WorldWideScience

Sample records for justice drugs overcoming

  1. Justice implications of a proposed Medicare prescription drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Heather

    2004-07-01

    Social justice is a core value to the mission of social work. Older people are among the most vulnerable populations for whom social workers are called on to advocate. Although Medicare prescription drug coverage has been a top legislative issue over the past few years, such a benefit expansion has yet to be implemented. This article examines the historical context of Medicare and reviews the proposals for prescription drug coverage, identifying the concerns raised. Literature critiquing the justice dimensions of health care for the elderly population is reviewed. Justice claims are identified and refined, and social justice theories are used in the analysis of the proposed policies.

  2. Strategies to overcome antineoplastic drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirkel, GA

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on various strategies to deal with cancer drug resistance and improve treatment efficacy. Technological advances have enabled researchers to gain more insight in the immense molecular complexity of cancer and mechanisms of drug resistance. The ability to measure cancer-related

  3. Targeting efflux pumps to overcome antifungal drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ann R; Cardno, Tony S; Strouse, J Jacob; Ivnitski-Steele, Irena; Keniya, Mikhail V; Lackovic, Kurt; Monk, Brian C; Sklar, Larry A; Cannon, Richard D

    2016-08-01

    Resistance to antifungal drugs is an increasingly significant clinical problem. The most common antifungal resistance encountered is efflux pump-mediated resistance of Candida species to azole drugs. One approach to overcome this resistance is to inhibit the pumps and chemosensitize resistant strains to azole drugs. Drug discovery targeting fungal efflux pumps could thus result in the development of azole-enhancing combination therapy. Heterologous expression of fungal efflux pumps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a versatile system for screening for pump inhibitors. Fungal efflux pumps transport a range of xenobiotics including fluorescent compounds. This enables the use of fluorescence-based detection, as well as growth inhibition assays, in screens to discover compounds targeting efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance. A variety of medium- and high-throughput screens have been used to identify a number of chemical entities that inhibit fungal efflux pumps.

  4. The role of photodynamic therapy in overcoming cancer drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bryan Q.; Rizvi, Imran; Xu, Nan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2015-01-01

    Many modalities of cancer therapy induce mechanisms of treatment resistance and escape pathways during chronic treatments, including photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is conceivable that resistance induced by one treatment might be overcome by another treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that the unique mechanisms of tumor cell and microenvironment damage produced by PDT could be utilized to overcome cancer drug resistance, to mitigate the compensatory induction of survival pathways and even to re-sensitize resistant cells to standard therapies. Approaches that capture the unique features of PDT, therefore, offer promising factors for increasing the efficacy of a broad range of therapeutic modalities. Here, we highlight key preclinical findings utilizing PDT to overcome classical drug resistance or escape pathways and thus enhance the efficacy of many pharmaceuticals, possibly explaining the clinical observations of the PDT response to otherwise treatment-resistant diseases. With the development of nanotechnology, it is possible that light activation may be used not only to damage and sensitize tumors but also to enable controlled drug release to inhibit escape pathways that may lead to resistance or cell proliferation. PMID:25856800

  5. The new concepts on overcoming drug resistance in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Weisan Zhang,1 Ping Lei,1 Xifeng Dong,2 Cuiping Xu31Department of Geriatrics, 2Department of Hematology-Oncology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 3Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Lung cancer is one of the most deadly diseases worldwide. The current first-line therapies include chemotherapy using epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and radiotherapies. With the current progress in identifying new molecular targets, acquired drug resistance stands as an obstacle for good prognosis. About half the patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatments develop resistance. Although extensive studies have been applied to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, evidence is far from enough to establish a well-defined picture to correct resistance. In the review, we will discuss four different currently developed strategies that have the potential to overcome drug resistance in lung cancer therapies and facilitate prolonged anticancer effects of the first-line therapies.Keywords: ALK receptors cancer stem cell, chemotherapy, EGFR-TKI, target therapy, pharmacology, molecular biology, biotherapy

  6. Overcoming drug crystallization in electrospun fibers--Elucidating key parameters and developing strategies for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Salem; Franzen, Lutz; Windbergs, Maike

    2015-01-15

    For the development of novel therapeutics, uncontrolled crystallization of drugs within delivery systems represents a major challenge. Especially for thin and flexible polymeric systems such as oral films or dermal wound dressings, the formation and growth of drug crystals can significantly affect drug distribution and release kinetics as well as physical storage stability. In this context, electrospinning was introduced as a fabrication technique with the potential to encapsulate drugs within ultrafine fibers by rapid solvent evaporation overcoming drug crystallization during fabrication and storage. However, these effects could so far only be shown for specific drug-polymer combinations and an in-depth understanding of the underlying processes of drug-loaded fiber formation and influencing key parameters is still missing. In this study, we systematically investigated crystal formation of caffeine as a model drug in electrospun fibers comparing different polymers. The solvent polarity was found to have a major impact on the drug crystal formation, whereas only a minor effect was attributed to the electrospinning process parameters. Based on an in-depth understanding of the underlying processes determining drug crystallization processes in electrospun fibers, key parameters could be identified which allow for the rational development of drug-loaded electrospun fibers overcoming drug crystallization.

  7. Structure-based drug design to overcome drug resistance: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rafaela S; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is a common concern for the development of novel antiviral, antimicrobial and anticancer therapies. To overcome this problem, several strategies have been developed, many of which involving the theme of this review, the use of structure-based drug design (SBDD) approaches. These include the successful design of new compounds that target resistant mutant proteins, as well as the development of drugs that target multiple proteins involved in specific biochemical pathways. Finally, drug resistance can also be considered in the early stages of drug discovery, through the use of strategies to delay the development of resistance. The purpose of this brief review is to underline the usefulness of SBDD approaches based on case studies, highlighting present challenges and opportunities in drug design.

  8. Death receptor ligands, in particular TRAIL, to overcome drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S; Timmer, T; Heijenbrok, FJ; de Vries, EGE

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs is hampered by the occurrence of intrinsic and acquired drug resistance. A variety of mechanisms cause drug-resistance. A final common factor, however, is the reduced capacity of drug resistant cells to go into apoptosis following treatment with DNA damaging ag

  9. Global Pharmacovigilance for Antiretroviral Drugs: Overcoming Contrasting Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Nyasha Bakare; Ivor Ralph Edwards; Andy Stergachis; Shanthi Pal; Holmes, Charles B; Marie Lindquist; Chris Duncombe; Alex Dodoo; Joel Novendstern; Jude Nwokike; Ricardo Kuchenbecker; Aberg, Judith A.; Veronica Miller; Jur Strobos

    2011-01-01

    Jur Strobos and colleagues describe the deliberations of a recent multi-stakeholder meeting discussing the creation of a sustainable global pharmacovigilance system for antiretroviral drugs that would be applicable in resource limited settings.

  10. Overcoming drug efflux-based multidrug resistance in cancer with nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xue; Xing-Jie Liang

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR),which significantly decreases the efficacy of anticancer drugs and causes tumor recurrence,has been a major challenge in clinical cancer treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs for decades.Several mechanisms of overcoming drug resistance have been postulated.Well known Pglycoprotein (P-gp) and other drug efflux transporters are considered to be critical in pumping anticancer drugs out of cells and causing chemotherapy failure.Innovative theranostic (therapeutic and diagnostic)strategies with nanoparticles are rapidly evolving and are anticipated to offer opportunities to overcome these limits.In this review,we discuss the mechanisms of drug efflux-mediated resistance and the application of multiple nanoparticle-based platforms to overcome chemoresistance and improve therapeutic outcome.

  11. Overcoming Obstacles to Drug Abuse Research with Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    Although there has been a significant amount of research on the families of drug abusers, this field has encountered a number of obstacles to its continued growth. Some of these problems include an emphasis of research on opiate use, methodological hindrances, and lack of a constituency. A review of two concurrent national processes, the White…

  12. Drug delivery by a self-assembled DNA tetrahedron for overcoming drug resistance in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ran; Kim, Da-Rae; Lee, Taemin; Yhee, Ji Young; Kim, Byeong-Su; Kwon, Ick Chan; Ahn, Dae-Ro

    2013-03-11

    A DNA tetrahedron is employed for efficient delivery of doxorubicin into drug-resistant breast cancer cells. The drug delivered with the DNA nanoconstruct is considerably cytotoxic, whereas free doxorubicin is virtually non-cytotoxic for the drug-resistant cells. Thus, the DNA tetrahedron, made of the inherently natural and biocompatible material, can be a good candidate for the drug carrier to overcome MDR in cancer cells.

  13. Mitochondria-Targeting Polydopamine Nanoparticles To Deliver Doxorubicin for Overcoming Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qing; Wang, Zhigang; Hao, Sijie; He, Hongzhang; Wan, Yuan; Zhu, Chuandong; Sun, Li-Ping; Cheng, Gong; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2017-05-24

    Mitochondria play a critical role in diverse cellular processes, such as energy production and apoptosis regulation. The mitochondria-targeted drug delivery is becoming a potential novel strategy for overcoming drug resistance in cancer therapy. Herein, we synthesize nature-inspired dopamine-derived polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles. Using triphenylphosphonium (TPP) as the mitochondrial penetration molecule to improve the target efficiency, we synthesize poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-modified PDA (PDA-PEG) and TPP-functionalized PEG-modified PDA (PDA-PEG-TPP) nanoparticles. Then anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded on PDA-PEG and PDA-PEG-TPP (PDA-PEG-DOX and PDA-PEG-TPP-DOX) nanoparticles, which are apt to deliver DOX to cell nuclei and mitochondria, respectively. To mimic the repeated anticancer drug treatment in clinical cases, we repeatedly treated the MDA-MD-231 cancer cells for a long time using DOX-loaded nanoparticles and find that the mitochondria targeting PDA-PEG-TPP-DOX has higher potential to overcome the drug resistance than the regular delivery nanoparticles PDA-PEG-DOX. These results indicate the promising potential of applying PDA-PEG-TPP-DOX nanoparticles in mitochondria-targeted drug delivery to overcome the drug resistance in long-time anticancer chemotherapy.

  14. Targeting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) to Overcome Drug Resistance in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bowen; Shim, Joong Sup

    2016-07-22

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to play an important role in cancer progression, metastasis and drug resistance. Although there are controversies surrounding the causal relationship between EMT and cancer metastasis, the role of EMT in cancer drug resistance has been increasingly recognized. Numerous EMT-related signaling pathways are involved in drug resistance in cancer cells. Cells undergoing EMT show a feature similar to cancer stem cells (CSCs), such as an increase in drug efflux pumps and anti-apoptotic effects. Therefore, targeting EMT has been considered a novel opportunity to overcome cancer drug resistance. This review describes the mechanism by which EMT contributes to drug resistance in cancer cells and summarizes new advances in research in EMT-associated drug resistance.

  15. Profiles of criminal-justice clients in drug treatment: implications for intervention.

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    Kline, A

    1997-01-01

    Psychosocial differences between criminal-justice-referred and voluntary clients, using a sample of 996 men and women in residential drug treatment in northern New Jersey, were explored. Results suggest differences in demographic characteristics between the two groups as well as differences in attitudes and behaviors likely to impact on treatment outcome. Demographically, criminal-justice clients are younger, more likely to be male, and less likely to be Black than other clients. They also report better health status and better social and psychological adjustment, reporting less homelessness, fewer health problems, lower levels of psychological distress, better family adjustment, and fewer medical, social, and drug problems requiring intervention. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  16. Rational drug design approach for overcoming drug resistance: application to pyrimethamine resistance in malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, J H; Douglas, K T; Chan, C; Roser, S A; Yates, R; Read, M; Hyde, J E; Dascombe, M J; Yuthavong, Y; Sirawaraporn, W

    1998-04-23

    Pyrimethamine acts by selectively inhibiting malarial dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS). Resistance in the most important human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, initially results from an S108N mutation in the DHFR domain, with additional mutation (most commonly C59R or N51I or both) imparting much greater resistance. From a homology model of the 3-D structure of DHFR-TS, rational drug design techniques have been used to design and subsequently synthesize inhibitors able to overcome malarial pyrimethamine resistance. Compared to pyrimethamine (Ki 1.5 nM) with purified recombinant DHFR fromP. falciparum, the Ki value of the m-methoxy analogue of pyrimethamine was 1.07 nM, but against the DHFR bearing the double mutation (C59R + S108N), the Ki values for pyrimethamine and the m-methoxy analogue were 71.7 and 14.0 nM, respectively. The m-chloro analogue of pyrimethamine was a stronger inhibitor of both wild-type DHFR (with Ki 0.30 nM) and the doubly mutant (C59R +S108N) purified enzyme (with Ki 2.40 nM). Growth of parasite cultures of P. falciparum in vitro was also strongly inhibited by these compounds with 50% inhibition of growth occurring at 3.7 microM for the m-methoxy and 0.6 microM for the m-chloro compounds with the K1 parasite line bearing the double mutation (S108N + C59R), compared to 10.2 microM for pyrimethamine. These inhibitors were also found in preliminary studies to retain antimalarial activity in vivo in P. berghei-infected mice.

  17. Tris DBA palladium overcomes hypoxia-mediated drug resistance in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Puente, Pilar; Azab, Feda; Muz, Barbara; Luderer, Micah; Arbiser, Jack; Azab, Abdel Kareem

    2016-07-01

    Despite recent progress in novel and targeted therapies, multiple myeloma (MM) remains a therapeutically challenging incurable disease. The regulation of important cellular processes and its link to cancer presented Src as an attractive target for MM. We suggest a novel strategy to improve the treatment of MM and overcome the drug resistance for the current therapeutic agents by specific inhibition of Src in MM cells by Tris (Dibenzylideneacetone) dipalladium (Tris DBA). Tris DBA reduces proliferation, induces G1 arrest and apoptosis in MM cells. Tris DBA showed additive effect with proteasome inhibitors reducing proliferation, cell cycle signaling, and increasing apoptosis more than each drug alone. Tris DBA overcame hypoxia-induced effects such as enhanced chemotaxis or drug resistance to proteasome inhibitors by inhibition of HIF1α expression. Moreover, we found that Tris DBA is an effective anti-myeloma agent alone or in combination with other targeted drugs and that it reverses hypoxia-induced drug resistance in myeloma.

  18. The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

  19. Inorganic nanoparticle-based drug codelivery nanosystems to overcome the multidrug resistance of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Hangrong; Shi, Jianlin

    2014-08-04

    Biocompatible inorganic material-based nanosystems provide a novel choice to effectively circumvent the intrinsic drawbacks of traditional organic materials in biomedical applications, especially in overcoming the multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells due to their unique structural and compositional characteristics, for example, high stability, large surface area, tunable compositions, abundant physicochemical multifunctionalities, and specific biological behaviors. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in the construction of inorganic nanoparticles-based drug codelivery nanosystems (mesoporous SiO2, Fe3O4, Au, Ag, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, LDH, etc.) to efficiently circumvent the MDR of cancer cells, including the well-known codelivery of small molecular anticancer drug/macromolecular therapeutic gene and codelivery of small molecular chemosensitizer/anticancer drug, and very recently explored codelivery of targeting ligands/anticancer drug, codelivery of energy/anticancer drug, and codelivery of contrast agent for diagnostic imaging and anticancer drug. The unsolved issues, future developments, and potential clinical translations of these codelivery nanosystems are also discussed. These elaborately designed biocompatible inorganic materials-based nanosystems offer an unprecedented opportunity and show the encouraging bright future for overcoming the MDR of tumors in clinic personalized medicine and the pharmaceutical industry.

  20. Nano-based strategies to overcome p-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Mehri; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Najafi Hajivar, Saeedeh; Soleymani Goloujeh, Mehdi; Ghobakhlou, Nasrin; Shahbazi Mojarrad, Javid; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2016-09-01

    The discussion about cancer treatment has a long history. Chemotherapy, one of the promising approaches in cancer therapy, is limited in the clinic as plenty of factors evolve and prevent appropriate therapeutic response to drugs. Multi-drug resistance (MDR), which is mostly P-glycoprotein-mediated, is described as the most well-known impediment in this contribution. It extrudes several agents out of cells, arising MDR and decreasing the bioavailability of drugs. Hence, cancer cells become insensitive to chemotherapy. Many agents have been developed to reverse MDR, but it is difficult to deliver them into cancer sites and cancer cells. The emerging nano-based drug delivery systems have been more effective to overcome P-glycoprotein-mediated MDR by increasing the intracellular delivery of these agents. Here, we represent systems including siRNA-targeted inhibition of P-gp, monoclonal antibodies, natural extracts, conventional inhibitors, hard nanoparticles and soft nanoparticles as delivery systems in addition to a novel approach applying cell penetrating peptides. Overcoming cancer drug resistance using innovative nanotechnology is being increasingly used and developed. Among resistance mechanisms, drug efflux transporter inhibitors and MDR gene expression silencing are among the those being investigated. In the near future, it seems some of these nanomedical approaches might become the mainstay of effective treatment of important human conditions like cancer.

  1. The Role of Carrier Geometry in Overcoming Biological Barriers to Drug Delivery.

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    Jordan, Carolyn; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Bailey, Mark; Muzykantov, Vladimir R; Dziubla, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    For a variety of diseases, effective therapy is severely limited or rendered impossible due to an inability to deliver medications to the intended sites of action. Multiple barriers exist through the body, which have evolved over time to limit the migration of foreign compounds from entering the tissues. Turning toward biology as inspiration, it has been the general goal of drug delivery to create carrier strategies that mimic, in part, features of bacteria/ viruses that allow them overcome these barriers. By packaging drugs into nano and micron scale vehicles, it should be possible to completely change the biodistribution and residence times of pharmaceutically active compounds. Recently, due to advances in formulation technologies, it has become possible to control not just the material selection, surface chemistry, and/or size, but also the overall geometry and plasticity of the drug carriers. These approaches aid in the formulation of nonspherical particles such as, discs, rods, and even unique structures such as cubes and nanodiamonds. The adjustment of size and shape can be used for the aid or prevention in cellular uptake and also to overcome the vascular and mucosal barrier. In this review, we present a summary of some approaches used to control carrier shape and the impact these geometries have upon drug transport across biological barriers.

  2. Glutathione transferases and development of new principles to overcome drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Andrea; Pellizzari Tregno, Francesca; Valentino, Francesco; Federici, Giorgio; Caccuri, Anna Maria

    2010-08-15

    Chemoresistance is a multifactorial phenomenon and many studies clearly show that a coordinated expression of efflux transporter proteins and phase II conjugating enzymes in tumor cells is linked to the development of the multidrug resistance phenotype. In particular, the overexpression of glutathione S-transferases and efflux pumps in tumors may reduce the reactivity of various anticancer drugs. In recent years it has become evident that glutathione S-transferases are also involved in the control of apoptosis through the inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. As such, the glutathione S-transferase superfamily has become the focus of extensive pharmaceutical research in attempt to generate more efficient anticancer agents. Here we present an overview of the GST inhibitors and the GST-activated pro-drugs utilized to date to overcome drug resistance.

  3. Targeting oncoprotein stability overcomes drug resistance caused by FLT3 kinase domain mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjiang Yu

    Full Text Available FLT3 is the most frequently mutated kinase in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Internal tandem duplications (ITDs in the juxta-membrane region constitute the majority of activating FLT3 mutations. Several FLT3 kinase inhibitors were developed and tested in the clinic with significant success. However, recent studies have reported the development of secondary drug resistance in patients treated with FLT3 inhibitors. Since FLT3-ITD is an HSP90 client kinase, we here explored if targeting the stability of drug-resistant FLT3 mutant protein could be a potential therapeutic option. We observed that HSP90 inhibitor treatment resulted in the degradation of inhibitor-resistant FLT3-ITD mutants and selectively induced toxicity in cells expressing FLT3-ITD mutants. Thus, HSP90 inhibitors provide a potential therapeutic choice to overcome secondary drug resistance following TKI treatment in FLT3-ITD positive AML.

  4. Overcoming drug resistance in multi-drug resistant cancers and microorganisms: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avner, Benjamin S; Fialho, Arsenio M; Chakrabarty, Ananda M

    2012-01-01

    Resistance development against multiple drugs is a common feature among many pathogens--including bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, viruses, and parasites--and also among cancers. The reasons are two-fold. Most commonly-used rationally-designed small molecule drugs or monoclonal antibodies, as well as antibiotics, strongly inhibit a key single step in the growth and proliferation of the pathogen or cancer cells. The disease agents quickly change or switch off this single target, or activate the efflux mechanisms to pump out the drug, thereby becoming resistant to the drug. A second problem is the way drugs are designed. The pharmaceutical industry chooses to use, by high-throughput screening, compounds that are maximally inhibitory to the key single step in the growth of the pathogen or cancer, thereby promoting selective pressure. An ideal drug would be one that inhibits multiple steps in the disease progression pathways with less stringency in these steps. Low levels of inhibition at multiple steps provide cumulative strong inhibitory effect, but little incentives or ability on the part of the pathogen/cancer to develop resistance. Such intelligent drug design involving multiple less stringent inhibitory steps is beyond the scope of the drug industry and requires evolutionary wisdom commonly possessed by bacteria. This review surveys assessments of the current clinical situation with regard to drug resistance in P. aeruginosa, and examines tools currently employed to limit this trend. We then provide a conceptual framework in which we explore the similarities between multi-drug resistance in pathogens and in cancers. We summarize promising work on anti-cancer drugs derived from the evolutionary wisdom of bacteria such as P. aeruginosa, and how such strategies can be the basis for how to look for candidate protein/peptide antibiotic drugs from bioengineered bugs. Such multi-domain proteins, unlike diffusible antibiotics, are not diffusible because of their

  5. Overcoming Resistance of Cancer Cells to PARP-1 Inhibitors with Three Different Drug Combinations.

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    Michal Yalon

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARPis show promise for treatment of cancers which lack capacity for homologous recombination repair (HRR. However, new therapeutic strategies are required in order to overcome innate and acquired resistance to these drugs and thus expand the array of cancers that could benefit from them. We show that human cancer cell lines which respond poorly to ABT-888 (a PARPi, become sensitive to it when co-treated with vorinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi. Vorinostat also sensitized PARPis insensitive cancer cell lines to 6-thioguanine (6-TG-a drug that targets PARPis sensitive cells. The sensitizing effect of vorinostat was associated with increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF 2α which in and of itself increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to ABT-888. Importantly, these drug combinations did not affect survival of normal fibroblasts and breast cells, and significantly increased the inhibition of xenograft tumor growth relative to each drug alone, without affecting the mice weight or their liver and kidney function. Our results show that combination of vorinostat and ABT-888 could potentially prove useful for treatment of cancer with innate resistance to PARPis due to active HRR machinery, while the combination of vorinostat and 6-TG could potentially overcome innate or acquired resistance to PARPis due to secondary or reversal BRCA mutations, to decreased PARP-1 level or to increased expression of multiple drug resistant proteins. Importantly, drugs which increase phosphorylation of eIF2α may mimic the sensitizing effect of vorinostat on cellular response to PARPis or to 6-TG, without activating all of its downstream effectors.

  6. New Approaches to Overcome Transport Related Drug Resistance in Trypanosomatid Parasites

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    Garcia-Salcedo, Jose A.; Unciti-Broceta, Juan D.; Valverde-Pozo, Javier; Soriano, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania and Trypanosoma are members of the Trypanosomatidae family that cause severe human infections such as leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and sleeping sickness affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite efforts to eradicate them, migrations are expanding these infections to developing countries. There are no vaccines available and current treatments depend only on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a major obstacle for the treatment of these diseases given that existing drugs are old and limited, with some having severe side effects. Most resistance mechanisms developed by these parasites are related with a decreased uptake or increased efflux of the drug due to mutations or altered expression of membrane transporters. Different new approaches have been elaborated that can overcome these mechanisms of resistance including the use of inhibitors of efflux pumps and drug carriers for both active and passive targeting. Here we review new formulations that have been successfully applied to circumvent resistance related to drug transporters, opening alternative ways to solve drug resistance in protozoan parasitic diseases. PMID:27733833

  7. New approaches to overcome transport related drug resistance in trypanosomatid parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Garcia-Salcedo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania and Trypanosoma are members of the Trypanosomatidae family that cause severe human infections such as leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and sleeping sickness affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite efforts to eradicate them, migrations are expanding these infections to developing countries. There are no vaccines available and current treatments depend only on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a major obstacle for the treatment of these diseases given that existing drugs are old and limited, with some having severe side effects. Most resistance mechanisms developed by these parasites are related with a decreased uptake or increased efflux of the drug due to mutations or altered expression of membrane transporters. Different new approaches have been elaborated that can overcome these mechanisms of resistance including the use of inhibitors of efflux pumps and drug carriers for both active and passive targeting. Here we review new formulations that have been successfully applied to circumvent resistance related to drug transporters, opening alternative ways to solve drug resistance in protozoan parasitic diseases.

  8. Nanoparticle-mediated combination chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy overcomes tumor drug resistance in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdair, Ayman; Handa, Hitesh; Mao, Guangzhao; Panyam, Jayanth

    2009-02-01

    Drug resistance limits the success of many anticancer drugs. Reduced accumulation of the drug at its intracellular site of action because of overexpression of efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major mechanism of drug resistance. In this study, we investigated whether photodynamic therapy (PDT) using methylene blue, also a P-gp inhibitor, can be used to enhance doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in drug-resistant tumor cells. Aerosol OT (AOT)-alginate nanoparticles were used as a carrier for the simultaneous cellular delivery of doxorubicin and methylene blue. Methylene blue was photoactivated using light of 665 nm wavelength. Induction of apoptosis and necrosis following treatment with combination chemotherapy and PDT was investigated in drug-resistant NCI/ADR-RES cells using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Effect of encapsulation in nanoparticles on the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and methylene blue was investigated qualitatively using fluorescence microscopy and was quantitated using HPLC. Encapsulation in AOT-alginate nanoparticles significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of combination therapy in resistant tumor cells. Nanoparticle-mediated combination therapy resulted in a significant induction of both apoptosis and necrosis. Improvement in cytotoxicity could be correlated with enhanced intracellular and nuclear delivery of the two drugs. Further, nanoparticle-mediated combination therapy resulted in significantly elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production compared to single drug treatment. In conclusion, nanoparticle-mediated combination chemotherapy and PDT using doxorubicin and methylene blue was able to overcome resistance mechanisms and resulted in improved cytotoxicity in drug-resistant tumor cells.

  9. Liposomal daunorubicin overcomes drug resistance in human breast, ovarian and lung carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadava, David; Coleman, Aaron; Kane, Susan E

    2002-11-01

    Multi-drug resistance due in part to membrane pumps such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a major clinical problem in human cancers. We tested the ability of liposomally-encapsulated daunorubicin (DR) to overcome resistance to this drug. A widely used breast carcinoma cell line originally selected for resistance in doxorubicin (MCF7ADR) was 4-fold resistant to DR compared to the parent MCF7 cells (IC50 79 nM vs. 20 nM). Ovarian carcinoma cells (SKOV3) were made resistant by retroviral transduction of MDR1 cDNA and selection in vinblastine. The resulting SKOV3MGP1 cells were 130-fold resistant to DR compared to parent cells (IC50 5700 nM vs. 44 nM). Small-cell lung carcinoma cells (H69VP) originally selected for resistance to etoposide were 6-fold resistant to DR compared to H69 parent cells (IC50 180 nM vs. 30 nM). In all three cases, encapsulation of DR in liposomes as Daunoxome (Gilead) did not change the IC50 of parent cells relative to free DR. However, liposomal DR overcame resistance in MCF7ADR breast carcinoma cells (IC50 20 nM), SKOV3MGP1 ovarian carcinoma cells (IC50 237 nM) and H69VP small-cell lung carcinoma cells (IC50 27 nM). Empty liposomes did not affect the IC50 for free DR in the three resistant cell lines, nor did empty liposomes affect the IC50 for other drugs that are part of the multi-drug resistance phenotype (etoposide, vincristine) in lung carcinoma cells. These data indicate the possible value of liposomal DR in overcoming Pgp-mediated drug resistance in human cancer.

  10. Targeted therapeutic nanotubes influence the viscoelasticity of cancer cells to overcome drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhirde, Ashwinkumar A; Chikkaveeraiah, Bhaskara V; Srivatsan, Avinash; Niu, Gang; Jin, Albert J; Kapoor, Ankur; Wang, Zhe; Patel, Sachin; Patel, Vyomesh; Gorbach, Alexander M; Leapman, Richard D; Gutkind, J Silvio; Hight Walker, Angela R; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-05-27

    Resistance to chemotherapy is the primary cause of treatment failure in over 90% of cancer patients in the clinic. Research in nanotechnology-based therapeutic alternatives has helped provide innovative and promising strategies to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR). By targeting CD44-overexpressing MDR cancer cells, we have developed in a single-step a self-assembled, self-targetable, therapeutic semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (sSWCNT) drug delivery system that can deliver chemotherapeutic agents to both drug-sensitive OVCAR8 and resistant OVCAR8/ADR cancer cells. The novel nanoformula with a cholanic acid-derivatized hyaluronic acid (CAHA) biopolymer wrapped around a sSWCNT and loaded with doxorubicin (DOX), CAHA-sSWCNT-DOX, is much more effective in killing drug-resistant cancer cells compared to the free DOX and phospholipid PEG (PL-PEG)-modified sSWCNT formula, PEG-sSWCNT-DOX. The CAHA-sSWCNT-DOX affects the viscoelastic property more than free DOX and PL-PEG-sSWCNT-DOX, which in turn allows more drug molecules to be internalized. Intravenous injection of CAHA-sSWCNT-DOX (12 mg/kg DOX equivalent) followed by 808 nm laser irradiation (1 W/cm(2), 90 s) led to complete tumor eradication in a subcutaneous OVCAR8/ADR drug-resistant xenograft model, while free DOX alone failed to delay tumor growth. Our newly developed CAHA-sSWCNT-DOX nanoformula, which delivers therapeutics and acts as a sensitizer to influence drug uptake and induce apoptosis with minimal resistance factor, provides a novel effective means of counteracting the phenomenon of multidrug resistance.

  11. Cardiac Arrhythmia: In vivo screening in the zebrafish to overcome complexity in drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Calum A.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Cardiac arrhythmias remain a major challenge for modern drug discovery. Clinical events are paroxysmal, often rare and may be asymptomatic until a highly morbid complication. Target selection is often based on limited information and though highly specific agents are identified in screening, the final efficacy is often compromised by unanticipated systemic responses, a narrow therapeutic index and substantial toxicities. Areas covered in this review Our understanding of complexity of arrhythmogenesis has grown dramatically over the last two decades, and the range of potential disease mechanisms now includes pathways previously thought only tangentially involved in arrhythmia. This review surveys the literature on arrhythmia mechanisms from 1965 to the present day, outlines the complex biology underlying potentially each and every rhythm disturbance, and highlights the problems for rational target identification. The rationale for in vivo screening is described and the utility of the zebrafish for this approach and for complementary work in functional genomics is discussed. Current limitations of the model in this setting and the need for careful validation in new disease areas are also described. What the reader will gain An overview of the complex mechanisms underlying most clinical arrhythmias, and insight into the limits of ion channel conductances as drug targets. An introduction to the zebrafish as a model organism, in particular for cardiovascular biology. Potential approaches to overcoming the hurdles to drug discovery in the face of complex biology including in vivo screening of zebrafish genetic disease models. Take home message In vivo screening in faithful disease models allows the effects of drugs on integrative physiology and disease biology to be captured during the screening process, in a manner agnostic to potential drug target or targets. This systematic strategy bypasses current gaps in our understanding of disease biology

  12. Targeting mitochondrial cell death pathway to overcome drug resistance with a newly developed iron chelate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Ganguly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multi drug resistance (MDR or cross-resistance to multiple classes of chemotherapeutic agents is a major obstacle to successful application of chemotherapy and a basic problem in cancer biology. The multidrug resistance gene, MDR1, and its gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp are an important determinant of MDR. Therefore, there is an urgent need for development of novel compounds that are not substrates of P-glycoprotein and are effective against drug-resistant cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this present study, we have synthesized a novel, redox active Fe (II complex (chelate, iron N- (2-hydroxy acetophenone glycinate (FeNG. The structure of the complex has been determined by spectroscopic means. To evaluate the cytotoxic effect of FeNG we used doxorubicin resistant and/or sensitive T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and show that FeNG kills both the cell types irrespective of their MDR phenotype. Moreover, FeNG induces apoptosis in doxorubicin resistance T lymphoblastic leukemia cell through mitochondrial pathway via generation reactive oxygen species (ROS. This is substantiated by the fact that the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC could completely block ROS generation and, subsequently, abrogated FeNG induced apoptosis. Therefore, FeNG induces the doxorubicin resistant T lymphoblastic leukemia cells to undergo apoptosis and thus overcome MDR. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides evidence that FeNG, a redox active metal chelate may be a promising new therapeutic agent against drug resistance cancers.

  13. The role of criminal justice system in treating drug abusers: the Chinese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Liu, Jianhong; Huang, Kaicheng

    2011-07-01

    This study explores the role of China's criminal justice system in treating drug abusers and provides a preliminary assessment of the mandatory treatment centers administered by police and reeducation-through-labor camps managed by correction agencies in China. The exploration and assessment are conducted using data collected from recent surveys of drug users in several mandatory treatment centers and a reeducation-through-labor camp in a large city of China in 2009. The data reveal that the treatment involvement levels of drug users in these mandatory treatment centers and reeducation-through-labor camps varied and their perceptions of the treatments they had received for their recovery seem fairly positive. The implication of these findings was discussed in the context of Chinese social and legal tradition.

  14. Multifunctional hyaluronic acid modified graphene oxide loaded with mitoxantrone for overcoming drug resistance in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lin; Feng, Qianhua; Wang, Yating; Yang, Xiaomin; Ren, Junxiao; Shi, Yuyang; Shan, Xiaoning; Yuan, Yujie; Wang, Yongchao; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional nanosheets (HA-GO/Pluronic) with targeted chemo-photothermal properties were successfully developed for controlled delivery of mitoxantrone (MIT) to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR). In vitro release profiles displayed that both an acidic environment and a NIR laser could trigger and accelerate the release of a drug, which ensured nanosheets were stable in blood circulation and released MIT within tumor cells under laser irradiation. HA-GO/Pluronic nanosheets were taken up into MCF-7/ADR cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, which further facilitated escapement of P-gp efflux. Compared with MIT solution, MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic showed greater cytotoxicity and increase in cellular MIT accumulation in MCF-7/ADR cells. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest studies also revealed that MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic was more potent than MIT/GO/Pluronic and MIT solution. The anticancer efficacy in vivo was evaluated in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR-bearing mice, and inhibition of tumors by MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic with NIR laser irradiation was the most effective among all MIT formulations. In summary, the MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic system had striking functions such as P-gp reversible inhibitor and anticancer efficacy, and could present a promising platform for drug-resistant cancer treatment.

