequently be retrieved by any receiver. The starting point...... to the overall energy consumption, which is particular problematic for mobile battery-driven devices. In RLNC coding is performed over a FF (Finite Field). We propose to divide this field into sub fields, and let each sub field signify some information or state. In order to embed the information correctly...... the coding operations must be performed in a particular way, which we introduce. Finally we evaluate the suggested system and find that the amount of coding can be significantly reduced both at nodes that recode and decode....

  3. Basic limits on protocol information in data communications networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallager, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The paper considers basic limitations on the amount of protocol information that must be transmitted in a data communication network to keep track of source and receiver addresses and of the starting and stopping of messages. Assuming Poisson message arrivals between each communicating source-receiver pair, a lower bound is found on the required protocol information for message. This lower bound is the sum of two terms, one for the message-length information, which depends only on the distribution of message lengths, and the other for the message-start information, which depends only on the product of the source-receiver pair arrival rate and the expected delay for transmitting the message. Two strategies are developed which, in the limit of large numbers of sources and receivers, almost meet the lower bound on protocol information.

  4. Network Complexity Measures. An Information-Theoretic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dehmer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative graph analysis by using structural indices has been intricate in a sense that it often remains unclear which structural graph measures is the most suitable one, see [1, 12, 13]. In general, quantitative graph analysis deals with quantifying structural information of networks by using a measurement approach [5]. As special problem thereof is to characterize a graph quantitatively, that means to determine a measure that captures structural features of a network meaningfully. Various classical structural graph measures have been used to tackle this problem [13]. A fruitful approach by using information-theoretic [21] and statistical methods is to quantify the structural information content of a graph [1, 8, 18]. In this note, we sketch some classical information measures. Also, we briefly address the problem what kind of measures capture structural information uniquely. This relates to determine the discrimination power (or also called uniqueness of a graph measure, that is, how is the ability of the measures to discriminate non-isomorphic graphs structurally. [1] D. Bonchev. Information Theoretic Indices for Characterization of Chemical Structures. Research Studies Press, Chichester, 1983. [5] M. Dehmer and F. Emmert-Streib. Quantitative Graph Theory. Theory and Applications. CRC Press, 2014. [8] M. Dehmer, M. Grabner, and K. Varmuza. Information indices with high discriminative power for graphs. PLoS ONE, 7:e31214, 2012. [12] F. Emmert-Streib and M. Dehmer. Exploring statistical and population aspects of network complexity. PLoS ONE, 7:e34523, 2012. [13] F. Harary. Graph Theory. Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1969. Reading, MA, USA. [18] A. Mowshowitz. Entropy and the complexity of the graphs I: An index of the relative complexity of a graph. Bull. Math. Biophys., 30:175–204, 1968. [21] C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press, 1949.

  5. Optimal information transfer in enzymatic networks: A field theoretic formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Himadri S.; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.

    2017-07-01

    Signaling in enzymatic networks is typically triggered by environmental fluctuations, resulting in a series of stochastic chemical reactions, leading to corruption of the signal by noise. For example, information flow is initiated by binding of extracellular ligands to receptors, which is transmitted through a cascade involving kinase-phosphatase stochastic chemical reactions. For a class of such networks, we develop a general field-theoretic approach to calculate the error in signal transmission as a function of an appropriate control variable. Application of the theory to a simple push-pull network, a module in the kinase-phosphatase cascade, recovers the exact results for error in signal transmission previously obtained using umbral calculus [Hinczewski and Thirumalai, Phys. Rev. X 4, 041017 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.041017]. We illustrate the generality of the theory by studying the minimal errors in noise reduction in a reaction cascade with two connected push-pull modules. Such a cascade behaves as an effective three-species network with a pseudointermediate. In this case, optimal information transfer, resulting in the smallest square of the error between the input and output, occurs with a time delay, which is given by the inverse of the decay rate of the pseudointermediate. Surprisingly, in these examples the minimum error computed using simulations that take nonlinearities and discrete nature of molecules into account coincides with the predictions of a linear theory. In contrast, there are substantial deviations between simulations and predictions of the linear theory in error in signal propagation in an enzymatic push-pull network for a certain range of parameters. Inclusion of second-order perturbative corrections shows that differences between simulations and theoretical predictions are minimized. Our study establishes that a field theoretic formulation of stochastic biological signaling offers a systematic way to understand error propagation in

  6. 78 FR 66383 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile Justice Reform and Reinvestment... (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will...

  7. GMOs and Global Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2012-01-01

    claims to justice. This article investigates how GMOs might generate claims to global justice and what type of justice is involved. The paper argues that the debate on GMOs and global justice can be categorized into three views, i.e., the cosmopolitan, the pluralist, and the sceptic. The cosmopolitan...... on the premise that global cooperation on GMO production provides the relevant basis for assessing the use of GMOs by the standard of global distributive justice....

  8. Generating route choice sets with operation information on metro networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the metro system has advanced into an efficient transport system and become the mainstay of urban passenger transport in many mega-cities. Passenger flow is the foundation of making and coordinating operation plans for the metro system, and therefore, a variety of studies were conducted on transit assignment models. Nevertheless route choice sets of passengers also play a paramount role in flow estimation and demand prediction. This paper first discusses the main route constraints of which the train schedule is the most important, that distinguish rail networks from road networks. Then, a two-step approach to generate route choice set in a metro network is proposed. Particularly, the improved approach introduces a route filtering with train operational information based on the conventional method. An initial numerical test shows that the proposed approach gives more reasonable route choice sets for scheduled metro networks, and, consequently, obtains more accurate results from passenger flow assignment. Recommendations for possible opportunities to apply this approach to metro operations are also provided, including its integration into a metro passenger flow assignment and simulation system in practice to help metro authorities provide more precise guidance information for passengers to travel.

  9. Information dynamics algorithm for detecting communities in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Emanuele; Bagnoli, Franco; Guazzini, Andrea; Lió, Pietro

    2012-11-01

    The problem of community detection is relevant in many scientific disciplines, from social science to statistical physics. Given the impact of community detection in many areas, such as psychology and social sciences, we have addressed the issue of modifying existing well performing algorithms by incorporating elements of the domain application fields, i.e. domain-inspired. We have focused on a psychology and social network-inspired approach which may be useful for further strengthening the link between social network studies and mathematics of community detection. Here we introduce a community-detection algorithm derived from the van Dongen's Markov Cluster algorithm (MCL) method [4] by considering networks' nodes as agents capable to take decisions. In this framework we have introduced a memory factor to mimic a typical human behavior such as the oblivion effect. The method is based on information diffusion and it includes a non-linear processing phase. We test our method on two classical community benchmark and on computer generated networks with known community structure. Our approach has three important features: the capacity of detecting overlapping communities, the capability of identifying communities from an individual point of view and the fine tuning the community detectability with respect to prior knowledge of the data. Finally we discuss how to use a Shannon entropy measure for parameter estimation in complex networks.

  10. Building future generation service-oriented information broker networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bourimi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Future generation networks target collecting intelligence from multiple sources based on end-users' data and their social interaction in order to draw useful conclusions on enabling users to execute their rights to online privacy. These networks form a rising class of service-oriented broker platforms. Designers and providers of such network platforms during the design and development of their systems focus primarily on technical specifications and issues. However, given the importance and richness of user information collected, they should already at the design phase take into account legal and ethical requirements. Failure to do so, may result in privacy violations, which may, in turn, affect the success of the network due to increasing awareness with respect to users’ privacy and security concerns, and may incur future costs. In this paper, we show how the di.me system balanced technical and legal requirements through both its design and implementation, while building a decentralized social networking platform. We report on our advances and experiences through a prototypical technology realizing such a platform, analyze the legal implications within the EU legal framework, and provide recommendations and conclusions for user-friendly service-oriented broker platforms.

  11. Affinity Paths and Information Diffusion in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarren, José Luis; 10.1016/j.socnet.2010.11.003

    2011-01-01

    Widespread interest in the diffusion of information through social networks has produced a large number of Social Dynamics models. A majority of them use theoretical hypothesis to explain their diffusion mechanisms while the few empirically based ones average out their measures over many messages of different content. Our empirical research tracking the step-by-step email propagation of an invariable viral marketing message delves into the content impact and has discovered new and striking features. The topology and dynamics of the propagation cascades display patterns not inherited from the email networks carrying the message. Their disconnected, low transitivity, tree-like cascades present positive correlation between their nodes probability to forward the message and the average number of neighbors they target and show increased participants' involvement as the propagation paths length grows. Such patterns not described before, nor replicated by any of the existing models of information diffusion, can be e...

  12. Networks and external sources of information, section 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, P. F.; Wynne, H. G.; Martin, W. A.; Bodini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The basic functional aspects of telecommunications, text searching, and networking are reviewed. Some of the information services, both commercial and noncommercial, which are operational in the United States and Europe are described. The ARPANET, TELENET, TYMET, and EURONET packet networks are described. External online bibliographic data bases and factual data banks are reviewed. Details of services offered, specific topics available, and contact points are given for: (in the United States) the NASA/RECON, DOE/RECON, Defense RDT and E, Lockheed Information System (DIALOG), SDC ORBIT, and the bibliograhic Retrieval systems; and (in Europe), ESA/IRS, the International Atomic Energy Agency, TELESYSTEMS, SPIDEL, INKA DIMDI DATA-STAR, BLAISE, and PERGAMON-INFOLINE systems.

  13. The Dutch criminal justice system : third edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This book covers both the organization of the present Dutch criminal justice system and the main procedures used within the system. It deals with the basic principles that guide the operation of the Dutch criminal justice system. The latest statistical information available is that of the year 2006.

  14. PREFACE: Complex Networks: from Biology to Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrat, A.; Boccaletti, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Chessa, A.; Latora, V.; Motter, A. E.

    2008-06-01

    The field of complex networks is one of the most active areas in contemporary statistical physics. Ten years after seminal work initiated the modern study of networks, interest in the field is in fact still growing, as indicated by the ever increasing number of publications in network science. The reason for such a resounding success is most likely the simplicity and broad significance of the approach that, through graph theory, allows researchers to address a variety of different complex systems within a common framework. This special issue comprises a selection of contributions presented at the workshop 'Complex Networks: from Biology to Information Technology' held in July 2007 in Pula (Cagliari), Italy as a satellite of the general conference STATPHYS23. The contributions cover a wide range of problems that are currently among the most important questions in the area of complex networks and that are likely to stimulate future research. The issue is organised into four sections. The first two sections describe 'methods' to study the structure and the dynamics of complex networks, respectively. After this methodological part, the issue proceeds with a section on applications to biological systems. The issue closes with a section concentrating on applications to the study of social and technological networks. The first section, entitled Methods: The Structure, consists of six contributions focused on the characterisation and analysis of structural properties of complex networks: The paper Motif-based communities in complex networks by Arenas et al is a study of the occurrence of characteristic small subgraphs in complex networks. These subgraphs, known as motifs, are used to define general classes of nodes and their communities by extending the mathematical expression of the Newman-Girvan modularity. The same line of research, aimed at characterising network structure through the analysis of particular subgraphs, is explored by Bianconi and Gulbahce in Algorithm

  15. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-06-01

    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks.

