WorldWideScience

Sample records for jussieu paris cedex

  1. Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佩君

    2005-01-01

    Paris, the capital of France, is located in northern France on both banks of the Seine River, 145km from the river’s mouth on the English Channel. A total of 2, 135, 300 inhabitants live in Paris proper, and almost 11 million persons live in greater Paris, which is one of Europe’s largest metropolitan areas. A city of world importance and the business, historic, intellectual, diplomatic, religious, educational, artistic, and tourist center of France, Paris owes its prosperity in large part to its favorable position on the Seine, which has been a major commercial artery since the Roman period.

  2. Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image of Paris was acquired on July 23, 2000 and covers an area of 23 by 20 km. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century BC. Paris is an alluring city boasting many monumental landmarks, such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Louvre, and the Eiffel Tower. Its beautiful gardens, world-class cuisine, high fashion, sidewalk cafes, and intellectual endeavors are well known. The city's cultural life is centered on the Left Bank of the Seine, while business and commerce dominate the Right Bank. The image is located at 48.8 degrees north latitude and 2.3 degrees east longitude. In figure 1, the 4 enlarged areas zoom in to some of the major buildings. In the UPPER LEFT, the Eiffel Tower and its shadow are seen. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 m (1054 ft), compared to its actual height of 303 m (985 ft). In the UPPER RIGHT, the Arc de Triomphe is at the center of the Place de L'etoile, from which radiate 12 major boulevards. In the LOWER LEFT is the Tuileries Garden and the Louvre Museum art its eastern end. In the LOWER RIGHT is the Invalides, the burial place and monument of Napoleon Bonaparte. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. A Microscopic Model for the Liquid Metal - Ionic Solution Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-10

    Chemistry 1. Laboratoire de Physique des Liquides et Electrochimie , Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 752?0 PARIS CEDEX 05, FRANCE...Laboratoire de Physique des Liquides et Electrochimie , Universita Pie=re at Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75230 PARIS CEDEX 05, FRANCE. F. VERICAI 0

  4. CEDEX's supporting activities through the Cooperation fund for Water and Sanitation; Apoyo del CEDEX a las actuaciones del Fondo de cooperacion para Agua y Saneamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Marrero, I. del

    2015-07-01

    This paper deals with the activities CEDEX has being doing since 2012, Giving Technical support to the cooperation fund for Water and Sanitation (Fondo de Cooperacion para Agua y Saneamiento-FCAS), of the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation. Throughout the document, the different activities carried out by the CEDEX up to now, are briefly described. They have mainly consisted in giving technical support during the formulation, review and monitoring of the tasks derived from the FCAS programs, capacity buildings, and preparing technical guides and recommendations concerning different subjects. The FCAS programs concerns water planning water supply and sanitation planning as well as water supply and sanitation (sewerage and wastewater treatment plants) construction projects. The paper ends up presenting a set of conclusions and lessons learned extracted from this period working for the FCAS, as well as the main courses of action projected for the future collaboration works. (Author)

  5. The Role of Cedex s Railway Inter operability Laboratory (RIL) in the European ERTMS; Actuaciones del Laboratorio de Interoperabilidad ferroviaria (LIF) del CEDEX en el despliegue Europeo ERTMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamarit Rodriguez de Huici, J.

    2015-07-01

    The RIL is the most recently laboratory set up within CEDEXs premises. From the start, it has aimed to support the development of rail transport at both European and Spanish levels. This article describes the role played by CEDEX-RIL in the development of ERTMS, and the close link which from its inception, has existed between this system and the EMSET project, in which the feasibility of the European Railway inter operability was demonstrated with the participation of the whole European signalling industry. The key factor for the success of this project was the creation of both and independent laboratory and testing sites which, right from the very beginning, enjoyed the confidence of the industry, thus allowing for the first time the execution of cross tests between companies. Finally, and equally important, this paper shows the fruitful evolution followed by the laboratory aforementioned, which, from its establishment, has evolved from performing tests on generic ERTMS constituents to undertaking, first, remote tests jointly carried out between specific commercial projects with different suppliers on track and on-board; and, second, Handover tests between diverse RBC suppliers. (Author)

  6. Extended Abstracts, International Society of Electrochemistry (36th) Held at Salamanca, Spain on 23-28 September 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-28

    Paris Cedex 05, France. ** Departamento de Fisoco-Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas , Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, 1428 Nunez Buenos Aires...34, Universit6 Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75230 Paris Cedex 05, France. *Departamento de Fisoco-Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas ...C.MONTEMAYOR, J.M.VARA and E.FATAS Departamento de Electroquimica. Facultad de Ciencias . Universi- dad Aut6noma de Madrid. 28049 MADRID. Spain

  7. Paris 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Kompendium for 5 dages intensiv studietur i Paris med hovedvægt på ny arkitektur og byomdannelse i byernes by.......Kompendium for 5 dages intensiv studietur i Paris med hovedvægt på ny arkitektur og byomdannelse i byernes by....

  8. Interdisciplinary Conference on Electrified Interfaces Held in Asilomar, California on September 16-21, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Physique des Liquides et Electrochimie Tour 22135 Dr. Sardar K. Bahador 4 Place Jussieu Department Industrial Chemistry 75252 - Paris Cedex 05 Kyoto...SnO FILMS 2 J. BRUNEAUX H. CACHET, M. FROMENT and A. MESSAD LP 15 CNRS "Physique des Liquides et Electrochimie ", Universiti Pierre et Marie Curie, Tour

  9. Paris Noir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a six-credit study abroad program open to undergraduate and graduate students through Syracuse University that explores historical, cultural, and intellectual connections between African Americans and Paris. (EV)

  10. ISO 9001: Quality management systems. The experience of the centre for hydro graphic studies (CEDEX); ISO 9001: Sistemas de gestion de la calidad. La experiencia del Centro de Estudios Hidrograficos del CEDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Garcia, A. M.; Aviles Garcia, J.; Gonzalez Ramos, M. E.; Diago Sanchez, I.

    2010-07-01

    The Spanish government is developing several plans and programmes in order to introduce the quality culture and instruments in the various institutions, looking for efficient and committed public organizations, providers of quality services. To achieve the commitment to improve and modernize the Administration, the Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX) has decided the implementation and certification of a Quality Management System according to ISO 9001: standard at the Centro de Estudios Hidrograficos as pilot experience. (Author) 5 refs.

  11. ASTER Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Eiffel Tower and its shadow can be seen next to the Seine in the left middle of this ASTER image of Paris. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 meters (1,054 feet), compared to its actual height of 303 meters (985 feet). Acquired on July 23, 2000, this image covers an area 23 kilometers (15 miles) wide and 20 kilometers (13 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century B.C.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the

  12. CEDEX research activities in Antarctica. Aquatic ecosystems in Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, maritime Antarctica); Actividad investigadora del CEDEX en la Antartida. Ecosistemas acuaticos de la Peninsula Byers (Isla Livingston, Antartida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro, M.; Quesada, A.; Camacho, A.; Oliva, M.; Alcami, A.; Antoniades, D.; Banon, M.; Fassnacht, S.; Fernandez-Valiente, E.; Galan, L.; Giralt, S.; Granados, I.; Justel, A.; Liu, E. J.; Lopez-Bravo, A.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Rastrojo, A.; Rico, E.; Rochera, C.; Van de Vijver, B.; Velazquez, D.; Villaescusa, J. A.; Vicent, W. F.

    2015-07-01

    Since 2001 CEDEX has taken part in many Antarctic joint research projects with different institutions from Spain and other countries, developing scientific activities in the International Camp of Byers Peninsular (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). This place was designed as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area (No.126) because the importance and value of its terrestrial and aquatic habitats. It is one of the largest ice-free areas of maritime Antarctica, with the highest diversity of environments and geological, hydrological and biological processes in the whole region, all of them in a pristine state. Byers Peninsula is considered the most significant limnological area in the Antarctic Peninsula region because it hosts a high number of lakes, ponds and streams, with an exceptional fauna and flora diversity, including the most singular, representative or endemic Antarctic species. Furthermore, the lakes sedimentary record is one of the widest and complete archives in Antarctic Peninsula region for the palaeocological and climatic study of the Holocene. Because Byers Peninsula is an Antarctic biodiversity hotspot, and it is located in one of the areas in the Earth where global warming is being more significant, it must be considered as a suitable international reference site for limnetic, terrestrial and coastal studies, and long term monitoring programmes. (Author)

  13. Amsterdam Paris Stockholm meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    We are glad to welcome you in Paris at IAP for the third edition of the Amsterdam-Paris-Stockholm workshop, which will be held from December 16th to 18th 2013. Please register in order for us to know how many of you intend to participate.

  14. Paris i kroppen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    Bjørn Laursen argumenterer i artiklen Paris i kroppen – kroppen i Paris for notat-skitsebogen som et velegnet medie til indsamling og navnlig akkumulation af bevidsthedsmæssigt relevant fagligt stof ved at give indblik i sin egen brug af den. Artiklen forsøger at låne oplevelsesmæssigt og analytisk...

  15. Paris Offscreen: Chinese Tourists in Cinematic Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.-A. O. Dung (Yun-An Olivia); S.L. Reijnders (Stijn)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article examines from a European-Asian perspective the relationship between media representations and the tourist’s imagination. We use the case of Chinese tourists in Paris to investigate how these non-European tourists imagine Europe, and how these imaginations

  16. Bikes around Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余占

    2007-01-01

    Paris—a dream city for many people!It’s a city of food and art.And since this summer,it has become a city of bicycles. On July 15,when Paris people woke up,they found thousands of bikes in hundreds of bicycle

  17. Foodscapes in Paris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandhøj, Mia; Christensen, Camilla Berg; Nygaard, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    The report in hand is the result from work conducted on a PhD- course in Foodscapes, held in Paris, France, May 2011. The foodscapes approach in both data collection and throughout the report is applied as perspectives given from a couple of complementary foodscapes understandings, operating...

  18. GHG monitoring over Paris megacity and Orléans forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Zanon, T.; Boursier, C.; Janssen, C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lac, C.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

    2012-12-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) are increasing continuously. Their monitoring and control in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS[a], model IFS 125HR) of the QualAir platform located in downtown Paris at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is a scientific research instrument dedicated to the survey of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air quality. Equipped with a sun-tracker, the remote sensing QualAir FTS relies on solar infrared absorption for monitoring trace gas concentrations and their variability in the Ile-de-France region[b]. Concentrations of atmospheric GHGs, especially CO2, CH4 and N2O, are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT[c]. Because Paris is the third largest European megacity, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary measurements as compared to existing ground-based FTS network stations (NDACC and TCCON) located in unpolluted environments, such as the TCCON-Orléans station[d] situated in the forest of Orléans (100 km south of Paris). In the effort to integrate QualAir FTS into the TCCON network, simultaneous FTS measurements of GHGs at Paris and Orléans have been performed. We will emphasize on comparisons of CO2 from these two sites. Our comparison will be completed by high-resolved direct CO2 modeling outputs from the Meso-NH model, and ground in situ measurements at different sites (Orléans/Trainou, Paris/Jussieu, Paris/Eiffel Tower). Parts of the data were acquired in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project[e, f], whose main goal is to quantify CO2 emissions from the Paris area. The present data intercomparison will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to better characterize regional GHG fluxes

  19. Discover Paris with Jules Verne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Anna E.

    1996-01-01

    An approach to teaching French literature that uses a Jules Verne novel published only in 1994 is described. The novel, "Paris in the 20th Century," is the basis for a series of written and oral exercises about the novel, its social and cultural context, the author, and the actual changes that have occurred in Paris in comparison with…

  20. Physics buzz in Paris

    CERN Multimedia

    Katie Yurkewicz

    2010-01-01

    The International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP) took place from 22 to 28 July in Paris, and first results from the Large Hadron Collider experiments received top billing.   More than 1,100 physicists gathered in the Palais des Congrès conference centre to attend ICHEP, the world’s premier particle physics conference, where scientists presented and discussed the latest and most intriguing results from experiments in particle physics, particle astrophysics and cosmology, innovative theoretical approaches and predictions, and concepts for future accelerators and particle detectors. The buzz about the LHC experiments caught the eye of French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who addressed the conference on Monday 26 July. President Sarkozy exhorted the particle physics community to continue its quest to understand the nature of the Universe, and stated his belief that investment in fundamental research is critical for the progress of mankind. Steve Myers started off the mo...

  1. Postcard from Paris

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this week I was in Paris to join particle physicists from around the world at the International Conference on High-Energy Physics, ICHEP 2010. This conference series began in 1950 as the ‘Rochester series’, named for the original venue in the US, and its meetings rapidly became the place to present the latest results and discoveries.   Particle physics has certainly come a long way since those early days. In 60 years, the meetings have witnessed the birth and growth of CERN, the development of the current Standard Model of particles and their interactions - and now the first results from a truly international project, the LHC. I’d had the opportunity to be present at some of the previous meetings where important discoveries were announced, but this was the first time I had the privilege to attend as the Director-General of the laboratory that was the focus of much of the attention. It is clear from many of the people with whom I talked that the high quality ...

  2. Paris in Boston: A Photo Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Dzamba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is intriguing how certain scenes of Boston resemble those of Paris. In fact, the architects of some of Boston’s most famous buildings of the nineteenth century studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. The influence of Paris can be found everywhere in Boston, especially among the hotel images in this photo essay.

  3. A Short Stay in Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Treasures from China’s Palace Museum will be displayed at the Louvre in France For the first time in its history,part of the royal antiquity collection at the Palace Museum in China will journey abroad.It will be displayed at the Louvre Museum in Paris from September 26,2011 to January 9,2012.This is no doubt good news for

  4. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  5. [Nurses with the Paris Fire Brigade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boulleur, Thibaud; Damas, Cécile Rodrigues; Lefort, Hugues; Lamache, Christophe; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Domanski, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    The army nurses of the Paris Fire Brigade serve the population of Paris and three adjacent departments. They receive induction as well as continuous training and work within the mobile pre-hospital medical teams. In addition to their day-to-day support of firefighters, they train, teach and participate in clinical research and development.

  6. 'Old Paris is no more'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2000-01-01

    the critique of the spectacle developed by the situationist Guy Debord. It situates his writings on the subject back into the context of his engagements with the modern city between the 1950s and 1970s, and especially in Paris where he spent much of his life. In particular, it reads them in terms of both his...... bleak view of urban change and alienation under capitalism as well as the ‘glimmers of light’ that he found in ‘the setting sun of this city’. Debord’s attachment to certain urban sites within this critique of urban spectacle was often nostalgic. Yet it can also be understood as part of his concern...

  7. Polaris Instrument Development and PARI Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    At the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in Rosman, NC I spent 8 weeks as the NC Space Grant/J. Donald Cline Astronomy Scholar. I developed multiple projects and assisted as a mentor to PARI Space Science Lab and Duke TIP high school gifted student program which both took place during my stay. My main focus was the development of the Polaris imaging telescope. This telescope is used to take images of the pulsating variable star Polaris. These readings are used to make seeing estimates for the air column above PARI. The system stores and archives images and analyzes them for magnitude change and movement of the stellar image. In addition to the Polaris project I developed a solar panel voltage and charge monitoring system which involved me working with charge controllers and photovoltaic technology. I developed a charging scheme using Flexmax 60 charge controller. Data is recorded and transmitted via optical fiber for analysis and correlation with solar zenith angle.

  8. KARAKTERISASI GLIKOSAMINOGLIKAN DARI TULANG RAWAN IKAN PARI AIR LAUT (Neotrygon kuhlii DAN PARI AIR TAWAR (Himantura signifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Riyanto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ikan pari merupakan komoditas perikanan yang populasinya besar di Indonesia, tetapi pemanfaatannyabelum optimal. Jaringan tulang rawan ikan pari mengandung molekul glikosaminoglikan dan telahdimanfaatkan dalam terapi osteoarthritis. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan karakteristikglikosaminoglikan dari tulang rawan ikan pari air laut (Neotrygon kuhlii dan pari air tawar (Himanturasignifer. Spektrum FTIR memperlihatkan pola yang sama dengan kondroitin sulfat. Konsentrasiglikosaminoglikan pada pari air laut adalah 74,767 mg/100 mL, konsentrasi ini lebih tinggi dibandingkandari ikan pari air tawar, yaitu 66,767 mg/100 mL.Kata kunci: glikosaminoglikan, Himantura signifer, kondroitin sulfat, Neotrygon kuhlii, osteoarthritis

  9. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, René A; Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Pham, Huyên; Taflin, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the third volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by René Carmona, Ivar Ekeland/Erik Taflin, Arturo Kohatsu-Higa, Pierre-Louis Lions/Jean-Michel Lasry, and Hyuên Pham.

  10. Paris and Then? Holding States to Account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.

    2016-01-01

    So much focus is now given to getting the Paris agreement on climate change “right,” particularly that the intended nationally determined commitments (INDCs) should be ambitious, effective, and fair. But what about the morning after? There is no automatism in international norms, whether legally bin

  11. IMS LD. Paris Conference, April 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    3 presentations run in Paris, France, in Apri 1st, 2005, in the Cité des Sciences, sponsored by UNFOLD Project and l'AFNOR about the following topics: - Update on UNFOLD CoP Valkenburg meeting 2005 - Creating a UoL - Introducing CopperCore

  12. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies, underscores the…

  13. IMS LD. Paris Conference, April 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    3 presentations run in Paris, France, in Apri 1st, 2005, in the Cité des Sciences, sponsored by UNFOLD Project and l'AFNOR about the following topics: - Update on UNFOLD CoP Valkenburg meeting 2005 - Creating a UoL - Introducing CopperCore

  14. CTAF Paris, the New Geography of Sourcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yanwei; Tang Rong

    2011-01-01

    On September 19th 2011, a magnificent Chinese apparel salute drew its curtain at Le Bourget Expo Center, Paris. Sponsored by China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC), organized by the Sub-Council of Textile Industry, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT TEX), China National Garment Association and Messe Frankfurt French Subsidiary,

  15. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies,…

  16. Apparel Sourcing Will Shine in Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2011-01-01

    This September, Messe Frankfurt France would stage a new international platform for apparel and fashion accessories sourcing, Apparel Sourcing (App), for the first time in Paris. First launched in the US in 2010, the French edition of Apparel Sourcing wou

  17. Paris through the eyes of IS supporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanninga, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The attacks in Paris have led to huge debates about the perpetrators and their backgrounds, the strategies of the Islamic State, security policies in Europe, the role of Islam in the West, the possible risks of refugees and the most effective measures to “degrade and destroy” the Islamic State in Sy

  18. Berlin – Paris – Tokyo. KARTOGRAFI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross; Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2010-01-01

    og bevægelse (2008). Resultaterne er blevet publiceret i bogen: Kartografi – Morfologi – Topologi. Arkitektskolens Forlag 2009. Dette forskningsarbejde er blevet fulgt op med en række nye studier, der i stedet for at have Hydra som topografisk udgangspunkt arbejder med tre udsnit af Berlin, Paris og...

  19. Scientific Respiratory Symposium, Paris June 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalglish G

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gavin Dalglish, Graham PriestleyHorizon Medical Publishing, Chichester, UKAbstract: At a 2010 Respiratory Symposium in Paris, chaired by Professors Bousquet and Roche of the University of Paris, recent trends in research, therapy and treatment guidelines for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD were reviewed and discussed by a faculty of expert European and US respiratory physicians. This article reviews five key clinical presentations with particular emphasis given to the importance of small airways in the pathology and treatment of asthma and COPD. Further analysis of the economics of treatment in Europe and the US shows a wide variance in direct and indirect costs.Keywords: COPD, asthma, small airways, real-life clinical practice

  20. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Çinlar, Erhan; Ekeland, Ivar; Jouini, Elyes; Scheinkman, José; Touzi, Nizar

    2004-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the second volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. This volume presents the following articles: "Hedging of Defaultable Claims" by T. Bielecki, M. Jeanblanc, and M. Rutkowski; "On the Geometry of Interest Rate Models" by T. Björk; "Heterogeneous Beliefs, Speculation and Trading in Financial Markets" by J.A. Scheinkman, and W. Xiong.

  1. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  2. Beyond Paris: 11 innovations in aid effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Morris; Jonathan Pryke

    2011-01-01

    The current framework for improving aid effectiveness, the 'Paris' agenda of harmonisation and alignment, has been found lacking. Alternatives are needed. This paper highlights some examples of recent innovations in the management and delivery of development aid. Drawing upon Barder (2009) and Howes (2011), the paper structures 11 innovations into three categories: improving the quality of the aid donor; improving the quality of the aid recipient; and improving how donors interact and the way...

  3. The 7th CTAF Takes Off in Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Rong

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of European economic downturn, Chinese foreign trade and export business are confronting with grimmer challenge. From January to July 2012, the export volume of China's export to Europe decreased by 3.6%. Under such economic background, the 7th China Textile and Apparel Trade Fair (Paris), so called the Apparel Sourcing Paris (APP) was due to kick off at Le Bourget Exhibition Center from Sep 17th to 20th in Paris.

  4. Plaster of Paris: the orthopaedic surgeon heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Plastering is one of the most ancient of the building handicrafts. Plaster is the common name for calcium sulphate hemi hydrate made by heating the mineral gypsum, the common name for sulphate of lime. In the tenth century the Arabs used liquid plaster in orthopaedic treatment. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, patients with fractures of the lower extremities-and often of the upper extremities as well-were treated in bed with restriction of all activity for many weeks until the fractures united. It was the practice of surgeons to dress wounds and fractures at frequent intervals. The bandages, pads, and splints were removed, the fractures manipulated, and the dressings reapplied. The search for simpler, less cumbersome methods of treatment led to the development of occlusive dressings, stiffened at first with starch and later with plaster of Paris. The ambulatory treatment of fractures was the direct result of these innovations. Two military surgeons, Antonius Mathijsen of the Netherlands, and Nikolai Ivanovitch Pirogov of Russia, were responsible for the introduction of the new plaster bandage technique. At the beginning of the twentieth century the technique was improved by Jean-François Calot, a French surgeon, who invented the hand manufacture of plaster bandage as a roll. During the twentieth century, walking cast and ambulation for fresh fractures were developed with plaster and pin incorporated in plaster; the open fracture care concept was introduced with plaster of Paris by Trueta before the external fixation.

  5. The Paris agreement: one year after

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouzel, J.

    2016-12-01

    Even if there is an important gap between the nationally determined contributions and the 2°C objective - of the order of 15 gigatonnes CO2 equivalent in 2030 - the agreement adopted in Paris last december (COP21) is largely considered as a success. This can be explained by the fact that this agreement - now signed by practically all countries - comes after the partial failure of the Kyoto protocol (COP3) - which has not been ratified by the US, the first emitting country in the late nineties - and the lack of ambition of the Copenhagen agreement (COP15). One year after COP21, the COP of « decision » and a few weeks after COP22, the COP of « action » to be held in Marrakech, it will be interesting to see if the Paris momentum has been kept. Is the ratification of the agreement, which requires 55 countries representing at least 55 of global emissions, under way ? Are there signs of stabilization of greenhouse gas emissions and some hope of increased ambition in terms of reduction of emissions after 2020 ? The 1°5 °C objective which will be the focus of an IPCC special report to be published in 2018 will also be discussed.

  6. Pariisi kord = Paris' move / João Francisco Figueira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Figueira, João Francisco, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Pariisi nõustamisprojektide rahvusvahelisest võistlusest "Le Grand Pari(s)". Sooviti saada julget ja elluviidavat projekti Pariisi arenguks aastani 2050. Osales kümme kutsutud arhitektide, planeerijate ja ekspertide töörühma. Osade tööde mõningaid aspekte tutvustav käsitlus

  7. Pariisi kord = Paris' move / João Francisco Figueira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Figueira, João Francisco, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Pariisi nõustamisprojektide rahvusvahelisest võistlusest "Le Grand Pari(s)". Sooviti saada julget ja elluviidavat projekti Pariisi arenguks aastani 2050. Osales kümme kutsutud arhitektide, planeerijate ja ekspertide töörühma. Osade tööde mõningaid aspekte tutvustav käsitlus

  8. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  9. Expedition Paris-Beijing by Bicycle 2008 Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>From March 15 to17, at the invitation of the Euro-Chinese Friendship Association (ECFA) of France, a CPAFFC representative attended the launching ceremony of the Expedition Paris-Beijing by Bicycle 2008 in Paris, during which he met with officials of the National Commission on Decentralized Cooperation (Commission Nationale de la Cooperation Decentralisee-CNCD) of France.

  10. Paris 2000 researches and men; Paris 2000 des recherches et des hommes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The IWA and ISWA congresses organized in Paris in july showed the latest research developments in the field of water and wastes management. The water sector is more mature than the waste sector but for both a closer association of the public and private is increasing. A summary of the presentations in successively the water and the wastes management is proposed bringing an analysis of the international situation and regulations. (A.L.B.)

  11. Le festin des trois dames de Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre-Bidon, Danièle

    2008-01-01

    Les Parisiennes du XIIIe siècle ont mauvaise réputation. Non contentes de mal se tenir à table, elles se gavent et s'enivrent, parlent des vins en professionnelles de l'œnologie, suggérant une longue expérience de beuveries, et, surtout, se passent des hommes pour festoyer. Exclus de la convivialité féminine, ceux-ci se vengent en vers : c'est l'objet d'un poème comique, un fabliau, qui leur promet un sort funeste : le coma éthylique des trois dames de Paris les fait enterrer vives au ...

  12. Can the Paris Agreement stop global warming?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howalt Owe, Selina; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    in the year 2030 of about 55 Gt Carbon to 40 Gt Carbon. This can be compared to an approximate emission of 35 Gt in 2014 and thus means that a global rise in emission of only 5 Gt Carbon is allowed over the next 15 years Using the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS)model [1] we have investigated...... how large an emission reduction is necessary to keep the global temperatures below these targets.The DCESS model is a low order Earth system box model which includes atmosphere, ocean, ocean sediment, land biosphere and lithosphere components, and using the year 1765 as the preindustriallevel. We have...... examined different emission scenarios and the national commitments and find that even if the Paris Agreement is fulfilled, global temperatures will have increased by 1.5 degree C in 2030, and then only a yearly percentage reduction of 5% or more will be sufficient to keep temperatures below 2 degree C...

  13. Origin of the Societe des Americanistes, Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Pascal Riviale (1991 produced a two volume dissertation summarizing the work of French scholars involved in anthropology, ethnography, and archaeology in Peru from the beginning of Peruvian independence in 1821 up until World War 1. From the commentary, it is clear that not only does this volume trace individual scholars, and institu­tions involved in archaeologically-related research, but it develops a number of general intellectual themes as well. Riviale has recently (1996 extracted a portion of his dissertation relating to the events leading up to the founding of the Society of Americanists, Paris, in 1895. Because he is focusing in this case on the origin of a specific organiza­tion, he concentrates on exegesis of the institutional antecedents from 1821 onward.

  14. Gabriel Tarde (Sarlat 1843 - Paris 1904

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Salmon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fils d’un juge d’instruction près du tribunal civil de Sarlat, Gabriel Tarde se destina à son tour à cette profession. Bachelier ès sciences et ès lettres, il avait du renoncer à son projet de préparer Polytechnique suite à des troubles ophtalmologiques et avait poursuivit ses études à la Faculté de Droit de Toulouse, il les acheva à Paris en 1866 diplômé d’une licence. Secrétaire assistant du Juge de Sarlat en 1867, puis nommé Juge suppléant au Parquet de Sarlat en septembre 1869, il devint ...

  15. Monitoring Polaris and Seeing Conditions at PARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, April

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was originally built by NASA to track and collect data from satellites. The location in the Pisgah National Forest was chosen due to the excellent ability of the surrounding mountains to block radio interference and light pollution. The PARI observatory has been monitoring Polaris for over 10 years and has amassed a large collection of images of the star and those surrounding it. While several telescopes have been used throughout the project, we are currently using a Omni XLT Series Celestron and an SBIG ST-8300M CCD camera with a 0.70 arcsecond/pixel ratio. The software is run on Windows, however, we will be making a switch to Linux and implementing a new program to control the camera. The new images, once converted to a usable format (ST10 to FITS), can be automatically fed into an in-house Java program to track the variability of the star and simultaneously determine the seeing conditions experienced on the campus. Since we have several years worth of data, the program will also be used to provide a history of variability and seeing conditions. We ultimately hope to be able to track the possible changes in variability of Polaris, as it's current location on the HR diagram is being studied. The data could also prove valuable for our on-site scientists and many visiting students to study on campus. We are also developing a relative scale for our seeing conditions, accompanied by FWHM measurements in arcseconds that will can be compared to those of surrounding observatories in mountainous areas.

  16. Future Heat Waves in Paris Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulant, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Somot, S.; Masson, V.

    2010-12-01

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to heat waves, firstly because they concentrate the majority of the population and, secondly because the heat island that characterizes the urban climate exacerbates heat wave effects. This work is part of the interdisciplinary VURCA project (Vulnerability of cities to heat waves), which deals with the evolution of heat wave events in the context of global warming, urban vulnerability and adaptation strategies. The aim of this study is to analyse urban heat wave events in present climate (1950-2009) and their evolution in an enhanced greenhouse gazes future climate (2010-2100). We used daily observations of temperature from several stations covering Paris metropolitan area and climate projections following three different IPCC-SRES scenarios (B1, A1B, A2) and issued from several ENSEMBLES regional climate models. The heat wave definition is based on the indexes of the operational French warning system. A heat wave is detected within observed or simulated time-series by a heat wave peak, when the temperatures exceed the value of the 99.9th percentile. Its duration is determined by all adjacent days to this peak, for which the temperatures are not durably smaller than the 99.9th percentile value minus 2 °C. The 99.9th percentile threshold is inferred from quantile-quantile plots produced for each climate model in comparison with observations for the reference period 1950-2000. Heat waves have been extracted within observations and 12 climatic simulations. The number of heat wave events and cumulated HW days per year have been calculated, the maximum being seven heat waves cumulating more than 60 HW days in one year in the case of the A2 scenario and until 50 days in the case of the more moderate A1B scenario. From 2050, the occurrence of three or four HW events per year is becoming the norm all scenarios taken together. The evolution of heat wave features has been analysed, highlighting the large variability of the climatic

  17. Paris, Texas. Saksamaal ja sinu peas / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi

    2010-01-01

    6.- 12. oktoobrini Tallinnas ja Tartus toimuval filmifestivalil "Uus Saksa Kino" saab vaadata Wim Wendersi muusikadokumentaale. "Film ja filosoofia" rubriigis koha- ja rahvusespetsiifika eksistentsist tänapäeva filmikunstis ja W. Wendersi filmist "Paris, Texas" (USA 1984)

  18. Paris, Texas. Saksamaal ja sinu peas / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi

    2010-01-01

    6.- 12. oktoobrini Tallinnas ja Tartus toimuval filmifestivalil "Uus Saksa Kino" saab vaadata Wim Wendersi muusikadokumentaale. "Film ja filosoofia" rubriigis koha- ja rahvusespetsiifika eksistentsist tänapäeva filmikunstis ja W. Wendersi filmist "Paris, Texas" (USA 1984)

  19. The Paris Observatory has 350 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequeux, James

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Observatory is the oldest astronomical observatory that has worked without interruption since its foundation to the present day. The building due to Claude Perrault is still in existence with few modifications, but of course other buildings have been added all along the centuries for housing new instruments and laboratories. In particular, a large dome has been built on the terrace in 1847, with a 38-cm diameter telescope completed in 1857: both are still visible. The main initial purpose of the Observatory was to determine longitudes. This was achieved by Jean-Dominique Cassini using the eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter: a much better map of France was the produced using this method, which unfortunately does not work at sea. Incidentally, the observation of these eclipses led to the discovery in 1676 of the finite velocity of light by Cassini and Rømer. Cassini also discovered the differential rotation of Jupiter and four satellites of Saturn. Then, geodesy was to be the main activity of the Observatory for more than a century, culminating in the famous Cassini map of France completed around 1790. During the first half of the 19th century, under François Arago, the Observatory was at the centre of French physics, which then developed very rapidly. Arago initiated astrophysics in 1810 by showing that the Sun and stars are made of incandescent gas. In 1854, the new director, Urbain Le Verrier, put emphasis on astrometry and celestial mechanics, discovering in particular the anomalous advance of the perihelion of Mercury, which was later to be a proof of General Relativity. In 1858, Leon Foucault built the first modern reflecting telescopes with their silvered glass mirror. Le Verrier created on his side modern meteorology, including some primitive forecasts. The following period was not so bright, due to the enormous project of the Carte du Ciel, which took much of the forces of the Observatory for half a century with little scientific return. In

  20. From Paris to the End of Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Harald Claes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We analyze these issues by first locating oil in the overall energy system, then identifying possibilities and obstacles at various stages of the oil value chain, and finally by contextualizing global oil by discussing whether and how it may be affected by geopolitics and regional conflict. In brief, our argument is that developments in consumption volumes and patterns will be most important. Market forces are vital, but they are influenced by politics and public policy outcomes. Transportation is the most important sector for oil consumption, with changes in transport behavior, modes and technology being vital drivers. The behavior of investors will be a decisive factor in shaping the production side of the oil system. If investments go down as a response to lasting low oil prices and/or because investors decide to turn to green economy options, the supply of oil will logically shrink. On the other hand, the growth and development aspirations of a rapidly growing population in developing countries are likely to stimulate demand and thus increase exploration, production and subsequently the price. Finally, we emphasize the importance of (geopolitics influencing all aspects of the value chain of oil.

  1. From Paris to the End of Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Harald Claes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We analyze these issues by first locating oil in the overall energy system, then identifying possibilities and obstacles at various stages of the oil value chain, and finally by contextualizing global oil by discussing whether and how it may be affected by geopolitics and regional conflict. In brief, our argument is that developments in consumption volumes and patterns will be most important. Market forces are vital, but they are influenced by politics and public policy outcomes. Transportation is the most important sector for oil consumption, with changes in transport behavior, modes and technology being vital drivers. The behavior of investors will be a decisive factor in shaping the production side of the oil system. If investments go down as a response to lasting low oil prices and/or because investors decide to turn to green economy options, the supply of oil will logically shrink. On the other hand, the growth and development aspirations of a rapidly growing population in developing countries are likely to stimulate demand and thus increase exploration, production and subsequently the price. Finally, we emphasize the importance of (geopolitics influencing all aspects of the value chain of oil.

  2. On a Fast p-ary m-Sequence Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小虎; 范平志

    2004-01-01

    m-Sequences have been used widely in many applications, but the corresponding computation of the correlation-detection is overwhelming N2 operations, where N is the length of the m-sequence, such that it is unpractical. In this paper, a transform from p-ary m-sequence matrices to generalized Hadamard matrices is developed; and then by the fast generalized Hadamard matrices transform, a fast p-ary m-sequence transform is developed. The results show that the computation can be dramatically reduced from N2 to NlogpN operations, so the fast p-ary m-sequence transform could enable a rapid correlation-detection at the receiver.

  3. PARIS: Probabilistic Alignment of Relations, Instances, and Schema

    CERN Document Server

    Suchanek, Fabian M; Senellart, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges that the Semantic Web faces is the integration of a growing number of independently designed ontologies. In this work, we present PARIS, an approach for the automatic alignment of ontologies. PARIS aligns not only instances, but also relations and classes. Alignments at the instance level cross-fertilize with alignments at the schema level. Thereby, our system provides a truly holistic solution to the problem of ontology alignment. The heart of the approach is probabilistic, i.e., we measure degrees of matchings based on probability estimates. This allows PARIS to run without any parameter tuning. We demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm and its precision through extensive experiments. In particular, we obtain a precision of around 90% in experiments with some of the world's largest ontologies.

  4. Le Paris des Ottomans à la Belle Epoque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kreiser

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available  « Hakir Alamanda iken Firansada, ehr-i Paris'i medh ederlerdi emma görmedim »(On a fait l'éloge de la ville de Paris en France pendant le séjour en Allemagne de ce pauvre, mais je ne l'ai pas vu (Evliyâ Çelebi Les premiers hôtes turcs arrivèrent en 1581 à Paris pour remettre au roi Henri III une invitation à participer aux festivités organisées pour la circoncision du fds du sultan régnant, Murad III. L'ambassadeur français à Venise qui, depuis des mois retenait les Turcs, les empêchant de...

  5. Water in type I chondrules of Paris CM chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephant, A.; Remusat, L.; Robert, F.

    2017-02-01

    Hydrogen isotopic ratio and water concentration have been measured with the NanoSIMS in olivine, pyroxene and mesostasis in individual chondrules from the carbonaceous chondrites Paris (CM2), Renazzo (CR2) and ordinary chondrite Bishunpur (LL3). On average, chondrule pyroxenes in Renazzo, Bishunpur and Paris contain 893 ± 637 ppm (1SD), 879 ± 536 ppm and 791 ± 227 ppm H2O, respectively. Concentration of H2O in Chondrule olivines from Renazzo and Bishunpur is 156 ± 44 ppm and 222 ± 123 ppm, respectively. Olivines in the Paris chondrules have high water concentration (603 ± 145-1051 ± 253 ppm H2O) with a minimum mean value of 645 ± 99 ppm. δD ranges from -212 ± 125‰ to 15 ± 156‰ and from -166 ± 133‰ to 137 ± 176‰ in Renazzo and Bishunpur chondrule olivines, pyroxenes and mesostases, respectively. In Paris chondrules, δD ranges from -398 ± 23‰ to 366 ± 35‰; this represents an extreme variation over 764‰. Paris olivines and pyroxenes are either enriched or depleted in deuterium relative to the mesostasis and no systematic isotopic pattern is observed. Simple model of chondrules hydration during parent body hydrothermal alteration is difficult to reconcile with such isotopic heterogeneity. It is proposed that a hydrous component, having a δD of c.a. -400‰, in the chondrule precursors, has been outgassed at 800-900 °C in the gas phase. Nevertheless, a residual water fraction remains trapped in Paris chondrules. Quantitative modeling supports this scenario.

  6. MIRIAM: the PACS project in Paris: overview and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, H; Picard, J E

    1997-08-01

    In this article the authors describe the Management Informatique de la Radiologie et de l'Imagerie Médicale (MIRIAM) major picture archiving and communication system (PACS) project in Paris, France. The Assistance Publique of Paris, France is a healthcare provider and took the initiative to start the largest PACS program in Europe to date. The MIRIAM project will start in 1997 and will be used in different, consecutive phases. A consortium of several companies is in charge of the implementation. Thirty-three hospitals with 54 imaging departments will be integrated in one system.

  7. Cairo-Paris:The Urban Imaginary of the Self

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sherif, Mona A.Selim

    2010-01-01

    AbstractCairo-Paris: The Urban Imaginary of the SelfByMona A. Selim El-SherifDoctor of Philosophy in Near Eastern StudiesProfessor Margaret Larkin, Chair My dissertation Cairo- Paris: the urban imaginary of the Self, examines expressions of Egyptian modernity through the use of the urban experience as a paradigm for it. The dissertation uses the three different genres of the essay, the novel, and film, in order to examine expressions of Egyptian modernity in its urban context. The disser...

  8. Paris-Princeton lectures on mathematical finance 2002

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the first volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by P. Bank/H. Föllmer, F. Baudoin, L.C.G. Rogers, and M. Soner/N. Touzi.

  9. Greater Paris Rail System%巴黎地区轨道交通系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylviane DELMAS

    2007-01-01

    @@ Greater Paris is famous for its extensive metro and RER (express rail) system. By the end of 2006, there were 14 metro lines in Paris as illustrated in Figure 1, and 5 RER lines as illustrated in Figure 2.

  10. 76 FR 12399 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Paris: Life & Luxury”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Paris: Life & Luxury'' SUMMARY..., I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Paris: Life &...

  11. Paris-Nairobi Conference - Proceedings; Conference Paris-Nairobi - Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    Energy is critical to economic development and poverty reduction. The provision of reliable, affordable and sustainable energy services, especially for the poorest, contributes decisively to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Without energy, economies cannot grow and poverty cannot be reduced. Insufficient electricity supply affects many developing countries. Productivity, competitiveness, employment, and economic and social development are therefore limited. Low income countries are uppermost victims of climate change, though being the least responsible and the least armed to tackle and mitigate it. To meet the energy needs of Africa and other countries vulnerable to climate change and engage them on a sustainable development path, a priority for all countries, a concerted common global action is needed. This action shall be connected with existing initiatives in order to complement and enhance their efficiency. 2012 has been declared the international year for energy access by the United-Nations and during its presidency of the G8/G20, France wishes to foreground this issue. Therefore, France and Kenya want to contribute to this overall action, launching a global partnership for universal access to clean energy. In this context, the ministerial meeting launched this partnership on April 21, 2011 in Paris, France. This first meeting discussed ways to mobilize financing to achieve universal access to energy and to develop cleaner energies. Several obstacles have to be addressed and the following challenges shall be overcome: strengthening national and regional legal framework, improving capacity building and project management (source localization, technological options) and risk management. This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - white paper presentation (A. Mohamed, P. Lorec); 2 - Establishment of ECREEE as a regional

  12. Europeanising spaces in Paris, ca. 1947-1962

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDonnell, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    This examination of ‘Europeanising spaces’ looks at spaces in Paris in which ideas about Europe were formulated, expressed, exchanged, circulated, and contested during this post-war period, roughly between the escalation of the Cold War and the end of the Algerian war of decolonisation. The analysis

  13. An Empirical Reexamination of the Parent Attitude Research Instrument (PARI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Laura S.; Paolucci, Beatrice

    1975-01-01

    The Parent Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) was employed to study the attitudes of 146 mothers of preschool children toward childrearing. Because responses from the sample were not consistent with scales previously reported in the literature, reevaluation of the scales was performed. Reevaluation revealed groupings of clusters were comparable…

  14. The second skin of three archers: Herakles, Paris and Dolon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Javier Vilariño Rodríguez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The wearing of fur of lions, leopards and wolves by Herakles, Paris and Dolon, respectively, allows us, throw the study of the features and power attributed to those beasts, to review the importance and the status granted in the Greek world to each of those legendary archers.

  15. Paris: Beyond the Climate Dead End through Pledge and Review?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Keohane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Climate Agreement of December 2015 marks a decisive break from the unsuccessful Kyoto regime. Instead of targets and timetables, it established a Pledge and Review system, under which states will offer Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs to reducing emissions that cause climate change. But this successful negotiation outcome was achieved at the price of vagueness of obligations and substantial discretion for governments. Many governments will be tempted to use the vagueness of the Paris Agreement, and the discretion that it permits, to limit the scope or intensity of their proposed actions. Whether Pledge and Review under the Paris Agreement will lead to effective action against climate change will therefore depend on the inclination both of OECD countries and newly industrializing countries to take costly actions, which for the OECD countries will include financial transfers to their poorer partners. Domestic politics will be crucial in determining the attitudes of both sets of countries to pay such costs. The actual impact of the Paris Agreement will depend on whether it can be used by domestic groups favoring climate action as a point of leverage in domestic politics—that is, in a “two-level game” simultaneously involving both international and domestic politics.

  16. [History of the Journées Dermatologiques de Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, G

    2013-12-01

    Founded in 1801 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, under Jean-Louis Alibert, the French School of Dermatology was initially structured around the French Society of Dermatology (1889) and the organization of two world congresses (Paris 1889, 1900). After World War I, the creation of dermatological societies in the provinces infused French dermatology with new energy. In 1922, the first congress of the French-speaking dermatologists further contributed to the public profile of dermatologists in France. The "Journées de Mars" were initiated in 1961 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, and in 1975 they went on to become the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris". Pr. Jean Civatte played a key role in their creation and in their organization for 30 years. After 1979, since actual patients could no longer be presented, the organizers of the congress had to change the content of the meeting from clinical presentations to post-graduate teaching and clinical research. From its origins in the form of meetings of French dermatologists in an intimate setting at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris" grew within the ensuing decades into a major scientific event of the French-speaking dermatological community, bringing together more than 4000 participants in December each year.

  17. What does the Paris Agreement mean for adaptation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesnikowski, Alexandra; Ford, James; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Maillet, Michelle; Araos, Malcolm; Austin, Stephanie E.

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement takes a significant step forward in strengthening the adaptation pillar of global climate policy. By widening the normative framing around adaptation, calling for stronger adaptation commitments from states, being explicit about the multilevel nature of adaptation governance, and

  18. Paris: Beyond the Climate Dead End through Pledge and Review?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Keohane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Climate Agreement of December 2015 marks a decisive break from the unsuccessful Kyoto regime. Instead of targets and timetables, it established a Pledge and Review system, under which states will offer Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs to reducing emissions that cause climate change. But this successful negotiation outcome was achieved at the price of vagueness of obligations and substantial discretion for governments. Many governments will be tempted to use the vagueness of the Paris Agreement, and the discretion that it permits, to limit the scope or intensity of their proposed actions. Whether Pledge and Review under the Paris Agreement will lead to effective action against climate change will therefore depend on the inclination both of OECD countries and newly industrializing countries to take costly actions, which for the OECD countries will include financial transfers to their poorer partners. Domestic politics will be crucial in determining the attitudes of both sets of countries to pay such costs. The actual impact of the Paris Agreement will depend on whether it can be used by domestic groups favoring climate action as a point of leverage in domestic politics—that is, in a “two-level game” simultaneously involving both international and domestic politics.