  15. Co-delivery nanoparticles with characteristics of intracellular precision release drugs for overcoming multidrug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang DD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available DanDan Zhang,1 Yan Yan Kong,1 Jia Hui Sun,1 Shao Jie Huo,1 Min Zhou,2 Yi Ling Gui,1 Xu Mu,1 Huan Chen,1 Shu Qin Yu,1 Qian Xu3 1Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 2School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu Food and Pharmaceutical Science College, Huai’an, 3Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Engineering, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Combination chemotherapy in clinical practice has been generally accepted as a feasible strategy for overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR. Here, we designed and successfully prepared a co-delivery system named S-D1@L-D2 NPs, where denoted some smaller nanoparticles (NPs carrying a drug doxorubicin (DOX were loaded into a larger NP containing another drug (vincristine [VCR] via water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion solvent diffusion-evaporation method. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticles carrying DOX (CS-ALG-DOX NPs with a smaller diameter of about 20 nm formed S-D1 NPs; vitamin E D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles carrying VCR (TPGS-PLGA-VCR NPs with a larger diameter of about 200 nm constituted L-D2 NPs. Some CS-ALG-DOX NPs loaded into TPGS-PLGA-VCR NPs formed CS-ALG-DOX@TPGS-PLGA-VCR NPs. Under the acidic environment of cytosol and endosome or lysosome in MDR cell, CS-ALG-DOX@TPGS-PLGA-VCR NPs released VCR and CS-ALG-DOX NPs. VCR could arrest cell cycles at metaphase by inhibiting microtubule polymerization in the cytoplasm. After CS-ALG-DOX NPs escaped from endosome, they entered the nucleus through the nuclear pore and released DOX in the intra-nuclear alkaline environment, which interacted with DNA to stop the replication of MDR cells. These results indicated that S-D1@L-D2 NPs was a co-delivery system of intracellular precision release loaded drugs with p

  16. Peptide-22 and Cyclic RGD Functionalized Liposomes for Glioma Targeting Drug Delivery Overcoming BBB and BBTB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cuitian; Duan, Ziqing; Yuan, Yan; Li, Ruixiang; Pang, Liang; Liang, Jianming; Xu, Xinchun; Wang, Jianxin

    2017-02-22

    Chemotherapy outcomes for the treatment of glioma remain unsatisfied due to the inefficient drug transport across BBB/BBTB and poor drug accumulation in the tumor site. Nanocarriers functionalized with different targeting ligands are considered as one of the most promising alternatives. However, few studies were reported to compare the targeting efficiency of the ligands and develop nanoparticles to realize BBB/BBTB crossing and brain tumor targeting simultaneously. In this study, six peptide-based ligands (Angiopep-2, T7, Peptide-22, c(RGDfK), D-SP5 and Pep-1), widely used for brain delivery, were selected to decorate liposomes, respectively, so as to compare their targeting ability to BBB or BBTB. Based on the in vitro cellular uptake results on BCECs and HUVECs, Peptide-22 and c(RGDfK) were picked to construct a BBB/BBTB dual-crossing, glioma-targeting liposomal drug delivery system c(RGDfK)/Pep-22-DOX-LP. In vitro cellular uptake demonstrated that the synergetic effect of c(RGDfK) and Peptide-22 could significantly increase the internalization of liposomes on U87 cells. In vivo imaging further verified that c(RGDfK)/Pep-22-LP exhibited higher brain tumor distribution than single ligand modified liposomes. The median survival time of glioma-bearing mice treated with c(RGDfK)/Pep-22-DOX-LP (39.5 days) was significantly prolonged than those treated with free doxorubicin or other controls. In conclusion, the c(RGDfK) and Peptide-22 dual-modified liposome was constructed based on the targeting ability screening of various ligands. The system could effectively overcome BBB/BBTB barriers, target to tumor cells and inhibit the growth of glioma, which proved its potential for improving the efficacy of chemotherapeutics for glioma therapy.

  17. Co-delivery nanoparticles with characteristics of intracellular precision release drugs for overcoming multidrug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, DanDan; Kong, Yan Yan; Sun, Jia Hui; Huo, Shao Jie; Zhou, Min; Gui, Yi Ling; Mu, Xu; Chen, Huan; Yu, Shu Qin; Xu, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Combination chemotherapy in clinical practice has been generally accepted as a feasible strategy for overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR). Here, we designed and successfully prepared a co-delivery system named S-D1@L-D2 NPs, where denoted some smaller nanoparticles (NPs) carrying a drug doxorubicin (DOX) were loaded into a larger NP containing another drug (vincristine [VCR]) via water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion solvent diffusion-evaporation method. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticles carrying DOX (CS-ALG-DOX NPs) with a smaller diameter of about 20 nm formed S-D1 NPs; vitamin E D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles carrying VCR (TPGS-PLGA-VCR NPs) with a larger diameter of about 200 nm constituted L-D2 NPs. Some CS-ALG-DOX NPs loaded into TPGS-PLGA-VCR NPs formed CS-ALG-DOX@TPGS-PLGA-VCR NPs. Under the acidic environment of cytosol and endosome or lysosome in MDR cell, CS-ALG-DOX@TPGS-PLGA-VCR NPs released VCR and CS-ALG-DOX NPs. VCR could arrest cell cycles at metaphase by inhibiting microtubule polymerization in the cytoplasm. After CS-ALG-DOX NPs escaped from endosome, they entered the nucleus through the nuclear pore and released DOX in the intra-nuclear alkaline environment, which interacted with DNA to stop the replication of MDR cells. These results indicated that S-D1@L-D2 NPs was a co-delivery system of intracellular precision release loaded drugs with pH-sensitive characteristics. S-D1@L-D2 NPs could obviously enhance the in vitro cytotoxicity and the in vivo anticancer efficiency of co-delivery drugs, while reducing their adverse effects. Overall, S-D1@L-D2 NPs can be considered an innovative platform for the co-delivery drugs of clinical combination chemotherapy for the treatment of MDR tumor.

  18. Nanoparticulated docetaxel exerts enhanced anticancer efficacy and overcomes existing limitations of traditional drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi J

    2015-09-01

    edema, paralysis, and paw-withdrawal latency on a hot plate analysis that are regarded as indicators of fluid retention, peripheral neuropathy, and thermal threshold, respectively, for toxicological tests. In summary, compared with Taxotere™, Nufs-DTX, which was generated by our new platform technology using lipid, supercritical fluid, and carbon dioxide (CO2, maintained its biochemical properties as a cytotoxic agent and had better tumor targeting ability, better in vivo therapeutic effect, and less toxicity, thereby overcoming the current hurdles of traditional drugs. Keywords: Nufs-DTX, docetaxel, anticancer efficacy, toxicity

  19. "Drugs and AIDS--reaching for help": a videotape on AIDS and drug abuse prevention for criminal justice populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M; DeJong, W; Lamb, D; Enos, T; Mason, T; Weitzman, E

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the development of a videotape targeted at persons under supervision of the criminal justice system. The videotape seeks to encourage those who use illicit drugs to enter drug treatment and to motivate those at risk for exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to alter behaviors that may transmit infection. The criminal justice system presents an important opportunity to deliver such messages, particularly to a large population of persons briefly detained in a jail or lockup and released without subsequent incarceration. Evidence suggests that, even in this audience, knowledge of how to prevent exposure to HIV is widespread, yet those at risk often fail to take appropriate precautions: motivating behavior change demands more than imparting information. In order to shape this videotape, we analyzed the target audience and developed a drama-based approach that applies the framework of social learning theory, the health belief model, and principles of social marketing. This article describes the integration of that theoretical framework into the production process, content, and strategy of the videotape.

  20. Inula Viscosa Extracts Induces Telomere Shortening and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and Overcome Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghoub, Nawal; El Btaouri, Hassan; Benbacer, Laila; Gmouh, Saïd; Trentesaux, Chantal; Brassart, Bertrand; Terryn, Christine; Attaleb, Mohammed; Madoulet, Claudie; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Amzazi, Saaïd; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase is activated in human papillomavirus (HPV) positive cervical cancer and targeting telomeres offers a novel anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this study, the telomere targeting properties, the cytotoxic as well as the pro-apoptotic effects of hexane (IV-HE) and dichloromethane (IV-DF) fractions from Inula viscosa L. extracts were investigated on human cervical HeLa and SiHa cancer cells. Our data demonstrate that IV-HE and IV-DF extracts were able to inhibit cell growth in HeLa and SiHa cells in a dose-dependent manner and studied resistant cell lines exhibited a resistance factor less than 2 when treated with the extracts. IV-HE and IV-DF extracts were able to inhibit telomerase activity and to induce telomere shortening as shown by telomeric repeat amplification protocol and TTAGGG telomere length assay, respectively. The sensitivity of fibroblasts to the extracts was increased when telomerase was expressed. Finally, IV-HE and IV-DF were able to induce apoptosis as evidenced by an increase in annexin-V labeling and caspase-3 activity. This study provides the first evidence that the IV-HE and IV-DF extracts from Inula viscosa L. target telomeres induce apoptosis and overcome drug resistance in tumor cells. Future studies will focus on the identification of the molecules involved in the anticancer activity.

  1. Sorafenib overcomes irinotecan resistance in colorectal cancer by inhibiting the ABCG2 drug-efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazard, Thibault; Causse, Annick; Simony, Joelle; Leconet, Wilhem; Vezzio-Vie, Nadia; Torro, Adeline; Jarlier, Marta; Evrard, Alexandre; Del Rio, Maguy; Assenat, Eric; Martineau, Pierre; Ychou, Marc; Robert, Bruno; Gongora, Celine

    2013-10-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), tumor resistance is a frequent cause of chemotherapy failure. Therefore, new treatment options are needed to improve survival of patients with irinotecan-refractory CRCs, particularly those bearing KRAS mutations that preclude the use of anti-EGFR therapies. In this study, we investigated whether sorafenib could reverse irinotecan resistance, thereby enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of routinely used irinotecan-based chemotherapy. We used both in vitro (the HCT116, SW48, SW620, and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cell lines and four SN-38-resistant HCT-116 and SW48 clones) and in vivo models (nude mice xenografted with SN-38-resistant HCT116 cells) to test the efficacy of sorafenib alone or in combination with irinotecan or its active metabolite, SN-38. We have shown that sorafenib improved the antitumoral activity of irinotecan in vitro, in both parental and SN-38-resistant colon adenocarcinoma cell lines independently of their KRAS status, as well as in vivo, in xenografted mice. By inhibiting the drug-efflux pump ABCG2, sorafenib favors irinotecan intracellular accumulation and enhances its toxicity. Moreover, we found that sorafenib improved the efficacy of irinotecan by inhibiting the irinotecan-mediated p38 and ERK activation. In conclusion, our results show that sorafenib can suppress resistance to irinotecan and suggest that sorafenib could be used to overcome resistance to irinotecan-based chemotherapies in CRC, particularly in KRAS-mutated tumors.

  2. The role of bioethics in the international prescription drug market: economics and global justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Shelby E

    2006-01-01

    In terms of health care access, bioethics has an important role to inform and shape policy issues and develop interdisciplinary ideas and interventions. The rising price of prescription drugs presents one of the most looming barriers to health care access in the world today. Including both theoretical and practical features of the pharmaceutical industry's behavior is necessary to find ethical solutions towards increasing access. Bioethics can evaluate global justice by weighing human rights theory and future innovation at the macro level, and by addressing market forces and responsibilities at the micro level. Inherent structural features of pharmaceuticals, such as its reliance on research and development, cause the industry to employ pricing strategies that seem counter-intuitive to conventional wisdom, but that result in producing a just allocation as defined by market forces. Parallel trade and drug exportation/reimportation threaten the saliency of the industry's differential pricing scheme; a case-study of a single "Euro-price" within the European Union illustrates how this will actually create harm to the most needy member states. This complex situation requires solutions weighing arguments from human rights theory with those from economic theory to arrive at the most globally just allocation of prescription drugs in the global marketplace, as well as to ensure future innovation and scientific progress. Bioethicists as well as economists need to partake urgently in this discourse for the betterment of the global injustices in the international prescription drug market.

  3. Special Justice for Peace: A Transitional Justice Model According to Modern Tendencies and Orientations of Law and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the constitutional implications of the peace agreement about Colombia’s armed conflict. It examines constitutional rules and international instruments about human rights, confronting the agreement with justice criteria in the national and international context, to underline the role of justice for the definitive solution of the conflict. By using the methodology of opposing concepts, it reviews the implications of formal justice and material justice, to establish the superiority of the last one and it’s relation with social justice; it analyses the differences between individual justice and global justice, to demonstrate the need to obtain an integral justice; it contrasts alternative justice and traditional justice, to propose an integrated justice; it explains that justice based upon the formal syllogism should be overcome by a justice based upon equity, to obtain a justice anchored in the Constitution, universal and concentrated in the human rights; it hypothesizes that justice supported in the atonement and retribution should be overcome by a justice that is preventive and restorative, that allows the construction of a justice focused in the future, without ignoring the past; it clarifies that justice with one jurisdiction and special justice are the components of a integrative transitional justice; it explains the presence of justice in different institutions with different functions and justice concentrated in one institution, although with different functions, because there is a search for an integrative justice; it exposes the search for a constitutional and political justice, discussing the vision of justice as a triumph of the force or the scandalous concession of benefits; it exalts that it is a justice in search of a positive discrimination, not a negative discrimination, overcoming the discussion between justice for the powerful and justice for the weak; finally, it considers that it is a justice

  4. Drug resistance to chlorambucil in murine B-cell leukemic cells is overcome by its conjugation to a targeting peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerman, Gary; Baskin, Sophia; Galia, Luboshits; Gilad, Yosef; Firer, Michael A

    2013-02-01

    Targeting drugs through small-molecule carriers with a high affinity to receptors on cancer cells can overcome the lack of target cell specificity of most anticancer drugs. These targeted carrier-drug conjugates are also capable of reversing drug resistance in cancer cells. Although many targeted drug delivery approaches are being tested, the linkage of several and different drugs to a single carrier molecule might further enhance their therapeutic efficacy, particularly if the drugs are engineered for variable time release. This report shows that murine B-cell leukemic cells previously resistant to a chemotherapeutic drug can be made sensitive to that drug as long as it is conjugated to a targeting peptide and, in particular, when the conjugate contains multiple copies of the drug. Using a 13mer peptide (VHFFKNIVTPRTP) derived from the myelin basic protein (p-MBP), dendrimer-based peptide conjugates containing one, two, or four molecules of chlorambucil were synthesized. Although murine hybridomas expressing antibodies to either p-MBP (MBP cells) or a nonrelevant antigen (BCL-1 cells) were both resistant to free chlorambucil, exposure of the cells to the p-MBP-chlorambucil conjugate completely reversed the drug resistance in MBP, but not BCL-1 cells or normal spleen cells. Moreover, at equivalent drug doses, there was significant enhancement in the cytotoxic activity of multidrug versus single-drug copy conjugates. On the basis of these results, the use of multifunctional dendrone linkers bearing several covalently bound cytotoxic agents allows the development of more effective targeted drug systems and enhances the efficacy of currently approved drugs for B-cell leukemia.

  5. Strategies to overcome pH-dependent solubility of weakly basic drugs by using different types of alginates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, S; Krause, M; Kranz, H

    2008-12-01

    Weakly basic drugs demonstrate higher solubility at lower pH, thus often leading to faster drug release at lower pH. The objective of this study was to achieve pH-independent release of weakly basic drugs from extended release formulations based on the naturally occurring polymer sodium alginate. Three approaches to overcome the pH-dependent solubility of the weakly basic model drug verapamil hydrochloride were investigated. First, matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression of drug substance with different types of sodium alginate only. Second, pH-modifiers were added to the drug/alginate matrix systems. Third, press-coated tablets consisting of an inner pH-modifier tablet core and an outer drug/sodium alginate coat were prepared. pH-Independent drug release was achieved from matrix tablets consisting of selected alginates and drug substance only. Alginates are better soluble at higher pH. Therefore, they are able to compensate the poor solubility of weakly basic drugs at higher pH as the matrix of the tablets dissolves faster. This approach was successful when using alginates that demonstrated fast hydration and erosion at higher pH. The approach failed for alginates with less-pronounced erosion at higher pH. The addition of fumaric acid to drug/alginate-based matrix systems decreased the microenvironmental pH within the tablets thus increasing the solubility of the weakly basic drug at higher pH. Therefore, pH-independent drug release was achieved irrespective of the type of alginate used. Drug release from press-coated tablets did not provide any further advantages as compound release remained pH-dependent.

  6. Overcoming target-mediated quinolone resistance in topoisomerase IV by introducing metal-ion-independent drug-enzyme interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Katie J; Schwanz, Heidi A; Li, Gangqin; McPherson, Sylvia A; Turnbough, Charles L; Kerns, Robert J; Osheroff, Neil

    2013-12-20

    Quinolones, which target gyrase and topoisomerase IV, are the most widely prescribed antibacterials worldwide. Unfortunately, their use is threatened by the increasing prevalence of target-mediated drug resistance. Greater than 90% of mutations that confer quinolone resistance act by disrupting enzyme-drug interactions coordinated by a critical water-metal ion bridge. Quinazolinediones are quinolone-like drugs but lack the skeletal features necessary to support the bridge interaction. These compounds are of clinical interest, however, because they retain activity against the most common quinolone resistance mutations. We utilized a chemical biology approach to determine how quinazolinediones overcome quinolone resistance in Bacillus anthracis topoisomerase IV. Quinazolinediones that retain activity against quinolone-resistant topoisomerase IV do so primarily by establishing novel interactions through the C7 substituent, rather than the drug skeleton. Because some quinolones are highly active against human topoisomerase IIα, we also determined how clinically relevant quinolones discriminate between the bacterial and human enzymes. Clinically relevant quinolones display poor activity against topoisomerase IIα because the human enzyme cannot support drug interactions mediated by the water-metal ion bridge. However, the inclusion of substituents that allow quinazolinediones to overcome topoisomerase IV-mediated quinolone resistance can cause cross-reactivity against topoisomerase IIα. Therefore, a major challenge in designing drugs that overcome quinolone resistance lies in the ability to identify substituents that mediate strong interactions with the bacterial, but not the human, enzymes. On the basis of our understanding of quinolone-enzyme interactions, we have identified three compounds that display high activity against quinolone-resistant B. anthracis topoisomerase IV but low activity against human topoisomerase IIα.

  7. Examining the temporal relationship between criminal justice involvement and sexual risk behaviors among drug-involved men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Matthew W; El-Bassel, Nabila; Chang, Mingway; Gilbert, Louisa

    2010-03-01

    Although criminal justice involvement has repeatedly been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection prevalence and sexual risk behaviors, few studies have examined whether arrest or incarceration uniquely contributes to sexually risky behavior. We examined the temporal relationship between criminal justice involvement and subsequent sexual HIV risk among men in methadone maintenance treatment in New York City. A random sample of 356 men was interviewed at baseline (time 1), 6-month (time 2), and 12-month (time 3) follow-ups. Propensity score matching, negative binomial, and multiple logistic regression were used to isolate and test the effect of time 2 arrest and incarceration on time 3 sexual risk behaviors. Incidence of time 2 criminal justice involvement was 20.1% for arrest and 9.4% for incarceration in the prior 6 months. Men who were arrested at time 2 demonstrated increased number (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.62; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.11, 2.37) and proportion (IRR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.72) of unprotected vaginal sex acts at time 3. Men incarcerated at time 2 displayed increased number (IRR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.23, 3.48) and proportion (IRR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.99) of unprotected vaginal sex acts at time 3. Within this sample of drug-involved men, arrest and incarceration are temporally associated with and may uniquely impact successive sexual risk-taking. Findings underscore the importance of HIV prevention interventions among individuals with low-intensity criminal justice involvement. Developing prevention efforts aimed at short-term incarceration, community reentry, and alternatives to incarceration settings will address a large and under-researched segment of the criminal justice population. Alternative approaches to current criminal justice policy may result in public health benefits.

  8. Overcoming ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance: Molecular mechanisms and novel therapeutic drug strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Zhang, Han; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Zhao, Kun; Xu, Xiaojun; Xie, Jinbing; Yang, Dong-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug resistance is a key determinant of cancer chemotherapy failure. One of the major causes of multidrug resistance is the enhanced efflux of drugs by membrane ABC transporters. Targeting ABC transporters projects a promising approach to eliminating or suppressing drug resistance in cancer treatment. To reveal the functional mechanisms of ABC transporters in drug resistance, extensive studies have been conducted from identifying drug binding sites to elucidating structural dynamics. In this review article, we examined the recent crystal structures of ABC proteins to depict the functionally important structural elements, such as domains, conserved motifs, and critical amino acids that are involved in ATP-binding and drug efflux. We inspected the drug-binding sites on ABC proteins and the molecular mechanisms of various substrate interactions with the drug binding pocket. While our continuous battle against drug resistance is far from over, new approaches and technologies have emerged to push forward our frontier. Most recent developments in anti-MDR strategies include P-gp inhibitors, RNA-interference, nano-medicines, and delivering combination strategies. With the advent of the 'Omics' era - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - these disciplines play an important role in fighting the battle against chemoresistance by further unraveling the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and shed light on medical therapies that specifically target MDR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of c-Myc overcomes cytotoxic drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia cells by promoting differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Na Pan

    Full Text Available Nowadays, drug resistance still represents a major obstacle to successful acute myeloid leukemia (AML treatment and the underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated. Here, we found that high expression of c-Myc was one of the cytogenetic characteristics in the drug-resistant leukemic cells. c-Myc over-expression in leukemic cells induced resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, enhanced colony formation capacity and inhibited cell differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA. Meanwhile, inhibition of c-Myc by shRNA or specific c-Myc inhibitor 10058-F4 rescued the sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs, restrained the colony formation ability and promoted differentiation. RT-PCR and western blotting analysis showed that down-regulation of C/EBPβ contributed to the poor differentiation state of leukemic cells induced by c-Myc over-expression. Importantly, over-expression of C/EBPβ could reverse c-Myc induced drug resistance. In primary AML cells, the c-Myc expression was negatively correlated with C/EBPβ. 10058-F4, displayed anti-proliferative activity and increased cellular differentiation with up-regulation of C/EBPβ in primary AML cells. Thus, our study indicated that c-Myc could be a novel target to overcome drug resistance, providing a new approach in AML therapy.

  10. [High-dose chemotherapy as a strategy to overcome drug resistance in solid tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, Frédéric; Gligorov, Joseph; Soares, Daniele G; Lotz, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The concept of high-doses chemotherapy was developed in the 1980s based on in vitro scientific observations. Exposure of tumor cells to increasing concentrations of alkylating agents resulted in increased cell death in a strong dose-response manner. Moreover, the acquired resistance of tumor cells could be overcome by dose intensification. In clinic, dose intensification of alkylating agents resulted in increased therapeutic responses, however associated with significant hematological toxicity. Following the development of autologous stem cells transplantation harvesting from peripheral blood, the high-doses of chemotherapy, initially associated with marked toxic effects, could be more easily tolerated. As a result, the approach was evaluated in different types of solid tumors, including breast, ovarian and germ cell tumors, small cell lung carcinoma, soft tissue sarcomas and Ewing sarcoma. To date, high-doses chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cells support is only used as a salvage therapy to treat poor prognosis germ cell tumors patients with chemo-sensitive disease. Regarding breast and ovarian cancer, high-doses chemotherapy should be considered only in the context of clinical trials. However, intensive therapy as an approach to overcome resistance to standard treatments is still relevant. Numerous efforts are still ongoing to identify novel therapeutic combinations and active treatments to improve patients' responses.

  11. New Approaches With Natural Product Drugs for Overcoming Multidrug Resistance in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinic, Jelena; Podolski-Renic, Ana; Stankovic, Tijana; Bankovic, Jasna; Pesic, Milica

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is one of the main obstacles to effective cancer treatment. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is defined as resistance to structurally and/or functionally unrelated drugs, and has been extensively investigated for the last three decades. There are two types of MDR: intrinsic and acquired. Tumor microenvironment selection pressure leads to the development of intrinsic MDR, while acquired resistance is a consequence of the administered chemotherapy. A central issue in chemotherapy failure is the existence of heterogeneous populations of cancer cells within one patient and patient-to-patient variability within each type of cancer. Numerous genes and pathways contribute to the development of MDR in cancer. Point mutations, gene amplification or other genetic or epigenetic changes all affect biological functions and may lead to the occurrence of MDR phenotype. Similar to the characteristics of cancerogenesis, the main features of MDR include abnormal tumor vasculature, regions of hypoxia, aerobic glycolysis, and a lower susceptibility to apoptosis. In order to achieve a lethal effect on cancer cells, drugs need to reach their intracellular target molecules. The overexpression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in MDR cancer cells leads to decreased uptake of the drug and intracellular drug accumulation, minimising drug-target interactions. New agents being or inspired by natural products that successfully target these mechanisms are the main subject of this review. Two key approaches in combating MDR in cancer are discussed (i) finding agents that preserve cytotoxicity toward MDR cancer cells; (ii) developing compounds that restore the cytotoxic activity of classic anticancer drugs.

  12. Overcoming drug resistance in hormone- and drug-refractory prostate cancer cell line, PC-3 by docetaxel and gossypol combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Ercument; Karaca, Burcak; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Gorumlu, Gurbuz; Gul, Mustafa K; Erten, Cigdem; Atmaca, Harika; Uzunoglu, Selim; Karabulut, Bulent; Sanli, Ulus A; Uslu, Ruchan

    2010-03-01

    Drug resistance is a significant challenge of daily oncology practice. Docetaxel and gossypol both have antitumoral activity in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Our results revealed that docetaxel and gossypol were synergistically cytotoxic and apoptotic in PC-3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further investigated the expression profiles of genes involved in drug resistance and metabolism with a Human Cancer Drug Resistance and Metabolism PCR Array (SuperArray). Six of the 84 genes that are known to regulate drug resistance, metabolism, cell cycle, DNA repair and oncogenesis were downregulated >or=3-fold change by the combination treatment. These results may be important in devising mechanism-based and targeted therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer, especially in devising combination therapy for drug resistant prostate cancers.

  13. Structures of HIV Protease Guide Inhibitor Design to Overcome Drug Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Irene T.; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Harrison, Robert W. (GSU)

    2008-06-03

    The HIV/AIDS infection continues to be a major epidemic worldwide despite the initial promise of antiviral drugs. Current therapy includes a combination of drugs that inhibit two of the virally-encoded enzymes, the reverse transcriptase and the protease. The first generation of HIV protease inhibitors that have been in clinical use for treatment of AIDS since 1995 was developed with the aid of structural analysis of protease-inhibitor complexes. These drugs were successful in improving the life span of HIV-infected people. Subsequently, the rapid emergence of drug resistance has necessitated the design of new inhibitors that target mutant proteases. This second generation of antiviral protease inhibitors has been developed with the aid of data from medicinal chemistry, kinetics, and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Traditional computational methods such as molecular mechanics and dynamics can be supplemented with intelligent data mining approaches. One approach, based on similarities to the protease interactions with substrates, is to incorporate additional interactions with main chain atoms that cannot easily be eliminated by mutations. Our structural and inhibition data for darunavir have helped to understand its antiviral activity and effectiveness on drug resistant HIV and demonstrate the success of this approach.

  14. Overview of Methods Able to Overcome Impediments to tumor Drug Delivery with Special Attention to Tumor Interstitial Fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco eBaronzio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Every drug used to treat cancer (chemotherapeutics, immunologic, monoclonal antibodies, nanoparticles, radionuclides must reach the targeted cells through the tumor environment at adequate concentrations, in order to exert their cell-killing effects. For any of these agents to reach the goal cells they must overcome a number of impediments created by the tumor microenvironment, beginning with tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP and a multifactorial increase in composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM. A primary modifier of tumor microenvironment is hypoxia, which increases the production of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF. These growth factors released by both tumor cells and bone marrow recruited myeloid cells (MDS, form abnormal vasculature characterized by vessels that are tortuous and more permeable. Increased leakiness combined with increased inflammatory byproducts accumulates fluid within the tumor mass [tumor interstitial fluid (TIF], ultimately creating an increased pressure (TIFP. Fibroblasts are also up-regulated by the tumor microenvironment, and deposit fibers that further augment the density of the extracellular matrix (ECM, thus, further worsening the TIFP. Increased TIFP with the ECM are the major obstacles to adequate drug delivery. By decreasing TIFP and decreasing ECM density, we can expect an associated rise in drug concentration within the tumor itself. In this overview we will describe all the methods (drugs, nutraceuticals, physical methods of treatment able to lower TIFP and to modify ECM that can be used for increasing drug concentration within the tumor tissue.

  15. Enhanced Oral Delivery of Protein Drugs Using Zwitterion-Functionalized Nanoparticles to Overcome both the Diffusion and Absorption Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wei; Zhu, Xi; Tao, Wei; Cui, Yi; Liu, Min; Wu, Lei; Li, Lian; Zheng, Yaxian; Huang, Yuan

    2016-09-28

    Oral delivery of protein drugs based on nanoparticulate delivery system requires permeation of the nanoparticles through the mucus layer and subsequent absorption via epithelial cells. However, overcoming these two barriers requires very different or even contradictory surface properties of the nanocarriers, which greatly limits the oral bioavailability of macromolecular drugs. Here we report a simple zwitterions-based nanoparticle (NP) delivery platform, which showed a great potency in simultaneously overcoming both the mucus and epithelium barriers. The dense and hydrophilic coating of zwitterions endows the NPs with excellent mucus penetrating ability. Moreover, the zwitterions-based NPs also possessed excellent affinity with epithelial cells, which significantly improved (4.5-fold) the cellular uptake of DLPC NPs, compared to PEGylated NPs. Our results also indicated that this affinity was due to the interaction between zwitterions and the cell surface transporter PEPT1. Moreover, the developed NPs loaded with insulin could induce a prominent hypoglycemic response in diabetic rats following oral administration. These results suggest that zwitterions-based NPs might provide a new perspective for oral delivery of protein therapeutics.

  16. Targeting Hedgehog signaling pathway and autophagy overcomes drug resistance of BCR-ABL-positive chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yubin; Fan, Jiajun; Sun, Yun; Wang, Shaofei; Wang, Ziyu; Song, Ping; Ju, Dianwen

    2015-01-01

    The frontline tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib has revolutionized the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, drug resistance is the major clinical challenge in the treatment of CML. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and autophagy are both related to tumorigenesis, cancer therapy, and drug resistance. This study was conducted to explore whether the Hh pathway could regulate autophagy in CML cells and whether simultaneously regulating the Hh pathway and autophagy could induce cell death of drug-sensitive or -resistant BCR-ABL(+) CML cells. Our results indicated that pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Hh pathway could markedly induce autophagy in BCR-ABL(+) CML cells. Autophagic inhibitors or ATG5 and ATG7 silencing could significantly enhance CML cell death induced by Hh pathway suppression. Based on the above findings, our study demonstrated that simultaneously inhibiting the Hh pathway and autophagy could markedly reduce cell viability and induce apoptosis of imatinib-sensitive or -resistant BCR-ABL(+) cells. Moreover, this combination had little cytotoxicity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Furthermore, this combined strategy was related to PARP cleavage, CASP3 and CASP9 cleavage, and inhibition of the BCR-ABL oncoprotein. In conclusion, this study indicated that simultaneously inhibiting the Hh pathway and autophagy could potently kill imatinib-sensitive or -resistant BCR-ABL(+) cells, providing a novel concept that simultaneously inhibiting the Hh pathway and autophagy might be a potent new strategy to overcome CML drug resistance.

  17. Overcoming of multidrug resistance by introducing the apoptosis gene, bcl-Xs, into MRP-overexpressing drug resistant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Y; Kim, R; Toge, T

    2000-05-01

    MRP; b) resistance to apoptosis due to the decreased expression of the bcl-Xs gene. These results also indicated that the multidrug resistance mediated by MRP might be partially overcome by introducing apoptosis gene into drug resistant cells without modulation of MRP function in drug accumulation.

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibition overcomes drug resistance through a miRNA-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Hanigan, Christin L; Woster, Patrick M; Marton, Laurence J; Casero, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    The treatment of specific tumor cell lines with poly- and oligoamine analogs results in a superinduction of polyamine catabolism that is associated with cytotoxicity; however, other tumor cells show resistance to analog treatment. Recent data indicate that some of these analogs also have direct epigenetic effects. We, therefore, sought to determine the effects of combining specific analogs with an epigenetic targeting agent in phenotypically resistant human lung cancer cell lines. We show that the histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275, when combined with (N(1), N(11))-bisethylnorspermine (BENSpm) or (N(1), N(12))-bis(ethyl)-cis-6,7-dehydrospermine tetrahydrochloride (PG-11047), synergistically induces the polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), a major determinant of sensitivity to the antitumor analogs. Evidence indicates that the mechanism of this synergy includes reactivation of miR-200a, which targets and destabilizes kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) mRNA, resulting in the translocation and binding of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) to the polyamine-responsive element of the SSAT promoter. This transcriptional stimulation, combined with positive regulation of SSAT mRNA and protein by the analogs, results in decreased intracellular concentrations of natural polyamines and growth inhibition. The finding that an epigenetic targeting agent is capable of inducing a rate-limiting step in polyamine catabolism to overcome resistance to the antitumor analogs represents a completely novel chemotherapeutic approach. In addition, this is the first demonstration of miRNA-mediated regulation of the polyamine catabolic pathway. Furthermore, the individual agents used in this study have been investigated clinically; therefore, translation of these combinations into the clinical setting holds promise.

  19. Drug delivery in overcoming the blood–brain barrier: role of nasal mucosal grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianecci C

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carlotta Marianecci,1 Federica Rinaldi,2 Patrizia Nadia Hanieh,1 Luisa Di Marzio,3 Donatella Paolino,4,5 Maria Carafa1 1Department of Drug Chemistry and Technology, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 2Center for Life Nano Science@Sapienza, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Pharmacy, University “G. d’Annunzio”, Chieti, Italy; 4IRC FSH-Interregional Research Center for Food Safety & Health, Campus Universitario “S. Venuta”, University of Catanzaro “Magna Græcia”, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Department of Health Sciences, Campus Universitario “S. Venuta”, University of Catanzaro “Magna Græcia”, Catanzaro, Italy Abstract: The blood–brain barrier (BBB plays a fundamental role in protecting and maintaining the homeostasis of the brain. For this reason, drug delivery to the brain is much more difficult than that to other compartments of the body. In order to bypass or cross the BBB, many strategies have been developed: invasive techniques, such as temporary disruption of the BBB or direct intraventricular and intracerebral administration of the drug, as well as noninvasive techniques. Preliminary results, reported in the large number of studies on the potential strategies for brain delivery, are encouraging, but it is far too early to draw any conclusion about the actual use of these therapeutic approaches. Among the most recent, but still pioneering, approaches related to the nasal mucosa properties, the permeabilization of the BBB via nasal mucosal engrafting can offer new potential opportunities. It should be emphasized that this surgical procedure is quite invasive, but the implication for patient outcome needs to be compared to the gold standard of direct intracranial injection, and evaluated whilst keeping in mind that central nervous system diseases and lysosomal storage diseases are chronic and severely debilitating and that up to now no therapy seems to be completely

  20. Simplified Reversed Chloroquines To Overcome Malaria Resistance to Quinoline-Based Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsaru, Bornface; Burgess, Steven J; Morrill, Westin; Kelly, Jane X; Shomloo, Shawheen; Smilkstein, Martin J; Liebman, Katherine; Peyton, David H

    2017-05-01

    Building on our earlier work of attaching a chemosensitizer (reversal agent) to a known drug pharmacophore, we have now expanded the structure-activity relationship study to include simplified versions of the chemosensitizer. The change from two aromatic rings in this head group to a single ring does not appear to detrimentally affect the antimalarial activity of the compounds. Data from in vitro heme binding and β-hematin inhibition assays suggest that the single aromatic RCQ compounds retain activities against Plasmodium falciparum similar to those of CQ, although other mechanisms of action may be relevant to their activities. Copyright © 2017 Gunsaru et al.

  1. Nanoparticle-mediated brain drug delivery: Overcoming blood-brain barrier to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Cláudia; Praça, Catarina; Ferreira, Raquel; Santos, Tiago; Ferreira, Lino; Bernardino, Liliana

    2016-08-10

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a vital boundary between neural tissue and circulating blood. The BBB's unique and protective features control brain homeostasis as well as ion and molecule movement. Failure in maintaining any of these components results in the breakdown of this specialized multicellular structure and consequently promotes neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In several high incidence pathologies such as stroke, Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) the BBB is impaired. However, even a damaged and more permeable BBB can pose serious challenges to drug delivery into the brain. The use of nanoparticle (NP) formulations able to encapsulate molecules with therapeutic value, while targeting specific transport processes in the brain vasculature, may enhance drug transport through the BBB in neurodegenerative/ischemic disorders and target relevant regions in the brain for regenerative processes. In this review, we will discuss BBB composition and characteristics and how these features are altered in pathology, namely in stroke, AD and PD. Additionally, factors influencing an efficient intravenous delivery of polymeric and inorganic NPs into the brain as well as NP-related delivery systems with the most promising functional outcomes will also be discussed.