  16. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-06-03

    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks.

  17. Information theory, multivariate dependence, and genetic network inference

    CERN Document Server

    Nemenman, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    We define the concept of dependence among multiple variables using maximum entropy techniques and introduce a graphical notation to denote the dependencies. Direct inference of information theoretic quantities from data uncovers dependencies even in undersampled regimes when the joint probability distribution cannot be reliably estimated. The method is tested on synthetic data. We anticipate it to be useful for inference of genetic circuits and other biological signaling networks.

  18. An intelligent management system for corporate information- calculating network development

    CERN Document Server

    Pirogov, V V; Khristenko, D V

    2001-01-01

    An approach to solving the problem of managerial control quality improvement corporate information-calculating networks (CICN) is proposed. The approach is based on the concept of a flexible toolkit. A macro-model, system-science and system-engineering models of an intelligent managerial control system (IMCS) for CICN development are considered as well as its dynamics. The practical opportunity of IMCS implementation is assessed. (5 refs).

  19. A distributed name resolution system in information centric networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbreiki, Walid; Arlimatti, Shivaleela; Hassan, Suhaidi; Habbal, Adib; Elshaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Information Centric Networks (ICN) is the new paradigm that envisages to shift the Internet away from its existing Point-to-Point architecture to a data centric, where communication is based on named hosts rather than the information stored on these hosts. Name Resolution is the center of attraction for ICN, where Named Data Objects (NDO) are used for identifying the information and guiding for routing or forwarding inside ICN. Recently, several researches use distributed NRS to overcome the problem of interest flooding, congestion and overloading. Yet the distribution of NRS is based on random distribution. How to distribute the NRS is still an important and challenging problem. In this work, we address the problem of distribution of NRS by proposing a new mechanism called Distributed Name Resolution System (DNRS), by considering the time of publishing the NDOs in the NRS. This mechanism partitions the network to distribute the workload among NRSs by increasing storage capacity. In addition, partitioning the network increases flexibility and scalability of NRS. We evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed mechanism, which achieves lesser end-to-end delay with more average throughputs compared to random distribution of NRS without disturbing the underlying routing or forwarding strategies.

  20. Information Model for Connection Management in Automatic Switched Optical Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yunbin(徐云斌); Song Hongsheng; Gui Xuan; Zhang Jie; Gu Wanyi

    2004-01-01

    The three types of connections (Permanent Connection, Soft Permanent Connection and Switched Connection) provided by ASON can adapt the requirement of different network services. Management and maintenance of these three connections are the most important aspect of ASON management. The information models proposed in this paper are used for the purpose of ASON connection management. Firstly a new information model is proposed to meet the requirement for the control plane introduced by ASON. In this model, a new class ControlNE is given, and the relationship between the ControlNE and the transport NE (network element) is also defined. Then this paper proposes information models for the three types of connections for the first time, and analyzes the relationship between the three kinds of connections and the basic network transport entities. Finally, the paper defines some CORBA interfaces for the management of the three connections. In these interfaces, some operations such as create or release a connection are defined, and some other operations can manage the performance of the three kinds of connections, which is necessary for a distributed management system.

  1. Information-Based Physics and the Influence Network

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Kevin H

    2013-01-01

    This essay considers a simple model of observers that are influenced by the world around them. Consistent quantification of information about such influences results in a great deal of familiar physics. The end result is a new perspective on relativistic quantum mechanics, which includes both a way of conceiving of spacetime as well as particle "properties" that may be amenable to a unification of quantum mechanics and gravity. Rather than thinking about the universe as a computer, perhaps it is more accurate to think about it as a network of influences where the laws of physics derive from both consistent descriptions and optimal information-based inferences made by embedded observers.

  2. A Rough Neural Network Algorithm for multisensor Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The multisensor information fusion is a key issue for multisensor system. One of its difficulties lies in the switching of the state of sensor clusters. That is, which direction should the sensor information been fused into at a given moment? An algorithm of multisensor information fusion based on rough set and neural network was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the typical clustering distributions of 54 sensors within one day were regarded as sample space. The rough set was used for access of knowledge to make the decision table of the "data - fusion distribution". Next, the redundant properties and samples of information in one month were removed using the method of knowledge reduction of rough set. Then, the neural network was applied for clustering and analyzing to form the distribution rules of multisensor information fusion. Finally, the rough neural fusion algorithm, the neural quotient space fusion algorithm and word computing fusion algorithm are simulated and analyzed. The results show that the model and algorithm proposed in the paper are efficient in classification and rapid in sensor clustering distribution decide.

  3. Modeling of information diffusion in Twitter-like social networks under information overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Li, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Due to the existence of information overload in social networks, it becomes increasingly difficult for users to find useful information according to their interests. This paper takes Twitter-like social networks into account and proposes models to characterize the process of information diffusion under information overload. Users are classified into different types according to their in-degrees and out-degrees, and user behaviors are generalized into two categories: generating and forwarding. View scope is introduced to model the user information-processing capability under information overload, and the average number of times a message appears in view scopes after it is generated by a given type user is adopted to characterize the information diffusion efficiency, which is calculated theoretically. To verify the accuracy of theoretical analysis results, we conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in social networks, and this analysis framework can be extended to consider more realistic situations.

  4. Investigation of network-based information system model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, A.M.; Perez, M.; Rivera, J.; Rodriguez, Y.; Durst, M.J.; Merrill, D.W.; Holmes, H.H.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the DOE-LBNL summer student research program in computer and information sciences focused on investigating database- based http-based information architectures, and implementation of a prototype using DOE`s Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) metadata or Epidemiology Guide content. We were successful in identifying the components of such an information system, and appropriate configuration given the requirements, and in implementing a prototype. This work comprised investigation of various information systems architectures or variants, evaluation and selection of various tools, products, and packages, preparation of databases, database content, output formats, and graphical (World Wide Web- compatible) interfaces. We successfully prepared and demonstrated network access to content from both the CEDR structured documentation and from the DOD Epidemiology Guides (site archive records).

  5. Diffusion Models for Information Dissemination Dynamics in Wireless Complex Communication Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shin-Ming Cheng; Vasileios Karyotis; Pin-Yu Chen; Kwang-Cheng Chen; Symeon Papavassiliou

    2013-01-01

    Information dissemination has become one of the most important services of communication networks. Modeling the diffusion of information through such networks is crucial for our modern information societies. In this work, novel models, segregating between useful and malicious types of information, are introduced, in order to better study Information Dissemination Dynamics (IDD) in wireless complex communication networks, and eventually allow taking into account special network features in IDD...

  6. Geosciences Information Network (GIN): A Distributed, Interoperable Data Network for the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, L.; Gundersen, L. C.; Richard, S. M.; Dickinson, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    A coalition of the state geological surveys (AASG), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and other partners will receive NSF funding over the next 3 years under the INTEROP solicitation to start building a distributed, interoperable data network that will make thousands of data bases from the geological surveys and their partners available, searchable, and interoperable. This Geosciences Information Network (GIN) will focus on both spatial and analytical geologic data collected across the country for the past 150 years. Key components of the proposed network include: 1) catalog systems for data discovery; 2) service definitions that define interfaces for searching catalogs and accessing resources; 3) shared interchange formats to encode information for transmission; 4) data providers that publish information using standardized services defined by the network; and 5) client applications enabled to utilize information resources provided by the network. The GIN will integrate and utilize catalog resources that currently exist or are in development. We are working closely with the USGS National Geologic Map Database and its existing map catalog; with the USGS National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation project, which is developing a metadata catalog for geoscience information resource discovery; and with the GEON catalog. Existing and emerging extensible mark-up languages such as GeoSciML, ChemML, and Open Geospatial Consortium sensor, observation and measurement MLs will provide the necessary interchange formats. Client application development will be fostered by collaboration with industry partners such as ESRI who's Geology Data Model for ArcGIS software is being designed to be compatible with GIN. The GIN project will focus on development of the remaining aspects of the system including: service definitions, technical assistance to data providers to implement the services and bring content online, and system integration. The Geosciences Information Network

  7. 77 FR 50712 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... local sharing networks that structure contemporary subsistence-cash economies using research methods... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence... in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit written...

  8. Humanitarian Information Management Network Effectiveness: An Analysis at the Organizational and Network Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamassi Tchouakeu, Louis-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Massive international response to humanitarian crises such as the South Asian Tsunami in 2004, the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010 highlights the importance of humanitarian inter-organizational collaboration networks, especially in information management and exchange. Despite more than a decade old call for more research…

  9. Sailor: Maryland's Online Public Information Network. Sailor Network Assessment Final Report Compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    This compendium is a companion document to the Maryland Sailor Online Public Information Network assessment final report, and contains detailed study findings, study data collection activity write-ups, detailed methodologies, data collection tools, and consultant notes on the uses of the study's data collection instruments. The purpose of the…

  10. Justice for the average Joe: the role of envy and the mentalizing network in the deservingness of others' misfortunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; Powell, Caitlin A J; Smith, Richard H; Joseph, Jane E; Kedia, Gayannėe; Combs, David J Y; DeWall, C Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The misfortunes of enviable individuals are met by observers with pleasure whereas those of "average", non-enviable individuals elicit pain. These responses are mirrored in deservingness judgments, as enviable individuals' misfortunes are perceived as deserved and those of non-enviable individuals perceived as undeserved. However, the neural underpinnings of these deservingness disparities remain unknown. To explore this phenomenon, we utilized fMRI to test the hypotheses that (A) non-enviable targets' misfortunes would be associated with activation of brain regions that mediate empathic responding (pain matrix, mentalizing network) and not for enviable targets and (B) that activation of those regions would predict decreases in deservingness judgments. Supporting our first hypothesis, the misfortunes of non-enviable targets (as opposed to good fortunes) were associated with activation of the mentalizing network: medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, temporal-parietal junction, and anterior temporal lobes. Supporting our second hypothesis, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activation from this contrast was negatively correlated with subsequent reports of how much the non-enviable target deserved his/her misfortune. These findings suggest that non-enviable individuals' misfortunes are perceived as unjust due, in part, to the recruitment of the mentalizing network.