  19. The Cabaret in Paris Life "Fin-de-Siecle."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzash, Michael D.

    College-level history courses can be improved by including instruction about social history, particularly the leisure time activities of the dominant cultural group. Paris of the late 19th century had the well-deserved reputation of being the pleasure capital of Europe. This reputation developed in spite of the disparity that existed between the…

  20. The Paris Agreement: Consequences for the EU and Carbon Markets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Andresen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most observers argue that this agreement is a step in the right direction. However, we do not know how effective it will be in terms of reducing emissions. We therefore discuss its potential effectiveness regarding EU climate policies and carbon markets. We argue that the Paris Agreement may have a positive effect but uncertainties abound.

  1. Incidence and Paris Classification of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Eszter Müller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New epidemiological data suggest that the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is increasing. As a result the burden of disease accounts for more strains to the health care system. The clinical variability queries whether disease characteristics are related to clinical outcome. Our aim was to delineate the latest results of incidence trends in pediatric IBD and to compare the first experiences with Paris Classification. Incidence of pediatric IBD has been increasing in Western Europe and in Eastern Europe. To better characterize IBD, Paris Classification was introduced and validated recently. Ileocolonic involvement is the most characteristic disease location in Crohn’s disease (CD based on applying Paris Classification. The rate of perianal disease and complicated behaviour in CD was similar. It is of interest that CD patients with colonic involvement were less likely to have stricturing disease compared with patients with ileal involvement. In addition, pancolitis dominated in ulcerative colitis (UC. However, most countries lack prospective, nationwide epidemiological studies to estimate incidence trends. This review emphasizes the importance of nationwide registries that enroll all pediatric IBD cases serving reliable data for “everyday practice.” These first reports have shown that Paris Classification is a useful tool to determine the pediatric IBD phenotype.

  2. Graph Theory in Paris : Conference in Memory of Claude Berge

    CERN Document Server

    Fonlupt, Jean; Fouquet, Jean-Luc; Fournier, Jean-Claude; Alfonsín, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    In July 2004, a conference on graph theory was held in Paris in memory of Claude Berge, one of the pioneers of the field. The event brought together many prominent specialists on topics, such as perfect graphs and matching theory, upon which Claude Berge's work has had a major impact. This volume includes contributions to these and other topics from many of the participants.

  3. The 26th International Geological Congress, Paris, 1980

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriel Gohau

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 1878, France hosted the first International Geological Congress on the occasion of the International Exhibition held in Paris that year. The decision to hold such a meeting in France had been taken two years earlier at the Exhibition in Philadelphia.

  4. [Nepal earthquake: nursing missions in Paris and Kathmandu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, Chrystel; Sergent, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    A violent earthquake hit Nepal on 25th April 2015, injuring and killing thousands. A nurse manager and a nurse, both working in anaesthesia and reservists in the French Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Organisation, describe their mission: one working in the crisis centre in Paris, the other on the ground, providing assistance to French victims.

  5. 巴黎历险记%Adventure in Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    良晨

    2003-01-01

    @@ Part oneCatacombs, Pistols andCarbines I.坟墓,手枪,卡宾枪 Lonely and homesick, I was staring at the Eiffel Tour from the single window of my attic. Suddenly" Ring, ring, ring,the phone rang. I cheerfully rushed on my phone. It was my partner for table tennis,a student in Paris. "Do you like adventures? Yes, of course! How about an adventure in the sewer system1 tomorrow night?""In the sewers! ! Why the sewers?""To find the Catacombs2!" As a foreign student in Paris, I felt so alone that I accepted his invitation in excitement. It was 15 years ago.

  6. Paris terrorist attack: early lessons from the intensivists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    During the night of 13-14 November, the city of Paris was exposed, within a few hours, to three bomb explosions, four shooting scenes, and one 3-hour hostage-taking of several hundred people causing at least 130 deaths and more than 250 injured victims. Most unstable patients were transferred to the six trauma centers of the Paris area, all members of the TRAUMABASE Group. A rapid adaptation of the organization of trauma patients' admittance was required in all centers to face the particular needs of the situation. Everything went relatively well in all centers, with overall hospital mortality below 2 %. Nevertheless, most physicians nowadays agree that anticipation, teaching, and training are crucial to appropriately face such events. All of us have learned many additional issues from this experience. Following a meeting of the TRAUMABASE Group, the most relevant issues are detailed in the following.

  7. Les mauvais rêves. Une prison à Disneyland Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Genetelli, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Situé à 35 km de Paris, dans la nouvelle ville de Marne-La-Vallée, Disneyland Paris représente la première destination de loisirs d'Europe. L'implantation du “rongeur aux grande oreilles” ne s'est pas contentée d'établir un simple parc à thème, mais elle a cherché à imposer un cadre de vie sur toute une partie du territoire français, à travers un partenariat public-privé unique en France. De ce fait, nous nous retrouvons dans un “territoire-bulle” contrôlé par Disney. Tout y est propre, sécur...

  8. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms.

  9. Paris-Princeton lectures on mathematical finance 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Cousin, Areski; Guéant, Olivier; Hobson, David; Jeanblanc, Monique; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Laurent, Jean-Paul; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Tankov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance, of which this is the fourth volume, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding specialists - established or on the rise! The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference source for research in the field. The articles are the result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by Areski Cousin, Monique Jeanblanc and Jean-Paul Laurent, Stéphane Crépey, Olivier Guéant, Jean-Michel Lasry and Pierre-Louis Lions, David Hobson, and Peter Tankov.

  10. Information literacy training in AgroParisTech food studies

    OpenAIRE

    Agnès Grimal; Florence Dubois-Brissonnet; Elisabeth Dumoulin

    2015-01-01

    AgroParisTech professors and librarians in Food Science and Technology have developed information literacy instruction to help students find and use relevant information. The course trains students to develop information literacy competencies: to identify the information needed and define its nature and extent; to access the information with efficiency because they select and use methods, resources and retrieval systems most appropriate to the topic; to evaluate the used methods, information,...

  11. Politica, pari opportunità e Human Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Biagioli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio presenta una riflessione sul percorso di consapevolezza dei diritti umani, per favorire la partecipazione delle donne e conferire loro piena cittadinanza. Il dibattito sulla condizione femminile e sulla violenza di genere, ha fatto propria la problematica della sicurezza umana come protezione di libertà vitali, stimolando i sistemi politici, il diritto internazionale e una cultura della pace e delle pari opportunità.

  12. Information literacy training in AgroParisTech food studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Grimal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AgroParisTech professors and librarians in Food Science and Technology have developed information literacy instruction to help students find and use relevant information. The course trains students to develop information literacy competencies: to identify the information needed and define its nature and extent; to access the information with efficiency because they select and use methods, resources and retrieval systems most appropriate to the topic; to evaluate the used methods, information, and sources; to search, access and use information ethically and legally; to read, use and write bibliographic references.AgroParisTech trains two kinds of students. For Higher Education students (engineering students, the training takes place at their arrival in AgroParisTech, including courses and practical classes: role and management of information in organizations; information on plagiarism; resources in environment, food science and technology; use of relevant tools and methods for searching in databases; reference writing.For students attending a Master of Science, the training prepares them to produce a literature review. The curriculum includes: information about scientific integrity, plagiarism; information needed for a researcher; critical reading of a journal article; how to manage a literature review: resources used, information search with databases, full text access; reference writing.The students will use these information literacy skills along their studies as well as in their future jobs.

  13. A thyrotoxicosis outbreak due to dietary pills in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ioos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Ioos1, Vincent Das1, Eric Maury1,2, Jean-Luc Baudel1, Jérôme Guéchot3, Bertrand Guidet1,2, Georges Offenstadt1,21Réanimation Médicale; 2Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, INSERM, UMR-S 707; 3Unité d’Hormonologie, APHP, Hôpital Saint Antoine, F-75012, Paris, FranceAbstract: Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia.Keywords: thyrotoxicosis, dietary pills, thyroxin

  14. PARIS to Hektor, A Mission to the Jovian Trojan Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, R. E.; Ensworth, C. B.; McNutt, R. L.; Ostdiek, P. H.; Prockter, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    PARIS (Planetary Access with Radioisotope Ion-drive System) spacecraft enable a new class of missions to the outer solar system. The high power-to-mass ratio of new radioisotope power systems enables New-Frontiers class missions that carry a significant a science payload to new destinations. The PARIS spacecraft take advantage of the high-efficiency of Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs) or new thermoelectric converters to provide the power for an electric propulsion system. These low-thrust missions launched to a high C3 are especially effective for exploring objects in shallow gravity wells. The Jovian Trojan asteroids are very primitive bodies located near the Jovian L4 and L5 Lagrange points and are discussed as targets in the Solar System Decadal Survey. There are estimated to be more than 105 Jovian Trojans greater than 1 km in diameter. We consider a PARIS mission that can reach the asteroids in less than 5 years, orbit 624 Hektor, the largest of the Jovian Trojans, and go on to orbit at least one other nearby object. The candidate payload for this mission includes wide-field and narrow-field cameras, a UV-Vis-IR spectrograph, gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers, and plasma and energetic particle spectrometers. About 900 W of power are required. The launch mass would be slightly less than 1000 kg. The generation power sources with a specific power of > 8W/kg.

  15. The epileptic singers of belle époque Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie; Marshall, Fiona

    2012-12-01

    In late 19th century Paris, people with epilepsy were treated alongside those with hysteria in the now famous Salpêtrière Hospital, where both conditions were deemed to have a neurological basis. When Jean Martin Charcot became chief physician at the Salpêtrière Hospital in 1862, he described himself 'in possession of a kind of museum of living pathology whose holdings were virtually inexhaustible'. He opened the doors of his 'living museum' and exhibited his prize specimens to all of Paris. By putting his patients on display, Charcot introduced a vogue for pathology that permeated well beyond the world of medical enquiry and into the public psyche and vernacular. Not only did Charcot's demonstrations provide the inspiration for high culture in the form of operas, plays and novels, they also provided the inspiration for the 'gommeuses epileptiques' (epileptic singers), who entertained the masses at the café concerts. This paper explores the foundations of our current medical approaches to mental illness and epilepsy, with a particular focus on the boundaries that emerged between hysteria and epilepsy in 19th century Paris. These clinical boundaries were both shaped by and reflected in the popular entertainments in the city.

  16. Geological rally in the heart of Paris: How to find fossils in freestone buildings in Paris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaine, Stéphanie

    2014-05-01

    As a teacher in earth sciences, my challenge was to practise geology in an urban area. At the end of the school year, I organized a geological rally next to the Natural History Museum in the heart of Paris. The rally provided the opportunity to apply geological notions mentioned in class, and or a day out to my 16 years-old pupils. Just before this original session, students worked on different sedimentary stones such as limestone, sandstone, gypsum, and "meulière". They studied the conditions for the deposit of sediments and they identified different fossils (i.e: Cerithes, Nummulites, Milioles) in order to build "paleobackgrounds". This rally was a mean to improve with entertainment their knowledge in geology, and to discover the stones of the Parisian basin and their use as building materials. The rally was organized as follows: the pupils were divided into 4 teams of 8 students. Each team got a paper with 23 riddles. Each riddle led to a geological spot in the route of the rally. To attest their passing at each geological point the pupils had to take a picture of the characteristic fossil or the typical mark of each spot. Each team had a different itinerary to avoid pupils to meet during the rally. In order to motivate pupils and to ensure their safety, one teacher went with each team. Each riddle led to a stage. This rally comprised 23 steps which were geological spots. In case of pupils did not solve the enigma of one stage; they could open an envelope in which a map indicated the 23 geological spots. This rally lasted 2 hours. The purpose of this game was to obtain the most points thanks to the resolution of riddles. Timing and the quality of the pictures were also criterions used to evaluate the participants. At the end of this rally, pupils must be able to identify sedimentary stones, the conditions and the age of deposit of this stones (paleobackgrounds), the location of their extractions (carries), the interest of this stones in construction industry

  17. Géochimie organique du bassin de Paris Organic Geochemistry of the Paris Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espitalie J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente ici les principaux résultats de l'étude géochimique réalisée, dans le bassin de Paris, à partir des déblais et des carottes provenant de 100 sondages pétroliers ou miniers, et des huiles prélevées dans les réservoirs du Mésozoïque (Trias, Bathonien supérieur, Néocomien. Les différentes méthodes géochimiques utilisées sont la pyrolyse, particulièrement bien adaptée à l'étude des nombreux échantillons de déblais recueillis, la chromatographie en phase gazeuse pour l'analyse détaillée des huiles et des extraits de roche, la spectrométrie de masse pour l'étude des biomarqueurs. Les époques principales de formation de l'huile et du gaz ont été déterminées par simulation sur ordinateur d'un modèle mathématique de genèse des hydrocarbures. Les méthodes de pyrolyse ont permis de dresser des logs géochimiques des forages étudiés et de déterminer, par le calcul, les paramètres de pyrolyse initiaux des roches-mères, avant leur enfouissement. On a pu ainsi établir, dans le périmètre étudié, des cartes de carbone organique initial, de potentiels pétroliers totaux et de quantités d'HC migrés. L'ensemble de ces résultats montre que les roches-mères de la grande majorité des huiles du Mésozoïque sont situées dans le Lias, s'échelonnant depuis le Toarcien jusqu'à l'Hettangien et que les meilleures zones de potentiel pétrolier du Bassin sont localisées à l'emplacement des régions de forte subsidence à l'époque du Lias. L'étude détaillée des hydrocarbures et celle des biomarqueurs ne permettent pas de distinguer les différentes huiles entre elles, quelle que soit leur profondeur, ni de leur attribuer une origine précise à partir des différents niveaux du Lias. Les cartes de migration mettent en évidence des déplacements latéraux des hydrocarbures dans certaines roches-mères (cas du Toarcien inférieur. Elles montrent aussi un déficit important en hydrocarbures à la base du

  18. On the linear span of the p-ary cascaded GMW sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG XiaoHu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a recursion is derived to compute the linear span of the p-ary cascaded GMW sequences. It is the first time to determine the linear span of the p-ary cascaded GMW sequence without any restriction on the parameters completely. Whereas, the known result on the p-ary cascaded GMW sequence with the specific parameters in the literature could be viewed as a special case of the new result.

  19. [DNA barcoding the medicinal plants of the genus Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying-jie; Chen, Shi-lin; Yao, Hui; Tan, Rui; Song, Jing-yuan; Luo, Kun; Lu, Jing

    2010-03-01

    DNA barcoding is a technique in which species identification and discovery are performed by using short and standard fragments of DNA sequences. In this study, eleven species of Paris, including seven varieties, were sampled. Five chloroplast sequences, psbA-trnH, rpoB, rpoC1, rbcL, matK, and one nuclear marker, the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA, were amplified and sequenced. The PCR amplification and sequencing efficiency, intra- and inter-specific divergence and barcoding gap were used to evaluate different loci, and the identification efficiency was assessed using BLAST1 and Nearest Distance methods. The ITS2 sequences in the studied samples of Paris were amplified and sequenced successfully using primers designed by our group, while matK showed low level in the amplification and psbA-trnH was difficult for sequencing because of over 800 bp and poly (A) structure. Analysis of the intra- and inter-specific divergence and barcoding gap showed ITS2 was superior to other loci. The ITS2 showed a much higher percentage of success (100%) in identification than other five loci, none of which indicated more than 50% except matK (52.9%). The 2-locus combination of rbcL+matK didn't improve ability of authentication. In addition, the rate of successful identification with ITS2 kept 100% when the samples were expanded to 67 samples of 29 species. In conclusion, ITS2 can be used to correctly identify medicinal plants of Paris, and it will be a potential DNA barcode for identifying medicinal plants of other taxa.

  20. A Library in the Grands Moulins de Paris: challenging Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tresson

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the University of Paris 7 and its new Main Library will move to Paris Rive Gauche, a recently developed neighbourhood on the left bank of the Seine. The library will occupy most of the city’s former industrial mills, the Grands Moulins de Paris. As part of the project, the library developed a very detailed functional program. The facilities are expected to comprise 1,800 workstations (half of which will be computerized, and upon completion will have a capacity of 300,000 freely accessible documents and 350,000 documents in store over a total surface area of some 12,000 m2. The architect Rudy Ricciotti won the international competition to design the library held in 2001. Perfectly suited to its function, the industrial building in which the library is housed dates from the 1920s. It presents both advantages (vast surfaces, sufficient load-bearing capacity, natural light, etc. and obstacles (restrictions on free circulation, forests of columns in certain areas, interrupted spaces, etc. to being transformed into a library that is functional and adapted to its purposes. The building’s structure and the constraints it imposed profoundly influenced the program which had to be adjusted, and also affected other aspects, including the arrangement and features of the furnishings as well as the building’s system of signs. In agreement with the university, the library worked in close collaboration with the architect from the earliest sketches onwards. As a result, his initial plan also evolved considerably. The installation of the library in the Grands Moulins offers us a chance to observe the nature and effects of the interactions between the transformation of a building and the evolution of a program.

  1. 5th Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Benth, Fred Espen; Guasoni, Paolo; Manolarakis, Konstantinos; Muhle-Karbe, Johannes; Nee, Colm; Protter, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The current volume presents four chapters touching on some of the most important and modern areas of research in Mathematical Finance: asset price bubbles (by Philip Protter); energy markets (by Fred Espen Benth); investment under transaction costs (by Paolo Guasoni and Johannes Muhle-Karbe); and numerical methods for solving stochastic equations (by Dan Crisan, K. Manolarakis and C. Nee).The Paris-Princeton Lecture Notes on Mathematical Finance, of which this is the fifth volume, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from renowned specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference source for research in the field.

  2. Numerical simulation of meteorological conditions for peak pollution in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carissimo, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-06-01

    Results obtained on the simulation of meteorological conditions during two episodes of peak pollution in Paris are presented, one in the winter, the other in the summer. The A3UR air quality modelling system is first described followed by the MERCURE mesoscale meteorological model. The conditions of simulation are described. The results obtained on these two causes show satisfactory agreement, for example on the magnitude of the urban heat island which is correctly reproduced. In this study, several areas of progress have been identified: improvement of the altitude measurement network around cities, the simulation of light wind conditions and the simulation of formation and dissipation of fog. (author) 24 refs.

  3. Acts of terrorism in Paris and Brussels: common and different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the common and distinctive features of the terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels in 2015 and 2016. The attacks have confirmed the weakness of European security system in the context of the protection of its citizens from the threat № 1 in the world. The high level of democracy and liberalism are not allowed to use power instruments effectively in the fight against terrorism, which was the result of the fact that the terrorists were able to freely access to the place of their acts and to implement them. It was determined that the common features are the following: in Paris and in Brussels, the attacks were carried out by terrorist militaristic group «The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant» (ISIL; the places of commission of terrorist acts; guns of terrorists; military units of France and Belgium are parties of the armed conflict in Syria on the side of the Syrian opposition and struggle against ISIL; there were a few terrorist attacks. It is proved that the differences are as follows: in Paris, in addition to explosives, packed with nails, also were used automatic weapons and grenades, but only explosives in Brussels; France is more active in the fight against terrorism in the international arena and in every way opposed to violence against humanity, so there is a terrorist attack can be seen as a blow to the democratic and humanitarian values; Belgium is a «political heart» of the European Union that’s why the terrorist attack on it can be seen as a blow to the political system of the EU; in Paris, the attack was supposed to apply except for the population and for high officials in the name of F. Hollande and F. Steinmeier, and in Brussels – only civilians.conducting effective public diplomacy by means of virtual diplomacy. In the context of the establishment of the global information society the key target groups must be: Diasporas, foreign media (including bloggers, investors, influential foreign

  4. Paris, Moscow, and “Europe out of the EU”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perchoc Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the presidencies of Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande, the French diplomats were keen to strengthen the partnership between Paris and Moscow as it served French interests on the international stage. In this context, this article demonstrates that Eastern-Central Europe (Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the Caucasus is of secondary interest for French diplomacy, unless it provides an opportunity to highlight Paris’ role in international affairs. The Georgian war in 2008, the Mistral issue, and the Ukraine crises are several good illustrations of this phenomenon.

  5. Walter Benjamin e Paris: individualidade e trabalho intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ortiz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma leitura do texto de Walter Benjamin Paris capital do século XIX. A partir do conjunto de anotações que Benjamin faz de diversos livros consultados, principalmente durante sua pesquisa na Bibliothèque Nationale, o autor pretende trabalhar a noção de indivíduo vinculando-a a dois temas. Primeiro, a emergência do flâneur como tradução do espírito de mobilidade que se inaugura com a modernidade. Para isso a discussão sobre a noção de espaço, particularmente no que diz respeito a cidade de Paris, é importante. O flâneur surge assim como um indivíduo desenraizado que se locomove através do espaço urbano remodelado. Segundo, uma aproximação entre o ato da flânerie e o trabalho intelectual. Considerando a flânerie como uma atividade intelectual o autor mostra como os temas do distanciamento e da construção do objeto são relevantes tanto para o flâneur-detetive quanto para a reflexão nas ciências sociais.This paper is an interpretation of Walter Benjamins Paris, Capital of the 19th Century. Based on the notes Benjamin made on several books he read, mainly during his research at the Bibliotèque Nationale, the author discusses the notion of the individual linking it to two themes. First, to the emergence of the flâneur as a translation of the spirit of mobility which starts with modernity. The discussion on the notion of space, especially where it concerns Paris, is essential for this analysis. The flâneur is seen as an uprooted individual who moves around the remodelled urban space. Second, to the proximity between the act of flânerie and that of intellectual work. Taking flânerie to be intellectual activity, the author shows how the themes of the distancing and the construction of the object are relevant, both to the detective-flâneur and to the reflection in social sciences.

  6. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  7. A Comuna de Paris e a democracia dos conselhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo Oliveira Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artigo analisa do conjunto das principais contribuições da Comuna de Paris de 1871 para o debate contemporâneo sobre a democracia, a hipótese de que os limites à plena vigência e consolidação da democracia representativa baseada no sufrágio universal a partir do final do século XIX, ao ser descaracterizada pelo próprio liberalismo, favoreceu a busca de experiências democráticas alternativas pelos movimentos operários e de massas. Defende-se a tese de que há uma linha de continuidade histórica, atravessando todo o século XX, de experiências históricas - analisadas na maior parte das vezes de forma isolada, unilateral ou excessivamente contextualizadas - de democracia direta de massas como o ensaio geral da Comuna de Paris.

  8. The Expansion of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive at PARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, J. Donald; Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of photometric, astrometric, spectral and surface brightness data exist on decades of photographic glass plates. The Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was established in November 2007 and is dedicated to the task of collecting, restoring, preserving and storing astronomical photographic data and PARI continues to accept collections. APDA is also tasked with scanning each image and establishing a database of images that can be accessed via the Internet by the global community of scientists, researchers and students. APDA is a new type of astronomical observatory - one that harnesses analog data of the night sky taken for more than a century and making that data available in a digital format.In 2016, APDA expanded from 50 collections with about 220,000 plates to more than 55 collections and more than 340,000 plates and films. These account for more than 30% of all astronomical photographic data in the United States. The largest of the new acquisitions are the astronomical photographic plates in the Yale University collection. We present details of the newly added collections and review of other collections in APDA.

  9. Science and policy characteristics of the Paris Agreement temperature goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Lissner, Tabea; Licker, Rachel; Fischer, Erich M.; Knutti, Reto; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Hare, William

    2016-09-01

    The Paris Agreement sets a long-term temperature goal of holding the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C, and pursuing efforts to limit this to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Here, we present an overview of science and policy aspects related to this goal and analyse the implications for mitigation pathways. We show examples of discernible differences in impacts between 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming. At the same time, most available low emission scenarios at least temporarily exceed the 1.5 °C limit before 2100. The legacy of temperature overshoots and the feasibility of limiting warming to 1.5 °C, or below, thus become central elements of a post-Paris science agenda. The near-term mitigation targets set by countries for the 2020-2030 period are insufficient to secure the achievement of the temperature goal. An increase in mitigation ambition for this period will determine the Agreement's effectiveness in achieving its temperature goal.

  10. Equitable mitigation to achieve the Paris Agreement goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robiou Du Pont, Yann; Jeffery, M. Louise; Gütschow, Johannes; Rogelj, Joeri; Christoff, Peter; Meinshausen, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarks to guide countries in ratcheting-up ambition, climate finance, and support in an equitable manner are critical but not yet determined in the context of the Paris Agreement. We identify global cost-optimal mitigation scenarios consistent with the Paris Agreement goals and allocate their emissions dynamically to countries according to five equity approaches. At the national level, China's Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) is weaker than any of the five equity approaches, India's NDC is aligned with two, and the EU's and the USA's with three. Most developing countries' conditional (Intended) NDCs (INDCs) are more ambitious than the average of the five equity approaches under the 2 °C goal. If the G8 and China adopt the average of the five approaches, the gap between conditional INDCs and 2 °C-consistent pathways could be closed. For an equitable, cost-optimal achievement of the 1.5 °C target, emissions in 2030 are 21% lower (relative to 2010) than for 2 °C for the G8 and China combined, and 39% lower for remaining countries. Equitably limiting warming to 1.5 °C rather than 2 °C requires that individual countries achieve mitigation milestones, such as peaking or reaching net-zero emissions, around a decade earlier.

  11. Conference Diplomacy: The Making of the Paris Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslak Brun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article offers an insider’s account of how the Paris Agreement on climate change was reached. Focusing on participation and ambition, it describes the efforts to include a long-term temperature goal, expectations for regular ratcheting up of climate efforts, and provisions for tracking global progress. The author argues that a shift from the earlier top-down approaches to setting targets, to a bottom-up, self-determined approach has spurred participation and made it easier to reach agreement. In addition, the Paris Agreement anchors a clearer direction of travel than before. The article also discusses the negotiations of the provisions in the Agreement to drive increased national climate mitigation efforts over time. Finally, the author considers the role of conference diplomacy, particularly the need for inclusive leadership. It is argued that the French Presidency combined a transparent negotiations process with a clear sense of direction that helped achieve a comprehensive and ambitious outcome. The role of back-channel talks as part of effective conference diplomacy is also discussed.

  12. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities.

  13. The Paris Agreement's imprint on 2300 sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Matthias; Nauels, Alexander; Rogelj, Joeri; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims at reducing climate-related risks by putting a limit to global mean temperature increase. Furthermore, global greenhouse gas emissions should peak as soon as possible and reach net-zero in the second half of the 21st century under the agreement. Sea level rise is one of the major impacts of climate change and will continue for long after emissions have ceased. Here we quantify the effect of near-term and long-term emissions constraints of the Paris Agreement on climate-driven sea level rise until 2300 using a contribution-based methodology that is consistent with the IPCC AR5 sea level estimates. We study median sea level rise for scenarios stabilizing global mean temperatures between 1.5° C and 2° C above pre-industrial levels and net-zero greenhouse gas emission scenarios that lead to declining temperatures. Once global mean temperatures pass 1.5 °C, sea level rise below one meter until 2300 is out of reach for temperature stabilization scenarios. Net-zero emissions can reduce sea level rise caused by temperature overshoot only within limits. By linking sea level rise to near-term mitigation action, we find that delayed near-term mitigation action leads to increased sea level rise far beyond 2100.

  14. Les rues de Paris vues par le Monopoly, une proposition de révision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Françoise Fleury

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The French Monopoly board features the streets of Paris. It was designed in 1935 and has not been updated since. Is the real-estate geography of the 1930s still valid? The authors propose a new version of the Paris Monopoly to better reflect today’s real-estate and social hierarchy.

  15. Energy and Global Climate Change: The Road from Paris to Denver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey

    2016-10-27

    This presentation provides an overview of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory; a snapshot of U.S. power sector transformation; a brief history of climate negotiations; an overview of the Paris Agreement; and what the Paris Agreement means for Colorado and beyond.

  16. Det strategiske spil om Syrien efter Paris – plus ça change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Analyse af det strategiske spil omkring Syrien og hvorvidt Paris angrebet har ændret noget afgørende - det har det så ikke.......Analyse af det strategiske spil omkring Syrien og hvorvidt Paris angrebet har ændret noget afgørende - det har det så ikke....

  17. 75 FR 28303 - Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (FR 75 21358). The... Employment and Training Administration Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on... reconsideration, I determine that workers of Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, Tennessee meet the worker...

  18. Images of Paris: Big C Culture for the Nonspeaker of French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, May; York, Holly U.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a course offered in both French and English at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia that is based on the study of representations of Paris from the Middle Ages to the present. It uses architecture as a point of departure and explores the myth of Paris as expressed through a profusion of images in literature, painting, and film.…

  19. Towards the Chalonge 16th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2012: Highlights and Conclusions of the Chalonge 15th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chalonge 15th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2011 was held on 20-22 July in the historic Paris Observatory's Perrault building, in the Chalonge School spirit combining real cosmological/astrophysical data and hard theory predictive approach connected to them in the Warm Dark Matter Standard Model of the Universe: News and reviews from Herschel, QUIET, Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), South Pole Telescole (SPT), Planck, PIXIE, the JWST, UFFO, KATRIN and MARE experiments; astrophysics, partic...

  20. The German ''Energiewende''. Evaluation after the Paris-agreement; Die Deutsche Energiewende. Bewertung nach dem Klima-Abkommen von Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eike

    2016-12-15

    The World-Climate-Summit 2016 in Paris agreed to exacerbated goals for climate protection. This paper will scrutinize whether Germany can comply with its Paris-obligations by continuing the ongoing German ''Energiewende''. The result is clear-cut: The German ''Energiewende'' is inadequate. Due to the cap-and-trade system of the EU the ''Energiewende'' can in no way contribute to climate protection.

  1. The German ''Energiewende''. Evaluation after the Paris-agreement; Die Deutsche Energiewende. Bewertung nach dem Klima-Abkommen von Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eike

    2016-08-01

    The World-Climate-Summit 2016 in Paris agreed to exacerbated goals for climate protection. This paper will scrutinize whether Germany can comply with its Paris-obligations by continuing the ongoing German ''Energiewende''. The result is clear-cut: The German ''Energiewende'' is inadequate. Due to the cap-and-trade system of the EU the '''Energiewende''.

  2. SUMOylation of the KRAB zinc-finger transcription factor PARIS/ZNF746 regulates its transcriptional activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Tamotsu, E-mail: nishida@gene.mie-u.ac.jp; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2016-05-13

    Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), a member of the family of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc-finger transcription factors, is a substrate of the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. PARIS represses the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that PARIS can be SUMOylated, and its SUMOylation plays a role in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) was identified as an interacting protein of PARIS and shown to enhance its SUMOylation. PIASy repressed PGC-1a promoter activity, and this effect was attenuated by PARIS in a manner dependent on its SUMOylation status. Co-expression of SUMO-1 with PIASy completely repressed PGC-1a promoter activity independently of PARIS expression. PARIS-mediated PGC-1a promoter repression depended on the activity of histone deacetylases (HDAC), whereas PIASy repressed the PGC-1a promoter in an HDAC-independent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS and PIASy modulate PGC-1a gene transcription through distinct molecular mechanisms. -- Highlights: •PARIS can be SUMOylated in vivo and in vitro. •SUMOylation of PARIS functions in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. •PIASy interacts with PARIS and enhances its SUMOylation. •PIASy influences PARIS-mediated repression of PGC-1a promoter activity.

  3. Gas Geochemistry of the Dogger Geothermal Aquifer (Paris Basin, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.; Marty, B.; Brach, M.; Wei, H.F.

    1987-01-20

    The low enthalpy program developed in the Paris Basin provides the opportunity for studying the gas geochemistry of the calcareous aquifer of the Dogger. Hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} are mainly biogenic, He displays high concentrations. He, Ar and N{sub 2} have multiple origins (radioactive decay, atmospheric migration, biochemical processes). The distribution of the gases in the zones of the basin varies in relation to the general chemistry, sedimentology and hydrodynamics. The gas geothermometers do not apply to this environment but useful estimations of the redox potential of the fluid can be derived from CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratios. H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are involved in corrosion processes and scaling in the pipes. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Lutetian limestones in the Paris region: Petrographic and compositional examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A. [Lab. de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, Champs-sur-Marne (France); Holmes, L.L.; Harbottle, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists have investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemistry whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  5. LUTETIAN LIMESTONES IN THE PARIS REGION: PETROGRAPHIC AND COMPOSITIONAL EXAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLANC,A.; HOLMES,L.L.; HARBOTTLE,G.

    1998-06-11

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific-stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemist whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  6. Bordeaux parie sur les centres d’appels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Puel

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Les acteurs territoriaux de la métropole bordelaise ont parié depuis peu sur le développement des centres d’appels en dépit d’une concurrence de plus en plus vive et planétaire. Les logiques de localisation des entreprises favorisent la métropolisation des téléservices. L’espace métropolitain privilégié par cet aspect de la « nouvelle économie » est en périphérie urbaine dans les zones d’activités à proximité des grands réseaux de communication (rocades, aéroports, etc..

  7. New Coal-Fired Plants Jeopardise Paris Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel González-Eguino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global greenhouse gas emissions need to peak soon and be reduced practically to zero in the second half of this century in order to not exceed the climate targets adopted in the Paris Agreement. However, there are currently numerous coal-fired power stations around the world at different stages of construction and planning that could be completed in the next decade. If all these plants are actually built, their expected future emissions will make it very difficult to reach these targets, even in an optimistic scenario with the deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies. Policy makers around the world need to react quickly and help to redirect investment plans for new coal-fired power stations towards low-carbon technologies.

  8. La Cité Universitaire Internationale de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bureau

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris est le lieu où se concentrent le plus de résidences universitaires en Île-de-France avec une vocation affichée d’accueillir les étudiants et chercheurs du monde entier, et ce depuis 1925. Elle leur offre un ensemble de services centralisés et un cadre privilégié mais se considère avant tout comme un creuset pour la rencontre des cultures et la diffusion de la culture française parmi les élites intellectuelles internationales. Au-delà des intentions, nous avons cherché, par la rencontre de ses dirigeants et des résidents, à saisir d’une part, la réalité actuelle des échanges culturels promus par une politique du « brassage » et d’autre part, la dynamique de « l’espace vécu » des résidents.The Cité Internationale of Paris is the place where concentrate most university halls of residence in the French capital with a displayed vocation to welcome the students and the researchers of the whole world since 1925. It offers to them a set of centralized services and a privileged living environment but considers itself above all as a melting pot for the meeting of cultures and the spreading of French culture among international intellectual elites. Beyond intentions, we tried, by the meeting of managements and residents, to grasp the current reality of cultural exchanges thanks to the policy of the "mixing" and the dynamic of "the space lived" on residents.

  9. EUROPEAN UNION IN GLOBAL CLIMATE GOVERNANCE: TO PARIS AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savorskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the European Union is aspiring global leadership in the area of climate change, which is refl ected in its active participation in the negotiations on the international climate change regime. However, those ambitions have not always turned out to be appropriate or justifi ed. Despite the fact that the European Union was able to achieve certain results during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations and even more signifi cant results in the process of its ratifi cation, for the most part EU negotiation strategy based on normative considerations, had not been successful, it was especially evident during the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. Partly the disappointing results of EU performance during the Copenhagen negotiations are to be blamed on some of the key features of EU functioning logic, for example, the overall tendency to rely on scientifi c evidence in policy-making, which did not allow the EU to assess other parties’ interests adequately. As the results of the negotiations of parties to the UNFCCC in December 2015 in Paris have shown, the European Union did manage to work out its previous mistakes and build a broad informal international coalition. Contrary to the pessimistic expectations, the agreement was adopted and it took into account quite a few of the EU proposals. However, the Paris Treaty has a number of fl aws and inaccuracies, so the ability to eliminate them in a timely manner by the international community and the EU in particular, will determine the future of the new international climate change regime.

  10. Prospective study of melanoma in the Paris Region in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souques, M.; Baccard, M.; Barrazza, V.; Havard, S.; Verrier, A.; Wechsler, J. [Prevention et Epidemiologie des Tumeurs en Region Ile de France (PETRI), Domus Medica, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Introduction: Melanoma remains an important public health problem because of its increasing incidence and its responsibility for the deaths of young individuals. A first study was carried out by the P.E.T.R.I. association in 1994 to estimate the incidence of melanoma in the Paris region. A second one was carried out in 2004, with the same methodology, to estimate the increase of melanoma incidence in the Paris region and the main clinical and histological characteristics of these cancers, comparing to 1994 data. Methodology: Every pathologist of the region has been contacted to fill a questionnaire for each primary cutaneous melanoma excised between January 1. and December 31. 2004, from patients living in the Paris region (departments 75, 77, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95). The information requested included melanoma characteristics (localisation, type, Breslow thickness, Clark level, regression signs, pre existence of a nevus) and demographic data (age, sex, zip code of residence). Results: 98 % of pathologists in the region agree to participate in the study. They send 1453 questionnaires, among them 160 were excluded (double, non cutaneous melanoma, secondary lesion, non resident in the region, diagnoses out of the inclusion dates, biopsy followed by exeresis). The analyse included 1293 lesions in 1269 patients. More than 2/3 of diagnoses were confirmed by 2 laboratories and 10 laboratories (on 98) reported 86 % of the diagnoses. Incidence:The crude incidence of melanoma in the Paris region during 2004 was 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, by sex:11.1 per 100 000 males and 12.4 cases per 100 000 females. The sex ratio men/women was 0.82. The crude incidence of invasive melanoma (Clark 2 to 5) was 8,9 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, 9,2 per 100 000 women and 8,6 per 100 000 men, with a sex ratio men/women of 0,93. Demographic characteristics: Melanoma diagnosis was more often in women (54.9 %) than in men (45.1 %). The patients mean age was 59.3 years (S.D.: 17.3). The

  11. PINK1 Primes Parkin-Mediated Ubiquitination of PARIS in Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 and parkin cause autosomal-recessive Parkinson’s disease through a common pathway involving mitochondrial quality control. Parkin inactivation leads to accumulation of the parkin interacting substrate (PARIS, ZNF746 that plays an important role in dopamine cell loss through repression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1-alpha (PGC-1α promoter activity. Here, we show that PARIS links PINK1 and parkin in a common pathway that regulates dopaminergic neuron survival. PINK1 interacts with and phosphorylates serines 322 and 613 of PARIS to control its ubiquitination and clearance by parkin. PINK1 phosphorylation of PARIS alleviates PARIS toxicity, as well as repression of PGC-1α promoter activity. Conditional knockdown of PINK1 in adult mouse brains leads to a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that is dependent on PARIS. Altogether, these results uncover a function of PINK1 to direct parkin-PARIS-regulated PGC-1α expression and dopaminergic neuronal survival.

  12. Plaster of Paris-Short History of Casting and Injured Limb Immobilzation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostakowski, B; Smitham, P; Khan, W S

    2017-01-01

    Various materials have been used since ancient times to help immobilise fractures. In this review, we discuss the history and developments of these materials as well as plaster of Paris. There has been a recent trend away from non-operative management of fractures, and skills in the use of plaster of Paris are declining. For the successful treatment of patients, it is important to appreciate how plaster works, how it should be used, and what can go wrong. In this review, we also discuss principles of applications and complications of plaster of Paris.

  13. Adoption of protocols to amend the Paris convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and the Brussels convention supplementary to the Paris convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. W.; Jang, K. H.; Oh, B. J.; Song, J. M.; Jung, M. M.; Kim, H. J. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    To keep in line with the world-wide tendency to strengthen the nuclear third party liability system after the Chernobyl accident, the Protocols to amend the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention was adopted on 12 February, 2004. The most important feature of the revised Paris Convention is an increase in the nuclear operator's liability amount from 15 million SDRs to a new minimum of 700 million Euros. For the additional compensation to those provided by the domestic liability regime, the revised Brussels Supplementary Convention will maintain its basic three-tier compensation system but with significantly increased amounts(As a result the total amount to be compensated according to the three tiers will be 15 billions Euros). The protocols to amend the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy will come into force when ratified by two thirds of the Signatory States, and the protocol to amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention will come into force when ratified by all the Brussels Supplementary Convention Signatory States.

  14. Análisis estructural de edificios de los grandes arquitectos.Las bibliotecas Jussieu

    OpenAIRE

    Olavarrieta Acebo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    La arquitectura no sería posible sin una estructura que la sostenga. En este trabajo se pretende realizar un recorrido a lo largo de la historia de las estructuras para comprender cómo la teoría y la técnica han permitido el desarrollo de la arquitectura. La relación establecida entre ambas es fundamental en el diseño del proyecto, pues su manera de interactuar permite la creación de formas y espacios que el proyectista debe usar a su favor para poder desarrollar su profesión. Para ello es n...

  15. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  16. Paris Photo 2015 / Kristel Schwede, Annika Haas, Laura Põld, Piret Frey

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline fotomess "Paris Photo 2015" 12. kuni 15. novembrini Pariisi messihallis Grand Palais. Eestit esindasid messil oma loominguga Jaanus Samma, Sigrid Viir, Krista Mölder (Temnikova & Kasela galerii)

  17. Globalizing forms of elite sociability: varieties of cosmopolitanism in Paris social clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousin, B.; Chauvin, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the cultivation of transnational connections, cosmopolitanism and global class consciousness among members of elite social clubs in Paris. Drawing from interviews with members, it compares how - according to their respective characteristics - various social clubs promote

  18. Globalizing forms of elite sociability: varieties of cosmopolitanism in Paris social clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousin, B.; Chauvin, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the cultivation of transnational connections, cosmopolitanism and global class consciousness among members of elite social clubs in Paris. Drawing from interviews with members, it compares how - according to their respective characteristics - various social clubs promote differ

  19. Air France Offers A Second Daily Flight on Its Beijing - Paris Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      Starting from 14 June 2005, Air France is adding one more daily flight on its Beijing - Paris's route. Air France customers will then have a choice of fourteen weekly flights between the two cities.……

  20. Air France Offers A Second Daily Flight on Its Beijing - Paris Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Starting from 14 June 2005, Air France is adding one more daily flight on its Beijing - Paris's route. Air France customers will then have a choice of fourteen weekly flights between the two cities.

  1. Paris Photo 2015 / Kristel Schwede, Annika Haas, Laura Põld, Piret Frey

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline fotomess "Paris Photo 2015" 12. kuni 15. novembrini Pariisi messihallis Grand Palais. Eestit esindasid messil oma loominguga Jaanus Samma, Sigrid Viir, Krista Mölder (Temnikova & Kasela galerii)

  2. GREEN CATALYZED OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENT SYSTEMS GENERATED BY PARIS II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Alternative Solvent Systems Generated by PARIS IIMichael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas M. Becker, and Paul F. Harten; Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26...

  3. Non Destructive IR Micro-Imaging of Whole Grains of the Paris Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionnet, Z.; Aleon-Toppani, A.; Borondics, F.; Brunetto, R.; Djouadi, Z.; Troadec, D.

    2016-08-01

    Here, we report the results of high-resolution Fourier Transform IR spectral imaging experiments at micron scale using FPA (Focal Plan Array) and synchroton radiation of the Paris meteorite (carbonaceous chondrite,CM )with a new sample preparation.

  4. Highlights and Conclusions of the Chalonge 13th Paris Cosmology Colloquium

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The 13th Chalonge Paris Cosmology Colloquium was held at the historic Perrault building of Observatoire de Paris on 23-25 July 2009. The Colloquium was held in the spirit of the Chalonge School, putting together real cosmological and astrophysical data and hard theory predictive approach in the framework of the Standard Model of the Universe. Peter Biermann, James Bullock, Claudio Destri, Hector de Vega, Massimo Giovannini, Sasha Kashlinsky, Eiichiro Komatsu, Anthony Lasenby and Norma G. Sanc...

  5. The carbon isotope composition of atmospheric CO 2 in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widory, David; Javoy, Marc

    2003-10-01

    One characteristic of air pollution in the urban environment is high CO 2 concentrations resulting from human activities. Determining the relative contributions of the different CO 2 sources can be addressed simply and elegantly by combining isotope and concentration measurements. Using this approach on atmospheric CO 2 samples collected in Paris, its suburbs and the open country provides fairly accurate conclusions. Our results show that air pollution within the first few metres above ground results basically from binary mixtures among which road traffic is the main contributor and, in particular, vehicles using unleaded gasoline (˜90% of the total). Heating sources, which account for 50% of the CO 2 input below the atmospheric inversion level, and vehicles using diesel contribute very little. Human respiration has a recognisable signature at street level under certain circumstances. The combined isotope and concentration analysis provides a sensitive tracer of local variations, even detecting the occasional prevalence of human respiration and the onset of actions in which natural gas is burnt. It also detects surprising inlets of 'clean air' (CO 2-wise) in the very centre of the city.