  2. Levistolide A overcomes P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance in human breast carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei CHEN; Tao WANG; Jia WANG; Zi-qiang WANG; Ming QIAN

    2008-01-01

    Aim:The aim of the present study was to investigate the reversing effect of levistolide A (LA) on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in human breast carcinoma Bcap37/MDR1 cells. Methods:After chemotherapeu-tic drugs (adriamycin or vincristine) used alone or in combination with LA, cell proliferation was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazo-lium bromide assay and cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry. RT-PCR was used to detect MDR1 gene transcription and the Western blot assay was used to assess P-gp expression and the cleavages of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase-3. Apoptosis was detected by terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Moreover, the P-gp function was evaluated by the intracellu-lar accumulation of the P-gp substrate detected by flow cytometry. Results:We found the subcytotoxic doses of LA significantly enhanced adriamycin- or vinc-ristine-induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis. These effects were consistent with the ability of LA to inhibit P-gp function. Moreover, LA dramatically enhanced the verapamil (VER) ability to reverse drug resistance. Conclusion:LA has the poten-tial to be developed as a novel P-gp modulator. Furthermore, the combination of LA and VER might represent a more sufficient but less toxic anti-MDR regimen.

  3. Drug delivery in overcoming the blood–brain barrier: role of nasal mucosal grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianecci, Carlotta; Rinaldi, Federica; Hanieh, Patrizia Nadia; Di Marzio, Luisa; Paolino, Donatella; Carafa, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays a fundamental role in protecting and maintaining the homeostasis of the brain. For this reason, drug delivery to the brain is much more difficult than that to other compartments of the body. In order to bypass or cross the BBB, many strategies have been developed: invasive techniques, such as temporary disruption of the BBB or direct intraventricular and intracerebral administration of the drug, as well as noninvasive techniques. Preliminary results, reported in the large number of studies on the potential strategies for brain delivery, are encouraging, but it is far too early to draw any conclusion about the actual use of these therapeutic approaches. Among the most recent, but still pioneering, approaches related to the nasal mucosa properties, the permeabilization of the BBB via nasal mucosal engrafting can offer new potential opportunities. It should be emphasized that this surgical procedure is quite invasive, but the implication for patient outcome needs to be compared to the gold standard of direct intracranial injection, and evaluated whilst keeping in mind that central nervous system diseases and lysosomal storage diseases are chronic and severely debilitating and that up to now no therapy seems to be completely successful. PMID:28184152

  4. Pegylated liposomal formulation of doxorubicin overcomes drug resistance in a genetically engineered mouse model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füredi, András; Szebényi, Kornélia; Tóth, Szilárd; Cserepes, Mihály; Hámori, Lilla; Nagy, Veronika; Karai, Edina; Vajdovich, Péter; Imre, Tímea; Szabó, Pál; Szüts, Dávid; Tóvári, József; Szakács, Gergely

    2017-09-10

    Success of cancer treatment is often hampered by the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/Pgp). Doxorubicin (DOX) is recognized by Pgp and therefore it can induce therapy resistance in breast cancer patients. In this study our aim was to evaluate the susceptibility of the pegylated liposomal formulation of doxorubicin (PLD/Doxil®/Caelyx®) to MDR. We show that cells selected to be resistant to DOX are cross-resistant to PLD and PLD is also ineffective in an allograft model of doxorubicin-resistant mouse B-cell leukemia. In contrast, PLD was far more efficient than DOX as reflected by a significant increase of both relapse-free and overall survival of Brca1(-/-);p53(-/-) mammary tumor bearing mice. Increased survival could be explained by the delayed onset of drug resistance. Consistent with the higher Pgp levels needed to confer resistance, PLD administration was able to overcome doxorubicin insensitivity of the mouse mammary tumors. Our results indicate that the favorable pharmacokinetics achieved with PLD can effectively overcome Pgp-mediated resistance, suggesting that PLD therapy could be a promising strategy for the treatment of therapy-resistant breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans overcome drug resistance in lung cancer cells--study of structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaninová, I; Brezinová, L; Koubíková, L; Slanina, J

    2009-09-01

    A panel of nine dibenzo[a,c]cyclooctadiene lignans, schizandrin, gomisin A, gomisin N, gomisin J, angeloylgomisin H, tigloylgomisin P, deoxyschizandrin, gamma-schizandrin and wuweizisu C was examined for their effect on multidrug resistance, as well as their anti-proliferative activities. COR-L23/R, a multidrug resistant sub-line, which has been reported to over-express multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1), was used for the experiments together with its parent cell line COR-L23 (human lung cell carcinoma). We found that lignans deoxyschizandrin and gamma-schizandrin at relatively non-toxic concentrations restored the cytotoxic action of doxorubicin to COR-L23/R cells. Deoxyschizandrin and gamma-schizandrin also significantly enhanced the accumulation of doxorubicin in drug resistant cells. Both lignans alone had no effect on the cell cycle; however, when combined with sub-toxic doses of doxorubicin, they induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, which is typical for toxic doses of doxorubicin. Our results suggest that deoxyschizandrin and gamma-schizandrin potentiate the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin in doxorubicin resistant lung cancer cells COR-L23/R by increasing the accumulation of doxorubicin inside the cells. The common structural feature of both active lignans is the R-biaryl configuration and the absence of a hydroxy group at C-8. Unlike the reversal effect, the cytotoxicity of lignans with the R-biaryl configuration was similar to that observed for lignans with the S-biaryl configuration.

  6. An in vitro demonstration of overcoming drug resistance in SKOV3 TR and MCF7 ADR with targeted delivery of polymer pro-drug conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Prashant; Vance, Dylan; Hatefi, Arash; Khaw, Ban An

    2017-01-05

    Drug resistance is a common phenomenon that occurs in cancer chemotherapy. Delivery of chemotherapeutic agents as polymer pro-drug conjugates (PPDCs) pretargeted with bispecific antibodies could circumvent drug resistance in cancer cells. To demonstrate this approach to overcome drug resistance, Paclitaxel (Ptxl)-resistant SKOV3 TR human ovarian- and doxorubicin (Dox)-resistant MCF7 ADR human mammary-carcinoma cell lines were used. Pre-targeting over-expressed biotin or HER2/neu receptors on cancer cells was conducted by biotinylated anti-DTPA or anti-HER2/neu affibody - anti-DTPA Fab bispecific antibody complexes. The targeting PPDCs are either D-Dox-PGA or D-Ptxl-PGA. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrate that the pretargeted approach increases cytotoxicity of Ptxl or Dox in SKOV3 TR or MCF7 ADR resistant cell lines by 5.4 and 27 times, respectively. Epifluorescent microscopy - used to track internalization of D-Dox-PGA and Dox in MCF7 ADR cells - shows that the pretargeted delivery of D-Dox-PGA resulted in a 2- to 4-fold increase in intracellular Dox concentration relative to treatment with free Dox. The mechanism of internalization of PPDCs is consistent with endocytosis. Enhanced drug delivery and intracellular retention following pretargeted delivery of PPDCs resulted in greater tumor cell toxicity in the current in vitro studies.

  7. Synergistic effect of folate-mediated targeting and verapamil-mediated P-gp inhibition with paclitaxel -polymer micelles to overcome multi-drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihu; Zhang, Dianrui; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yuxuan; Zheng, Dandan; Hao, Leilei; Duan, Cunxian; Jia, Lejiao; Liu, Guangpu; Liu, Yue

    2011-12-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is a significant obstacle for successful cancer chemotherapy. Overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a key factor contributing to the development of tumor drug resistance. Verapamil (VRP), a P-gp inhibitor, has been reported to be able to reverse completely the resistance caused by P-gp. For optimal synergy, the drug and inhibitor combination may need to be temporally colocalized in the tumor cells. Herein, we investigated the effectiveness of simultaneous and targeted delivery of anticancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX), along with VRP, using DOMC-FA micelles to overcome tumor drug resistance. The floate-functionalized dual agent loaded micelles resulted in the similar cytotoxicity to PTX-loaded micelles/free VRP combination and co-administration of two single-agent loaded micelles, which was higher than that of PTX-loaded micelles. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of dual agent micelles could be ascribe to increased accumulation of PTX in drug-resistant tumor cells. We suggest that the synergistic effect of folate receptor-mediated internalization and VRP-mediated overcoming MDR could be beneficial in treatment of MDR solid tumors by targeting delivery of micellar PTX into tumor cells. As a result, the difunctional micelle systems is a very promising approach to overcome tumor drug resistance. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Drug Law Violators, 1980-86. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiken, Jan; McDonald, Douglas

    This report looks at what happens to individuals arrested at the federal level for drug crimes, including the number of drug offenders who are prosecuted and convicted, the types of sentences they receive, the amount of time they actually serve in prisons, and their rates of recidivism after release from prison. Data are presented which indicate…

  9. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  10. Developing employment services for criminal justice clients enrolled in drug user treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Kathleen; Savitz, Barry; Thompson, William; Zanis, David A

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 80% of parolees have a history of substance abuse and nearly all are unemployed following release from prison. Common stipulations of parole require offenders to obtain employment and to not use mood-altering substances. This article explores a series of strategies implemented from 1999 to 2001 to help offenders paroled to substance user treatment to gain employment. A total of 245 paroled offenders enrolled in an outpatient substance abuse treatment program voluntarily agreed to participate in one of four different vocational intervention programs (Job Skill Development and Supported Work, Life Skill Development, Job Training, and Welfare to Work). Programmatic data (e.g., attendance, completion, job acquisition, and wage) were collected and reported for each of the vocational programs. Additionally, a 12-month pilot study examined criminal justice, substance use, and employment outcomes of 36 offenders referred to the job skill development and supported work project. Overall, 78% of the offenders enrolled in the vocational services completed the program and 134/245 (55%) were able to obtain employment. The data showed that completion of vocational services was strongly associated with obtaining employment 12 months postenrollment. Offenders identified the employment services as an integral part of their improved overall functioning. A series of practice recommendations and policy suggestions is offered to develop and manage vocational services for substance-using offenders. Employment services for parolees require considerable coordination of activities with parole officers, vocational programs, substance abuse treatment professionals, and funding systems.

  11. Overcoming acquired drug resistance in colorectal cancer cells by targeted delivery of 5-FU with EGF grafted hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijue; She, Xiaodong; Wang, Tao; He, Li; Shigdar, Sarah; Duan, Wei; Kong, Lingxue

    2015-08-01

    Acquired drug resistance (ADR) can be developed in colorectal cancer cells after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment and diminish the effectiveness of chemotherapy. In this work, acquired 5-FU resistance in the colorectal cancer cell line SW480 was obtained with the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene expression which can convert 5-FU to its inactive metabolite. To overcome ADR in colorectal cancer, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) grafted with epidermal growth factor (EGF) were used as nanocarriers to deliver 5-FU to colorectal cancer cells with acquired drug resistance. The effect and mechanism of 5-FU loaded EGF grafted HMSNs (EGF-HMSNs-5-FU) in overcoming acquired drug resistance in SW480/ADR cells were studied. The EGF-HMSNs were demonstrated to be specifically internalized in EGFR overexpressed SW480/ADR cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis and can escape from endo-lysosomes. The EGF-HMSNs-5-FU exhibited much higher cytotoxicity on SW480/ADR cells than HMSNs-5-FU and free 5-FU while the plain HMSNs did not show significant cytotoxicity. The mechanism of EGF-HMSNs-5-FU in overcoming drug resistance in SW480/ADR cells could be attributed to the specific internalization of EGF-HMSNs-5-FU in EGFR overexpressed cells which can lead to high intracellular drug accumulation and cause cell death through S phase arrest.Acquired drug resistance (ADR) can be developed in colorectal cancer cells after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment and diminish the effectiveness of chemotherapy. In this work, acquired 5-FU resistance in the colorectal cancer cell line SW480 was obtained with the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene expression which can convert 5-FU to its inactive metabolite. To overcome ADR in colorectal cancer, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) grafted with epidermal growth factor (EGF) were used as nanocarriers to deliver 5-FU to colorectal cancer cells with acquired drug resistance. The

  12. Black–White Disparities in Criminal Justice Referrals to Drug Treatment: Addressing Treatment Need or Expanding the Diagnostic Net?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen McElrath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Slightly more than half of admissions to U.S. publicly-funded treatment for marijuana use are referred by the criminal justice system; this pattern has remained for at least 20 years. Nationally, Blacks comprise nearly a third of treatment admissions for marijuana use. This article explores the interplay between race and criminal justice referrals to treatment for marijuana use. Using data from the (U.S. 2011 Treatment Episode Data Set, we examine the relationship between race and diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (dependence versus abuse among referrals to community-based treatment in North Carolina. We compare Black/White differences in cannabis diagnoses across four referral sources: the criminal justice system, healthcare providers, self, and other sources. Race was significantly related to type of diagnosis across all four referral sources, however, the nature of the relationship was distinctly different among criminal justice referrals with Whites being more likely than Blacks to be diagnosed with cannabis dependence. Moreover, the marijuana use profiles of criminal justice referrals differed substantially from individuals referred by other sources. The findings suggest that diagnoses of cannabis abuse (rather than dependence may have worked to widen the diagnostic net by “capturing” individuals under control of the criminal justice system who manifested few problems with marijuana use, other than their involvement in the criminal justice system. The potential for a net-widening effect appeared to be most pronounced for Blacks.

  13. Black–White Disparities in Criminal Justice Referrals to Drug Treatment: Addressing Treatment Need or Expanding the Diagnostic Net?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Slightly more than half of admissions to U.S. publicly-funded treatment for marijuana use are referred by the criminal justice system; this pattern has remained for at least 20 years. Nationally, Blacks comprise nearly a third of treatment admissions for marijuana use. This article explores the interplay between race and criminal justice referrals to treatment for marijuana use. Using data from the (U.S.) 2011 Treatment Episode Data Set, we examine the relationship between race and diagnosis ...

  14. Innovative formulations for controlled drug delivery to the lungs and the technical and toxicological challenges to overcome(.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragao-Santiago, Leticia; Bohr, Adam; Delaval, Mathilde; Dalla-Bona, Alexandra C; Gessler, Tobias; Seeger, Werner; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of therapeutic aerosols has a long tradition and is, moreover, regarded as a safe and efficient route of drug administration to the respiratory tract. Especially, the targeting opportunities of this approach are beneficial for the treatment of numerous airway diseases. However, the rapid decay of local drug concentration and the resulting short-term duration of action of conventional medications necessitates several daily inhalations, which is clearly in conflict with a patients' convenience and compliance. Recent progress in pharmaceutical engineering has provided promising drug delivery vehicles (e.g., liposomes, nanoparticles and thermo-responsive preparations) allowing for a sustained release of the encapsulated medication at the target site. Nevertheless, aspects such as generating tailored aerosols from these formulations (including stability during aerosolization) and the choice of biocompatible excipients remain considerable challenges, which need to be addressed in order to optimize inhalation therapy. Therefore, toxicology issues raised by these novel drug delivery vehicles with respect to physicochemical and material properties and biocompatibility are described in this review. This brief overview is intended to serve as a foundation to prompt future advancement in the field of controlled drug delivery to the lungs.

  15. Mitochondrial oxidative stress as a novel therapeutic target to overcome intrinsic drug resistance in melanoma cell subpopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierlitza, Monika; Chauvistré, Heike; Bogeski, Ivan; Zhang, Xin; Hauschild, Axel; Herlyn, Meenhard; Schadendorf, Dirk; Vogt, Thomas; Roesch, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent success in melanoma therapy, most patients with metastatic disease still undergo deadly progression. We have identified a novel mechanism of multidrug resistance allowing a small subpopulation of slow-cycling melanoma cells to survive based on elevated oxidative bioenergy metabolism. In this study, we asked whether such slow-cycling cells could be eliminated by co-treatment with the copper-chelator elesclomol. Elesclomol–copper complexes can cause oxidative stress by disruption of the mitochondrial respiration chain or by indirect non-mitochondrial induction of reactive oxygen species. We have found that elesclomol effectively kills the slow-cycling subpopulation and prevents the selective enrichment for slow-cycling cells, which usually results after monotreatment. We hypothesize that elesclomol could overcome the multidrug resistance of slow-cycling melanoma cells and prevent tumor repopulation in melanoma patients in future. PMID:25453510

  16. Mitochondrial oxidative stress as a novel therapeutic target to overcome intrinsic drug resistance in melanoma cell subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierlitza, Monika; Chauvistré, Heike; Bogeski, Ivan; Zhang, Xin; Hauschild, Axel; Herlyn, Meenhard; Schadendorf, Dirk; Vogt, Thomas; Roesch, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Despite recent success in melanoma therapy, most patients with metastatic disease still undergo deadly progression. We have identified a novel mechanism of multidrug resistance allowing a small subpopulation of slow-cycling melanoma cells to survive based on elevated oxidative bioenergy metabolism. In this study, we asked whether such slow-cycling cells could be eliminated by co-treatment with the copper-chelator elesclomol. Elesclomol-copper complexes can cause oxidative stress by disruption of the mitochondrial respiration chain or by indirect non-mitochondrial induction of reactive oxygen species. We have found that elesclomol effectively kills the slow-cycling subpopulation and prevents the selective enrichment for slow-cycling cells, which usually results after monotreatment. We hypothesize that elesclomol could overcome the multidrug resistance of slow-cycling melanoma cells and prevent tumor repopulation in melanoma patients in future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Preparation of multilocation reduction-sensitive core crosslinked folate-PEG-coated micelles for rapid release of doxorubicin and tariquidar to overcome drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Quan; Xu, Jiaqi; Yuan, Gongdao; Zhuo, Renxi; Li, Feng

    2017-02-01

    Herein, we prepared folate-targeting core crosslinked polymeric micelles (CCL/FA) containing multiple disulfide bonds located at the interface and core of the micelles to co-deliver doxorubicin (DOX) and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor tariquidar (TQR) for reversing drug resistance. The stability and redox-responsive behavior of the CCL/FA micelles was evaluated through the changes in morphology, molecular weight and hydrodynamic size. On the one hand, the micelles possessed good stability, which led to the suppression of drug release from the CCL micelles in the physiological environment. On the other hand, under reductive conditions, the CCL micelles collapsed rapidly and accelerated drug release markedly. In vitro cytotoxicity measurements, combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry, confirmed that the dual-drug-loaded micelles exhibited obviously higher cytotoxicity to MCF-7/ADR-resistant cells than free DOX · HCl, single-drug loaded CCL micelles and nontargeted CCL micelles. The results imply that co-delivering DOX and TQR by CCL/FA micelles may be a promising way of overcoming multidrug resistance in tumor treatments.

  18. Palbociclib can overcome mutations in cyclin dependent kinase 6 that break hydrogen bonds between the drug and the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Maganhi, Stella; Jensen, Patrizia; Caracelli, Ignez; Zukerman Schpector, Julio; Fröhling, Stefan; Friedman, Ran

    2017-04-01

    Inhibition of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6 prevent cells from entering the synthesis phase of the cell cycle. CDK4 and 6 are therefore important drug targets in various cancers. The selective CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib is approved for the treatment of breast cancer and has shown activity in a cellular model of mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL)-rearranged acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We studied the interactions of palbociclib and CDK6 using molecular dynamics simulations. Analysis of the simulations suggested several interactions that stabilized the drug in its binding site and that were not observed in the crystal structure of the protein-drug complex. These included a hydrogen bond to His 100 that was hitherto not reported and several hydrophobic contacts. Evolutionary-based bioinformatic analysis was used to suggest two mutants, D163G and H100L that would potentially yield drug resistance, as they lead to loss of important protein-drug interactions without hindering the viability of the protein. One of the mutants involved a change in the glycine of the well-conserved DFG motif of the kinase. Interestingly, CDK6-dependent human AML cells stably expressing either mutant retained sensitivity to palbociclib, indicating that the protein-drug interactions are not affected by these. Furthermore, the cells were proliferative in the absence of palbociclib, indicating that the Asp to Gly mutation in the DFG motif did not interfere with the catalytic activity of the protein. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  19. 克服肿瘤干细胞耐药性的策略和思路%Strategies to Overcome Drug Resistance of Cancer Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛; 周建炜; 李惠良

    2011-01-01

    CSCs are progenitor cells of tumor cells. Previous studies showed that CSCs had the ability of multiple drug resistance,which became the root causes of tumor proliferation and recurrence. Study the treatment of CSCs and overcome their drug resistance will change cancer treatment patterns and improve the prognosis of cancer patients.%肿瘤干细胞(cancer stem cells,CSCs)是肿瘤细胞的祖细胞.已有的研究表明,肿瘤干细胞对多种化疗药物具有耐药性.是导致肿瘤治疗后复发的根源.研究针对肿瘤干细胞的治疗方法,克服肿瘤干细胞耐药性,将给肿瘤治疗模式带来全新的改变,有望彻底改善肿瘤患者的预后.

  20. Phase Transitions of Isotropic to Anisotropic Biocompatible Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems Overcoming Insoluble Benznidazole Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Streck

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported low benznidazole (BNZ loading in conventional emulsions due to the weak interaction of the drug with the most common oils used to produce foods or pharmaceuticals. In this study, we focused on how the type of surfactant, surfactant-to-oil ratio w/w (SOR and oil-to-water ratio w/w (OWR change the phase behavior of different lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS produced by emulsion phase inversion. The surfactant mixture composed of soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium oleate (1:7, w/w, hydrophilic lipophilic balance = 16 stabilized medium chain triglyceride in water. Ten formulations with the clear aspect or less turbid dispersions (five with the SOR ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 and five with the OWR from 0.06 to 0.4 were selected from the phase behavior diagram to assess structural features and drug-loading capacity. The rise in the SOR induced the formation of distinct lipid-based drug delivery systems (nanoemulsions and liquid crystal lamellar type that were identified using rheological measurements and cross-polarized light microscopy images. Clear dispersions of small and narrow droplet-sized liquid-like nanoemulsions, Newtonian flow-type, were produced at SOR from 0.5 to 1.5 and OWR from 0.12 to 0.4, while clear liquid or gel-like liquid crystals were produced at SOR from 1.5 to 2.5. The BNZ loading was improved according to the composition and type of LBDDS produced, suggesting possible drug location among surfactant layers. The cell viability assays proved the biocompatibility for all of the prepared nanoemulsions at SOR less than 1.5 and liquid crystals at SOR less than 2.5, demonstrating their promising features for the oral or parenteral colloidal delivery systems containing benznidazole for Chagas disease treatment.

  1. Phase Transitions of Isotropic to Anisotropic Biocompatible Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems Overcoming Insoluble Benznidazole Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, Letícia; Sarmento, Víctor H V; Machado, Paula R L; Farias, Kleber J S; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported low benznidazole (BNZ) loading in conventional emulsions due to the weak interaction of the drug with the most common oils used to produce foods or pharmaceuticals. In this study, we focused on how the type of surfactant, surfactant-to-oil ratio w/w (SOR) and oil-to-water ratio w/w (OWR) change the phase behavior of different lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) produced by emulsion phase inversion. The surfactant mixture composed of soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium oleate (1:7, w/w, hydrophilic lipophilic balance = 16) stabilized medium chain triglyceride in water. Ten formulations with the clear aspect or less turbid dispersions (five with the SOR ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 and five with the OWR from 0.06 to 0.4) were selected from the phase behavior diagram to assess structural features and drug-loading capacity. The rise in the SOR induced the formation of distinct lipid-based drug delivery systems (nanoemulsions and liquid crystal lamellar type) that were identified using rheological measurements and cross-polarized light microscopy images. Clear dispersions of small and narrow droplet-sized liquid-like nanoemulsions, Newtonian flow-type, were produced at SOR from 0.5 to 1.5 and OWR from 0.12 to 0.4, while clear liquid or gel-like liquid crystals were produced at SOR from 1.5 to 2.5. The BNZ loading was improved according to the composition and type of LBDDS produced, suggesting possible drug location among surfactant layers. The cell viability assays proved the biocompatibility for all of the prepared nanoemulsions at SOR less than 1.5 and liquid crystals at SOR less than 2.5, demonstrating their promising features for the oral or parenteral colloidal delivery systems containing benznidazole for Chagas disease treatment.

  2. Phase Transitions of Isotropic to Anisotropic Biocompatible Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems Overcoming Insoluble Benznidazole Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, Letícia; Sarmento, Víctor H. V.; Machado, Paula R. L.; Farias, Kleber J. S.; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F.; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported low benznidazole (BNZ) loading in conventional emulsions due to the weak interaction of the drug with the most common oils used to produce foods or pharmaceuticals. In this study, we focused on how the type of surfactant, surfactant-to-oil ratio w/w (SOR) and oil-to-water ratio w/w (OWR) change the phase behavior of different lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) produced by emulsion phase inversion. The surfactant mixture composed of soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium oleate (1:7, w/w, hydrophilic lipophilic balance = 16) stabilized medium chain triglyceride in water. Ten formulations with the clear aspect or less turbid dispersions (five with the SOR ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 and five with the OWR from 0.06 to 0.4) were selected from the phase behavior diagram to assess structural features and drug-loading capacity. The rise in the SOR induced the formation of distinct lipid-based drug delivery systems (nanoemulsions and liquid crystal lamellar type) that were identified using rheological measurements and cross-polarized light microscopy images. Clear dispersions of small and narrow droplet-sized liquid-like nanoemulsions, Newtonian flow-type, were produced at SOR from 0.5 to 1.5 and OWR from 0.12 to 0.4, while clear liquid or gel-like liquid crystals were produced at SOR from 1.5 to 2.5. The BNZ loading was improved according to the composition and type of LBDDS produced, suggesting possible drug location among surfactant layers. The cell viability assays proved the biocompatibility for all of the prepared nanoemulsions at SOR less than 1.5 and liquid crystals at SOR less than 2.5, demonstrating their promising features for the oral or parenteral colloidal delivery systems containing benznidazole for Chagas disease treatment. PMID:27376278

  3. Inhibition of ABCB1 (MDR1 expression by an siRNA nanoparticulate delivery system to overcome drug resistance in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiro Susa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in treating osteosarcoma has improved patients' average 5 year survival rate from 20% to 70% in the past 30 years. However, for patients who progress after chemotherapy, its effectiveness diminishes due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance (MDR after prolonged therapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to overcome both the dose-limiting side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the therapeutic failure resulting from MDR, we designed and evaluated a novel drug delivery system for MDR1 siRNA delivery. Novel biocompatible, lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles were used as the platform for MDR1 siRNA delivery; and the efficacy of combination therapy with this system was evaluated. In this study, multi-drug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines (KHOS(R2 and U-2OS(R2 were treated with the MDR1 siRNA nanocarriers and MDR1 protein (P-gp expression, drug retention, and immunofluoresence were analyzed. Combination therapy of the MDR1 siRNA loaded nanocarriers with increasing concentrations of doxorubicin was also analyzed. We observed that MDR1 siRNA loaded dextran nanoparticles efficiently suppresses P-gp expression in the drug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines. The results also demonstrated that this approach may be capable of reversing drug resistance by increasing the amount of drug accumulation in MDR cell lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles are a promising platform for siRNA delivery. Nanocarriers loaded with MDR1 siRNA are a potential treatment strategy for reversing MDR in osteosarcoma.

  4. A Computational Methodology to Overcome the Challenges Associated With the Search for Specific Enzyme Targets to Develop Drugs Against

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Catharina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for detecting enzymes that are specific of Leishmania major compared with Homo sapiens and provide targets that may assist research in drug development. This approach is based on traditional techniques of sequence homology comparison by similarity search and Markov modeling; it integrates the characterization of enzymatic functionality, secondary and tertiary protein structures, protein domain architecture, and metabolic environment. From 67 enzymes represented by 42 enzymatic activities classified by AnEnPi (Analogous Enzymes Pipeline as specific for L major compared with H sapiens , only 40 (23 Enzyme Commission [EC] numbers could actually be considered as strictly specific of L major and 27 enzymes (19 EC numbers were disregarded for having ambiguous homologies or analogies with H sapiens . Among the 40 strictly specific enzymes, we identified sterol 24-C-methyltransferase, pyruvate phosphate dikinase, trypanothione synthetase, and RNA-editing ligase as 4 essential enzymes for L major that may serve as targets for drug development.

  5. Turning the gun on cancer: Utilizing lysosomal P-glycoprotein as a new strategy to overcome multi-drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Nicole; Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R; Jansson, Patric J

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress plays a role in the development of drug resistance in cancer cells. Cancer cells must constantly and rapidly adapt to changes in the tumor microenvironment, due to alterations in the availability of nutrients, such as glucose, oxygen and key transition metals (e.g., iron and copper). This nutrient flux is typically a consequence of rapid growth, poor vascularization and necrosis. It has been demonstrated that stress factors, such as hypoxia and glucose deprivation up-regulate master transcription factors, namely hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which transcriptionally regulate the multi-drug resistance (MDR), transmembrane drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Interestingly, in addition to the established role of plasma membrane Pgp in MDR, a new paradigm of intracellular resistance has emerged that is premised on the ability of lysosomal Pgp to transport cytotoxic agents into this organelle. This mechanism is enabled by the topological inversion of Pgp via endocytosis resulting in the transporter actively pumping agents into the lysosome. In this way, classical Pgp substrates, such as doxorubicin (DOX), can be actively transported into this organelle. Within the lysosome, DOX becomes protonated upon acidification of the lysosomal lumen, causing its accumulation. This mechanism efficiently traps DOX, preventing its cytotoxic interaction with nuclear DNA. This review discusses these effects and highlights a novel mechanism by which redox-active and protonatable Pgp substrates can utilize lysosomal Pgp to gain access to this compartment, resulting in catastrophic lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cell death. Hence, a key MDR mechanism that utilizes Pgp (the "gun") to sequester protonatable drug substrates safely within lysosomes can be "turned on" MDR cancer cells to destroy them from within.

  6. 3-Halo Chloroquine Derivatives Overcome Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter-Mediated Drug Resistance in P. falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaye, Sonia; Tazoo, Dagobert; Bohle, D Scott; Georges, Elias

    2015-12-01

    Polymorphism in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) was shown to cause chloroquine resistance. In this report, we examined the antimalarial potential of novel 3-halo chloroquine derivatives (3-chloro, 3-bromo, and 3-iodo) against chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant P. falciparum. All three derivatives inhibited the proliferation of P. falciparum; with 3-iodo chloroquine being most effective. Moreover, 3-iodo chloroquine was highly effective at potentiating and reversing chloroquine toxicity of drug-susceptible and -resistant P. falciparum.

  7. Time to overcome fluconazole resistant Candida isolates: Solid lipid nanoparticles as a novel antifungal drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Maryam; Kelidari, Hamid Reza; Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Ketayoun; Nabili, Mojtaba; Gohar, Atefeh Abdollahi; Akbari, Jafar; Lotfali, Ensieh; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Antifungal therapy results in complications in management due to changes in the patterns of epidemiology and drug susceptibility of invasive fungal infections. In this study, we prepared fluconazole-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (FLZ-SLNs) and investigated the efficacy of the optimal formulation on fluconazole (FLZ)-resistant strains of several Candida species. FLZ-SLN was produced using probe ultrasonication techniques. The morphology of the obtained SLNs was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for the new formulations against fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida were investigated using CLSI document M27-A3. The FLZ-SLNs presented a spherical shape with a mean diameter, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency of 84.8nm, -25mV and 89.6%, respectively. The drug release from FLZ-SLNs exhibited burst release behaviour at the initial stage (the first 30min) followed by a sustained release over 24h FLZ-resistant yeast strains behaved as susceptible strains after treatment with FLZ-SLNs (≤8μg/ml). The MIC50 drug concentrations were 2μg/ml, 1μg/ml and 2μg/ml for FLZ-resistant strains of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata, respectively. In this study, we evaluated novel delivery systems for combating Candida strains that exhibit low susceptibility against the conventional formulation of FLZ as a first-line treatment.

  8. Small-molecule inhibition of HIV pre-mRNA splicing as a novel antiretroviral therapy to overcome drug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bakkour

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises antiretroviral therapy efficacy and limits therapeutic options. Therefore, it is an ongoing task to identify new targets for antiretroviral therapy and to develop new drugs. Here, we show that an indole derivative (IDC16 that interferes with exonic splicing enhancer activity of the SR protein splicing factor SF2/ASF suppresses the production of key viral proteins, thereby compromising subsequent synthesis of full-length HIV-1 pre-mRNA and assembly of infectious particles. IDC16 inhibits replication of macrophage- and T cell-tropic laboratory strains, clinical isolates, and strains with high-level resistance to inhibitors of viral protease and reverse transcriptase. Importantly, drug treatment of primary blood cells did not alter splicing profiles of endogenous genes involved in cell cycle transition and apoptosis. Thus, human splicing factors represent novel and promising drug targets for the development of antiretroviral therapies, particularly for the inhibition of multidrug-resistant viruses.

  9. Human NK cells activated by EBV+ lymphoblastoid cells overcome anti-apoptotic mechanisms of drug resistance in haematological cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Azaceta, Gemma; Muntasell, Aura; Aguiló, Nacho; Núñez, David; Gálvez, Eva M; Naval, Javier; Anel, Alberto; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; Marzo, Isabel; Villalba, Martín; Pardo, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells recognize and eliminate transformed or infected cells that have downregulated MHC class-I and express specific activating ligands. Recent evidence indicates that allogeneic NK cells are useful to eliminate haematological cancer cells independently of MHC-I expression. However, it is unclear if transformed cells expressing mutations that confer anti-apoptotic properties and chemoresistance will be susceptible to NK cells. Allogeneic primary human NK cells were activated using different protocols and prospectively tested for their ability to eliminate diverse mutant haematological and apoptotic-resistant cancer cell lines as well as patient-derived B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with chemotherapy multiresistance. Here, we show that human NK cells from healthy donors activated in vitro with Epstein Barr virus positive (EBV+)-lymphoblastoid cells display an enhanced cytotoxic and proliferative potential in comparison to other protocols of activation such a K562 cells plus interleukin (IL)2. This enhancement enables them to kill more efficiently a variety of haematological cancer cell lines, including a panel of transfectants that mimic natural mutations leading to oncogenic transformation and chemoresistance (e.g., overexpression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 or downregulation of p53, Bak/Bax or caspase activity). The effect was also observed against blasts from B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients showing multi-resistance to chemotherapy. Our findings demonstrate that particular in vitro activated NK cells may overcome anti-apoptotic mechanisms and oncogenic alterations frequently occurring in transformed cells, pointing toward the use of EBV+-lymphoblastoid cells as a desirable strategy to activate NK cells in vitro for the purpose of treating haematological neoplasia with poor prognosis. PMID:25949911

  10. Overcoming the drug resistance problem with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors: from enzymology to structural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespan, E; Zucca, E; Maga, G

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the major pathways used by eukaryotic cells to propagate signals to the final effectors, regulating multiple aspects of the living cell, such as metabolism, growth, differentiation, adhesion, motility, genome stability and death. In this context, tyrosine kinases (TKs) play a central role in signal transduction and their overexpression or disregulated activity has been implicated in tumor onset and malignancy progression. To date, eight TKs inhibitors have been approved by FDA for the treatment of specific tumors. In spite of their efficacy, insurgence of resistance is a common feature after prolonged administration. The selective pressure by these drugs, in fact, induces clonal expansion of subsets of cancer cells harboring TKs mutations, leading to decreased inhibition potency. Alternatively, resistance to TK inhibitors can be acquired through the activation of others, often unrelated, TKs. For this reason, while stringent target selectivity of TKs inhibitors has been always considered a desirable feature in order to limit toxicity, molecules targeting different TKs have been recently shown to be promising anti-cancer agents as well. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that confer resistance to TK inhibitors, through a combination of enzymatic, structural and cellular studies, is essential in the development of second generation inhibitors active also towards drug resistant tumors.