  11. The Impact of Leader Justice and Information Justice on Organizational Retaliation Behavior:A Perspective of Referent Cognitions Theory%基于参照认知理论视角的领导公平与信息公平对组织报复行为的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世勇; 欧阳侃

    2012-01-01

    以546名企业员工为研究对象,采用探索性因子分析、验证性因子分析和多元线性回归分析等统计方法,分析了组织报复行为的结构,以及领导公平、信息公平与组织报复行为的关系.研究结果发现,组织报复行为可以分为主动性组织报复行为和退缩性组织报复行为;领导公平对主动性组织报复行为具有预测作用;在预测组织报复行为时,领导公平与信息公平存在交互作用.最后,阐述了研究结果对管理理论与实践的启示.%Utilizing Exploratory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Hierarchical Multiple Regression, the construct of organizational retaliation behavior (ORB) and its relationship with leader justice and information justice are investigated in a sample of 546 employees in China. The results show that, ORB could he divided into two dimensions, which is aggressive ORB and retreated ORB. And the results also show that leader justice predicts ORB, and leader justice and information justice interacted to predict ORB. Theoretical contribution and Implications of the results are also discussed in the paper.

  12. Exploring knowledge transfer within manufacturing networks and codified information characteristics: the hidden dangers of inaccurate information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2004-01-01

    Technology transfer is an important aspect of, and takes frequently place in, international manufacturing networks. A key component of a specific technology is the knowledge and information that accompanies it. This study explores the difficulties with transferring technological knowledge and codifi

  13. DELIVERING TIMELY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY: THE BOULDER AREA SUSTAINABILITY INFORMATION NETWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Technology Transfer and Support Division of the EPA Office of Research and Development's (ORD's) National Risk Management Laboratory in conjunction with the Boulder Area Sustainability Information Network (BASIN) has developed a "how-to" handbook to allow other community orga...

  14. Trade-Offs in Delayed Information Transmission in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, F.; Marsili, M.; Walczak, A. M.

    2016-03-01

    In order to transmit biochemical signals, biological regulatory systems dissipate energy with concomitant entropy production. Additionally, signaling often takes place in challenging environmental conditions. In a simple model regulatory circuit given by an input and a delayed output, we explore the trade-offs between information transmission and the system's energetic efficiency. We determine the maximally informative network, given a fixed amount of entropy production and a delayed response, exploring both the case with and without feedback. We find that feedback allows the circuit to overcome energy constraints and transmit close to the maximum available information even in the dissipationless limit. Negative feedback loops, characteristic of shock responses, are optimal at high dissipation. Close to equilibrium positive feedback loops, known for their stability, become more informative. Asking how the signaling network should be constructed to best function in the worst possible environment, rather than an optimally tuned one or in steady state, we discover that at large dissipation the same universal motif is optimal in all of these conditions.

  15. Transformation of employment conditions in information-network economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Viktorovich Kozlov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of information and network economy influence on the nature of employment are being analyzed. With the development of the fifth technological mode, mechanical movement of the labour forces from one industry to another one is impossible. This is prevented by a broad restructuring of the occupational structure of employment, the disappearance of many "old" professions and the emergence of the ones, which require special educational training. There is a growing share of employment mainly in mental labour and decrease of the proportion of persons employed in manual labour, which includes workers of all skill levels. The reduction of productive employment, partly related to labour productivity growth, is offset by its growth in non-manufacturing "computer" occupations - among various administrative support staff servicing computers, creators of peripheral equipment and programmers, operators of local networks etc. New information technologies make it possible to extend flexible forms of employment that do not require steady jobs. In this process, the information economy can provide a number of issues in employment related to the erosion of traditional social and labour relations, weakening of the legal protection of employees in the information business that requires adequate response of the society and the state.

  16. Information flow through threespine stickleback networks without social transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atton, N.; Hoppitt, W.; Webster, M. M.; Galef, B. G.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    Social networks can result in directed social transmission of learned information, thus influencing how innovations spread through populations. Here we presented shoals of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteous aculeatus) with two identical foraging tasks and applied network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) to determine whether the order in which individuals in a social group contacted and solved the tasks was affected by the group's network structure. We found strong evidence for a social effect on discovery of the foraging tasks with individuals tending to discover a task sooner when others in their group had previously done so, and with the spread of discovery of the foraging tasks influenced by groups' social networks. However, the same patterns of association did not reliably predict spread of solution to the tasks, suggesting that social interactions affected the time at which the tasks were discovered, but not the latency to its solution following discovery. The present analysis, one of the first applications of NBDA to a natural animal system, illustrates how NBDA can lead to insight into the mechanisms supporting behaviour acquisition that more conventional statistical approaches might miss. Importantly, we provide the first compelling evidence that the spread of novel behaviours can result from social learning in the absence of social transmission, a phenomenon that we refer to as an untransmitted social effect on learning. PMID:22896644

  17. Information flow through threespine stickleback networks without social transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atton, N; Hoppitt, W; Webster, M M; Galef, B G; Laland, K N

    2012-10-22

    Social networks can result in directed social transmission of learned information, thus influencing how innovations spread through populations. Here we presented shoals of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteous aculeatus) with two identical foraging tasks and applied network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) to determine whether the order in which individuals in a social group contacted and solved the tasks was affected by the group's network structure. We found strong evidence for a social effect on discovery of the foraging tasks with individuals tending to discover a task sooner when others in their group had previously done so, and with the spread of discovery of the foraging tasks influenced by groups' social networks. However, the same patterns of association did not reliably predict spread of solution to the tasks, suggesting that social interactions affected the time at which the tasks were discovered, but not the latency to its solution following discovery. The present analysis, one of the first applications of NBDA to a natural animal system, illustrates how NBDA can lead to insight into the mechanisms supporting behaviour acquisition that more conventional statistical approaches might miss. Importantly, we provide the first compelling evidence that the spread of novel behaviours can result from social learning in the absence of social transmission, a phenomenon that we refer to as an untransmitted social effect on learning.

  18. Information Centric Networking based Handover Support for QoS Maintenance in Cooperative Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saleem, Muhammad Shoaib; Zeghlache, Djamal

    2011-01-01

    Network of Information (NetInf) is a term coined for networks which unlike contemporary network are not node centric. As the name indicates, information supersedes nodes in the network. In this report, we propose an architecture of mobile node for NetInf. We call it NetInf Mobile Node. It is an extension of the basic node architecture proposed for NetInf. It is compatible to NetInf and TCP/IP based networks. The Virtual Node Layer modules in the architecture provide support for managing mobility, power consumption of the node as well data relaying/storing services. In- ner/Outer Locator Construction Routers (I/O LCTR) are two functions introduced in NetInf mobile nodes to operate between NetInf and non- NetInf sites. The basic purpose of NetInf mobile node is to maintain the QoS during mobility events. The handoff/handover are critical situations during mobility where chances of QoS degradation of an ongoing session are high. This report presents one such scenario in which QoS of an appli- cation is maintaine...

  19. 75 FR 55360 - Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010 Strategic Plan AGENCY: The National Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information Technology Research.... EDT on October 11, 2010. SUMMARY: With this notice, the National Coordination Office for...

  20. Generation of a superposition of odd photon number states for quantum information networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Nielsen, B.; Hettich, C.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum information networks, quantum memories, quantum repeaters, linear optics quantum computers Udgivelsesdato: 25 August......Quantum information networks, quantum memories, quantum repeaters, linear optics quantum computers Udgivelsesdato: 25 August...

  1. 32 CFR 2001.50 - Telecommunications automated information systems and network security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and network security. 2001.50 Section 2001.50 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED... network security. Each agency head shall ensure that classified information electronically...

  2. Design for the simulation of space based information network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Bin; Li Zitang; Wang Wei

    2006-01-01

    Ongoing research is described that is focused upon modelling the space base information network and simulating its behaviours: simulation of spaced based communications and networking project. Its objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a tool that can provide a performance evaluation of various constellation access techniques and routing policies. The architecture and design of the simulation system are explored. The algorithm of data routing and instrument scheduling in this project is described. Besides these, the key methodologies of simulating the inter-satellite link features in the data transmissions are also discussed. The performance of both instrument scheduling algorithm and routing schemes is evaluated and analyzed through extensive simulations under a typical scenario.

  3. Understanding Turnover Intentions and Behavior of Indian Information Systems Professionals: A Study of Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction and Social Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Vidya V.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the phenomenal growth projected for the Indian information technology (IT) industry, one of the biggest challenges it faces is the high rate of turnover in offshore supplier firms based in India (Everest Research Group 2011). According to recent estimates, turnover rates among Indian information systems (IS) professionals have been…

  4. Educating for Social Justice: Perspectives from Library and Information Science and Collaboration with K-12 Social Studies Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Jamie Campbell; Sweeney, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Library and Information Science (LIS) as a discipline is guided by core values that emphasize equal access to information, freedom of expression, democracy, and education. Importantly, diversity and social responsibility are specifically called out as foundations of the profession (American Library Association, 2004). Following from this, there…

  5. Geosciences Information Network (GIN): A modular, distributed, interoperable data network for the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.; Gundersen, L. C.; Richard, S. M.; Dickinson, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    A coalition of the state geological surveys (AASG), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and partners will receive NSF funding over 3 years under the INTEROP solicitation to start building the Geoscience Information Network (www.geoinformatics.info/gin) a distributed, interoperable data network. The GIN project will develop standardized services to link existing and in-progress components using a few standards and protocols, and work with data providers to implement these services. The key components of this network are 1) catalog system(s) for data discovery; 2) service definitions for interfaces for searching catalogs and accessing resources; 3) shared interchange formats to encode information for transmission (e.g. various XML markup languages); 4) data providers that publish information using standardized services defined by the network; and 5) client applications adapted to use information resources provided by the network. The GIN will integrate and use catalog resources that currently exist or are in development. We are working with the USGS National Geologic Map Database's existing map catalog, with the USGS National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program, which is developing a metadata catalog (National Digital Catalog) for geoscience information resource discovery, and with the GEON catalog. Existing interchange formats will be used, such as GeoSciML, ChemML, and Open Geospatial Consortium sensor, observation and measurement MLs. Client application development will be fostered by collaboration with industry and academic partners. The GIN project will focus on the remaining aspects of the system -- service definitions and assistance to data providers to implement the services and bring content online - and on system integration of the modules. Initial formal collaborators include the OneGeology-Europe consortium of 27 nations that is building a comparable network under the EU INSPIRE initiative, GEON, Earthchem, and GIS software company ESRI