  6. Metaphors of Collecting in Late Nineteenth Century Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Mendelson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At the same time that Aby Warburg was assembling his library and organizing his 'Bildatlas Mnemosyne', art critics and writers theorized late nineteenth-century collecting in Paris in metaphoric terms. Over and again, art collections were described as a bouquet, a conversation, a book, or indeed as a painting in and of itself put together by an ‘amateur’. By creating an ensemble, the amateur proposed a metaphorical mode of knowledge similar to that celebrated by Aby Warburg. This article considers the ways in which the arrangement and spaces of the late nineteenth-century amateurs, as seen in newspaper articles, sales catalogue essays and other texts and photographs, positioned the collector of paintings, but also of drawings and prints and rare books, in contradistinction to the development of the museum and proposed alternative modes of viewing and of knowing. The interdisciplinarity of Warburg’s focus on image, word, orientation and action is paralleled in many private collections.

  7. Paris to Beijing by bike: they made it!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The challenge, a 12,623 km cycle trip to Beijing for the inauguration of the Olympic Games, was no easy ride, but they made it there on time. "I can do nothing for those who do not ask themselves questions" (Confucius -551-479 BC) CERN’s Raymond Cambarrat and Peter Dreesen arrived in the Chinese capital on 3 August after an incredible human and sporting adventure that began in Paris on 16 March (see Bulletin No. 20 & 21, 8 May 2008). The two cyclists, who set off on their journey with 102 other enthusiasts, rode for a total of 120 days with only ten days’ rest along the way. The greatest distance they covered in a single day was a 192 km leg in Russia, one of 12 countries their expedition took them through. From the arid steppes of Kirghizstan through the fog of Mount Hua to the snowy wind-swept pass of Kampa, the group covered roads of varying quality, some of them untarmacked, notchi...

  8. An American termite in Paris: temporal colony dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-09-22

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.

  9. Paris law parameter identification based on the Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft structures are commonly subjected to repeated loading cycles leading to fatigue damage. Fatigue data can be extrapolated by fatigue models which are adopted to describe the fatigue damage behaviour. Such models depend on their parameters for accurate prediction of the fatigue life. Therefore, several methods have been developed for estimating the model parameters for both linear and nonlinear systems. It is useful for a broad class of parameter identification problems when the dynamic model is not known. In this paper, the Paris law is used as fatigue-crack-length growth model on a metallic component under loading cycles. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is proposed as estimation method. Simulated crack length data is used to validate the estimation method. Based on experimental data obtained from fatigue experiment, the crack length and model parameters are estimated. Accurate model parameters allow a more realistic prediction of the fatigue life, consequently, the remaining useful life (RUL of component can be accurately computed. In this sense, maintenance performance could be improved.

  10. What would it take to achieve the Paris temperature targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Benjamin M.; O'Neill, Brian C.; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims to limit warming to 2 or 1.5°C above preindustrial level, although combined Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) are likely insufficient to achieve these targets. We propose a set of idealized emission pathways consistent with the targets. If countries reduce emissions in line with their INDCs, the 2°C threshold could be avoided only if net zero greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) are achieved by 2085 and late century negative emissions are considerably in excess of those assumed in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 (net -5 Gt CO2/yr, compared with -1.5 Gt CO2/yr in RCP2.6). More aggressive near-term reductions would allow 2°C to be avoided with less end-of-century carbon removal capacity. A 10% cut in GHGEs by 2030 (relative to 2015) could likely achieve 2°C with RCP2.6 level negative emissions. The 1.5°C target requires GHGEs to be reduced by almost a third by 2030 and net zero by 2050, while a 50 year overshoot of 1.5°C allows net zero GHGEs by 2060.

  11. Protecting the natural spaces on the edge of the Paris metropolis. Guide plan for the development of the natural space 'Joncs Marins' in the Paris metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Horn

    2016-09-01

    Today situated on the edge of the metropolis, these natural spaces will form the future urban parks, when the urbanisation has overgrown them. Like the two major parks of Paris, the 'Bois de Boulogne' and the 'Bois de Vincennes' have been once woodlands for hunting situated far outside of the city.

  12. Pursuing the Emancipatory Purport of Subjectivity from Frankfurt to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mesbahian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigating the philosophical place of Subjectivity in the contemporary thought. My justification for engaging in further study on this much-discussed concept is that three significant questions concerning subjectivity have remained insufficiently examined: What is the problem of philosophical foundation of modernity from Cartesian Cogito to the Kantian autonomous will and to the Hegelian subjectivity? Is there any possibility to overcome the proposed problem from an internal point of view and from the perspective of Jürgen Habermas? Whether the radical criticism of the Enlightenment idea of an autonomous subject by thinkers like Foucault and Derrida leads to loss of freedom or to the robust notion of freedom being deeply improved? This paper, accordingly, will examine the three above mentioned questions regarding subjectivity across three sections. I have argued, in the first section that the Enlightenment’s her¬itage is contradictory. On the one hand, the notion of subjectivity has generated a kind of emancipation. On the other hand, the subjectivity has enthroned a conception of reason and of method that can be interpreted as a new form of domination. In the second section, I have argued that Habermas’s answer to the philosophical dilemma of subjectivity is to accept the criticism of subject-centered reason but to find a basis for reason in communicative action. Habermas’s conception of subjectivity has been criticized by the help of some contemporary thinkers, in the third section of this paper, and it has been argued that based on his notions of modernity and subjectivity the marginalized populations of the World- namely the Other- can no longer expect intellectual and ethical support for their plight from Frankfurt and should immigrate to Paris in order to purse the emancipatory aspect of subjectivity.

  13. [Medicen Paris Région: A world-class ''competitiveness cluster'' in the Paris region incorporating a neuroscience ''subcluster''].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canet, Emmanuel

    2007-04-01

    The French public-private partnerships known as "competitive clusters" [pôles de compétitivité (PdC)] are intended to be novel and ambitious engines of regional growth, employment and biomedical innovation. Partly funded by government and local councils, they aim to capitalize on regional expertise by bringing together basic scientists, clinicians, innovative entrepreneurs and local decision-makers around specific themes that have become too costly and complex for any of these actors to tackle alone. Clusters provide the critical mass required both to underpin innovation potential and to authenticate regional claims to international competitiveness. Medicen is a biomedicine and therapeutics cluster comprising 120 partners from four broad "colleges" in the greater Paris region: major industry, small and medium-sized businesses, teaching hospitals/State research bodies, and local councils. Chief among its cooperative R&D projects is the neuroscience subcluster, in which "TransAl" the neurodegenerative disease project, counts Sanofi-Aventis, Servier and the French Atomic Energy Commission [Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA)] as key partners. One main aim is to develop an experimental model in rhesus monkeys in which a putative cause of Alzheimer's disease, intracerebral accumulation of b-amyloid peptide, is generated by impairing the peptide's clearance. The other aim, in which the nuclear medicine expertise of the CEA will be crucial, is to identify, characterize and validate markers for magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography imaging, and to source biomarkers from cerebrospinal fluid proteomics. A human biological resource centre (DNA and tissue banks) project dedicated to neurological and psychiatric disease should be up and running in 2007. Only through fundamental restructuring of resources on such a large cooperative scale are solutions likely to be found to the major problems of modern medicine, bringing healthcare and regional

  14. The Path Forward from Paris: the Challenge for Tropical Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C.

    2016-12-01

    The pledges of emissions reductions put forth at the COP21 in Paris fall short of ensuring the desired guardrail of 2 C warming, let alone the more stringent, but necessary, goal of 1.5 C warming if we want to minimize the increasing risks of climate change over both the short term of decades and the long term of centuries. Decarbonization of the global economy is mandatory, which implies a gargantuan challenge of decarbonizing the energy system. Given the likelihood of decreasing strength of the natural sinks in the global oceans and land biota as warming progresses, it may be necessary to reach nearly zero net emissions by midcentury and even negative net emissions by the end of the century. In addition to massive and rapid implementation of renewable energy systems, desirable mitigation trajectories involve large-scale reforestation and ecosystem restoration and also bioenergy capture and storage systems (BECCS). Tropical countries can play an important role to meet both goals as long as they are able to implement sustainable agriculture at the large scale that is nearly carbon-neutral and resilient to unavoidable climate change. And reaching sustainability in the agricultural sector—remembering that agricultural direct emissions and indirect emissions due to deforestation account for almost one quarter of global emissions—is under the constraint to meet food security for all, that is, food production has to grow 70% by midcentury, with concomitant reduction of waste in the food chain. I will take the example of mitigation options for Brazil—a large tropical country with per capita emissions of about 7.5 ton CO2-eq—to illustrate sustainable development trajectories of reaching carbon neutrality by midcentury. That will imply developing a modern, more productive carbon-neutral agriculture within the next two decades, reducing tropical deforestation to nearly zero within a decade, restoring ecosystems and increasing renewable energy use to over 80% of its

  15. Understanding the Paris agreement: analysing the reporting requirements under the enhanced transparency framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desgain, Denis DR; Sharma, Sudhir

    . The Agreement will enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least 55 Parties to the Convention, accounting in total for at least an estimated 55 percent of total global greenhouse gas emissions, will have deposited their instruments of ratification/acceptance/approval/accession. As of 5......At the Paris climate conference (COP-21) in December 2015, the Conference of the Parties decided to adopt the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This was the first time that 195 Parties had agreed on a universal, legally binding climate instrument......th October 2016, 74 Par¬ties had ratified the Agreement, accounting for 58.82% of global GHG emissions.1 The Paris Agreement will thus enter into force on 4th November 2016....

  16. Geç Ortaçağ Avrupası’nın Meşhur ve Gizemli Şehri Paris (Paris That Was Famous and Mysterious City of the Late Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhalik BAKIR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Paris is one of the most important capitals of the middle age. Actually, this city is universecity. Namely, Paris was remembered as a univercity, education center and art and architecture center. Paris appeared differently from the other cities. Here was an important city that East culture and West culture mixed with each other. In its environment, there were cities that have a traditional structure. It carries all the facilities of the city structure in the later middle ages. Namely, Paris is remembered firstly, while city structure is described. Like Chretien de Troyes described, Paris had the culture that made France as the first heritage of Roma and Greek. Paris is a colourful city. Perhaps, France had the most crowd population because of these facilities of Paris. Generally, undoubtedly, these facilities had a big role about the development of France civilization in the 13th century. So, in this study, we will study to introduce Paris with social-economic and culturel angles and give its appearance in the later middle ages.

  17. Chemical Constituents from Rhizome of Paris fargesii Franch%球药隔重楼的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵万顺; 高文远; 黄贤校; 黄璐琦; 肖培根

    2011-01-01

    Eight compounds were isolated and purified by solvent extraction,repeated chromatography with silica gel,Sephadex LH-20 and RP-C18 from Parisfargesii Franch.Then their structures were identified by spectral of analysis asβ-sitosterol(1),β-ecdysterone(2),Paris Saponins Ⅴ (3),Paris Saponins Ⅰ (4),Paris Saponins Ⅱ (5),Paris SaponinsⅦ (6),Paris Saponins H (7),Paris Saponins Ⅵ (8).Compounds 1-8 were isolated from Paris fargesii Franch for the first time.%采用硅胶柱层析、大孔吸附树脂、ODS柱层析、Sephadex LH-20和RP-C18柱层析等技术中分离得到8个化合物.通过波谱学数据和已知化合物数据比较,分别鉴定为β-谷甾醇(1),β-蜕皮激素(2),Paris Saponins Ⅴ(3),Paris Saponins Ⅰ (4),Paris SaponinsⅡ(5),Paris SaponinsⅦ(6),Paris Saponins H(7)和Paris SaponinsⅥ(8).化合物1~8均为首次从球药隔重楼中分离得到.

  18. Housing and the construction of the city: the Paris Habitat Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Arpa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Paris, the history and the evolution of social housing provision merge with those of a centennial institution. Created in 1914, the Office Public d’Habitations à Bon Marché, currently called Paris Habitat, manages more than 1,200 operations, 120,000 housing units inhabited by 200,000 residents. This article reviews an investigation to this exceptional heritage commissioned by the Pavillon de l'Arsenal in Paris, which resulted in the exhibition and catalogue Paris Habitat: Cent ans de ville, cent ans de vie, presented by the institution in 2015.The investigation, exhibition and publication were organized around the analysis of ten fragments of reality that, rather than matching administrative divisions or urban planning projects, span municipalities, districts and infrastructures. From low-cost to large-scale housing, from concerns with hygiene to ecology issues, each one of the building ensembles analyzed bears witness to the will to change society through housing. Written by the project’s main curator and catalogue editor, this review details the process through which essential questions formulated early on – What is the city we want like? How is it built? – were answered to: selecting from the wealth of material produced by Paris Habitat over one hundred years of activity, the team exposed their political stance on urban strategies at large. Importantly, Paris Habitat’s ‘actions’ substantiated the team’s belief that our knowledge of this long, continuous urban experiment can contribute to improve the metropolises of today and strengthen its ability to answer contemporary concerns: the transformation of offices into housing, new residents’ participation formulas, new building and conception processes, which are key elements in the making of cities that need to be dense, diverse, intense, fertile and agile.

  19. DINAMIKA LARVA IKAN SEBAGAI DASAR OPSI PENGELOLAAN SUMBER DAYA IKAN DI LAGUNA PULAU PARI KEPULAUAN SERIBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Puspasari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Proses rekruitmen populasi ikan sangat ditentukan oleh kelangsungan hidup larva ikan yang ada di daerah pemijahan/asuhan. Laguna Pulau Pari merupakan daerah pemjahan bagi banyak jenis larva ikan karang. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji dinamika kelimpahan dan komposisi dari larva ikan di laguna Pulau Pari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelimpahan larva ikan yang ditemukan berkisar antara 1,0 x103 – 14,7 x 103 individu/m3. Puncak kelimpahan tertinggi terjadi pada bulan Juli dan Oktober. Larva ikan ditemukan tersebar di semua lokasi pengamatan. Larva pada fase perkembangan pre flexion ditemukan dalam presentase yang paling tinggi. Selama masa pengamatan ditemukan 79 famili larva ikan yang didominasi oleh Pomacentridae, Aulostomidae, Blenniidae, Engraulidae dan Pinguipedidae. Dinamika yang terjadi pada larva ikan dapat dijadikan dasar bagi pengelolaan perikanan di wilayah Laguna Pulau Pari dengan cara memperluas daerah perlindungan laut dan rehabilitasi ekosistem Laguna Pulau Pari, sehingga peran dan fungsinya sebagai pemasok rekrut bagi stok ikan di perairan sekitarnya terjaga.   Fish Recruitment is, in turn, thought to be directly related to the survival of the early life stages in the spawning/nursery ground. Pulau Pari Laguna is considered as a spawning ground for many reef fishes. The aims of the research were to investigate the dynamic of abundance and composition of fish larvae in Pulau Pari lagune. The Results show, fish larvae abundance range between 1,0 x 103 – 14,7 x 103 ind/m3. Highest larval abundance occurred on July and October, which predicted as the month of fish larvae production seasons. Fish larvae were distributed in all part of the lagune. Larvae in the pre flexion stage found in the highest precentation compare to other. Totally 79 families of reef fish larvae were found during June – November 2010 dominated by Pomacentridae, Aulostomidae, Blenniidae, Engraulidae and Pinguipedidae.

  20. Gender differences in children escorting practices among dual-earners families in the Paris Region

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    WIiT Paris 2014 : Women's Issues in Transportation - 5ème Conférence Internationale sur les Femmes et le Transport - Construire les ponts, PARIS , FRANCE, 14-/04/2014 - 16/04/2014; The present article looks to pinpoint explanatory factors for the sharing of escorting of children in dual-earner families. It proposes a detailed analysis of inequalities and interactions in dual-earner families when it comes to escorting children by taking into account the characteristics of trips to and from sch...

  1. Towards the Chalonge 16th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2012: Highlights and Conclusions of the Chalonge 15th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2011

    CERN Document Server

    de Vega, H J; Sanchez, N G

    2012-01-01

    The Chalonge 15th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2011 was held on 20-22 July in the historic Paris Observatory's Perrault building, in the Chalonge School spirit combining real cosmological/astrophysical data and hard theory predictive approach connected to them in the Warm Dark Matter Standard Model of the Universe: News and reviews from Herschel, QUIET, Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), South Pole Telescole (SPT), Planck, PIXIE, the JWST, UFFO, KATRIN and MARE experiments; astrophysics, particle and nuclear physics warm dark matter (DM) searches and galactic observations, related theory and simulations, with the aim of synthesis, progress and clarification. Philippe Andre, Peter Biermann, Pasquale Blasi, Daniel Boyanovsky, Carlo Burigana, Hector de Vega, Joanna Dunkley, Gerry Gilmore, Alexander Kashlinsky, Alan Kogut, Anthony Lasenby, John Mather, Norma Sanchez, Alexei Smirnov, Sylvaine Turck-Chieze present here their highlights of the Colloquium. Ayuki Kamada and Sinziana Paduroiu present here their poster hi...

  2. An Overview of Surveys of Paris Meridian Arc Section Lengths in the 17th and 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief introduction is followed by description of the spread of the Paris meridian in France. Following is description of the survey of Paris meridian arc section lengths and production of contemporary maps of France: by Jean Picard, Philippe de la Hire, Jean-Dominique Cassini (Cassini I, Cassini II, Cassini III and Cassini IV.

  3. 75 FR 34180 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithsville...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21363). In the request for reconsideration, the petitioner stated that... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job... determine that workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., New Smithsville, Pennsylvania, including on-site...

  4. 75 FR 41523 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... on May 27, 2010. The Notice was published in the Federal Register on June 16, 2010 (75 FR 34180). The... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville, PA; Paris Accessories, Inc., Allentown, PA; Amended Certification...

  5. Clonal population of flucytosine-resistant Candida tropicalis from blood cultures, Paris, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Bretagne, Stéphane; Bernède, Claire; Robert, Vincent; Raoux, Dorothée; Chachaty, Elisabeth; Forget, Elisabeth; Lacroix, Claire; Dromer, Françoise

    Candida tropicalis is a diploid ascomycetes yeast responsible for 4%-24% of candidemia. Resistance to flucytosine is rarely described for this species but was observed for 45 (35%) of 130 C. tropicalis isolates recovered from blood cultures in the Paris area in a 4-year survey. The aims of this

  6. The 2015 Paris Climate Agreement: outcomes and their impacts on small island states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Hoad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This update reflects upon the outcomes of the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations held in Paris in December 2015 (COP21. As the dust settles, this update explores the temperature targets, loss and damage, climate justice and what the agreement might mean for small island states.

  7. China's response to climate change issues after Paris Climate Change Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Gao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Climate Change Conference was successfully concluded with the Paris Agreement, which is a milestone for the world in collectively combating climate change. By participating in IPCC assessments and conducting national climate change assessments, China has been increasing its understanding of the issue. For the first time, China's top leader attended the Conference of the Parties, which indicates the acknowledgement of the rationality and necessity of climate change response by China at different levels. Moreover, this participation reflects China's commitment to including climate change in its ecology improvement program and pursuing a low-carbon society and economy. In order to ensure the success of the Paris Conference, China has contributed significantly. China's constructive participation in global governance shows that China is a responsible power. These principles such as the creation of a future of win–win cooperation with each country contributing to the best of its ability; a future of the rule of law, fairness, and justice; and a future of inclusiveness, mutual learning, and common development will serve as China's guidelines in its efforts to facilitate the implementation of the Paris Agreement and participate in the design of international systems.

  8. Progress from Specificity: How to Monitor the Paris Declaration in the Malawi Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Laura

    2009-01-01

    At the time of writing, it is not possible to measure progress accurately, or even assess the baseline status of aid effectiveness in the education sector. Twelve targets en route to the five objectives of the Paris Declaration were set and agreed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); they were to be measured…

  9. Metabolic activity of Glomus intraradices in Arum- and Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, IM; Cavagnaro, TR; Smith, SE; Dickson, S

    Colonization of two plant species by Glomus intraradices was studied to investigate the two morphological types (Arum and Paris), their symbiotic interfaces and metabolic activities. Root pieces and sections were stained to observe the colonization and metabolic activity of all mycorrhizal

  10. L’homme et la bête : chiens et politique dans Les Mohicans de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gauthier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie comment le recours à l’animalisation dans Les Mohicans de Paris d’Alexandre Dumas est l’espace d’une véritable réflexion sur les rapports entre l’humain et l’animal. Ceci apparaît de façon nette dans la fictionnalisation du chien qui induit un brouillage des limites séparant humain et animal, brouillage qui a pour fonction de permettre l’articulation des personnages canins aux enjeux fondamentaux du roman. De façon plus précise, la mise en scène du « meilleur ami de l’homme » sert à redoubler le projet politique au cœur des Mohicans de Paris. This paper examines how, in Les Mohicans de Paris, Alexandre Dumas assigns animalistic features to some characters to question the relations between humans and animals while portraying the various dogs in the novel in a way which blurs the limits between humans and animals. These seemingly accessory canine characters are actually closely associated with the fundamental elements of the novel. More precisely, the way “man’s best friend” is put in fiction actually repeats the political project at the heart of Les Mohicans de Paris.

  11. Contribution of the G20 economies to the global impact of the Paris agreement climate proposals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Elzen, Michel; Admiraal, Annemiek; Roelfsema, Mark; van Soest, Heleen; Hof, Andries F.; Forsell, Nicklas

    2016-01-01

    By 15 December 2015, 187 countries had submitted their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) summarising their climate actions after 2020 in the context of the Paris Agreement. We used a unified framework to assess the mitigation components of INDCs covering 105 countries (representin

  12. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs.

  13. Contribution of the G20 economies to the global impact of the Paris agreement climate proposals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Elzen, Michel; Admiraal, Annemiek; Roelfsema, Mark; van Soest, Heleen; Hof, Andries F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/240412397; Forsell, Nicklas

    2016-01-01

    By 15 December 2015, 187 countries had submitted their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) summarising their climate actions after 2020 in the context of the Paris Agreement. We used a unified framework to assess the mitigation components of INDCs covering 105 countries

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Paris Basin, France, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phoung A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 222 million barrels of unconventional oil; 2,092 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas; 18 million barrels of conventional oil; and 47 billion cubic feet of conventional gas resources in the Paris Basin of France.

  15. Metabolic activity of Glomus intraradices in Arum- and Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, IM; Cavagnaro, TR; Smith, SE; Dickson, S

    2005-01-01

    Colonization of two plant species by Glomus intraradices was studied to investigate the two morphological types (Arum and Paris), their symbiotic interfaces and metabolic activities. Root pieces and sections were stained to observe the colonization and metabolic activity of all mycorrhizal structure

  16. LITERATURA, FOTOGRAFIA E O RETRATO DA MODERNIZAÇÃO DE PARIS, A CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fabris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss the relationship between literature and photography regarding the processes of modernization which take place in Paris in the 19th century, commenting on the artistic-photographic production of Eugène Atget and the Naturalism of Émile Zola.

  17. Merchants of Light: The Paris Library School, Internationalism, and the Globalization of a Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Amid growing isolationism after World War I, the American Library Association transferred its wartime programs to train librarians in Europe and promote the American model of public libraries. Working in collaboration with American philanthropists and members of the French library community, ALA established a permanent library school in Paris that…

  18. Predicting Paris: Multi-Method Approaches to Forecast the Outcomes of Global Climate Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprinz, D.F.; Bueno de Mesquita, B.; Kallbekken, S.; Stokman, Franciscus; Saelen, H.; Thompson, R

    2016-01-01

    We examine the negotiations held under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change in Paris, December 2015. Prior to these negotiations, there was considerable uncertainty about whether an agreement would be reached, particularly given that the world’s leaders failed to

  19. [Accidental hypothermia in adults: taking charge by the SAMU of Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deny, N; Bresard, D; Bertrand, J; Poisvert, M

    1990-02-01

    Thirty one cases of accidental hypothermia have been taken in care by the SAMU de Paris during the year of 1987. The accidental hypothermias happening in the cities are, most of the time, moderated and not very serious. The search for a cause is a prime necessity. The prognosis is based on that search to guide and advise the patients.

  20. The 2015 Paris Climate Conference: A turning point in the world's energy history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Mikushina, O. V.; Tereshin, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    It has been established that the consistent implementation of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference implies the quick retire of coal from the global energy balance and its replacement with the energy from unconventional and renewable sources. It is shown that even the full-scale implementation of the agreement will not keep global warming within 2°C.

  1. Local Belonging and "Geographies of Emotions": Immigrant Children's Experience of Their Neighbourhoods in Paris and Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Besten, Olga

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that a sense of local belonging and emotional attitudes to one's neighbourhood are inherently interconnected. It explores immigrant children's emotional experiences of their neighbourhoods in Paris and Berlin through subjective maps drawn by the children. The article highlights the social and spatial nature of immigrant…

  2. Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents PARIS III User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARIS III is a third generation Windows-based computer software to assist the design of less harmful solvent replacements by estimating values of the solvent properties that characterize the static, dynamic, performance, and environmental behavior of the original solvent mixture ...

  3. Rough Journal Page Documenting Ratification and Final Page of the Treaty of Paris, 1783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2008-01-01

    The 1783 Treaty of Paris formally ended the American Revolution and established the United States as an independent and sovereign nation. In words reminiscent of those in the resolution presented by Richard Henry Lee to Congress in June 1776, and later included in the Declaration of Independence, Article I of the treaty stated that the king now…

  4. Mode City Opened Grandly in Paris and Shanghai Mode Lingerie Will Raise its Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora Zhao

    2012-01-01

    During the passionate July, Mode City held its grand opening as scheduled in Paris. Global,fashion, professional, high-end, with these labels on Mode City, attendees again got many surprises. More than 500 brands from 10 countries in Europe, America and Asia hurry to this event with mighty momentum.

  5. Establishing a Seismometer at PARI and Designing a Switching Circuit Utilizing Fiber Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Justin

    2007-12-01

    At Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in Rosman, NC I spent ten weeks as the first NC Space Grant/Cline Astronomy Scholar developing multiple projects that helped to establish PARI as a resource for the scientific community. The first project that I worked on was establishing PARI's seismometer which serves as a resource for the region and utilizes sensitive equipment to measure 2.8 magnitude earthquakes occurring anywhere on earth. After basic seismometer operating principles were studied, multiple locations were surveyed to find an ideal location with little ambient noise and no disturbance from human or mechanical sources. Disturbances were generated at several locations identified as potential sites for the seismometer at 10, 20 and 30 feet by dropping a basketball and by driving a car around the location in an established pattern. Noise response was analyzed using the WinSDR software package which generates digital records of analog seismometer data and an ideal location was identified. The second project involved designing a circuit around the specific needs of the PARI optical telescope ridge. This ridge is susceptible to equipment that is damaged or improperly reset due to lightning. The circuit utilized the insulated properties of optical fiber to transmit a switching signal to the weather stations on the PARI optical ridge. This signal reset those stations that transmitted asynchronously after a lightning strike. Fiber optic transmitters were incorporated into the circuit along with TTL logic to provide a solid system that met the necessary specifications. After a rewarding an interesting summer I will follow up on my work next year for ten more weeks.

  6. Les Problèmes culturels des grandes villes. Colloque - Paris 8-11 décembre 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Actes d'un colloque bilingue tenu à Paris en décembre 1997, organisé par le Groupe de travail " Géographie culturelle " et par la Commission " Développement urbain et Qualité de la vie urbaine " de l'Union Géographique Internationale, avec l'aide des Universités Paris I et Paris IV. La dimension culturelle prend une importance croissante pour les populations urbaines et pour les responsables de la gestion des villes. D'une part, la diversité des populations réunies dans la ville pose la quest...

  7. The climate-problem. Evaluation after the Paris-agreement and the Marrakesh-conference; Das Klimaproblem. Bewertung nach dem Paris-Abkommen und der Marrakesch-Konferenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eike

    2017-05-15

    The Paris-Climate-Agreement came into effect on November 4th 2016. Still, the contradiction in this agreement - ambitious goals and (presumably) inadequate commitments - has persisted. Also in the follow-up conference in Marrakesh, this discrepancy remained unresolved. 2017 the countries will meet again. However, since Donald Trump became president-elect of the United States of America, uncertainty about how the largest economy in the world will act in the future has intensified. This amplifies the pressure to clarify the true level of human influence on the climate in a scientifically consistent manner, as a basis for more reliable decisions. This paper tries to contribute to that effort.

  8. Um olhar de descoberta na Paris da Belle Époque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carrascoza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Ao estilo dos textos de Baudelaire sobre os flâneurs que caminhavam na cidade de Paris, descobrindo os símbolos da modernidade, este artigo narra a chegada de um estrangeiro à capital francesa no início do século XX e seu passeio pela cidade. Ao longo de um dia, ele tomará contato com as obras de importantes artistas como Toulouse-Lautrec, Murcha e Chéret, que desenharam cartazes para shows, embalagens de produtos, folhetos promocionais, entre outras manifestações artísticas exploradas pelo então nascente espírito moderno. À semelhança do romance de Umberto Eco, A misteriosa chama da rainha Loana, que reproduz imagens da cultura pop e erudita em meio à sua narrativa, o texto segue o formato de ensaio ilustrado, fundindo a ficção com os aspectos reais da Paris na efervescência da Belle Époque. A estrutura, portanto, rompe com os gêneros tradicionais dos artigos acadêmicos, apresentando conteúdo reflexivo por meios dos personagens e da trama engendrada. Palavras-chave: Paris; Belle Époque; modernidade; imagens; publicidade. ABSTRACT In the style of Baudelaire’s texts on the flâneurs who used to walk in the city of Paris, finding the symbols of modernity, this article narrates the ar- rival of a foreigner in the early 20th century in Paris, and his tour around the French capital. In the course of one day, he will be in contact with the works of important artists, such as Toulouse-Lautrec, Murcha and Chéret, who drew posters for shows, products’ packages, advertising leaflets, among other artistic manifestations, explored by the then rising modern spirit. Similar to Umberto Eco’s novel The mysterious flame of Queen Loana, which reproduces images of both pop and erudite culture in its narrative, the text follows the illustrated essay format, merging fiction and the real aspects of Paris’ effervescent Belle Époque. The structure, therefore, breaks free from the traditional genres of academic articles, presenting the

  9. Notas sobre Siegfried Kracauer, Walter Benjamin e a Paris do Segundo Império: pontos de contato Notes on Siegfried Kracauer, Walter Benjamin and Second Empire Paris: affinity points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Jordão Machado

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de mostrar a originalidade crítica de Siegfried Kracauer diante da experiência da modernidade estética e de discutir as afinidades estético-teóricas de Kracauer e Benjamim ao analisar a Paris da segunda metade do século XIX, o Segundo Império, em particular, como fenômeno originário da sociedade de massas, da indústria cultural e do entretenimento e, sobretudo, do nazi-fascismo. Kracauer durante seu exílio parisiense (1933-41 escreveu uma "biografia da sociedade": Jacques Offenbach e a Paris de sua época (Jacques Offenbach und das Paris seiner Zeit. Obra inovadora pelo seu enfoque da história do presente e com pontos de contatos com a Obra das Passagens (Passagen-Werk ou Paris capital do século XIX de Walter Benjamin.I present Kracauer's original critical analysis of aesthetic modernity, and discuss the theoretical and aesthetic affinities between Kracauer and Walter Benjamin in their analyses of Paris during the second half of the Twentieth Century; the Second Empire as the original embodiment of mass society, with its cultural and entertaining industries; and, above all, the emergence of fascism and National Socialism. During his Parisian exile (1933-1941, Kracauer wrote a "social biography": Orpheus in Paris: Offenbach and the Paris of His Time (New York, 1938, an innovative work with many affinity points with Walter Benjamin's The Work of the Arcades, or Paris as the Capital of the XIXth Century.

  10. Food Insecurity, a Determinant of Obesity? - an Analysis from a Population-Based Survey in the Paris Metropolitan Area, 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Caillavet, France; Lhuissier, Anne; Chauvin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    .... : We used data from third wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures (SIRS) cohort study, a longitudinal population-based, representative health and socioepidemiological survey of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area...

  11. Portuguese knights-errant in nineteenth-century Paris and Rio: translation as response to exile in global cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bueno Maia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to uncover the role played by a series of picaresque novels translated into Portuguese and published in midnineteenth-century Paris in helping the Portuguese diaspora cope with the challenges of being a migrant in a global city. Through a contextual analysis, it will be argued that these novels were part of vaster cultural projects aimed at establishing solidarity networks among Portuguese exiles in Paris and, at the same time, at preserving multilingualism. By means of a textual analysis of Dom Severino Magriço ou o Dom Quichote portuguez (Paris, Pillet Fils Aîné, 1851, it will be suggested that this particular target text is committed to helping Portuguese migrants in Paris and in Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, this novel illustrates ways of engaging with multiple Others, mainly through the reading and comparing of national literary canons.

  12. Pluridisciplinary research on a woolly rhinoceros skeleton, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1799), from the Institut de paleontologie humaine (Paris, France)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercoutere, Carole; Guerin, Claude; Crepin, Laurent; Richardin, Pascale; Gandolfo, Nathalie; Vincent, Julien; Marsac, Jean; Cersoy, Sophie; Rousseliere, Helene; Walter, Philippe; Brunelle, Alain; Nowik, Witold; Brissaud, Didier; Drucker, Dorothee G.; van der Plicht, Johannes; Patou-Mathis, Marylene; Vialet, Amelie

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the foundation Institut de paleontologie humaine (Paris) acquired an assembled skeleton of woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1799). Its exceptional state of preservation allowed a multidisciplinary study: anatomical, biometrical, geochronological (AMS radiocarbon datin

  13. First Mid-Session of Third High-Level China-France Forum On Local Government Cooperation Held in Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing; Shuhua

    2013-01-01

    <正>Cooperation on environment protection between China and France at the local government level received a further boost from a meeting between Beijing and Paris last December to consider development of environmentally friendly buildings and

  14. Industrial Education in the Middle Ages: Apprenticeship in the Wool Textile Industry in Thirteenth-Century Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannabecker, John R.

    1989-01-01

    A study of 13th-century industrial regulations in Paris shows how medieval apprenticeships in the textile industry functioned. The investigation interprets wool industry apprenticeship in the context of the production system and the social environment. (SK)

  15. Economic tools to promote transparency and comparability in the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldy, Joseph; Pizer, William; Tavoni, Massimo; Reis, Lara Aleluia; Akimoto, Keigo; Blanford, Geoffrey; Carraro, Carlo; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James; Iyer, Gokul C.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Richels, Richard; Rose, Steven; Sano, Fuminori

    2016-11-01

    The Paris Agreement culminates a six-year transition towards an international climate policy architecture based on parties submitting national pledges every five years. An important policy task will be to assess and compare these contributions. We use four integrated assessment models to produce metrics of Paris Agreement pledges, and show differentiated effort across countries: wealthier countries pledge to undertake greater emission reductions with higher costs. The pledges fall in the lower end of the distributions of the social cost of carbon and the cost-minimizing path to limiting warming to 2 °C, suggesting insufficient global ambition in light of leaders’ climate goals. Countries’ marginal abatement costs vary by two orders of magnitude, illustrating that large efficiency gains are available through joint mitigation efforts and/or carbon price coordination. Marginal costs rise almost proportionally with income, but full policy costs reveal more complex regional patterns due to terms of trade effects.

  16. The Rise of Massage and Medical Gymnastics in London and Paris before the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Massage and medical gymnastics experienced a rapid institutionalization across Europe and North America between 1850 and 1914. This article explores how this process took place in London and Paris. Physiotherapy developed many of the hallmarks of an independent discipline during this period, including an identified corpus of manipulations and exercises, some autonomous training courses and degrees for future practitioners, and even the creation of departments within several hospitals. The article analyzes all of the processes surrounding this rise, paying special attention to the influence of the ambassadors of Swedish gymnastics (which led to the re-invention of massage across Europe), to the installation of physiotherapy in hospitals in London and in Paris, and to the practical and institutional innovations driven by nurses in England and by doctors in France.

  17. [EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH: DATA FROM THE PARIS SUDDEN DEATH EXPERTISE CENTER REGISTRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouven, Xavier; Bougouin, Wulfran; Karam, Nicole; Marijon, Eloi

    2015-09-01

    Sudden cardiac death is an unexpected cardiac arrest without obvious extra-cardiac cause. Epidemiology of sudden cardiac death has been poorly documented in France, mainly because of challenging requirement in order to capture all cases in a specific area. The Parisian registry (Sudden Death Expertise Center, European Georges Pompidou Hospital, Paris) was initiated in May 2011 and analyzed data of all sudden death in Paris and suburbs (6.6 millions inhabitants). Over 3 years, the annual incidence estimated to 50-70 per 100,000. Those occurred mainly in men (69%), with a mean age of 65 year, and at home (75%). The event was witnessed in 80% of cases, but bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated in only half of cases. Initial cardiac rhythm was ventricular fibrillation in 25%. Survival to hospital discharge remains low (8%).

  18. «Valentin et Orson», de Paris à Lyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Colombo Timelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Valentin et Orson fut publié d’abord à Lyon (1489, 1495, puis à Paris (ca 1511-1519. Le but de cet article est double: vérifier si le passage d’un centre éditorial à l’autre a impliqué une évolution du texte; montrer l’intérêt d’une collation systématique sur plusieurs éditions, même plus tardives, afin d’établir une édition critique.Valentin et Orson was first published in Lyon (1489, 1495, then in Paris (ca 1511-1519. This article has two aims: first, to establish whether the transfer from the former to the latter editorial centre brought with some kind of evolution of the text; second, to prove how interesting a systematic collation of many editions can be, in establishing a critical edition.

  19. Predicting Paris: Multi-Method Approaches to Forecast the Outcomes of Global Climate Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef F. Sprinz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine the negotiations held under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change in Paris, December 2015. Prior to these negotiations, there was considerable uncertainty about whether an agreement would be reached, particularly given that the world’s leaders failed to do so in the 2009 negotiations held in Copenhagen. Amid this uncertainty, we applied three different methods to predict the outcomes: an expert survey and two negotiation simulation models, namely the Exchange Model and the Predictioneer’s Game. After the event, these predictions were assessed against the coded texts that were agreed in Paris. The evidence suggests that combining experts’ predictions to reach a collective expert prediction makes for significantly more accurate predictions than individual experts’ predictions. The differences in the performance between the two different negotiation simulation models were not statistically significant.

  20. A tale of two cities. Vulnerabilities of the London and Paris transit networks

    CERN Document Server

    von Ferber, C; Holovatch, T; Holovatch, Yu

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of random failure or attack on the public transit networks of London and Paris in a comparative study. In particular we analyze how the dysfunction or removal of sets of stations or links (rails, roads, etc.) affects the connectivity properties within these networks. We show how accumulating dysfunction leads to emergent phenomena that cause the transportation system to break down as a whole. Simulating different directed attack strategies, we find minimal strategies with high impact and identify a-priory criteria that correlate with the resilience of these networks. To demonstrate our approach, we choose the London and Paris public transit networks. Our quantitative analysis is performed in the frames of the complex network theory - a methodological tool that has emerged recently as an interdisciplinary approach joining methods and concepts of the theory of random graphs, percolation, and statistical physics. In conclusion we demonstrate that taking into account cascading effec...

  1. Swelling soils monitoring through PSI and DINSAR interferometry : Applications on eastern Paris surroundings (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, F.; Deffontaines, B.; Fruneau, B.; Cojean, R.; Audiguier, M.; Arnaud, A.; Duro, J.

    2009-04-01

    Swelling soils may induce small surface displacements under various climatic conditions, that may affect individual buildings. The aim of this work, funded by MAIF foundation (Insurance foundation), is to monitor those small seasonal-dependant displacements through DINSAR and persistent scatterer interferometric methods. The eastern paris basin is locally composed of outcropping Marne de Pantin and Argiles Vertes particularily sensible to swelling phenomena observed during for instance the last dryness event of 2003. Radar differential interferometry (DINSAR) method which enables one to map surface displacements from two radar images acquired on a specific area gives rather poor results and is not that efficient in the eastern Paris Basin highly due to the temporal decorrelation. On the contrary, interesting results are obtained with Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) which reveal precisely the surface displacements, continuous in time. This new application of interferometry presents high potential to better understand the swelling soil natural hazards and the induced geologic processes.

  2. Predicting Paris: Multi-Method Approaches to Forecast the Outcomes of Global Climate Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef F. Sprinz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine the negotiations held under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change in Paris, December 2015. Prior to these negotiations, there was considerable uncertainty about whether an agreement would be reached, particularly given that the world’s leaders failed to do so in the 2009 negotiations held in Copenhagen. Amid this uncertainty, we applied three different methods to predict the outcomes: an expert survey and two negotiation simulation models, namely the Exchange Model and the Predictioneer’s Game. After the event, these predictions were assessed against the coded texts that were agreed in Paris. The evidence suggests that combining experts’ predictions to reach a collective expert prediction makes for significantly more accurate predictions than individual experts’ predictions. The differences in the performance between the two different negotiation simulation models were not statistically significant.

  3. Karl Marx e a Essência Autogestionária da Comuna de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildo Viana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O artigo apresenta a interpretação da Comuna de Paris por Karl Marx como autogoverno dos produtores, autogestão social. Uma análise minuciosa do capítulo da obra “A Guerra Civil na França” fornece os elementos interpretativos para compreender a percepção da Comuna de Paris como obra autogestionários dos operários parisienses, o que foi um elemento fundamental para o desenvolvimento do marxismo posterior.

  4. The territorial factory of the periurban organic agriculture ; learning from the Paris Region

    OpenAIRE

    Boivin, Nicolas; Traversac, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    Since 2007, the organic farming is becoming a part of the European and French agricultural policies, It is display in local and national programs as a factor of territorial development, in particular for the new form of periurban areas. The politicians use this argument to boost the emancipation of the conventional practices in agriculture. The Paris Region promotes environment friendly economy and sustainable development by organic farming. And the political context is disposed to this alter...

  5. Income Inequality in Paris in the Heyday of the Commercial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Rising inequality in recent decades in the U.S. and other developed economies has again focused attention on the relationship between inequality and growth, and the relationship between inequality and heterogeneity in abilities. This paper is a preliminary report based on the analysis of data extracted from the tax returns (the taille) imposed by Philip the Fair from 1292 to 1313 on the Parisian middle class. The major finding reported in this paper is that inequality in Paris in the heyday o...

  6. PARIS (Proteomic Analysis and Resources Indexation System) VERSION 2.0 User's Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Juhui

    2015-01-01

    International audience; PARIS (Proteomic Analysis and Resources Indexation System) is a suit of software to manage and analyse the data from 2D electrophoresis based proteomic analysis. It stores information about experiments and analysis procedure, allows the user to search and navigate in genomic and proteomic data, supports visual verification and validation of the analysis results, and provides tools for cross multi-experiment and multi-experimenter data validation and exploration.

  7. Las Ciudades de los sentidos: Paris, Rio de Janeiro y Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta Velloso, Monica

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes to revisit the basis of the imaginaries of Latin-american modernity, as an object of study of the History of Sensibilities. The emotions are emphasized, creating a sense of belonging based on the difference between Latin and Anglo-Saxon identities. Translating codes, exposing passions and scandals; in social life, the dance is crucial for this discussion. In the 1910´s, the "nouvelle danses" (Tango and Maxixe) were successful in Paris. Historiography about the theme prom...

  8. Srovnání Euronext Paris a TSX Group

    OpenAIRE

    Husková, Petra

    2009-01-01

    The importance of local stocks was falling down during the 20th century, whereas the importance of international stocks began to rise, including Euronext Paris and TSX Group. The aim of this thesis is to compare these two stocks from several different points of view, especially in terms of history, conditions of memberships, trading systems and trading orders, and comparison of statistics like market cap, trends of blue chips indices and other.

  9. Paris haute couture:a sector in crisis still makes s come ream true

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PARtS (AFP) - Fashion-savvy women from around the wodd are eagerly await ing the presentation in Paris of haute couture collections for autumn-winter 2003-04, as the industry faces a severe financial crisis. Despite a positive 2002, the strength of the euro against the dollar, the effects of the war on traq, the SARS epidemic and plunging consumer confidence have left the world's

  10. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris

    OpenAIRE

    M. Crippa; P. F. DeCarlo; Slowik, J. G.; Mohr, C; M. F. Heringa; R. Chirico; POULAIN L.; F. Freutel; Sciare, J.; Cozic, J.; Marco, C. F.; M. Elsasser; Nicolas, J.B.; N. Marchand; Abidi, E.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a post-industrial megacity on local and regional air quality was assessed via a month-long field measurement campaign in the Paris metropolitan area during winter 2010. Here we present source apportionment results from three aerosol mass spectrometers and two aethalometers deployed at three measurement stations within the Paris region. Submicron aerosol composition is dominated by the organic fraction (30–36%) and nitrate (28–29%), with lower contributions from sulfate (14–16%),...