  11. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  12. Justice sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemain, Marc

    2007-01-01

    At first glance "social justice" cannot be considered as a "new word of power" since all powers have been reluctant to apply social justice. But if it is used to organize the "evaporation" of the reflexion on equality, then it can take a clearly conservative tone

  13. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  14. Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their interactions…

  15. Treating triple negative breast cancer cells with erlotinib plus a select antioxidant overcomes drug resistance by targeting cancer cell heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Bin; Mitrea, Cristina; Wijesinghe, Priyanga; Marchetti, Luca; Girsch, Emily; Farr, Rebecca L; Boerner, Julie L; Mohammad, Ramzi; Dyson, Greg; Terlecky, Stanley R; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia

    2017-03-10

    Among breast cancer patients, those diagnosed with the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype have the worst prog-nosis. TNBC does not express estrogen receptor-alpha, progesterone receptor, or the HER2 oncogene; therefore, TNBC lacks targets for molecularly-guided therapies. The concept that EGFR oncogene inhibitor drugs could be used as targeted treatment against TNBC has been put forth based on estimates that 30-60% of TNBC express high levels of EGFR. However, results from clinical trials testing EGFR inhibitors, alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy, did not improve patient outcomes. Results herein offer an explanation as to why EGFR inhibitors failed TNBC patients and support how combining a select antioxidant and an EGFR-specific small molecule kinase inhibitor (SMKI) could be an effective, novel therapeutic strategy. Treatment with CAT-SKL-a re-engineered protein form of the antioxidant enzyme catalase-inhibited cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), and treatment with the EGFR-specific SMKI erlotinib inhibited non-CSCs. Thus, combining the antioxidant CAT-SKL with erlotinib targeted both CSCs and bulk cancer cells in cultures of EGFR-expressing TNBC-derived cells. We also report evidence that the mechanism for CAT-SKL inhibition of CSCs may depend on antioxidant-induced downregulation of a short alternative mRNA splicing variant of the methyl-CpG binding domain 2 gene, isoform MBD2c.

  16. Treating triple negative breast cancer cells with erlotinib plus a select antioxidant overcomes drug resistance by targeting cancer cell heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Bin; Mitrea, Cristina; Wijesinghe, Priyanga; Marchetti, Luca; Girsch, Emily; Farr, Rebecca L.; Boerner, Julie L; Mohammad, Ramzi; Dyson, Greg; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia

    2017-01-01

    Among breast cancer patients, those diagnosed with the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype have the worst prog-nosis. TNBC does not express estrogen receptor-alpha, progesterone receptor, or the HER2 oncogene; therefore, TNBC lacks targets for molecularly-guided therapies. The concept that EGFR oncogene inhibitor drugs could be used as targeted treatment against TNBC has been put forth based on estimates that 30–60% of TNBC express high levels of EGFR. However, results from clinical trials testing EGFR inhibitors, alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy, did not improve patient outcomes. Results herein offer an explanation as to why EGFR inhibitors failed TNBC patients and support how combining a select antioxidant and an EGFR-specific small molecule kinase inhibitor (SMKI) could be an effective, novel therapeutic strategy. Treatment with CAT-SKL—a re-engineered protein form of the antioxidant enzyme catalase—inhibited cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), and treatment with the EGFR-specific SMKI erlotinib inhibited non-CSCs. Thus, combining the antioxidant CAT-SKL with erlotinib targeted both CSCs and bulk cancer cells in cultures of EGFR-expressing TNBC-derived cells. We also report evidence that the mechanism for CAT-SKL inhibition of CSCs may depend on antioxidant-induced downregulation of a short alternative mRNA splicing variant of the methyl-CpG binding domain 2 gene, isoform MBD2c. PMID:28281569

  17. Mitochondrial delivery of doxorubicin via triphenylphosphine modification for overcoming drug resistance in MDA-MB-435/DOX cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min; Vakili, Mohammad Reza; Soleymani Abyaneh, Hoda; Molavi, Ommoleila; Lai, Raymond; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2014-08-04

    In this study, doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated to a lipophilic triphenylphosphonium (TPP) that is selectively taken up by the mitochondrial membrane of cells. This new derivative of DOX, i.e., TPP-DOX, was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR), and mass spectrometry. The effect of TPP modification on DOX cell uptake, intracellular trafficking, eventual DOX induced cytotoxicity, and the level of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP in wild type MDA-MB-435/WT and DOX resistant MDA-MB-435/DOX cells was then evaluated and compared to that for free DOX. In general, free DOX cellular uptake appeared to be significantly higher in MDA-MB-435/WT than MDA-MB-435/DOX cells. Moreover, free DOX was able to enter the nucleus of MDA-MB-435/WT cells, but in MDA-MB-435/DOX cells, it was confined within the cytoplasm. The TPP-DOX, on the other hand, was localized in the cytoplasm of both cell phenotypes and showed preferential distribution to the mitochondria. Correspondingly, in MDA-MB-435/DOX cells, an enhanced cytotoxicity was observed for TPP-DOX (IC50 of 33.6 and 21.0 μM at 48 and 72 h incubation, respectively) in comparison to free DOX (IC50 of 126.7 and 77.96 μM at 48 and 72 h incubation, respectively). This observation was accompanied by the increased level of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP indicating enhanced apoptosis in both cell lines, particularly that of MDA-MB-435/DOX, for TPP-DOX compared to free DOX following 24 h treatment. The present study highlights promising application of TPP-DOX in reversing drug resistance in tumor cells.

  18. Cancer-targeted MDR-1 siRNA delivery using self-cross-linked glycol chitosan nanoparticles to overcome drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yhee, Ji Young; Song, Seungyong; Lee, So Jin; Park, Sung-Gurl; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Myung Goo; Son, Sejin; Koo, Heebeom; Kwon, Ick Chan; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jeong, Seo Young; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2015-01-28

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of failure in chemotherapy. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) for Pgp down-regulation was delivered to tumors to overcome MDR in cancer. To achieve an efficient siRNA delivery in vivo, self-polymerized 5'-end thiol-modified siRNA (poly-siRNA) was incorporated in tumor targeting glycol chitosan nanoparticles. Pgp-targeted poly-siRNA (psi-Pgp) and thiolated glycol chitosan polymers (tGC) formed stable nanoparticles (psi-Pgp-tGC NPs), and the resulting nanoparticles protected siRNA molecules from enzymatic degradation. The psi-Pgp-tGC NPs could release functional siRNA molecules after cellular delivery, and they were able to facilitate siRNA delivery to Adriamycin-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR). After intravenous administration, the psi-Pgp-tGC NPs accumulated in MCF-7/ADR tumors and down-regulated P-gp expression to sensitize cancer cells. Consequently, chemo-siRNA combination therapy significantly inhibited tumor growth without systemic toxicity. These psi-Pgp-tGC NPs showed great potential as a supplementary therapeutic agent for drug-resistant cancer.

  19. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor inhibits CXCR4/SDF-1α signaling and overcomes stromal-mediated drug resistance in the HL-60 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xianfu; Zhong, Hua; Wan, Haixia; Zhong, Jihua; Chen, Fangyuan

    2016-07-01

    Combining cytarabine, aclarubicin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has demonstrated marked efficacy in the treatment of elderly and relapsed/refractory patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the role of G-CSF remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of G-CSF to overcome stromal-mediated drug resistance and the underlying molecular mechanism. Two types of co-culture models were established in the HS-5 human bone marrow/stromal and HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell lines, in order to imitate the interactions between stromal and leukemia cells in vitro, which is mediated by the stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α signaling axis. In the present study, HL-60 cells were attracted and adhered to HS-5 cells using migration assay and flow cytometry, respectively; however, these interactions were inhibited by treatment with G-CSF and/or the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) antagonist, AMD3100. Co-culture with HS-5 cells, including direct and indirect contact, protected HL-60 cells against spontaneous apoptosis or drug-induced apoptosis; however, these protective effects were disrupted by treatment with G-CSF and/or AMD3100. Notably, G-CSF and/or AMD3100 did not alter cell viability or apoptosis when HL-60 cells were cultured with medium alone. In addition, G-CSF significantly reduced the expression levels of surface CXCR4 protein, total CXCR4 protein and CXCR4 mRNA, and significantly upregulated the expression of microRNA (miR)-146a. Conversely, AMD3100 significantly reduced surface CXCR4 expression levels, but not the total CXCR4, CXCR4 mRNA or miR-146a expression levels. The results of the present study suggested that interfering with the CXCR4/SDF-1α signaling axis via G-CSF inhibited the migration and adhesion of HL-60 cells to HS-5 cells and eliminated HS5 cell-mediated protective effects. Furthermore, G-CSF administration reduced CXCR4 expression levels by upregulating the expression of

  20. Overcoming resistance to molecularly targeted anticancer therapies: Rational drug combinations based on EGFR and MAPK inhibition for solid tumours and haematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Giampaolo; Bianco, Roberto; Daniele, Gennaro; Ciardiello, Fortunato; McCubrey, James A; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Ciuffreda, Ludovica; Cognetti, Francesco; Tafuri, Agostino; Milella, Michele

    2007-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer can be envisioned as a "signaling disease", in which alterations in the cellular genome affect the expression and/or function of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. This ultimately disrupts the physiologic transmission of biochemical signals that normally regulate cell growth, differentiation and programmed cell death (apoptosis). From a clinical standpoint, signal transduction inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for human malignancies has recently achieved remarkable success. However, as additional drugs move forward into the clinical arena, intrinsic and acquired resistance to "targeted" agents becomes an issue for their clinical utility. One way to overcome resistance to targeted agents is to identify genetic and epigenetic aberrations underlying sensitivity/resistance, thus enabling the selection of patients that will most likely benefit from a specific therapy. Since resistance often ensues as a result of the concomitant activation of multiple, often overlapping, signaling pathways, another possibility is to interfere with multiple, cross-talking pathways involved in growth and survival control in a rational, mechanism-based, fashion. These concepts may be usefully applied, among others, to agents that target two major signal transduction pathways: the one initiated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and the one converging on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of sensitivity/resistance to EGFR inhibitors, as well as the rationale for combining them with other targeted agents, in an attempt to overcome resistance. In the second part of the paper, we review MAPK-targeted agents, focusing on their therapeutic potential in haematologic malignancies, and examine the prospects for combinations of MAPK inhibitors with cytotoxic agents or other signal transduction-targeted agents to obtain synergistic anti-tumour effects.

  1. Teaching Note--No Peace without Justice: Addressing the United States' War on Drugs in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Elizabeth A.; Redmond, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The United States' War on Drugs encompasses a body of legislation characterized by punitive approaches to drug control. These policies have resulted in escalating incarceration rates and have extracted a particularly harsh toll on low-income people of color. This article argues that education on the War on Drugs is essential for effective practice…

  2. Teaching Note--No Peace without Justice: Addressing the United States' War on Drugs in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Elizabeth A.; Redmond, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The United States' War on Drugs encompasses a body of legislation characterized by punitive approaches to drug control. These policies have resulted in escalating incarceration rates and have extracted a particularly harsh toll on low-income people of color. This article argues that education on the War on Drugs is essential for effective practice…

  3. Evaluation of Drug Treatment in Local Corrections. A Final Summary Report Presented to the National Institute of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunis, Sandra; And Others

    There is evidence that drug treatment in correctional facilities can impact recidivism, perceptions of self-efficacy, and mood states such as depression and anxiety. This study was designed to provide detailed and systematic descriptions of participants and treatment program components for five drug treatment programs. Also included are program…

  4. The Adverse Drug Reactions from Patient Reports in Social Media Project: Five Major Challenges to Overcome to Operationalize Analysis and Efficiently Support Pharmacovigilance Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Cedric; Dahamna, Badisse; Guillemin-Lanne, Sylvie; Darmoni, Stefan J; Faviez, Carole; Huot, Charles; Katsahian, Sandrine; Leroux, Vincent; Pereira, Suzanne; Richard, Christophe; Schück, Stéphane; Souvignet, Julien; Lillo-Le Louët, Agnès; Texier, Nathalie

    2017-09-21

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Classical Pharmacovigilance process is limited by underreporting which justifies the current interest in new knowledge sources such as social media. The Adverse Drug Reactions from Patient Reports in Social Media (ADR-PRISM) project aims to extract ADRs reported by patients in these media. We identified 5 major challenges to overcome to operationalize the analysis of patient posts: (1) variable quality of information on social media, (2) guarantee of data privacy, (3) response to pharmacovigilance expert expectations, (4) identification of relevant information within Web pages, and (5) robust and evolutive architecture. This article aims to describe the current state of advancement of the ADR-PRISM project by focusing on the solutions we have chosen to address these 5 major challenges. In this article, we propose methods and describe the advancement of this project on several aspects: (1) a quality driven approach for selecting relevant social media for the extraction of knowledge on potential ADRs, (2) an assessment of ethical issues and French regulation for the analysis of data on social media, (3) an analysis of pharmacovigilance expert requirements when reviewing patient posts on the Internet, (4) an extraction method based on natural language processing, pattern based matching, and selection of relevant medical concepts in reference terminologies, and (5) specifications of a component-based architecture for the monitoring system. Considering the 5 major challenges, we (1) selected a set of 21 validated criteria for selecting social media to support the extraction of potential ADRs, (2) proposed solutions to guarantee data privacy of patients posting on Internet, (3) took into account pharmacovigilance expert requirements with use case diagrams and scenarios, (4) built domain-specific knowledge resources embeding a lexicon, morphological rules, context rules, semantic rules

  5. Co-delivery of Se nanoparticles and pooled SiRNAs for overcoming drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein and class III β-tubulin in drug-resistant breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjing; Yin, Tiantian; Chen, Qingchang; Qin, Xiuying; Huang, Xiaoquan; Zhao, Shuang; Xu, Taoyuan; Chen, Lanmei; Liu, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and class III β-tubulin (β-tubulin III) is a major barrier in microtubule-targeting cancer chemotherapy. In this study, layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDHs) were employed to simultaneously deliver selenium (Se) and pooled small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to achieve therapeutic efficacy. LDH-supported Se nanoparticles (Se@LDH) were compacted with siRNAs (anti-P-gp and anti-β-tubulin III) via electrostatic interactions, which could protect siRNA from degradation. Se@LDH showed excellent abilities to deliver siRNA into cells, including enhancing siRNA internalization, and promoting siRNA escape from endosomes. siRNA transfection experiments further confirmed a higher gene silencing efficiency of Se@LDH than LDH. Interestingly, we found Se@LDH may be a microtubule (MT) stabilizing agent which could inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle at G2/M phase, disrupting normal mitotic spindle formation and inducing cell apoptosis. When complexed with different specific siRNAs, Se@LDH/siRNA nanoparticles, especially the Se@LDH-pooled siRNAs, exhibit an efficient gene-silencing effect that significantly downregulate the expression of P-gp and β-tubulin III. Moreover, Se@LDH-pooled siRNAs could induce cell apoptosis, change cell morphology and increase cellular ROS levels through change the expression of Bcl-2/Bax, activation of caspase-3, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. These results suggested that co-delivery of Se and pooled siRNAs may be a promising strategy for overcoming the drug resistance mediated by P-gp and β-tubulin III in drug-resistant breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Offending Behavior, Drug Use, and Mental Health Among Foreign-Born versus U.S. Born Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Agudo, Michelle; Martin, Steve S; O'Connell, Daniel J; Auf, Rehab; Sheehan, Diana M

    2016-12-30

    Little is known about the offending behavior and recidivism factors of Latinos by nativity (U.S. born, foreign-born). The present study focused on Latinos in community corrections (n = 201) in Miami, Florida, and examined differences in criminal activity, drug use, and mental health by nativity. Data were collected utilizing convenience sampling between June 2014 and December 2015. The research question was: what are the offending, drug use, and mental health histories of Latinos involved in community corrections? Participants were mostly male (n = 120; 59.7%), White (n = 105; 52.2%), and Cuban (n = 97; 48.3%). U.S. born community corrections clients (n = 141) were more likely to report more lifetime and recent criminal activity; and more likely to report lifetime and recent drug use behavior than foreign-born Latinos (n = 60). No differences were found in recent mental health. Correctional healthcare should tailor services such as substance abuse treatment differently toward U.S. born and foreign-born Latinos.

  7. Juveniles, young people, education, drugs and justice / Menores, jóvenes, educación, drogas y justicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Nieto Morales

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Drug consumption has been normalized for young people nowadays. They start consuming hashish in an early age. Some of them keep that consumption with small amounts or quit, and others increase it and even enlarge the range of substances to consume. Those juveniles accumulating school failure can’t reach the rest of students’ level and can’t pass the academic tests, which results in expulsions, leisure time and relationships with other individuals in the same circumstances: they spend most of the time idle, gathering in groups in the same circumstances of idleness and disruptive conducts. Boredom leads them to start consuming hashish and other narcotic substances, which ends sometimes in very serious addictions, and judicial problems.

  8. GMOs and Global Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2012-01-01

    claims to justice. This article investigates how GMOs might generate claims to global justice and what type of justice is involved. The paper argues that the debate on GMOs and global justice can be categorized into three views, i.e., the cosmopolitan, the pluralist, and the sceptic. The cosmopolitan...... on the premise that global cooperation on GMO production provides the relevant basis for assessing the use of GMOs by the standard of global distributive justice....

  9. Recent developments in nanotechnology to overcome the challenges in topical drug delivery to the anterior and posterior segments of the eye: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mohammadpour

    2015-01-01

    The present study is aimed at reviewing the eye structure, challenges faced by ocular drug delivery, familiarity with nanotechnology and approaches of this science in the area of ophthalmology as well as mechanisms of designing a local system for effective drug delivery to the eye tissue.

  10. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC): Overcoming the anatomical and physiological barriers of the eye - Part II - Ocular drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, E; Espina, M; Doktorovova, S; Souto, E B; García, M L

    2017-01-01

    In the recent decades, various controlled delivery systems have been introduced with the aim to improve solubility, stability and bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. Among all, lipid nanoparticles gather interesting properties as drug or gene delivery carriers. These systems, composed either of solid lipids (SLN) or of solid and liquid lipids (NLC) stabilized with surfactants, combine the advantages of other colloidal particles such as polymeric nanoparticles, fat emulsions and liposomes avoiding their main disadvantages. Lipid nanoparticles represent an interesting approach for eye drug delivery as they can improve the corneal absorption of drugs enhancing their bioavailability. The Generally Recognized as Safe status of formulation excipients, the scaling-up facilities and the possibility of sterilization, make them suitable for industrial production. In this review, the latest findings, potential applications, and challenges related to the use of lipid nanoparticles for ocular drug delivery are comprehensively discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Carnival and Domination: Pedagogies of Neither Care Nor Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorkin, Alexander M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need to overcome domination in education, arguing that such cultural phenomena as carnival could do a better job of overcoming domination than the ethics of justice and care, and suggesting that the concept of domination belongs to the language of freedom rather than the language of morality. (SM)

  12. Overcoming intrinsic multi-drug resistance in melanoma by blocking the mitochondrial respiratory chain of slow-cycling JARID1Bhigh cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Alexander; Vultur, Adina; Bogeski, Ivan; Wang, Huan; Zimmermann, Katharina M.; Speicher, David; Körbel, Christina; Laschke, Matthias W.; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Philipp, Stephan E.; Krause, Elmar; Pätzold, Sylvie; Villanueva, Jessie; Krepler, Clemens; Fukunaga-Kalabis, Mizuho; Hoth, Markus; Bastian, Boris; Vogt, Thomas; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2013-01-01

    Summary Despite success with BRAFV600E–inhibitors, therapeutic responses in patients with metastatic melanoma are short-lived because of the acquisition of drug resistance. We identified a mechanism of intrinsic multi-drug resistance based on the survival of a tumor cell subpopulation. Treatment with various drugs, including cisplatin and vemurafenib, uniformly leads to enrichment of slow-cycling, long-term tumor-maintaining melanoma cells expressing the H3K4-demethylase JARID1B/KDM5B/PLU-1. Proteome-profiling revealed an upregulation in enzymes of mitochondrial oxidative-ATP-synthesis (OXPHOS) in this subpopulation. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration blocked the emergence of the JARID1Bhigh subpopulation and sensitized melanoma cells to therapy, independent of their genotype. Our findings support a two-tiered approach combining anti-cancer agents that eliminate rapidly proliferating melanoma cells with inhibitors of the drug-resistant slow-cycling subpopulation. PMID:23764003

  13. Crippling Sexual Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel

    2015-01-01

    . The article develops a normative and analytical framework, encompassing the multiple structural conditions, the virtues of citizens, and the emotional dimension of belonging, which enable or hamper justice. It integrates theories of democratic citizenship, belonging, and social justice, and provides...

  14. Justice and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.

  15. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  16. Models of distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Philosophical disagreement about justice rages over at least two questions. The most immediate is a substantial question, concerning the conditions under which particular distributive arrangements can be said to be just or unjust. The second, deeper, question concerns the nature of justice itself. What is justice? Here we can distinguish three views. First, justice as mutual advantage sees justice as essentially a matter of the outcome of a bargain. There are times when two parties can both be better off by making some sort of agreement. Justice, on this view, concerns the distribution of the benefits and burdens of the agreement. Second, justice as reciprocity takes a different approach, looking not at bargaining but at the idea of a fair return or just price, attempting to capture the idea of justice as equal exchange. Finally justice as impartiality sees justice as 'taking the other person's point of view' asking 'how would you like it if it happened to you?' Each model has significantly different consequences for the question of when issues of justice arise and how they should be settled. It is interesting to consider whether any of these models of justice could regulate behaviour between non-human animals.

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse ...

  18. Investigation of Functionalized Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-block-polystyrene Nanoparticles As Novel Drug Delivery System to Overcome the Blood-Brain Barrier In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Maria; Bertani, Daniela; Cazzaniga, Emanuela; Orlando, Antonina; Mauri, Michele; Bianchi, Alberto; Re, Francesca; Sesana, Silvia; Minniti, Stefania; Francolini, Maura; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Salmona, Mario; Nardo, Luca; Salerno, Domenico; Mantegazza, Francesco; Masserini, Massimo; Simonutti, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    In the search of new drug delivery carriers for the brain, self-assembled nanoparticles (NP) were prepared from poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-block-polystyrene polymer. NP displayed biocompatibility on cultured endothelial cells, macrophages and differentiated SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells. The surface-functionalization of NP with a modified fragment of human Apolipoprotein E (mApoE) enhanced the uptake of NP by cultured human brain capillary endothelial cells, as assessed by confocal microscopy, and their permeability through a Transwell Blood Brain Barrier model made with the same cells, as assessed by fluorescence. Finally, mApoE-NP embedding doxorubicin displayed an enhanced release of drug at low pH, suggesting the potential use of these NP for the treatment of brain tumors.

  19. A Shared Molecular and Genetic Basis for Food and Drug Addiction: Overcoming Hypodopaminergic Trait/State by Incorporating Dopamine Agonistic Therapy in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Mark S; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Blum, Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    This article focuses on the shared molecular and neurogenetics of food and drug addiction tied to the understanding of reward deficiency syndrome. Reward deficiency syndrome describes a hypodopaminergic trait/state that provides a rationale for commonality in approaches for treating long-term reduced dopamine function across the reward brain regions. The identification of the role of DNA polymorphic associations with reward circuitry has resulted in new understanding of all addictive behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Harm reduction through a social justice lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Bernadette

    2008-02-01

    People who are street involved such as those experiencing homelessness and drug use face multiple inequities in health and access to health care. Morbidity and mortality are significantly increased among those who are street involved. Incorporation of a harm reduction philosophy in health care has the potential to shift the moral context of health care delivery and enhance access to health care services. However, harm reduction with a primary focus on reducing the harms of drug use fails focus on the harms associated with the context of drug use such as homelessness, violence and poverty. Ethical analysis of the underlying values of harm reduction and examination of different conceptions of justice are discussed as a basis for action that addresses a broad range of harms associated with drug use. Theories of distributive justice that focus primarily on the distribution of material goods are limited as theoretical frameworks for addressing the root causes of harm associated with drug use. Social justice, reconceptualised and interpreted through a critical lens as described by Iris Marion Young, is presented as a promising alternative ethical framework. A critical reinterpretation of social justice leads to insights that can illuminate structural inequities that contribute to the harms associated with the context of drug use. Such an approach provides promise as means of informing policy that aims to reduce a broad range of harms associated with drug use such as homelessness and poverty.

  1. The small molecule inhibitor YK-4-279 disrupts mitotic progression of neuroblastoma cells, overcomes drug resistance and synergizes with inhibitors of mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollareddy, Madhu; Sherrard, Alice; Park, Ji Hyun; Szemes, Marianna; Gallacher, Kelli; Melegh, Zsombor; Oltean, Sebastian; Michaelis, Martin; Cinatl, Jindrich; Kaidi, Abderrahmane; Malik, Karim

    2017-09-10

    Neuroblastoma is a biologically and clinically heterogeneous pediatric malignancy that includes a high-risk subset for which new therapeutic agents are urgently required. As well as MYCN amplification, activating point mutations of ALK and NRAS are associated with high-risk and relapsing neuroblastoma. As both ALK and RAS signal through the MEK/ERK pathway, we sought to evaluate two previously reported inhibitors of ETS-related transcription factors, which are transcriptional mediators of the Ras-MEK/ERK pathway in other cancers. Here we show that YK-4-279 suppressed growth and triggered apoptosis in nine neuroblastoma cell lines, while BRD32048, another ETV1 inhibitor, was ineffective. These results suggest that YK-4-279 acts independently of ETS-related transcription factors. Further analysis reveals that YK-4-279 induces mitotic arrest in prometaphase, resulting in subsequent cell death. Mechanistically, we show that YK-4-279 inhibits the formation of kinetochore microtubules, with treated cells showing a broad range of abnormalities including multipolar, fragmented and unseparated spindles, together leading to disrupted progression through mitosis. Notably, YK-4-279 does not affect microtubule acetylation, unlike the conventional mitotic poisons paclitaxel and vincristine. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that YK-4-279 overcomes vincristine-induced resistance in two neuroblastoma cell-line models. Furthermore, combinations of YK-4-279 with vincristine, paclitaxel or the Aurora kinase A inhibitor MLN8237/Alisertib show strong synergy, particularly at low doses. Thus, YK-4-279 could potentially be used as a single-agent or in combination therapies for the treatment of high-risk and relapsing neuroblastoma, as well as other cancers. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PEG-nanolized ultrasmall selenium nanoparticles overcome drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through induction of mitochondria dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Shanyuan Zheng,1,2 Xiaoling Li,1 Yibo Zhang,1 Qiang Xie,3 Yum-Shing Wong,2 Wenjie Zheng,1 Tianfeng Chen,1,3,41Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China; 2School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; 3Wu Jing Zong Dui Hospital of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, China; 4State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, ChinaAbstract: Gray selenium (Se is one of the most widely used Se sources with very limited biocompatibility and bioactivity. In the present study, a simple method for the preparation of ultrasmall selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs through direct nanolization of gray selenium by polyethylene glycol (PEG was demonstrated. Monodisperse and homogeneous PEG-SeNPs with ultrasmall diameters were successfully prepared under optimized conditions. The products were characterized using various microscopic and spectroscopic methods, and the results suggest that the amphoteric properties of PEG and the coordination between oxygen and selenium atoms contributed to the formation of ultrasmall nanoparticles. PEG-SeNPs exhibited stronger growth inhibition on drug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (R-HepG2 cells than on normal HepG2 cells. Dose-dependent apoptosis was induced by PEG-SeNPs in R-HepG2 cells, as evidenced by an increase in the sub-G1 cell population. Further investigation on the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of superoxide anions contributed to PEG-SeNPs-induced apoptotic cell death in R-HepG2 cells. Our results suggest that PEG-SeNPs may be a candidate for further evaluation as a chemotherapeutic agent for drug-resistant liver cancer, and the strategy to use PEG200 as a surface decorator could be a highly efficient way to enhance the anticancer efficacy of nanomaterials.Keywords: selenium, PEG, nanolization, drug resistance, apoptosis

  3. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugged milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... no clear cause of nipple soreness. A simple change in your baby's position while feeding may ease ...

  4. Mechanism of Adefovir, Tenofovir and Entecavir Resistance: Molecular Modeling Studies of How A Novel Anti-HBV Agent (FMCA) Can Overcome the Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, R K; Konreddy, A K; Chu, C K

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of significant improvement in the area of anti-HBV therapy, resistance and cross-resistance against available therapeutic agents are the major consideration in drug discovery of new agents. The present study is to obtain the insight of the molecular basis of drug resistance conferred by the B and C domain mutations of HBV-polymerase on the binding affinity of four anti-HBV agents [Adefovir (ADV), Tenofovir (TNF), Entecavir (ETV) & 2'-Fluoro-6'-methylene-carbocyclic adenosine (FMCA)]. In this regard, homology modeled structure of HBV polymerase was used for minimization, conformational search and Glide XP docking followed by binding energy calculation on wild-type as well as on mutant HBV-polymerases (N236T, L180M+M204V+S202G & A194T). Our studies suggest a significant correlation between the fold resistances and the binding affinity of anti-HBV nucleosides. The domain B residue, L180 is indirectly associated with other active-site hydrophobic residues such as A87, F88 and M204, whereas the domain C residue, M204 is closely associated with sugar/pseudosugar ring positioning in the active site. These hydrophobic residues can directly influence the interaction of the incoming nucleoside triphosphates and change the binding efficacy. The carbohydrate ring part of natural substrate dATP, dGTP, FMCA and ETV, are occupied in similar passion in the grooves of HBV polymerase active site. The exocyclic double bond of Entecavir and FMCA occupies in the backside hydrophobic pocket (made by residues A87, F88, L180and M204), which enhances the overall binding affinity. Additional hydrogen bonding interaction of 2'-fluorine of FMCA with R41 residue of polymerase promotes a positive binding in wild-type as well as in ADVr, ETVr and TNFr with respect to that of entecavir.

  5. Overcoming rituximab drug-resistance by the genetically engineered anti-CD20-hIFN-α fusion protein: Direct cytotoxicity and synergy with chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    VEGA, GABRIEL G.; FRANCO-CEA, LUZ ARELI; HUERTA-YEPEZ, SARA; MAYANI, HÉCTOR; MORRISON, SHERIE L.; BONAVIDA, BENJAMIN; VEGA, MARIO I.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of patients with B-NHL with rituximab and CHOP has resulted in significant clinical responses. However, a subset of patients develops resistance to further treatments. The mechanism of unresponsiveness in vivo is not known. We have reported the development of rituximab-resistant clones derived from B-NHL cell lines as models to investigate the mechanism of resistance. The resistant clones exhibit hyper-activated survival/anti-apoptotic pathways and no longer respond to a combination of rituximab and drugs. Recent studies reported the therapeutic efficacy in mice bearing B-cell lymphoma xenografts following treatment with the anti-CD20-hIFNα fusion protein. We hypothesized that the fusion protein may bypass rituximab resistance and inhibit survival signaling pathways. Treatment of the rituximab-resistant clones with anti-CD20-hIFNα, but not with rituximab, IFNα, or rituximab+IFNα resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of cell death. Treatment with anti-CD20-hIFNα sensitized the cells to apoptosis by CDDP, doxorubicin and Treanda. Treatment with anti-CD20-hIFNα inhibited the NF-κB and p38 MAPK activities and induced the activation of PKC-δ and Stat-1. These effects were corroborated by the use of the inhibitors SB203580 (p38 MAPK) and Rottlerin (PKC-δ). Treatment with SB203580 enhanced the sensitization of the resistant clone by anti-CD20-hIFNα to CDDP apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with Rotterin inhibited significantly the sensitization induced by anti-CD20-hIFNα. Overall, the findings demonstrate that treatment with anti-CD20-hIFNα reverses resistance of B-NHL. These findings suggest the potential application of anti-CD20-hIFNα in combination with drugs in patients unresponsive to rituximab-containing regimens. PMID:26398317

  6. Leadership for Social Justice: Social Justice Pedagogies

    OpenAIRE

    Bogotch, Ira; Reyes-Guerra, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between educational leadership and practices of social justice is now entering its second decade with respect to empirical research studies. There have been three distinct research agendas: the first involves attempts to define the meaning(s) of educational leadership for social justice; the second is the descriptive documentation of school leadership behaviors which address social injustices and inequities within schools; and, the third focuses on the development of leadersh...

  7. Skepticism of the Western System on Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Farihah Mohd Noor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Justice is an elusive concept; it is controversial,yet very important to mankind. This paper seeks to explain the challenges found in the work of justice and to explore justice as defined by the West and by Islam. The findings show that there is stark difference especially in the philosophical aspect in how justice is interpreted and applied from the viewpoint of the West and Islam. Findings also show that Islamic approach to justice is more durable and dynamic as theguidance is deeply entrenched in the divine revelation of the Holy Quran; since no human being has the ability of creating, being by nature, fallible and as such produces excellent impact. The impact of justice in Islam can be seen from the Islamic history itself. Unfortunately, since the world has been dominated by the secularsystem; divine law has slowly been rejected and has been taken as irrelevant and backdated. The researcher also seeks to show why Muslims fail despite of the existence of rich and forceful Islamic ways. In order to overcome the setback, the researcher proposes some reforms for Muslims to return to its original state of Islam that encourages just and good governance. This finding is important as it can provide insights to the government as tools in combating acts ofinjustice more consistently and forcefully. As injustice is an endemic and the main reason for the collapse of society, this discussion attempts to show that Islamic idea of justice is actuallyable to solve all problems no matter how big the scale is. The positive and incredible impact not only will be enjoyed by the ruler and the governed, but also by the whole nation, Muslims and non-Muslims alike.

  8. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  9. Overcoming the Polyester Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Dorothy

    1988-01-01

    Urges community colleges to overcome their image problem by documenting the colleges' impact on their communities. Suggests ways to determine what data should be collected, how to collect the information, and how it can be used to empower faculty, staff, and alumni to change the institution's image. (DMM)

  10. Overcoming resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, L

    1993-01-01

    The pace of change in health care organizations challenges nursing administrators at all levels of management to be effective change agents. As resistance is an inevitable element in the process of planned change, inclusion of interventions to overcome resistance is critical to the change agent role. The author presents five theoretically-based strategies for reducing the levels of resistance to planned change.

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Health ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  13. restorative justice, criminal justice and access to justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wide range of human rights that are enshrined in ... series, which tend to glorify the role of the prosecutor in a dramatic depiction of good versus bad. However, reality ... unpredictable transformation'.6 Models of practice ..... Funding and resources are also needed. 18 .... Restorative Justice Week, Protea Hotel, Umhlanga.

  14. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that wher

  15. Imagining Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Felicity; Knight, Linda; Stratigos, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how creativity and the arts can assist teachers who teach from a social justice perspective, and how knowledge built through meaningful experiences of difference can make a difference. Just as imagining is central to visual arts practice, so too is the capacity to imagine a necessity for social justice. The authors ask what…

  16. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that

  17. Justice as Europe's Signifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Suryapratim; Kochenov, Dimitry; de Burca, Grainne; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the fact that justice is never explained in European legal discourse, but is used in conjunction with other principles and institutional decisions, this contribution argues that justice is used as a rhetorical tool to provide legitimacy to such principles and decisions. An analogous

  18. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  19. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that wher

  20. Cleanroom laboratory challenge overcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Ronan

    2010-10-01

    Ronan Quinn, managing director of interior construction specialist Ardmac, describes the challenges of building and fitting out a new cleanroom laboratory for blood and bone marrow therapeutic treatment at Our Lady's Children's Hospital Crumlin in Dublin. The "state-of-the-art" facility, which fully complies with the recent EU Directive concerning human tissues and cells, has been well received by the client and end-users alike, but, as he explains, there were many obstacles to overcome during its completion.

  1. Concerning Justice and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore matters concerning justice and music education. I briefly sketch responses to five interrelated questions: Why should music educators be interested in justice? What is meant by the term social justice and how is it distinguished from justice of other kinds? How do liberal views of humanity, particularly the preciousness of…

  2. 77 FR 44069 - Grider Drug #1 & Grider Drug #2; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... July 26, 2012 Part VI Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration Grider Drug 1 & Grider Drug... / Notices#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Grider Drug 1 & Grider Drug 2... that Respondents were dispensing prescriptions to six persons engaged in doctor-shopping and that...