  6. Phylogenetically informed logic relationships improve detection of biological network organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A "phylogenetic profile" refers to the presence or absence of a gene across a set of organisms, and it has been proven valuable for understanding gene functional relationships and network organization. Despite this success, few studies have attempted to search beyond just pairwise relationships among genes. Here we search for logic relationships involving three genes, and explore its potential application in gene network analyses. Results Taking advantage of a phylogenetic matrix constructed from the large orthologs database Roundup, we invented a method to create balanced profiles for individual triplets of genes that guarantee equal weight on the different phylogenetic scenarios of coevolution between genes. When we applied this idea to LAPP, the method to search for logic triplets of genes, the balanced profiles resulted in significant performance improvement and the discovery of hundreds of thousands more putative triplets than unadjusted profiles. We found that logic triplets detected biological network organization and identified key proteins and their functions, ranging from neighbouring proteins in local pathways, to well separated proteins in the whole pathway, and to the interactions among different pathways at the system level. Finally, our case study suggested that the directionality in a logic relationship and the profile of a triplet could disclose the connectivity between the triplet and surrounding networks. Conclusion Balanced profiles are superior to the raw profiles employed by traditional methods of phylogenetic profiling in searching for high order gene sets. Gene triplets can provide valuable information in detection of biological network organization and identification of key genes at different levels of cellular interaction. PMID:22172058

  7. National Cancer Information Service in Italy: an information points network as a new model for providing information for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truccolo, Ivana; Bufalino, Rosaria; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Caruso, Anita; Costantini, Anna; Cognetti, Gaetana; Florita, Antonio; Pero, Dina; Pugliese, Patrizia; Tancredi, Roberta; De Lorenzo, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The international literature data report that good information and communication are fundamental components of a therapeutic process. They contribute to improve the patient-health care professional relationship, to facilitate doctor-patient relationships, therapeutic compliance and adherence, and to the informed consent in innovative clinical trials. We report the results of a multicentric national initiative that developed a 17-information-structure network: 16 Information Points located in the major state-funded certified cancer centers and general hospitals across Italy and a national Help-line at the nonprofit organization AIMaC (the Italian oncologic patients, families and friends association), and updated the already existing services with the aim to create the National Cancer Information Service (SION). The project is the result of a series of pilot and research projects funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The Information Service model proposed is based on some fundamental elements: 1) human interaction with experienced operators, adequately trained in communication and information, complemented with 2) virtual interaction (Help line, Internet, blog, forum and social network); 3) informative material adequate for both scientific accuracy and communicative style; 4) adequate locations for appropriate positioning and privacy (adequate visibility); 5) appropriate advertising. First results coming from these initiatives contributed to introduce issues related to "Communication and Information to patients" as a "Public Health Instrument" to the National Cancer Plan approved by the Ministry of Health for the years 2010-2012.

  8. Network Intelligence Based on Network State Information for Connected Vehicles Utilizing Fog Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjin Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to take advantage of fog computing and SDN in the connected vehicle environment, where communication channels are unstable and the topology changes frequently. A controller knows the current state of the network by maintaining the most recent network topology. Of all the information collected by the controller in the mobile environment, node mobility information is particularly important. Thus, we divide nodes into three classes according to their mobility types and use their related attributes to efficiently manage the mobile connections. Our approach utilizes mobility information to reduce control message overhead by adjusting the period of beacon messages and to support efficient failure recovery. One is to recover the connection failures using only mobility information, and the other is to suggest a real-time scheduling algorithm to recover the services for the vehicles that lost connection in the case of a fog server failure. A real-time scheduling method is first described and then evaluated. The results show that our scheme is effective in the connected vehicle environment. We then demonstrate the reduction of control overhead and the connection recovery by using a network simulator. The simulation results show that control message overhead and failure recovery time are decreased by approximately 55% and 5%, respectively.

  9. 47 CFR 64.2011 - Notification of customer proprietary network information security breaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Proprietary Network Information § 64.2011 Notification of customer proprietary network information security... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of customer proprietary network information security breaches. 64.2011 Section 64.2011 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS...

  10. 78 FR 34665 - Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee (HSINAC); Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee (HSINAC); Meeting AGENCY: OPS/OCIO, DHS... Security Information Network Advisory Committee (HSINAC) will meet on Tuesday, June 25th, 2013 from 1 p.m...: http://www.dhs.gov/homeland-security-information-network-advisory-committee . There is a meeting...

  11. Impact of Enforcement of Right of Communication through Information Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On 27 October 2001, the Standing Committee of the People's Congress reviewed and passed the Amendment to the Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China. In Article 10 of the amended Copyright Law as of 2001 has been incorporated a new subject matter under the copyright protection: the right of communication through information network, that is, the right to make a work available to the public by wire or by wireless means, so that people may have access to the work from a place and at a time individu...

  12. Information Networks Secured by the Laws of Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Laszlo B

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we survey the state of the art of the secure key exchange method that is secured by the laws of classical statistical physics, and involves the Kirchhoff's law and the generalized Johnson noise equation, too. We discuss the major characteristics and advantages of these schemes especially in comparison with quantum encryption, and analyze some of the technical challenges of its implementation, too. Finally, we outline some ideas about how to use already existing and currently used wire lines, such as power lines, phone lines, internet lines to implement unconditionally secure information networks.

  13. Crippling Sexual Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel

    2015-01-01

    . The article develops a normative and analytical framework, encompassing the multiple structural conditions, the virtues of citizens, and the emotional dimension of belonging, which enable or hamper justice. It integrates theories of democratic citizenship, belonging, and social justice, and provides...

  14. Networking of networks: a 1990s approach to information for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The ability to access and use information is increasingly becoming a crucial determinant of a country's ability to achieve sustainable socioeconomic development. Countries which are able to manage and utilize data and information have a competitive advantage over other nations. Countries which fail to tap into the growing global knowledge base, develop a complementary local knowledge base, promote the dissemination and use of knowledge, and invest in institutional and technical human capital will, however, simply remain or fall behind the competition. Many developing countries lack appropriate strategy, financial support for information centers and networks, timely adoption and use of new technology, adequate telecommunications infrastructure, and coordination at national and regional levels. Further, telecommunications services are costly, research on user group behavior is inadequate, few technically skilled people are available, and governments fail to recognize the importance of joining international information networks. Policy development, maternal-child health and family planning, and information, education, and communication are 3 of the most significant population issues worldwide. To best address these issues, international development agencies are urged to veer from providing capital and to directly support greater access to information and enhanced knowledge leading to sustainable national development. Thus far the UN has helped create global information systems in certain areas, and regional cooperative information systems are being developed. ESCAP has taken the lead in Asia and the Pacific. Gradually, population libraries and information centers are becoming computerized. Greater effort is recommended to recover costs for services and products. Further, donors and country organizations should stress that information is only useful as far as it is used.

  15. Justice and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.

  16. Mathematics education for social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhendra

    2016-02-01

    relevant to students. This increased relevance led to increasing students' engagement in the teaching and learning process and becoming more accessible to all students. Additionally, the findings have the potential to make a contribution to those seeking to reform mathematics teaching in Indonesia. The results could inform policy makers and professional development providers about how social justice framework might contribute to the educational reform in Indonesia.

  17. Network model of human aging: Frailty limits and information measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Spencer G.; Mitnitski, Arnold B.; Rockwood, Kenneth; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of damage throughout a persons life. Individual health can be assessed by the Frailty Index (FI). The FI is calculated simply as the proportion f of accumulated age-related deficits relative to the total, leading to a theoretical maximum of f ≤1 . Observational studies have generally reported a much more stringent bound, with f ≤fmaxcomputationally accelerated network model that also allows us to tune the scale-free network exponent α . The network exponent α significantly affects the growth of mortality rates with age. However, we are only able to recover fmax by also introducing a deficit sensitivity parameter 1 -q , which is equivalent to a false-negative rate q . Our value of q =0.3 is comparable to finite sensitivities of age-related deficits with respect to mortality that are often reported in the literature. In light of nonzero q , we use mutual information I to provide a nonparametric measure of the predictive value of the FI with respect to individual mortality. We find that I is only modestly degraded by q topology of aging populations.

  18. THE INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM FOR THE COLLABORATIVE LOGISTICS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAIANA ŢARCĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an informatic system designed for collaborative logistic networks. The informational system is composed of structured informational modules that can easily be modified in order to facilitate the testing of the different algorithms that are being used. The informational system has two components, in the form of web application modules, which are connected to the user-specific modules (THE CLIENT WEB APPLICATION and to the server-specific modules (THE SERVER WEB APPLICATION, respectively. These two modules operate the transmission of information, the demands of the client and the offers generated by the server. The designed informational system has been tested in actual operating conditions, by co-optating ten EMSs from the Bihor county area. Some of the elements considered positive by the users, in the testing period, were: usability, the automatic assignment of a motor vehicle according to the characteristics of the product, the automatic route generation, the selection of goods according to the cluster “route” of the system.

  19. Double-Directional Information Azimuth Spectrum and Relay Network Tomography for a Decentralized Wireless Relay Network

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yifan

    2010-01-01

    A novel channel representation for a two-hop decentralized wireless relay network (DWRN) is proposed, where the relays operate in a completely distributive fashion. The modeling paradigm applies an analogous approach to the description method for a double-directional multipath propagation channel, and takes into account the finite system spatial resolution and the extended relay listening/transmitting time. Specifically, the double-directional information azimuth spectrum (IAS) is formulated to provide a compact representation of information flows in a DWRN. The proposed channel representation is then analyzed from a geometrically-based statistical modeling perspective. Finally, we look into the problem of relay network tomography (RNT), which solves an inverse problem to infer the internal structure of a DWRN by using the instantaneous doubledirectional IAS recorded at multiple measuring nodes exterior to the relay region.

  20. Full feature data model for spatial information network integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Ji-qiu; BAO Guang-shu

    2006-01-01

    In allusion to the difficulty of integrating data with different models in integrating spatial information,the characteristics of raster structure, vector structure and mixed model were analyzed, and a hierarchical vectorraster integrative full feature model was put forward by integrating the advantage of vector and raster model and using the object-oriented method. The data structures of the four basic features, i.e. point, line, surface and solid,were described. An application was analyzed and described, and the characteristics of this model were described. In this model, all objects in the real world are divided into and described as features with hierarchy, and all the data are organized in vector. This model can describe data based on feature, field, network and other models, and avoid the disadvantage of inability to integrate data based on different models and perform spatial analysis on them in spatial information integration.

  1. Neural Network-Based Multimode Fiber-Optic Information Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusarz, Ronald K.; Sayeh, Mohammad R.

    2001-01-01

    A new technique for transmitting information through multimode fiber-optic cables is presented. This technique sends parallel channels through the fiber-optic cable, thereby greatly improving the data transmission rate compared with that of the current technology, which uses serial data transmission through single-mode fiber. An artificial neural network is employed to decipher the transmitted information from the received speckle pattern. Several different preprocessing algorithms are developed, tested, and evaluated. These algorithms employ average region intensity, distributed individual pixel intensity, and maximum mean-square-difference optimal group selection methods. The effect of modal dispersion on the data rate is analyzed. An increased data transmission rate by a factor of 37 over that of single-mode fibers is realized. When implementing our technique, we can increase the channel capacity of a typical multimode fiber by a factor of 6.