  11. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris

    OpenAIRE

    M. Crippa; P. F. DeCarlo; Slowik, J. G.; Mohr, C; M. F. Heringa; R. Chirico; POULAIN L.; F. Freutel; Sciare, J.; Cozic, J.; C. F. Di Marco; M. Elsasser; N. José; N. Marchand; Abidi, E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a post-industrial megacity on local and regional air quality was assessed via a month-long field measurement campaign in the Paris metropolitan area during winter 2010. Here we present source apportionment results from three aerosol mass spectrometers and two aethalometers deployed at three measurement stations within the Paris region. Submicron aerosol composition is dominated by the organic fraction (30–36%) and nitrate (28–29%), with lower contributions from sulfate (14–16%),...

  12. Total OH reactivity measurements in Paris during the 2010 MEGAPOLI winter campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dolgorouky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl radicals play a central role in the troposphere as they control the lifetime of many trace gases. Measurement of OH reactivity (OH loss rate is important to better constrain the OH budget and also to evaluate the completeness of measured VOC budget. Total atmospheric OH reactivity was measured for the first time in an European Megacity: Paris and its surrounding areas with 12 million inhabitants, during the MEGAPOLI winter campaign 2010. The method deployed was the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM. The measured dataset contains both measured and calculated OH reactivity from CO, NOx and VOCs measured via PTR-MS, GC-FID and GC-MS instruments. The reactivities observed in Paris covered a range from 10 s−1 to 130 s−1, indicating a large loading of chemical reactants. The present study showed that, when clean marine air masses influenced Paris, the purely local OH reactivity (20 s−1 is well explained by the measured species. Nevertheless, when there is a continental import of air masses, high levels of OH reactivity were obtained (120–130 s−1 and the missing OH reactivity measured in this case jumped to 75%. Using covariations of the missing OH reactivity to secondary inorganic species in fine aerosols, we suggest that the missing OH reactants were most likely highly oxidized compounds issued from photochemically processed air masses of anthropogenic origin.

  13. Total OH reactivity measurements in Paris during the 2010 MEGAPOLI winter campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dolgorouky

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl radicals play a central role in the troposphere as they control the lifetime of many trace gases. Measurement of OH reactivity (OH loss rate is important to better constrain the OH budget and also to evaluate the completeness of measured VOC budget. Total atmospheric OH reactivity was measured for the first time in an European Megacity: Paris and its surrounding areas with 12 million inhabitants, during the MEGAPOLI winter campaign 2010. The method deployed was the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM. The measured dataset contains both measured and calculated OH reactivity from CO, NOx and VOCs measured via PTR-MS, GC-FID and GC-MS instruments. The reactivities observed in Paris covered a range from 10 s−1 to 130 s−1, indicating a large loading of chemical reactants. The present study showed that, when clean marine air masses influenced Paris, the purely local OH reactivity (20 s−1 is well explained by the measured species. Nevertheless, when there is a continental import of air masses, high levels of OH reactivity were obtained (120–130 s−1 and the missing OH reactivity measured in this case jumped to 75%. Using covariations of the missing OH reactivity to secondary inorganic species in fine aerosols, we suggest that the missing OH reactants were most likely highly oxidized compounds issued from photochemically processed air masses of anthropogenic origin.

  14. Long-term damage to glass in Paris in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Anda; Lefèvre, Roger-Alexandre; Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M

    2012-08-01

    Glass weathering depends mainly on its chemical composition: Si-Ca-K mediaeval glass is low durable, while Si-Ca-Na Roman as well as modern glass are very durable. Mediaeval glass is subject to the superficial leaching of K and Ca ions leading to the formation of a hydrated silica-gel layer. Both types of glass develop a superficial stratum of deposited atmospheric particles cemented by crystals of gypsum (and syngenite in the case of Si-Ca-K glass), leading to an impairment of the optical properties: decrease of transparency and increase of haze. Dose-response functions established for the two types of glass reveal that haze depends only on pollution parameters (PM, SO(2), NO(2)), while leaching depends both on pollution and climate parameters (RH, T, SO(2), NO(2)). Instrumental records are available for temperature in Paris from 1800. Air pollution in Paris was estimated from statistics of fuel use from 1875 to 1943, measurements that started in the 1950s and projections across the 21st century. The estimated annual rate of haze development indicates a gradual rise from the 16th century. The increasing importance of coal as a fuel through the 19th century and enhanced sulphur dioxide concentration make a rapid increase in haze formation, which reaches a peak about 1950. The likely damage to mediaeval glass follows a rather similar pattern. The period of damage from aggressive pollutants looks later and for a briefer time in Paris than in London.

  15. Key indicators to track current progress and future ambition of the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Fuss, Sabine; Jackson, Robert B.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Le Quéré, Corinne; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2017-01-01

    Current emission pledges to the Paris Agreement appear insufficient to hold the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Yet, details are missing on how to track progress towards the `Paris goal', inform the five-yearly `global stocktake', and increase the ambition of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). We develop a nested structure of key indicators to track progress through time. Global emissions track aggregated progress, country-level decompositions track emerging trends that link directly to NDCs, and technology diffusion indicates future reductions. We find the recent slowdown in global emissions growth is due to reduced growth in coal use since 2011, primarily in China and secondarily in the United States. The slowdown is projected to continue in 2016, with global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry similar to the 2015 level of 36 GtCO2. Explosive and policy-driven growth in wind and solar has contributed to the global emissions slowdown, but has been less important than economic factors and energy efficiency. We show that many key indicators are currently broadly consistent with emission scenarios that keep temperatures below 2 °C, but the continued lack of large-scale carbon capture and storage threatens 2030 targets and the longer-term Paris ambition of net-zero emissions.

  16. Can demographic variables predict lottery and pari-mutuel losses? An empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, K Brandon; Omori, Megumi

    2009-06-01

    Using data from the 2004 and 2005 Consumer Expenditure Surveys (CES) comprising of 15,000 respondents, this study examines two research questions. The first of these considers the demographic differences between households whose members lose money playing the lottery and/or engaging in pari-mutuel betting and those whose members do not lose money participating in such activities. The second assesses demographic differences among households whose members lose money playing the lottery and/or engaging in pari-mutuel betting. It was found that respondents living in money-losing households are slightly older, better off financially, more likely to be married or divorced, more likely to live in a state with at least one legal casino and more likely to live in the Northeast than respondents living in non-money-losing households. Among those living in money-losing households, the least wealthy and African American respondents are more likely to lose a higher proportion of their respective incomes purchasing lottery tickets and engaging in pari-mutuel betting than wealthier respondents and whites.

  17. Parkin loss leads to PARIS-dependent declines in mitochondrial mass and respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Daniel A.; Lee, Yunjong; Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Byoung Dae; Lee, Yun-Il; Bower, Aaron; Jiang, Haisong; Kang, Sung-Ung; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Dawson, Valina L.; Shin, Joo-Ho; Dawson, Ted M.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in parkin lead to early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease (PD) and inactivation of parkin is thought to contribute to sporadic PD. Adult knockout of parkin in the ventral midbrain of mice leads to an age-dependent loss of dopamine neurons that is dependent on the accumulation of parkin interacting substrate (PARIS), zinc finger protein 746 (ZNF746), and its transcriptional repression of PGC-1α. Here we show that adult knockout of parkin in mouse ventral midbrain leads to decreases in mitochondrial size, number, and protein markers consistent with a defect in mitochondrial biogenesis. This decrease in mitochondrial mass is prevented by short hairpin RNA knockdown of PARIS. PARIS overexpression in mouse ventral midbrain leads to decreases in mitochondrial number and protein markers and PGC-1α–dependent deficits in mitochondrial respiration. Taken together, these results suggest that parkin loss impairs mitochondrial biogenesis, leading to declining function of the mitochondrial pool and cell death. PMID:26324925

  18. Total OH reactivity measurements in Paris during the 2010 MEGAPOLI winter campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgorouky, C.; Gros, V.; Sarda-Esteve, R.; Sinha, V.; Williams, J.; Marchand, N.; Sauvage, S.; Poulain, L.; Sciare, J.; Bonsang, B.

    2012-10-01

    Hydroxyl radicals play a central role in the troposphere as they control the lifetime of many trace gases. Measurement of OH reactivity (OH loss rate) is important to better constrain the OH budget and also to evaluate the completeness of measured VOC budget. Total atmospheric OH reactivity was measured for the first time in an European Megacity: Paris and its surrounding areas with 12 million inhabitants, during the MEGAPOLI winter campaign 2010. The method deployed was the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM). The measured dataset contains both measured and calculated OH reactivity from CO, NOx and VOCs measured via PTR-MS, GC-FID and GC-MS instruments. The reactivities observed in Paris covered a range from 10 s-1 to 130 s-1, indicating a large loading of chemical reactants. The present study showed that, when clean marine air masses influenced Paris, the purely local OH reactivity (20 s-1) is well explained by the measured species. Nevertheless, when there is a continental import of air masses, high levels of OH reactivity were obtained (120-130 s-1) and the missing OH reactivity measured in this case jumped to 75%. Using covariations of the missing OH reactivity to secondary inorganic species in fine aerosols, we suggest that the missing OH reactants were most likely highly oxidized compounds issued from photochemically processed air masses of anthropogenic origin.

  19. FOOD SHOPPING BEHAVIORS AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS INFLUENCE OBESITY RATES IN SEATTLE AND IN PARIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Jiao, Junfeng; Aggarwal, Anju; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the associations between food environment at the individual level, socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity rates in two cities: Seattle and Paris. Methods Analyses of the SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) were based on a representative sample of 1340 adults in metropolitan Seattle and King County. The RECORD (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) cohort analyses were based on 7,131 adults in central Paris and suburbs. Data on socio-demographics, health and weight were obtained from a telephone survey (SOS) and from in-person interviews (RECORD). Both studies collected data on and geocoded home addresses and food shopping locations. Both studies calculated GIS network distances between home and the supermarket that study respondents listed as their primary food source. Supermarkets were further stratified into three categories by price. Modified Poisson regression models were used to test the associations among food environment variables, SES and obesity. Results Physical distance to supermarkets was unrelated to obesity risk. By contrast, lower education and incomes, lower surrounding property values, and shopping at lower-cost stores were consistently associated with higher obesity risk. Conclusion Lower SES was linked to higher obesity risk in both Paris and Seattle, despite differences in urban form, the food environments, and in the respective systems of health care. Cross-country comparisons can provide new insights into the social determinants of weight and health. PMID:23736365

  20. Food environment and socioeconomic status influence obesity rates in Seattle and in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, A; Moudon, A V; Jiao, J; Aggarwal, A; Charreire, H; Chaix, B

    2014-02-01

    To compare the associations between food environment at the individual level, socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity rates in two cities: Seattle and Paris. Analyses of the SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) were based on a representative sample of 1340 adults in metropolitan Seattle and King County. The RECORD (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) cohort analyses were based on 7131 adults in central Paris and suburbs. Data on sociodemographics, health and weight were obtained from a telephone survey (SOS) and from in-person interviews (RECORD). Both studies collected data on and geocoded home addresses and food shopping locations. Both studies calculated GIS (Geographic Information System) network distances between home and the supermarket that study respondents listed as their primary food source. Supermarkets were further stratified into three categories by price. Modified Poisson regression models were used to test the associations among food environment variables, SES and obesity. Physical distance to supermarkets was unrelated to obesity risk. By contrast, lower education and incomes, lower surrounding property values and shopping at lower-cost stores were consistently associated with higher obesity risk. Lower SES was linked to higher obesity risk in both Paris and Seattle, despite differences in urban form, the food environments and in the respective systems of health care. Cross-country comparisons can provide new insights into the social determinants of weight and health.

  1. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  2. What Does It Mean to be Central? A Botanical Geography of Paris 1830-1848.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the geography of the botanical community in Paris, under the July Monarchy (1830-1848). At that time, the Muséum d'Histoire naturelle (MHN) was at its institutional acme and, under the impulse of François Guizot, its budget was increasing dramatically. However, closer attention to manuscript sources (correspondence, travel diaries) reveals that the botanists of the time favoured other private institutions, located both on the Right and Left Banks of the Seine. The MHN was prestigious for its collections and professors but it was relatively remote from the centre of Paris, and its plant samples were sometimes difficult to access. Several other first-class private herbaria granted liberal access to botanists: those of Jacques Gay, Phillip Barker Webb, and Benjamin Delessert. Thanks to their wealth, these plant amateurs had ownership of historical herbaria consisting of species types alongside rich botanical libraries. Botanists visiting Paris from foreign countries or other provinces of France also spent some time studying less general plant collections, like those of Count Jaubert, or specialized collections, like Montagne's or Léveillé's on cryptogams. Other botanists also enjoyed renown at the time, although they published little, if anything (like Maire). Living in crammed apartments, literally in the middle of their plant samples, these botanists were key nodes in botanical networks, although they had no relation with the prestigious MHN.

  3. Raízes do vitalismo francês: Bordeu e Barthez, entre Paris e Montpellier The roots of French vitalism: Bordeu and Barthez, between Paris and Montpellier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Waisse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisa as propostas classificadas como vitalistas, formuladas na França no século XVIII. Contextualiza a tradição da escola médica de Montpellier, abordando as concepções fisiológico-médicas de Théophile de Bordeu. Nesse ambiente Paul-Joseph Barthez realizou sua formação original. Sua concepção sobre a autonomia da vida também foi influenciada pela interação com círculos dos enciclopedistas de Paris. No entanto, na formulação desse conceito identificam-se igualmente ruptura e permanência com relação a ambas as linhas de pensamento - a respeito do conceito de ser humano na classificação das ciências prescrita pela Encyclopédie e na tradição típica de Montpellier.This article analyzes several French eighteenth century physiological theories that later on were classified as vitalist. The overall background is set by the tradition of Montpellier medical school, in particular by the physiological and medical ideas of Théophile de Bordeu. Paul-Joseph Barthez was initially trained in this setting, however, his conception of the autonomy of life was also heavily influenced by the circle of Paris encyclopedists. For this reason, Barthez's elaboration shows elements of continuity and discontinuity regarding both the notion of human being as represented in the classification of sciences of the Encyclopédie, and the typical Montpellier.

  4. Paris agreement in the light of the objectives and principles of the contemporary policy and environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Dragoljub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author points to the overall context of the discussion about the problems related to Climate change. The paper analyzes the provisions of the Paris Agreement, adopted on the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (Paris, December, 2015. The overall context of the discussion is determined by the content and significance of the objectives and principles defined in the Paris Agreement in relation to the goals and principles of the contemporary policy and environmental law in general. Particular emphasis is given to the place and importance of the objectives related to human rights (the right to a healthy environment and sustainable development. The central part of the paper examines the significance of the objectives and principles in the field of the climate change that are contained in the provisions of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change with the Kyoto Protocol and other relevant international agreements relevant to climate change that were adopted prior to the Paris Agreement. Further on, the provisions of the Paris Agreement are analyzed, and in particular the parts relating to the objectives and principles. The last part of the paper gives an overview of the relevance of the solutions contained in the Paris Agreement for the Republic of Serbia. Paper provides an overview of the basic strategic and normative elements of national policy in the field of climate change, including the question of objectives and principles. In addition to that it considers the thesis that Paris agreement, aside from the elements of the continuity as the successor of the Kyoto protocol, contains a new element regarding goals and principles of international community's activities in the climate change field.

  5. International Conference on Metamaterials, Photonic Crystals and Plasmonics (3rd) (META 󈧐) Held in Paris, France on April 19-22, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-23

    The general chair of the conference was Prof. Said Zouhdi from the University Paris- Sud (France). The co-chair was Prof. Xavier Begaud from...Telecom ParisTech (France). The local organizing committee assisted in the practical arrangements in the conference site, Polytech Paris- Sud . From...Masaya Notomi, NTT Basic Research Laboratories , Japan 12. Inside the Wavelength: seeing really small objects with light, John Pendry, Imperial

  6. Impact of the new Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction on Paris flood prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thepot Regis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The greater Paris region faces a significant risk of flooding due to potential spill-over from the Seine and the Marne. Because the last major flood occurred in 1910, the event has faded in the collective memory. Consequently, the population and the public authorities have difficulty imagining that such a catastrophe might repeat itself. In parallel, widespread urban expansion into flood zones has considerably aggravated the foreseeable damage if an event of a comparable intensity were to hit the region.In response to this situation, the EPTB Seine Grands Lacs – a public territorial basin establishment– decided to take action to reduce this risk.It began by commissioning a study from the OECD on flood risk prevention in the Seine Basin. This study was presented in January 2014 and highlighted the considerable risk of flooding in or near Paris, which could, affect a total of nearly 5 million people, cause up to €30 billion in direct damage and affect up to 400.000 jobs. It also put forward 14 recommendations that are being implemented by the public authorities, at either the national, basin or local level.The EPTB launched in partnership with the government a second initiative for which it steers and coordinates a coherent, balanced, relevant and gradual programme of 78 flood prevention actions. As a new post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction was adopted in Sendai in March 2015 taking in account lessons learned during the 2005-2015 period, gaps identified and future challenges, this paper addresses the question of the impact of this new international framework on the implementation of the flood prevention of Paris region. One of the main points developed is the necessity to increase public awareness, to enhance disaster preparedness for effective response and to “build back better” in recovery rehabilitation and reconstruction.

  7. Paris vs. Murchison: Impact of hydrothermal alteration on organic matter in CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Le Guillou, C.; Bernard, S.; Binet, L.; Cartigny, P.; Brearley, A. J.; Remusat, L.

    2017-09-01

    Unravelling the origin of organic compounds that were accreted into asteroids requires better constraining the impact of asteroidal hydrothermal alteration on their isotopic signatures, molecular structures, and spatial distribution. Here, we conducted a multi-scale/multi-technique comparative study of the organic matter (OM) from two CM chondrites (that originate from the same parent body or from identical parent bodies that accreted the same mixture of precursors) and underwent a different degree of hydrothermal alteration: Paris (a weakly altered CM chondrite - CM 2.8) and Murchison (a more altered one - CM 2.5). The Paris insoluble organic matter (IOM) shows a higher aliphatic/aromatic carbon ratio, a higher radical abundance and a lower oxygen content than the Murchison IOM. Analysis of the OM in situ shows that two texturally distinct populations of organic compounds are present within the Paris matrix: sub-micrometric individual OM particles and diffuse OM finely distributed within phyllosilicates and amorphous silicates. These results indicate that hydrothermal alteration on the CM parent body induced aromatization and oxidation of the IOM, as well as a decrease in radical and nitrogen contents. Some of these observations were also reported by studies of variably altered fragment of Tagish Lake (C2), although the hydrothermal alteration of the OM in Tagish Lake was apparently much more severe. Finally, comparison with data available in the literature suggests that the parent bodies of other chondrite petrologic groups could have accreted a mixture of organic precursors different from that accreted by the parent body of CMs.

  8. Hydrogeological processes in the Paris Basin: climate and geomorphologic impacts of the last five million years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, A.; Violette, S.; Goncalves, J.; Marsily, G. de [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Sisyphe (UNIR CNRS 7619), 75 - Paris (France); Ledoux, E. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Sisyphe (UNIR CNRS 7619, CIG, ENSMP), 77 - Fontainebleau (France); Guyomard, Y.; Robin, C.; Bonnet, St.; Guillocheau, F. [Rennes-1 Univ., Geosciences Rennes (UNIR CNRS 6118), 35 (France); Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (UMR CEA-CNRS), Orme des Merisiers, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Fauquette, S. [Montpellier-2 Univ., Institut des Sciences de l' Evolution de Montpellier (UNIR CNRS 5554) 34 (France); Favreb, E.; Such, J.P. [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, PaleoEnvironnements et PaleobioSphere (UNIR CNRS 5125), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Michelot, J.L. [OrsayTerre, FRE 2566, Faculte des Sciences, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the response of the Paris basin aquifer system to variations in its hydrodynamic boundary conditions on a time scale of several million years, trying to determine if the system has kept the memory of these past changes. Recent changes at a boundary are more especially of importance when considering its effects on groundwater flow in low-diffusivity regions, as it can generate a lasting transient flow, potentially responsible for abnormal pressures creation. For the purpose of this work, a 3D transient modelling of the Paris basin groundwater system has been developed using the code NEWSAM (ENSMP). The geometry and hydrodynamic input data of the model originate from previous studies on a basin model, NEWBAS (ENSMP), built to simulate the 248 My geological history of the basin. Both a geomorphologic and climatic scenarios have been established. Geomorphologic evolution is deduced from digital elevation model analysis, which allows to reconstruct the paleo-topography and measure river-valley incision and alpine orogenesis. Climate forcing results from a suite of paleo-climate modelling experiments using the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model (IPSL) with a refined spatial resolution centered on Paris, for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kyr BP) and the Middle Pliocene (3 My). The water balance is computed by a distributed hydrologic model, MODSUR (ENSMP). We present the simulated evolution of the transfers in the aquifer system in response to the altered boundary conditions induced by atmospheric and geomorphologic forcing, in the course of the last five million years. (authors)

  9. The contribution of Paris to limit global warming to 2 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Hultman, Nathan E.; Alsalam, Jameel; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Creason, Jared; Jeong, Minji; Kyle, Page; McFarland, James; Mundra, Anupriya; Patel, Pralit; Shi, Wenjing; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-11-24

    International negotiators have clearly articulated a goal to limit global warming to 2°C. In preparation for the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015, countries are submitting their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change indicating their emissions reduction commitments through 2025 or 2030. Limiting global warming to 2°C is a challenging goal and will entail a dramatic transformation of the global energy system, largely complete by 2040. The deliberations in Paris will help determine the balance of challenges faced in the near-term and long-term. We use GCAM, a global integrated assessment model, to analyze the energy and economic-cost implications of INDCs. The INDCs imply near-term actions that reduce the level of mitigation needed in the post-2030 period, particularly when compared with an alternative path, in which nations are unable to undertake emissions mitigation until after 2030. We find that the latter case could require up to 2300 GW of premature retirements of fossil fuel power plants and up to 2900 GW of additional low-carbon power capacity installations within a five-year period of 2031 to 2035. INDCs have the effect of reducing premature retirements and new-capacity installations after 2030 by 50% and 34% respectively. However, if presently announced INDCs were strengthened to achieve greater near-term emissions mitigation, the 2031-2035 transformation could be tempered to require 84% fewer premature retirements of power generation capacity and 56% fewer new-capacity additions. Our results suggest that the ensuing COP21 in Paris will be critical in shaping the challenges of limiting global warming to 2°C.

  10. Traffic induced particle resuspension in Paris: Emission factors and source contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, F.; Favez, O.; Pandolfi, M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Moukhtar, S.; Bruge, B.; Verlhac, S.; Orza, J. A. G.; Bonnaire, N.; Le Priol, T.; Petit, J.-F.; Sciare, J.

    2016-03-01

    Gaining knowledge on the process of particle resuspension from urban paved roads is of particular importance considering the increasing relevance of this source in urban air quality management and the lack of basic information on emission factors and source contributions. In this study we performed extensive field measurements for the quantification of the emission factors from different types of road in the city of Paris, and investigated the causes of their variability and the contributions to the ambient air PM10 observed across one year at one traffic monitoring site in the ring road of Paris. Results show agreement between lower road dust loadings (RD10: 0.7-2.2 mg m-2) and emission factors (5.4-9.0 mg vehicle-1 km-1) at inner-roads of Paris, compared to the ring road (2.4 mg m-2 and 17 mg vehicle-1 km-1, respectively), where the two parameters are estimated independently. The higher values in the ring road were likely caused by the poor state of pavement and higher share of heavy duty vehicles. Road wear, brake wear and a carbonaceous source, were almost equally responsible for 96% of RD10. At the traffic monitoring site located at the ring road (220,000 vehicle/day), the contributions of road dust emissions were estimated by receptor modeling to be 13% of PM10 on an annual mean (6.3 μg m-3), while the sum of vehicle exhaust and wear accounted for 47% resulting in a total traffic contribution of 60% of PM10. Road salting resulted to be a minor contributor (1% of annual mean) also in winter time (2%).

  11. Co-occurrence of Arum- and Paris-type morphologies of arbuscular mycorrhizae in cucumber and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Mayumi; McGonigle, Terence P; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2005-03-01

    Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Clethra barbinervis (Ericales) grown in field-collected soil known from previous studies to generate Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizae in C. barbinervis. Spores of Paraglomus, Acaulospora, Glomus, and Gigaspora were found in the soil. Formation of hyphal coils and arbusculate coils of Paris-type mycorrhizae and of arbuscules of Arum-type mycorrhizae in roots raised in this soil in the growth chamber were compared with the detection of DNA of AM fungi from the same root systems using Glomales-specific primers. Only Paris-type mycorrhizae with extensive arbusculate coils developed in C. barbinervis, but cucumber and tomato developed both Paris- and Arum-types in the same root systems. Glomaceae and Archaeosporaceae and/or Paraglomaceae were detected strongly in the DNA from both cucumber and tomato roots, in which Arum-type mycorrhizae were observed. In contrast, DNA of Glomaceae was detected more sparingly in C. barbinervis, in which Paris-type mycorrhizae dominated. Acaulosporaceae and Gigasporaceae were strongly detected in the DNA from both C. barbinervis and tomato, whereas they were more weakly detected in cucumber. These results indicate that the morphology of colonization is strongly influenced by the selection of fungi to colonize the host plant from among those in the soil environment.

  12. Paisagem em movimento: o parque André-Citroën em Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Serpa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, a linguagem projetual e a utilização de parques públicos como elementos dinamizadores de operações de renovação urbana são examinadas à luz do estudo de caso do Parque André-Citroën, em Paris. A última parte do trabalho é dedicada a uma entrevista com o paisagista francês Gilles Clément, que desenhou e implantou o Jardim do Movimento no Parque André-Citroën, concebido como uma" paisagem natural", a partir de princípios ecológicos.

  13. PARIS Altimetry with L1 Frequency Data from the Bridge 2 Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, G; Ruffini, L; Ruffini, Giulio; Caparrini, Marco; Ruffini, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    A portion of 20 minutes of the GPS signals collected during the Bridge 2 experimental campaign, performed by ESA, have been processed. An innovative algorithm called Parfait, developed by Starlab and implemented within Starlab's GNSS-R Software package STARLIGHT (STARLab Interferometric Gnss Toolkit), has been successfully used with this set of data. A comparison with tide values independently collected and with differential GPS processed data has been performed. We report a successful PARIS phase altimetric measure of the Zeeland Brug over the sea surface with a rapidly changing tide, with a precision better than 2 cm.

  14. AMERICAN MANUFACTURING, AMERICAN TECHNOLOGY AND THE LABOR QUESTION AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE OF 1867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Zieren

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Exposition Universelle of 1867 was devoted to the theme, “The History of Labor,” and awarded special prizes to firms with paternalistic labor policies to promote harmony between workers and employers. The guiding spirit of the Exposition and its labor theme was the French social thinker, Frédéric Le Play. American technology was a second trend on view at the Exposition, and American firms, including the Pacific Mills of Lawrence,MA won gold medals and international recognition.

  15. Environmental magnetism and magnetic mapping of urban metallic pollution (Paris, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isambert, Aude; Franke, Christine; Macouin, Mélina; Rousse, Sonia; Philip, Aurélio; de Villeneuve, Sybille Henry

    2017-04-01

    Airborne pollution in dense urban areas is nowadays a subject of major concern. Fine particulate pollution events are ever more frequent and represent not only an environmental and health but also a real economic issue. In urban atmosphere, the so-called PM2.5 (particulate matter plants have demonstrated their potential to follow the metallic pollution and determine their sources (Sagnotti et al., 2012). In this study, we report on magnetic measurements of traffic-related airborne PM in the city of Paris, France. Two distinct environments were sampled and analyzed along the Seine River: the aquatic environment in studying fluvial bank and river bed sediments and the atmospheric environment by regarding magnetic particles trapped in adjacent tree barks (Platanus hispanica). About 50 sediment samples and 350 bark samples have been collected and analysed to determine their magnetic properties (susceptibility, hysteresis parameters, IRM, frequency-dependent susceptibility) and to estimate the presence and spatial concentration of superparamagnetic or multi-domain particles for each sample type. The bark results allow proposing a high spatial resolution mapping (pollution. In addition to that, the sampling of banks and riverbed sediments of the Seine allow a global estimation on the anthropogenic versus detrital and biologic input in the city of Paris. The first results presented here show a general increase of the concentration in magnetic particles from upstream to downstream Paris probably linked to urban pollutions as previously observed for suspended particulate matter (Franke et al. 2009; Kayvantash, 2016). Sagnotti, L., & Winkler, A. (2012). On the magnetic characterization and quantification of the superparamagnetic fraction of traffic-related urban airborne PM in Rome, Italy. Atmospheric environment, 59, 131-140. Franke, C., Kissel, C., Robin, E., Bonté, P., & Lagroix, F. (2009). Magnetic particle characterization in the Seine river system: Implications for

  16. Tackling air pollution and extreme climate changes in China: Implementing the Paris climate change agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Duo-Quan, Wang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-10-01

    China still depends on coal for more than 60% of its power despite big investments in the process of shifting to nuclear, solar and wind power renewable energy resources alignment with Paris climate change agreement (Paris CCA). Chinese government through the Communist Party Central Committee (CPCC) ascribes great importance and commitment to Paris CCA legacy and history landmark implementation at all levels. As the world's biggest carbon dioxide emitter, China has embarked on "SMART" pollution and climate changes programs and measures to reduce coal-fired power plants to less than 50% in the next five years include: new China model of energy policies commitment on CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions reductions to less than 20% non-fossil energy use by 2030 without undermining their economic growth, newly introduced electric vehicles transportation benefits, interactive and sustained air quality index (AQI) monitoring systems, decreasing reliance on fossil fuel economic activities, revision of energy price reforms and renewable energy to less energy efficient technologies development. Furthermore, ongoing CPCC improved environmental initiatives, implemented strict regulations and penalties on local companies and firms' pollution production management, massive infrastructures such as highways to reduce CO2 expansion of seven regional emissions trading markets and programs for CO2 emissions and other pollutants are being documented. Maximizing on the centralized nature of the China's government, implemented Chinese pollution, climate changes mitigation and adaptation initiatives, "SMART" strategies and credible measures are promising. A good and practical example is the interactive and dynamic website and database covering 367 Chinese cities and providing real time information on environmental and pollution emissions AQI. Also, water quality index (WQI), radiation and nuclear safety monitoring and management systems over time and space. These are ongoing Chinese

  17. Learning from CDM SD tool experience for Article 6.4 in the Paris Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    2017-01-01

    are achieved in an integrated fashion and trade-offs avoided. Article 6.4 of the PA introduces a new Sustainable Mitigati on Mechanism (SMM) with the dual aim to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and foster SD. The Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has a similar...... and multilateral standards to provide recommendations for improvement. A key conclusion is that the Paris Agreement’s SMM has a stronger political mandate than the CDM to measure that SD impacts are 'real, measurable and long-term'. Therefore, recommendations for an improved CDM SD tool are a relevant starting...

  18. Effects of Plaster of Paris waste on the mechanical properties of pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badarulzaman, N. A.; Nawi, A. M.; Ibrahim, M.

    2015-05-01

    Ceramic waste may come from ceramics industry such as Plaster of Paris(POP) mould waste. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of using POP as filler in the manufacturing of pottery. The different weight percentage of filler (0 wt.%, 2 wt.%,4 wt.%, 6wt.%, 8wt.%) content were added into the composition of pottery. The samples were characterized via viscosity test and bending test. The result of the study revealed that the weight percent of waste POP increase affects the physical properties with increasing the strength values.

  19. La constitution du domaine de la Cité internationale universitaire de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Blanc

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La Cité internationale universitaire de Paris a été créée immédiatement après la première guerre mondiale pour favoriser les échanges et la rencontre entre les étudiants du monde entier. Conformément à la convention conclue en 1921 entre la Ville et l’Université de Paris, elle a été édifiée en bordure du parc Montsouris, sur des terrains situés à l’emplacement des anciennes fortifications de Thiers. Dès 1928, le rythme accéléré des constructions pose avec une certaine acuité le problème de l’extension du domaine. Celle-ci s’effectue par étapes durant l’Entre-deux-guerres, notamment aux dépens de la commune voisine de Gentilly. Mais dès le début des années cinquante, le projet de création du boulevard périphérique marque, pour la Cité internationale, la fin des possibilités d’agrandissement à partir du « site historique » du boulevard Jourdan. Aujourd’hui, la Cité se densifie et se développe « hors les murs ».The Cité internationale universitaire de Paris was created immediately after the First World War in order to encourage exchanges between university students from around the world. According to the 1921 convention established between the city and the University of Paris, the Cité was built along Montsouris Park, on lots previously occupied by the Thiers fortifications. Starting in 1928, the rapid development of the Cité made it necessary to extend the site. Between the two world wars, segments of the neighboring town of Gentilly were progressively annexed. But in the early 1950s, projects for the creation of a boulevard périphérique – beltway – made further extension impossible. Today, construction continues, both on-site and outside the walls of the historical Cité.

  20. The Daily Life of a Grantee in Paris. Attitudes, Perceptions, Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONUŢ BUTOI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the importance of the 1932-1934 Paris scholarship of Ştefania Cristescu (one of the most important monographists of the Gustian School, viewed both as a personal strategic choice meant to consolidate her status as an academic researcher and as an occasion for us to learn about the daily life of the interwar Romanian students in Western Europe. I discuss in this paper why it is important to develop a social history of the academic formation of the intellectual elites of modern Romania through scholarships in foreign countries.

  1. A 3 kbar hydrogen-compatible gas loader for Paris-Edinburgh presses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, S.; Philippe, J.; Bull, C. L.; Loveday, J. S.; Nelmes, R. J.

    2013-03-01

    We present a device which allows compressed gases to be loaded into large volume opposed anvils used for high pressure neutron scattering in the multi-10 GPa range. The gases are initially loaded into clamps which can then be inserted into VX-Paris-Edinburgh load frames. The system is compatible with all inert gases as well as hydrogen and permits loading pressures of up to 3 kbar for which most gases have densities close to that of the liquid at ambient pressure. The device should have applications for the study of simple molecular solids as well as for loading gases as pressure-transmitting media.

  2. Modeling secondary organic aerosol in an urban area: application to Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Couvidat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A secondary organic aerosol (SOA model, H2O (Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Organic, is evaluated over the Paris area. This model treats the formation of SOA with two kinds of surrogate species: hydrophilic species (which condense preferentially on an aqueous phase and hydrophobic species (which condense only on an organic phase. These surrogates species are formed from the oxidation in the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOC by radicals (HO and NO3 and ozone. These VOC are either biogenic (isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes or anthropogenic (mainly aromatic compounds. This model includes the formation of aerosols from different precursors (biogenic precursors, aromatics, and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC from traffic. The H2O aerosol model was incorporated into the Polyphemus air quality modeling platform and applied to the Paris area and evaluated by comparison to measurements performed during the Megapoli campaign in July 2009.

    The comparison to measurements in the suburbs and in the city center of Paris shows that the model gives satisfactory results for both elemental carbon (EC and organic carbon (OC. However, the model gives a peak of OC concentrations in the morning due to high emissions from traffic, which does not appear in measurements. Uncertainties in the modeled temperature, which can affect the gas-particle partitioning, in the partitioning of primary SVOC or underestimation of primary organic aerosol (POA evaporation by the model could explain the differences between model and measurements. Moreover, using a theoretical mechanism for the oxidation of primary SVOC and intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOC, POA concentrations were found to be likely overestimated by models due to the use of simple partitioning constants (which do not take into account the affinity of a compound with the liquid aerosol solution or due to the assumption that the organic aerosol

  3. Modeling secondary organic aerosol in an urban area: application to Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Couvidat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A secondary organic aerosol (SOA model, H2O (Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Organic, is evaluated over the Paris area. This model treats the formation of SOA with two kinds of surrogate species: hydrophilic species (which condense preferentially on an aqueous phase and hydrophobic species (which condense only on an organic phase. These surrogates species are formed from the oxidation in the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOC by radicals (HO and NO3 and ozone. These VOC are either biogenic (isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes or anthropogenic (mainly aromatic compounds. This model includes the formation of aerosols from different precursors (biogenic precursors, aromatics, and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC from traffic. The H2O aerosol model was incorporated into the Polyphemus air quality modeling platform and applied to the Paris area and evaluated by comparison to measurements performed during the Megapoli campaign in July 2009.

    The comparison to measurements in the suburbs and in the city center of Paris shows that the model gives satisfactory results for both elemental carbon (EC and organic carbon (OC. However, the model gives a peak of OC concentrations in the morning due to high emissions from traffic, which does not appear in measurements. Uncertainties in the modeled temperature, which can affect the gas-particle partitioning, in the partitioning of primary SVOC or underestimation of primary organic aerosol (POA evaporation by the model could explain the differences between model and measurements. Moreover, using a theoretical mechanism for the oxidation of primary SVOC and intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOC, POA concentrations were found to be likely overestimated by models due to the use of simple partitioning constants (which do not take into account the affinity of a compound with the liquid aerosol solution or due to the assumption that the organic aerosol

  4. Raphaël Blanchard, parasitology, and the positioning of medical entomology in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, M A

    2008-12-01

    The histories of medical entomology and parasitology are entwined. Raphaël Blanchard (1857-1919), Chair of Medical Natural History and Parasitology at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, organized the teaching of medical entomology and civilian colonial medicine. He also founded and edited the journal Archives de Parasitologie and started the Institute de Médecine Coloniale where he mentored many foreign students and researchers. Additionally, Blanchard is important for his scientific internationalism and medical historical work on the cultural location of parasitology and for training the future professors of parasitology Jules Guiart, Emile Brumpt, and Charles Joyeux.

  5. GEORAIL 2011 : Symposium international Géotechnique ferroviaire, Paris, 19-20 mai 2011, Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Le symposium international sur la Géotechnique ferroviaire s'est tenu les 19 et 20 mai 2011 à Paris (France). Les actes de ce symposium comportent deux volumes. Ce premier volume regroupe les communications présentées au symposium. Elles traitent de sujets variés concernant tous les aspects de la géotechnique ferroviaire, regroupés en cinq thèmes : - la conception et le calcul, - les procédés, matériaux et ouvrages expérimentaux, - les retours d'expérience, - des exemples de chantiers, - la v...

  6. Paris Agreement on Climate Change: A Booster to Enable Sustainable Global Development and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2016-11-14

    The global warming and its adverse effects on the atmosphere, the biosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere are obvious. Based on this fact, the international community is fully convinced that we need to fix the problem urgently for our survival, good health, and wellbeing. The aim of this article is to promote the awareness about the United Nations (UN) historic 'Paris Agreement on Climate Change (PACC)' which entered into-force on 4 November 2016. The expected impact of PACC on the global average temperature rise by 2100 as well as its role in enabling accomplishment of global sustainable development goals (SDGs) for the people and planet is also highlighted.

  7. The proof of concept for 3-cm Altimetry using the Paris Interferometric Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Nogues-Correig, Oleguer; Ribó Vedrilla, Serni; Arco, Juan Carlos; Cardellach, Estel; Rius Jordán, Antonio; Valencia, Enric; Tarongí, José Miguel; Camps, Adriano; Van der Marel, Hans; Martín-Neira, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    © 2010 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from Nogués, O., Ribó, S., Arco, J. C., Cardellach, E., Rius, A., València, E., A. Camps, van der Marel, H., Martín-Neira, M., The proof of concept for 3-cm altimetry using the PARIS interferometric technique, Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE IGARSS), and july/2010. This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Such permission of the IEEE does not in any way imply IEEE endo...

  8. Aerosol Plume during a Polluted Event Occuring Over Paris Area and its Potential Photochemical Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamiarisoa, H.; Chazette, P.; Sanak, J.; Hauglustaine, D.

    2002-12-01

    As in many big cities, there are several pollution events in Paris area. A thorough understanding of the processes leading on the formation of pollutants and their transport during pollution episodes is necessary. One of the pertinent factors, which contributions on atmospheric chemistry and radiative effect are not yet well known, is the aerosol. ESQUIF (Etude et Simulation de la QUalité de l?air en Ile de France) is the first program dedicated to study such issues over the Paris area. It was carried out from summer 1998 to winter 2000 (Menut et al., 2000). To characterize all the properties of the urban aerosol, many campaigns were coordinated using both ground and airborne measurements (Chazette et al., 2000). We are focusing on the 31st of July 2000 where a well-defined polluted plume has been observed. Aerosol number concentrations in different size classes were measured and show that urban aerosol in Paris area is mainly submicronic. The absorbent part of the aerosol, mainly associated to the black carbon component, has been observed to be associated to particles with diameter less than 0.1 æm. The single scattering albedo has been assessed to be close to 0.85 leading to a significant influence on the photochemical chemistry. Indeed, a significant decrease of the daily maximum ozone concentration has been calculated using the INCA model and will be presented. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Programme National de Chimie Atmosphérique, INSU supported this work. REFERENCES Chazette P., H. Randriamiarisoa, J. Sanak, C. Flamant, J. Pelon, M. Sicard, H. Cachier, F. Aulagnier, R. Sarda-Esteve, L. Gomes, S. Alfaro and A. Gaudichet (2001). ESQUIF 2000 : Aerosol survey over the Ile-de-France area, J. Aerosol Sci ., 32/suppl. 1, S439-S440. Menut, L., R. Vautard, C. Flamant, A. Abonnel, M. Beekmann, P. Chazette, P.H. Flamant, D. Gombert, D. Guédalia, D. Kley, M.P. Lefebvre, B. Lossec, D. Martin, G. Mégie, P. Perros, M. Sicard and G. Toupance (2000). Measurements and modelling

  9. New well architectures assessment for geothermal exploitation of the Triassic sandstones in Paris basin

    OpenAIRE

    Hamm, Virginie; Bouzit, Madjid; Lopez, Simon

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The deep geothermal resource of the center of the Paris basin (Ile-de-France, France) has been exploited since the mid-1980s, the main target being the Dogger limestone aquifer (1,500–2,000 m deep, 55–80°C). Currently, the Triassic sandstone units below the Dogger aquifer are envisaged as new targets. This paper presents a modelling and economic analysis used to assess new well architectures (sub-horizontal, horizontal or multilateral wells) in comparison with standard...

  10. Using old underground quarries in Paris area for interseasonal storage of solar energy, for housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M.; Deveughele, M.; Efforsat, J.

    1985-01-01

    The city of Paris and its suburbs are riddled with former underground quarries which pose problems of soil stability. These quarries can be consolidated and used to store water heated by solar collectors to heat buildings. In the framework of a preelementary school building project in Sevres (Hauts-de-Seine department), a detailed analysis of heat transfers in the uninsulated water storage and the containing bed rock, using a finite difference model, demonstrated participation of the rock to the storage function. Such a project appears feasible provided the water store is exploited at a low thermal level.

  11. [Testing the hemalog D in a hematology department of a general hospital in Paris (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortholary, P; Lejeune, F; Ganon, J P; Mathiot, C; Turpin, F

    1978-06-10

    Europe's firs Hemalog D was installed in the Hematology Laboratory of the Franco-Musulman Hospital at Bobigny, just outside Paris, in March 1975. The authors' experience with the apparatus since that date has enabled them to analyze the significance of "alarms", "high peroxidase", "large unstained cells", "remainder" and "low rate" in patients with and without hematologic disorders. On the basis of these results it has been possible to define the fate of the various blood cells in the Hemalog D, the role of the apparatus in the ivestigation of hematologic disorders and the type of "cooperation" between the hematologist and the Hemalog D.

  12. a New Design for Diamond Window Equipped Paris-Edinburgh — First Tests and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, M.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Dedera, S.; Trautmann, C.