  3. Variations on Justice: Argentina's pre- and -post transitional justice and justice to-come

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaisman, Noa

    2015-01-01

    of these three kinds of justice and the changes they underwent in the past two decades. By offering a grounded analysis of justice in the pre- and the post-transitional justice phases in Argentina the paper contributes to ongoing debates about the meaning of justice and the possibility of reconciliation in post-conflict...

  4. Like water for justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The narrative of environmental justice is powerfully and passionately advocated by researchers, practitioners and activists across scale and space. Yet, because these struggles are multifaceted and pluralistic, rooted in complex, evolving “socio-material-political interminglings” the concept is

  5. Potential Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data are from EJSCREEN, an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for...

  6. Drug Testing in Schools: An Effective Deterrent? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (May 30, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This document presents testimonies from a hearing discussing the drug threat in the nations schools and the issue of whether drug testing is an effective deterrent. The subcommittee conducted the hearing as part of an effort to fully understand the nations drug crisis, how it impacts different parts of our nation, and what effective drug control…

  7. Gender and Climate Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Agostino; Rosa Lizarde

    2012-01-01

    Ana Agostino and Rosa Lizarde explore the concept of climate justice as a rights approach to climate change. They propose that those in the South who are most affected by environmental changes need to receive justice from those in the North who are most responsible for climate change. They apply a gender lens to climate change, analyzing how women have been specifically hit by the phenomenon and how they are responding.

  8. JUSTICE FOR DISABLED PERSONS

    OpenAIRE

    Brčić Kuljiš, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Symbol of justice is a blindfolded lady. Blind to all diversity, it provides impartial law and equal treatment for all citizens. Their rationality, cooperativeness, autonomy and independence confirm their legal equality. However, what about the people who, for various reasons, do not meet those conditions? Can a political community apply the principles of (political) justice to them? Does it relate to them unfairly excluding them from political relationships or building relationships with the...

  9. Transitional justice and aid

    OpenAIRE

    Hellsten, Sirkku K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the current security-governance-development nexus, something that is often also discussed under the concept of transitional justice (TJ). The paper analyses how the ambiguous, evolving and expanding nature of the concept of TJ affects the planning, coordination, evaluation and assessment of aid given to conflict ridden, post-conflict or (post) authoritarian societies in order to strengthen their democracy. Special attention is paid to gender justice. Illustrations are draw...

  10. Justice, fairness, and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian

    2006-12-01

    This article begins by considering four traditional definitions of enhancement, then proposes a fifth, the Welfarist definition. It then considers fairness-based objections to enhancement, using the example of performance enhancement in sport. In so doing it defines sport and the values proper to it, surveys alternative theories of justice, considers the natural distribution of capabilities and disabilities, and draws a distinction between social, psychological, and biological enhancement. The article advances a new argument that justice requires enhancement.

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Meetings & Events Media Guide About NIDA Director's Page Organization Legislative Activities Advisory Boards & Groups Working at NIDA ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: HIV/ ...

  13. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  14. Overcoming multidrug resistance(MDR) in cancer by nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The emerging nanotechnology-based drug delivery holds tremendous potential to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs for treatment of multidrug resistance(MDR) cancer.This drug delivery system could improve the pharmacokinetic behavior of antitumor drugs,deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to target sites,control release of drugs,and reduce the systemic toxicity of drugs in MDR cancer.This review addresses the use of nanotechnology to overcome MDR classified on the bases of the fundamental mechanisms of MDR and various approaches to deliver drugs for treatment of MDR cancer.

  15. Organizational Justice in Schools: No Justice without Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. John

    2004-01-01

    The concept of organizational justice is defined, and, based on a review of the literature, ten principles of organizational justice are elaborated. Similarly, the elements of faculty trust are conceptualized and discussed. Then, a model of organizational justice and trust is proposed and tested using path analysis. The results underscore the…

  16. toward a curriculum for justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    profound justice; i.e. justice that is based on reasonableness and, more ... way to conduct a curriculum enquiry, since it acknowledges the crisis of ..... The principle of having a caring curriculum necessitates that we create learning-teaching.

  17. Empowering Energy Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L

    2016-09-21

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure "just" transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between "green" and "just", as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  18. Empowering Energy Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1 fossil fuel divestment; (2 carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3 cap-and-trade; (4 renewable energy; and (5 energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  19. Empowering Energy Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics. PMID:27657101

  20. Ten tendencies of criminal justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiahong

    2007-01-01

    A study of the global tendencies of criminal justice will help us design a more scientific and rational pathway for the reformation of existing criminal justice system of China. In the forthcoming several hundred years to come, theworld's criminal justice is to take on ten tendencies, that is, the tendency toward unity, civilization, science, rule of law, human rights, justice, efficiency,specialization, standardization and harmony.

  1. Childhood, Agency and Youth Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to reframe debates in the sphere of youth justice in order to move away from narrow and one-sided conceptualisations of young people who offend and appropriate forms of intervention with them. Whilst different positions have been adopted within the field of youth justice, largely around "justice" or "welfare" models of practice,…

  2. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  3. English Only and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, David

    1999-01-01

    Sketches the strengths and weaknesses of the approach to social justice offered by John Rawls, an approach that continues to dominate discussions about social justice and public policy. Contrasts that conception with a critically realistic approach to judging social justice, and argues that the latter is more respectful of minority group…

  4. Understanding Education for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

  5. Corrective Justice vs. Social Justice in the Aftermath of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kalmanovitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we justify the practice of corrective justice for losses suffered during armed conflicts? This article seeks to show the force and relevance of this question, and to argue that, in cases of massively destructive wars, social justice should gain priority over corrective justice. Starting from a liberal Rawlsian conception of the relationship between corrective and social justice, it is argued that, paradoxically, the more destructive a war is, the less normative force corrective rights have and the higher priority policies of social justice, which guarantee basic rights to all citizens, should have.

  6. Military Justice Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Island Paralegal (Student) Command Division N/A TAD from/to until (give date) Naval Justice School, Newport, Rhode Island 3255 Whereabouts for next 30...If a lesser forum is desired, handle according to procedures set out elsewhere in this book. I IV-41 LEGAL OFFICER RELIEVING CHECKLIST A. GEN t . One

  7. Justice under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cettolin, E.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    An important element for the public support of policies is their perceived justice. At the same time most policy choices have uncertain outcomes. We report the results of a first experiment investigating just allocations of resources when some recipients are exposed to uncertainty. Although, under c

  8. Reflexivity and social justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksimovic, Tijana; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    2017-01-01

    Career practitioners’ reflexive understanding of their professional role as change agents in career guidance and counselling practices has a major impact on how social justice can be achieved. This entitles an awareness of the way in which guidance and counselling practices are embedded in the co...

  9. Sociology of justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebig, S.; Sauer, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide an overview of the empirical justice research done so far within sociology and aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of what constitutes a sociological approach. In order to do so, we first introduce the multilevel model of sociological explanation and derive four

  10. Journals and Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the process of journal deselection from the point of view of justice and argues that when journal cuts are necessary, libraries should first, reduce all departments to core holdings; second, ask departments with expensive journals for permission to implement an efficiency principle; third, if refused permission, implement an equal…

  11. Rethinking Restorative Justice: When the Geographies of Crime and of Healing Justice Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jarem Sawatsky

    2007-01-01

    .... Despite the rhetoric that restorative justice is an alternative to the criminal justice system, this article demonstrates that restorative justice does not sufficiently challenge the underlying logic...

  12. Collecting informed consent with juvenile justice populations: issues and implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbransky, Melinda; Goldstein, Naomi E S; Giallella, Christy; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Researchers must provide participants with opportunities to make informed decisions about whether to participate in research studies. Investigators conducting research with youth in the juvenile justice system face unique ethical, legal, and practical challenges to obtaining informed consent. Juvenile justice researchers must navigate multiple legal and ethical standards for collecting informed consent, take into account youths' dual vulnerabilities as children and prisoners, and overcome practical limitations to obtaining parental/guardian permission. Given the challenges and complexity of obtaining standard informed consent of youth in juvenile justice facilities, this paper provides suggestions for overcoming obstacles to recruiting these youth for research participation. It offers guidance for fostering the enrollment of juvenile justice youth in research studies using procedures that comply with ethical and legal standards for research with this dually vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  14. Historical Memory and Transitional Justice in Spain: the Time as Actor of Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Tamarit Sumalla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the political, criminal and legal challenges posed by accountability demands for past crimes by studying the singularities that the Spanish transition from Franco’s dictatorship to democracy has raised. Especially, it is analysed the Historical Memory Law of 2007 and the most problematic points of the criminal justice actions that have emerged due to offenses committed during the dictatorship. Despite the existence of international crimes, the elapsed time has brought difficult to overcome, factual and legal difficulties for effective prosecution. This problem, focusing on the prohibition of retroactivity, prescription and effects of the Amnesty Act of 1977 is examined here.

  15. Transitional Justice versus Traditional Justice: The Basque Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoextea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transitional justice is often understood as a field or toolkit that facilitates the establishment of "justice" and rule of law in post-conflict societies. It is also the interdisciplinary understanding and study of that toolkit or field. This article explores to what extent transitional justice is a relevant way of understanding the transformations taking place in the Basque Country in the post-conflict situation created since the final ceasefire was declared by ETA on October 20, 2011. The article analyses different aspects of the field of transitional justice and the experience in Spain and the Basque Country. It underlines the prevalence of truth-seeking processes (over amnesia and of addressing violations and victims' suffering to conclude with the need to enhance the rule of law and traditional-individualised-justice and transitional justice.

  16. Dentistry and distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharamsi, Shafik; MacEntee, Michael I

    2002-07-01

    There is a growing concern in most countries to address the problem of inequities in health-care within the context of financial restraints on the public purse and the realities of health professions that are influenced strongly by the economic priorities of free-market economies. Dental professionals, like other health professionals, are well aware that the public expects oral health-related services that are effective, accessible, available and affordable. Yet, there is remarkably little reference in the literature to the theories of distributive justice that might offer guidance on how an equitable oral health service could be achieved. This paper considers three prominent theories of distributive justice--libertarianism, egalitarianism and contractarianism--within the controversial context of basic care and quality of life. The discussion leads towards a socially responsible, egalitarian perspective on prevention augmented by a social contract for curative care with the aim of providing maximum benefit to the least advantaged in society.

  17. Climate Change Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Posner, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    Greenhouse gas reductions would cost some nations much more than others and benefit some nations far less than others. Significant reductions would impose especially large costs on the United States, and recent projections suggest that the United States has relatively less to lose from climate change. In these circumstances, what does justice require the United States to do? Many people believe that the United States is required to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions beyond the point that is ...

  18. Hume's Theory of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Spector

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hume developed an original and revolutionary theoretical paradigm for explaining the spontaneous emergence of the classic conventions of justice - stable possession, transference of property by consent, and the obligation to fulfill promises. In a scenario of scarce external resources, Hume's central idea is that the development of the rules of justice responds to a sense of common interest that progressively tames the destructiveness of natural self-love and expands the action of natural moral sentiments. By handling conceptual tools that anticipated game theory for centuries, Hume was able to break with rationalism, the natural law school, and Hobbes's contractarianism. Unlike natural moral sentiments, the sense of justice is valuable and reaches full strength within a general plan or system of actions. However, unlike game theory, Hume does not assume that people have transparent access to the their own motivations and the inner structure of the social world. In contrast, he blends ideas such as cognitive delusion, learning by experience and coordination to construct a theory that still deserves careful discussion, even though it resists classification under contemporary headings.

  19. Flew on Entitlements and Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Lorenzo

    1989-01-01

    In «Equality, yes, surely; but Justice?», Antony Flew argues that egalitarianism and collectivism are incompatible with the concept of justice, since the usual concept of justice is that of giving everyone his due (or his own). That concept is intrinsically backward-looking; you cannot assign everyone his own by gratuitously presupposing that nothing is his own and that a fresh start is to be made. As against such a view, I maintain that, in a fairly obvio...

  20. Three Liberal Theories of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří MACHÁČEK

    2013-01-01

    The mail goal of this thesis is to introduce the modern theory of liberal justice with a focus on distributive justice. In addition, the author addresses the issue of value neutrality in the liberal state and the concept of equality in liberal theory. The author presents the concept of "justice as fairness" described by liberal political philosopher John Rawls. Afterwards his concept is subjected to criticism of other contemporary liberal philosophers Robert Nozick and Ronald Dworkin. The aut...

  1. "Donde esta la justicia?" A Call to Action on Behalf of Latino and Latina Youth in the U.S. Justice System. Building Blocks for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel, Francisco A.; Walker, Nancy E.

    This report documents the disparate and unfair treatment of Latino/a youth in the U.S. justice system, describing barriers to collection of comprehensive information and potential means for overcoming these barriers. Data came from surveys of juvenile justice system directors in several states and the District of Columbia. The report describes how…

  2. Adding positive reinforcement in justice settings: acceptability and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudes, Danielle S; Taxman, Faye S; Portillo, Shannon; Murphy, Amy; Rhodes, Anne; Stitzer, Maxine; Luongo, Peter F; Friedmann, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    Although contingency management (CM) approaches are among the most promising methods for initiating drug abstinence (S. T. Higgins, S. M. Alessi, & R. L. Dantona, 2002; S. T. Higgins, S. H. Heil, & J. P. Lussier, 2004), adoption and implementation of CM protocols into treatment programs are both challenging and infrequent. In criminal justice agencies, where roughly 70% of clients report substance abuse issues (F. S. Taxman, K. L. Cropsey, D. W. Young, & H. Wexler, 2007), CM interventions are virtually nonexistent. The Justice Steps (JSTEPS) study uses a longitudinal, mixed-method design to examine the implementation of a CM-based protocol in five justice settings. This article presents qualitative data collected during Phase 1 of the JSTEPS project regarding the acceptability and feasibility of CM in these justice settings. The study finds a level of acceptability (find CM tolerable) and feasibility (find CM suitable) within justice agencies, but with some challenges. These challenges are reflected in the following: (a) incorporating too many desired target behaviors into CM models; (b) facing intraorganizational challenges when designing CM systems; and (c) emphasizing sanctions over rewards despite the evidence-base for positive reinforcers. These findings have implications for advancing the dissemination, adoption, and implementation of evidence-based treatments (and CM in particular) in criminal justice settings.

  3. Student Perceptions of Social Justice and Social Justice Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…

  4. Student Perceptions of Social Justice and Social Justice Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…

  5. Justice and Feelings: Toward a New Era in Justice Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, D. de; Bos, K. van den

    2007-01-01

    In this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position of past and p

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences ... behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug ... and testing services, and referrals for medical and social services. ...

  7. The role of overall justice judgments in organizational justice research: a test of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen L; Schminke, Marshall

    2009-03-01

    Organizational justice research traditionally focuses on the unique predictability of different types of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) and the relative importance of these types of justice on outcome variables. Recently, researchers have suggested shifting from this focus on specific types of justice to a consideration of overall justice. The authors hypothesize that overall justice judgments mediate the relationship between specific justice facets and outcomes. They present 2 studies to test this hypothesis. Study 1 demonstrates that overall justice judgments mediate the relationship between specific justice judgments and employee attitudes. Study 2 demonstrates the mediating relationship holds for supervisor ratings of employee behavior. Implications for research on organizational justice are discussed.

  8. Health Law as Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  9. Justice in Cyberwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerd Giesen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n1p27The text aims at providing an ethical framework for cyber warfare. The latter is changing our understanding of war (and peace as well as the relationship between the human being and the machine. Rejecting Heidegger’s fatalistic stance towards technology it is argued that norms of international justice should be formulated in order to attempt to regulate this new military dimension. The potentially considerable destructive force of cyberweapon systems for civilian infrastructure is emphasized, especially as far as the « Internet of Things » (all physical objects connected to the Internet is concerned. In a foreseeable future cyberwar operations may kill many civilians. After defining the concept of cyberwar and explainig why it is a new and important moral issue, the paper heavily relies on just war ethics in order to reach norms for justice in cyberwar. It is shown that Immanuel Kant has not just been a philosopher of (perpetual peace, but (in the Metaphysics of Morals also a just war theorist who developed his normative framework in a fruitful dialog with Aquinas (against Vitoria and Suarez. His norms for jus ad bellum and jus in bello are carefully and critically applied to cyberwar. However, Kant’s major innovation in just war theory has been the concept of jus post bellum. The paper demonstrates how important this dimension of justice is in cyberwar, and how to apply it, including through recommendations for a treaty in international law.

  10. What is Graphic Justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Giddens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reproduces a poster presented at the Socio-Legal Studies ­Association annual conference, 5–7 April 2016 at Lancaster University, UK. The poster outlines the emerging study of the legal and jurisprudential dimensions of comics. Seeking to answer the question ‘what is graphic justice?’, the poster highlights the variety of potential topics, questions, concerns, issues, and intersections that the crossover between law and comics might encounter. A transcript of the poster’s text is provided for easier reuse, as well as a list of references and suggested readings.

  11. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society.

  12. Social Justice in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    2000-01-01

    Education is a moral enterprise and a right rather than a privilege. Teacher education should develop teachers' awareness of and concern for social justice and their capacity to teach democracy and teach democratically. The concept of social justice should guide curriculum development and implementation. (SK)

  13. Spheres of Justice within Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbagh, Clara; Resh, Nura; Mor, Michal;

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that there are distinct spheres of justice within education and examines a range of justice norms and distribution rules that characterize the daily life of schools and classrooms. Moving from the macro to micro level, we identify the following five areas: the right to education...

  14. Social Justice and School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

  15. Educational Administration and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard

    2006-01-01

    After observing that texts in educational administration have largely failed to address the problem of the justice and fairness of social and educational arrangements, this article goes on to examine the necessary relationships between ethical leadership, community and the notion of social justice. Such relationships are argued to be necessarily…

  16. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  17. SOCIAL WELFARE AND RESTORATIVE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Fox

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice.

  18. Social Justice Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice language teacher education conceptualizes language teacher education as responding to social and societal inequities that result in unequal access to educational and life opportunities. In this volume authors articulate a global view of Social Justice Language Teacher Education, with authors from 7 countries offering a theorized…

  19. Experiential Social Justice Judgment Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social justice can be thought of as an idea that exists within the minds of individuals and that concerns issues like what is right and wrong, what ought to be or not to be, and what is fair or unfair. This subjective quality of the justice judgment process makes it rather unpredictable how people w

  20. Social Justice in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    2000-01-01

    Education is a moral enterprise and a right rather than a privilege. Teacher education should develop teachers' awareness of and concern for social justice and their capacity to teach democracy and teach democratically. The concept of social justice should guide curriculum development and implementation. (SK)

  1. Comparative Supreme Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the great variety of Supreme Courts in the world today and presents some selected courts. Supreme Courts are found in most countries both as only apex courts or in a courts’ system where also supreme administrative courts or constitutional courts are found. The starting point is the variation of supreme justice in the Nordic countries where one apex court is the system of Denmark and Norway whereas administrative courts are found in Sweden and Finland. Constitutional courts stem from the European tradition and are most abundant in Europe and in countries with a civil law system but especially in Africa they are also found in common law countries. Mexico is mentioned as a specific example of a Supreme Court that has taken upon itself to be a main player in the endeavour to communicate the law to a general audience. The article is a presentation with samples of what is going to be a project on comparative supreme justice in which the position of supreme courts in the various states, the recruitment scheme and competence of the courts and other such factors will be analyzed on a global basis.

  2. Perceived fairness of employee drug testing as a predictor of employee attitudes and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovsky, M A; Cropanzano, R

    1991-10-01

    Although management of drug testing programs is becoming a critical organizational issue, no systematic conceptual framework has been applied to the study of employee reactions to drug testing. In this study an organizational justice framework was used to explain and predict the relationships among two types of justice (procedural justice and outcome fairness) employee attitudes (job satisfaction, commitment, and management trust), and behavior (turnover intentions and performance). Survey data from 195 employees in a pathology laboratory indicated that justice predicts employee attitudes and performance. Specifically, procedural justice, but not outcome fairness, predicted all 5 criterion variables. These results demonstrate the importance of procedural justice perceptions for predicting employee reactions to drug testing programs.

  3. Teaching the Truth: Social Justice and Social Class in Graduate School

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Leona M.; Roy, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, anyone who wishes to combat lies and ignorance and to write the truth must overcome at least five difficulties. In the same way that writing the truth entails five difficulties, teaching the truth or teaching social justice in graduate education entails more than five difficulties. Some of these difficulties are inimical to the act of…

  4. Teaching the Truth: Social Justice and Social Class in Graduate School

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Leona M.; Roy, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, anyone who wishes to combat lies and ignorance and to write the truth must overcome at least five difficulties. In the same way that writing the truth entails five difficulties, teaching the truth or teaching social justice in graduate education entails more than five difficulties. Some of these difficulties are inimical to the act of…

  5. Overcoming violence - a basic task of Christian churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Huber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article � based on the second of two keynote lectures at a conference on violence � the view is developed that the task of the church with respect to violence consists mainly in overcoming violence. In the first part of the article dealing with the basic tasks of the church it is argued that the task to overcome violence is close to the essence of the church. The point of departure is taken in Article 7 of the Augsburg Confession, which understands the church as the �communion of saints� and names the pure proclamation of the gospel and the right administration of the sacraments as the two characteristics of the church. The Christian message that the church has to proclaim the gospel entails a preferential option for nonviolence that includes the responsibility to put an end to existing violence. In the second part of the article attention is given to the implications the basic task of the church in overcoming violence holds for the practice of the church. It is argued that the starting point is that the church has to proclaim the gospel of peace and as a community of faith become a community of peace herself. Some of the most important practical consequences the proclamation of the gospel of peace has for the church as a community of action, for her work in education, for her promotion of justice and for her solidarity with those in need, are discussed.

  6. 75 FR 56557 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... point for justice information systems integration activities in order to facilitate the coordination of... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing... meeting. SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of DOJ's Global Justice Information...

  7. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  8. Sanitary justice in scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.

  9. Publicity and Egalitarian Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the issue of publicity has surfaced in discussions of the correct interpretation of the Rawlsian principles of justice. In an intriguing critique of G.A. Cohen's preferred interpretation of the difference principle as a principle that is incompatible with incentive-based inequalities......, Andrew Williams points to a gap in Cohen's argument, alleging that Cohen's interpretation of the difference principle is unlikely to be compatible with the Rawlsian endorsement of publicity. Having explored a possible extrapolation of Cohen's critique to aggregate consumer choices and a resulting...... extension of Williams's charge that the difference principle, on Cohen's reading, fails to meet the publicity constraint because of its informational demandingness, I defend three claims: (a) it is doubtful that Rawls endorses a publicity constraint of the sort that would rule out Cohen's interpretation...

  10. JUSTICE AND LIBERTY IN HEGEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeu Weber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make explicit the concept of justice in Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. It bounds it to the idea of liberty in its different ways of determination. It starts from the notion of person of right and indicates the fundamental rights that derive from the expression of this legal capacity. It highlights the right of necessity as a right to make an exception in favor of itself aiming the actualization of justice. It shows how, through the Law, in civil society, it happens the administration of justice.

  11. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  12. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karobi Moitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle mechanism of protection of stem cells is through the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. These transporters serve as the guardians of the stem cell population in the body. Unfortunately these very same ABC efflux pumps afford protection to cancer stem cells in tumors, shielding them from the adverse effects of chemotherapy. A number of strategies to circumvent the function of these transporters in cancer stem cells are currently under investigation. These strategies include the development of competitive and allosteric modulators, nanoparticle mediated delivery of inhibitors, targeted transcriptional regulation of ABC transporters, miRNA mediated inhibition, and targeting of signaling pathways that modulate ABC transporters. The role of ABC transporters in cancer stem cells will be explored in this paper and strategies aimed at overcoming drug resistance caused by these particular transporters will also be discussed.

  13. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  14. Polarization of perceived Procedural Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Douglas H; Hernandez-Marrero, Pablo; Wielemaker, Martin

    2006-02-01

    This study examined polarization of perceptions of Procedural Justice. Two polarization mechanisms are examined, Persuasive Arguments and Social Comparisons. Participants were students enrolled in a first-year introductory business class. There were 216 participants in the Persuasive Arguments study, 429 in the Social Comparisons study. The average age of all participants was 22.3 yr. (SD = 2.1); 56% were women. Fields of study represented were business, engineering, information technology, and sports. Analysis showed under conditions of low Procedural Justice, polarization effects were only found with the Persuasive Arguments mechanism. Under conditions of high Procedural Justice, polarization effects were only found with Social Comparisons. Implications for group polarization and Procedural Justice theories are considered.

  15. Justice orientation as a moderator of the framing effect on procedural justice perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Justice orientation is a justice-relevant personality trait, which is referred to as the tendency to attend to fairness issues and to internalize justice as a moral virtue. This study examined the moderating role of justice orientation in the relationship between justice perception and response to a decision problem. The authors manipulated procedural justice and the outcome valence of the decision frame within a vignette, and measured justice orientation of 174 Japanese participants. As hypothesized, the results indicated an interaction between procedural justice and framing manipulation, which was moderated by individual differences in justice orientation. In negative framing, justice effects were larger for individuals with high rather than low justice orientation. The results are explained from a social justice perspective, and the contributions and limitations of this study are also discussed with respect to our sample and framing manipulation.

  16. Family skills for overcoming adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Patricia Ardila Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This section draws on research four families in displacement in Tunja Boyacá step of this research is to present the problem of displacement from another different look that has embargoed regarding this topic. Critical reflection was raised from resilient approach Parsons theory in order to understand families immersed in this conflict as change agents capable of adapting to a new system and overcome adversity. Within this scheme is used to obtain qualitative research of the following categories : adaptation to the new social context risk factors present in families and protective factors.

  17. Nanoparticle therapeutics: Technologies and methods for overcoming cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Brenda Brenner S; Lasham, Annette; Shelling, Andrew N; Al-Kassas, Raida

    2015-11-01

    It is anticipated that by 2030 approximately 13 million people will die of cancer. Common cancer therapy often fails due to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), resulting in high morbidity and poor patient prognosis. Nanotechnology seeks to use drug delivery vehicles of 1-100 nm in diameter, made up of several different materials to deliver anti-cancer drugs selectively to cancer cells and potentially overcome MDR. Several technologies exist for manufacturing and functionalizing nanoparticles. When functionalized appropriately, nanoparticles have been shown to overcome several mechanisms of MDR in vivo and in vitro, reduce drug side effects and represent a promising new area of anti-cancer therapy. This review discusses the fundamental concepts of enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and explores the mechanisms proposed to enhance preferential "retention" in the tumour. The overall objective of this review was to enhance our understanding in the design and development of therapeutic nanoparticles for treatment of cancer.

  18. State Drug Control and Illicit Drug Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effect of state criminal justice expenditures and state public health expenditures on deterring illicit drug use. The empirical model is based on a demand and supply model of drug markets. The effect of a given expenditure on criminal justice or public health programs is dependent on the magnitude of the resulting shifts in the two functions and the demand price elasticity. A reduced form of the demand and supply model is also estimated. The data e...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice ... Youth and Families The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) The United Negro College Fund, Special ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E-Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice ... Youth and Families The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) The United Negro College Fund, Special ...

  1. Integrated Justice: An Information Systems Approach to Justice Sector Case Management and Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Curtis Watson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated Case Management Systems are still at an early stage of adoption in many developing countries. These are frequently standalone systems implemented with donor financing, and they often fail due to capacity constraints or as a consequence of short-term, project-based funding. But there are examples of developing countries overcoming these pitfalls and producing innovative solutions that surpass government practices in more developed countries. The Integrated Electronic Case Management System (IECMS, developed and implemented by the Ministry of Justice of Rwanda from 2015-2016, is one such innovation. This system has progressed rapidly in its level of adoption and integration between law enforcement, the prosecutor’s office, courts, and corrections. This paper will discuss the key system functionalities and the implementation methodology, including both the benefits and shortcomings of this approach, with the goal of applying lessons learned in future installations. Foremost among the successes of this project were the integrated Sector Wide Approach, the thorough business process re-engineering, and strong ownership by the Rwandan Justice Sector staff. Particularly instructive will be the analysis of the integrated approach, covering five institutions with a single system in less than two years. However, the particular success in this case may not be replicable for governments with a more decentralized approach.

  2. ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turłukowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with an analysis of the development of administrative justice in Poland over the last centuries. In particular, the author examines administrative jurisdiction before 1918, when Poland regained its independence, the period of the Duchy of Warsaw, the Kingdom of Poland, and the practice on Polish territory under Austrian and Prussian control. The author then moves to modern law by presenting the judicial system in Poland in general, especially the differences between the separate systems of general courts and administrative courts, and analyses the jurisdiction of voivodship (regional administrative courts, and the basic principles of judicial and administrative proceedings. The focus of study is mainly devoted to judicial and administrative procedure, rather than an administrative process of citizens before administrative authorities regulated in a separate Code of Administrative Procedure. The article describes the role of the judge (pointing out the differences between the active role of first instance judges and the limited capabilities of the judges of the appeal and the powers of the Supreme Court, in particular its power to adopt resolutions, which has agreat importance for the unification of the jurisprudence. A brief analysis is given to class actions, which in the Polish legal system are inadmissible in court and administrative proceedings. The articles provides a statistical cross-section illustrating the role of administrative jurisdiction. The author concludes with observations pointing up the progress of administrative jurisdiction in Poland, not only in the legal sense, but also in the cultural sense.

  3. 28 CFR 0.102 - Drug enforcement policy coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug enforcement policy coordination. 0.102 Section 0.102 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.102 Drug enforcement policy coordination. The Administrator of...

  4. Distributive justice and infertility treatment in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisker, Jeff

    2008-05-01

    An exploration of distributive justice in Canadian infertility treatment requires the integration of ethical, clinical, and economic principles. In 1971, American philosopher John Rawls proposed a theoretical model for fair decision-making in which "rational" and "self-interested" citizens are behind a "veil of ignorance" with respect to both their own position and the position of other decision-makers. Rawls proposed that these self-interested decision-makers, fearing that they are among the least advantaged persons who could be affected by the decision, will agree only upon rules that encode equality of opportunity and that bestow the greatest benefit on the least advantaged citizens. Regarding health policy decision-making, Rawls' model is best illustrated by Canadian philosopher Warren Bourgeois in his panel of "volunteers." These rational and self-interested volunteers receive an amnestic drug that renders them unaware of their health, social, and financial position, but they know that they are representative of diverse spheres of citizens whose well-being will be affected by their decision. After describing fair decision-making, Bourgeois considers the lack of a distributive justice imperative in Canada's Assisted Human Reproduction Act, in contrast to legislation in European nations and Australia, summarizes the economic and clinical considerations that must be provided to the decision-makers behind the "veil of ignorance" for fair decisions to occur, and considers altruism in relation to equality of access. He concludes by noting that among countries with legislation governing assisted reproduction Canada is alone in having legislation that is void of distributive justice in providing access to clinically appropriate infertility care.

  5. Gendered Justice Gaps in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Mannergren Selimovic, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    , and reparations gaps-this article examines structural constraints for women to engage in shaping and implementing transitional justice, and unmasks transitional justice as a site for the long-term construction of the gendered post-conflict order. Thus, the gendered dynamics of peacebuilding and transitional...... justice have produced a post-conflict order characterized by gendered peace and justice gaps. Yet, we conclude that women are doing justice within the Bosnian-Herzegovina transitional justice project, and that their presence and participation is complex, multilayered, and constrained yet critical. © 2013...

  6. Overcoming challenges in improvement work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Helen

    2013-09-01

    The Health Foundation is an independent charity working to improve healthcare in the UK, so that we have a system of the highest possible quality-safe, effective, person-centred, timely, efficient and equitable. We believe that in order to achieve this, health services need to continually improve the way they work. The Foundation conducts research and evaluation, puts ideas into practice through improvement programmes, develops leaders and shares evidence to drive wider change. The work is a focused around two priority areas: patient safety and person-centred care. The Foundation has supported work to improve services for patients with kidney disease and, in common with other quality improvement projects, there have been challenges to overcome. Awareness of these common challenges can help others to be more prepared when planning service improvements. © 2013 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  7. Overcoming obstacles: collaboration for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, M M

    2004-10-01

    Effective diabetes care requires a partnership between prepared, proactive practice teams and informed, activated patients. Diabetes education helps to overcome many of the barriers to effective self-management by enabling people with diabetes to make informed decisions about their day-to-day self-care. Both psychosocial and health outcomes have been improved through a variety of training programmes; however, education must be coupled with ongoing self-management support if these benefits are to be sustained. The principal goal of diabetes education has undergone a major shift over the past few years--evolving from primarily didactic interventions, focused on encouraging patients to adhere to the prescribed therapy, towards more interactive learning that supports people in making informed, self-directed decisions.

  8. Overcoming immunosuppression in bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Zachary Z; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Sagar, Vinay; Costa, Ricardo; Abdulkadir, Sarki A; Giles, Francis J; Carneiro, Benedito A

    2017-09-01

    Bone metastases are present in up to 70% of advanced prostate and breast cancers and occur at significant rates in a variety of other cancers. Bone metastases can be associated with significant morbidity. The establishment of bone metastasis activates several immunosuppressive mechanisms. Hence, understanding the tumor-bone microenvironment is crucial to inform the development of novel therapies. This review describes the current standard of care for patients with bone metastatic disease and novel treatment options targeting the microenvironment. Treatments reviewed include immunotherapies, cryoablation, and targeted therapies. Combinatorial treatment strategies including targeted therapies and immunotherapies show promise in pre-clinical and clinical studies to overcome the suppressive environment and improve treatment of bone metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Overcoming "the Valley of Death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Robin A

    2014-01-01

    On a global level there are major challenges arising from climate change, resource use and changing age demographics. These issues have created a global marketplace for novel innovative products and solutions which can help to combat and overcome these challenges which have created significant commercial opportunities for companies, particularly for small and medium size enterprises or SMEs. Companies most likely to take advantage of these opportunities will be those which can innovate in a timely manner. Innovation significantly contributes to higher productivity and economic growth, and is core to a company's competitiveness within often challenging marketplaces. However, many factors can stifle innovation. Companies can struggle to identify finance for early-stage development, the returns can be difficult to predict, and the innovation 'landscape' is often complex and unclear. This brief review describes some of the main issues with commercialising innovative ideas and provides guidance with respect to the often complicated funding landscape both on a National and European level.