  2. Methods of information theory and algorithmic complexity for network biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenil, Hector; Kiani, Narsis A; Tegnér, Jesper

    2016-03-01

    We survey and introduce concepts and tools located at the intersection of information theory and network biology. We show that Shannon's information entropy, compressibility and algorithmic complexity quantify different local and global aspects of synthetic and biological data. We show examples such as the emergence of giant components in Erdös-Rényi random graphs, and the recovery of topological properties from numerical kinetic properties simulating gene expression data. We provide exact theoretical calculations, numerical approximations and error estimations of entropy, algorithmic probability and Kolmogorov complexity for different types of graphs, characterizing their variant and invariant properties. We introduce formal definitions of complexity for both labeled and unlabeled graphs and prove that the Kolmogorov complexity of a labeled graph is a good approximation of its unlabeled Kolmogorov complexity and thus a robust definition of graph complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Network structure and patterns of information diversity on Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, Jesse; Dellarocas, Chrysanthos

    2016-01-01

    Social media have great potential to support diverse information sharing, but there is widespread concern that platforms like Twitter do not result in communication between those who hold contradictory viewpoints. Because users can choose whom to follow, prior research suggests that social media users exist in 'echo chambers' or become polarized. We seek evidence of this in a complete cross section of hyperlinks posted on Twitter, using previously validated measures of the political slant of news sources to study information diversity. Contrary to prediction, we find that the average account posts links to more politically moderate news sources than the ones they receive in their own feed. However, members of a tiny network core do exhibit cross-sectional evidence of polarization and are responsible for the majority of tweets received overall due to their popularity and activity, which could explain the widespread perception of polarization on social media.

  4. Information Filtering via Implicit Trust-based Network

    CERN Document Server

    Xuan, Zhao-Guo; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2011-01-01

    Based on the user-item bipartite network, collaborative filtering (CF) recommender systems predict users' interests according to their history collections, which is a promising way to solve the information exploration problem. However, CF algorithm encounters cold start and sparsity problems. The trust-based CF algorithm is implemented by collecting the users' trust statements, which is time-consuming and must use users' private friendship information. In this paper, we present a novel measurement to calculate users' implicit trust-based correlation by taking into account their average ratings, rating ranges, and the number of common rated items. By applying the similar idea to the items, a item-based CF algorithm is constructed. The simulation results on three benchmark data sets show that the performances of both user-based and item-based algorithms could be enhanced greatly. Finally, a hybrid algorithm is constructed by integrating the user-based and item-based algorithms, the simulation results indicate t...

  5. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  6. Models of distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Philosophical disagreement about justice rages over at least two questions. The most immediate is a substantial question, concerning the conditions under which particular distributive arrangements can be said to be just or unjust. The second, deeper, question concerns the nature of justice itself. What is justice? Here we can distinguish three views. First, justice as mutual advantage sees justice as essentially a matter of the outcome of a bargain. There are times when two parties can both be better off by making some sort of agreement. Justice, on this view, concerns the distribution of the benefits and burdens of the agreement. Second, justice as reciprocity takes a different approach, looking not at bargaining but at the idea of a fair return or just price, attempting to capture the idea of justice as equal exchange. Finally justice as impartiality sees justice as 'taking the other person's point of view' asking 'how would you like it if it happened to you?' Each model has significantly different consequences for the question of when issues of justice arise and how they should be settled. It is interesting to consider whether any of these models of justice could regulate behaviour between non-human animals.

  7. Elusive retributive justice in post-Khmer Rouge Cambodia: Challenges of using ECCC Victim Information Forms as a victim participatory rights mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nou, Leakhena

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the procedural challenges of using the Victim Information Forms (VIFs) to analyze survivors' experiences with the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), commonly known as the Khmer Rouge Tribunal. The paper takes a systematic public/medical sociology approach to examining the VIF as a participatory rights mechanism for victims wishing to pursue justice for themselves and their loved ones who experienced the Khmer Rouge atrocities, torture, forced relocation, starvation, forced labor, rape, robbery, and other physical and psychological torment, firsthand. It provides the first comparative, critical analysis of both the original VIF and the revised form issued midway through the submission period; both forms appear as appendices to the paper. Conclusions are drawn and suggestions made by the researcher based on the firsthand collection and submission of the largest group of VIFs from any single source around the world (outside of Cambodia itself), as well as on support work with victims/survivors during the ECCC proceedings in Phnom Penh, Cambodia in 2013.

  8. Reorienting an Information Literacy Program toward Social Justice: Mapping the Core Values of Librarianship to the ACRL Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Lua; Higgins, Shana

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of the Association of College and Research Libraries' (ACRL) "Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education," librarians have grappled with the purposes, impact, and meaning of this teaching document for their daily instructional practice, for curriculum development, and for institutional and programmatic…

  9. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about "offline" friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and acquaintances. First, the results indicate that a combination of passive uncertainty reduction (monitoring a target's profile) and interactive uncertainty reduction (communication through the target's profile) explains a considerable amount of variance in the level of uncertainty about both friends and acquaintances. More specifically, adolescents generally get to know much more about their acquaintances. Second, the results of online uncertainty reduction positively affect the degree of self-disclosure, which is imperative in building a solid friend relation. Further, we find that uncertainty reduction strategies positively mediate the effect of social anxiety on the level of certainty about friends. This implies that socially anxious teenagers benefit from SNSs by getting the conditions right to build a more solid relation with their friends. Hence, we conclude that SNSs play a substantial role in today's adolescents' everyday interpersonal communication.

  10. Justice and Social Equity in Cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the concept of information democracy, or access to information, in relation to information delivery; computerized community-based information systems, including grass-roots nonprofit organizations and private sector activities; the National Information Infrastructure (NII); empowerment; concepts of social justice; and designing the NII.…

  11. Intelligent Information Dissemination Scheme for Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs, a hotspot, such as a parking lot, is an information source and will receive inquiries from many vehicles for seeking any possible free parking space. According to the routing protocols in literature, each of the vehicles needs to flood its route discovery (RD packets to discover a route to the hotspot before sending inquiring packets to the parking lot. As a result, the VANET nearby an urban area or city center may incur the problem of broadcast storm due to so many flooding RD packets during rush hours. To avoid the broadcast storm problem, this paper presents a hotspot-enabled routing-tree based data forwarding method, called the intelligent information dissemination scheme (IID. Our method can let the hotspot automatically decide when to build the routing-tree for proactive information transmissions under the condition that the number of vehicle routing discoveries during a given period exceeds a certain threshold which is calculated through our developed analytical packet delivery model. The routing information will be dynamically maintained by vehicles located at each intersection near the hotspot if the maintaining cost is less than that of allowing vehicles to discover routes themselves. Simulation results show that this method can minimize routing delays for vehicles with lower packets delivery overheads.

  12. MODELING INFORMATION SYSTEM AVAILABILITY BY USING BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORK APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semir Ibrahimović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern information systems are expected to be always-on by providing services to end-users, regardless of time and location. This is particularly important for organizations and industries where information systems support real-time operations and mission-critical applications that need to be available on 24  7  365 basis. Examples of such entities include process industries, telecommunications, healthcare, energy, banking, electronic commerce and a variety of cloud services. This article presents a modified Bayesian Belief Network model for predicting information system availability, introduced initially by Franke, U. and Johnson, P. (in article “Availability of enterprise IT systems – an expert based Bayesian model”. Software Quality Journal 20(2, 369-394, 2012 based on a thorough review of several dimensions of the information system availability, we proposed a modified set of determinants. The model is parameterized by using probability elicitation process with the participation of experts from the financial sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The model validation was performed using Monte Carlo simulation.

  13. A Tensor CP Decomposition Method for Clustering Heterogeneous Information Networks via Stochastic Gradient Descent Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibing Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering analysis is a basic and essential method for mining heterogeneous information networks, which consist of multiple types of objects and rich semantic relations among different object types. Heterogeneous information networks are ubiquitous in the real-world applications, such as bibliographic networks and social media networks. Unfortunately, most existing approaches, such as spectral clustering, are designed to analyze homogeneous information networks, which are composed of only one type of objects and links. Some recent studies focused on heterogeneous information networks and yielded some research fruits, such as RankClus and NetClus. However, they often assumed that the heterogeneous information networks usually follow some simple schemas, such as bityped network schema or star network schema. To overcome the above limitations, we model the heterogeneous information network as a tensor without the restriction of network schema. Then, a tensor CP decomposition method is adapted to formulate the clustering problem in heterogeneous information networks. Further, we develop two stochastic gradient descent algorithms, namely, SGDClus and SOSClus, which lead to effective clustering multityped objects simultaneously. The experimental results on both synthetic datasets and real-world dataset have demonstrated that our proposed clustering framework can model heterogeneous information networks efficiently and outperform state-of-the-art clustering methods.

  14. On and off the beaten path: How individuals broker knowledge through formal and informal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Aalbers (Rick); W.A. Dolfsma (Wilfred); O.R. Koppius (Otto)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAlthough informal networks are often emphasized as facilitating knowledge transfer, we use network data obtained from a multi-unit high-tech firm to show that the formal network also significantly contributes to inter-unit knowledge transfer. Individuals centrally placed in a network are

  15. ARN: Analysis and Visualization System for Adipogenic Regulation Network Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Li; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2016-12-16

    Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation through which preadipocytes become adipocytes. Lots of research is currently ongoing to identify genes, including their gene products and microRNAs, that correlate with fat cell development. However, information fragmentation hampers the identification of key regulatory genes and pathways. Here, we present a database of literature-curated adipogenesis-related regulatory interactions, designated the Adipogenesis Regulation Network (ARN, http://210.27.80.93/arn/), which currently contains 3101 nodes (genes and microRNAs), 1863 regulatory interactions, and 33,969 expression records associated with adipogenesis, based on 1619 papers. A sentence-based text-mining approach was employed for efficient manual curation of regulatory interactions from approximately 37,000 PubMed abstracts. Additionally, we further determined 13,103 possible node relationships by searching miRGate, BioGRID, PAZAR and TRRUST. ARN also has several useful features: i) regulatory map information; ii) tests to examine the impact of a query node on adipogenesis; iii) tests for the interactions and modes of a query node; iv) prediction of interactions of a query node; and v) analysis of experimental data or the construction of hypotheses related to adipogenesis. In summary, ARN can store, retrieve and analyze adipogenesis-related information as well as support ongoing adipogenesis research and contribute to the discovery of key regulatory genes and pathways.