    2012-12-01

    High pressure cells of the Paris-Edinburgh type are important tools for experimental high pressure studies in material science. Although these cells were originally developed for use in neutron diffraction, today they are also applied in alternative experimental high pressure fields. Their main advantages are their small construction size, limited weight and the relative high reachable pressures with a maximized sample volume. The small construction size also results in very good cost efficiency. The major drawback of these cells is that due to their simple squeezer geometry pressure extrapolations are nearly impossible and, hence, the use of internal standard is mandatory. Consequently, the normal use of Paris-Edinburgh cells is mostly limited to experiments with neutron or synchrotron radiation, during which pressure and temperature are determined by using an internal diffraction standard. To overcome this problem, tone may combine the advantages of diamond anvil cells with those of Paris-Edinburgh-cells by integrating diamond windows into the upper and / or the lower anvil. With such a cell it is possible to retrieve pressure and / or temperature data by measuring the shift of Raman bands or fluorescence lines by spectroscopic methods. Several attempts have been made to build such a cell ([1] and Klotz pers. communication) using different window materials. Until now no final setup has been published. We present a new Paris-Edinburgh cell design especially constructed for use within high energy relativistic heavy ion radiation experiments. This design uses conventional diamond anvils as spectroscopic windows in conjunction with specially designed hardened steel anvils. We have performed first feasibility studies up to 2.5 GPa with a standard Raman spectrometer using a special adapted Raman glass fiber probe. We present results of several mechanical test runs and one experiment with relativistic heavy ion radiation at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f

  13. The cosmos of the Paris apartment: working-class family life in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eliza

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Bachelard's notion of “cosmicity” this article investigates the living conditions of Parisian working-class families in the second half of the nineteenth century. Nineteenth-century social critics claimed that the lack of privacy in urban apartments made decent family life impossible. However, evidence from judicial dossiers concerning attentat à la pudeur (intimate assault against children) illuminates the lived experience of children and their families in Paris apartments. Rather than a sharp divide between public and private, children experienced their apartment homes as the core of a social and spatial world under the surveillance of parents, neighbors, and other children.

  14. Competing Concepts of Culture: Irish Art at the 1924 Paris Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A. Culleton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Art Competitions formed part of the modern Olympic Games during its early years. From 1912-1948, art contests were featured in Summer Games in Stockholm (1912, Antwerp (1920, Paris (1924, Amsterdam (1928, Los Angeles (1932, Berlin (1936 and London (1948, where artists competed for medals in the categories of painting, architecture, literature, music, and sculpting. Ireland competed in four of those summer games, and a total of thirty-one Irish artists (twenty-one men/ten women, most of them members of the Royal Hibernian Academy or the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art participated in nine separate art contests and submitted forty-three works for competition.

  15. Innovative contributions and continued diplomacy will be necessary on the path forward from Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinen, M.; Victor, D. G.; Weiss, R. F.; Keeling, R. F.; Kennel, C. F.; Tynan, G.

    2016-12-01

    The historic Paris Agreement from the 21stUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP21) is scientifically based on the five Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as well as 11 Special Reports on specific aspects on climate change and its management. But of equal importance has been the legacy of learning how to come to an agreement developed by trial and error over the past 20 COPs. A new feature, largely hailed as the key to success of COP21, was the decision to move away from `top down' specific binding requirements to a larger role for countries to determine their own commitments `bottom up'. These country pledges, known as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), give nations the flexibility to determine which strategies to reduce greenhouse gases will work most effectively in their countries. An interesting consequence of this approach is that some strategies that had not previously been discussed in negotiations, like ocean carbon sequestration, have been incorporated into pledges that were made going into Paris and will likely be in the NDCs that countries declare as they formally join the Paris Agreement. While the concurrence of 180 entities as signatories to the Paris Agreement is an unprecedented international diplomatic achievement, there remains much to be done. By virtue of the voluntary nature of the NDCs, there is no assurance that the pledges will be sufficient to reach the goal of limiting temperature increases to 2°C, no less the more ambitious target of `well below 2°C' endorsed in the agreement. In fact, most assessments of the pledges suggest that in aggregate they will fall well short of the 2°C goal. In addition, there is no structure to assure compliance of countries with their NDCs - or even to comprehensively measure compliance or forecast likely future emission scenarios given exiting or emerging policies and technologies. Geoscientists will

  16. Karl Marx e a Essência Autogestionária da Comuna de Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Nildo Viana

    2011-01-01

    O artigo apresenta a interpretação da Comuna de Paris por Karl Marx como autogoverno dos produtores, autogestão social. Uma análise minuciosa do capítulo da obra “A Guerra Civil na França” fornece os elementos interpretativos para compreender a pe...

  17. BRAND “BALI SHANTI” PADA MEDIA PROMOSI PARIWISATA PEMERINTAH INDONESIA DI PARIS

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Erinda Putri Moniaga

    2015-01-01

    This study examines promotional print media on Bali in form of pamphlet and folder made by the Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia to Paris and the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy of the Republic of Indonesia.The aims were to recognize the messages conveyed by both medias and whether the meaning of Bali’s branding, Bali Shanti (Bali Peace), could be delivered or not. The method used in this research were discourse analysis with semiotical approach, and Barthes’s semiotics theory was...

  18. The roots of French vitalism: Bordeu and Barthez, between Paris and Montpellier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisse, Silvia; Amaral, Maria Thereza Cera Galvão do; Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes several French eighteenth century physiological theories that later on were classified as vitalist. The overall background is set by the tradition of Montpellier medical school, in particular by the physiological and medical ideas of Théophile de Bordeu. Paul-Joseph Barthez was initially trained in this setting, however, his conception of the autonomy of life was also heavily influenced by the circle of Paris encyclopedists. For this reason, Barthez's elaboration shows elements of continuity and discontinuity regarding both the notion of human being as represented in the classification of sciences of the Encyclopédie, and the typical Montpellier.

  19. Mineralogical variability of Callovo-Oxfordian clays from the Paris Basin and the Sub-alpine Basin; Variabilite mineralogique des argiles du Callovo-Oxfordien du bassin de Paris et du bassin subalpin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellenard, P.; Deconinck, J.F. [Universite de Bourgogne, Biogeosciences, UMR 5561 CNRS, Dept. des Sciences de la Terre, 21 - Dijon (France)

    2006-10-15

    High-resolution clay mineralogical data at the Middle/Upper Jurassic boundary from the French Sub-alpine Basin, the Jura Mountains and the Paris Basin (ANDRA boreholes) from Callovo-Oxfordian clayey deposits allow spatial and temporal terrigenous flux evolution to be considered over a period of 6 to 7 Myr. Recorded diachronisms of major mineralogical changes and complex clays distribution at the Paris Basin scale result to combined paleogeographic/eustatic variations and climate input. In the French Sub-alpine Basin, mineralogical homogeneity confirms the burial diagenesis influence, but other terrigenous supplies must be involved in contrast to the Paris Basin domains. Volcano-genic clays (bentonites) recorded in the two basins reflect paroxysmal explosive volcanic events allowing high resolution correlations to be made and to define active volcanic sources for the Jurassic. (authors)

  20. PARY METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  1. Jacques Roubaud, piéton de Paris - échantillons de mémoire urbaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Reig

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacques Roubaud sillonne depuis plus de cinquante ans le labyrinthe parisien en forme d’escargot. La prose de mémoire du Grand Incendie de Londres, les poèmes de La Forme d’une ville change plus vite, hélas, que le cœur des humains… chantent une capitale tour à tour honnie et acclimatée, un Paris pluriel qui suscite le pari d’un art poétique prouvant le mouvement en marchant, sans faire l’économie du rythme. Après Baudelaire, Apollinaire, Queneau et bien d’autres encore, Roubaud court et recourt les rues de Paris, en quête de lui-même, planifiant dans la Capitale autant de parcours de mémoire que de trajets poétiques.

  2. The PCNA-associated protein PARI negatively regulates homologous recombination via the inhibition of DNA repair synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkovics, Peter; Dome, Lili; Juhasz, Szilvia

    2016-01-01

    Successful and accurate completion of the replication of damage-containing DNA requires mainly recombination and RAD18-dependent DNA damage tolerance pathways. RAD18 governs at least two distinct mechanisms: translesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS)-dependent pathways. Whereas TS...... is mainly error-free, TLS can work in an error-prone manner and, as such, the regulation of these pathways requires tight control to prevent DNA errors and potentially oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. In humans, the PCNA-associated recombination inhibitor (PARI) protein has recently been shown...... to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator after replication fork stalling and during double-strand break repair. In our reconstituted biochemical system, we show that PARI inhibits DNA repair synthesis during...

  3. Discrimination of wild Paris based on near infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography combined with multivariate analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhao

    Full Text Available Different geographical origins and species of Paris obtained from southwestern China were discriminated by near infrared (NIR spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with multivariate analysis. The NIR parameter settings were scanning (64 times, resolution (4 cm(-1, scanning range (10,000 cm(-1∼4000 cm(-1 and parallel collection (3 times. NIR spectrum was optimized by TQ 8.6 software, and the ranges 7455∼6852 cm(-1 and 5973∼4007 cm(-1 were selected according to the spectrum standard deviation. The contents of polyphyllin I, polyphyllin II, polyphyllin VI, and polyphyllin VII and total steroid saponins were detected by HPLC. The contents of chemical components data matrix and spectrum data matrix were integrated and analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. From the PLS-DA model of NIR spectrum, Paris samples were separated into three groups according to the different geographical origins. The R(2X and Q(2Y described accumulative contribution rates were 99.50% and 94.03% of the total variance, respectively. The PLS-DA model according to 12 species of Paris described 99.62% of the variation in X and predicted 95.23% in Y. The results of the contents of chemical components described differences among collections quantitatively. A multivariate statistical model of PLS-DA showed geographical origins of Paris had a much greater influence on Paris compared with species. NIR and HPLC combined with multivariate analysis could discriminate different geographical origins and different species. The quality of Paris showed regional dependence.

  4. Discrimination of Wild Paris Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Ji; Yuan, Tianjun; Shen, Tao; Li, Wei; Yang, Shihua; Hou, Ying; Wang, Yuanzhong; Jin, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Different geographical origins and species of Paris obtained from southwestern China were discriminated by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with multivariate analysis. The NIR parameter settings were scanning (64 times), resolution (4 cm−1), scanning range (10000 cm−1∼4000 cm−1) and parallel collection (3 times). NIR spectrum was optimized by TQ 8.6 software, and the ranges 7455∼6852 cm−1 and 5973∼4007 cm−1 were selected according to the spectrum standard deviation. The contents of polyphyllin I, polyphyllin II, polyphyllin VI, and polyphyllin VII and total steroid saponins were detected by HPLC. The contents of chemical components data matrix and spectrum data matrix were integrated and analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). From the PLS-DA model of NIR spectrum, Paris samples were separated into three groups according to the different geographical origins. The R2X and Q2Y described accumulative contribution rates were 99.50% and 94.03% of the total variance, respectively. The PLS-DA model according to 12 species of Paris described 99.62% of the variation in X and predicted 95.23% in Y. The results of the contents of chemical components described differences among collections quantitatively. A multivariate statistical model of PLS-DA showed geographical origins of Paris had a much greater influence on Paris compared with species. NIR and HPLC combined with multivariate analysis could discriminate different geographical origins and different species. The quality of Paris showed regional dependence. PMID:24558477

  5. Discrimination of wild Paris based on near infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography combined with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Ji; Yuan, Tianjun; Shen, Tao; Li, Wei; Yang, Shihua; Hou, Ying; Wang, Yuanzhong; Jin, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Different geographical origins and species of Paris obtained from southwestern China were discriminated by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with multivariate analysis. The NIR parameter settings were scanning (64 times), resolution (4 cm(-1)), scanning range (10,000 cm(-1)∼4000 cm(-1)) and parallel collection (3 times). NIR spectrum was optimized by TQ 8.6 software, and the ranges 7455∼6852 cm(-1) and 5973∼4007 cm(-1) were selected according to the spectrum standard deviation. The contents of polyphyllin I, polyphyllin II, polyphyllin VI, and polyphyllin VII and total steroid saponins were detected by HPLC. The contents of chemical components data matrix and spectrum data matrix were integrated and analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). From the PLS-DA model of NIR spectrum, Paris samples were separated into three groups according to the different geographical origins. The R(2)X and Q(2)Y described accumulative contribution rates were 99.50% and 94.03% of the total variance, respectively. The PLS-DA model according to 12 species of Paris described 99.62% of the variation in X and predicted 95.23% in Y. The results of the contents of chemical components described differences among collections quantitatively. A multivariate statistical model of PLS-DA showed geographical origins of Paris had a much greater influence on Paris compared with species. NIR and HPLC combined with multivariate analysis could discriminate different geographical origins and different species. The quality of Paris showed regional dependence.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Black Bengal and Jamuna Pari Goat Breeds By RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31. Highest level of Nei's[1] gene diversity value (0.4898 was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's[1] genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.

  7. Global justice and environmental governance: an analysis of the Paris Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the major normative political theory contributions on global climate justice, the present paper analyzes the new international agreement on climate change, adopted at COP 21 in Paris (2015. Therefore, a literary review of the extensive normative theoretical discussion about global climate justice is made, with special attention to the two approaches that have permeated multilateral political negotiations - historical responsibility and equal per capita emissions. From this normative discussion, this paper recalls the global climate change negotiation process, focusing on the Kyoto Protocol. Next, the analysis emphasizes on the Paris Agreement in an effort to evaluate the normative questions on justice and equity within the environmental governance regime. Finally, the set of conclusions indicates that, although the flexibility of the Agreement has encompassed some dimensions of responsibility, necessity and ability to bear the costs, the most complex dimensions of justice and equity has not been completely solved, which may hinder the operation of environmental governance in a near future.

  8. "De Cassini à l'an 2000": The Paris Observatory Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, M.; Reymonet, N.

    Paris Observatory founded in 1667 by Louis XIV is one of the so called "Grand Etablissement" under of the aegis of the Ministry of higher education and research, and includes two other centres: Meudon Observatory and the Radioastronomy centre in Nancay, created respectively in 1876 and 1955. The decree which gave birth to the library itself was signed in 1785 by Louis XVI. In 1926 Meudon is joined to Paris. The total number of bound volumes, including journals, is 100.000. This comprises 2000 periodical titles (of which 1200 are current titles), monographs, photographs, incunabula and manuscripts from the 16th to the 20th century, microfilm versions of historical material. The collections of two libraries are complementary. Starting in 1981, the library became part of a national "Centre d'Acquisition et de Diffusion de l'Information Scientifique et Technique" (CADIST) for astronomy and astrophysics documents. The catalogue is available on national networks such as the Pancatalogue or CCN. It may also be accessed on the international OCLC network. Finally the library may be accessed on internet via WWW.

  9. Contribution of treated wastewater to the microbiological quality of Seine River in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Laurent; Richard, Fanny; Stefania, Sabrina; Goulet, Marion; Gosselin, Sylvie; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Rocher, Vincent; Paffoni, Catherine; Dumètre, Aurélien

    2010-10-01

    Urban part of Seine River serving as drinking water supply in Paris can be heavily contaminated by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. In the absence of agricultural practice in this highly urbanized area, we investigated herein the contribution of treated wastewater to the microbiological quality of this river focusing on these two parasites. Other microorganisms such as faecal bacterial indicators, enteroviruses and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii were assessed concurrently. Raw wastewaters were heavily contaminated by Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts, whereas concentrations of both protozoa in treated wastewater were lower. Treated wastewater, flowed into Seine River, had a parasite concentration closed to the one found along the river, in particular at the entry of a drinking water plant (DWP). Even if faecal bacteria were reliable indicators of a reduction in parasite concentrations during the wastewater treatment, they were not correlated to protozoal contamination of wastewater and river water. Oocysts of T. gondii were not found in both raw and treated wastewater, or in Seine River. Parasitic contamination was shown to be constant in the Seine River up to 40 km upstream Paris. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that treated wastewater does not contribute to the main parasitic contamination of the Seine River usually observed in this urbanized area.

  10. Comparison between the atmospheric boundary layer in Paris and its rural suburbs during the ECLAP experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, E.; Menut, L.; Carissimo, B.; Pelon, J.; Flamant, P.

    The ECLAP experiment has been performed during the winter of 1995 in order to study the influence of the urban area of Paris on the vertical structure and diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer, in situations favourable to intense urban heat island and pollution increase. One urban site and one rural site have been instrumented with sodars, lidars and surface measurements. Additional radiosondes, 100 m masts and Eiffel Tower data were also collected. This paper gives a general overview of this experiment, and presents results of the analysis of four selected days, characterized by various wind directions and temperature inversion strengths. This analysis, which consists in a comparison between data obtained in the two sites, has been focused on three parameters of importance to the ABL dynamics: the standard deviation of vertical velocity, the surface sensible heat flux, and the boundary layer height. The vertical component of turbulence is shown to be enhanced by the urban area, the amplitude of this effect strongly depending on the meteorological situation. The sensible heat flux in Paris is generally found larger than in the rural suburbs. The most frequent differences range from 25-65 W m -2, corresponding to relative differences of 20-60%. The difference of unstable boundary layer height between both sites are most of the time less than 100 m. However, sodar and temperature data show that the urban influence is enhanced during night-time and transitions between stable and unstable regimes.

  11. [Moyse Charas, apothecary and medical doctor (Uzés 1619 - Paris 1698)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Fred W

    2002-01-01

    Some new information, based on many unedited documents is presented, in order to complete the biography of Moyse Charas, as published in this revue by Dorveaux (1929) and Bouvet (1949). The origin of the protestant family Charas lies in Pont-Saint-Espirt, from where the parents of Moyse Charas, passing Uzés, moved to Orange, where he took up the profession of apothecary and was declared Master by Frederick Henry, prince of Orange. Later, in Paris, he had contacts with the Dutch diplomat Constantijn Huygens and his son, the scientist Christiaan Huygens, and with the English physician and philosopher John Locke. After shorter visits to London and the Royal Society he lived there for a certain time, being called to contribute to cure King Charles II. He revisited Orange to get his promotion as a doctor of medicine. After having practised for some time in Holland he went to Spain for five years, as a physician of the embassy of the States General in Madrid and later in Galice. The last six months he suffered imprisonment by the Inquisition. Liberated after his conversion to Catholicism, he could finally return to Paris.

  12. Who still eats three meals a day? Findings from a quantitative survey in the Paris area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuissier, Anne; Tichit, Christine; Caillavet, France; Cardon, Philippe; Masullo, Ana; Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    In France, mealtimes constitute a strong cultural trait, especially the three-meal pattern. The aim of our study was to test whether this pattern is still prevailing and to what extent familial structure, gender, poverty and migration have an effect on meal frequency. This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2010 in the SIRS cohort study among a representative sample of 3006 adults in the Paris metropolitan area. We developed simple logistic models and multinomial logistic models. Results confirmed that the three-meal pattern remains strongly rooted in food habits in the Paris area. For three meals a day, the presence of a partner was more significant than the presence of children in the household. However, the study highlighted that one out of four inhabitants declared eating two meals a day only. The results emphasized gender differences in eating two meals a day, as being less frequent but more distinctive for women than for men. For women indeed, it was mainly linked to economic and social vulnerability (women below the poverty line, foreigners, in single parent families). In this respect, the paper provides new insights into the social differentiation of meal patterns, and calls for further analysis.

  13. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Petetin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC emissions and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows minimizing several error sources in the model (e.g. representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion. The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories – the EMEP inventory, and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories – over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g. boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition and in observations (e.g. BC nature are discussed and quantified, notably though sensitivity tests. A statistically significant (but moderate overestimation is obtained on the TNO BC emissions and on EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as on the BC/NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC/NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests potential error compensations in the BC emissions spatial distribution over the agglomeration.

  14. Sound quality indicators for urban places in Paris cross-validated by Milan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Paola; Delaitre, Pauline; Lavandier, Catherine; Torchia, Francesca; Aumond, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    A specific smartphone application was developed to collect perceptive and acoustic data in Paris. About 3400 questionnaires were analyzed, regarding the global sound environment characterization, the perceived loudness of some emergent sources and the presence time ratio of sources that do not emerge from the background. Sound pressure level was recorded each second from the mobile phone's microphone during a 10-min period. The aim of this study is to propose indicators of urban sound quality based on linear regressions with perceptive variables. A cross validation of the quality models extracted from Paris data was carried out by conducting the same survey in Milan. The proposed sound quality general model is correlated with the real perceived sound quality (72%). Another model without visual amenity and familiarity is 58% correlated with perceived sound quality. In order to improve the sound quality indicator, a site classification was performed by Kohonen's Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and seven specific class models were developed. These specific models attribute more importance on source events and are slightly closer to the individual data than the global model. In general, the Parisian models underestimate the sound quality of Milan environments assessed by Italian people.

  15. Highlights and Conclusions of the Chalonge 13th Paris Cosmology Colloquium

    CERN Document Server

    de Vega, H J

    2010-01-01

    The 13th Chalonge Paris Cosmology Colloquium was held at the historic Perrault building of Observatoire de Paris on 23-25 July 2009. The Colloquium was held in the spirit of the Chalonge School, putting together real cosmological and astrophysical data and hard theory predictive approach in the framework of the Standard Model of the Universe. Peter Biermann, James Bullock, Claudio Destri, Hector de Vega, Massimo Giovannini, Sasha Kashlinsky, Eiichiro Komatsu, Anthony Lasenby and Norma G. Sanchez present here their highlights of the Colloquium. The summary and conclusions by H. J. de Vega, M. C. Falvella and N. G. Sanchez stress among other points: (i) the primordial CMB fluctuations are almost gaussian, large primordial non-gaussianity and large running index are strongly disfavored. The primordial graviton ratio r is predicted in the effective theory of inflation to be between 0.021 and 0.053, at reach of the next CMB observations. (ii) Dark energy observations are consistent with the cosmological constant. ...

  16. Hygroscopic properties of the Paris urban aerosol in relation to its chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilli, K. A.; Poulain, L.; Held, A.; Nowak, A.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopic growth factors and chemical properties were measured as part of the MEGAPOLI "Megacities Plume Case Study" at the urban site Laboratoire d'Hygiène de la Ville de Paris (LHVP) in the city center of Paris from June to August 2009, and from January to February 2010. Descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DGF) were derived in the diameter range from 25 to 350 nm at relative humidities of 30, 55, 75, and 90% by applying the summation method on humidified and dry aerosol size distributions measured simultaneously with a humidified differential mobility particle sizer (HDMPS) and a twin differential mobility particle sizer (TDMPS). For 90% relative humidity, the DGF varied from 1.06 to 1.46 in summer, and from 1.06 to 1.66 in winter. Temporal variations in the observed mean DGF could be well explained with a simple growth model based on the aerosol chemical composition measured by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) and black carbon photometry (MAAP). In particular, good agreement was observed when sulfate was the predominant inorganic factor. A clear overestimation of the predicted growth factor was found when the nitrate mass concentration exceeded values of 10 μg m-3, e.g., during winter.

  17. A dense Black Carbon network in the region of Paris, France: Implementation, objectives, and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciare, Jean; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Gros, Valérie; Pernot, Pierre; Ghersi, Véronique; Ampe, Christophe; Songeur, Charlotte; Brugge, Benjamin; Debert, Christophe; Favez, Olivier; Le Priol, Tiphaine; Mocnik, Grisa

    2013-04-01

    Motivations. Road traffic and domestic wood burning emissions are two major contributors of particulate pollution in our cities. These two sources emit ultra-fine, soot containing, particles in the atmosphere, affecting health adversely, increasing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and casing lung cancer. A better characterization of soot containing aerosol sources in our major cities provides useful information for policy makers for assessment, implementation and monitoring of strategies to tackle air pollution issues affecting human health with additional benefits for climate change. Objectives. This study on local sources of primary Particulate Matter (PM) in the megacity of Paris is a follow-up of several programs (incl. EU-FP7-MEGAPOLI) that have shown that fine PM - in the Paris background atmosphere - is mostly secondary and imported. A network of 14 stations of Black Carbon has been implemented in the larger region of Paris to provide highly spatially resolved long term survey of local combustion aerosols. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that such densely BC network is operating over a large urban area, providing novel information on the spatial/temporal distribution of combustion aerosols within a post-industrialized megacity. Experimental. As part of the PRIMEQUAL "PREQUALIF" project, a dense Black Carbon network (of 14 stations) has been installed over the city of Paris beginning of 2012 in order to produce spatially resolved Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentration maps with high time resolution through modeling and data assimilation. This network is composed of various real-time instruments (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer, MAAP by THERMO; Multi-wavelength Aethalometers by MAGEE Scientific) implemented in contrasted sites (rural background, urban background, traffic) complementing the regulated measurements (PM, NOx) in the local air quality network AIRPARIF (http

  18. The fading star of the Paris Observatory in the nineteenth century: astronomers' urban culture of circulation and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, David

    Engulfing the Observatoire de Paris around 1860, the modernizing city clashed with the increasing precision required by astronomy. Suggestions to transfer the observatory to the suburbs gave rise to intense debates; these provide an enlightening standpoint for studying changes in observation and circulation regimes central to the mutations of both urban cultures and astronomical scientific practices. Moreover, these regime changes took place in a context of constant interaction between the city and the observatory. At practical levels, the changing experience of circulation and observation led to a parceling of the various tasks previously filled by the Paris Observatory and gave rise to an epistemology reminiscent of Latour's network theory.

  19. Experimental and theoretical study of the atmospheric boundary layer over the paris area; Etude experimentale et theorique de la couche limite atmospherique en agglomeration parisienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L

    1997-12-15

    This thesis studied the urban boundary layer dynamic behaviour over the Paris area by comparing urban (Paris) and suburban (Palaiseau) dynamic data such as lidars, sodars, sonic anemometers. All the data were obtained during the ECLAP experiment, specifically performed to characterize the differences between a city and its near environment. (author)

  20. The Politics of Deception and the French Lais in the Roman de Fauvel, Manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinescu, R.C.I.

    2014-01-01

    The interpolated version of the French allegorical satire, the Roman de Fauvel, transmitted in manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146 (produced in Paris ca. 1317), targets the corruption within the French royal court in the last years of the rule of King Philip IV of

  1. Towards the Chalonge 17th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2013: highlights and conclusions of the Chalonge 16th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2012

    CERN Document Server

    de Vega, H J; Sanchez, N G

    2013-01-01

    LWDM (Warm Dark Matter) is progressing impressively.The galactic scale crisis and decline of LCDM+baryons are staggering. The 16th Paris Chalonge Colloquium 2012 combined real cosmological/astrophysical data and hard theory predictive approach in the LWDM Standard Model. News and reviews from ACT,WMAP,SPT,QUIET,Planck,Herschel,JWST,UFFO,KATRIN and MARE experiments; astrophysics, particle and nuclear physics WDM searches, galactic observations, related theory and simulations, with the aim of synthesis and clarification. Here highlights by P Biermann, C Burigana, C Conselice, A Cooray, H de Vega, C Giunti & M Laveder, J Kormendi & K Freeman, E Ma, J Mather, L Page, G Smoot, N Sanchez. Summary and conclusions by de Vega, Falvella and Sanchez. Data confirm primordial CMB gaussianity. Effective (Ginsburg-Landau) Inflation theory predicts r about 0.04-0.05, negligeable running of ns, the inflation energy scale (GUT scale) and the set of CMB observables in agreement with the data. WMAP9 and Planck measuremen...

  2. ‘Images of Globalisation: Paris 1889’. Review of Beat Wyss, Bilder von der Globalisierung. Die Weltausstellung von Paris 1889. Berlin: Insel Verlag, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rampley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This review analyses the study of the Paris World’s Fair of 1889 by Beat Wyss. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of Wyss’s interpretation, but also examines it in the larger context of literature on world fairs. It argues that Wyss’s book exemplifies a common pattern in scholarly studies of world fairs during the nineteenth century, namely, a tendency to focus on their function as forms of cultural representation, i.e. their role in advancing specific notions of regional, national and imperial identity. The review does not dispute that this was a central aspect of the world fairs, but it also points towards the omissions in such studies. Not only were the world fairs founded as a means of promoting liberal ideas of free trade, they were also used to display the latest technologies in a wide array of activities, such as industrial manufacturing, forestry and farming. These subjects are almost never examined in any depth in the literature on world fairs, the result of a partial and limited approach to world fairs. The review argues that for all its strengths, Wyss’s book exemplifies this approach.

  3. Solar housing construction. Thousands of solar cells form the facade of a living project for homeless people in Paris; Solarer Wohnungsbau. Tausende von Solarzellen bilden die Fassade eines Wohnprojekts fuer Obdachlose in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korn, Stefan

    2013-02-15

    A house on the banks of the historic channel Saint Martin in Paris in the elegant tenth arrondissement attracts attention: An emerald-colored solar facade extends from the roof to the ground floor between town palaces. But the spectacular front of the building does not cover luxury condominiums for the Parisian upper class, but a social housing project for families in need.

  4. Negative Emissions Technologies, the Paris Agreement, and the Need for a Human-Rights Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. C. G.

    2016-12-01

    The new Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contemplates that its prospective Parties will balance emissions and sinks by 2050 as a means to effectuate the goal of holding temperature increases to well below 2°C from pre-industrial levels, as well as the more aspirational goal of holding temperature increases to 1.5°C. Most of the IPCC's AR5 scenarios that achieve these objectives contemplate the large-scale deployment of so-called "negative emissions technologies," with an emphasis on bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (BECCS), and to a lesser degree afforestation. BECCS could assuredly help society avoid passing critical climatic thresholds, or address overshoot scenarios in this century and beyond. However, it could also profound implications for food production, the status of forests, access to lands for livelihoods by vulnerable populations, and the integrity of critical ecosystems. This, in turn could have serious ramifications for human rights of some of the world's most vulnerable populations, including the rights to food, water, livelihoods and the benefits of biodiversity. The Preamble to the Paris Agreement acknowledges the need to take into consideration the potential impact of responses to climate change, providing that "Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights." This presentation will outline how application of a human rights-based approach to assessing such options could help to reconcile the objectives of ameliorating potential climatic impacts while protecting the human rights of potentially affected individuals and groups. This will include the potential role of Human Rights Impacts Assessments and potential configuration of HRIAs at the national and international level. It will also briefly suggest how to operationalize this approach within the Paris Agreement framework, including institutional

  5. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ammoura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is challenging, but essential in order to utilize CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration, during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town-Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI and urban-rural contrasts. Boundary layer heights (BLH at urban, sub-urban and rural sites are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, that are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. Only nocturnal BLH at sub-urban sites are slightly underestimated a few nights, with a bias less than 50 m. At Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. The timing of the CO2 cycle is well captured by the model, with only small biases on CO2 concentrations, mainly linked to the misrepresentation of anthropogenic emissions, as the Eiffel site is at the heart of trafic emission sources. At sub-urban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a very strong spatio-temporal variability. The CO2 cycle at these sites is generally well reproduced by the model, even if some biases on the nocturnal maxima appear in the Paris plume parly due to small errors on the vertical

  6. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is challenging, but essential in order to utilize CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration, during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town-Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and urban-rural contrasts. Boundary layer heights (BLH) at urban, sub-urban and rural sites are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, that are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. Only nocturnal BLH at sub-urban sites are slightly underestimated a few nights, with a bias less than 50 m. At Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. The timing of the CO2 cycle is well captured by the model, with only small biases on CO2 concentrations, mainly linked to the misrepresentation of anthropogenic emissions, as the Eiffel site is at the heart of trafic emission sources. At sub-urban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a very strong spatio-temporal variability. The CO2 cycle at these sites is generally well reproduced by the model, even if some biases on the nocturnal maxima appear in the Paris plume parly due to small errors on the vertical transport, or in

  7. Danish sponsors, English lead, Vikings, and a new roof for the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2010-01-01

    Dansk-franske forbindelse i 2. halvdel af 1100-årene, eksemplificeres ved forsøg fra abbed Stefan fra St. Geneviève i Paris på sponsorat til blytag til hans kirke fra det danske toparistokrati....

  8. EPA's science blog: "It All Starts with Science"; Article title: "EPA's Solvent Substitution Software Tool, PARIS III"

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's solvent substitution software tool, PARIS III is provided by the EPA for free, and can be effective and efficiently used to help environmentally-conscious individuals find better and greener solvent mixtures for many different common industrial processes. People can downlo...

  9. The Making of Comparability: Education Indicator Research from Jullien De Paris to the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Manuel; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2017-01-01

    The authors examine indicator research over three periods and discuss shifts in policy usage over time. The study compares influential actors that reflect discursive shifts in how, and for what purpose, indicators were used: (1) Jullien de Paris, (2) faculty at Teachers College at Columbia University in the early-twentieth century (notably Paul…

  10. 7TH Annual Anesthesia and Critical Care Symposium (7th) Held in Paris (France) on 22-24 April 1994,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    waveform analysis in ventilated patients A. PEREL (Tel Aviv, Israel) 17h00 C6rdmonie de cl6ture et remise des prix / Closing ceremony. Awards ceremony 18h00... transfert of patients with severe ARDS treated with inhaled nitric oxide. A. ROZENBERG (Paris, France). P18 Sedation in severe brain injury : The end of

  11. Kajian awal granulometri pada kawasan lamun dan terumbu karang: studi kasus di gugusan Pulau Pari, Kepulauan Seribu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Purnawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Granulometric study is considered as a tool to predict sediment formation process in an aquatic environment. This paper discusses brief assessment of granulometri studies on seagrass and coral reef areas in Indonesia by collecting samples at Pari Island waters. Sediment samples were taken in May 2008 near the coral reefs and seagrass area in the cluster of Pari Island waters, Seribu Islands, Jakarta. The wet sieving method was done to separate the sediment samples based on grain size. Statistical analysis i.e., mean, sorting, skewness, and kurtosis at both locations showed a considerably complex energy works on the sediment distribution in these locations. Keywords: granulometry; sediment; coral reef; seagrass   Abstrak. Studi granulometri dapat menjadi alat penduga proses terbentuknya sedimen di suatu lingkungan perairan. Tulisan ini membahas kajian ringkas studi granulometri pada kawasan lamun dan terumbu karang di Indonesia dengan mengambil contoh di perairan Pulau Pari. Sampel sedimen diambil pada Mei 2008 di kawasan terumbu karang dan lamun pada perairan gugusan Pulau Pari, Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta. Metode ayak basah dilakukan untuk memisahkan sampel sedimen berdasarkan ukuran butir. Hasil analisis statistik ukuran butiran berupa mean, sorting, skewness, dan kurtosis pada kedua lokasi mengindikasikan fungsi energi yang cukup kompleks bekerja terhadap sebaran sedimen di lokasi tersebut. Kata kunci: granulometri; sedimen; terumbu karang; padang lamun

  12. Comparison of the moulding ability of Plaster of Paris and polyester cast material in the healthy adult forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Michael; Kinealy, John; Blanchard, Romane; Rodda, Christine; Pivonka, Peter

    2017-08-16

    To quantify the moulding ability of Plaster of Paris and polyester cast materials as assessed by the novel use of peripheral quantitative computed tomography. A prospective crossover study was performed in 25 healthy volunteers aged 18-65 years. Participants' non-dominant wrist was immobilized using a synthetic polyester cast followed by a Plaster of Paris cast with three point moulding to simulate reduction of a dorsally angulated distal radius fracture. The novel use of peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to measure the closeness of fit of each cast on an axial tomographic slice. Plaster of Paris casts were able to achieve a closer mould than polyester when measured between the bone and the cast (p=0.002), as well as between the skin and the cast (p=0.001). There was no difference when stratified on BMI. Using pQCT assessment, a closely moulded fit was able to be more consistently achieved when using Plaster of Paris when compared to polyester casts of the distal radius. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulating the formation of carbonaceous aerosol in a European Megacity (Paris) during the Megapoli summer and winter campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoukis, C.; Megaritis, A.G.; Skyllakou, K.; Charalampidis, P.E.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Crippa, M.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Fachinger, F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    We use a three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) with high grid resolution and high-resolution emissions (4 x 4 km2) over the Paris greater area to simulate the formation of carbonaceous aerosol dur-ing a summer (July 2009) and a winter (January/February 2010) period as part of

  14. EPA's science blog: "It All Starts with Science"; Article title: "EPA's Solvent Substitution Software Tool, PARIS III"

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's solvent substitution software tool, PARIS III is provided by the EPA for free, and can be effective and efficiently used to help environmentally-conscious individuals find better and greener solvent mixtures for many different common industrial processes. People can downlo...

  15. Increased incidence of Campylobacter jejuni-associated Guillain-Barré syndromes in the Greater Paris area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadon-Tardy, V; Porcher, R; Orlikowski, D; Ronco, E; Gault, E; Roussi, J; Durand, M-C; Sharshar, T; Annane, D; Raphael, J-C; Megraud, F; Gaillard, J-L

    2014-08-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni as the triggering agent of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has not been reassessed since the end of the 1990s in France. We report that the number of C. jejuni-related GBS cases increased continuously between 1996 and 2007 in the Paris region (mean annual increment: 7%, P = 0·007).

  16. Powered two-wheelers road accidents and their risk perception in dense urban areas: case of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestracci, Marion; Prochasson, François; Geffroy, Aurélie; Peccoud, Florian

    2012-11-01

    For a few years, the use of powered two-wheelers has taken off in Paris. It then became critical for the City of Paris to understand both the mechanisms leading to traffic accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers user and the perception of their risk when riding in dense urban areas. In so doing, two studies were carried out along similar lines so that their results could be compared. The first study focused on the perception of situations where accidents are most likely to occur. The second one was an analysis of police reports of accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers and the drawing-up of prototypical accident scenarios. Comparing the results of the two studies revealed a gap between perceived and objective risks of these users. In fact, they rather fear the situations during which a car driver is changing lanes, while accidents involving them occur more often when a car driver turns (right, left or U). Knowledge of this dissonance in terms of awareness of road risks for powered two-wheelers and equally, other road users, will give the City of Paris food for thought. The promising results of this study have encouraged the City of Paris to extend it to other types of users, such as cyclists or elderly pedestrians.

  17. Choosing the Local School: Middle Class Parents' Values and Social and Ethnic Mix in London and Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveaud, Maroussia; Zanten, Agnes Van

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses a specific kind of choice, choice of the local school, by a specific middle class group, characterized by its high cultural capital, its "caring" perspective and liberal political orientation, in two cosmopolitan, "mixed" settings, London and Paris, with a focus on values and how ethical dilemmas raised by confrontation with…

  18. Deciphering the colon cancer genes--report of the InSiGHT-Human Variome Project Workshop, UNESCO, Paris 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Macrae, Finlay; Genuardi, Maurizio;

    2011-01-01

    Integration and Implementation Meeting at UNESCO in Paris, to review the progress of this pilot program. A wide range of topics were covered, including issues relating to genotype-phenotype data submission to the InSiGHT Colon Cancer Gene Variant Databases (chromium.liacs.nl/LOVD2/colon_cancer/home.php...

  19. Social suffering and anxiety: deciphering coughs and colds at Akan anti-witchcraft shrines in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Jane

    2011-12-01

    In treating illness and suffering, the Akan anti-witchcraft shrine is often presented as a model of unchanging, tightly bounded and antiquated ideals. This fails to acknowledge the extensive repertoire of Ghanaian witchcraft discourses and contemporary divinatory practices uncovered at Akan anti-witchcraft shrines. This paper analyses how one of the most popular Akan anti-witchcraft shrine in Europe, in an eastern banlieue of Paris, diagnoses the seemingly common and innocuous coughs and colds suffered by recently arrived, unskilled female Ghanaian migrants as something more socially and economically malignant, witchcraft. Successful treatment combines divinatory techniques, paracetamol medicines and positive thinking in order to empower clients and present them with the possibility of new social and gainful employment prospects.

  20. Hearing Pygmalion's Kiss: A Scientific Object at the Paris Opéra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    In 1748, in his acte de ballet Pygmalion, composer and music theorist Jean-Philippe Rameau arranged the Paris Opéra orchestra to play "nature's chord," harmonies that reproduced the overtones an expert ear could detect in every natural musical vibrating body. The following year Rameau presented his music theory to the French Royal Academy of Sciences for their endorsement. Disillusionment with the promise of Cartesian mechanics as a source of a unified understanding of nature opened up the possibility that matter might have properties beyond extension and motion, such as aversion, desire, and memory. Speculations about this material sensibility also coincided with increasing claims about the authority of spontaneous emotion and feeling. The experience of music at the opera was a significant resource for claims about the cultural authority of sensibility.

  1. Prediction of SWCC of Saline Soil in Western Jilin Based on Arya-Paris Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Shuochao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The saline soil distributed in Western Jilin Province could cause a serious of damages to local construction engineering and agriculture. The relationship between water content and soil suction has great influence on engineering properties, and effect the water migration and forming of saline soil. This paper aims to the saline soil in Zhenlai area of Western Jilin province, the basic properties test were taken in laboratory, and Arya-Paris prediction model were chosen to predict the SWCC of saline soil in Western Jilin. The results show that the 30cm soil sample has lower water holding capacity than the 50cm soil sample, which means the water migration rate is higher of 30cm. The results may provide theoretical support and beneficial reference for research and prediction of engineering properties and forming mechanism of saline soil.

  2. School Choice in London and Paris – A Comparison of Middle-class Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michaela; Bridge, Gary; Wilson, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Education is one major public service in which quasi-markets and other choice-based mechanisms are now established methods of delivery. The types of school people choose, and the extent to which their choices are realized, have a fundamental impact on the outcomes of any mechanism of school choice. In this article, we provide a comparative analysis of the school choice strategies of middle-class families in London and Paris. We draw on approximately 200 in-depth interviews carried out across the two cities. This enables us to investigate the extent to which middle-class school choice strategies transcend the institutional context provided by both the local (state and private) schools market and national education policy in England and France. We discuss these findings in the context of current school choice policy and consider their implications for future policy design. PMID:25750467

  3. School Choice in London and Paris - A Comparison of Middle-class Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michaela; Bridge, Gary; Wilson, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Education is one major public service in which quasi-markets and other choice-based mechanisms are now established methods of delivery. The types of school people choose, and the extent to which their choices are realized, have a fundamental impact on the outcomes of any mechanism of school choice. In this article, we provide a comparative analysis of the school choice strategies of middle-class families in London and Paris. We draw on approximately 200 in-depth interviews carried out across the two cities. This enables us to investigate the extent to which middle-class school choice strategies transcend the institutional context provided by both the local (state and private) schools market and national education policy in England and France. We discuss these findings in the context of current school choice policy and consider their implications for future policy design.

  4. Fossil echinoid (Echinoidea, Echinodermata diversity of the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian in the Paris Basin (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Benetti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This dataset inventories occurrence records of fossil echinoid specimens collected in the Calcaires à Spatangues Formation (CSF that crops out in the southeast of the Paris Basin (France, and is dated from the Acanthodiscus radiatus chronozone (ca. 132 Ma, early Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous. Fossil richness and abundance of the CSF has attracted the attention of palaeontologists since the middle of the nineteenth century. This dataset compiles occurrence data (referenced by locality names and geographic coordinates with decimal numbers of fossil echinoids both collated from the literature published over a century and a half, and completed by data from collection specimens. The dataset also gives information on taxonomy (from species to order and higher taxonomic levels, which has been checked for reliability and consistency. It compiles a total of 628 georeferenced occurrence data of 26 echinoid species represented by 22 genera, 14 families, and 9 orders.

  5. Louis-Eugène Varlin e a Comuna de Paris (1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alberto da Costa Pinto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma breve notícia sobre a trajetória política de Louis-Eugène Varlin (1839 - 1871, operário francês (encadernador de livros radicado em Paris (1852 - 1871, intelectual autodidata, um dos principais organizadores da seção francesa da AIT (Associação Internacional dos Trabalhadores a partir de 1865. Personagem emblemático nas lutas sociais acontecidas no período de setembro de 1870 a maio de 1871, quando do cerco à cidade pelas tropas prussianas e depois pelas tropas do governo Thiers, motivos que o levaram à participação no Comitê Central da Guarda Nacional, assim como à organização dos comitês distritais da Comuna (março a maio de 1871.     

  6. Sinemurian–Pliensbachian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and organic carbon isotope stratigraphy in the Paris Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peti, Leonie; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Clemence, Marie-Emilie

    2017-01-01

    carbon isotope excursions are identified and defined in the Paris Basin including the well-documented Sinemurian–Pliensbachian boundary event. One positive excursion is further defined in the Pliensbachian interval. Our calibration of high-resolution calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy to ammonite...... organic carbon isotope curve based on 385 data points. The main bioevents, i.e. the first occurrences of Parhabdolithus liasicus, Crepidolithus pliensbachensis, Crepidolithus crassus, Mitrolithus lenticularis, Similiscutum cruciulus sensu lato, Lotharingius hauffii, Crepidolithus cavus and Lotharingius...... sigillatus as well as the last occurrence of Parhabdolithus robustus, have been identified. However, we show that a large number of standard biostratigraphic markers show inconsistent occurrences at the base and top of their range, possibly accounting for some of the significant discrepancies observed...

  7. Reflections on small island states and the international climate change negotiations (COP21, Paris, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Hoad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest and most significant round of multilateral climate negotiations (COP21 takes place in Paris (30/11 to 11/12/2015. Like other participants and signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, small island states have submitted contributions (INDCs towards reducing emissions as a precursor to the creation of a post-Kyoto global emissions framework. This reflection outlines their contributions and examines the underlying dynamics of small island INDCs as they attempt to engage with the process of international negotiation. Preliminary findings confirm the need for small island states to be supported financially and technically by global institutional mechanisms in order to develop the capacity to deal with climate change.