  10. Mathematics education for social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhendra

    2016-02-01

    Mathematics often perceived as a difficult subject with many students failing to understand why they learn mathematics. This situation has been further aggravated by the teaching and learning processes used, which is mechanistic without considering students' needs. The learning of mathematics tends to be just a compulsory subject, in which all students have to attend its classes. Social justice framework facilitates individuals or groups as a whole and provides equitable approaches to achieving equitable outcomes by recognising disadvantage. Applying social justice principles in educational context is related to how the teachers treat their students, dictates that all students the right to equal treatment regardless of their background and completed with applying social justice issues integrated with the content of the subject in order to internalise the principles of social justice simultaneously the concepts of the subject. The study examined the usefulness of implementing the social justice framework as a means of improving the quality of mathematics teaching in Indonesia involved four teacher-participants and their mathematics classes. The study used action research as the research methodology in which the teachers implemented and evaluated their use of social justice framework in their teaching. The data were collected using multiple research methods while analysis and interpretation of the data were carried out throughout the study. The findings of the study indicated that there were a number of challengesrelated to the implementation of the social justice framework. The findings also indicated that, the teachers were provided with a comprehensive guide that they could draw on to make decisions about how they could improve their lessons. The interactions among students and between the teachers and the students improved, they became more involved in teaching and learning process. Using social justice framework helped the teachers to make mathematics more

  11. DS-8201a, a new HER2-targeting antibody-drug conjugate incorporating a novel DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor, overcomes HER2-positive gastric cancer T-DM1 resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegawa, Naoki; Nonagase, Yoshikane; Yonesaka, Kimio; Sakai, Kazuko; Maenishi, Osamu; Ogitani, Yusuke; Tamura, Takao; Nishio, Kazuto; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Tsurutani, Junji

    2017-10-15

    Anti-HER2 therapies are beneficial for patients with HER2-positive breast or gastric cancer. T-DM1 is a HER2-targeting antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) comprising the antibody trastuzumab, a linker, and the tubulin inhibitor DM1. Although effective in treating advanced breast cancer, all patients eventually develop T-DM1 resistance. DS-8201a is a new ADC incorporating an anti-HER2 antibody, a newly developed, enzymatically cleavable peptide linker, and a novel, potent, exatecan-derivative topoisomerase I inhibitor (DXd). DS-8201a has a drug-to-antibody-ratio (DAR) of 8, which is higher than that of T-DM1 (3.5). Owing to these unique characteristics and unlike T-DM1, DS-8201a is effective against cancers with low-HER2 expression. In the present work, T-DM1-resistant cells (N87-TDMR), established using the HER2-positive gastric cancer line NCI-N87 and continuous T-DM1 exposure, were shown to be susceptible to DS-8201a. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCC2 and ABCG2 were upregulated in N87-TDMR cells, but HER2 overexpression was retained. Furthermore, inhibition of ABCC2 and ABCG2 by MK571 restored T-DM1 sensitivity. Therefore, resistance to T-DM1 is caused by efflux of its payload DM1, due to aberrant expression of ABC transporters. In contrast to DM1, DXd payload of DS-8201a inhibited the growth of N87-TDMR cells in vitro. This suggests that either DXd may be a poor substrate of ABCC2 and ABCG2 in comparison to DM1, or the high DAR of DS-8201a relative to T-DM1 compensates for increased efflux. Notably, N87-TDMR xenograft tumor growth was prevented by DS-8201a. In conclusion, the efficacy of DS-8201a as a treatment for patients with T-DM1-resistant breast or gastric cancer merits investigation. © 2017 UICC.

  12. Environmental justice and healthy communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The environmental justice movement has come a long way since its birth a decade ago in rural and mostly African American Warren County, North Carolina. The selection of Warren County for a PCB landfill, they brought national attention to waste facility siting inequities and galvanized African American church and civil rights leaders` support for environmental justice. The demonstrations also put {open_quotes}environmental racism{close_quotes} on the map and challenged the myth that African Americans are not concerned about or involved in environmental issues. Grassroots groups, after decades of struggle, have grown to become the core of the multi-issue, multiracial, and multi-regional environmental justice movement. Diverse community-based groups have begun to organize and link their struggles to issues of civil and human rights, land rights and sovereignty, cultural survival , racial and social justice, and sustainable development. The impetus for getting environmental justice on the nations`s agenda has come from an alliance of grassroots activists, civil rights leaders, and a few academicians who questioned the foundation of the current environmental protection paradigm--where communities of color receive unequal protection. Whether urban ghettos and barrios, rural {open_quotes}poverty pockets,{close_quotes} Native American reservations, or communities in the Third World, grassroots groups are demanding an end to unjust and nonsustainable environmental and development policies.

  13. justice and the voice of learners?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bodies, learners' involvement in decision making and in curriculum issues, and .... participation is encouraged, freedom of expression and a sense of justice and ... Democratic theory and theories of social justice cannot be divorced from.

  14. Occupational justice-bridging theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Townsend, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The evolving theory of occupational justice links the concept to social justice and to concerns for a justice of difference: a justice that recognizes occupational rights to inclusive participation in everyday occupations for all persons in society, regardless of age, ability, gender, social class, or other differences. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to inspire and empower health professionals to build a theoretical bridge to practice with an occupational justice lens. Using illustrations from a study of leisure and the use of everyday technology in the lives of very old people in Northern Sweden, the authors argue that an occupational justice lens may inspire and empower health professionals to engage in critical dialogue on occupational justice; use global thinking about occupation, health, justice, and the environment; and combine population and individualized approaches. The authors propose that taking these initiatives to bridge theory and practice will energize health professionals to enable inclusive participation in everyday occupations in diverse contexts.

  15. Organizational justice and health; review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Sinervo, Timo; Magnavita, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Organizational justice is a construct defining the quality of social interaction at work. Organizational justice can be divided into three categories: procedural justice (fairness of the decision-making procedures), distributive justice (fairness of outcomes) and relational justice (equity and fairness in the interpersonal treatment of employees by their supervisors). Organizational justice is related to employees' health and well-being. Low perceived justice has been shown to be associated with experienced stress reactions and related physiological and behavioral reactions, such as inflammation, sleeping problems, cardiovascular regulation and cognitive impairments, and with a high rate of work absenteeism. This paper is a review of the literature on organizational justice and its impact on workers' health.

  16. Transitional Justice, Culture and Society: Beyond Outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Ketelaars

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Transitional Justice, Culture and Society: Beyond Outreach, edited by Clara Ramírez-Barat, International Center for Transitional Justice, New York: Social Science Research Council, 2014 ISBN 978-0-911400-02-1

  17. Does Social Justice Ground Democracy in Education or Does Democracy Ground Social Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Burgess, Sheron

    2013-01-01

    The author examines one particular systematic and normative theorization of social justice in Barry Bull's "Social Justice in Education." Bull embarks on a timely and ambitious theory-to-practice project of grounding an educational theory of social justice in Rawls's seminal, liberal, distributive justice tome. The author…

  18. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  19. Editors' Introduction: Justice, Rights, Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles gathered in this issue are the result of papers presented at the workshop held at the Oñati International Institute for the Sociology of Law on 20-21 May 2013 on Perspectives of Justice in Literature: Perspectives from Justice and Fundamental Rights in Literature: an Approach from Legal Culture in a European context. Literature and literary fiction can act as a thread that helps different disciplines to communicate with each other and can thus help go beyond the strictly legal field opening up to questions of justice and rights. These papers deal with issues of justice - mainly Fundamental Rights, but also procedural aspects of justice and its administration, philosophical perspectives of justice - and of legal culture - local, European, Universal - as reflected through and by literature. Los artículos que conforman este número son el resultado de las ponencias presentadas en el workshop celebrado en el Instituto Internacional de Sociología Jurídica de Oñati el 20 y 21 mayo de 2013 sobre las perspectivas de la justicia en la literatura: Perspectivas desde la Justicia y los Derechos Fundamentales en la Literatura: un Enfoque de Cultura Jurídica en el Contexto Europeo. La literatura y la ficción literaria pueden ser un hilo que favorece que diferentes disciplinas se comuniquen entre sí y pueden de esta forma ayudar a ir más allá del campo jurídico estricto, planteando cuestiones sobre justicia y derechos. Estos artículos tratan sobre aspectos de la justicia (principalmente derechos fundamentales, pero también sobre procedimiento judicial y administración de la justicia, perspectivas filosóficas de la justicia y de cultura jurídica (local, europea, universal, de la forma en la que se han reflejado en la literatura.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2543450

  20. Climate justice is not just ice

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Discussions about climate change and justice frequently employ dichotomies of procedural and distributive justice, and inter- and intra-generational justice. These distinctions, however, often fail to acknowledge the diverse experience of climate risks, or the contested nature of many proposed solutions. This paper argues for a reassessment of debates about climate justice based upon a greater diversity of risks and solutions such as integrating the reduction of social vulnerability simultane...

  1. Gendering agency in transitional justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Selimovic, Johanna Mannergren

    2015-01-01

    . To address this lacuna we conceptualize and unpack the meaning of gendered agency, by identifying its critical elements and by locating it in space and in time. The conceptual work that we undertake is underpinned by empirical mapping of the transitional justice spaces in post-conflict Bosnia....... Such research enables us to engage with the subjects of post-conflict peacebuilding and transitional justice processes directly and in their own spaces. This article thus renders women’s agency visible and attempts to grasp its contributions and consequences for transformations from war to peace....

  2. Green justice in the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie

    2016-01-01

    tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment...... of anddecision-making around UGS. On this basis we discuss potentials for European urban green space researchto take up a more explicit environmental justice framing to shed much-needed light on injustices inEuropean cities and inspire change in policy and practice....

  3. Teaching for social justice and social action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R; Meyers, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Social justice education involves promoting critical awareness of social inequalities and developing skills that work against these inequalities. This article describes a general theoretical framework for social justice education, describes general strategies for facilitating students' social justice awareness and engagement, identifies challenges to social education, and highlights articles in the special issue that address these themes.

  4. Conceptualizing Social Justice: Interviews with Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Today, as the understanding of diversity is further expanded, the meaning of social justice becomes even more complicated, if not confusing. The purpose of this paper is to explore how school principals with social justice commitment understand and perceive social justice in their leadership practices. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  5. A Nonviolent Approach to Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    This article advocates a nonviolent approach to social justice education. First, social justice education literature is reviewed, and two contrasting and influential approaches--critical theory and poststructural theory--are the focus of critical analysis. A nonviolent approach is proposed as an alternative. Second, the notion of social justice is…

  6. Six Considerations for Social Justice Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Salazar, Carmen F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "courageous conversations" in social justice group work and a continuum of action for social justice interventions. It analyzes themes from 20 contributions to 2 consecutive special issues of "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" on social justice group work. Implications for future development in group leadership and…

  7. Common Frame of Reference and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Satyanarayana, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article "Common Frame of Reference and Social Justice" by Martijn W. Hesselink evaluates the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) of social justice. It discusses the important areas, namely a common frame of Reference in a broad sense, social justice and contract law, private law and democracy

  8. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  9. Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

  10. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  11. a struggle to overcome inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bolaños Cuellar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to show that the intellectual construct women’s language is entirely justified on a political, ideological, and economic basis that stresses the fact that women have historically been victims of overt (and covert discrimination and exploitation in our society. Linguistically speaking, however, a women’s language seems not to exist in traditional strict terms, but rather as a rhetorical term used in the form of a synecdoche. Despite their incompleteness, two attempts of characterizing truly women languages, Nu Shu and Láadan, are discussed, underlining and recognizing their legitimate symbolic value as equalizing manoeuvres. Women have resorted to more subtle linguistic means to emerge as visible agents in our society. Linguistic resources go from a passive acceptance of the traditional all-inclusive generic masculine forms, through the equalizing use of both masculine and feminine markers, to the most progressive, liberal and controversial strategies of using feminizing forms, i.e. all-inclusive generic feminine forms. Women’s struggle to overcome inequity and inequality is a legitimate endeavour which is leaving visible linguistic traces in our languages. Women are changing languages around the world.

  12. Communicative Action and the Other of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sík Domokos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communicative action is the coordination mechanism of social actions. However, being a social action itself, it needs coordination in case of obstruction. Such obstruction is especially frequent in late modern constellation burdened with the “individualization of life forms” (Beck and the “dissolution of a mutual ground” (Lash. I call the mechanism capable of overcoming such obstruction the “coordination of action coordination.” In the following essay, this notion is elaborated. Firstly, on the level of formal pragmatics, situations that implicate action coordination are specified. Secondly, the coordinating mechanism of action coordination is elaborated in the frames of the Habermasian theory as the harmonization of different concepts of justice underlying action coordination. Thirdly, a paradoxical aspect of this solution is introduced, which originates from the strict linguistic-intentional character of Habermas’s theory. Fourthly, based on Levinas’s pre-intentional ethical phenomenology, an alternative description of the coordination of action coordination is elaborated. Finally, the broader theoretical consequences of the new solution are detailed.

  13. Social Justice for Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice in U.S. teacher education has a long and protracted history that harkens back to the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, with its attendant legal rulings and constitutional amendments that sought to undo the legacy of discrimination against communities of color, women, and the poor. What is lost,…

  14. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates social and…

  15. Climate change, responsibility, and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Dale

    2010-09-01

    In this paper I make the following claims. In order to see anthropogenic climate change as clearly involving moral wrongs and global injustices, we will have to revise some central concepts in these domains. Moreover, climate change threatens another value ("respect for nature") that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility.

  16. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life, these

  17. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life, these

  18. Social Justice for Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice in U.S. teacher education has a long and protracted history that harkens back to the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, with its attendant legal rulings and constitutional amendments that sought to undo the legacy of discrimination against communities of color, women, and the poor. What is lost,…

  19. Social Justice and Political Orthodoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianoff, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003, the Teachers College of Columbia University has maintained a policy of evaluating students based on their "commitment to social justice." Before last summer, Columbia could blame the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, the main accrediting body for schools of education, for those evaluation criteria. The…

  20. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  1. Transformation in the Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carol Cramer; Roush, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes four waves of juvenile justice reform across the past century that have profoundly impacted how youth are served in community-based, detention, and correctional settings. This first wave of reform began in 1899 as Jane Addams founded the modern juvenile court in Chicago. These progressive reforms soon spread worldwide.…

  2. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  3. Transformation in the Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carol Cramer; Roush, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes four waves of juvenile justice reform across the past century that have profoundly impacted how youth are served in community-based, detention, and correctional settings. This first wave of reform began in 1899 as Jane Addams founded the modern juvenile court in Chicago. These progressive reforms soon spread worldwide.…

  4. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  5. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates…

  6. Transforming Policy into Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nadja; Maru, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite expanding policy commitments in many poor countries, health care is often a failure at the point of delivery. Lack of information, poor enforcement, and power dynamics prevent those whose rights have been violated from pursuing redress. In Mozambique, grassroots health advocates work to address this gap between policy and reality by blending approaches known as legal empowerment and social accountability. They raise awareness of health policy, support clients to seek redress for grievances, and facilitate problem-solving dialogues between communities and health facility staff. In three years we have seen communities begin to overcome a culture of silence. Twenty-one advocates and their clients have achieved redress to over a thousand grievances across 27 health facilities. These cases have resulted in improvements to access, infrastructure, and provider performance. Advocates have supported village health committees to transform themselves from collections of names on a list into active agents for change. Advocates should not be trained and left alone—they are most effective when integrated into a vertical team that provides continuous support and supervision, and that can engage higher levels of authority to solve tough cases. Aggregate data from cases handled by health advocates provides unique insight into how health policy is working in practice. We draw on that information to advocate for systemic changes that affect the entire country, like better policies for combatting bribery and stronger procedures for responding to grievances. We have found that legal empowerment and social accountability practices interact synergistically. Our preliminary experience suggests that when people are equipped to exercise their rights to health, even a poorly resourced system can improve. PMID:28559689

  7. [From the perception of powerlessness to the fight for justice in healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Heloisa Wey

    2011-04-01

    The search for communicative settings for reflection concerning the exercise and practice of nursing based on bioethical frameworks sought to comprehend how participant nurses interpret the reality of their praxis vis-à-vis the observance of justice. The focal group technique was used for data collection and the latter was analyzed using Grounded Theory. Three phenomena were identified: conceptualizing a sense of justice; feeling powerless in living with inequities/injustice; and moving towards the fight for justice. From the inter-relation of such phenomena, the core categories emerged, namely constructing mechanisms to overcome injustice and inequities which undermine quality in nursing care, and the experience of recently-graduated nurses in a public hospital in the interior of São Paulo State. Focal group strategy proved to be highly adequate for achieving the proposed objectives, and Grounded Theory made it possible to assess the movement undertaken by the nurses in this experience.

  8. The ICC at the centre ofan international criminal justice system: current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teles, Patrícia Galvão

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Criminal Court (ICC has entered into its second decade of operations and has established itself at the centre of an international criminal justice system, comprising also domestic jurisdictions and other international courts and tribunals. However, many challenges continue to face the ICC and, indeed, such challenges are part of its own features and stem from the specificities of international law and relations. In this article, we shall discuss, in light of recent events, four of such challenges: 1 Universality; 2 Complementarity; 3 Cooperation; and 4 the Crime of Aggression. These challenges illustrate how the ICC and international criminal justice inhabit both the cultures of justice and politics and how these two aspects have to be taken into account in order for such challenges to be overcome, so that the mission of a permanent and central instrument for the fight against impunity, that historically started in Rome in 1998, becomes an inherent part of today’s world.

  9. Overcoming Biological Barriers with Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Dhaval; Gupta, Roohi; Mohan, Praveena; Monson, Kenneth; Rapoport, Natalya

    2011-01-01

    Effect of ultrasound on the permeability of blood vessels and cell membranes to macromolecules and nanodroplets was investigated using mouse carotid arteries and tumor cells. Model macromolecular drug, FITC-dextran with molecular weight of 70,000 Da was used in experiments with carotid arteries. The effect of unfocused 1-MHz ultrasound and and perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether nanodroplets stabilized with the poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(D,L-lactide) block copolymer shells was studied. In cell culture experiments, ovarian carcinoma cells and Doxorubicin (DOX) loaded poly(ethylene oxide)-co-polycaprolactone nanodroplets were used. The data showed that the application of ultrasound resulted in permeabilization of all biological barriers tested. Under the action of ultrasound, not only FITC-dextran but also nanodroplets effectively penetrated through the arterial wall; the effect of continuous wave ultrasound was stronger than that of pulsed ultrasound. In cell culture experiments, ultrasound triggered DOX penetration into cell nuclei, presumably due to releasing the drug from the carrier. Detailed mechanisms of the observed effects require further study. PMID:24839333

  10. Environmental Justice Is a Social Justice Issue: Incorporating Environmental Justice into Social Work Practice Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Ramona; Hacker, Alice; Begun, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Social justice education for social work practice is concerned with addressing issues of power and oppression as they impact intersections of identity, experience, and the social environment. However, little focus is directed toward the physical and natural environment despite overwhelming evidence that traditionally marginalized groups bear the…

  11. Development of Restorative Justice in China: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Yinzhi Shen

    2016-01-01

    Restorative justice has become a global social movement for criminal justice reform, with over eighty countries adopting some form of restorative justice program to tackle their crime problems. The theory of restorative justice was introduced to the Chinese academia in 2002. So far, various restorative justice programs have been developed in China. This paper aims to systematically review the development of restorative justice in China by analyzing academic literature on restorative justice a...

  12. 75 FR 4982 - Redelegation of Functions; Delegation of Authority to Drug Enforcement Administration Official

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Administration (DEA), Department of Justice, is amending the appendix to the Justice Department regulations to... Enforcement Administration Official AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Department of Justice... Substances Act and subsequently delegated to the Administrator of DEA. DATES: Effective Dates: This Final...

  13. Intergenerational Justice in Aging Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    I present the Intergenerational Justice Index (IJI) - a simple four-dimensional indicator developed with the Bertelsmann Stiftung in order to compare intergenerational justice in practice across 29 OECD member states. The unit of analysis is countries, and the IJI is a macro-level snapshot linked......) the ecological footprint created by all generations alive today; (2) early-life starting conditions as measured by child poverty levels; and (3) the economic and fiscal burdens on the shoulders of currently young generations as measured by public debt levels per child. The fourth IJI dimension measures policy...... primarily to government activity rather than private behavior. Sustainability is the moral starting point: ‘enough and as good’ ought to be left by each generation to the next. Three of the IJI dimensions measure policy outcomes that leave legacy burdens towards younger and future generations: (1...

  14. Rawlsian Justice and Palliative Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, Carl; Albertsen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care serves both as an integrated part of treatment and as a last effort to care for those we cannot cure. The extent to which palliative care should be provided and our reasons for doing so have been curiously overlooked in the debate about distributive justice in health and healthcare....... We argue that one prominent approach, the Rawlsian approach developed by Norman Daniels, is unable to provide such reasons and such care. This is because of a central feature in Daniels' account, namely that care should be provided to restore people's opportunities. Daniels' view is both unable...... to provide pain relief to those who need it as a supplement to treatment and, without justice-based reasons to provide palliative care to those whose opportunities cannot be restored. We conclude that this makes Daniels' framework much less attractive....

  15. Beneficence, justice, and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, J Paul

    2014-03-01

    This paper argues that societal duties of health promotion are underwritten (at least in large part) by a principle of beneficence. Further, this principle generates duties of justice that correlate with rights, not merely "imperfect" duties of charity or generosity. To support this argument, I draw on a useful distinction from bioethics and on a somewhat neglected approach to social obligation from political philosophy. The distinction is that between general and specific beneficence; and the approach from political philosophy has at times been called equality of concern. After clarifying the distinction and setting out the basis of the equality of concern view, I argue that the result is a justice-based principle of "specific" beneficence that should be reflected in a society's health policy. I then draw on this account to criticize, refine, and extend some prominent health care policy proposals from the bioethics literature.

  16. Levinas, justice and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvedt, P

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the metaphysical ethics of Emmanuel Levinas captures some essential moral intuitions that are central to health care. However, there is an ongoing discussion about the relevance of ethical metaphysics for normative ethics and in particular on the question of the relationship between justice and individualized care. In this paper I take part in this debate and I argue that Levinas' idea of an ethics of the Other that guides politics and justice can shed important light on issues that are central to priorities in health care. In fact, the ethics of Levinas in seeking the foundation of normativity itself, captures the ethical core and central values of health care.

  17. DrugFacts: Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged ... as cocaine and methamphetamine more pleasurable to a teen's developing brain. 8 Nicotine also affects the development of brain ...

  18. Inequality, Social Justice and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Averkieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Researching the redistribution processes in the framework of welfare economics is primarily carried out through the analysis of implementation opportunity of the social justice principle. Distributive justice involves the redistribution of income and resources in proportion to certain criteria. However, there is still no consensus on these criteria, which would clearly judge the fairness of the distribution.Individual needs, rights, desert or specific contributions of citizens in the development of society, the product outcomes, and many others can be served as the justice criteria. According to an egalitarian tradition, if not identified relevant distinguishing criteria, we can talk about the existence of the presumption of equality. Establishing equality means the advantages elimination of one individual over others. The paper attempts to analyze the egalitarian policies measures to implementation of equal opportunities, treatment and results, which ideally should neutralize all negative effects of a high degree of social inequality and achieve the desired goals of social policy. The paper also provides the argument concerning the realization possibility of the general equality idea. The author focuses on the existence of the exclusions in the equality policy - on the idea of «positive discrimination», which determines the appearance of conflicts between individual and public interests.

  19. Food justice and Christian ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin Luther�s writings on the economy which have remained relatively unknown in the churches and in the scholarly world. The article then presented three models of Christian economic ethic: the technical economic model, the utopian economic model and the public theological economic model. On the basis of the public theological model seven challenges for international food justice were presented. The basis for these challenges is an understanding of globalisation which guarantees just participation for everyone and deals with nature in an ecologically sustainable way. The interests of small farmers are the basis for judging the activities of big agro-corporations. Public theology is the background for an active involvement of the churches as agents of a global civil society to promote international food justice.

  20. Organizational justice and mental health: a multi-level test of justice interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Abubakar, Amina; Arasa, Josephine Nyaboke

    2014-04-01

    We examine main and interaction effects of organizational justice at the individual and the organizational levels on general health in a Kenyan sample. We theoretically differentiate between two different interaction patterns of justice effects: buffering mechanisms based on trust versus intensifying explanations of justice interactions that involve psychological contract violations. Using a two-level hierarchical linear model with responses from 427 employees in 29 organizations, only interpersonal justice at level 1 demonstrated a significant main effect. Interactions between distributive and interpersonal justice at both the individual and the collective levels were found. The intensifying hypothesis was supported: the relationship between distributive justice and mental health problems was strongest when interpersonal justice was high. This contrasts with buffering patterns described in Western samples. We argue that justice interaction patterns shift depending on the economic conditions and sociocultural characteristics of employees studied.

  1. Individualistic and social motives for justice judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem

    2013-09-01

    Justice judgments are subjective by nature, and are influenced substantially by motivational processes. In the present contribution, two motives underlying justice judgments are examined: individualistic motives to evaluate solutions to social problems that benefit the self in material or immaterial ways as fair versus social motives to conceptualize justice in terms of the well-being of others, such as a desire for equality, adherence to in-group norms, and a concern for the collective interest. A review of relevant research reveals evidence for both motivations when people make evaluations of justice. Moreover, which motive is most dominant in the justice judgment process depends on perceptual salience: whereas individualistic motives are activated when a perceiver's own needs and goals are perceptually salient, social motives are activated when others' needs and goals are perceptually salient. It is concluded that both individualistic and social motives contribute in predictable ways to justice judgments.

  2. Introduction. Les paradigmes de la justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelui Bîlbă

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Theories of justice are marred by a permanent state of conflict because they express prejudices whose source lies in the lifeworld. One may regard these theories as interpretations of the concept of justice. Assuming a strong meaning of “theory,” one can legitimately ask if it is possible to reduce a theory of justice to its underlying paradigm. Several different paradigms coexist in modernity; the tension between them has intensified with the advent of political ideologies. The newest paradigm of justice is global justice. Yet the epistemic status of all theories of justice is ambiguous. A theory ofjustice is true to the extent that it is right, and false if it is not. This applies toRawls’ theory, as well.

  3. The Relationship between Justice and Attitudes: An Examination of Justice Effects on Event and System-Related Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen; Hess, Ronald L.; Ganesan, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    Research in organizational justice has always been interested in the relationship between justice and attitudes. This research often examines how different types of justice affect different attitudes, with distributive justice predicted to affect attitudes about specific events (e.g., performance evaluation) and procedural justice predicted to…

  4. The Relationship between Justice and Attitudes: An Examination of Justice Effects on Event and System-Related Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen; Hess, Ronald L.; Ganesan, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    Research in organizational justice has always been interested in the relationship between justice and attitudes. This research often examines how different types of justice affect different attitudes, with distributive justice predicted to affect attitudes about specific events (e.g., performance evaluation) and procedural justice predicted to…

  5. The emerging geographies of climate justice

    OpenAIRE

    Susannah Fisher

    2012-01-01

    Climate justice is a well-used concept within the international climate debate yet it has often remained little more than a static ideal. This paper brings together literatures on environmental justice, development processes, and the politics of scale to argue that we need to be more attentive to the emerging geographies of climate justice, particularly in the global South where climate change provokes questions of uneven development processes as well as environmental concerns. Through an ana...

  6. Rawlsian justice and welfare-state capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Ho-yin; 袁浩然

    2014-01-01

    Rawls emphasizes in his later writings that his theory of justice as fairness is not a defense of welfare-state capitalism. He argues that welfare-state capitalism cannot be an acceptable regime for justice as fairness because its ideal institutional description fails to satisfy the two principles of justice in various ways. Against Rawls, I argue in this thesis that his rejection of welfare-state capitalism is not justified. I begin by clarifying an ambiguity regarding what arrangements...

  7. Seeking Social Justice in the ACRL Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Battista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to address the possibilities and challenges librarians concerned with social justice may face when working with the ACRL Framework. While the Framework recognizes that information emerges from varied contexts that reflect uneven distributions of power, privilege, and authority, it is missing a cogent statement that connects information literacy to social justice. In this article, authors concerned with social justice and civic engagement will share their reflections on the Framework from a critical pedagogical and social justice orientation.

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E-Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged ... Reference Marcondes, M.C. et al. “Methamphetamine increases brain viral load and ... are Teens Affected? Young people are at risk for contracting ...

  9. Organisational justice and change in justice as predictors of employee health: the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Ferrie, Jane E; Head, Jenny; Shipley, Martin J; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G

    2004-11-01

    Organisational justice has been proposed as a new way to examine the impact of psychosocial work environment on employee health. This article studied the justice of interpersonal treatment by supervisors (the relational component of organisational justice) as a predictor of health. Prospective cohort study. Phase 1 (1985-88) measured relational justice, job demands, job control, social support at work, effort-reward imbalance, and self rated health. Relational justice was assessed again at phase 2 (1989-90) and self rated health at phase 2 and phase 3 (1991-93). 20 civil service departments originally located in London. 10 308 civil servants (6895 men, 3413 women) aged 35-55. Self rated health. Men exposed to low justice at phase 1 or adverse change in justice between phase 1 and phase 2 were at higher risk of poor health at phase 2 and phase 3. A favourable change in justice was associated with reduced risk. Adjustment for other stress indicators had little effect on results. In women, low justice at phase 1 predicted poor health at phase 2 and phase 3 before but not after adjustment for other stress indicators. Adverse change in justice was associated with worse health prospects irrespective of adjustments. The extent to which people are treated with justice in workplaces seems to predict their health independently of established stressors at work. Evidence on reduced health risk after favourable change in organisational justice implies a promising area for health interventions at workplace.

  10. Procedural Justice, Distributive Justice: How Experiences with Downsizing Condition Their Impact on Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay-Warner, Jody; Hegtvedt, Karen A.; Roman, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both procedural justice and distributive justice are important predictors of work attitudes. This research, however, fails to examine conditions that affect the relative importance of each type of justice. Here we argue that prior experiences with regard to downsizing shape individuals' workplace schemas, which…

  11. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational str

  12. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational

  13. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.

  14. On the connection between administrative law enforcement and criminal justice in drug supervision%论药品监管中行政执法与刑事司法的衔接

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹若愚

    2015-01-01

    Drug safety is an important issue affecting China's national economy and social order. Such factors contribute to an endless stream of counterfeit or substandard drug events as imperfect drug regulatory system, the problems in the process of convergence like the lack of relevant legislation, occlusion of the exchange of information, law enforcement officers lack transferred to consciousness and lack of effective supervision. The whole regulatory system and the convergence mode of the United States have contributed to the good order of the American drug safety, which has a great significance to our country.%药品安全问题是影响我国国计民生和社会秩序的重要问题,我国药品监管制度本身的不完善,行刑衔接过程中存在的诸如相关立法不足、信息交流闭塞、执法人员缺乏移送意识以及欠缺有效监督等一系列问题是隐藏在层出不穷的假药劣药事件的背后原因。美国整个监管体制及衔接模式促成了美国药品安全的良好秩序,对我国有很大的借鉴意义,与之相较,我国从整个法规体系、机构设置、人员素质到监督管理等方面都亟需改革与完善。

  15. Mechanistic basis for overcoming platinum resistance using copper chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zheng D; Long, Yan; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Fu, Siqing; Kurzrock, Razelle; Gagea-Iurascu, Mihai; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Helen H W; Hennessy, Bryan T; Mills, Gordon B; Savaraj, Niramol; Kuo, Macus Tien

    2012-11-01

    Platinum-based antitumor agents are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a major obstacle to the successful use of these agents because once drug resistance develops, other effective treatment options are limited. Recently, we conducted a clinical trial using a copper-lowering agent to overcome platinum drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients and the preliminary results are encouraging. In supporting this clinical study, using three pairs of cisplatin (cDDP)-resistant cell lines and two ovarian cancer cell lines derived from patients who had failed in platinum-based chemotherapy, we showed that cDDP resistance associated with reduced expression of the high-affinity copper transporter (hCtr1), which is also a cDDP transporter, can be preferentially resensitized by copper-lowering agents because of enhanced hCtr1 expression, as compared with their drug-sensitive counterparts. Such a preferential induction of hCtr1 expression in cDDP-resistant variants by copper chelation can be explained by the mammalian copper homeostasis regulatory mechanism. Enhanced cell-killing efficacy by a copper-lowering agent was also observed in animal xenografts bearing cDDP-resistant cells. Finally, by analyzing a public gene expression dataset, we found that ovarian cancer patients with elevated levels of hCtr1 in their tumors, but not ATP7A and ATP7B, had more favorable outcomes after platinum drug treatment than those expressing low hCtr1 levels. This study reveals the mechanistic basis for using copper chelation to overcome cDDP resistance in clinical investigations.

  16. Environmental justice regulations draw fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Advocates of "environmental justice" say that proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations are necessary to ensure that an unfair share of industrial facilities and waste plants are not sited in poor and minority communities, as they claim has occurred in the past.However, a number of state and local government agencies, business groups, and Democratic and Republican politicians argue that EPA guidelines—written to put some teeth into the Title VI clause of the Civil Rights Act that prohibits discrimination in all federally funded programs and activities—are unworkable and need to be overhauled.

  17. 78 FR 2443 - Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's... Criminal Justice IRRS Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements 3. Draft Criminal Justice...

  18. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. RAND Quarterly Report, October 2008. TR-621-LACPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In July 2008, RAND Corporation staff conducted Correctional Program Checklist (CPC) assessments of five home-based programs (Asian Youth Center, Communities in Schools, Inter-Agency Drug Abuse Recovery Programs, Soledad Enrichment Action, and Stars Behavioral Health Group) as part of its ongoing evaluation of Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act…

  19. Formative Justice: The Regulative Principle of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Concepts of justice relevant to making personal and public decisions about education. Purpose: To clarify a concept of formative justice that persons and the public often ignore in making decisions about educational effort. Setting: "The windmills of your mind" Research Design: Reflective essay.…

  20. Social Justice: An Historical and Philosophical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon Kay

    2011-01-01

    Social justice in education concerns three questions: whom do we teach, what do we teach, and how do we teach? In this article the author briefly discusses social justice and its related concepts, its historical underpinnings, the social climate that brought about social change, and its effect on teaching physical activity. She also gives personal…

  1. The Dutch criminal justice system : third edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This book covers both the organization of the present Dutch criminal justice system and the main procedures used within the system. It deals with the basic principles that guide the operation of the Dutch criminal justice system. The latest statistical information available is that of the year 2006.

  2. Why global distributive justice cannot work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that a political theory of global distributive justice, as envisaged by neo-Rawlsian cosmopolitans, makes no sense. Political theorists such as Charles Beitz, Thomas Pogge, and Darrel Moellendorf have argued that John Rawls's egalitarian conception of distributive justice should be

  3. Social Justice in School Psychology: Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    The topic of social justice is not new to dialogue and research within disciplines that serve children, such as education and psychology. The commitment to social justice within the fields of education and psychology is evidenced by the attention that their organizations--the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and the American…

  4. Social position, ideology, and distributive justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. d' Anjou (Leo); A.J. Steijn (Bram); D. van Aarsen (Dries)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses two important questions regarding distributive justice. First we ask whether people use standards or principles of distributive justice regarding the allocation of income. The study confirms our expectation that there are at least two principles, viz., the merit and

  5. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  6. Strategic Activism, Educational Leadership and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the strategic activism of educational leaders who promote social justice. Given the risks, educational leaders need to be strategic about the ways in which they pursue their activism. Citing current research, this article explores the ways in which leaders strategically pursue their social justice agendas within their own…

  7. Social Justice, Disability, and Rehabilitation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Daniel; Smart, Julie F.

    2012-01-01

    The academic field and the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling focuses on one aspect of social justice, assisting individuals with disabilities to attain full community inclusion. Nonetheless, social justice focuses on many marginalized groups and in the related fields of counseling and psychology, those with disabilities are rarely…

  8. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  9. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  10. Mentoring and Organizational Justice: An Empirical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Terri A.

    1997-01-01

    Usable responses from 197 of 300 Australian managers indicated those who had mentors perceived more organizational justice than those who had not. Career, psychosocial, and role modeling functions of mentoring were significantly and positively related to perceptions of distributive and procedural justice. (SK)

  11. Social Justice and Educational Administration: Mutually Exclusive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Carol F.; Lugg, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore some of the current tensions within educational administration in the USA and conclude with a few cautions for educators who engage in social justice projects. Design/methodology/approach: Using a selective case, this historical essay examines the issues of social justice and equity as they have…

  12. Are transcendental theories of justice redundant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAmartya Sen’s The Idea of Justice is a very rich book, with many aspects worth discussing. I will limit myself here to one major claim that Sen makes, namely that transcendental theories of justice are redundant. I will argue that this ‘Redundancy Claim’ is mistaken, since for

  13. Values and Social Justice in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crethar, Hugh C.; Winterowd, Carrie L.

    2012-01-01

    The construct of social justice in counseling is defined and operationalized in this article. This is followed by a discussion about the intersection between social justice in counseling and philosophy, ethics, and spirituality. A call to action for counseling professionals is offered. (Contains 1 figure.)

  14. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: A Genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…

  15. Justice and Social Cohesion: Some conservative perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2011-01-01

    of this problem. The argument presented in this paper will, first, take its point of departure from David Hume’s notion of sympathy and how this makes social cohesion possible. Second, it will be argued that social cohesion is a prerequisite for the existence of justice, and therefore justice is a derivative...