  16. Information sharing and relationships on social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steijn, Wouter M P; Schouten, Alexander P

    2013-08-01

    This article investigates the relationship between sharing personal information and relationship development in the context of social networking sites (SNSs). Information disclosed on these sites could affect relationships in a different manner compared to more traditional interactions, such as instant messaging or face-to-face interaction. Respondents in the age range of 12 to 83 were surveyed about experiences of relationship development as a consequence of contact through Facebook or Hyves-the most popular Dutch SNSs. Results showed a primarily positive effect of information sharing on SNSs on our relationships. Furthermore, relationship development mainly occurs among acquaintances and friends, and public posts are most strongly related to relationship development. These findings suggest that SNSs might affect relationships in a distinct fashion as acquaintances and friends gain access to public self-disclosures that might normally only be reserved for close friends and family. Overall, this study provides an insight into some of the positive aspects of the public nature of SNSs in contrast with the general negative associations.

  17. Smart network. The information nework in the smart grid; Smart Network. Das Informationsnetz im Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horrmeyer, Bernd [Phoenix Contact GmbH und Co. KG, Blomberg (Germany). Industrielle Netzwerkverkabelung; Wissig, Claus [Phoenix Contact GmbH und Co. KG, Blomberg (Germany). Geraeteverbindungstechnik

    2012-07-01

    So far, the distribution of electricity was constructed unidirectional - from the generating power plant over the power distribution systems to the consumer. In the last decade, the utilization of renewable energies became popular. Thus the energy flows bi-directionally in the lines. Since the current has to be consumed at the moment of generation, the control becomes more difficult when bi-directional feeding. The techniques are demanding, and the number of devices for controlling and monitoring the of the distribution networks increases. The need for digital communication between the devices increases - the existing information networks in the energy sector are not dimensioned for this. With its bi-directional supply of energy, the smart grid requires a more frequent and faster communication between the devices. New cabling concepts according to IEC 61850 provide reliable and easy to maintain electrical and optical ethernet connections.

  18. Multiple-access Network Information-flow and Correction Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Dikaliotis, Theodoros K; Jaggi, Sidharth; Vyetrenko, Svitlana; Yao, Hongyi; Effros, Michelle; Kliewer, Joerg; Erez, Elona

    2010-01-01

    This work considers the multiple-access multicast error-correction scenario over a packetized network with $z$ malicious edge adversaries. The network has min-cut $m$ and packets of length $\\ell$, and each sink demands all information from the set of sources $\\sources$. The capacity region is characterized for both a "side-channel" model (where sources and sinks share some random bits that are secret from the adversary) and an "omniscient" adversarial model (where no limitations on the adversary's knowledge are assumed). In the "side-channel" adversarial model, the use of a secret channel allows higher rates to be achieved compared to the "omniscient" adversarial model, and a polynomial-complexity capacity-achieving code is provided. For the "omniscient" adversarial model, two capacity-achieving constructions are given: the first is based on random subspace code design and has complexity exponential in $\\ell m$, while the second uses a novel multiple-field-extension technique and has $O(\\ell m^{|\\sources|})$ ...

  19. Information theory and signal transduction systems: from molecular information processing to network inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Mahon, Siobhan S; Sim, Aaron; Filippi, Sarah; Johnson, Robert; Liepe, Juliane; Smith, Dominic; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2014-11-01

    Sensing and responding to the environment are two essential functions that all biological organisms need to master for survival and successful reproduction. Developmental processes are marshalled by a diverse set of signalling and control systems, ranging from systems with simple chemical inputs and outputs to complex molecular and cellular networks with non-linear dynamics. Information theory provides a powerful and convenient framework in which such systems can be studied; but it also provides the means to reconstruct the structure and dynamics of molecular interaction networks underlying physiological and developmental processes. Here we supply a brief description of its basic concepts and introduce some useful tools for systems and developmental biologists. Along with a brief but thorough theoretical primer, we demonstrate the wide applicability and biological application-specific nuances by way of different illustrative vignettes. In particular, we focus on the characterisation of biological information processing efficiency, examining cell-fate decision making processes, gene regulatory network reconstruction, and efficient signal transduction experimental design.

  20. Information System for the Goods Transport Service Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caj Holm

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal transport can reduce the load of the road infrastructure.Knowledge gives it the necessary competitiveness andhelps to control its costs. Fast reaction to changing conditions,opportunities and requirements gives remarkable advantage.Setting up integrated logistic chains using alternative transportmodes requires the trust and close interaction of a variety of actorsinvolved in managing the chain. Especially in the dynamicmobile environment, knowledge has so far not been effectivelyused. FREIGHTWISE tackles this complexity by developing aframework architecture anchored and validated in a range ofdemonstration cases involving commercial and public actors.This paper discusses the general FREIGHTWISE objectivesand its North-East Case, the Logistiikkainfo goods transportservice network information system to be implemented for theEstonian - Finnish transport chain.

  1. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  2. Unsupervised Neural Network Quantifies the Cost of Visual Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Levente L; Chartier, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Untrained, "flower-naïve" bumblebees display behavioural preferences when presented with visual properties such as colour, symmetry, spatial frequency and others. Two unsupervised neural networks were implemented to understand the extent to which these models capture elements of bumblebees' unlearned visual preferences towards flower-like visual properties. The computational models, which are variants of Independent Component Analysis and Feature-Extracting Bidirectional Associative Memory, use images of test-patterns that are identical to ones used in behavioural studies. Each model works by decomposing images of floral patterns into meaningful underlying factors. We reconstruct the original floral image using the components and compare the quality of the reconstructed image to the original image. Independent Component Analysis matches behavioural results substantially better across several visual properties. These results are interpreted to support a hypothesis that the temporal and energetic costs of information processing by pollinators served as a selective pressure on floral displays: flowers adapted to pollinators' cognitive constraints.

  3. Dynamical entanglement transfer for quantum-information networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternostro, Mauro; Son, W.; Kim, M. S.; Falci, Giuseppe; Palma, G. Massimo

    2004-08-01

    A key element in the architecture of a quantum-information processing network is a reliable physical interface between fields and qubits. We study a process of entanglement transfer engineering, where two remote qubits respectively interact with an entangled two-mode continuous-variable (CV) field. We quantify the entanglement induced in the qubit state at the expenses of the loss of entanglement in the CV system. We discuss the range of mixed entangled states which can be obtained with this setup. Furthermore, we suggest a protocol to determine the residual entangling power of the light fields inferring, thus, the entanglement left in the field modes which, after the interaction, are no longer in a Gaussian state. Two different setups are proposed: a cavity-QED system and an interface between superconducting qubits and field modes. We address in detail the practical difficulties inherent in these two proposals, showing that the latter is promising in many aspects.

  4. Membership in social networks and the application in information filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Wei; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    During the past a few years, users' membership in the online system (i.e. the social groups that online users joined) are wildly investigated. Most of these works focus on the detection, formulation and growth of online communities. In this paper, we study users' membership in a coupled system which contains user-group and user-object bipartite networks. By linking users' membership information and their object selection, we find that the users who have collected only a few objects are more likely to be "influenced" by the membership when choosing objects. Moreover, we observe that some users may join many online communities though they collected few objects. Based on these findings, we design a social diffusion recommendation algorithm which can effectively solve the user cold-start problem. Finally, we propose a personalized combination of our method and the hybrid method in [PNAS 107, 4511 (2010)], which leads to a further improvement in the overall recommendation performance.

  5. The Justice Dimension of Sustainability: A Systematic and General Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Helene Stumpf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss how the normative dimension of sustainability can be captured in terms of justice. We (i identify the core characteristics of the concept of sustainability and discuss underlying ethical, ontological and epistemological assumptions; (ii introduce a general conceptual structure of justice for the analysis and comparison of different conceptions of justice; and (iii employ this conceptual structure to determine the specific characteristics and challenges of justice in the context of sustainability. We demonstrate that sustainability raises specific and partly new challenges of justice regarding the community of justice, the judicandum, the informational base, the principles, and the instruments of justice.

  6. From Dams to Development Justice: Progress with 'Free, Prior and Informed Consent' Since the World Commission on Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joji Cariño

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams (WCD helped establish as development best practice the requirement to respect the right of indigenous peoples to give or withhold their 'free, prior and informed consent' (FPIC to development projects that will affect them. Recognition of this right helps redress the unequal power relations between indigenous peoples and others seeking access to their lands and resources. In this Viewpoint, we examine the evolution of policy in the ten years since the publication of the WCD Report, and how FPIC has been affirmed as a right of indigenous peoples under international human rights law and as industry best practice for extractive industries, logging, forestry plantations, palm oil, protected areas and, most recently, for projects to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. To date, relatively few national legal frameworks explicitly require respect for this right and World Bank standards have yet to be revised in line with these advances in international law. We analyse how international law also needs to clarify how the right to FPIC relates to the State’s power to impose resource exploitation in the 'national interest' and whether 'local communities' more broadly also enjoy the right to FPIC. In practice, as documented in this Viewpoint and in the cases we review, the right to FPIC is widely abused by corporations and State agencies. A growing tendency to reduce implementation of FPIC to a simplified check list of actions for outsiders to follow, risks again removing control over decisions from indigenous peoples. For FPIC to be effective it must respect indigenous peoples’ rights to control their customary lands, represent themselves through their own institutions and make decisions according to procedures and rhythms of their choosing.

  7. Leadership for Social Justice: Social Justice Pedagogies

    OpenAIRE

    Bogotch, Ira; Reyes-Guerra, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between educational leadership and practices of social justice is now entering its second decade with respect to empirical research studies. There have been three distinct research agendas: the first involves attempts to define the meaning(s) of educational leadership for social justice; the second is the descriptive documentation of school leadership behaviors which address social injustices and inequities within schools; and, the third focuses on the development of leadersh...

  8. Spectral entropies as information-theoretic tools for complex network comparison

    CERN Document Server

    De Domenico, Manlio

    2016-01-01

    Any physical system can be viewed from the perspective that information is implicitly represented in its state. However, the quantification of this information when it comes to complex networks has remained largely elusive. In this work, we use techniques inspired by quantum statistical mechanics to define an entropy measure for complex networks and to develop a set of information-theoretic tools, based on network spectral properties, such as Renyi q-entropy, generalized Kullback-Leibler and Jensen-Shannon divergences, the latter allowing us to define a natural distance measure between complex networks. First we show that by minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between an observed network and a parametric network model, inference of model parameter(s) by means of maximum-likelihood estimation can be achieved and model selection can be performed appropriate information criteria. Second, we show that the information-theoretic metric quantifies the distance between pairs of networks and we can use it, for ...

  9. Publicity and Egalitarian Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the issue of publicity has surfaced in discussions of the correct interpretation of the Rawlsian principles of justice. In an intriguing critique of G.A. Cohen's preferred interpretation of the difference principle as a principle that is incompatible with incentive-based inequalities......, Andrew Williams points to a gap in Cohen's argument, alleging that Cohen's interpretation of the difference principle is unlikely to be compatible with the Rawlsian endorsement of publicity. Having explored a possible extrapolation of Cohen's critique to aggregate consumer choices and a resulting...... extension of Williams's charge that the difference principle, on Cohen's reading, fails to meet the publicity constraint because of its informational demandingness, I defend three claims: (a) it is doubtful that Rawls endorses a publicity constraint of the sort that would rule out Cohen's interpretation...