  8. Obras y noticias de Paris Bordón en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Manero, José María

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Si dejamos a un lado el «Retrato de una joven» de la Colección Thyssen-Bomemisza —desde hace poco en nuestro país y creído por la crítica de su mano— las otras dos obras que hasta el momento se han relacionado en España con Paris Bordón a mi juicio no le pertenecen; se trata de un supuesto «Autorretrato» (Museo del Prado y de una «Psiquis» (Palacio de Liria, considerada por Tormo obra notable. En cuanto al supuesto «Autorretrato» (L. 104 X 76 (Fig. 1, fueron Allende-Salazar y Sánchez Cantón quienes identificaron al retratado con París Bordón basándose en el parecido que sin duda tiene con…

  9. The research school of Marie Curie in the Paris faculty, 1907-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J L

    1995-07-01

    As the most famous woman scientist of the twentieth century, there has been no shortage of books and articles on the life and career of Marie Curie (1867-1934). Her role as director of a laboratory-based research school in the new scientific field of radioactivity, a field which embraced both chemistry and physics, however, has never been examined. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the question of research schools, and Morrell, Ravetz, Geison, and Klosterman, amongst others, have written on this subject. Using, in part, the methodology of Morrell, this paper investigates the role of Marie Curie as a school director in the Paris Faculty in the years 1907-14, examining the work and characteristics of her school and assessing her effectiveness as a director.

  10. [Innovations in medical undergraduate pathology education: The Paris Descartes medicine faculty experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Verkarre, Virginie; Mansuet-Lupo, Audrey; Rabant, Marion; Daniliuc, Cristina; Radenen, Brigitte; Harent, Marion; Cassanelli, Lucien; Cherel, Éric; Javaux, Hubert; Tesniere, Antoine; Terris, Benoît; Badoual, Cécile

    2016-08-01

    At the Paris Descartes medicine faculty, we tested some newly developed tools to enhance the pedagogic value of the pathology teaching. In our faculty, this teaching is largely multidisciplinary and integrated in various teaching units; a large part is dedicated to practice works with thirteen 90min sessions. Virtual slides have been used for years in numerous medicine faculties; we successfully implemented this tool by adding contextual annotations, which facilitate students revising. We showed that rewarding students' assiduity enhanced their exam success. To do so, we now propose a short continuous assessment exam at the beginning of each practice session in the form of electronic multi-choice questions. Finally, we now propose a completely computerized final exam, on touchpads, that enhanced its docimologic value.

  11. An Account of the Inaugural Tessier Skull Exhibition at the University of Paris Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusseldorp, Joseph Richard; Firmin, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Paul Tessier is widely regarded as the father of modern craniofacial surgery. Upon his passing in 2008, his private collection of human skulls was purchased by the French Association of Facial Surgeons to ensure the collection would remain in France. The first public exhibition of the skulls was held in the medical museum of the University of Paris Descartes in April 2014. From this collection of skulls and the imagination of Tessier an entirely new specialty was created. Modern craniofacial surgery, now is an integral part of any pediatric plastic surgery department. Cranial and facial osteotomies have also become commonplace in both traumatic and aesthetic surgery. The goals for craniofacial deformity are now a return to completely normal appearance and function, as Tessier always believed they should be.

  12. [PARI-ETLD (Therapeutic Approach and Nursing Research -- Epidemiology and Treatment of Decubitus Lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, P; Saiani, L; Laquintana, D; Palese, A; Bellingeri, A

    2001-01-01

    Pressure sores are one of the preferred nursing research topics but, in spite of the large number of studies, most questions related to the prevention and treatment of pressure sores remain unanswered. Well designed clinical trials and on sufficiently large samples are very rare and most treatments are routinely used even without a reliable evidence of their efficacy. The PARI-ETLD trial is the occasion for: a. evaluating the efficacy of the Fitostimoline, in the ri-epitelization of superficial pressure sores; b. starting a clinical trial conducted by nurses; c. building a multicentre nursing network for collecting data on the epidemiology of pressure sores and for evaluating the effectiveness of caring strategies and treatments. The protocol presented, with the data collection forms, is an example of feasibility of clinical trials in the nursing practice and offers examples of ways for overcoming common problems related to the implementation of clinical trials in everyday practice.

  13. Consequences economiques du transfert de marché de cotation : cas du NYSE-Euronext Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Cisse, A.K

    2010-01-01

    Cahier de recherche n° 2010-06 E2; Cette étude empirique a pour objet d'analyser les effets d'un changement de marché de cotation sur la rentabilité, la liquidité et le risque systématique. Elle porte sur des sociétés qui ont transféré le marché de cotation de leurs titres d'un compartiment non (ou peu) réglementé à un compartiment plus réglementé du marché français (Euronext Paris) entre 1995 et 2007. Globalement, les résultats montrent une réaction positive du marché à l'annonce du transfer...

  14. Antinucleon-nucleus interaction near threshold from the Paris $\\bar NN$ potential

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, E; Loiseau, B; Wycech, S

    2015-01-01

    A general algorithm for handling the energy dependence of hadron-nucleon amplitudes in the nuclear medium, consistently with their density dependence, has been recently applied to antikaons, eta mesons and pions interacting with nuclei. Here we apply this approach to antiprotons below threshold, analyzing experimental results for antiprotonic atoms across the periodic table. It is also applied to antiproton and antineutron interaction with nuclei up to 400~MeV/c, comparing with elastic scattering and annihilation cross sections. The underlying $\\bar pN$ scattering amplitudes are derived from the Paris $\\bar NN$ potential, including modifications in the medium. Emphasis is placed on the role of the $P$-wave amplitudes with respect to the repulsive $S$-wave amplitudes.

  15. Paris Agreement on Climate Change: A Booster to Enable Sustainable Global Development and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Janardhan Bhore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The global warming and its adverse effects on the atmosphere, the biosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere are obvious. Based on this fact, the international community is fully convinced that we need to fix the problem urgently for our survival, good health, and wellbeing. The aim of this article is to promote the awareness about the United Nations (UN historic ‘Paris Agreement on Climate Change (PACC’ which entered into-force on 4 November 2016. The expected impact of PACC on the global average temperature rise by 2100 as well as its role in enabling accomplishment of global sustainable development goals (SDGs for the people and planet is also highlighted.

  16. Antinucleon-nucleus interaction near threshold from the Paris N bar N potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.

    2015-11-01

    A general algorithm for handling the energy dependence of hadron-nucleon amplitudes in the nuclear medium, consistently with their density dependence, has been recently applied to antikaons, eta mesons and pions interacting with nuclei. Here we apply this approach to antiprotons below threshold, analyzing experimental results for antiprotonic atoms across the periodic table. It is also applied to antiproton and antineutron interactions with nuclei up to 400 MeV/c, comparing with elastic scattering and annihilation cross sections. The underlying p bar N scattering amplitudes are derived from the Paris N bar N potential, including in-medium modifications. Emphasis is placed on the role of the P-wave amplitudes with respect to the repulsive S-wave amplitudes.

  17. Assessment of trace metal air pollution in Paris using slurry-TXRF analysis on cemetery mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Marco; Zanella, Augusto; Rankovic, Aleksandar; Banas, Damien; Cantaluppi, Chiara; Abbadie, Luc; Lata, Jean -Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Mosses are useful, ubiquitous accumulation biomonitors and as such can be used for biomonitoring surveys. However, the biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution can be compromised in urban contexts if the targeted biomonitors are regularly disturbed, irregularly distributed, or are difficult to access. Here, we test the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled mosses growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. We focused on Grimmia pulvinata (Hedwig) Smith, a species abundantly found in all studied cemeteries and very common in Europe. The concentration of Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ti, and Zn was determined by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique coupled with a slurry sampling method (slurry-TXRF). This method avoids a digestion step, reduces the risk of sample contamination, and works even at low sample quantities. Elemental markers of road traffic indicated that the highest polluted cemeteries were located near the highly frequented Parisian ring road and under the influence of prevailing winds. The sites with the lowest pollution were found not only in the peri-urban cemeteries, adjoining forest or farming landscapes, but also in the large and relatively wooded cemeteries located in the center of Paris. Our results suggest that (1) slurry-TXRF might be successfully used with moss material, (2) G. pulvinata might be a good biomonitor of trace metals air pollution in urban context, and (3) cemetery moss sampling could be a useful complement for monitoring urban areas. Graphical abstract We tested the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled 110 moss cushions (Grimmia pulvinata) growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. The concentration of 20

  18. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective – Paris and the Seine, 1790–1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barles

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790–1970, a period marked by strong population growth, changes in techniques, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the rule and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine, aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban hygiene and techniques, with the causes and consequences of such changes, enables us to understand the complex relations between Paris and the Seine. From raw material to waste matter, from river to drain, the concept of quality in environment remains the underlying theme.

  19. Surveys, Fields, and Collections in the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive at PARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, J. D.; Castelaz, M. W.; Barker, T.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse set of photometric, astrometric, spectral and surface brightness data exist on more than 100 years of photographic glass plates. About 20 percent of the plates in North America are located in the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). APDA was established in November 2007 and is dedicated to the task of collecting, restoring, preserving and storing astronomical photographic data and PARI continues to accept collections. APDA is also tasked with scanning each image and establishing a database of images that can be accessed via the Internet by the global community of scientists, researchers and students. APDA is a new type of astronomical observatory - one that harnesses analog data of the night sky taken for more than a century and making that data available in a digital format. APDA currently has 50 collections with more than 250,000 plates taken for QSO identification, parallax measurements, spectral classification and monitoring, Magellanic Cloud studies, H-alpha emission star surveys, novae evolution, and astrometry of asteroids, outer planet satellites and Pluto. Some examples of collections include the complete set of the Henize H-alpha Southern Survey plates taken between 1949 and 1952 (Henize 1954, AJ, 59, 325), the Case Western Objective Prism All Sky Survey from 1958-1976 (e.g. Pesch, Sanduleak, and Stephenson 1996, ApJS, 103, 513), and QSO Survey from 1980 to 1991 (e.g. Pesch and Stephenson 1983, ApJS, 51, 171). We feature the contents of the APDA collections to provide the opportunity to the astronomical community to advance new and established areas of study.

  20. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Bréon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of CO2 emissions from the AirParif inventory of the Paris agglomeration. We use 5 atmospheric monitoring sites including one at the top of the Eiffel tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion tool adjusts the CO2 fluxes (anthropogenic and biogenic with a temporal resolution of 6 h, assuming temporal correlation of emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle and from day to day, while keeping the a priori spatial distribution from the emission inventory. The inversion significantly improves the agreement between measured and modelled concentrations. However, the amplitude of the atmospheric transport errors is often large compared to the CO2 gradients between the sites that are used to estimate the fluxes, in particular for the Eiffel tower station. In addition, we sometime observe large model-measurement differences upwind from the Paris agglomeration, which confirms the large and poorly constrained contribution from distant sources and sinks included in the prescribed CO2 boundary conditions These results suggest that (i the Eiffel measurements at 300 m above ground cannot be used with the current system and (ii the inversion shall rely on the measured upwind-downwind gradients rather than the raw mole fraction measurements. With such setup, realistic emissions are retrieved for two 30 day periods. Similar inversions over longer periods are necessary for a proper evaluation of the results.

  1. Highly time-resolved trace element concentrations in aerosols during the Megapoli Paris campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furger, Markus; Visser, Suzanne; Slowik, Jay G.; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Appel, Karen; Flechsig, Uwe; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements contribute typically only a few percent to the total mass of air pollutants, however, they can affect the environment in significant ways, especially those that are toxic. Furthermore, they are advantageous with respect to a refinement of source apportionment when measured with high time resolution and appropriate size segregation. This approach is especially advantageous in an urban environment with numerous time-variant emission sources distributed across a relatively narrow space, as is typically the setting of a megacity. Two 1-month long field campaigns took place in the framework of the Megapoli project in Paris, France, in the summer of 2009 and in the winter of 2010. Rotating drum impactors (RDI) were operated at two sites in each campaign, one urban, the other one suburban. The RDI segregated the aerosols into three size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1 and PM1-0.1) and sampled with 2-hour time resolution. The samples were analyzed with synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) at the synchrotron facilities of Paul Scherrer Institute (SLS) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (HASYLAB), where a broad range of elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Pb) was analyzed for each size range. Time series of the analyzed elements for the different sites and campaigns were prepared to characterize the aerosol trace element composition and temporal behavior for the different weather situations and urban environments. They allow for the distinction of regional vs. local sources and transport, and provide a basis for source apportionment calculations. Local and regional contributions of traffic, including re-suspension, break wear and exhaust, wood burning, marine and other sources will be discussed. Indications of long-range transport from Polish coal emissions in the city center of Paris were also found.

  2. Quantification of the impact of aircraft traffic emissions on tropospheric ozone over Paris area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pison, Isabelle; Menut, Laurent

    Accurate estimations of the emissions of primary pollutants are crucial for the modeling of photo-oxidants' concentrations. For a majority of chemistry-transport models (CTMs), these emissions are taken into account near the surface only. They are expressed as surface fluxes and represent surface activities such as traffic, industries or biogenic processes. However, in the vicinity of large cities, commercial aircraft emissions represent a nonnegligible source, located both at the surface and at altitude, including landing and take-off of aircraft within the boundary layer. This is the case of Paris where one national airport (Le Bourget) and two international airports (Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle and Orly) are located less than 30 km away from the city center. This study presents the first-model analysis of the impact of aircraft emissions on photo-oxidant concentrations over the Paris area. Using a three-dimensional aircraft emission inventory, we compare ozone surface concentrations obtained with and without these emissions by running the CTM CHIMERE during the second Intensive Observation Period of the ESQUIF project. The simulated differences enable us to estimate the impact of aircraft traffic emissions on ozone surface concentrations in and around the city. The results showed that the maximum impact, which consists in a fast ozone titration by NO near the airports within the surface layer, occurs during the night. In remote areas and at altitude, adding new emissions enhanced photo-chemistry during the afternoon. In order to estimate the impact of the uncertainty of our inventory, aircraft emitted masses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NO x are perturbed. The results showed that NO x air traffic emissions have a more important impact than VOC emissions, particularly during the night and near the sources. Nevertheless, these variations of air traffic emissions do not change previous conclusions.

  3. Atmospheric trace element concentrations in total suspended particles near Paris, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; Senhou, Abderrahmane; Moskura, Mélanie; Gaudry, André

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate today's trace element atmospheric concentrations in large urban areas, an atmospheric survey was carried out for 18 months, from March 2002 to September 2003, in Saclay, nearby Paris. The total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was collected continuously on quartz fibre filters. The TSP contents were determined for 36 elements (including Ag, Bi, Mo and Sb) using two analytical methods: Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measured concentrations were in agreement within the uncertainties with the certified values for the polycarbonate reference material filter SRM-2783 (National Institute for Standard Technology NIST, USA). The measured concentrations were significantly lower than the recommended atmospheric concentrations. In 2003, the Pb atmospheric level at Saclay was 15 ng/m 3, compared to the 500 ng/m 3 guideline level and to the 200 ng/m 3 observed value in 1994. The typical urban background TSP values of 1-2, 0.2-1, 4-6, 10-30 and 3-5 ng/m 3 for As, Co, Cr, Cu and Sb, respectively, were inferred from this study and were compared with the literature data. The typical urban background TSP concentrations could not be realised for Cd, Pb and Zn, since these air concentrations are highly influenced by local features. The Zn concentrations and Zn/Pb ratio observed in Saclay represented a characteristic fingerprint of the exceptionally large extent of zinc-made roofs in Paris and its suburbs. The traffic-related origin of Ba, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sb was demonstrated, while the atmospheric source(s) of Ag was not identified.

  4. Evaluation of the Arya-Paris model for estimating water retention characteristics of lignitic mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buczko, U.; Gerke, H.H. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Mine soil materials may be viewed as man-made systems that consist of spatially disordered soil and sediment components, which are in an initial stage of soil development. A question is whether methods and approaches developed for natural soils, may also be used for such artificially created soil materials. The applicability of the Arya and Paris pedotransfer function to obtain hydraulic properties from the particle size distribution and bulk density was tested for lignitic mine soil material of the Lusatian Lignite Mining District in eastern Germany. The scaling factor a in this model was evaluated by (I) fitting of the water retention curves estimated with the Arya-Paris model (APM) to measured water retention data and (ii) interpretation of a as a fractal dimension of the pore channels and derivation of this fractal dimension from the fractal dimension of the particle size distribution. The two tested fractal approaches resulted in relatively inaccurate predictions of the water content. The use of a single fitted a value for each depth yielded a values between 1.05 and 1.47. Because of the inability of the APM to account for residual water contents in this sandy soil material, a correction was applied. The cumulative mass fraction fractal method did not improve the estimation in comparison with the retention curves calculated with a constant a value of 1.38. The closest fits with the data were obtained by using a variable a value that depended on the particle size. The accuracy of the predictions of the APM in the higher suction range could be improved (lower mean deviations and root mean square deviations of water content) by using a linear water content-dependent correction factor. Better estimates of water retention in the relatively dry range may be significant for simulation of water budgets of mine spoil sites in the Lusatian Mining District.

  5. Assessing the resilience of urban areas to traffic-related air pollution: Application in Greater Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariolet, Jean-Marie; Colombert, Morgane; Vuillet, Marc; Diab, Youssef

    2017-10-05

    Recent studies report that outdoor air pollution will become the main environmental cause of premature death over the next few decades (OECD, 2012; WHO, 2014; World Bank, 2016). Cities are considered hot spots and urban populations are particularly exposed. There is therefore an urgent need to adapt urban systems and urban design to tackle this issue. While most European cities have introduced measures to reduce emissions, action is still required to reduce concentrations and exposure, and a holistic approach to urban design is badly needed. The concept of urban resilience, defined by Holling (1987) as the ability of a city to absorb a disturbance while maintaining its functions and structures, may offer a new paradigm for tackling urban air pollution. We propose to adapt the concept of urban resilience to outdoor air pollution. A method has been developed to assess the resilience of an urban area to outdoor air pollution. Three "resilience capacities" have been identified: the capacity of an urban area to decrease air pollution emissions, the capacity to decrease concentrations and the capacity to decrease exposure. The calculation is based on the analysis of urban design, defined as the pattern of buildings as well as the structural elements that define an urban area (urban morphology; transport network, services and land use). For each resilience capacity, indicators are calculated using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a grid-based approach. This method has been implemented in the Greater Paris area within a 500m grid-cell system. Greater Paris is one of the densest urban areas in Europe and experiences high air pollution levels. The proposed "quick scan" method helps to localize areas where specific action is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Fate and spatial variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the deposition within a heavily urbanized area: case of Paris (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresan, B; Lorgeoux, C; Gasperi, J; Moilleron, R

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results on the geochemical cycle of PolyBrominated Diphenyl Ethers (or PBDE) in the Paris Region (France). In order to provide information about the distribution and mobility of eight PBDE congeners, we first determined the level of contamination of different environmental compartments: i.e. atmosphere, soils and waters. Atmospheric PBDE deposition was estimated from a site located in the centre of Paris. Surface soils (0-10 cm) were collected from multiple wooded, rural and urban locations through the Paris Region (12,000 km²). To complete our investigation, we measured PBDE concentrations/contents in the runoff from an urban catchment and settleable particles from the Seine River. Hence, gained results showed that in the superficial soils, the highest concentrations of highly brominated congeners were measured in the vicinity of the most urbanized areas whereas less brominated congeners were widespread in the whole Paris Region. This could be explained by the higher affinity of highly brominated congeners for the solid phase substrata coupled with the fact that the atmospheric deposition occurred mainly through particle deposition (close to 90% of the total atmospheric deposition). To the opposite, the less brominated congeners from the superficial soils were readily transferred to the dissolved phase of runoff and could reach more distant terrestrial and aquatic systems. Finally, a mass transfer was established at the scale of the Paris metropolitan city (105 km²). It showed that the cycle of PBDE in this particular urban area is highly dynamic with multiple sources and sinks, and rapid transfers between the ecosystem compartments.

  7. Arum- and Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizas in a mixed pine forest on sand dune soil in Niigata Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matekwor Ahulu, Evelyn; Nakata, Makoto; Nonaka, Masanori

    2005-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are the most widespread mycorrhiza in nature and form two morphologies, Arum- and Paris-type. The determining factors defining the two different morphologies are not well understood. In this study, the distribution of Arum- and Paris-type AM was determined in a mixed pine forest. A total of 35 plant species belonging to 20 families and 32 genera were identified and examined for AM colonization and morphological types. AM morphological types in 14 families were confirmed as follows: Arum-type in Rosaceae, Oleaceae, Lauraceae, Vitaceae and Compositae, Paris-type in Aquifoliaceae, Ulmaceae, Araliaceae, Theaceae, Magnoliaceae, Rubiaceae and Dioscoraceae, and both and/or intermediate types in Caprifoliaceae and Gramineae. Plant families whose AM morphological status was previously unknown were clarified as follows: Polygonaceae and Commelinaceae showed Arum-type morphology; Celastraceae, Menispermaceae and Elaeagnaceae had typical Paris-type morphology. The proportion of Arum-type to Paris-type species decreased in the following order: annuals > perennials > deciduous species > evergreen species, and pioneer group > early successional group > late successional group. Evergreen plants had a higher tendency to form Paris-type AM than annuals, perennials and deciduous plants. The results indicate that environmental changes, such as shade during plant succession, control the distribution of plant growth forms in mixed pine forest and may also play a part in the distribution of Arum- and Paris-type morphology. The identity of the plant seems to strongly influence AM morphology, though control by the fungal genome cannot be ruled out.

  8. [Defusing of victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. Elements of assessment one-month post-event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Cheucle, E; Faure, P; Digard, F; Dalphin, C; Pachiaudi, V; Simond, M; Darbon, R; Collinet, C; Habibi, R; Gueugniaud, P-Y

    2016-12-29

    The terrorist attacks (fusillades and suicide attacks) in Paris on 13 November 2015 have had a major psychic impact on all individuals directly or secondarily exposed to them. Medico-psychological unit (CUMP) of the Paris Île-de-France region's immediate care services were immediately mobilized and rapidly strengthened by all regional medico-psychological units (CUMP) throughout the country. Psychological assistance has been provided in several key points of Paris and specifically in the 11th district City Hall of Paris where Lyon's Medico-psychological unit was located. These specific immediate psychological assistances, referred to as a "defusing process" by the medico-psychological unit (CUMP), are mostly devoted to provide the victims with an entry point to a psychological healthcare relationship and give them a first sense of soothing and relief even though they do not prevent further psychological care follow up for the victims. Nonetheless, the potential therapeutic effect of this "defusing process" has not yet been sufficiently established nor demonstrated by any scientific study. A phoning survey was carried out one-month post-terrorist attacks and interviewed the 129 victims who benefited from the "defusing process" conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in order to collect data and assess its effects. These people, whether directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses, whose average age is 35, are mostly living in the Île-de-France region. Most of them present a high score on the IES-R scale, whether they were directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses. Almost all of them (96.5%) experienced at least one medical care contact within this one-month post-trauma period with psychotropic medication for 37% of them. Regarding the defusing conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in the 11th district City Hall of Paris, it appears that 93% of the victims who were looked after indicated that they were satisfied and 87.4% of

  9. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige, E-mail: epons@lsce.ipsl.fr [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe [CEREMA, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes (France); Douville, Eric [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Dumont, Emmanuel [CEREMA, rue de l' égalité Prolongée, 93352, Le Bourget cedex 319 (France)

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th–18th centuries ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.180 +/− 0.003). The mean {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181 +/− 0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183 +/− 0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172 +/− 0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975 +/− 15 years) deposit ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.148 +/− 0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.181 +/− 0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). - Highlights: • Urban speleothems from underground aqueduct in Paris, France were

  10. La radiologie est entree avant l'electricite dans les hopitaux de Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallardy, G

    1999-01-01

    The paper looks at the period from 1896 to the beginning of the 20th century and uses as example the installation of radiological equipment by Antoine Beclere, at his own cost, in his department of medicine at the Hopital Tenon, and later at the Hopital Saint-Antoine. The important role of Antoine Beclere in French radiology is recalled as well as his visionary concept of the medical applications of X-rays. The solutions found to ensure the running of the indispensable high tension generators in the two hospitals without electricity are evoked: first, a hand operated electrostatic machine, then an induction coil energized by an accumulator battery that had to be recharched outside. At the end of 1899 at Saint-Antoine, the situation is improved by the decision of the "Conseil de Surveillance" (the Safety Committee) to hook up the radiological equipment to the dynamos which produces electricity for the maternity ward. The problem is definitively solved in 1904, eight years after the first radiological examinations, by the construction of an electric power plant in the hospital. An overview of the electricity available in the Paris region at that time, with the multiplicity of electric power plants, and the great variety of currents provided, largely explains why the hospitals hesitated to use those services. Finally, diverse solutions adopted by other hospitals using radiology are examined, which include the uniting of radiology and photography departments run by "radiographers" who were not physicians, such as A. Londe at the Hopital La Salpetriere, G. Contremoulins at Necker, and Ch. Vaillant at Beaudelocque. In conclusion, the author explains why Antoine Beclere is chosen to illustrate this presentation. His name has been left to posterity because of his considerable accomplishments, which led to French diagnostic and therapeutic radiology being recognized as a medical speciality. His teaching of French and foreign physicians and his seminal work in the field

  11. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective – Paris and the Seine, 1790–1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barles

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse metabolic interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790–1970, a period marked by strong population growth, technological changes, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing their evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply: night soil became more and more liquid, difficult to handle and to turn into fertilizer; once utilised, the water had to be removed from the house; at the same time, the sewerage system developed and had negative impacts on the river. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests: combined sewerage system and sewage farms. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the standard and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine (despite the construction of a treatment plant, aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban

  12. Urban compaction vs city sprawl: impact of road traffic on air quality in the greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuman Arthur, Elessa; Isabelle, Coll; Vincent, Viguie; Nicolas, Coulombel; Julie, Prud'homme

    2017-04-01

    Urban pollution remains a major sanitary and economic concern. In France, particulate pollution is known to cause 48,000 premature deaths every year (Santé Publique France, 2016), while the economic cost of air pollution reaches almost 25 billion euros per year (CGDD, 2012). In the Greater Paris, despite strengthened emission standards, restricted traffic areas, car-sharing and incentives for electric vehicle use, road transport plays a substantial role in the exposure of inhabitants to high levels of pollutants. In this context, urban planning could possibly constitute an innovative strategy to reduce emissions from road traffic, through its actions on transport demand, travel distances, modal shift (public transportation, cycling, walking...) or even proximity to emitters. We have developed a multi-scalar modeling of urban pollution by coupling an urban economic growth model NEDUM (CIRED), a model for urban mobility (LISA), a traffic emission model (LISA) and the CHIMERE Chemistry-Transport model (CTM) for air quality simulation (LISA). The innovative aspect of this modeling system is to integrate into a classic CTM the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of an urban system. This way, we establish a quantitative and comprehensive link between a given urban scenario, the associated public and individual transport matrix, and local air quality. We then make it possible to highlight the levers of energy consumption reductions inside compact or sprawled cities. We have been working on the Ile de France region (centered on the Paris agglomeration) which relies on a broad urban structure of megacity, a high density of housing and an expanding urban peripheral zone, clearly raising the issue of transport demand, mobility and traffic congestion. Two scenarios, considering opposite urban development policies from the 1960s to 2010, have been simulated over the whole modelling chain. The first one promotes a dense and compact city while the second favors city spread

  13. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréon, F. M.; Broquet, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Perrussel, O.; Ciais, P.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of fossil fuel CO2 emissions of the Paris urban area from the prior estimates established by the Airparif local air quality agency. Five atmospheric monitoring sites are available, including one at the top of the Eiffel Tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion adjusts prior knowledge about the anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 fluxes from the Airparif inventory and an ecosystem model, respectively, with corrections at a temporal resolution of 6 h, while keeping the spatial distribution from the emission inventory. These corrections are based on assumptions regarding the temporal autocorrelation of prior emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle, and from day to day. The comparison of the measurements against the atmospheric transport simulation driven by the a priori CO2 surface fluxes shows significant differences upwind of the Paris urban area, which suggests a large and uncertain contribution from distant sources and sinks to the CO2 concentration variability. This contribution advocates that the inversion should aim at minimising model-data misfits in upwind-downwind gradients rather than misfits in mole fractions at individual sites. Another conclusion of the direct model-measurement comparison is that the CO2 variability at the top of the Eiffel Tower is large and poorly represented by the model for most wind speeds and directions. The model's inability to reproduce the CO2 variability at the heart of the city makes such measurements ill-suited for the inversion. This and the need to constrain the budgets for the whole city suggests the assimilation of upwind-downwind mole fraction gradients between sites at the edge of the urban area only. The inversion significantly improves the agreement

  14. Transition from Paris dosimetry system to 3D image-guided planning in interstitial breast brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiercińska, Judyta; Wronczewska, Anna; Kabacińska, Renata; Makarewicz, Roman

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate our first experience with 3D image-guided breast brachytherapy and to compare dose distribution parameters between Paris dosimetry system (PDS) and image-based plans. First 49 breast cancer patients treated with 3D high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy as a boost were selected for the study. Every patient underwent computed tomography, and the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR) were outlined. Two treatment plans were created for every patient. First, based on a Paris dosimetry system (PDS), and the second one, imaged-based plan with graphical optimization (OPT). The reference isodose in PDS implants was 85%, whereas in OPT plans the isodose was chosen to obtain proper target coverage. Dose and volume parameters (D90, D100, V90, V100), doses at OARs, total reference air kerma (TRAK), and quality assurance parameters: dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR), dose homogeneity index (DHI), and conformity index (COIN) were used for a comparison of both plans. The mean number of catheters was 7 but the mean for 20 first patients was 5 and almost 9 for the next 29 patients. The mean value of prescribed isodose for OPT plans was 73%. The mean D90 was 88.2% and 105.8%, the D100 was 59.8% and 75.7%, the VPTV90 was 88.6% and 98.1%, the VPTV100 was 79.9% and 98.9%, and the TRAK was 0.00375 Gym(-1) and 0.00439 Gym(-1) for the PDS and OPT plans, respectively. The mean DNR was 0.29 and 0.42, the DHI was 0.71 and 0.58, and the COIN was 0.68 and 0.76, respectively. The target coverage in image-guided plans (OPT) was significantly higher than in PDS plans but the dose homogeneity was worse. Also, the value of TRAK increased because of change of prescribing isodose. The learning curve slightly affected our results.

  15. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective - Paris and the Seine, 1790-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barles, S.

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse metabolic interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790-1970, a period marked by strong population growth, technological changes, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing their evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply: night soil became more and more liquid, difficult to handle and to turn into fertilizer; once utilised, the water had to be removed from the house; at the same time, the sewerage system developed and had negative impacts on the river. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests: combined sewerage system and sewage farms. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the standard and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine (despite the construction of a treatment plant), aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban hygiene and techniques

  16. GREEN CATALYZED OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENT SYSTEMS GENERATED BY PARIS II DECHEMA; GREEN SOLVENTS FOR CATALYSIS - ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN REACTION MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green catalyzed oxidation of hydrocarbons in alternative solvent systems generated by PARIS IIThomas M. Becker, Michael A. Gonzalez, Paul F. Harten; Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Mar...

  17. [Formalizing observation: The emergence of the modern patient record exemplified by Berlin and Paris medicine, 1725-1830].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on the material basis of the development of modern clinical documentation. With the examples of Berlin and Paris medicine, it analyzes the various ways of recording clinical data in the 18th century, from where they came, and how they were introduced into bedside observations. Particular interest is given to the interrelation between administrative techniques (registration, book-keeping etc.) and the practices of medical recording developed within the hospitals. Comparing Berlin and Paris makes it possible to work out the differences in writing cultures and to consider the local interdependencies. With this approach it can be demonstrated that the "patient record" was already established as a patient related recording system in the form of loose files in the early 19th century.

  18. Paris, Berlin : la mémoire de la Première Guerre mondiale (1914-1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Julien

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette thèse étudie la mémoire de la Première Guerre mondiale à Paris et à Berlin de 1914 au début des années trente. Elle pose la question suivante : y a-t-il une mémoire de la guerre qui soit spécifique de Paris et Berlin, c’est-à-dire une mémoire qui caractérise ces villes et qui soit issue d’une dynamique qui leur est propre ? Cette question relève d’une relation dialectique entre les capitales et la mémoire : la mémoire de la guerre transforme-t-elle les capitales ? Les capitales contribu...

  19. On the Influence of a Simple Microphysics Parametrization on Radiation Fog Modelling: A Case Study During ParisFog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Musson-Genon, Luc; Dupont, Eric; Milliez, Maya; Carissimo, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    A detailed numerical simulation of a radiation fog event with a single column model is presented, which takes into account recent developments in microphysical parametrizations. One-dimensional simulations are performed using the computational fluid dynamics model Code_Saturne and the results are compared to a very detailed in situ dataset collected during the ParisFog campaign, which took place near Paris, France, during the winter 2006-2007. Special attention is given to the detailed and complete diurnal simulations and to the role of microphysics in the fog life cycle. The comparison between the simulated and the observed visibility, in the single-column model case study, shows that the evolution of radiation fog is correctly simulated. Sensitivity simulations show that fog development and dissipation are sensitive to the droplet-size distribution through sedimentation/deposition processes but the aerosol number concentration in the coarse mode has a low impact on the time of fog formation.

  20. Le pari de la médiatisation de la géographie et de la cartographie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Sierra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Frank Tétart est maître de conférences à l’Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris, spécialiste des questions européennes et russes ainsi que des nationalismes régionaux. Docteur en géographie et géopolitique de l’Université de Paris 8, diplômé de relations internationales, il s’est fait connaître du grand public en étant le collaborateur de Jean-Christophe Victor pour la réalisation de l’émission Le Dessous des Cartes, diffusée sur Arte. Depuis 2009, parallèlement à son travail d’enseignant-ch...

  1. Dreams and disillusionment in the City of Light : Chinese writers and artists travel to Paris, 1920s-1940s

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Angie Christine

    2012-01-01

    My dissertation on Chinese writers and artists that traveled abroad to Paris from the 1920s to 1940s discusses several intersections between modern Chinese literature and visual art and consists of five chapters. The first chapter, an introduction, provides historical background and contextualization of the study abroad movement in China and the significance of dreaming in literature, as well as a comparison of travel writing in the Western and Chinese traditions. The four subsequent chapters...

  2. Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics (9th). Volume 2. Frontier Problems. Held at Paris (France) on August 20-25, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Serge Bindel, Delegation Glnlrale k la Re- cherche Scientifique et Technique, Paris, France DISCUSSION 1184 Luis Mazarredo, Escuela T.S. de...The effect of the transition region between the viscous sub- layer and the log region, was first considered by Poreh and Paz (1968) The velocity in...12, 522. [5] POREH, M. & PAZ , U. 1968, Inter. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 11, 805. [6] TOMITA, Y., 1970, Bull. J.S. M. E. 13

  3. The diurnal evolution of the urban heat island of Paris: a model-based case study during Summer 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wouters

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island (UHI over Paris during summer 2006 was simulated using the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS updated with a simple urban parametrization at a horizontal resolution of 1 km. Two integrations were performed, one with the urban land cover of Paris and another in which Paris was replaced by cropland. The focus is on a five-day clear-sky period, for which the UHI intensity reaches its maximum. The diurnal evolution of the UHI intensity was found to be adequately simulated for this five day period. The maximum difference at night in 2-m temperature between urban and rural areas stemming from the urban heating is reproduced with a relative error of less than 10%. The UHI has an ellipsoidal shape and stretches along the prevailing wind direction. The maximum UHI intensity of 6.1 K occurs at 23:00 UTC located 6 km downstream of the city centre and this largely remains during the whole night. An idealized one-column model study demonstrates that the nocturnal differential sensible heat flux, even though much smaller than its daytime value, is mainly responsible for the maximum UHI intensity. The reason for this nighttime maximum is that additional heat is only affecting a shallow layer of 150 m. At the same time, an idealized study shows that the orography around the city of Paris induces an uplift. This leads to a considerable nocturnal adiabatic cooling over cropland. In contrast, this uplift has little effect on the mixed-layer temperature over the city. About twenty percent of the total maximum UHI intensity is estimated to be caused by this uplift.

  4. Trace element concentrations along a gradient of urban pressure in forest and lawn soils of the Paris region (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Ludovic; Dubs, Florence; Gignoux, Jacques; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Lerch, Thomas Z; Mathieu, Jérôme; Nold, François; Nunan, Naoise; Raynaud, Xavier; Abbadie, Luc; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-11-15

    The concentration, degree of contamination and pollution of 7 trace elements (TEs) along an urban pressure gradient were measured in 180 lawn and wood soils of the Paris region (France). Iron (Fe), a major element, was used as reference element. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were of anthropogenic origin, while arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were of natural origin. Road traffic was identified as the main source of anthropogenic TEs. In addition, the industrial activity of the Paris region, especially cement plants, was identified as secondary source of Cd. Soil characteristics (such as texture, organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (tot N) contents) tell the story of the soil origins and legacies along the urban pressure gradient and often can explain TE concentrations. The history of the land-use types was identified as a factor that allowed understanding the contamination and pollution by TEs. Urban wood soils were found to be more contaminated and polluted than urban lawns, probably because woods are much older than lawns and because of the legacy of the historical management of soils in the Paris region (Haussmann period). Lawn soils are similar to the fertile agricultural soils and relatively recently (mostly from the 1950s onwards) imported from the surrounding of Paris, so that they may be less influenced by urban conditions in terms of TE concentrations. Urban wood soils are heavily polluted by Cd, posing a high risk to the biological communities. The concentration of anthropogenic TEs increased from the rural to the urban areas, and the concentrations of most anthropogenic TEs in urban areas were equivalent to or above the regulatory reference values, raising the question of longer-term monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the ammonium nitrate formation regime in the Paris megacity and its representation in the CHIMERE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Petetin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary inorganic compounds represent a major fraction of fine aerosol in the Paris megacity. The thermodynamics behind their formation is now relatively well constrained, but due to sparse direct measurements of their precursors (in particular NH3 and HNO3, uncertainties remain on their concentrations and variability as well as the formation regime of ammonium nitrate (in terms of limited species, among NH3 and HNO3 in urban environments such as Paris. This study presents the first urban background measurements of both inorganic aerosol compounds and their gaseous precursors during several months within the city of Paris. Intense agriculture-related NH3 episodes are observed in spring/summer while HNO3 concentrations remain relatively low, even during summer, which leads to a NH3-rich regime in Paris. The local formation of ammonium nitrate within the city appears low, despite high NOx emissions. The dataset is also used to evaluate the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model (CTM. Interestingly, the rather good results obtained on ammonium nitrates hide significant errors on gaseous precursors (e.g. mean bias of −75 and +195 % for NH3 and HNO3, respectively. It thus leads to a mis-representation of the nitrate formation regime through a highly underestimated Gas Ratio metric (introduced by Ansari and Pandis, 1998 and a much higher sensitivity of nitrate concentrations to ammonia changes. Several uncertainty sources are investigated, pointing out the importance of better assessing both NH3 emissions and OH concentrations in the future. These results finally remind the caution required in the use of CTMs for emission scenario analysis, highlighting the importance of prior diagnostic and dynamic evaluations.

  6. On a Connection between Ideal Two-level Autocorrelation and Almost Balancedness of $p$-ary Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Borissov, Yuri L

    2011-01-01

    In this correspondence, for every periodic $p-$ary sequence satisfying ideal two-level autocorrelation property the existence of an element of the field ${\\bf GF}(p)$ which appears one time less than all the rest that are equally distributed in a period of that sequence, is proved by algebraic method. In addition, it is shown that such a special element might not be only the zero element but as well arbitrary element of that field.

  7. Assessing the ammonium nitrate formation regime in the Paris megacity and its representation in the CHIMERE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petetin, Hervé; Sciare, Jean; Bressi, Michael; Gros, Valérie; Rosso, Amandine; Sanchez, Olivier; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Beekmann, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Secondary inorganic compounds represent a major fraction of fine aerosol in the Paris megacity. The thermodynamics behind their formation is now relatively well constrained but, due to sparse direct measurements of their precursors (in particular NH3 and HNO3), uncertainties remain on their concentrations and variability as well as the formation regime of ammonium nitrate (in terms of limited species among NH3 and HNO3) in urban environments such as Paris. This study presents the first urban background measurements of both inorganic aerosol compounds and their gaseous precursors during several months within the city of Paris. Intense agriculture-related NH3 episodes are observed in spring/summer while HNO3 concentrations remain relatively low, even during summer, which leads to a NH3-rich regime in Paris. The local formation of ammonium nitrate within the city appears low, despite high NOx emissions. The data set also allows evaluating the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model (CTM). Interestingly, the rather good results obtained on ammonium nitrates hide significant errors on gaseous precursors (e.g., mean bias of -75 and +195 % for NH3 and HNO3, respectively). This leads to a misrepresentation of the nitrate formation regime through a highly underestimated gas ratio metric (introduced by Ansari and Pandis, 1998) and a much higher sensitivity of nitrate concentrations to ammonia changes. Several uncertainty sources are investigated, pointing out the importance of better assessing both NH3 agricultural emissions and OH concentrations in the future. These results remind us of the caution required when using of CTMs for emission scenario analysis, highlighting the importance of prior diagnostic and dynamic evaluations.

  8. [The apothecaries of the quartier de la Harpe in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Large families of apothecaries, some of them very famous, lived in the Quartier de la Harpe in Paris, on the left bank of Seine, from the 16th to the 17th century. The study confirms a well-established fact that apothecaries practised endogamy, in others words marriage within the same social class. The biographical research includes ten apothecaries, most of whom lived in the rue Saint-André-des-Arts.

  9. [Stays in Paris of professors and students from the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), 1900-1936].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Arias, Brasa; Landín Pérez, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    In the early twentieth century, if there were an European Capital of biomedical research, it was definitely Paris. It was in this city where microbiology was born in the 19th century due to the crucial influence of Louis Pasteur. In 1888 he founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris where the rabies vaccine, that Pasteur himself had discovered in 1885, was administrated. This institution was also a place to continue his research on infectious diseases and to disseminate its findings. It is a private non-profit state-approved foundation that has attracted along the years many scientists from France and abroad who have been traditionally called "pasteuriens". So it was a world reference centre which has produced important scientific discoveries at a rapid pace and where resources both material and human, were abundant. The Pasteur institute therefore became one of the favourite research facilities of teachers and students from Spanish universities during the first third of the twentieth century, thanks to new regulations that encouraged training abroad. Scholarship policy promoted by the Spanish Government by an organization called Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (Council for Higher Studies and Scientific Research from, 1907 to 1936) formed scientists abroad. The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela sent some of its members to the French capital between 1905 and 1933. We found that the vast majority chose the Pasteur Institute to conduct the studies of biological chemistry and drug synthesis, but always dependent of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. Our study focuses on teachers and students who went to Paris, the dates, the course of their scientific stay and how these studies influenced their later work, once they returned to the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela.

  10. [Review of the proceedings of the congress "Controversies and updates in vascular surgery" (Paris, France, January 22-24, 2015)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykov, E L

    2015-01-01

    The article is a brief review of the papers presented at the Congress "Controversies and Updates in Vascular Surgery - CACVS) held in Paris (France) on January 22-24, 2015. An emphasis is placed upon the problems of open and endovascular interventions for aortic aneurysms, lower-limb ischaemia, infection in vascular surgery, pathology of the venous system, choosing an approach for endovascular operations and a vascular access for haemodialysis.

  11. Les plans d'îlots Vasserot, support d'un système de l'information géographique historique de Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Noizet, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    National audience; The research programme ALPAGE aims to establish a Geographic Information System (GIS) for the city of Paris. First of all, we reconstruct the pre-Haussmannian plot plans from the Philibert Vasserot's block register. These 910 plans, drawn between 1810 et 1836, form the oldest plot map for Paris. An analysis of the cartographic conventions used in these plans enhance our knowledge of the production and drawing of the Vasserot maps. Combining historical, geographical and IT s...