  16. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: A Genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…

  17. Mister Chief Justice. A Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, John W.

    Intended to accompany the film "Mister Chief Justice," this study guide introduces the life of John Marshall and early U.S. history through a fictional account of a dinner party at the home of the chief justice in March, 1801. The guide presents the historical characters who attended the dinner, including John Marshall, Mary Willis Marshall, Eliza…

  18. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D. [National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class.

  19. Development of Restorative Justice in China: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinzhi Shen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative justice has become a global social movement for criminal justice reform, with over eighty countries adopting some form of restorative justice program to tackle their crime problems. The theory of restorative justice was introduced to the Chinese academia in 2002. So far, various restorative justice programs have been developed in China. This paper aims to systematically review the development of restorative justice in China by analyzing academic literature on restorative justice and key legislative documentations. Major debates in restorative justice among Chinese scholars and a review of the indigenous restorative justice practice, criminal reconciliation (Xingshi Hejie, are provided. The study also analyzes the impetus of this soaring popularity of restorative justice in China, considering the macro social, political and legal background. Last but not least, a review of the major evaluation studies of current programs reveals that little is known about the process of various restorative justice programs from the parties’ own perspective.

  20. Dimensionality of organizational justice in a call center context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Douglas; Haley, Lynn M; McNally, Jeffrey J

    2012-04-01

    Summary.-Employees in three call centers were surveyed about their perceptions of organizational justice. Four factors were measured: distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice, and informational justice. Structural equation modeling was employed to test whether a two-, three-, or four-factor model best fit the call center data. A three-factor model of distributive, procedural, and informational justice provided the best fit to these data. The three-factor model that showed the best fit does not conform to any of the more traditional models identified in the organizational justice literature. This implies that the context in which organizational justice is measured may play a role in identifying which justice factors are relevant to employees. Findings add to the empirical evidence on the dimensionality of organizational justice and imply that dimensionality of organizational justice is more context-dependent than previously thought.

  1. PUBLIC EQUALITY, DEMOCRACY AND JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mladenović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the principle of public equality which, according to the view Thomas Christiano defends in his book The Constitution of Equality: Democratic Authority and Its Limits, is of central importance for social justice and democracy. Christiano also holds that the authority of democracy, and its limits, are grounded in this principle. Christiano’s democratic theory can be, broadly speaking, divided in two parts. The first part deals with the derivation and justification of the principle of public equality. The second part argues why and how the authority of democracy, and its limits, are based on this principle. This article will deal only with the first part of Christiano’s theory. While I believe that the second part is crucially important for Christiano’s democratic theory, I think that before examining the role of the principle of public equality, it is necessary to examine its nature. For that reason, this paper deals primarily with the nature of the principle of public equality as the requirement of social justice and the basis for the justification of democracy.

  2. Justice in context: assessing contextualism as an approach to justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buckley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Moral and political philosophers are increasingly using empirical data to inform their normative theories. This has sparked renewed interest into questions concerning the relationship between facts and principles. A recent attempt to frame these questions within a broader approach to normative theory comes from David Miller, who has on several occasions defended ‘contextualism’ as the best approach to justice. Miller argues that the context of distribution itself brings one or another political principle into play. This paper examines this claim. It considers several plausible strategies for carrying out Miller's general project and argues that each strategy fails. Nevertheless, the author maintains that an investigation into why they fail paves the way for a philosophically plausible account of the relationship between facts and principles.

  3. TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE AND DEMOCRATIC CHANGE: KEY CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA ANDREEVSKA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This Article proposes a genealogy of transitional justice and focuses on transitional justice as one of the key steps in peace building that needs to be taken to secure a stable democratic futureTransitional justice is a response to systematic or widespread violations of human rights. It seeks recognition for victims and promotion of possibilities for peace, reconciliation and democracy. The paper focuses on key concepts of transitional justice before addressing its traditional components: justice, reparation, truth and institutional reform. This Article meeting point on the transitional process in a society which has experienced a violent conflict and needs adequate mechanisms to deal with the legacies of the past in order to prevent future violence and cover the way for reconciliation and democratic consolidation. It provides key stakeholders with an overview of transitional justice and its different components, while examining key challenges faced by those working in this area. The present paper concludes with some remarks that challenge the traditional concept of transitional justice and its processes in order to initiate important debate on where future work in this field is needed.

  4. TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE AND DEMOCRATIC CHANGE: KEY CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANDREEVSKA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This Article proposes a genealogy of transitional justice and focuses on transitional justice as one of the key steps in peace building that needs to be taken to secure a stable democratic future. Transitional justice is a response to systematic or widespread violations of human rights. It seeks recognition for victims and promotion of possibilities for peace, reconciliation and democracy. The paper focuses on key concepts of transitional justice before addressing its traditional components: justice, reparation, truth and institutional reform. This Article meeting point on the transitional process in a society which has experienced a violent conflict and needs adequate mechanisms to deal with the legacies of the past in order to prevent future violence and cover the way for reconciliation and democratic consolidation. It provides key stakeholders with an overview of transitional justice and its different components, while examining key challenges faced by those working in this area. The present paper concludes with some remarks that challenge the traditional concept of transitional justice and its processes in order to initiate important debate on where future work in this field is needed.

  5. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal...

  6. Looking for justice: could RHM help to find it?

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre de Mena, Juan Martín

    2015-01-01

    1. What is Justice? 2. Reflections on some human perspectives of Justice 3. Approach to the concept of Social Justice 4. Social Justice and Labour Law: From a protective purpose to an inclusive one Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech

  7. 28 CFR 0.93 - Bureau of Justice Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bureau of Justice Statistics. 0.93...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.93 Bureau of Justice Statistics. The Bureau of Justice Statistics is headed by a Director appointed by the President. Under the general authority of...

  8. Justice Delivered Locally : Systems, Challenges, and Innovations in Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the research findings of the Justice Delivered Locally (JDL) initiative of Solomon Islands' Ministry of Justice and Legal Affairs, which was supported by the World Bank's Justice for the Poor (J4P) program. JDL supports the Solomon Islands Government (SIG) policy of reinvigorating local-level justice systems. This is based on an understanding that developmentally impor...

  9. 44 CFR 11.17 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 11.16, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the Chief Counsel... Justice. 11.17 Section 11.17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT...

  10. Environmental assessment and social justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hardee, H. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe an approach to assessing environmental justice issues at the start of proposed project. It is a structural approach to screening using readily available census data and commercial products that emphasizes the ability to replicate results and provide systematic data that can be used to identify spatial inequities. While our discussion of the methodology addresses only public health and safety issues related to certain minority and cohort sub-groups, systematic use of methodology could provide a valuable screening tool for identifying impacts particular to low-income groups. While the assumptions can be questioned as to applicability, they are based both on theory and practical knowledge.

  11. Global Poverty, Justice and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Niţu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of poverty and justice inside global economic system has received three major types of responses in political theory. The communitarian perspective considers political culture of a society as the main cause of the wealth of that society, and accordingly limits the redistributive duty to the nation-state borders. A second view, which can be called liberal internationalism, claims that trade liberalization is the best way to reduce poverty in developing countries and create a more equitable and stable economic order. This paper argues that a third perspective seems to be a better approach. The cosmopolitan perspective points out that international economic system should be reformed by building up a global tax regime.

  12. [Health and justice in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbrock, R

    2007-12-01

    "What do we owe each other?" Variously grounded postulates and theories of social justice try to answer this question with regard to health. Equality of opportunity is widely acclaimed and in Germany also anchored in social security laws. From the perspective of equal opportunity, the author examines the state of affairs and the perspectives of equity in health. Although the deficiencies with regard to access and quality of health care are significant, but relatively moderate, they present serious threats to equity and fairness for the future. Regarding non-medical primary prevention, the reduction of inequality in health has barely begun. The largest obstacles to equity in health are to be found in the distribution and dynamics of opportunities for education, work and income. One of the tasks of public health professionals is to place the health consequences of existing policies on the political agenda.

  13. Reframing Citizenship and Gender Justice -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    Marshall’s classical formulation of citizenship was associated with equal rights and duties of citizens within the nation state (Marshall 1950). It was at the same time based upon inequality within the category citizen, i.e. based on gender and ethnicity, as well between citizens and non...... to reframe the concept of citizenship to include visions of gender equality and gender justice within and beyond the nation states (Siim 2013). One crucial issue is how to expand the understanding of citizenship to include cultural diversity within the nation state. Scholars have proposed a multicultural...... citizenship (Kymlicka 1995), which recognizes the diversity and accommodate the cultural difference of minority groups within the nation states. Another crucial issue is how to expand citizenship to the transnational/global level. Scholars have proposed a notion of rooted cosmopolitan citizenship (Benhabib...

  14. The Concept of Justice: Argumentation and Dialogism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Tinoco Cabral

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reflection attempting to situate the concepts of justice and argumentation in Perelman’s approach in dialogue with the Bakhtin Circle’s theories. For this purpose, it analyses the concept of justice, deals with the concept of argumentation in order to situate its field and to emphasize how it supports the concept of justice, highlights the ethical and dialogical aspects of legal argumentation, establishing connections between Perelman’s ideas and dialogic principles of language, and, finally, attempts to show how different voices intersect in the argumentative confrontation through the analysis of two excerpts of legal discourses.

  15. Justice in the genetically transformed society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores some of the challenges raised by human genetic interventions for debates about distributive justice, focusing on the challenges that face prioritarian theories of justice and their relation to the argument advanced by Ronald Lindsay elsewhere in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. Also examined are the implications of germ-line genetic enhancements for intergenerational justice, and an argument is given against Fritz Allhoff's conclusion, found in this issue as well, that such enhancements are morally permissible if and only if they augment primary goods.

  16. 正义与社会正义辨正%Discrimination of Justice and Social Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路振召

    2011-01-01

    长期以来人们习惯于对正义和社会正义不加区分地混同使用,这无疑影响了对正义的深入理解。本文试图在厘清正义与社会正义区别与联系的基础上为对正义展开深入讨论提供一个独特的理论视角。%It has long been accustomed to indiscriminating in using justice and social justice,which undoubtedly affected the in-depth understanding of justice.This paper attempts to provide a unique theoretical perspective for in-depth discussion on justice,based on clarifying the differences between justice and social justice.

  17. Intervention: Help a Loved One Overcome Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug abuse Street drug abuse Compulsive eating Compulsive gambling People who struggle with addiction are often in ... of serious mental illness Has a history of violence Has shown ... be people your family member or friend loves, respects, admires, depends on ...

  18. Ideas for Creating and Overcoming Student Silences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Donald R.; Sheardown, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The key idea is that 50 minutes of teacher talk with passive student listening is relatively ineffective in developing student learning. Teachers can create silences for productive active student learning. Students can also change from passive listeners to active talker-discussers of their learning. Ideas are given about how to overcome silences…

  19. Successful Writing: Five Roadblocks to Overcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kathleen P.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides essential strategies to be more successful in one of the major roles in academia: writing. Most academics struggle with roadblocks in their writing process. We are forever battling to complete research articles, manuscripts, grant proposals or other documents. The strategies and perspective shared here help overcome several…

  20. Overcoming the Limitations of Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, David; Waters, Sandie; Dawson, Deonne; Lambert, Brent; Barclay, Matthew; Wade, David; Nelson, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    There are a number of issues that face individuals who would use learning objects for instructional purposes. These issues include problems with decontextualization, enabling meaningful reusability, and overcoming biases toward didactic approaches in the use of learning objects. We discuss these problems in some detail, and present a project-based…

  1. 28 CFR 0.103a - Delegations respecting claims against the Drug Enforcement Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegations respecting claims against the Drug Enforcement Administration. 0.103a Section 0.103a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.103a Delegations...

  2. Targeted multidrug delivery system to overcome chemoresistance in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Tang,1 Fariborz Soroush,1 Zhaohui Tong,2 Mohammad F Kiani,1 Bin Wang1,3 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Widener University, Chester, PA, USA Abstract: Chemotherapy has been widely used in breast cancer patients to reduce tumor size. However, most anticancer agents cannot differentiate between cancerous and normal cells, resulting in severe systemic toxicity. In addition, acquired drug resistance during the chemotherapy treatment further decreases treatment efficacy. With the proper treatment strategy, nanodrug carriers, such as liposomes/immunoliposomes, may be able to reduce undesired side effects of chemotherapy, to overcome the acquired multidrug resistance, and to further improve the treatment efficacy. In this study, a novel combinational targeted drug delivery system was developed by encapsulating antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab into liposomes and encapsulating chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX into immunoliposomes where the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 antibody was used as a targeting ligand. This novel combinational system was tested in vitro using a HER2 positive and multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line (BT-474/MDR, and in vivo using a xenograft mouse tumor model. In vitro cell culture experiments show that immunoliposome delivery led to a high cell nucleus accumulation of DOX, whereas free DOX was observed mostly near the cell membrane and in cytoplasm due to the action of P-gp. Combining liposomal bevacizumab with immunoliposomal DOX achieved the best tumor growth inhibition and the lowest toxicity. Tumor size decreased steadily within a 60-day observation period indicating a potential synergistic effect between DOX and bevacizumab through the targeted delivery. Our findings clearly indicate that tumor growth was significantly

  3. Health Insurance Trends and Access to Behavioral Healthcare Among Justice-Involved Individuals-United States, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Tyler N A; Kieffer, Edith C; Goold, Susan D; Morenoff, Jeffrey D; Cross, Kristen; Ayanian, John Z

    2016-12-01

    A large proportion of justice-involved individuals have mental health issues and substance use disorders (SUD) that are often untreated due to high rates of uninsurance. However, roughly half of justice-involved individuals were estimated to be newly eligible for health insurance through the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We aimed to assess health insurance trends among justice-involved individuals before and after implementation of the ACA's key provisions, the dependent coverage mandate and Medicaid expansion, and to examine the relationship between health insurance and treatment for behavioral health conditions. Repeated and pooled cross-sectional analyses of data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Nationally representative sample of 15,899 adults age 19-64 years between 2008 and 2014 with a history of justice involvement during the prior 12 months. Uninsurance rates between 2008 and 2014 are reported. Additional outcomes include adjusted treatment rates for depression, serious mental illness, and SUD by insurance status. The dependent coverage mandate was associated with a 13.0 percentage point decline in uninsurance among justice-involved individuals age 19-25 years (p insurance, was associated with significantly higher treatment rates for illicit drug abuse/dependence and depression. Given the high prevalence of mental illness and substance use disorders among justice-involved populations, persistently elevated rates of uninsurance and other barriers to care remain a significant public health concern. Sustained outreach is required to reduce health insurance disparities between individuals with and without justice involvement. Public insurance appears to be associated with higher treatment rates, relative to uninsurance and private insurance, among justice-involved individuals.

  4. 76 FR 60590 - Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Departments of Transportation, Metropolitan Planning Organizations, public transportation providers, and other... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR.... Chapter IV--Integrating Principles of Environmental Justice in Transportation Planning and...

  5. Capabilitarian Sufficiency: Capabilities and Social Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests an account of sufficientarianism—i.e. that justice is fulfilled when everyone has enough—laid out within a general framework of the capability approach. In doing so, it seeks to show that sufficiency is especially plausible as an ideal of social justice when constructed around...... key capabilitarian insights such as freedom, pluralism, and attention to empirical interconnections between central capabilities. Correspondingly, we elaborate on how a framework for evaluating social justice would look when constructed in this way and give reasons for why capabilitarians should...... of a social being. In each category, we argue, achieving sufficiency requires different distributional patterns depending on how the capabilities themselves work and interrelate. This argument adds a new dimension to the way capabilitarians think about social justice and changes how we should target instances...

  6. Immigration, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, van der J.P.; Herzog-Evans, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a three volume collection Wolf Legal Publishers presents The Transnational Criminology Manual. We are happy with contributions from more than 100 eminent specialists from the field including scholars from, among others, France (Reims University, Department of Justice) Canada (Montreal

  7. Environmental Justice Challengers for Ecosystem Service Valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In pursuing improved ecosystem services management, there is also an opportunity to work towards environmental justice. The practice of environmental valuation can assist with both goals, but as typically employed obscures distributional analysis. Furthermore, valuation technique...

  8. Job Cognition and Justice Influencing Organizational Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sahu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizational attachment echoes the psychological bond between employee and employer relations, differing from affective component of commitment in terms of employees’ psychological and behavioral involvement. This study examines the extent to which employee perception about procedural, distributive justice and job cognition contributes toward organizational attachment in India. The effect of justice and job cognition variables relates differently to previous studies from western part of the globe. First, in past studies, procedural justice predicted commitment, whereas, for Indian employees, distributive justice contributed to organizational attachment. Second, the contribution of extrinsic job cognition in organizational attachment was evident in the model developed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; AMOS. Organizations must take cognizance of the outcomes exhibited by the behavior of managers while following the laid down policies and processes. Cognition of fairness at workplace and attachment can play key role in limiting retention. Practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  9. Crime and Justice: Taking a Futuristic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Gene; Tafoya, William L.

    1985-01-01

    How to apply futuristic approaches to crime and justice in an effort to prevent crime and deal more effectively with offenders is described. Planning, brainstorming, using the Delphi method, and opinion polling are discussed. (Author/RM)

  10. Environmental Justice (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data (USEPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating "EJ...

  11. Enviromental Justice (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data (USEPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating "EJ...

  12. Handbook For Military Justice and Civil Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    entire class—that he was a real bad dude. Apparently, while at the reformatory, he was diagnosed as having a schizoid personality with alternating...deterioration of the brain, mental retardation, or psychiatric disorders . Personality disorders not rising to the level of mental illness do not...para. 6105. a. Basis: personality disorder (1) Correct Naval Justice School Rev- 2/96 Publication IV-46-7 Handbook for Military Justice

  13. Incorporating environmental justice into environmental decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Vogt, D.P.; Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Executive Order 12898, signed on February 11, 1994, broadly states that federal activities, programs, and policies should not produce disproportionately high and adverse impacts on minority and low-income populations. Moreover, the Order indicates that these populations should not be denied the benefits of, or excluded from participation in, these activities, programs, and policies. Because a presidential memorandum accompanying the order said that National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents should begin to address environmental justice immediately, much attention has been paid to assessment-related issues. Also important, a topic that appears to have received relatively little attention, is how decision makers should be expected to use information about environmental justice in their decision making. This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of environmental justice information in the decision-making process by focusing on the following five main topics: (1) the importance, or weight, attached to environmental justice within larger decision-making contexts; (2) the potential tension between localized environmental justice issues and regional or national issues and needs; (3) the use of environmental justice information to develop (perhaps in concert with affected minority and low-income communities) appropriate mitigation strategies, or to establish conditions under which activities, programs, and policies may be accepted locally; (4) the general implications of shifting the distribution of broadly defined risks, costs, and benefits among different population groups; and (5) the implications of implementing environmental justice on an individual, ad hoc basis rather than within a larger environmental justice framework. This paper raises the issues and discusses the implications of alternative approaches to them.

  14. Distributive justice through taxation: European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, João Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    This article elaborates on the possibility of having distributive justice through taxes at European level. That possibility will be based on the verification of a set of conditions such as fiscal sovereignty, political community, welfare model; and personal taxes, which, according to the author, must be present at the level of the European Union in order to achieve that normative principle (distributive justice). Throughout the discussion, upon acknowledgement that those requirements are stil...

  15. Helping Chinese Overcome Stereotypes about American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜洁

    2014-01-01

    This research paper, from the perspective of cross-cultural communication, intends to analyze the cultural misconcep⁃tions Chinese have about North American culture. Inspired by the data the author collected through the semester-long project with three subjects from different background, the topic of helping Chinese people overcome stereotypes about American culture stands out to claim the practical value in terms of enhancing Chinese people’s cultural awareness and ability to distinguish cultural perspectives and recognize the complexity of cross-cultural communication. Also, recommendations like to know yourself, to de⁃velop cross-cultural communication competence are provided for overcoming the formation of stereotypes and to decrease possi⁃ble cultural incidents since people of both cultures are increasingly interacting with each other in various aspects in the situation of globalization.

  16. 75 FR 49946 - National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension With Change... Response System. The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC... Intelligence Center, Fifth Floor, 319 Washington Street, Johnstown, PA 15901. Written comments and...

  17. 75 FR 77906 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Drug Questionnaire DEA Form 341 ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review....

  18. 76 FR 8775 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Drug Questionnaire, DEA Form 341 ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection under Review....

  19. 78 FR 20141 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: National Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: National Drug Threat Survey; Extension With Change of a Previously Approved Collection ACTION:...

  20. Overcoming internal barriers to implement strategy effectively

    OpenAIRE

    Dutka, Arturs

    2013-01-01

    Degree programme: International Business Administration Writer(s): Arturs Dutka Thesis title: Overcoming internal barriers to implement strategy effectively Pages (of which appendices): 102 (46) Date: May 27, 2013 Thesis instructor(s): Esa Jauhola A changing environment is a fact today and organisations shall cope with changes, no matter if the organisation is a business unit, educational or social unit. To be successful in changing business environment it is mandatory for ...

  1. Overcoming Affective Barriers in College English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任永东

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the development of economy as well as the progress of society requires better English competence of col-lege students. As a result, a large number of college students are obsessedby affective barriers in their English learning, especially when they have to cope with CET 4 or CET 6, which is more and more difficult. This paper focuses on how to help college stu-dents overcome their affective barriers more effectively to improve their English learning.

  2. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  3. Assessment for Social Justice: The Role of Assessment in Achieving Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for "assessment for social justice", through which a greater focus is given to the role of assessment in achieving the social justice aspirations of higher education. It takes inspiration from work on assessment for learning to propose that as assessment is a powerful driver of how and what students…

  4. "The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

  5. Navigating the Meanings of Social Justice, Teaching for Social Justice, and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunhee

    2017-01-01

    This article uses well-received contemporary scholarship--works by Iris Young, Nancy Fraser, Morva McDonald, Connie North, and Geneva Gay--to illuminate a high degree of coherence among the substantive meanings of social justice, teaching for social justice, and multicultural education. Based on these relationships, the article suggests that…

  6. Learning to Teach Mathematics for Social Justice: Negotiating Social Justice and Mathematical Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Tonya Gau

    2013-01-01

    This article describes teachers' collective work aimed at learning to teach mathematics for social justice. Teacher interviews, discussions, lessons, and written reflections were analyzed using grounded theory methodology, and teachers' conversations were examined concerning the relationship between mathematical goals and social justice goals.…

  7. Social Justice Educational Leaders and Resistance: Toward a Theory of Social Justice Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharis, George

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A subgroup of principals--leaders for social justice--guide their schools to transform the culture, curriculum, pedagogical practices, atmosphere, and schoolwide priorities to benefit marginalized students. The purpose of the article is to develop a theory of this social justice educational leadership. Research Design: This empirical…

  8. "The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

  9. Justice-Sensitive Education: The Implications of Transitional Justice Mechanisms for Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of "justice-sensitive education"--derived from the ideals and practices of transitional justice (TJ) in countries emerging from conflict. It describes three mechanisms for this: structural reforms (relating to inequity and division); curriculum change (the treatment of history, human rights and…

  10. Learning to Teach Mathematics for Social Justice: Negotiating Social Justice and Mathematical Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Tonya Gau

    2013-01-01

    This article describes teachers' collective work aimed at learning to teach mathematics for social justice. Teacher interviews, discussions, lessons, and written reflections were analyzed using grounded theory methodology, and teachers' conversations were examined concerning the relationship between mathematical goals and social justice goals.…

  11. Social Justice Educational Leaders and Resistance: Toward a Theory of Social Justice Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharis, George

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A subgroup of principals--leaders for social justice--guide their schools to transform the culture, curriculum, pedagogical practices, atmosphere, and schoolwide priorities to benefit marginalized students. The purpose of the article is to develop a theory of this social justice educational leadership. Research Design: This empirical…

  12. Rethinking Discussions of Justice in Educational Research: Formative Justice, Educational Liberalism, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Winston C.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Educational research tends to borrow accounts of justice from scholarship embedded within the structures and commitments of other disciplines or fields of study. This has created a body of educational research that largely responds to the "justice" goals of those disciplines rather than education qua education.…

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice ... and decision-making. To learn about HIV among youth, please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/ ...

  14. Relationships are building blocks to social justice: Cases of biblical justice and African Ubuntu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selaelo T. Kgatla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The entire Bible is full of themes calling humans to live justly with one another and fear God who is the author of justice. The first book of the Bible, Genesis, carries the story of God’s relationship with his people. Their relationship is bound by social justice and mutual love in reciprocity. This article argues that African Ubuntu has an affinity with the Bible’s message of justice and mutual caring for one another. Ubuntu presupposes that humans were created in God’s image and indicates that characteristics such as kindness, charity, equality, love of one’s neighbours and voluntarily dispensing justice to others are present in human life. God created humans to be bound to one another in caring love, coexistence and total dependence. In today’s world, social justice requires good judgement from those who are in privileged positions to implement it.

  15. How does justice smell? Reflections on space and place, justice and the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Meiring

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flowing from a joint consultation on Spatial Justice and Reconciliation on 21–22 September 2015, hosted by the Centre for Contextual Ministry and the Ubuntu Research Project of the University of Pretoria, this article reflects on the notions of space and justice from the perspective of a contemporary theological anthropology as ‘embodied sensing’, where the making of meaning is sensed in the body. The argument is put forward that spatial justice is an embodied endeavour and that it cannot be achieved disconnected from the bodies of the persons in the concrete context where justice is strived for and where bodies can flourish. The relation between spatial justice, sense of place, human flourishing and the embodied sensing of meaning is explored.

  16. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  17. Values and religiosity as predictors of engagement in social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R; Carollo, Olivia; Schamberger, Antú; Clifton-Soderstrom, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Some researchers have suggested that values, including religious values and motivations, might facilitate social justice work. Individuals might view social justice work as an expression of religious beliefs, values, and practices, or as an expression of their personal morals and values. The current study examined the role of religious variables and secular values to predict attitudes, intentions to engage in social justice, perceived norms around social justice, and perceived ability to engage in social justice within a culturally and religiously diverse student population. Implications of the study results for social justice education are presented and discussed.

  18. Annual Report 2000: Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Justice Programs.

    This annual report reflects changes to the National Institute of Justice's Drug Use Forecasting program. After several years of development and testing, the restructured program was fully implemented in 2000 as Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM). Probability-based sampling was adopted, the interview instrument (questionnaire) was enhanced to…

  19. 75 FR 17956 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information... collection under review; (Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection). Juvenile Residential Facility Census The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of...

  20. Terrorism, Forgiveness and Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Pemberton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly public nature of terrorism, in which the attack on the direct victims is intended to influence a (far larger group of so-called vicarious victims. This means that the public is likely to experience terrorist attacks as attacks on themselves. As a consequence the public can feel entitled to processes of forgiveness which in turn can conflict with the direct victims’ own experience. To illuminate this issue the paper proposes a novel distinction in third party forgiveness processes: between public forgiveness, i.e. forgiveness relating to the public wrongfulness inherent in crime, and vicarious forgiveness, i.e. the public’s experience of forgiveness itself. The complexities for restorative justice after terrorism can be then be viewed in terms of the tensions between the direct victims’ private and the publics’ vicarious forgiveness processes. Este artículo pretende facilitar la comprensión de las complejidades de la justicia restaurativa en casos de terrorismo desde una perspectiva victimológica. Lo hace primero mediante el análisis de lo que separa el terrorismo de otras formas de delincuencia. El autor sostiene que la distinción principal se refiere a la naturaleza pública específica del terrorismo, ya que mediante el ataque a las víctimas directas se pretende influir en el grupo (mucho más grande de las llamadas víctimas vicarias. Esto significa que es probable que el público sienta los ataques terroristas como ataques contra ellos mismos. De esta forma, el público puede sentirse con derecho sobre los procesos de perdón, lo que, a su vez, puede entrar en conflicto con la propia experiencia de las víctimas directas. Para iluminar

  1. Language difficulties and criminal justice: the need for earlier identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Karen; Garvani, Gillian; Gregory, Juliette; Kilner, Karen

    2015-01-01

    At least 60% of young people in the UK who are accessing youth justice services present with speech, language and communication difficulties which are largely unrecognized. The contributing reasons for this are discussed, suggesting that early language difficulty is a risk factor for other problems such as literacy difficulties and educational failure that may increasingly put the young person at risk of offending. Opportunities for identification and remediation of language difficulties before young people reach youth justice services are also outlined. To examine language skills in a sample of children in a secure children's home aged 11-17 years. A sample of 118 males were routinely assessed on four Comprehensive Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) subtests and the British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS). Around 30% of the participants presented with language difficulties scoring 1.5 SD (standard deviation) below the mean on the assessments. Despite them entering the home because their vulnerability was recognized, only two participants had a previous record of language difficulties. A total of 20% of the participants had a diagnosis of mental illness, 50% had a history of drug abuse and 31% had looked-after status prior to entry to the home. Children experiencing educational or emotional difficulties need to be routinely assessed for speech, language and communication difficulties. More population-based approaches to supporting the development of oral language skills in children and young people are also supported. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  3. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinda Duraj (Male

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The participation of children in international criminal justice and other accountability mechanisms is now one of the major issues facing criminal justice today. In this sense, this paper presents a short overview on the issue of children and their participation in international criminal justice. The paper thus focuses on giving a definition of “child/children” according to international norms, which are the key principles of children’s rights, their participation in the criminal justice system, the different international crimes committed by them or against them etc. Also, this paper briefly addresses the main contours of the normative framework regarding the criminal responsibility of children for their alleged participation in international crimes. It reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves (as child soldiers and identifies their criminal responsibility for such acts. Finally, this paper acknowledges the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children.

  4. Overcoming Challenges in Engineering the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, M J; Söll, D; Church, G M

    2016-02-27

    Withstanding 3.5 billion years of genetic drift, the canonical genetic code remains such a fundamental foundation for the complexity of life that it is highly conserved across all three phylogenetic domains. Genome engineering technologies are now making it possible to rationally change the genetic code, offering resistance to viruses, genetic isolation from horizontal gene transfer, and prevention of environmental escape by genetically modified organisms. We discuss the biochemical, genetic, and technological challenges that must be overcome in order to engineer the genetic code.

  5. Overcoming semantic heterogeneity in spatial data infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, M.; Sprado, J.; Klien, E.; Schubert, C.; Christ, I.

    2009-04-01

    In current spatial data infrastructures (SDIs), it is still often difficult to effectively exchange or re-use geographic data sets. A main reason for this is semantic heterogeneity, which occurs at different levels: at the metadata, the schema and the data content level. It is the goal of the work presented in this paper to overcome the problems caused by semantic heterogeneity on all three levels. We present a method based on ontologies and logical reasoning, which enhances the discovery, retrieval, interpretation and integration of geographic data in SDIs. Its benefits and practical use are illustrated with examples from the domains of geology and hydrology.

  6. Overcoming the Bradyon-Tachyon Barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the problem of overcoming the infinite energy barrier separating the bradyonic and tachyonic realms is investigated. Making use of the Majorana equation for particles with arbitrary spin and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, it is proved that, under certain conditions of spatial confinement, quantum fluctuations allow particles with very small mass and velocity close to the speed of light to pass in the tachyonic realm, avoiding the problem of the infinite barrier. This theoretical approach allows an avoidance of the difficulties encountered in quantum field theory when it is extended to particles with imaginary rest mass.

  7. Overcoming Knowledge Gaps in Postmerger Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaranta, Maria Eliisa; Martela, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Over 50% of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) fail, mainly because of integration problems. In such integrations, much of the experiential (learning-by-doing) knowledge critical for running the business becomes redundant or is lost. However, we know virtually nothing about what type of mechanisms...... best facilitate overcoming the gaps in experiential knowledge in these dynamic hybrid organizational situations. We study a case of integration of software-maintenance processes after a megamerger. In the first phase of the integration, the company combined best features of existing knowledge systems...

  8. Restorative justice as social justice for victims of gendered violence: a standpoint feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2009-04-01

    This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims and their advocates with the current system of mandatory law enforcement opens the door for consideration of alternative forms of dealing with domestic violence. Restorative justice strategies, as argued here, have several major advantages. Like social work, these strategies are solution-based rather than problem-based processes, give voice to marginalized people, and focus on healing and reconciliation. Moreover, restorative justice offers an avenue through which the profession of social work can re-establish its historic role in criminal justice. The four models most relevant to women's victimization are victim-offender conferencing, family group conferencing, healing circles, and community reparations. Each model is examined separately from a feminist standpoint. The discussion is informed by insights from the teachings of standpoint feminist theory and social work values, especially social justice.

  9. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  10. Reshaping transport operations to overcome new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harari, F.; Blachet, L. [COGEMA Logistics, (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    After more than 30 years of Spent Fuel Nuclear Fuel (SFN) and High Level Waste (HLW) casks shipments to and from the COGEMA reprocessing factories in LA HAGUE, COGEMA LOGISTICS has demonstrated a unique outstanding performance in transportation for the benefit of its international customers and has integrated all feed-back from past successful operations. While maintaining the highest safety and security records, the last 5 years have been a major challenge to overcome the increase in transport throughputs, regulatory requirements, specific customer demands and new environmental approach (both COGEMA-La Hague and COGEMA LOGISTICS have been certified ISO14001 since 2003). Improvements in procedures, equipments, controls, inspection and organization have been undertaken. Additional important logistics means such as cranes, lifting devices, spreaders were put in operations in the dedicated workshop of our road and maritime facilities as well as in our rail terminals. Thus COGEMA LOGISTICS has developed and improved important logistics means in the Cherbourg area for the loading and unloading operations of heavy casks (i.e. whose weight is between 25 and 120 tons) among three modes of freight (road, railway or maritime transportation). In Valognes, which is currently the most important railway terminal in the world for the transfer of nuclear materials, about 1200 transfers of heavy casks were performed in 2003. New transport equipment and assets were integrated successfully to answer the new requirements for the best interest of our customers. This paper will provide information about equipments and management system developed to overcome these challenges.

  11. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  12. University-school partnerships for social justice in mathematics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University-school partnerships for social justice in mathematics and science education: the case ... My purpose in this paper is to situate a university-school mathematics and science education partnership within a social justice ... Article Metrics.

  13. Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Sociological Appraisal. ... This paper discussed the emergence of the Child's Right act in Nigeria in ... of children and young persons who found themselves on the justice corridor.

  14. International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance provides a comprehensive study of compliance with legal obligations derived from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia's (ICTY) Statute and integrates theoretical debates on compliance into international justice sc

  15. 75 FR 70293 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces the Fall meeting...

  16. 76 FR 53965 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U. S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention...

  17. 77 FR 39511 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Office of Justice Programs Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and...

  18. 78 FR 69876 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces...

  19. 78 FR 43920 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and...

  20. 77 FR 61641 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces...

  1. 75 FR 22163 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Justice ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces the Spring meeting...

  2. 78 FR 9070 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and...

  3. 77 FR 20649 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  4. Transitional Justice and the Quality of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Mihr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transitional Justice is a long-term process which seeks to address severe human rights abuses of the past through measures such as trials, commissions of inquiry, memorials, apologies, reforms of the legal or security sector, school textbook reforms, and reconciliation projects. These measures are usually applied by governments, but can also be initiated by civil society groups, such as victim groups, or the international community, for example the European Union or the UNHCR. Transitional justice measures are seen as catalysts for coming to terms with the past and establishing new, stable, and often democratic societies. As such, the measures are linked to the performance and efficacy of democratic institutions in the context of their accountability and responsiveness, transparency, and level of citizen participation. Thus, transitional justice is a process that aims to reconcile divided and conflict-torn societies by re-establishing (democratic institutions. These measures can be catalysts to leverage institutional performance.

  5. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  6. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  7. Rural science education as social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Karen

    2017-03-01

    What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.

  8. Health, personal responsibility, and distributive justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    recent political philosophical discussions of responsibility in egalitarian and luck egalitarian theory to bear on issues of social inequality in health, and access to health care. I argue that distributive justice in health and health care should be sensitive to responsibility, but also that individuals...... explains why we have justice-based reasons to reduce social inequality in health. In my second article I investigate and (partly) object to a suggestion put forward by Shlomi Segall, according to which we should exchange the notion of responsibility with a notion of Reasonable Avoidability in the luck......This PhD dissertation is a contribution to discussions about personal responsibility in relation to distributive justice in health and health care. It is a contribution to contemporary political philosophy in general, but in particular to luck egalitarian theory. I aim to answer three focal...