  10. ADJUSTMENT OF LEVELING NETWORK BY INFORMATION SPREAD ESTIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In practical parameter estimation,we have always chosen eitherLeast Squares Estimation(LSE) or Robust Estimation.Since the distribution of observations is unknown,to select a correct estimation method is very difficult.It is well known that if observations include gross errors,the result of LSE will be badly containinated.On the other hand,if observations do not include any gross errors,the result of robust estimation is not as good as that of LSE.To solve this problem,Wang (1999) developed an estimation method called Information Spread Estimation (ISE) based on the information spread principle.The ISE is a very good method for estimating one parameter which is very robust.However, most of instances in surveying data processing are multi-parameters' estimation,owing to the inherent restrictions of ISE,it can not be applied to the surveying data processing directly.To apply the good method to the field of surveying data processing widely,the author has done the research deeply.This paper applies ISE successfully to the adjustment of leveling network by using the specialties of leveling.

  11. Hyperbolic mapping of complex networks based on community information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuxi; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yao

    2016-08-01

    To improve the hyperbolic mapping methods both in terms of accuracy and running time, a novel mapping method called Community and Hyperbolic Mapping (CHM) is proposed based on community information in this paper. Firstly, an index called Community Intimacy (CI) is presented to measure the adjacency relationship between the communities, based on which a community ordering algorithm is introduced. According to the proposed Community-Sector hypothesis, which supposes that most nodes of one community gather in a same sector in hyperbolic space, CHM maps the ordered communities into hyperbolic space, and then the angular coordinates of nodes are randomly initialized within the sector that they belong to. Therefore, all the network nodes are so far mapped to hyperbolic space, and then the initialized angular coordinates can be optimized by employing the information of all nodes, which can greatly improve the algorithm precision. By applying the proposed dual-layer angle sampling method in the optimization procedure, CHM reduces the time complexity to O(n2) . The experiments show that our algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Research on fault-tolerant control of networked control systems based on information scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Zhihong; Zhang Zhixue; Fang Huajing

    2008-01-01

    A kind of networked control system is studied; the networked control system with noise disturbance is modeled based on information scheduling and control co-design.Augmented state matrix analysis method is introduced,and robust fault-tolerant control problem of networked control systems with noise disturbance under actuator failures is studied.The parametric expression of the controller under actuator failures is given.Furthermore,the result is analyzed by simulation tests,which not only satisfies the networked control systems stability,but also decreases the data information number in network channel and makes full use of the network resources.

  13. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  14. 76 FR 12983 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Tenant Resource Network Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Tenant Resource Network... information: Title of Proposal: Tenant Resource Network Program. OMB Control Number, if applicable: 2502-new... information collection requirement described below will be submitted to the Office of Management and...

  15. Reentrant Information Flow in Electrophysiological Rat Default Mode Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Zhang, Yunxiang; Guo, Fengru; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A.; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that the rodent brain shows a default mode network (DMN) activity similar to that in humans, offering a potential preclinical model both for physiological and pathophysiological studies. However, the neuronal mechanism underlying rodent DMN remains poorly understood. Here, we used electrophysiological data to analyze the power spectrum and estimate the directed phase transfer entropy (dPTE) within rat DMN across three vigilance states: wakeful rest (WR), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). We observed decreased gamma powers during SWS compared with WR in most of the DMN regions. Increased gamma powers were found in prelimbic cortex, cingulate cortex, and hippocampus during REMS compared with WR, whereas retrosplenial cortex showed a reverse trend. These changed gamma powers are in line with the local metabolic variation of homologous brain regions in humans. In the analysis of directional interactions, we observed well-organized anterior-to-posterior patterns of information flow in the delta band, while opposite patterns of posterior-to-anterior flow were found in the theta band. These frequency-specific opposite patterns were only observed in WR and REMS. Additionally, most of the information senders in the delta band were also the receivers in the theta band, and vice versa. Our results provide electrophysiological evidence that rat DMN is similar to its human counterpart, and there is a frequency-dependent reentry loop of anterior-posterior information flow within rat DMN, which may offer a mechanism for functional integration, supporting conscious awareness. PMID:28289373

  16. The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveslage, Ingmar; Fischer, Joachim; Kühnlenz, Frank; Lichtblau, Björn; Milkereit, Claus; Picozzi, Matteo

    2010-05-01

    The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) represents a new approach for Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS), consisting in taking advantage of novel wireless communications technologies without the need of a planned, centralised infrastructure. It also sets out to overcome problems of insufficient node density, which typically affects present existing early warning systems, by having the SOSEWIN seismological sensing units being comprised of low-cost components (generally bought "off-the-shelf"), with each unit initially costing 100's of Euros, in contrast to 1,000's to 10,000's for standard seismological stations. The reduced sensitivity of the new sensing units arising from the use of lower-cost components will be compensated by the network's density, which in the future is expected to number 100's to 1000's over areas served currently by the order of 10's of standard stations. The robustness, independence of infrastructure, spontaneous extensibility due to a self-healing/self-organizing character in the case of removing/failing or adding sensors makes SOSEWIN potentially useful for various use cases, e.g. monitoring of building structures (as we could proof during the L'Aquila earthquake) or technical systems and most recently for seismic microzonation. Nevertheless the main purpose SOSEWIN was initially invented for is the earthquake early warning and rapid response, for which reason the ground motion is continuously monitored by conventional accelerometers (3-component) and processed within a station. Based on this, the network itself decides whether an event is detected cooperatively in a two-level hierarchical alarming protocol. Experiences and experiment results with the SOSEWIN-prototype installation in the Ataköy district of Istanbul (Turkey) are presented. The limited size of this installation with currently 20 nodes allows not answering certain questions regarding the useful or possible size of a SOSEWIN installation

  17. MediaNet: a multimedia information network for knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Ana B.; Smith, John R.; Chang, Shih-Fu

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, we present MediaNet, which is a knowledge representation framework that uses multimedia content for representing semantic and perceptual information. The main components of MediaNet include conceptual entities, which correspond to real world objects, and relationships among concepts. MediaNet allows the concepts and relationships to be defined or exemplified by multimedia content such as images, video, audio, graphics, and text. MediaNet models the traditional relationship types such as generalization and aggregation but adds additional functionality by modeling perceptual relationships based on feature similarity. For example, MediaNet allows a concept such as car to be defined as a type of a transportation vehicle, but which is further defined and illustrated through example images, videos and sounds of cars. In constructing the MediaNet framework, we have built on the basic principles of semiotics and semantic networks in addition to utilizing the audio-visual content description framework being developed as part of the MPEG-7 multimedia content description standard. By integrating both conceptual and perceptual representations of knowledge, MediaNet has potential to impact a broad range of applications that deal with multimedia content at the semantic and perceptual levels. In particular, we have found that MediaNet can improve the performance of multimedia retrieval applications by using query expansion, refinement and translation across multiple content modalities. In this paper, we report on experiments that use MediaNet in searching for images. We construct the MediaNet knowledge base using both WordNet and an image network built from multiple example images and extracted color and texture descriptors. Initial experimental results demonstrate improved retrieval effectiveness using MediaNet in a content-based retrieval system.

  18. Agriculture Information Service Built on Interoperable Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, K.; Ines, A.; Han, E.; Seshimo, T.

    2015-12-01

    We are developing an agricultural information service platform called FieldTouch, that is built on an interoperable geospatial data infrastructure. More than 300 farmers in Hokkaido, Japan, are participating on this development and they are utilizing our services for optimizing their daily agricultural practices. FieldTouch integrates multi-scale sensor data for field monitoring, provides functionality for recording agricultural practices, then supports farmers in decision making. The platform has two layers. The base layer is interoperable geospatial data infrastructure for sensor networks, that provides updated sensor data to upper application layer via OGC( Open Geospatial Consortium) standard API. We are updating RapidEye satellite images every two weeks, and field sensor data from 50 nodes. Agro-Weather data generated by NIAES using national weather observation network; AMeDAS is also a data source at daily basis. We use "cloudSense" sensor backend service as the infrastructure that serves meta-data and data to the application layer via standard web service; SOS (Sensor Observation Service). SOS provides unified procedure to applications when they access different type of sensor platform, which brought us a great flexibility and automation in operating the system. We developed a crop simulation application in FieldTouch so that farmers are able to see the impact of different planting data on yield. Cultivar data of local wheat variety for DSSAT crop model was calibrated by data assimilation. We generate 100 of weather scenario by a weather generator to present the obtain distribution of yield in different planting options. We update the weather scenario day by day in order to reduce the uncertain of the prediction towards harvesting. Visualizing expected yield as distributions help farmers to understand the risks by weather variability as well as to optimize their works and investment.

  19. Local Area Networks: Vehicles for Connecting and Sharing Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Art

    1993-01-01

    Describes local area networks (LANs) and discusses advantages of their use in schools for students and teachers, including networking in labs, media centers, and classrooms. Roles of the network supervisor and/or technician are explained, including making decisions about the rights of users and instruction and assistance. (LRW)

  20. Extraction of Hidden Social Networks from Wiki-Environment Involved in Information Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Alguliyev, Rasim M.; Ramiz M. Aliguliyev; Irada Y. Alakbarova

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis is a widely used technique to analyze relationships among wiki-users in Wikipedia. In this paper the method to identify hidden social networks participating in information conflicts in wiki-environment is proposed. In particular, we describe how text clustering techniques can be used for extraction of hidden social networks of wiki-users caused information conflict. By clustering unstructured text articles caused information conflict we ...

  1. Cross-Network Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs: Experimental Results from a Smartphone-Based Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Ferrari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present an innovative approach for effective cross-network information dissemination, with applications to vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs. The proposed approach, denoted as "Cross-Network Effective Traffic Alert Dissemination" (X-NETAD, leverages on the spontaneous formation of local WiFi (IEEE 802.11b VANETs, with direct connections between neighboring vehicles, in order to disseminate, very quickly and inexpensively, traffic alerts received from the cellular network. The proposed communication architecture has been implemented on Android smartphones. The obtained experimental results show that an effective cross-network information dissemination service can entirely rely on smartphone-based communications. This paves the way to future Internet architectures, where vehicles will play a key role as information destinations and sources.