  12. Fatigue crack behaviour: comparing three-point bend test and wedge splitting test data on vibrated concrete using Paris' law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Seitl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue behaviour of concrete has become more important for the design of constructions due to the desire to build slimmer structures, which are more sensitive to fatigue loading. This article aims to evaluate and compare the fatigue crack propagation rate in vibrated concrete for four different stress ratios using the Paris-Erdogan law. The data evaluation in this article is based on crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD measurements from cyclic three-point bending tests on single edge notched beams and from wedge splitting tests on notched cubes, obtained from experiments at Ghent University. For this study, finite element analysis is used to obtain a mathematical relationship between the CMOD and the relative crack length a/W, as well as a relationship between the stress intensity ratio ∆K and a/W. The obtained mathematical relationships were then combined with the measured CMOD values to correlate the test data to the Paris-Erdogan law. Herein, the crack propagation rate da/dN is plotted against the corresponding stress intensity range ∆K in a log-log graph. In a final step, the Paris-Erdogan law parameters C and m were obtained through linear curve fitting on the data points from the obtained graphs. The parameters C and m are then used to compare and evaluate the fatigue crack behavior in vibrated concrete, and the differences between the results from the three-point bend tests and wedge splitting tests.

  13. Time since the last HIV test and migration origin in the Paris metropolitan area, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapostolle, Annabelle; Massari, Véronique; Chauvin, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    In France, the newly diagnosed infection rate was 372/100,000 for African immigrants versus 6/100,000 for the French-born population in 2008. In addition, people from sub-Saharan countries were at higher risk for late diagnosis than native-born French despite their more frequent use of HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to compare the mean time since the last HIV test according to migration origin. This study used data from the SIRS (a French acronym for health, inequalities, and social ruptures) cohort, which, in 2005, included 3023 households representative of the greater Paris area. HIV testing uptake and the time since the last test were studied in relation to socio-economic factors, psychosocial characteristics, and migration origin. Multivariate ANOVA analyses were performed using Stata 10. People from sub-Saharan Africa were more likely to have been tested in their lifetime (78.51%) than those of French (56.19%) or Maghreb (39.74%) origin (porigin for women. These results and recent epidemiological data seem to show that since the early 2000s, measures aimed at increasing HIV testing and decreasing late diagnosis in sub-Saharan immigrants have been effective.

  14. [Schistosoma haematobium among immigrants consulting in municipal free clinics in Paris in 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniaud, F; Collignon, A; Guesnon, M S; Squinazi, F; Rouvier, J; Derouineau, J; Ayache, B

    2006-05-01

    The "Consultations de Diagnostic et d'Orientation" (CDO) are free medical consultations for precarious populations, proposed by the Health Department of Paris. More than two-thirds of the CDO patients come from Sub-Saharan Africa. Schistosoma haematobium (SH) is one of the most frequent infectious diseases detected within CDO. More than a thousand people have consulted for the first time in CDO in 2003 in one of the municipal free Clinics which proposes this service. Parasitologic test of urine has been performed among 220 patients and found 24 positive results: viable eggs of SH (10.8%). All 24 patients are male, most of them are under 35 years-old and come from the region of the Senegal River that lies in the junction of Mali, Senegal and Mauritania. We want to remind physicians in non-tropical setting to think of SH when they see a patient originating from Africa. To ask him if he presents haematuria and if not, to prescribe a parasitologic test of urine. If all patients from endemic regions had undergone this screening in 2003, we would have detected about 20 more cases of SH. If treated early enough, it could avoid severe uronephrological complications, which are rare but represent a high health care cost (bladder tumor, renal failure).

  15. DOCUMENTARY LETTER OF CREDIT IN THE REGULATION OF 600-PARIS PUBLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE NEMES

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2007 was adopted the Publication no. 600 of Paris regarding the Rules and the Uniform Practices for documentary letters of credit which replaced the Publication no. 500. Publication no. 600 (UCP 600 is applied to all the irrevocable documentary letters of credit when the parties make express reference to these Rules. The Publication no. 600 includes uniform rules, international practices and standards of irrevocable documentary letters of credit. The new Publication has brought a number of changes on the issues regarding the performance of the letters of credit, both in the relationship with the nonbanking institutions participants and in the relationship between the credit institutions participating in the performance of the letter of credit. This study, without being exhaustive, aims to capture the main aspects of novelty brought by the publication no. 600 and their legal approach to the new perspective of the international trade relations. It has in view, in particular, the irrevocable character of the letter of credit, the elaboration method and procedure of the letter of credit, the participants to the unfolding of the specific relationship of the letter of credit and the main duties of the involved credit institutions.

  16. Physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of seasonal atmospheric particulate matter sampling in two locations of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulig, Augustin; Poirault, Jean-Jacques; Ausset, Patrick; Schins, Roel; Shi, Tingming; Baralle, Delphine; Dorlhene, Pascal; Meyer, Martine; Lefevre, Roger; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Marano, Francelyne

    2004-11-15

    Fine particulate matter present in urban areas seems to be incriminated in respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to relate physicochemical characteristics of PM2.5 (particulate matter collected with a 50% efficiency for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm) to their biological activities toward a bronchial epithelial cell line 16-HBE. Two seasonal sampling campaigns of particles were realized, respectively, in a kerbside and an urban background station in Paris. Sampled-PM2.5 mainly consist of particles with a size below 1 microm and are mainly composed of soot as assessed by analytical scanning electron microscopy. The different PM2.5 samples contrasted in their PAH content, which was the highest in the kerbside station in winter, as well as in their metal content. Kerbside station samples were characterized by the highest Fe and Cu content, which appears correlated to their hydroxyl radical generating properties measured by electron paramagnetic resonance. Particles were compared by their capacity to induce cytotoxicity, intracellular ROS production, and proinflammatory cytokine release (GM-CSF and TNF-alpha). At a concentration of 10 microg/cm2, all samples induced peroxide production and cytokine release to the similar extent in the absence of cytotoxicity. In conclusion, whereas the PM2.5 samples differ by their PAH and metal composition, they induce the same biological responses likely either due to components bioavailability and/ or interactions between PM components.

  17. From Paris to Beijing, a 12,000-km cycle tour to see the Olympic Games !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Two members of CERN’s cycling club have taken up an incredible challenge - that of travelling to the Chinese capital for the inauguration of the Olympic Games this summer by pedal power alone! Peter Dreesen (on the left) and Raymond Cambarrat training in 2007, with the CERN Velo Club. At the Moldova-Ukraine border, on 18 April.Peter Dreesen, an engineer in CERN’s AB-PO Group, and Raymond Cambarrat, a safety officer in TS-AS3, set off "on their own two wheels" from the esplanade of the Trocadéro in Paris, on 16 March. Although approaching retirement, both these members of CERN’s Velo Club are well-trained athletes and have the ambition of completing the 12,000-km journey on their bikes from start to finish, crossing twelve countries on their way and arriving in Beijing five days before the start of the Games. It would all seem a rather hair-brained scheme if it were not for the meticulo...

  18. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  19. Local-scale projections of coral reef futures and implications of the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooidonk, Ruben; Maynard, Jeffrey; Tamelander, Jerker; Gove, Jamison; Ahmadia, Gabby; Raymundo, Laurie; Williams, Gareth; Heron, Scott F.; Planes, Serge

    2016-12-01

    Increasingly frequent severe coral bleaching is among the greatest threats to coral reefs posed by climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) project great spatial variation in the timing of annual severe bleaching (ASB) conditions; a point at which reefs are certain to change and recovery will be limited. However, previous model-resolution projections (~1 × 1°) are too coarse to inform conservation planning. To meet the need for higher-resolution projections, we generated statistically downscaled projections (4-km resolution) for all coral reefs; these projections reveal high local-scale variation in ASB. Timing of ASB varies >10 years in 71 of the 87 countries and territories with >500 km2 of reef area. Emissions scenario RCP4.5 represents lower emissions mid-century than will eventuate if pledges made following the 2015 Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) become reality. These pledges do little to provide reefs with more time to adapt and acclimate prior to severe bleaching conditions occurring annually. RCP4.5 adds 11 years to the global average ASB timing when compared to RCP8.5; however, >75% of reefs still experience ASB before 2070 under RCP4.5. Coral reef futures clearly vary greatly among and within countries, indicating the projections warrant consideration in most reef areas during conservation and management planning.

  20. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  1. The meaning of city noises: Investigating sound quality in Paris (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniele; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie

    2001-05-01

    The sound quality of Paris (France) was investigated by using field inquiries in actual environments (open questionnaires) and using recordings under laboratory conditions (free-sorting tasks). Cognitive categories of soundscapes were inferred by means of psycholinguistic analyses of verbal data and of mathematical analyses of similarity judgments. Results show that auditory judgments mainly rely on source identification. The appraisal of urban noise therefore depends on the qualitative evaluation of noise sources. The salience of human sounds in public spaces has been demonstrated, in relation to pleasantness judgments: soundscapes with human presence tend to be perceived as more pleasant than soundscapes consisting solely of mechanical sounds. Furthermore, human sounds are qualitatively processed as indicators of human outdoor activities, such as open markets, pedestrian areas, and sidewalk cafe districts that reflect city life. In contrast, mechanical noises (mainly traffic noise) are commonly described in terms of physical properties (temporal structure, intensity) of a permanent background noise that also characterizes urban areas. This connotes considering both quantitative and qualitative descriptions to account for the diversity of cognitive interpretations of urban soundscapes, since subjective evaluations depend both on the meaning attributed to noise sources and on inherent properties of the acoustic signal.

  2. THE EUROPEAN CONGRESS OF RHEUMATOLOGY (PARIS, 11–14 JUNE 2014: PROBLEMS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avdeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 15th annual European Congress of Rheumatology took place in Paris in June 2014. Its program was extremely diverse and included a discussion of new data pertinent to the diagnosis and treatment of the most common rheumatic diseases and problems of their etiology and pathogenesis, personified therapy, and many others. The Congress focused on the problems of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA. A number of papers concerned the efficiency and safety of different therapy regimens for RA at its onset, the discontinuation of biological therapy after achievement of remission, and the maintenance of drug-free RA remission. The Congress discussed new results of the tREACH trial comparing three treatment regimens for early inflammatory arthritis: combined therapy with methotrexate (MT, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine in conjunction with intramuscular glucocorticoids (GC; combined therapy with these drugs in conjunction with oral GC; and MT monotherapy with oral GC. A large number of reports dealt with the use of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, the evaluation of their immunogenicity, and theanalysis of reasons for therapy discontinuation and adverse reactions. Some aspects of therapy with disease-difying antirheumatic drugs were discussed. A number of reports concerned the application of novel laboratory biomarkers for RA.Thus, sufficiently many new data that will be able to optimize therapy for common rheumatic disease, such as RA, were presented at the Congress.

  3. [Isolation and diversity analyses of endophytic fungi from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Shen, Shi-Kang; Zhang, Ai-Li; Wu, Chun-Yan; Wu, Fu-Qin; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Wang, Yue-Hua

    2013-11-01

    The paper is aimed at studying the diversity of endophytic fungi community from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, and to provide a scientific basis for the utilization value of the endophytic fungi as bioactive material resources. In the present study, endophytic fungi were isolated from roots, rhizomes and leaves of wild P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis collected from Baoshan, Heqing county and Songming city of Yunnan province, and identified and classified by morphological methods together with its ITS sequence analysis. Seven and forty-nine strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. They were identified belonging to 41 genus. In these 41 genus, 3 genus exist in root only, 12 genus only exist in rhizome and 8 genus only exist in leaf. There was difference in endophytic fungi isolated from different sample sites. Endophytic fungi diversity from rhizomes of Heqing site was the highest. Endophytic fungi similarity coefficient was low among different sites and tissues. Based on these results, it is reasonable to propose that endophytic fungi of P. polyphylla var. yannanensis from different tissue and different sample sites has a certain difference which is possibly relate to their different habitats, different structure and composition of each tissue.

  4. Fine-scale urbanization affects Odonata species diversity in ponds of a megacity (Paris, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmougin, Martin; Leprieur, Fabien; Loïs, Grégoire; Clergeau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local- and landscape-scale variables in shaping Odonata α-diversity patterns using a model-averaging approach. Analyses were performed for adult (A) and adult plus exuviae (AE) census data. At 26 ponds, we recorded 657 adults and 815 exuviae belonging to 17 Odonata species. The results showed that the Odonata species assemblage composition was not determined by pond localization along the urban gradient. Similarly, pond characteristics were found to be similar among urban, suburban and periurban ponds. The analyses of AE census data revealed that fine-scale urbanization (i.e., increased density of buildings surrounding ponds) negatively affects Odonata α-diversity. In contrast, pond localization along the urban gradient weakly explained the α-diversity patterns. Several local-scale variables, such as the coverage of submerged macrophytes, were found to be significant drivers of Odonata α-diversity. Together, these results show that the degree of urbanization around ponds must be considered instead of pond localization along the urban gradient when assessing the potential impacts of urbanization on Odonata species diversity. This work also indicates the importance of exuviae sampling in understanding the response of Odonata to urbanization.

  5. Alternative medicine in Paris and Rio de Janeiro: a study on transformative health experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Eglem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the practice of alternative medicine as an experience capable of modifying the very perception of the body and body feeling, based in a two-field research in France (Paris and Brazil (Rio de Janeiro. In this research, the resort to alternative medicines was considered as urban practice and a possible response to emotional needs, beyond the curative specificities of these medicines. The two countries were chosen for their supposed complementarity concerning the perception of spirituality and therefore, the perception of holistic health concepts. The study relies on an inductive approach and a qualitative methodology: introspective interviews with consumers and professionals, as well as participant observations. After a review of the theoretical aspects on the subject — concepts related to health, alternative medicine, transformative experience —, empirical results are presented. They show that the experience of alternative medicine tends to modify body perception, understood as how individuals define their own body. It also tends to modify body internal feeling, literally how people feel their body. The second conclusion that can be drawn from our study is that, beyond cultural specificities, some similarities appear in the way the practice of alternative medicine impacts on body perception and individual values. In that sense, alternative medicine practices in big urban centers appear to be related to a global consumer culture. However, alternative health behaviors rely on a subjective quest of sense which can be expressed through a variety of practices related to better health, not necessarily involving consumption.

  6. [From "morbus democraticus" to passionate idealism. Different reactions of French alienists after the Commune of Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caire, M

    1990-04-01

    Literary and medical works published immediately after the fall of the Commune of Paris purport an analysis which deserves a critical reading: the study of the influence that alcoholism and the federate movement had on each other, easily naïve and not without excess, stamped with obviously reactionary emotions, appears as historically and scientifically questionable as the proposals towards an interpretation of the event in terms of mental pathology. The search of cases of insanity among the rebels, the idea that their acts could only express some kind of phrenopathic disorder opens the debate on the very existence of some morbid types such as Falret's and Pottier's "reasoning, inexhaustible and proselyte lunatics", the "many characters with fanciful projects, including reformists of the human race, and various utopists" that Morel includes in his classification of hereditary insanity, Serieux's and Capgras "idealists concerned with justice" found amongst delusions related to altruistic claims, Dide's and Guiraud's "idealistic passions, social reformers, anarchists" appear to us as very outdated classifications, on the border of the psychiatric field.

  7. A novel mechanism controls anther opening and closing in Paris polyphylla var. Yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG DingKang; SUN GuiFang; WANG LiFang; ZHAI ShuHua; CEN XiaoJiang

    2009-01-01

    a School of Information Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China The phenomena of anther opening and closing in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch)Hand.-Mazz were described in detail, and the effects of ecological factors on those phenomena related to anther opening, closing and the fly-pollination mechanism were discussed. Anthers of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensls open in the morning and close in the evening every day during an over 20 days' pe-riod of anthesis. Light was detected as the main factor controlling this daily anther opening and closing.Anther opening can be reversed in response to rain and re-opens when rain stops. Relative humidity (RH) has a slight effect on anther opening and closing. Flower spans can be prolonged under labora-tory conditions. This novel behavior of anther is likely to be a mechanism to enhance the male fitness in this species, of which has no inherited structure to protect pollen from the perianth.

  8. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, R; Cannet, A; Berdjane, Z; Bruel, C; Haouchine, D; Delaunay, P; Izri, A

    2012-11-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97%) and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6%) apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6%) reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%). DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n=124) had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  9. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L.; Vautard, R.; Flamant, P.H. [Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Flamant, C.; Beekmann, M.; Megie, G.; Sicard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Abonnel, C.; Lefebvre, M.P.; Lossec, B. [Meteo-France, 75 - Paris (France); Chazette, P.; Martin, D. [CNRS (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Gombert, D. [AIRPARIF, Paris (France); Guedalia, D. [CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier (France). Lab. d' Aerologie; Kley, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Perros, P.; Toupance, G. [CNRS (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    2000-11-01

    The ''etude et simulation de la qualite de l'air en ile de France'' (ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000) to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1) to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2) to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements. (orig.)

  10. Will international emissions trading help achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Kubota, Izumi; Dai, Hancheng; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Liu, Jing-Yu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Takimi, Maho

    2016-10-01

    Under the Paris Agreement, parties set and implement their own emissions targets as nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to tackle climate change. International carbon emissions trading is expected to reduce global mitigation costs. Here, we show the benefit of emissions trading under both NDCs and a more ambitious reduction scenario consistent with the 2 °C goal. The results show that the global welfare loss, which was measured based on estimated household consumption change in 2030, decreased by 75% (from 0.47% to 0.16%), as a consequence of achieving NDCs through emissions trading. Furthermore, achieving the 2 °C targets without emissions trading led to a global welfare loss of 1.4%-3.4%, depending on the burden-sharing scheme used, whereas emissions trading reduced the loss to around 1.5% (from 1.4% to 1.7%). These results indicate that emissions trading is a valuable option for the international system, enabling NDCs and more ambitious targets to be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

  11. Toxicological study of pesticides in air and precipitations of Paris by means of a bioluminescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovska, S; Mbaye, M; Gaye Seye, M D; Aaron, J J; Chevreuil, M; Blanchoud, H

    2009-06-01

    A detailed toxicological study on several pesticides, including chlorothalonil, cyprodynil, dichlobénil, pendimethaline, trifluraline, and alpha-endosulfan, present at trace levels in air and total atmospheric precipitations of Paris is presented. The pesticides contained in the atmospheric samples, collected during sampling campaigns in February-March 2007, are identified and quantified by a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC)-UV detection method. The toxicity measurements are performed by means of the Microtox bioluminescence method, based on the evaluation of the bioluminescence inhibition of the Vibrio fischeri marine bacteria at two exposure times to the pesticide solutions. The specific toxicity, corresponding to the particular toxicity of the compound under study and represented by the EC(50) parameter, is determined for these pesticides. Also, the global toxicity, which is the toxicity of all micro-pollutants present in the sample under study, is estimated for the extracts of air and atmospheric precipitation (rainwater) samples. The specific toxicities strongly vary with the nature of the pesticide, the EC(50) parameter values being comprised between 0.17 and 0.83 mg/mL and 0.15 and 0.66 mg/mL, respectively, for exposure times of 5 and 15 min. The importance of the atmospheric samples' global toxicity and the respective contribution of the toxic potency of the various pesticides contained in these samples are discussed.

  12. Problems in Translating Five Days in Paris into Arabic: Linguistic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Altarabin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are daily countless translation activities around the world. Translators undertake different text types including, but not limited to, scientific, literary, religious, cultural, business and philosophic. Translation takes place between languages which are either related or distinct. It is generally hypothesized that the more related two languages are, the easier the translation task and vice versa. English and Arabic belong to two different language families and are thus different in their linguistic structures. Given this, there may be some challenges in rendering certain linguistic structures between these two languages. The degree of such challenges may vary according to text types. In this respect, this paper discusses the Arabic translation of Danielle Steel’s Five Days in Paris. The linguistic analysis of chapter one aims to highlight the linguistic inaccuracies the translator faced while working on this novel and the effects thereof. The paper starts with defining translation, translatability and equivalence and offers the linguistic analysis and discussion of the problems encountered while translating the above mentioned text into Arabic. Based on the findings, the paper offers some useful pedagogical suggestions.

  13. Priority substances in combined sewer overflows: case study of the Paris sewer network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperi, J; Garnaud, S; Rocher, V; Moilleron, R

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to supply data on both priority pollutant (PP) occurrence and concentrations in combined sewer overflows (CSOs). A single rain event was studied on 13 sites within the Paris sewer network. For each sample, a total of 66 substances, including metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, organotins, volatile organic compounds, chlorobenzenes, phthalates and alkylphenols were analyzed. Of the 66 compounds analyzed in all, 40 PPs including 12 priority hazardous substances were detected in CSOs. As expected, most metals were present in all samples, reflecting their ubiquitous nature. Chlorobenzenes and most pesticides were never quantified above the limit of quantification, while the majority of the other organic pollutants, except DEHP (median concentration: 22 μg.l(-1)), were found to lie in the μg.l(-1) range. For the particular rain event studied, the pollutant loads discharged by CSOs were evaluated and then compared to pollutant loads conveyed by the Seine River. Under the hydraulic conditions considered and according to the estimations performed, this comparison suggests that CSOs are potentially significant local source of metals, PAHs and DEHP. Depending on the substance, the ratio between the CSO and Seine River loads varied from 0.5 to 26, underscoring the important local impact of CSOs at the scale of this storm for most pollutants.

  14. Biosynthesis of cathodoluminescent zinc oxide replicas using butterfly (Papilio paris) wing scales as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wang [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China); Zhang Di [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn; Fan Tongxiang; Ding Jian; Gu Jiajun [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China); Guo Qixin; Ogawa, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Papilio paris butterflies have an iridescent blue color patch on their hind wings which is visible over a wide viewing angle. Optical and scanning electron microscopy observations of scales from the wings show that the blue color scales have very different microstructure to the matt black ones which also populate the wings. Scanning electron micrographs of the blue scales show that their surfaces comprise a regular two-dimensional array of concavities. By contrast the matt black scales have fine, sponge-like structure, between the ridges and the cross ribs in the scales. Using both types of scale as bio-templates, we obtain zinc oxide (ZnO) replicas of the microstructures of the original scales. Room temperature (T = 300 K) cathodoluminescence spectra of these ZnO replicas have also been studied. Both spectra show a similar sharp near-band-edge emission, but have different green emission, which we associate with the different microstructures of the ZnO replicas.

  15. Tales of Two Cities: Architecture, Print and Early Guidebooks to Paris and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McKellar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This pioneering paper is the first to consider the contribution of a new type of urban literature to perceptions and portrayals of the city in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. It focuses on London and Parisian guidebooks, a genre that has been little studied to date, particularly those of: Germaine Brice, Description nouvelle de ce qui’il ya de plus remarquable dans la Ville de Paris (1684; F. Colsoni, Le Guide de Londres (1693; and Edward Hatton, A New View of London (1708. The article is the first to establish the significance of language primers as source for tourist guidebooks and the prevalence of lexicographers among those producing them. It examines the modern type of non-antiquarian urban guidebook as part of the new urban consumer culture. It also explores the genre’s contribution to a novel form in the writing and understanding of the city in the period focussed on the contemporary and the experiential, rather than the traditional orientation towards the historical and the monumental.

  16. O espaço público do Marais - Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquilino Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PUBLIC SPACE AND URBAN CREATIVITY. THE CASE OF MARAIS, PARIS. The socio-territorial innovation of contemporary cities is forged, to a large extent, in its public spaces. It is mainly there that urban creative milieus are produced. This article discusses the urban creativity generated in urban public space, seen as symbolic resource of local identity as well as a place for meeting, debate, confrontation of ideas and practices. The classic metaphor of the door, which should always be open to allow communication and interaction, is of particular significance in the context of the Parisian Marais neighbourhood, where the public space actually seems to have the door opened, ie, to be the essence of creative milieus developed there. We propose a reading of Marais that emphasizes the sociocultural diversity and tolerance as key factors in the production of relational capital and local socioeconomic dynamics. We stress the intense neighbourly relationships, stimulated by the characteristics of public space, by the creative activities that take place in it and by the modes of governance configuring the neighbourhood. We further underline the important role of virtual social networks in empowerment, recognition and cohesion of the local community.

  17. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant.

  18. Exploding cities: housing the masses in Paris, Chicago, and Mexico City, 1850-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Harold L

    2010-01-01

    In The Mystery of Capitalism , the darling of neoliberalism, Hernando de Soto posits that secure property titles explain “why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else.” While social scientists have taken him to task for an oversimplification of the causes and remedies of poverty, historians have contributed little to this important policy debate. Applying comparative methods across time and space, such a retrospective analysis exposes serious flaws in de Soto’s thesis. Case studies of Paris, Chicago, and Mexico City covering successive, fifty-year periods support his contention that property law was the single most important factor in determining the fate of rural migrants trying to find a place to live in these exploding cities. But in each case, residential property played a far more complex role in creating the social and physical geography of the city than its simple exchange value. This article illuminates some of these alternative economic uses and embedded cultural meanings of identities of place. It also shows how urban growth machines create capital value in property for some by creating environmental injustice of substandard conditions of everyday life for others.

  19. Hygroscopic properties of the Paris urban aerosol in relation to its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kamilli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol hygroscopic growth factors and chemical properties were measured as part of the MEGAPOLI "Megacities Plume Case Study" at the urban site LHVP in the city center of Paris from June to August 2009, and from January to February 2010. Descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DGF were derived in the diameter range from 25 to 350 nm at relative humidities of 30, 55, 75, and 90% by applying the summation method on humidified and dry aerosol size distributions measured simultaneously with a humidified differential mobility particle sizer (HDMPS and a twin differential mobility particle sizer (TDMPS. For 90% relative humidity, the DGF varied from 1.06 to 1.46 in summer, and from 1.06 to 1.66 in winter. Temporal variations in the observed mean DGF could be well explained with a simple growth model based on the aerosol chemical composition measured by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS and black carbon photometry (MAAP. In particular, good agreement was observed when sulfate was the predominant inorganic factor. A clear overestimation of the predicted growth factor was found when the nitrate mass concentration exceeded values of 10 μg m3, e.g. during winter.

  20. BRAND “BALI SHANTI” PADA MEDIA PROMOSI PARIWISATA PEMERINTAH INDONESIA DI PARIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Erinda Putri Moniaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines promotional print media on Bali in form of pamphlet and folder made by the Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia to Paris and the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy of the Republic of Indonesia.The aims were to recognize the messages conveyed by both medias and whether the meaning of Bali’s branding, Bali Shanti (Bali Peace, could be delivered or not. The method used in this research were discourse analysis with semiotical approach, and Barthes’s semiotics theory was used as primary theory. The message of Bali Shanti brand is about peace and harmony, since this brand was created to restore the image of the island of Gods after the Bali Bombing in 2002 and 2005. After the analysis, it was found that the pamphlet conveyed to the readers that Bali is a peaceful island with unique culture based on Balinese Hindu religion, thus, this media could transmit the message of Bali Shanti.Meanwhile, the folder expressed Bali as an island with lots of beautiful nature destinations and has exceptional culture, but the message of Bali Shanti brand could not be delivered to the audience.

  1. De Paris à Lyon. Les mutations éditoriales du «Lancelot du Lac»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Burg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lancelot du Lac est le premier roman arthurien imprimé à la Renais­sance. Dans sa première édition parue en 1488, qui réunit deux imprimeurs (Jean Le Bourgeois à Rouen et Jean Du Pré à Paris, un découpage et un prologue inédits sont ajoutés par le remanieur. Le texte sera réédité six fois par divers imprimeurs-libraires parisiens jusqu’en 1533. L’édition de luxe d’Antoine Vérard (1494, destinée au roi Charles VIII, présente d’importantes modifications effectuées dans un but commercial. Après une longue période d’accalmie qui signe le début du déclin de la vogue des romans de chevalerie médiévaux, Benoît Rigaud publie à Lyon, sous une forme considérablement abrégée, la dernière édition connue du Lancelot au XVIe siècle (1591. Si elle ne présente que peu d’intérêt littéraire, elle apporte cependant des informations concernant les pratiques éditoriales et les goûts du  lecteur de la fin du XVIe siècle. De Paris à Lyon, entre renaissance et déclin, le parcours éditorial d’un incontournable roman arthurien.Lancelot du Lac is the editio princeps of an Arthurian romance in Renaissance France. The first edition in 1488, which brings together two printers (Jean Le Bourgeois from Rouen and Jean Du Pré from Paris, offers original arrangement and prologue added by the compositor. The text will be published six times by various printers and booksellers in Paris until 1533. The luxurious edition from Antoine Vérard (1494 dedicated to King Charles VIII provides interesting transformations in commercial purposes. After a long time without edition, showing the beginning of chivalry literature’s decline, Benoît Rigaud publish in Lyon, in a greatly abbreviated form, the last known edition of Lancelot in the XVIth century (1591. If it presents no literary interest, it provides nevertheless informations about editorial practices and reader’s tastes from the end of Renaissance France. From Paris to

  2. « Charme campagnard et très grande ville » Le peuple de Paris dans la littérature de l'entre-deux-guerres

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Évelyne

    2016-01-01

    Dans la production littéraire française de l'entre-deux-guerres, « Paris » comme décor urbain, comme mythe, comme catégorie de la civilisation, joue le premier rôle. Il suffit, pour le constater de parcourir les titres innombrables des livres de cette période qui incluent le nom de « Paris » ou d'un quartier de Paris : que l'on songe au « Paysan de Paris », aux « nuits de Paris », à « Paris de nuit », aux « nuits de Montmartre », à « Belleville, scènes de la vie populaire », à « Faubourgs de ...

  3. The Paris MEGAPOLI campaign to better quantify organic aerosol formation in a large agglomeration: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmann, Matthias; Baltensperger, Urs; Sciare, Jean; Gros, Valérie; Borbon, Agnes; Baklanov, Alexander; Lawrence, Mark; Pandis, Spyros

    2010-05-01

    Within the FP7 MEGAPOLI project, two intensive field campaigns have been conducted in the Greater Paris region during July 2009 and January/February 2010. The major aim was to quantify sources of primary and secondary aerosol, and the interaction with gaseous precursors, within a large agglomeration, and in its plume. Greater Paris has been chosen for such a campaign because it is a major and dense pollution source (more than 10 million inhabitants), surrounded by rural areas and relatively flat terrain. A particular focus is put on organic carbon, for which secondary formation, but also primary emissions are still not well quantified. Detailed aerosol and gaseous precursor measurements have been conducted at an urban and two sub-urban sites, from five mobile platforms and from the French ATR-42 research aircraft (for plume characterisation). State of the art instrumentation has allowed determination of aerosol chemical composition, either with very high frequency (several minutes to half an hour), or with large chemical detail (several dozens of organic compounds from filter samples). In addition, the size distribution, optical and hygroscopic and mixing properties has been determined in order to relate the aerosol chemical composition to its potential radiative and climate impact in the urban region and its plume. Gas phase measurements have focussed especially on detailed VOC measurements in order to relate SOA build-up to gaseous precursor species abundance. A network of backscatter lidars at urban and rural sites and on a mobile platform gives the access to the aerosol vertical distribution in the region and to variations of the boundary layer height at the urban / rural interface. Meteorological parameters and especially wind profile measurements allow interpretation of transport processes in the region. In this paper, the campaign set-up and objectives, meteorological and general pollution conditions observed during the field experiments and a first overview

  4. Carbonate Geochemistry and Organic Biomarkers Evolutions During the Early Toarcian in the Paris Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, M.; Le Callonnec, L.; Hautevelle, Y.; Minoletti, F.; Renard, M.

    2006-12-01

    Within the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic event, isotopic perturbations (C, O, Sr, Os, Mo and S) are now well described. Their worldwide occurrences and synchronicity are still under debate and oppose locally controlled mechanisms to global events such as methane hydrates release. We present an integrated study for understanding palaeoceanographical records in the Paris Basin. In order to test the influence of the redox status of the environment, the sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical (carbonate and organic biomarkers) evolutions of two Early Toarcian sites are studied: Bascharage (Luxemburg) and Sancerre (center of France. A sedimentary particles isolation technique was performed to quantify the contribution of primary calcite (calcareous nannoflora) and diagenetic calcareous particles. The respective isotopic signatures of these particles enable to validate the bulk record and discuss the link between photic-zone and interstitial fluids (water-mass stratification, intensity of DIC remineralization, interstitial fluid migrations). It is demonstrated that both biogenic calcareous particles and early diagenetic macrocrystals record the C-isotope negative shift with similar magnitudes. Molecular biomarkers of the organic matter studied by GC-MS enable to characterize the paleoredox conditions in the photic-zone and the bottom water. The Bascharage section is characterized by permanant anoxic conditions in the photic zone (as shown by the presence of gammacerane, 2,3,6- trimethylalkylbenzenes and isorenieratane typical of Chlorobiaceae and reducing conditions in the sediment: Pr/PhC 34hopanes. The Earliest Toarcian Sancerre deposits are dysoxic and transient euxinic conditions are observed from the second step of the C-isotope decrease in carbonates. This level is also highlighted by generalized reducing conditions (Mn- rich carbonate) due to oxides phase destabilization, beginning of Black Shales deposits and disappearance of benthic life. The biomarker

  5. Der Umlauf der spanischen Handschriften aus dem Antiquariat Leo Liepmannssohns in Paris und Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Naranjo, Francisco Javier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the antique libraries most representative of the second half of the 19th century was that of Leo Liepmannssohn, with branches in Paris and Berlin. Its importance grew over time due to its auctions of many manuscripts by J. S. Bach, Handel, Mozart, Beethoven and other composers, a fact that explains how the author came across it during his investigation into the referred manuscripts. The object of this investigation is a collection of more than 300 folders that can be consulted in the Music Department in the Staatsbibliothek Preußischer Kulturbesitz in Berlin. The folders contain the annual catalogues from the antique library of Liepmannssohn (Berlin comprising the years 1866 to 1923. Each catalogue consists of a list of all the sales from the corresponding year in alphabetical order and contains, besides manuscripts, literature, musical treatises and the portraits of several composers. There are many Spanish manuscripts included in these catalogues whose distribution was so important that in 1900 Liepmannssohn published an exclusive catalogue for Spanish and Portuguese manuscripts, 291 of which the librarian had sold during that year. During the celebration of those auctions many documents, musical treatises and manuscripts, both known and unknown, were brought to light. The investigation earned out contributes to our knowledge about the works of different Spanish composers from the 16th to the 19th centuries and their distribution abroad, especially in Berlin.

    [de] Eines der repräsentativsten Antiquariate der zweiten Hälfte des XIX Jh. und des Anfangs des XX Jh. wurde von Leo Liepmannssohn in den Städten Paris und Berlin verwaltet. Durch die Versteigerung vieler Handschriften von J.S. Bach, Händel, Mozart, Beethoven und anderer Komponisten gewann das Antiquariat zusatzlich an Bedeutung. Deswegen ist es verstandlich, dass der Autor auf das Antiquariat stieß, als er Nachforschungen über den

  6. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th-18th centuries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.180+/-0.003). The mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181+/-0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183+/-0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172+/-0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975+/-15 years) deposit ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.148+/-0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.181+/-0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore).

  7. Levels of rhizome endophytic fungi fluctuate in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis as plants age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is an important medicinal plant with abundant saponins that are widely used in the pharmaceuticals industry. It is unclear why the levels of active ingredients increase as these plants age. We speculated that the concentrations of those components in the rhizomes are mediated by fungal endophytes. To test this hypothesis, we took both culture-dependent and -independent (metagenomics approaches to analyze the communities of endophytic fungi that inhabit those rhizomes in plants of different age classes (four, six, and eight years old. In all, 147 isolates representing 18 fungal taxa were obtained from 270 segments (90 per age class. Based on morphological and genetic characteristics, Fusarium oxysporum (46.55% frequency of occurrence was the predominant endophyte, followed by Leptodontidium sp. (8.66% and Trichoderma viride (6.81%. Colonization of endophytic fungi was maximized in the eight-year-old rhizomes (33.33% when compared with four-year-old (21.21% and six-year-old (15.15% rhizomes. Certain fungal species were present only at particular ages. For example, Alternaria sp., Cylindrocarpon sp., Chaetomium sp., Paraphaeosphaeria sporulosa, Pyrenochaeta sp., Penicillium swiecickii, T. viride, and Truncatella angustata were found only in the oldest plants. Analysis of (metagenomics community DNA extracted from different-aged samples revealed that, at the class level, the majority of fungi had the highest sequence similarity to members of Sordariomycetes, followed by Eurotiomycetes and Saccharomycetes. These results were mostly in accord with those we obtained using culture methods. Fungal diversity and richness also changed over time. Our investigation is the first to show that the diversity of fungi in rhizomes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis is altered as plants age, and our findings provide a foundation for future examinations of useful compounds.

  8. Ambient aerosol chlorine concentrations and artefacts during the MEGAPOLI Paris campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furger, Markus; Visser, Suzanne; Slowik, Jay; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Sciare, Jean; Flechsig, Uwe; Prévôt, André; Baltensperger, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements, especially those that are toxic, can affect the environment in significant ways. Studying them is advantageous with respect to a refinement of source apportionment when measured with high time resolution and appropriate size segregation. This approach is especially useful in urban environments with numerous time-variant emission sources distributed across a relatively narrow space. Two field campaigns took place in the framework of the MEGAPOLI project in Paris, France: one in the summer of 2009 (1-31 July), the other in the winter of 2010 (11 Jan - 10 Feb). Rotating drum impactors (RDI) were operated at an urban and a suburban site in each campaign. The RDI segregated the aerosols into three size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3) and sampled with 2-hour time resolution. The samples were analyzed with synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) at the synchrotron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute (SLS), where a broad range of elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn) was analyzed for each size range. Time series of the analyzed elements for the different sites and campaigns were prepared to characterize the aerosol trace element composition and temporal behavior for different weather situations and urban environments. Quality assurance was performed partly by intercomparison with independent measurements. An exceptional behavior was observed for chlorine (Cl), where periods with zero RDI concentration alternated with periods of normal load. Zero concentrations were not observed in particle-into-liquid (PILS) measurements. This identifies the observed behavior as a RDI sampling artefact. Nevertheless, the non-zero periods of Cl concentrations are still a gain in information compared to conventional sampling techniques, mainly due to the high time resolution.

  9. Public outreach, participatory communication, and communication impact assessment in Paris flood resilience policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Rosa; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Adverse social impacts can reduce the intended benefits of a project aimed to reduce flood risks, and can threaten its viability if they are severe enough. In some other cases, the diverse impacts may mutually counter-balance each other, by furthermore strengthening and amplifying the social resilience. Social changes include those associated with the phenomenon known as the social construction of reality. In the case of proposed actions that involve controversy, attitudes and perceptions toward a proposed policy change are one of the variables that must be considered in determining the significance of impacts. This research entails an analysis of public authorities strategic documents developed during the last ten years in the context of strengthening Paris flood resilience. The review highlights a clear trend to encourage citizen participation and to share responsibilities with the population. This trend does not only express a political will to apply the principle of subsidiarity and decentralise risk management, it also springs from a growing awareness among public institutions of the impact that social construction of the reality can have. Hence the communication between local governments and citizens, especially a two-ways dialogue (i.e. participatory communication), has become a keystone of resilience strategies since it facilitates mutual understanding, shared goals identification and cooperation. More and more frequently flood resilience projects entail a communication strategy or focus on communication actions. However not all these project identify clear communication objectives, target audiences or monitor communication impact. Measuring communication indicators allows decision makers to compare the costs of communication actions with the economic, environmental, social, and sanitary costs of non-action. Those metrics also help to set up clear communication objectives at the beginning of a project, to evaluate and improve management capacities, to

  10. Swelling Soils and Vegetation Interactions: New Results from PSI Monitoring on Eastern Paris Area (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, H. F.; Deffontaines, B.; Fruneau, B.; Cojean, R.; Arnaud, A.; Duro, J.

    2010-12-01

    Swelling soils phenomena induce small surface displacements under various climatic conditions that may locally affect suburban individual buildings. The aim of this work, funded by MAIF foundation (Insurance company), is to monitor those small seasonal-dependant displacements through persistent scatterer interferometric (PSI) method. The chosen test site correspond to the eastern Paris basin where "Argiles Vertes de Romainville" Oligocene in age is outcropping and are particularly sensible to swelling soils phenomena well observed during for instance the last major dryness event of the summer 2003. Our major results with Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) in order to monitor this phenomenon reveal precisely continuous small surface pluricentimetric displacements through time. Furthermore it appears that vegetation more specifically trees, plays a major role for the vertical displacement which is due to the evapotranspiration processes. We therefore precisely map the location and height of the different trees species in the studied area that gave us their potential planimetric roots influence then compare them to the different surrounding buildings using a Geographical Information System (GIS). We then compare our results to both building deformations observed in the fields and the calculated displacements deduced from numerous PSI profiles where an excellent correlation is then observed associated with more than 90% confidence. Even if we still have some uncertainties due for instance to the location of the PSI natural reflectors (+/- 2,5m), we now need in perspective terms to instrument precisely test sites in order to calibrate then validate the PSI displacements and the observed buildings deformations. This new application of PSI interferometry presents high potential to better understand swelling soils processes and associated natural hazards.

  11. Phthalates and alkylphenols in industrial and domestic effluents: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergé, A; Gasperi, J; Rocher, V; Gras, L; Coursimault, A; Moilleron, R

    2014-08-01

    Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200 μg/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100 μg/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems

  12. Airborne mineral components and trace metals in Paris region: spatial and temporal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakis, E; Theodosi, C; Bressi, M; Sciare, J; Ghersi, V; Mihalopoulos, N

    2015-10-01

    A variety of mineral components (Al, Fe) and trace metals (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were simultaneously measured in PM2.5 and PM10 fractions at three different locations (traffic, urban, and suburban) in the Greater Paris Area (GPA) on a daily basis throughout a year. Mineral species and trace metal levels measured in both fractions are in agreement with those reported in the literature and below the thresholds defined by the European guidelines for toxic metals (Cd, Ni, Pb). Size distribution between PM2.5 and PM10 fractions revealed that mineral components prevail in the coarse mode, while trace metals are mainly confined in the fine one. Enrichment factor analysis, statistical analysis, and seasonal variability suggest that elements such as Mn, Cr, Zn, Fe, and Cu are attributed to traffic, V and Ni to oil combustion while Cd and Pb to industrial activities with regional origin. Meteorological parameters such as rain, boundary layer height (BLH), and air mass origin were found to significantly influence element concentrations. Periods with high frequency of northern and eastern air masses (from high populated and industrialized areas) are characterized by high metal concentrations. Finally, inner city and traffic emissions were also evaluated in PM2.5 fraction. Significant contributions (>50 %) were measured in the traffic site for Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn, and Cu, confirming that vehicle emissions contribute significantly to their levels, while in the urban site, the lower contributions (18 to 33 %) for all measured metals highlight the influence of regional sources on their levels.

  13. Investigation of characteristics and transformation processes of megacity emission plumes using a mobile laboratory in the Paris metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Zhang, Q.; Meleux, F.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2012-04-01

    A growing fraction of the world's population is living in urban agglomerations of increasing size. Currently, 20 cities worldwide qualify as so-called megacities, having more than 10 million inhabitants. These intense pollution hot-spots cause a number of scientific questions concerning their influence on local and regional air quality, which is connected with human health, flora and fauna. In the framework of the European Union FP7 MEGAPOLI project (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) two major field campaigns were carried out in the greater Paris region in July 2009 and January/February 2010. This work presents results from mobile particulate and gas phase measurements with focus on the characteristics of the Paris emission plume and its impact on the regional air quality and on aerosol transformation processes within this plume as it travels away from its source. In addition differences between summer and winter conditions are discussed. The mobile laboratory was equipped with high time resolution instrumentation to measure particle number concentrations (dP > 2.5 nm), size distributions (dP ~ 5 nm - 32 μm), sub-micron chemical composition (non-refractory species using Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS, PAH and black carbon) as well as major trace gases (CO2, SO2, O3, NOx) and standard meteorological parameters. On-board webcam and GPS allow detailed monitoring of traffic situation and vehicle track. In a total of 29 mobile and 25 stationary measurements with the mobile laboratory the Paris emission plume as well as the atmospheric background was characterized under various meteorological conditions. This allows investigating the influence of external factors like temperature, solar radiation or precipitation on the plume characteristics. Three measurement strategies were applied to investigate the emission plume. First, circular mobile measurements around Paris

  14. Figures and Institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Part IV: Psychiatry and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, J; Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G; Broussolle, E

    2012-05-01

    We present a short historical review on the major institutions and figures who contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the actual beginning of neurosciences, and as 1950 marks their exponential rise. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines that have progressed and contributed most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the fourth of the four parts of this review, which deals with the chapter on psychiatry and psychology. When the French Revolution occurred, only a few institutions were taking care of the mentally ill. In the Paris area, these included Maison Royale de Charenton, Les Petites Maisons, and one of the departments of larger hospitals such as Hôtel-Dieu, the Salpêtrière Hospital and Bicêtre Hospital. One of the founders of psychiatry in Paris at that time and thereafter was Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) who was the first to distinguish insane/alienated patients from misfits, beggars, and other vagabonds. During the first half of the XIXth century, his student Jean-Étienne Esquirol (1772-1840) also played a major role with his treatise on mental diseases and the 1838 law and the creation of asylums in all parts of France. Alienists were in general caregivers and learned by themselves. In contrast, at the academic level, the emerging disciplines psychiatry and neurology were very close to each other in the second half of the XIXth century, the best example being Jules Baillarger (1809-1890). The actual development of psychiatry and psychology and the foundation of psychoanalysis later in the XIXth century and in the first half of the XXth century owed much to several European doctors and scientists, particularly those from British institutions and from German

  15. Chemotaxonomic studies of nine Paris species from China based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanzhong; Liu, Ehu; Li, Ping

    2017-03-18

    Paris species, which contain steroid saponins, have been used as herb folk medicines in Asia. In the present study, a comprehensive strategy based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was firstly proposed to evaluate the chemotaxonomic relationships of nine Paris species sampled from different geographical regions in China. Principle component analysis (PCA) based on FT-IR data revealed chemical similarities in term of the nine species and geographical regions, indicating the accumulation of metabolites affected by the combination of geographical factors and species. The chemotaxonomic relationships of four species supported the morphological taxonomy and implied ancestry from P. polyphylla. After high-efficiency chromatographic separation, ions trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IT-TOFMS) and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QQQ-MS) were used to identify unknown metabolites and simultaneously determine six key compounds (polyphyllin I, II, V, VI, VII and gracillin) in Paris species, respectively. The tentative identification of 22 steroid saponins was indicative of a common biosynthetic pathway in Paris species. Phytoecdysones, gracillin and open-chain steroid saponins were considered as key precursors. According to Pearson's correlation analysis, an insignificant correlation was found between diosgenin-type and pennogenin-type saponins belonging to the same biosynthetic pathways in the current stage. Our results could provide a reasonable foundation for chemotaxonomy or further studies of Paris species.