  9. Pardon in the light of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Dušica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to consider pardon in the restorative justice context. Beginning from the basic standpoint that restorative justice imposes request for interests-balancing of different subjects connected by criminal act, the author tries to examine the articulation of the aforementioned standpoint through the pardon concept, accepted in domestic positive law. There is no doubt that the institute is designed in favour of the crime perpetrator, which is confirmed by the analysis of different legal effects produced by its content, while the victim- and society interests remained, at least, insufficiently protected. Therefore, the author points to some positive examples from comparative law and poses certain suggestions, that can be of use for eventual reforming of the institute, in order to achieve values of restorative justice. .

  10. Health, personal responsibility, and distributive justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    This PhD dissertation is a contribution to discussions about personal responsibility in relation to distributive justice in health and health care. It is a contribution to contemporary political philosophy in general, but in particular to luck egalitarian theory. I aim to answer three focal...... recent political philosophical discussions of responsibility in egalitarian and luck egalitarian theory to bear on issues of social inequality in health, and access to health care. I argue that distributive justice in health and health care should be sensitive to responsibility, but also that individuals...... questions: 1) What role ought personal responsibility to play in distributive justice in health and health care? 2) What does it take for an individual to be responsible for her own health condition (or responsible in general)? And 3) what is the relation between responsibility and cost...

  11. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice......In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... practitioners have to take account of a rather more complex picture than it had hitherto been thought. Restorative conferences are not simply about "shame management," though practitioners must certainly avoid shaming and humiliation. Given the nature of shame, guilt, and restorative conferences...

  12. Spanish version of Colquitt's Organizational Justice Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gracia, Liliana; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Organizational justice (OJ) is an important predictor of different work attitudes and behaviors. Colquitt's Organizational Justice Scale (COJS) was designed to assess employees' perceptions of fairness. This scale has four dimensions: distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice. The objective of this study is to validate it in a Spanish sample. The scale was administered to 460 Spanish employees from the service sector. 40.4% were men and 59.6% women. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) supported the four dimensions structure for Spanish version of COJS. This model showed a better fit to data that the others models tested. Cronbach's alpha obtained for subscales ranged between .88 and .95. Correlations of the Spanish version of COJS with measures of incivility and job satisfaction were statistically significant and had a moderate to high magnitude, indicating a reasonable degree of construct validity. The Spanish version of COJS has adequate psychometric properties and may be of value in assessing OJ in Spanish setting.

  13. Rural science education as social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Karen

    2016-12-01

    What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.

  14. Sex and Race Differences in Mental Health Symptoms in Juvenile Justice: The MAYSI-2 National Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Gina M.; Grisso, Thomas; Terry, Anna; Banks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The study uses the MAYSI-2 gathered data from multiple US juvenile justice systems to examine whether mental health symptoms were connected to consistent sex and ethnicity/race-related differences. Results concluded a greater proportion of girls having serious mental health problems and though whites had problems with alcohol and drugs, they were…

  15. Toward A Buddhist Theory of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Blumenthal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For more than twenty years key thinkers of Engaged Buddhism have used terms like “justice” and “social justice” quite freely.  Yet despite more sophisticated discussions of other philosophical topics, Engaged Buddhists have  not clearly defined what they mean by the term justice. Given that the term is one with a rich philosophical history in the West and has no direct parallel in Buddhist thought, it is incumbent upon Engaged Buddhist theorists to define what they mean when they use this term if they are to engage in any sort of meaningful dialog on justice and related issues in the international community. In this paper, to illustrate how Engaged Buddhists might begin this important line of work, I would focus on two cases. First, I will discuss John Rawls' theory of "justice as fairness" and compare that with some traditional Buddhist ideas and explore potential Buddhist thinking, responses, and adaptations. Second, I will discuss a relatively new model known as restorative justice in opposition to the pervasive use of retributive models implemented around the globe and consider the ways that Buddhism seems to lend itself quite well to "restorative" models, particularly with regard to criminal justice.  Both examples are merely beginning points for discussion used to illustrate how and why Engaged Buddhists ought to participate more directly in global philosophical discourse on justice.

  16. Gardens of Justice : Critical Legal Conference 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The theme for this year’s Critical Legal Conference is “Gardens of Justice”. Although the theme may be interpreted in different ways, it suggests thinking about law and justice as a physical as well as a social environment, created for specific purposes, at a certain distance from society and yet as an integral part of it. The theme also invites you to think about justice as a concrete metaphor rather than an abstract concept. Just like any ordinary garden, legal institutions affect both peop...

  17. Race, crime, and criminal justice in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Manuela Ivone P. da

    2010-01-01

    How is ‘difference’ reflected on crime and the criminal justice system in Portugal? The answers obtained depend on which notions we can translate ‘difference’ into: ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’, ‘foreigners’, ‘immigrants’, ‘minorities’. This, in turn, depends also on whether we focus on statistics, rates, or, from another angle, experiences of crime and of the criminal justice system. Quantitative and qualitative data highlight different but complementary aspects of a same landscape. This paper focus...

  18. Strategies for Overcoming Resistance in Tumours Harboring BRAF Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourah Mohammad Obaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance to previously effective treatments has been a challenge for health care providers and a fear for patients undergoing cancer therapy. This is an unfortunately frequent occurrence for patients undergoing targeted therapy for tumours harboring the activating V600E mutation of the BRAF gene. Since the initial identification of the BRAF mutation in 2002, a series of small molecular inhibitors that target the BRAFV600E have been developed, but intrinsic and acquired resistance to these drugs has presented an ongoing challenge. More recently, improvements in therapy have been achieved by combining the use of BRAF inhibitors with other drugs, such as inhibitors of the downstream effector mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK kinase (MEK. Despite improved success in response rates and in delaying resistance using combination therapy, ultimately, the acquisition of resistance remains a concern. Recent research articles have shed light on some of the underlying mechanisms of this resistance and have proposed numerous strategies that might be employed to overcome or avoid resistance to targeted therapies. This review will explore some of the resistance mechanisms, compare what is known in melanoma cancer to colorectal cancer, and discuss strategies under development to manage the development of resistance.

  19. The Climate Justice Discourse in Brazil: Potential and Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Milanez; Igor F. Fonseca

    2012-01-01

    Milanez and Fonseca (2011) argue that the climate justice discourse has not been adopted by the media, society or the communities affected by extreme climate events in Brazil. The climate justice discourse has been adapted from the concept of environmental justice and created from the idea that the impacts of climate change affect different social groups in various ways and intensities. (?)

  20. Confidence in the Criminal Justice System: Does experience count?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPublic confidence in the justice system is relatively low compared to that in many other institutions. Part of this lack of confidence has been attributed to a low public understanding of how the justice system really works. Experience with the justice system is often identified as a way

  1. Psychology and Social Justice: Why We Do What We Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Melba J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Much of psychological science and knowledge is significantly relevant to social justice, defined here as the goal to decrease human suffering and to promote human values of equality and justice. A commitment to social justice has evolved as a more important value in the last few decades for psychology, including for the American Psychological…

  2. The Productivity of Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeZee, Matthew R.

    The scholarly productivity of criminology and criminal justice faculty and programs was investigated. The methodologies that were used to rate journals that publish articles in the criminology/criminal justice field and to select 71 schools with graduate programs in criminology or criminal justice are described. Primary interest focused on…

  3. Confidence in the Criminal Justice System: Does experience count?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPublic confidence in the justice system is relatively low compared to that in many other institutions. Part of this lack of confidence has been attributed to a low public understanding of how the justice system really works. Experience with the justice system is often identified as a way

  4. Narratives in Teaching and Research for Justice and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Audrey; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Human rights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…

  5. 2016 Military Investigation and Justice Experience Survey: Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    not research involving human subjects according to Department of Defense Instruction 3216.02. Military Investigation and Justice Experience Survey...2016 Military Investigation and Justice Experience Survey (MIJES) Overview Report Additional copies of this report may be obtained from...dtic/order.html Ask for report by DTIC # OPA Report No. 2017-003 March 2017 2016 MILITARY INVESTIGATION AND JUSTICE EXPERIENCE SURVEY (MIJES

  6. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  7. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  8. Narratives in Teaching and Research for Justice and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Audrey; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Human rights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…

  9. Distributive Justice Development: Cross-Cultural, Contextual, and Longitudinal Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Study One examined Swedish and American children's understanding of what constitutes fair criteria for the distribution of goods (i.e., distributive justice). Study Two compared children's distributive justice in family and peer contexts, and Study Three attempted a longitudinal assessment of distributive justice reasoning in two different…

  10. Procedural justice and quality of life in compensation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, N.A.; Akkermans, A.J.; Cuijpers, P.; Bruinvels, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    .001). Having trunk/back injury was negatively related to procedural justice (b = =-.25, p = .001). Whiplash injury and length of time involved in the claim process were not associated with any of the justice scales. Finally, procedural justice was found to be positively correlated with quality of l

  11. Supervision of Group Work: Infusing the Spirit of Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Delini M.; Herlihy, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore how supervisors may support the development of social justice consciousness for group leader supervisees, the role of the supervisor in generating social justice awareness and discussing social justice topics, and supervision that supports group leaders in addressing the challenges and opportunities related to social justice…

  12. Organizational Justice and Employee Satisfaction in Performance Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologos, Anastasios; Papazekos, Panagiotis; Panayotopoulou, Leda

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the performance appraisal (PA) aspects that are connected with organizational justice, and more specifically three kinds of justice, namely distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a sample of 170 respondents who answered a questionnaire giving…

  13. Cash across the City: Participatory Mapping & Teaching for Spatial Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Laurie; Lim, Vivian; Hall-Wieckert, Maren; Katz, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores teaching mathematics for spatial justice (Soja, 2010), as an extension of teaching mathematics for social justice (Gutstein, 2006). The study is contextualized in a 10-session curricular module focused on the spatial justice of a city's two-tiered system of personal finance institutions (mainstream vs. alternative), piloted…

  14. Unifying Messy Communities: Learning Social Justice in Educational Leadership Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Edith A.; Horsford, Sonya Douglass

    2008-01-01

    Learning about social justice is far different from engaging in the emotion-laden work of learning social justice. Frequently, instructors of aspiring educational leaders find that when social justice content is introduced, the adult classroom becomes a messy community, filled with untidy and unexamined viewpoints, multiple stereotypes, and…

  15. Judicial Management: The Achievements of Chief Justice William Howard Taft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Illuminates the importance of Chief Justice William Howard Taft in creating the modern administrative role of the Chief Justice of the United States. Specifically, the article examines the Act of 14 September 1922 that Taft championed in Congress to give the Chief Justice better tools for managing the judiciary. (DSK)

  16. Breast Cancer-Targeted Nuclear Drug Delivery Overcoming Drug Resistance for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    were detected in their peripheral or portal circulation [27]. While an ongoing effort is to search stable curcumin analogs [31,32], curcumin delivery...treatment group and a control group (n = 9). Curc-OEG in 0.1 ml PBS at a 25 mg/kg dose was injected via the tail vein to the treatment group mice...human cervical tumor cells via increased reactive oxygen species production and overactivation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol

  17. Breast Cancer-Targeted Nuclear Drug Delivery Overcoming Drug Resistance for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    determined the hydrolysis kinetics of the amide and the toxicity of materials12. The reaction conditions and purification methods were optimized as to make...free LPEI was removed by dialysis . The structure of the LPEI–PCL was characterized by MALDI-TOF MS spectra (Figure 2A) and 1HNMR (Figure 2B...without any purification . Figure 20. 1HNMR spectra of G4-64acrylate (in CDCl3) and G5-128OH (in DMSO-d6). 3.2 Degradable bifunctional dendritic

  18. Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support) Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1...Meteorology Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1 & 2, 2010 Hosted by University

  19. Fear of Public Speaking: How Can I Overcome It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear of public speaking: How can I overcome it? How can I overcome my fear of public speaking? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Fear of public speaking is a common phobia. It can range from ...

  20. Overcoming the isolation of disadvantaged housing areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie; Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    Disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently subject to more thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to overcome the isolated character of the housing estates. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... penthouse flats, new urban functions within the area or spectacular new public spaces near it. In this paper the social impact of such transformations are analysed and discussed based on case-studies in 3 Danish areas. The analysis shows that especially everyday-route strategies adding new public functions...... within the area can pave can the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on context, location and existing image. Social distance may sustain though physical borders are removed, yet, the negative image of the areas can in itself call...

  1. Innovative Strategies to Overcome Biofilm Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Taraszkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the recent literature concerning the efficiency of antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation toward various microbial species in planktonic and biofilm cultures. The review is mainly focused on biofilm-growing microrganisms because this form of growth poses a threat to chronically infected or immunocompromised patients and is difficult to eradicate from medical devices. We discuss the biofilm formation process and mechanisms of its increased resistance to various antimicrobials. We present, based on data in the literature, strategies for overcoming the problem of biofilm resistance. Factors that have potential for use in increasing the efficiency of the killing of biofilm-forming bacteria include plant extracts, enzymes that disturb the biofilm structure, and other nonenzymatic molecules. We propose combining antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with various antimicrobial and antibiofilm approaches to obtain a synergistic effect to permit efficient microbial growth control at low photosensitizer doses.

  2. Overcoming some limitations of imprecise reliability models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The application of imprecise reliability models is often hindered by the rapid growth in imprecision that occurs when many components constitute a system and by the fact that time to failure is bounded from above. The latter results in the necessity to explicitly introduce an upper bound on time...... to failure which is in reality a rather arbitrary value. The practical meaning of the models of this kind is brought to question. We suggest an approach that overcomes the issue of having to impose an upper bound on time to failure and makes the calculated lower and upper reliability measures more precise....... The main assumption consists in that failure rate is bounded. Langrage method is used to solve the non-linear program. Finally, an example is provided....

  3. Overcoming strong metastabilities with the LLR method

    CERN Document Server

    Lucini, Biagio; Langfeld, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, it has been shown that the recently proposed LLR method is very efficient at overcoming strong metastabilities that arise near first-order phase transition points. Here we present a systematic study of the performance of the algorithm near (pseudo-)critical points for $q$-state Potts models with $q$ as large as 20, in two and three dimensions. In particular, we shall focus our study on the ergodicity of the replica exchange step and the underlying physical mechanism. When compared with both analytical and numerical results present in the literature, our determinations of thermodynamic observables (including the order-disorder interface tension at criticality) show an impressive degree of relative accuracy (up to $2.5 \\times 10^{-6}$), which confirms the reliability and the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  4. School-Based Drug Prevention: What Kind of Drug Use Does It Prevent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Paddock, Susan; Chiesa, James

    School-based drug prevention programs target not only the use of illicit drugs such as marijuana but also licit substances such as alcohol and tobacco. These programs thus have the potential of benefiting society not only by reducing the violence and criminal justice costs associated with abuse of alcohol and cigarettes. This opportunity for…

  5. The Geography of Justice: Assessing Local Justice in Colombia’s Post-Conflict Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio García-Villegas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article combines descriptive empirical research with theoretical reflections to offer policy guidelines on what the role of local justice institutions in Colombia’s post-conflict phase should be. The article is divided into two parts. In the first, we present empirical evidence to illustrate the ways in which justice operates differently across the territory. In addition to illustrating these disparities, we also demonstrate the connection between these disparities and some phenomena relevant to understanding the Colombian conflict. Based on these findings, the second part of this article defines the state-building challenge confronted by the Colombian State during the post-conflict phase. Following this part, we propose a solution to this state-building challenge: the State must adopt a combination of efficacy and justice, and we provide guidelines on how a post-conflict justice system can operate to achieve that combination.

  6. Implementation Of Law Number 11 Of 2012 Concerning Child Related Criminal Justice System Concept Restorative Justice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Intan Karangan

    2016-01-01

    ... No. 11 of 2012 on Child Criminal Justice system. This study uses normative namely a study that discusses the problem based on the literature and legislation relating to the matter to be investigated. Law...

  7. Are organizational justice rules gendered? Reactions to men's and women's justice violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleo, Suzette

    2016-10-01

    Research has shown that gender role prescriptions can bias reactions to men's and women's work behaviors. The current work draws upon this idea and extends it to consider violations of procedural and interactional justice rules. The results of four experimental studies demonstrate that men and women receive differential performance evaluation ratings and reward recommendations when they violate those organizational justice rules that coincide with the content of prescriptive gender stereotypes. Specifically, women were rated less favorably than men when they exhibited interactional injustice (Study 1 and Study 4), but not when they engaged in procedural injustice (Study 2). Findings also indicate that interactional justice violations (e.g., being impolite, not caring about the well-being of subordinates), but not procedural justice violations, are deemed less acceptable for female managers than male managers (Study 3). Overall, the findings suggest that reactions to injustice can be influenced by expectations of how men and women should behave. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. The Ethics of Teaching for Social Justice: A Framework for Exploring the Intellectual and Moral Virtues of Social Justice Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Pursuing social justice in education raises ethical questions about teaching practice that have not been fully addressed in the social justice literature. Hytten (2015) initiated a valuable way forward in developing an ethics of social justice educators, drawing on virtue ethics. In this paper, I provide additional support to this effort by…

  9. The Ethics of Teaching for Social Justice: A Framework for Exploring the Intellectual and Moral Virtues of Social Justice Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Pursuing social justice in education raises ethical questions about teaching practice that have not been fully addressed in the social justice literature. Hytten (2015) initiated a valuable way forward in developing an ethics of social justice educators, drawing on virtue ethics. In this paper, I provide additional support to this effort by…

  10. Leadership Education and Development for Justice Using the Canonical Framework of John Rawls's, "A Theory of Justice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Brandon; Zacharakis, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Higher education that presupposes a specific conception of justice does well in preparing students to make claims of justice from specific perspectives or positions. However, civic leadership students with a strong background in specific conceptions of justice are often not equipped with necessary skills, dispositions, and habits to exercise…

  11. Adding the "in" to justice: a qualitative and quantitative investigation of the differential effects of justice rule adherence and violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jason A; Long, David M; Rodell, Jessica B; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D K

    2015-03-01

    Although justice scholars often assume that individuals react to injustice in a manner that is distinct from their reactions to justice, few studies have examined this assumption. Indeed, the most widely utilized measures in the literature assess only the adherence to rules of justice--not their violation. We conducted 2 studies to build and test theory about differential reactions to justice and injustice. An inductive study revealed that reactions to the adherence to justice rules reflected different constructs than reactions to the violations of justice rules. In a follow-up field study, we derived hypotheses for those patterns by drawing on the negativity bias and regulatory focus literatures. Specifically, justice rule violation was predicted to be more relevant to prevention-laden outcomes that represent a high level of vigilance and concerns about safety. Justice rule adherence was predicted to be more relevant to promotion-laden outcomes that represent concerns about becoming the ideal self. The field study supported many of those predictions while showing that a full-range justice measure (i.e., one that sampled both justice rule adherence and justice rule violation) explained more variance in outcomes than existing "truncated" justice measures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Leadership Education and Development for Justice Using the Canonical Framework of John Rawls's, "A Theory of Justice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Brandon; Zacharakis, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Higher education that presupposes a specific conception of justice does well in preparing students to make claims of justice from specific perspectives or positions. However, civic leadership students with a strong background in specific conceptions of justice are often not equipped with necessary skills, dispositions, and habits to exercise…

  13. IMPROVING ACCESS TO DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effective of health policy, and also the implementation process. With the policy development and effective health policy, rational drug uses, sufficient health service budget so a country can overcome the health problems. Besides infrastructures, regulations, distribution and cultural influences; the main obstacles for drug access is drugs affordability if the price of drugs is an important part and determined by many factors, especially the drug status whether is still patent orgenerics that significantly decrease cost of health cares and enhance the drugs affordability. The determination of essential drug prices in developing countries should based on equity principal so that poor people pay cheaper and could afford the essential drugs. WHO predicts two third of world population can not afford the essential drugs in which in developing countries, some are because of in efficient budget allocation in consequence of drug distribution management, including incorrect selection and allocation and also irrational uses. In part these could be overcome by enhancing performances on the allocation pharmacy needs, including the management of information system, inventory management, stock management and the distribution. Key words: access, drugs, essential drugs, generic drugs

  14. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansori Ansori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of the children will determine the future of the nation. The increasing problem of juvenile delinquency in this globalization and information technology era, requires the state to give more attention to the child's future. Application of the criminal justice system for children in Indonesia is as stipulated in Law Number 3 of 1997 potentially detrimental to the child's interests. In practice, the judicial system had many problems, among them is a violation of the rights of children, such as: physical and psychological violence, as well as deprivation of the right to education and welfare. It happened because the juvenile justice system is against to national and international regulations on the protection of children’s rights. Besides that, theory of punishment for the juvenile delinquency still refers to the concept of retribution for the crimes. This concept is not very useful for the development of the child, so the concept need to be repaired with the concept of restorative justice. With this concept, the criminal justice system for the juvenile delinquency, leads to the restoration of the state and the settlement pattern, involving the perpetrator, the victim, their families and engage with the community. This is done with consideration for the protection of children against the law. Whereas in line with this spirit of the restorative justice, it gives birth to the Law No. 11 of 2012 on The Criminal Justice System of Children. How To Cite: Ansori, A. (2014. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 11-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.95

  15. Changes in Juvenile Justice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dennis S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses rising juvenile and youth crime in China, highlighting the essence of Chinese Marxist criminological thought and changing conceptions of delinquency from the postrevolutionary period to the present; examining official responses to delinquency and the recent development of juvenile justice; and suggesting that current delinquency control…

  16. Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. Immigration, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, van der J.P.; Herzog-Evans, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a three volume collection Wolf Legal Publishers presents The Transnational Criminology Manual. We are happy with contributions from more than 100 eminent specialists from the field including scholars from, among others, France (Reims University, Department of Justice) Canada (Montreal University)

  18. Training Social Justice Journalists: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jacob L.; Lewis, Dan A.

    2015-01-01

    Journalism schools are in the midst of sorting through what it means to prepare journalists for a rapidly transitioning field. In this article, we describe an effort to train students in "social justice journalism" at an elite school of journalism. In our ethnographic analysis of its first iteration, we found that this effort failed to…

  19. Social Justice and Media. Media Corner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph A., III, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the end of slavery, women's suffrage, and the civil rights movement were watershed events of social justice in U.S. history. Provides reviews of two media-based sets of instructional materials that can help students understand the struggle by disenfranchised groups to become full participants in society. (CFR)

  20. Social Justice and Dispositions for Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The article identifies dispositions from a thematic investigation of the pedagogical practice of Ernesto Che Guevara and various social movements in the United States. The article outlines and places these dispositions within the context of debates over social justice and dispositions for education program accreditation in the United States that…

  1. Social Justice Competencies and Career Development Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra; Marshall, Catherine; McMahon, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The recent focus on social justice issues in career development is primarily conceptual in nature and few resources account for the challenges or successes experienced by career development practitioners. The purpose of this article is to report the results of a research study of career practitioners in Canada regarding the competencies they use…

  2. Is Diversity Necessary for Educational Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, William S.; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article William New and Michael Merry challenge the notion that diversity serves as a good proxy for educational justice. First, they maintain that the story about how diversity might be accomplished and what it might do for students and society is internally inconsistent. Second, they argue that a disproportionate share of the benefits…

  3. Is diversity necessary for educational justice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    New, W.S.; Merry, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article William New and Michael Merry challenge the notion that diversity serves as a good proxy for educational justice. First, they maintain that the story about how diversity might be accomplished and what it might do for students and society is internally inconsistent. Second, they argue

  4. Human Rights and Teaching for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landorf, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    According to the author, teaching for social justice entails the acquisition of the following learning outcomes: (1) knowledge of the meaning, historical development, and application of human rights; (2) ability to analyze human rights from multiple perspectives; and (3) willingness to address human rights issues in local, global, intercultural,…

  5. Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Criminal Justice and Criminology. Library Research Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Phillip M.

    This guide to sources for students at San Diego State University who are doing library research in Criminal Justice, Criminology, and related subject areas begins by noting that topics in these areas can be researched in a variety of subject disciplines, including psychology, sociology, law, social work, political science, public administration,…

  7. Social Justice Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Muhammed

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the social justice perceptions of teacher candidates being trained in an education faculty. For this purpose, national and international literature was reviewed by the researcher and a 32-item questionnaire was developed and implemented on 237 senior year education faculty students. Data from the questionnaires were…

  8. Miramar College Program Evaluation: Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Bruce; Brumley, Leslie

    Qualitative and quantitative data are presented in this evaluation of the curricular, personnel, and financial status of Miramar College's program in criminal justice. The report first outlines the information gathered in an interview with the program chairperson, conducted to determine program objectives and goals and how they were determined,…

  9. Prabowo and the shortcomings of international justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Nikolas Feith

    2015-01-01

    under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, temporal jurisdiction renders prosecution impossible. This article explores Prabowo’s human rights abuses, and how international criminal law has failed to achieve justice for these crimes. It concludes that Prabowo’s political rise threatens...

  10. Social Justice and Education as Discursive Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Krassimir

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Krassimir Stojanov attempts first to reconstruct the "heart" of Jürgen Habermas's discourse ethics, namely the so-called "principle of universalization" of ethical norms. This principle grounds Habermas's proceduralist account of social justice via equal access of all concerned to the practices of deliberative…

  11. Landscapes, Spatial Justice and Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Felicity

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of a community-based adult education initiative, "Cumbria Credits," which took place during the period of serious economic decline which hit sections of the farming and the wider community in Cumbria during 2001. It draws on the principles underpinning Edward Soja's notion of "spatial justice" to explore transformations…

  12. Seeking Social Justice in the ACRL Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Andrew; Ellenwood, Dave; Gregory, Lua; Higgins, Shana; Lilburn, Jeff; Harker, Yasmin Sokkar; Sweet, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to address the possibilities and challenges librarians concerned with social justice may face when working with the ACRL "Framework." While the "Framework" recognizes that information emerges from varied contexts that reflect uneven distributions of power, privilege, and authority, it is missing a…

  13. Resistance, Justice, and Commitment to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rex D.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on individual responses to organizational change by exploring the relationships among individual resistance, organizational justice, and commitment to change following organizational change implementations in three organizations. To accomplish this, Web-based questionnaires were used to gather individual-level quantitative…

  14. Democracy and Social Justice in Sarajevo's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Peter; Lanahan, Brian Kirby

    2012-01-01

    After the end of the 1992-1995 Bosnian war, the people of Sarajevo found themselves rebuilding their country while also learning to live with their former enemies in this developing democracy. In this study we examined the extent to which democratic practices and social justice values were being taught in Sarajevo's schools. Using a case study…

  15. Social Justice and Cultural Diversity Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Debra A.; Alston, Reginald J.; Turner-Whittaker, Tyra

    2008-01-01

    Early definitions of cultural diversity focused primarily on race/ethnicity, with subsequent inclusion of age, gender, sexual orientation, class, religion, geography, and a combination of positionalities. More recently, social justice has resurfaced as a component of cultural diversity to explain experiences of people of color, women, and…

  16. Sex Role Sterotypes and Justice for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Clarice

    1979-01-01

    Sexual sterotyping affects the incarceration of women, their treatment in prisons and jails, and their reception in the community following release. While women's organizations play a major role in improving conditions facing incarcerated women, they have perpetuated the sterotypes. Because of sex role sterotyping, we have denied justice to women.…

  17. A Framework for Social Justice in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazden, Courtney B.

    2012-01-01

    Political philosopher Nancy Fraser has developed a theory of social justice with three dimensions: Redistribution (economic), recognition (cultural), and representation (political). This article first presents Fraser's theory. Then I describe in her terms the successes and challenges encountered in four primary schools in Australia that were…

  18. Thomas Piketty and the Justice of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøyum, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century" is best known for its documentation of increasing social inequality, but it also has a notable normative aspect. Although Piketty is far less clear on the normative level than on the empirical, his view of justice can be summarised as meritocratic luck egalitarianism. This leads him…

  19. Social Justice and Cultural Diversity Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Debra A.; Alston, Reginald J.; Turner-Whittaker, Tyra

    2008-01-01

    Early definitions of cultural diversity focused primarily on race/ethnicity, with subsequent inclusion of age, gender, sexual orientation, class, religion, geography, and a combination of positionalities. More recently, social justice has resurfaced as a component of cultural diversity to explain experiences of people of color, women, and…

  20. Restorative Justice: Pedagogy, Praxis, and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Brenda E.; Vaandering, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    In the ongoing effort of designing school contexts in support of proactive discipline, a range of practices and theoretical frameworks have been advanced, from behaviorist approaches to social and emotional learning. This article describes the theory and practice of restorative justice with the aim of defining this distinctive paradigm, in…

  1. Solidarity, justice, and recognition of the other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Meulen, Ruud

    2016-12-01

    Solidarity has for a long time been referred to as the core value underpinning European health and welfare systems. But there has been debate in recent years about whether solidarity, with its alleged communitarian content, can be reconciled with the emphasis on individual freedom and personal autonomy. One may wonder whether there is still a place for solidarity, and whether the concept of justice should be embraced to analyse the moral issues regarding access to health care. In this article, I will answer this question by analysing the normative foundations of the concept of justice, followed by a deeper examination of the concept of solidarity in continental philosophy. More specifically, I will compare the philosophical traditions rooted in Kant (with emphasis on autonomy and individual rights) to approaches rooted in Hegel (with emphasis on individual relations of recognition). In addition, I will present the work of Avishai Margalit on the decent society to criticize a predominantly liberal approach to access to health care. The importance of solidarity lies particularly in its emphasis on relational aspects and the role of recognition in care practices, which are usually ignored in liberal approaches to justice. However, the article will argue that solidarity is not an alternative to a rights-based concept of justice, but must be considered as a necessary complement to it.

  2. Naval Justice School Procedure Study Guide. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    number; be personally signed by the convening authority; and show his name, grade, and title -- including organizacion and unit. While R.C.M. 1302(c...accused’s convening authority may, "in his sole Naval Justice School Rev. 10/92 Publica ý on 19-45 Procedure Study Guide discretion," decide to defer the

  3. Codification, access to justice and contractual innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennaioli, N.; Perotti, E.

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of codification of specific contracts on subversion of justice. Contracting on novel transactions face uncertain enforcement because of limited development of judicial expertise. This may allow stronger parties to distort enforcement by investing more in legal argumentation. As a

  4. Military Justice: Courts-Martial, an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    alleged source of leaked classified material through the organization WikiLeaks , have raised questions regarding the mental capacity of the accused...classified material through the organization WikiLeaks , have raised questions regarding the mental capacity of the accused and how the military justice

  5. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  6. Desert, Liberalism and Justice in Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Olafur Pall

    2012-01-01

    Liberal democratic education, as advocated in recent accounts of citizenship education or civic education, is often seen as incompatible with moral education or character education rooted in specific views regarding the virtues. This contrast relies on well established philosophical differences between liberal views of justice and democracy, on…

  7. How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

    2011-01-01

    The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

  8. Environmental Justice and Green-Technology Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an environmental justice (EJ) program adopted by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) as a part of its regulation to phase out a toxic chemical used by dry cleaners. SCAQMD provided financial incentives to switch early and gave establishments in EJ neighborhoods priority in applying for…

  9. Procedural Justice in Dutch Administrative Law Proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, André; Schueler, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss recent developments in administrative court proceedings in the Netherlands, called the New Approach. Along with developments leading to the New Approach, it became clear that the insights from research on procedural justice deserve particular attention. The goals of the judg

  10. Immigration, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, van der J.P.; Herzog-Evans, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a three volume collection Wolf Legal Publishers presents The Transnational Criminology Manual. We are happy with contributions from more than 100 eminent specialists from the field including scholars from, among others, France (Reims University, Department of Justice) Canada (Montreal University)

  11. Justice and Social Equity in Cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the concept of information democracy, or access to information, in relation to information delivery; computerized community-based information systems, including grass-roots nonprofit organizations and private sector activities; the National Information Infrastructure (NII); empowerment; concepts of social justice; and designing the NII.…

  12. Transferring Social Justice Initiatives into Lasallian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proehl, Rebecca A.; Suzuki, Sawako

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a research project that examined the impact of a Lasallian mission formation program on program participants and their institutions. The study found that the program had a powerful impact on the participants personally, and 71% became newly involved or recommitted to social justice initiatives upon returning from the…

  13. Psychopolitical Literacy for Wellness and Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilleltensky, Isaac; Fox, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    Wellness and justice have attracted recent attention in psychology. Both within our discipline and within society at large, more needs to be done to elucidate the link between the two while taking into account the role of power and context. We suggest that wellness is achieved by the balanced and synergistic satisfaction of personal, relational,…

  14. Social Justice Leadership and Family Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMatthews, David E.; Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Rincones, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Research Approach: This in-depth qualitative case study explores one school leader's enactment of social justice leadership in an elementary school in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Analysis of interviews and observations revealed how this leader adapted her leadership to prioritize the severe needs of families and students in one of the world's most…

  15. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  16. Resistance, Justice, and Commitment to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rex D.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on individual responses to organizational change by exploring the relationships among individual resistance, organizational justice, and commitment to change following organizational change implementations in three organizations. To accomplish this, Web-based questionnaires were used to gather individual-level quantitative…

  17. Social Justice and Education as Discursive Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Krassimir

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Krassimir Stojanov attempts first to reconstruct the "heart" of Jürgen Habermas's discourse ethics, namely the so-called "principle of universalization" of ethical norms. This principle grounds Habermas's proceduralist account of social justice via equal access of all concerned to the practices of deliberative…

  18. A step toward a common measure of organizational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharee-Lawler, Saree; Rodwell, John; Noblet, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Dimensions of the organizational justice construct were examined in a public sector context utilizing an organizational justice measure developed by Colquitt in 2001. Exploratory factor analysis and standard error scree test supported four dimensions of justice as measured by Colquitt's scale. There was evidence of a new factor called procedural-voice justice that taps a possible association with the concept of voice. Future research on organizational justice must investigate its dimensionality based on more representative samples to develop a more globally applicable measure.

  19. The Space for Restorative Justice in the Ethiopian Criminal Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalew Lijalem Enyew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative Justice (RJ is an alternative way of apprehending crime and justice which views crime as a violation of a relationship among victims, offenders and community, and which allows the active participation of the crime’s stakeholders. It has the objective of ‘putting right’ the wrong done, to restore the broken relationship and to reintegrate the offender back into society. The Ethiopian criminal justice system views crime primarily as a violation of the state’s criminal laws, either in the form of a commission or omission. It excludes the community from participation, and gives no opportunity to the victim to fully participate in the process. Nor is there a satisfactory legal procedure which enables the public prosecutor to adequately protect the victim’s interest. The focus of the public prosecutor is to have the accused convicted and punished, instead of encouraging them to take responsibility to undo the wrong they have committed. This article thus examines whether restorative justice has a place in the formal legal framework of the existing Ethiopian criminal justice system; and analyses the prospects for, and the challenges that may hinder, the implementation of restorative justice practice in this framework.

  20. OUTLAWING AMNESTY: THE RETURN OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE SCHEMES*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Laplante, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This Article responds to an apparent gap in the scholarly literature which fails to merge the fields of human rights law and international criminal law—a step that would resolve the current debate as to whether any amnesty in transitional justice settings is lawful. More specifically, even though both fields are a subset of transitional justice in general, the discipline of international criminal law still supports the theory of “qualified amnesties” in transitional justice schemes, while international human rights law now stands for the proposition that no amnesty is lawful in those settings. This Article brings attention to this new development through a discussion of the Barrios Altos case. This Article seeks to reveal how an international human rights decision can dramatically impact state practice, thus also contributing to a pending question in international human rights law as to whether such jurisprudence is effective in increasing human rights protections. The Article concludes by looking at the implications of this new legal development in regard to amnesties in order to encourage future research regarding the role of criminal justice in transitional justice schemes. Keywords: Amnesty in the Americas. Transitional Justice. Human Rights Violations