  2. Government information collections in the networked environment new issues and models

    CERN Document Server

    Cheverie, Joan F

    2013-01-01

    This insightful book explores the challenging issues related to effective access to government information.Amidst all the chaos of today's dynamic information transition period, the only constants related to government information are change and inconsistency, yet with Government Information Collections in the Networked Environment: New Issues and Models, you will defeat the challenging issues and take advantage of the opportunities that networked government information collections have to offer. This valuable book gives you a fresh opportunity to rethink collecting activities and to

  3. Information Contagion: an Empirical Study of the Spread of News on Digg and Twitter Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Social networks have emerged as a critical factor in information dissemination, search, marketing, expertise and influence discovery, and potentially an important tool for mobilizing people. Social media has made social networks ubiquitous, and also given researchers access to massive quantities of data for empirical analysis. These data sets offer a rich source of evidence for studying dynamics of individual and group behavior, the structure of networks and global patterns of the flow of information on them. However, in most previous studies, the structure of the underlying networks was not directly visible but had to be inferred from the flow of information from one individual to another. As a result, we do not yet understand dynamics of information spread on networks or how the structure of the network affects it. We address this gap by analyzing data from two popular social news sites. Specifically, we extract social networks of active users on Digg and Twitter, and track how interest in news stories spre...

  4. Research on the Architecture of a Basic Reconfigurable Information Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current information network cannot fundamentally meet some urgent requirements, such as providing ubiquitous information services and various types of heterogeneous network, supporting diverse and comprehensive network services, possessing high quality communication effects, ensuring the security and credibility of information interaction, and implementing effective supervisory control. This paper provides the theory system for the basic reconfigurable information communication network based on the analysis of present problems on the Internet and summarizes the root of these problems. It also provides an in-depth discussion about the related technologies and the prime components of the architecture.

  5. Impact of informal networks on opinion dynamics in hierarchically formal organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Shi, Wen; Ma, Yaofei; Yang, Chen

    2015-10-01

    Traditional opinion dynamics model focused mainly on the conditions under which a group of agents would reach a consensus. Conclusion has been gained that continuous opinion dynamics are subject to the constraint that convergent opinion adjustment only proceeds when opinion difference is below a given tolerance. This conclusion is useful but neglected the fact that an organization often consists of overlapped networks including formally hierarchical network and small-world/scale-free informal networks. To study the impact of different types of informal networks on converging speed or the number of opinion clusters, four typical types of informal networks (small-world, scale-free, tree and fully connected) are modeled and proposed as complements to formal communications. Experiments to compare formal network and hybrid networks are then carried out. It is observed that opinion dynamics with supplemented communications of informal networks can benefit convergence speed and reduce opinion clusters. More importantly, it is revealed that three key factors of informal networks affect their impact on formal network. These factors of informal network in descending orders are: agents' tolerances, scale and number of links.

  6. Incorporating environmental justice into environmental decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Vogt, D.P.; Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Executive Order 12898, signed on February 11, 1994, broadly states that federal activities, programs, and policies should not produce disproportionately high and adverse impacts on minority and low-income populations. Moreover, the Order indicates that these populations should not be denied the benefits of, or excluded from participation in, these activities, programs, and policies. Because a presidential memorandum accompanying the order said that National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents should begin to address environmental justice immediately, much attention has been paid to assessment-related issues. Also important, a topic that appears to have received relatively little attention, is how decision makers should be expected to use information about environmental justice in their decision making. This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of environmental justice information in the decision-making process by focusing on the following five main topics: (1) the importance, or weight, attached to environmental justice within larger decision-making contexts; (2) the potential tension between localized environmental justice issues and regional or national issues and needs; (3) the use of environmental justice information to develop (perhaps in concert with affected minority and low-income communities) appropriate mitigation strategies, or to establish conditions under which activities, programs, and policies may be accepted locally; (4) the general implications of shifting the distribution of broadly defined risks, costs, and benefits among different population groups; and (5) the implications of implementing environmental justice on an individual, ad hoc basis rather than within a larger environmental justice framework. This paper raises the issues and discusses the implications of alternative approaches to them.

  7. On the Influence of Informed Agents on Learning and Adaptation over Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Sheng-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive networks consist of a collection of agents with adaptation and learning abilities. The agents interact with each other on a local level and diffuse information across the network through their collaborations. In this work, we consider two types of agents: informed agents and uninformed agents. The former receive new data regularly and perform consultation and in-network tasks, while the latter do not collect data and only participate in the consultation tasks. We examine the performance of adaptive networks as a function of the proportion of informed agents and their distribution in space. The results reveal some interesting and surprising trade-offs between convergence rate and mean-square performance. In particular, among other results, it is shown that the performance of adaptive networks does not necessarily improve with a larger proportion of informed agents. Instead, it is established that the larger the proportion of informed agents is, the faster the convergence rate of the network becomes al...

  8. Actor Network Theory Approach and its Application in Investigating Agricultural Climate Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifzadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Actor network theory as a qualitative approach to study complex social factors and process of socio-technical interaction provides new concepts and ideas to understand socio-technical nature of information systems. From the actor network theory viewpoint, agricultural climate information system is a network consisting of actors, actions and information related processes (production, transformation, storage, retrieval, integration, diffusion and utilization, control and management, and system mechanisms (interfaces and networks. Analysis of such systemsembody the identification of basic components and structure of the system (nodes –thedifferent sources of information production, extension, and users, and the understanding of how successfully the system works (interaction and links – in order to promote climate knowledge content and improve system performance to reach agricultural development. The present research attempted to introduce actor network theory as research framework based on network view of agricultural climate information system.

  9. Attack Robustness of Scale-Free Networks Based on Grey Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Jun; LI Yong; DENG Hong-Zhong; TAN Yue-Jin

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an attack robustness model of scale-free networks based on grey information, which means that one can obtain the information of all nodes, but the attack information may be imprecise. The known random failure and the intentional attack are two extreme cases of our investigation. Using the generating function method, we derive the analytical value of the critical removal fraction of nodes for the disintegration of networks, which agree with the simulation results well. We also investigate the effect of grey information on the attack robustness of scale-free networks and find that decreasing the precision of attack information can remarkably enhance the attack robustness of scale-free networks.%@@ We introduce an attack robustness model of scale-free networks based on grey information,which means that one can obtain the information of al1 nodes,but the attack information may be imprecise.The known random failure and the intentional attack are two extreme cases of our investigation.Using the generating function method,we derive the analytical value of the critical removal fraction of nodes for the disintegration of networks,which agree with the simulation results well.We also investigate the effect of grey information on the attack robustness of scale-free networks and find that decreasing the precision of attack information can remarkably enhance the attack robustness of scale-free networks.

  10. restorative justice, criminal justice and access to justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wide range of human rights that are enshrined in ... series, which tend to glorify the role of the prosecutor in a dramatic depiction of good versus bad. However, reality ... unpredictable transformation'.6 Models of practice ..... Funding and resources are also needed. 18 .... Restorative Justice Week, Protea Hotel, Umhlanga.

  11. Unsupervised Neural Network Quantifies the Cost of Visual Information Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L Orbán

    Full Text Available Untrained, "flower-naïve" bumblebees display behavioural preferences when presented with visual properties such as colour, symmetry, spatial frequency and others. Two unsupervised neural networks were implemented to understand the extent to which these models capture elements of bumblebees' unlearned visual preferences towards flower-like visual properties. The computational models, which are variants of Independent Component Analysis and Feature-Extracting Bidirectional Associative Memory, use images of test-patterns that are identical to ones used in behavioural studies. Each model works by decomposing images of floral patterns into meaningful underlying factors. We reconstruct the original floral image using the components and compare the quality of the reconstructed image to the original image. Independent Component Analysis matches behavioural results substantially better across several visual properties. These results are interpreted to support a hypothesis that the temporal and energetic costs of information processing by pollinators served as a selective pressure on floral displays: flowers adapted to pollinators' cognitive constraints.

  12. How to drag with a worn-out mouse? Searching for social justice through collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penteado, Miriam Godoy; Skovsmose, Ole

    2009-01-01

    We consider what a concern for social justice in terms of social inclusion might mean for teacher education, both practising and prospective, with particular reference to the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in mathematics education taking place at a borderland school. Our......, establishing networks, identifying new approaches, moving beyond prototypical research, and getting in contact. This brings us to (5) final considerations, where we return to the notion of social justice....... discussion proceeds through the following steps: (1) We explore what a borderland position might denote to address what social inclusion might mean. (2) We consider the significance of mathematics education and the use of ICT for processes of social inclusion. (3) We briefly refer to the Interlink Network...

  13. Mission Command in the Age of Network-Enabled Operations: Social Network Analysis of Information Sharing and Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Network Analysis of Information Sharing and Situation Awareness Norbou Buchler 1*, Sean M. Fitzhugh 1, Laura R. Marusich 1, Diane M. Ungvarsky 1... analysis of information and situation awareness. The telephone network was sparse and did not fully represent all the members of the core staff and...thus not subjected to statistical model analysis . Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) A valid and reliable method for assessing SA

  14. Networking Course Syllabus in Accredited Library and Information Science Programs: A Comparative Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouserie, Hossam Eldin Mohamed Refaat

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated networking courses offered in accredited Library and Information Science schools in the United States in 2009. The study analyzed and compared network syllabi according to Course Syllabus Evaluation Rubric to obtain in-depth understanding of basic features and characteristics of networking courses taught. The study embraced…

  15. Bayesian Network Structure Learning Based On Rough Set and Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhong Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Bayesian network structure learning for incomplete data set, a common problem is too many attributes causing low efficiency and high computation complexity. In this paper, an algorithm of attribute reduction based on rough set is introduced. The algorithm can effectively reduce the dimension of attributes and quickly determine the network structure using mutual information for Bayesian network structure learning.

  16. 2010 VA Information Technologies Agency (VITA)/VA Geographic Information Network (VGIN) Lidar: Eastern Shore, VA (Accomack and Northampton Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virginia Geographic Information Network (VGIN) contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for Accomack and Northampton counties on the eastern...

  17. Evolutionary Game Analysis of Competitive Information Dissemination on Social Networks: An Agent-Based Computational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are formed by individuals, in which personalities, utility functions, and interaction rules are made as close to reality as possible. Taking the competitive product-related information as a case, we proposed a game-theoretic model for competitive information dissemination in social networks. The model is presented to explain how human factors impact competitive information dissemination which is described as the dynamic of a coordination game and players’ payoff is defined by a utility function. Then we design a computational system that integrates the agent, the evolutionary game, and the social network. The approach can help to visualize the evolution of % of competitive information adoption and diffusion, grasp the dynamic evolution features in information adoption game over time, and explore microlevel interactions among users in different network structure under various scenarios. We discuss several scenarios to analyze the influence of several factors on the dissemination of competitive information, ranging from personality of individuals to structure of networks.

  18. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that wher

  19. Imagining Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Felicity; Knight, Linda; Stratigos, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how creativity and the arts can assist teachers who teach from a social justice perspective, and how knowledge built through meaningful experiences of difference can make a difference. Just as imagining is central to visual arts practice, so too is the capacity to imagine a necessity for social justice. The authors ask what…

  20. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that