  16. Origin of particulate matter and gaseous precursors in the Paris Megacity: Results from intensive campaigns, long term measurements and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmann, Matthias; Petetin, Hervé; Zhang, Qijie; Prevot, André S. H.; Sciare, Jean; Gros, Valérie; Ghersi, Véronique; Rosso, Amandine; Crippa, Monica; Zotter, Peter; Freutel, Fredericke; Poulain, Laurent; Freney, Evelyne; Sellegri, Karine; Drewnick, Frank; Borbon, Agnès; Wiedensohler, Aflred; Pandis, Spyros N.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainties on the origin of primary and secondary particulate matter and its gaseous precursors in megacities is still large and needs to be reduced. A detailed characterization of air quality in Paris (France), a megacity of more than 10 million inhabitants, during two one month intensive campaigns (MEGAPOLI) and from additional one year observations (PARTICULATE and FRANCIPOL), revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was a surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The data set of urban local and advected PM concentrations in the Paris area were used for a thorough evaluation of the CHIMERE model and revealed error compensation for the local and advected components of organic matter and nitrate. During spring time, CHIMERE simulations overestimate the sensitivity of ammonium nitrate peaks to NH3, because (i) they underestimate the urban background NH3 levels, probably due to neglecting enhanced NH3 emissions for larger temperatures, and because they overestimate HNO3. However, from an ensemble of mobile Max-DOAS NO2 column and airborne NOy measurements around Paris, no clear sign on a NOx emission bias in the TNO-Airparif data set was made evident. The origin of organic PM was investigated by a comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions contributed less than 20% in winter and 40% in summer to carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly little for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e. from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Implementation

  17. Compendium infrastructurel. Réouverture de la Petite Ceinture de Paris: un parcours public insolite (F)

    OpenAIRE

    Camillo, Sébastien; Pracchinetti, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Nous nous sommes intéressés aux vides urbains accompagnant les anciennes gares de la ligne de la Petite Ceinture de Paris, aujourd'hui désaffectée et propice à la promenade urbaine. Notre proposition consiste à offrir deux types d'usages complémentaires fonctionnant en alternance et reproductibles le long de la ligne. Pour le projet, nous nous sommes penchés sur la possibilité de relier deux parcs bordant la gare de Vaugirard dans le XVe. Le premier usage jouit de l'espace le jour. Il est déd...

  18. Evaluating the successful implementation of evidence into practice using the PARiHS framework: theoretical and practical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormack Brendan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PARiHS framework (Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services has proved to be a useful practical and conceptual heuristic for many researchers and practitioners in framing their research or knowledge translation endeavours. However, as a conceptual framework it still remains untested and therefore its contribution to the overall development and testing of theory in the field of implementation science is largely unquantified. Discussion This being the case, the paper provides an integrated summary of our conceptual and theoretical thinking so far and introduces a typology (derived from social policy analysis used to distinguish between the terms conceptual framework, theory and model – important definitional and conceptual issues in trying to refine theoretical and methodological approaches to knowledge translation. Secondly, the paper describes the next phase of our work, in particular concentrating on the conceptual thinking and mapping that has led to the generation of the hypothesis that the PARiHS framework is best utilised as a two-stage process: as a preliminary (diagnostic and evaluative measure of the elements and sub-elements of evidence (E and context (C, and then using the aggregated data from these measures to determine the most appropriate facilitation method. The exact nature of the intervention is thus determined by the specific actors in the specific context at a specific time and place. In the process of refining this next phase of our work, we have had to consider the wider issues around the use of theories to inform and shape our research activity; the ongoing challenges of developing robust and sensitive measures; facilitation as an intervention for getting research into practice; and finally to note how the current debates around evidence into practice are adopting wider notions that fit innovations more generally. Summary The paper concludes by suggesting that the future

  19. History of medicine: ocular disorders of the mona lisa (strabismus) and other famous paintings in the louvre, paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James L

    2012-01-01

    The History of Medicine and Medical Specialties such as Ophthalmology, and the Subspecialty of Strabology extend back to the beginning of recorded history. Before there was photography to record physical abnormalities of living creatures, there was art and artists who did the recording in their works. Fortunately, many such recordings have been preserved, usually in museums, such as the Louvre, in Paris, France. They provide the graphic evidence of the same medical problems which our ancestors suffered and survived which we still do but now understand and can ameliorate better. The purpose of this paper is to provide several examples of these art works, to illuminate these historical aspects of medicine.

  20. Contributions to the history of psychology: LXXXV. Jean Piaget, student of Pierre Janet (Paris 1919-1921).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann-Gainotti, M

    1992-06-01

    This article provides information about an important period of Piaget's formative years, those he spent in Paris from 1919 to 1921, during which he came into contact with eminent members of the French scientific and philosophical community of the time. Among these was the psychiatrist and psychologist Pierre Janet, whose genetic approach to the psychology of behaviour and ideas about the hierarchical organization of psychological functions converged with Piaget's early scientific interests and provided Piaget a conceptual framework within which to work and develop his own project of studying the genesis of knowledge.

  1. Binding Nations through Art Quilts and a Visit to the U.S. Embassy in Paris as a Cultural Envoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riché Richardson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2008 when Géraldine Chouard, who was helping to coordinate the landmark exhibition in France entitled “Un Patchwork de Cultures,” mentioned the U.S. Embassy in Paris’s interest in inviting me to the city to share some of my quilts as a part of this exhibition and to be a “Cultural Envoy,” I was honored and excited by the possibility. The opportunity to return to Paris under the auspices of the U.S. Embassy, which officially materialized through a grant from the U.S. Departmen...

  2. Diplomatie universitaire ou diplomatie culturelle ? La Cité internationale universitaire de Paris entre deux rives (1920-1940)

    OpenAIRE

    Tronchet, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Il peut paraître tentant, au premier abord, de faire de la Cité internationale universitaire de Paris le fruit de cette diplomatie culturelle française mise en œuvre par les élites de la IIIe République au lendemain de la Grande Guerre. Les choses, nous semble-t-il, sont cependant plus complexes. Si la Cité internationale universitaire est bien partie prenante de ce processus, son histoire plonge ses racines dans un cadre moins connu ou, à tout le moins, guère théorisé...

  3. Les créoles louisianais défendent la cause du Sud à Paris (1861‑1865

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Nacouzi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Civil war, the French‑educated Creole elite of Louisiana played an important part in efforts to persuade France to support the Confederacy. This article analyses the arguments put forward by three famous Creoles living in Paris during the Civil War (Paul Pequet du Bellet, Dr Alfred Mercier and Dr Charles Delèry to rally French public opinion to the cause of the Confederacy. Faced with a strong anti‑slavery sentiment, they argued that France’s interest lies in defending the South and its « Latin race » from the aggressions of the Anglo‑Saxon North.

  4. Deciphering the colon cancer genes--report of the InSiGHT-Human Variome Project Workshop, UNESCO, Paris 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Macrae, Finlay; Genuardi, Maurizio;

    2011-01-01

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) has established a pilot program with the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT) to compile all inherited variation affecting colon cancer susceptibility genes. An HVP-InSiGHT Workshop was held on May 10, 2010, prior to the HVP...... Integration and Implementation Meeting at UNESCO in Paris, to review the progress of this pilot program. A wide range of topics were covered, including issues relating to genotype-phenotype data submission to the InSiGHT Colon Cancer Gene Variant Databases (chromium.liacs.nl/LOVD2/colon_cancer...

  5. The COCCON Paris Experiment - Model-Data Comparison of XCO2 (and XCH4) in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, F. R.; Staufer, J.; Frey, M.; Broquet, G.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Sha, M. K.; Blumenstock, T.; Te, Y. V.; Janssen, C.; Jeseck, P.; Chelin, P.; Fratacci, T.; Tu, Q.; Gross, J.; Schäfer, K.; Orphal, J.; Ciais, P.; Hase, F.

    2016-12-01

    Currently, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas1 and the future population growth is also predicted to occur mostly in urban centers. While emissions of Greenhouse Gases and carbon-based air pollutants can be estimated quite precisely on national scale using fuel consumption statistics, typically to about 3%-40%2, higher uncertainties of 20%-50% are reported3 for urban GHG emissions. Atmospheric observations, when combined with inversion modelling can allow independently assessing such urban emission inventories4. This study investigates how well novel low-resolution FTS observations can be represented within atmospheric transport models used in such inversion systems, which would be the pre-requisite for a future system based on XCO2 observations. A network of five EM27sun instruments5,6was deployed across the Paris Metropolitan region (upwind, downwind and inside of Paris, diameter ca. 40km) for a three week period in spring 2015. Observed XCO2 significantly varies during this period ranging from 400.5ppm to 406ppm. A decrease in XCO2 throughout the day, likely driven by the biogenic CO2 uptake in the region, is recorded at all sites. Both observational and simulated XCO2 also clearly show that the emissions in the Paris region significantly increase XCO2 (0-2ppm), depending on meteorological conditions. The observational data is compared to three configurations of our XCO2 forward model to assess their performance. We find that all simulations and observations agree qualitatively and that the gradient of XCO2 over Paris can also be reproduced quantitatively for specific meteorological conditions and optimal model setup. 1United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision 2Anders et al. 2014, Tellus B 2014, 66, 23616, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v66.23616 3Wu et al. 2016, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7743-7771, doi:10.5194/acp-16-7743-2016 4Staufer et al. 2016

  6. Allergic sensitisation in early childhood: Patterns and related factors in PARIS birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabet, Stephan; Just, Jocelyne; Couderc, Rémy; Seta, Nathalie; Momas, Isabelle

    2016-11-01

    Allergic sensitisation is poorly documented in infants. This study aims to provide new insights into allergic sensitisation patterns and related factors in infancy. This study concerns 1860 infants involved in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) population-based birth cohort who had a standardised health examination when 18 months old, from 2004 to 2008. Sensitisation was assessed by measurements of serum specific IgE to 12 food and 4 inhalant allergens and defined by IgE≥0.35kUA/L. Information regarding lifestyle and environment were obtained from questionnaires prospectively administered. Prevalence of allergic sensitisation to any allergen, to food allergens, and to aeroallergens was 13.8%, 12.3%, and 2.3%, respectively. Multiple sensitisation (to at least two allergens) concerned 6.2% of toddlers. Intrinsic factors such as male gender, family history of allergy, and high birth weight increased the risk of food allergen sensitisation and multiple sensitisation. Caesarean section was also positively associated with multiple sensitisation. Day-care attendance was negatively related to food allergen, aeroallergen, and multiple sensitisation. A cat entering the baby's room in early life was strongly associated with aeroallergen sensitisation (ORa 3.21, 95%CI: 1.29-8.01). An introduction of meat in infant's diet after 6 months of age was negatively related to food allergen sensitisation (ORa 0.46, 95%CI: 0.24-0.91). Our results suggest that intrinsic factors and indicators of exposure to microorganisms such as caesarean section and day-care attendance may be associated with inhalant as well as food allergen sensitisation in infancy. For example, male gender, family history of allergy, high birth weight, and caesarean section could be positively related whereas day-care attendance could be negatively related to both aeroallergen and food allergen sensitisation. Conversely, early life exposure to inhalant allergens or food allergens may be

  7. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI with stronger urban–rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m, leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A

  8. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Riette, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2013-05-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI) with stronger urban-rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH) have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m), leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A sensitivity test without

  9. Community Mobilization for Slum Upgrading through Sanitation in Roma Informal Settlements in the Paris Region

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    Ipsita Nita Chaudhuri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCommunity-based processes addressing environment, housing, and health issues may decrease health inequities by addressing social, economic, and political health determinants more effectively. Yet little analysis of their effectiveness has been undertaken and their potential transfer to marginalized groups in rich country settings. In Europe, stark health inequalities are seen among the Roma, Europe’s most impoverished community who often reside in informal settlements suffering from illiteracy, inadequate housing, and lack of water and sanitation. This paper assesses a dry sanitation project in a Roma informal settlement in the Paris region to improve their living conditions.MethodsBetween 2014 and 2017, multiple stakeholders were involved in a participatory process of design, construction, and maintenance of toilets. Interviews, mapping, model construction, and facilitated discussion were used to identify design features and follow-up indicators. Field notes, videos, questionnaires, and observation provided data for monitoring and evaluation. For questionnaires delivered to women in the community, a cross section time series was conducted to due to migration.ResultsDespite issues related to maintenance, the overall quality of life of women improved after toilet construction. This included indicators for comfort, cleanliness, practicality, privacy, security, and menstrual hygiene management. Furthermore, fewer women restrained themselves from relieving themselves or from drinking less water to avoid urinating. Odors continued to be an issue. Self-reporting of illnesses, such as diarrhea and urinary tract infections, were not reliable due to the vague description of these illnesses and the potential recall bias. Appropriate sanitation in informal settlements is a necessity as shown by feedback from Roma women and the literature. However, a more sustainable toilet project would have required an adequate budget, good quality materials

  10. Occupational exposure and 12-year spirometric changes among Paris area workers.

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    Kauffmann, F; Drouet, D; Lellouch, J; Brille, D

    1982-08-01

    A follow-up study over 12 years was conducted among 556 men aged 30 to 54 in 1960 and working at that time in factories around Paris (France). Various occupational exposures were recorded at the time of the 1960 survey after a technical study of each workplace. The annual rate of decline of FEV1 during 12 years was estimated for each subject from the measurements in 1960 and 1972. This rate (the FEV1 slope) was related independently of FEV1 level (which reflects the loss since the beginning of adult life) and of smoking habits to occupational exposure to dust, gases, and heat. FEV1 slope was significantly related to inhalation of mineral dust (even in the absence of silica) as well as to grain dust, and the slope was steeper with increased intensity of exposure to dust. Analysis of job changes showed that among heavily exposed subjects, those who changed jobs had a less steep slope than those who did not. Our results support the hypothesis of a causal role of exposure to dust in the development of chronic airflow obstruction and of a benefit when exposure to dust ceases. Exposure to dust, gas, and heat usually occurred together so data on gas and heat were analysed after taking account of exposure to dust. The influence of heat on FEV1 decline showed a clear trend. Results suggest that exposure to gases associated with exposure to dust or heat or both had a deleterious effect. After adjusting for age, smoking, and FEV1 level (ASLA) the following average slopes were obtained: 44 ml/a (for exposure to none or to only a slight amount of dust, or to gases alone), 51 ml/a (heat), 53 ml/a (noticeable dust), 55 ml/a (noticeable dust and heat), 60 ml/a (noticeable dust, heat, and high concentration of gases). Independently of the occupational exposures, ASLA FEV1 slopes among manual workers were related to skill, being 44 ml/a for skilled and 51 ml/a for unskilled men. Independently of social class and occupational exposures recorded, there were differences in FEV1 slopes

  11. Theory of cyclic creep of concrete based on Paris law for fatigue growth of subcritical microcracks

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    Bazant, Zdenek P.; Hubler, Mija H.

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations prompted by a disaster in Palau revealed that worldwide there are 69 long-span segmental prestressed-concrete box-girder bridges that suffered excessive multi-decade deflections, while many more surely exist. Although the excessive deflections were shown to be caused mainly by obsolescence of design recommendations or codes for static creep, some engineers suspect that cyclic creep might have been a significant additional cause. Many investigators explored the cyclic creep of concrete experimentally, but a rational mathematical model that would be anchored in the microstructure and would allow extrapolation to a 100-year lifetime is lacking. Here it is assumed that the cause of cyclic creep is the fatigue growth of pre-existing microcracks in hydrated cement. The resulting macroscopic strain is calculated by applying fracture mechanics to the microcracks considered as either tensile or, in the form of a crushing band, as compressive. This leads to a mathematical model for cyclic creep in compression, which is verified and calibrated by laboratory test data from the literature. The cyclic creep is shown to be proportional to the time average of stress and to the 4th power of the ratio of the stress amplitude to material strength. The power of 4 is supported by the recent finding that, on the atomistic scale, the Paris law should have the exponent of 2 and that the exponent must increase due to scale bridging. Exponent 4 implies that cyclic creep deflections are enormously sensitive to the relative amplitude of the applied cyclic stress. Calculations of the effects of cyclic creep in six segmental prestressed concrete box girders indicate that, because of self-weight dominance, the effect on deflections absolutely negligible for large spans (>150m). For small spans (<40m) the cyclic creep deflections are not negligible but do not matter since the static creep causes in such bridges upward deflections. However, the cyclic creep is shown to cause

  12. Seasonal variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Paris megacity (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudic, Alexia; Gros, Valérie; Sauvage, Stéphane; Locoge, Nadine; Sanchez, Olivier; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Kalogridis, Cerise; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Baisnée, Dominique; Favez, Olivier; Albinet, Alexandre; Sciare, Jean; Bonsang, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Within the framework of air quality studies at the megacity scale, highly time-resolved volatile organic compound (C2-C8) measurements were performed in downtown Paris (urban background sites) from January to November 2010. This unique dataset included non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and aromatic/oxygenated species (OVOCs) measured by a GC-FID (gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector) and a PTR-MS (proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer), respectively. This study presents the seasonal variability of atmospheric VOCs being monitored in the French megacity and their various associated emission sources. Clear seasonal and diurnal patterns differed from one VOC to another as the result of their different origins and the influence of environmental parameters (solar radiation, temperature). Source apportionment (SA) was comprehensively conducted using a multivariate mathematical receptor modeling. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization tool (US EPA, PMF) was used to apportion and quantify ambient VOC concentrations into six different sources. The modeled source profiles were identified from near-field observations (measurements from three distinct emission sources: inside a highway tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue, hence with a specific focus on road traffic, wood-burning activities and natural gas emissions) and hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The reconstructed VOC sources were cross validated using independent tracers such as inorganic gases (NO, NO2, CO), black carbon (BC) and meteorological data (temperature). The largest contributors to the predicted VOC concentrations were traffic-related activities (including motor vehicle exhaust, 15 % of the total mass on the annual average, and evaporative sources, 10 %), with the remaining emissions from natural gas and background (23 %), solvent use (20 %), wood-burning (18 %) and a biogenic source (15 %). An important finding of

  13. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the megacity of Paris

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    Paciga, Andrea; Karnezi, Eleni; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Hildebrandt, Lea; Psichoudaki, Magda; Engelhart, Gabriella J.; Lee, Byong-Hyoek; Crippa, Monica; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-02-01

    Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 µg m-3 and another 35-40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs with effective saturation concentrations C* of 10-3-0.1 µg m-3 and ELVOCs C* less or equal than 10-4 µg m-3, respectively). The winter cooking OA (COA) was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs with C* in the 1-100 µg m-3 range) and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA) factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %), LVOCs (25 %) and ELVOCs (30 %). The volatility of marine OA (MOA) was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 %) and LVOCs (30 %). Finally, combining the bulk average O : C ratios and volatility distributions of the various factors, our results are placed into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) framework. The OA factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and

  14. Les compromis compensatoires autour des plates-formes aéroportuaires : une comparaison Paris – Berlin – Los Angeles Comparing benefits packages around three airports: Paris – Berlin – Los Angeles

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    Julie Gobert

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La comparaison des processus de concertation/négociation en rapport avec trois aéroports internationaux (Paris Charles de Gaulle, Berlin Schönefeld, Los Angeles International, permet d’appréhender comment un ensemble de transactions s’effectue avec les communes périphériques, ainsi qu’avec différents acteurs de la société civile. Ces compromis compensatoires locaux, qui excèdent les indemnisations ou réparations usuellement octroyées aux riverains (insonorisation, posent toutefois la question de leur opérabilité à d’autres échelles, dans la mesure où, bien qu’ils instituent une certaine forme de “justice située”, ils n’incluent pas les acteurs se situant et oeuvrant à d’autres niveaux territoriaux.The comparison of participation processes in three international airports (Paris Charles de Gaulle, Berlin Schönefeld, Los Angeles International offers the opportunity to understand how social and environmental transactions can intervene between host communities, developers and civil society. These benefits packages overcome the traditional way of repairing nuisance (indemnities, soundproofing. Yet their efficiency at different scales is questioned, as they implement a certain form of spatial justice but without including actors not directly located at the proximity of the impacting infrastructure.

  15. Micorrizas arbusculares del tipo 'Arum' y 'Paris' y endófitos radicales septados oscuros en Miconia ioneura y Tibouchina paratropica (Melastomataceae 'Arum' and 'Paris' arbuscular mycorrhizal types and dark septate root endophytes in Miconia ioneura and Tibouchina paratropica (Melastomataceae

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    Carlos Urcelay

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la colonización de las raíces por simbiontes fúngicos en Miconia ioneura y Tibouchina paratropica (Melastomataceae. Se observaron y describen estructuras micorrícicas arbusculares pertenecientes a los tipos 'Paris' (hifas y rulos intracelulares y 'Arum' (hifas intercelulares y arbúsculos. Además se observaron endófitos septados oscuros (hifas y esclerocios. Se registra por primera vez la ocurrencia de ambos tipos micorrícicos arbusculares y de endófitos septados oscuros en raíces de especies pertenecientes a la familia Melastomataceae. Se discuten las implicancias ecológicas y evolutivas de la ocurrencia simultánea de los distintos tipos de colonización micorrícica en raíces de la misma especie.The roots of Miconia ioneura and Tibouchina paratropica (Melastomataceae were studied for fungal symbionts colonization. Typical structures of 'Paris' (intracellular hyphae and coils and 'Arum' (intercellular hyphae and arbuscules arbuscular mycorrhizal types were observed and are described here. Dark septate fungi (hyphae and sclerotia were also observed. The occurrence of both types of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation and dark septate fungi in the roots of species belonging to Melastomataceae is reported for the first time. The possible ecological and evolutionary implications of the co-occurrence of these mycorrhizal colonisation types in the same species are discussed.

  16. Black carbon physical properties and mixing state in the European megacity Paris

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    M. Laborde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol hygroscopicity and refractory black carbon (rBC properties were characterised during wintertime at a suburban site in Paris, one of the biggest European cities. Hygroscopic growth factor (GF frequency distributions, characterised by distinct modes of more-hygroscopic background aerosol and non- or slightly hygroscopic aerosol of local (or regional origin, revealed an increase of the relative contribution of the local sources compared to the background aerosol with decreasing particle size. BC-containing particles in Paris were mainly originating from fresh traffic emissions, whereas biomass burning only gave a minor contribution. The mass size distribution of the rBC cores peaked on average at an rBC core mass equivalent diameter of DMEV ~ 150 nm. The BC-containing particles were moderately coated (coating thickness Δcoat ~ 33 nm on average for rBC cores with DMEV = 180–280 nm and an average mass absorption coefficient (MAC of ~ 8.6 m2 g−1 at the wavelength λ = 880 nm was observed. Different time periods were selected to investigate the properties of BC-containing particles as a function of source and air mass type. The traffic emissions were found to be non-hygroscopic (GF ≈ 1.0, and essentially all particles with a dry mobility diameter (D0 larger than D0 = 110 nm contained an rBC core. rBC from traffic emissions was further observed to be uncoated within experimental uncertainty (Δcoat ~ 2 nm ± 10 nm, to have the smallest BC core sizes (maximum of the rBC core mass size distribution at DMEV ~ 100 nm and to have the smallest MAC (~ 7.3 m2g−1 at λ = 880 nm. The biomass burning aerosol was slightly more hygroscopic than the traffic emissions (with a distinct slightly-hygroscopic mode peaking at GF ≈ 1.1–1.2. Furthermore, only a minor fraction (≤ 10% of the slightly-hygroscopic particles with 1.1 ≤ GF ≤ 1.2 (and D0 = 265 nm contained a detectable rBC core. The BC-containing particles from biomass burning were

  17. Continuity and Discontinuity in the Cultural Landscape of the Capital City: Paris and Skopje

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    Maciej Falski

    2015-07-01

    It appears that the most important agent in the capital landscape is the state. It is the bureaucracy of the state, appearing in the role of executor of the national will, deciding on the shape of the image of the city, reinforcing those values that seem to be desirable from the perspective of the represented group. The lack of that factor leads, as in the case of Skopje, to the preservation of the local past and/or to a haphazardly implemented publicly sponsored construction. In both cases discussed above, the map and the landmarks mirror the most important categories of national narrative. The shape of this narrative depends largely upon the central authorities of the nation. Ciągłość i nieciągłość w przestrzeni miasta stołecznego: Paryż i Skopje Przedmiotem niniejszego artykułu jest zagadnienie tworzenia wizji ciągłości dziejowej, a więc usensowionej narracji o przeszłości, w przestrzeni miasta. Miasto bowiem jawi się jako przestrzeń kulturowa par excellence i ono właśnie stwarza najlepsze możliwości wpływu na interpretację poprzez tworzenie specyficznego układu odniesień symbolicznych i obrazów, pobudzających grę interpretacji. Miasto zamieszkiwane jest przez wiele jednostek i różnorakich grup, co zmusza je do negocjacji znaczeń. Przedmiotem przedstawionych tu badań są stolice. Stolica państwa to bowiem miasto szczególne, co zazwyczaj podkreśla sam status prawny ośrodka stołecznego regulowany przez specjalną ustawę, staje się niezwykle ważną przestrzenią symboliczną, miejscem pokazu państwowej i narodowej siły, eksponowania i utwierdzania tożsamości, prezentowania wizerunku obcym oraz kształtowania pożądanego wizerunku na użytek obywateli – członków swojej grupy. Na przykładzie Paryża i Skopja, miast o odmiennej kontekstowo historii, chciałbym pokazać specyficzne dla przestrzeni miejskiej sposoby indukowania interpretacji, albowiem mimo oczywistych różnic oba miasta pozwalają dostrzec historyczny

  18. A trnI_CAU triplication event in the complete chloroplast genome of Paris verticillata M.Bieb. (Melanthiaceae, Liliales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hoang Dang Khoa; Kim, Jung Sung; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2014-06-19

    The chloroplast is an essential plant organelle responsible for photosynthesis. Gene duplication, relocation, and loss in the chloroplast genome (cpDNA) are useful for exploring the evolution and phylogeny of plant species. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome of Paris verticillata was sequenced using the 454 sequencing system and Sanger sequencing method to trace the evolutionary pattern in the tribe Parideae of the family Melanthiaceae (Liliales). The circular double-stranded cpDNA of P. verticillata (157,379 bp) consists of two inverted repeat regions each of 28,373 bp, a large single copy of 82,726 bp, and a small single copy of 17,907 bp. Gene content and order are generally similar to the previously reported cpDNA sequences within the order Liliales. However, we found that trnI_CAU was triplicated in P. verticillata. In addition, cemA is suspected to be a pseudogene due to the presence of internal stop codons created by poly(A) insertion and single small CA repeats. Such changes were not found in previously examined cpDNAs of the Melanthiaceae or other families of the Liliales, suggesting that such features are unique to the tribe Parideae of Melanthiaceae. The characteristics of P. verticillata cpDNA will provide useful information for uncovering the evolution within Paris and for further research of plastid genome evolution and phylogenetic studies in Liliales.

  19. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

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    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  20. Organic market gardening around the Paris agglomeration: agro-environmental performance and capacity to meet urban requirements.

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    Anglade, Juliette; Medina, Michael Ramos; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette

    2016-05-04

    Organic market gardening is often promoted by urban municipalities as a way to resource part of the food supply, creating new social links and protecting groundwater resources. The agronomical and environmental performance of six commercial organic market gardening farms supplying vegetables in Paris were evaluated and compared with other vegetable production systems. When expressed in terms of protein production, the yield of these systems appears rather low compared with the productive capacity of open-field organic cropping systems where vegetable production is inserted into rotation with other crops. Moreover, the requirement of producing infiltrated water meeting the drinking water standards seriously limits the allowable rate of fertilisation, thus limiting production. The data reported herein show that to supply the amount of vegetables required by the Paris agglomeration (12 million inhabitants) only by organic market gardening, 160,000-205,000 ha, i.e. 28-36 % of the agricultural area of the surrounding Ile-de-France region, would be required. We conclude that organic market gardening is only one of several other farming systems which can contribute to a re-localised supply of vegetables to large cities.

  1. Atypical aetiology of a conjugal fever: autochthonous airport malaria between Paris and French Riviera: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomares-Estran, Christelle; Delaunay, Pascal; Mottard, Annie; Cua, Eric; Roger, Pierre-Marie; Pradines, Bruno; Parzy, Daniel; Bogreau, Hervé; Rogier, Christophe; Jeannin, Charles; Karch, Saïd; Fontenille, Didier; Dejour-Salamanca, Dominique; Legros, Fabrice; Marty, Pierre

    2009-08-23

    Endemic malaria has been eradicated from France, but some falciparum malaria cases have been described in patients who have never travelled outside the country. Ms. V. 21 year-old and Mr. M. 23 year-old living together in Paris were on holiday in Saint Raphaël (French Riviera). They presented with fever, vertigo and nausea. A blood smear made to control thrombocytopaenia revealed intra-erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum. The parasitaemia level was 0.15% for Ms. V and 3.2% for Mr. M. This couple had no history of blood transfusion or intravenous drug use. They had never travelled outside metropolitan France, but had recently travelled around France: to Saint Mard (close to Paris Charles de Gaulle (CdG) airport), to Barneville plage (in Normandy) and finally to Saint Raphaël. The most probable hypothesis is an infection transmitted in Saint Mard by an imported anopheline mosquito at CdG airport. The DNA analysis of parasites from Ms. V.'s and Mr. M.'s blood revealed identical genotypes. Because it is unlikely that two different anopheline mosquitoes would be infected by exactly the same clones, the two infections must have been caused by the infective bites of the same infected mosquito.

  2. Atypical aetiology of a conjugal fever: autochthonous airport malaria between Paris and French Riviera: a case report

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    Fontenille Didier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endemic malaria has been eradicated from France, but some falciparum malaria cases have been described in patients who have never travelled outside the country. Ms. V. 21 year-old and Mr. M. 23 year-old living together in Paris were on holiday in Saint Raphaël (French Riviera. They presented with fever, vertigo and nausea. A blood smear made to control thrombocytopaenia revealed intra-erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum. The parasitaemia level was 0.15% for Ms. V and 3.2% for Mr. M. This couple had no history of blood transfusion or intravenous drug use. They had never travelled outside metropolitan France, but had recently travelled around France: to Saint Mard (close to Paris Charles de Gaulle (CdG airport, to Barneville plage (in Normandy and finally to Saint Raphaël. The most probable hypothesis is an infection transmitted in Saint Mard by an imported anopheline mosquito at CdG airport. The DNA analysis of parasites from Ms. V.'s and Mr. M.'s blood revealed identical genotypes. Because it is unlikely that two different anopheline mosquitoes would be infected by exactly the same clones, the two infections must have been caused by the infective bites of the same infected mosquito.

  3. Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; den Elzen, Michel; Höhne, Niklas; Fransen, Taryn; Fekete, Hanna; Winkler, Harald; Schaeffer, Roberto; Sha, Fu; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte

    2016-06-01

    The Paris climate agreement aims at holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to “pursue efforts” to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To accomplish this, countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) outlining their post-2020 climate action. Here we assess the effect of current INDCs on reducing aggregate greenhouse gas emissions, its implications for achieving the temperature objective of the Paris climate agreement, and potential options for overachievement. The INDCs collectively lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to where current policies stand, but still imply a median warming of 2.6-3.1 degrees Celsius by 2100. More can be achieved, because the agreement stipulates that targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are strengthened over time, both in ambition and scope. Substantial enhancement or over-delivery on current INDCs by additional national, sub-national and non-state actions is required to maintain a reasonable chance of meeting the target of keeping warming well below 2 degrees Celsius.

  4. An Automated Grass-Based Procedure to Assess the Geometrical Accuracy of the Openstreetmap Paris Road Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Molinari, M. E.

    2016-06-01

    OpenStreetMap (OSM) is the largest spatial database of the world. One of the most frequently occurring geospatial elements within this database is the road network, whose quality is crucial for applications such as routing and navigation. Several methods have been proposed for the assessment of OSM road network quality, however they are often tightly coupled to the characteristics of the authoritative dataset involved in the comparison. This makes it hard to replicate and extend these methods. This study relies on an automated procedure which was recently developed for comparing OSM with any road network dataset. It is based on three Python modules for the open source GRASS GIS software and provides measures of OSM road network spatial accuracy and completeness. Provided that the user is familiar with the authoritative dataset used, he can adjust the values of the parameters involved thanks to the flexibility of the procedure. The method is applied to assess the quality of the Paris OSM road network dataset through a comparison against the French official dataset provided by the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN). The results show that the Paris OSM road network has both a high completeness and spatial accuracy. It has a greater length than the IGN road network, and is found to be suitable for applications requiring spatial accuracies up to 5-6 m. Also, the results confirm the flexibility of the procedure for supporting users in carrying out their own comparisons between OSM and reference road datasets.

  5. Occupational Practitioner’s Role in the Management of a Crisis: Lessons Learned from the Paris November 2015 Terrorist Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, Alexis; Huynh Tuong, Alice; Coninx, Pierre; Baer, Michel; Loeb, Thomas; Despréaux, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In massive catastrophic events, occupational health practitioners are more and more frequently involved in the management of such situations. We aim to describe the multiple aspects of the role that occupational health practitioners might play, by focusing on the recent example of the Paris terrorist attack of November 2015. During and after the Paris attack, occupational practitioners, in collaboration with emergency and security professionals, were involved in psychological care, assembling information, follow-up, return-to-work, and improving in-company safety plans. Based on this experience and other industrial disasters, we distinguish three phases: the critical phase, the post-critical phase, and the anticipation phase. In the critical phase, the occupational practitioner cares for patients before the emergency professionals take charge, initiates the psychological management, and may also play an organizational role for company health aspects. In the post-critical phase, he or she would be involved in monitoring those affected by the events and participate in preventing, to the extent possible, posttraumatic stress disorder, helping victims in the return-to-work process, and improving procedures and organizing drills. In addition to their usual work of primary prevention, occupational practitioners should endeavor to improve preparedness in the anticipation phase, by taking part in contingency planning, training in first aid, and defining immediately applicable protocols. In conclusion, recent events have highlighted the essential role of occupational health services in anticipation of a crisis, management during the crisis, and follow-up. PMID:27703965

  6. Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; den Elzen, Michel; Höhne, Niklas; Fransen, Taryn; Fekete, Hanna; Winkler, Harald; Schaeffer, Roberto; Sha, Fu; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte

    2016-06-29

    The Paris climate agreement aims at holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to "pursue efforts" to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To accomplish this, countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) outlining their post-2020 climate action. Here we assess the effect of current INDCs on reducing aggregate greenhouse gas emissions, its implications for achieving the temperature objective of the Paris climate agreement, and potential options for overachievement. The INDCs collectively lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to where current policies stand, but still imply a median warming of 2.6-3.1 degrees Celsius by 2100. More can be achieved, because the agreement stipulates that targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are strengthened over time, both in ambition and scope. Substantial enhancement or over-delivery on current INDCs by additional national, sub-national and non-state actions is required to maintain a reasonable chance of meeting the target of keeping warming well below 2 degrees Celsius.

  7. Trace metal concentrations in forest and lawn soils of Paris region (France) along a gradient of urban pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovic, Foti

    2017-04-01

    concentrations and subsequent risks in soils of Paris and Paris region (Île-de-France). Our study aims at filling this knowledge gap, focusing on contamination and pollution by TMs in lawns and forests that constitute the main types of vegetation in urban areas of Paris region. Considering the rational described above, the aims of the present study were (i) to examine the concentration of eight selected TMs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in soils of two land-uses (public lawns and woods) along an urban pressure gradient in Paris region, (ii) to distinguish origins and sources of contamination or pollution, (iii) to evaluate the individual and overall TM contamination degree as well as the individual and overall TM pollution degree, (iiii) to use soil characteristics to better understand soil origins and histories along the urban pressure gradient and the relationship between these characteristics and TM concentrations. Ultimately, this study provides a baseline TM assessment for the long-term monitoring of the evolution of TM soil contents in urban area of the Paris region.

  8. Trabalho em transição: uma comparação entre São Paulo, Paris e Tóquio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Araujo Guimarães

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O texto compara três metrópoles (São Paulo, Paris e Tóquio para apresentar um achado de pesquisa: o de que variando os sistemas de emprego e os regimes de proteção, variam os tipos de transições e trajetórias ocupacionais, inclusive as formas assumidas pelo desemprego.This article compares three metropolises (São Paulo, Paris and Tokyo and addresses a main research result: labor market transitions, occupational trajectories, and even the forms of unemployment vary according to employment systems and welfare regimes.

  9. Miguel Gleason (dir.), Patrimoine Mexicain en France, Paris, Aeroméxico/ Instituto de México / FONCA-CONACULTA / Cerveza Corona, 2003. CD-Rom.

    OpenAIRE

    López, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    La Asociación México en Francia, en colaboración con el Instituto de México en Paris, CONACULTA, Aeroméxico, la cerveza Corona y la embajada de México presentaron el 20 de marzo en Paris el CD-Rom México en Francia. Disponible en versión en español y en francés, y parcialmente consultable en la página internet www.mexico-france.com, este trabajo es un intento significativo por dar a conocer la riqueza del patrimonio mexicano albergado en las instituciones públicas francesas. El usuario puede ...

  10. The role of anthropogenic aerosol emission reduction in achieving the Paris Agreement's objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienola, Anca; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; O'Donnell, Declan; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Korhonen, Hannele; Laaksonen, Ari

    2017-04-01

    The Paris agreement reached in December 2015 under the auspices of the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) aims at holding the global temperature increase to well below 2◦C above preindustrial levels and "to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5◦C above preindustrial levels". Limiting warming to any level implies that the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) - the dominant driver of long-term temperatures - that can ever be emitted into the atmosphere is finite. Essentially, this means that global CO2 emissions need to become net zero. CO2 is not the only pollutant causing warming, although it is the most persistent. Short-lived, non-CO2 climate forcers also must also be considered. Whereas much effort has been put into defining a threshold for temperature increase and zero net carbon emissions, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the non-CO2 climate forcers, including not just the non-CO2 greenhouse gases (methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons etc.) but also the anthropogenic aerosols like black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulfate. This study investigates the possibility of limiting the temperature increase to 1.5◦C by the end of the century under different future scenarios of anthropogenic aerosol emissions simulated with the very simplistic MAGICC climate carbon cycle model as well as with ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA + UVic ESCM. The simulations include two different CO2 scenarios- RCP3PD as control and a CO2 reduction leading to 1.5◦C (which translates into reaching the net zero CO2 emissions by mid 2040s followed by negative emissions by the end of the century); each CO2 scenario includes also two aerosol pollution control cases denoted with CLE (current legislation) and MFR (maximum feasible reduction). The main result of the above scenarios is that the stronger the anthropogenic aerosol emission reduction is, the more significant the temperature increase by 2100 relative to pre

  11. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150–1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC, inorganic ions and black carbon (BC (R2 = 0.91. Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC particles into four classes: (i EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass, (ii EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic, (iii EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx, and (iv EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx. Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65–0.68 respectively, n = 552. The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568. Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88% and 12% of EC particle

  12. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Kamili, K.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.

    2012-02-01

    An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150-1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC), inorganic ions and black carbon (BC) (R2 = 0.91). Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC) particles into four classes: (i) EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass), (ii) EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic), (iii) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx), and (iv) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx). Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65-0.68 respectively, n = 552). The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568). Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88% and 12% of EC particle mass was apportioned to fossil fuel and biomass burning respectively using the ATOFMS data

  13. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150–1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC, inorganic ions and black carbon (BC (R2 = 0.91. Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC particles into four classes: (i EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass, (ii EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic, (iii EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx, and (iv EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx. Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65–0.68, respectively, n = 552. The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568. Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88 % and 12 % of EC

  14. Quantitative determination and evaluation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis with different harvesting times using UPLC-UV-MS and FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Yan-Li; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Wang, Yuan-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    A rapid method was developed and validated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectroscopy with ultraviolet detection (UPLC-UV-MS) for simultaneous determination of paris saponin I, paris saponin II, paris saponin VI and paris saponin VII. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on UPLC and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to evaluate Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (PPY) at different harvesting times. Quantitative determination implied that the various contents of bioactive compounds with different harvesting times may lead to different pharmacological effects; the average content of total saponins for PPY harvested at 8 years was higher than that from other samples. The PLS-DA of FT-IR spectra had a better performance than that of UPLC for discrimination of PPY from different harvesting times. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. La salle de cinéma comme attraction spectacle : le cas Captain Eo à Disneyland Paris The Movie theater as attraction: The Case of Captain Eo at Disneyland Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Massuet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour ambition d’interroger le rapport du public à une salle de cinéma précise, au cœur du parc Disneyland Paris à Marne-La-Vallée. Cette salle projette à nouveau depuis juin 2010 l’attraction Captain Eo, film de science-fiction en 3D relief réalisé par Francis Ford Coppola en 1986, avec Michael Jackson dans le rôle-titre. Remplacé depuis 1998 par une autre attraction, Captain Eo fait son retour un an après le décès de la star, et implique dès lors un rapport très particulier à son public, par son statut d’hommage post-mortem. Il s’agira de comprendre la façon dont l’attraction structure son public, et la façon dont celui-ci peut construire à son tour le sens du film qu’il est en train de voir. C’est donc une approche sémio-pragmatique que nous convoquons ici, en nous référant à Roger Odin, afin d’envisager, à partir du film lui-même et de son mode de diffusion, ce que l’attraction Captain Eo révèle théoriquement du lien entre le spectateur et l’image d’une star comme Michael Jackson, qui plus est un an après son décès. Il s’agira de comprendre de quelle manière le film de Coppola ainsi que son contexte de diffusion – le parc d’attraction Disneyland Paris – permettent de penser ou d’interroger un type de pratique spectatorielle différent de celles engendrées par d'autres salles de cinéma.This article tries to question the link between the public and a precise movie theater, in Disneyland Paris Marne-La-Vallée, proposing again since june 2010 the attraction Captain Eo, science-fiction 3D movie by Francis Ford Coppola in 1986, starring Michael Jackson. Replaced since 1998 by another attraction, Captain Eo comes back one year after the death of the star, and implies un specific link with its public, being a post-mortem tribute. We have to understand the way the attraction builds its public, and the way this one can build the movie signification in return. We have

  16. La salle de cinéma comme attraction spectacle : le cas Captain Eo à Disneyland Paris The Movie theater as attraction: The Case of Captain Eo at Disneyland Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Baptiste Massuet

    2012-01-01

    Cet article a pour ambition d’interroger le rapport du public à une salle de cinéma précise, au cœur du parc Disneyland Paris à Marne-La-Vallée. Cette salle projette à nouveau depuis juin 2010 l’attraction Captain Eo, film de science-fiction en 3D relief réalisé par Francis Ford Coppola en 1986, avec Michael Jackson dans le rôle-titre. Remplacé depuis 1998 par une autre attraction, Captain Eo fait son retour un an après le décès de la star, et implique dès lors un rapport très particulier à s...

  17. François Paris, Les sépultures du Sahara nigérien du Néolithique à l'islamisation, Paris, ORSTOM, 1996, 2 vols., 376 p., 275 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Camps

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Les nombreuses campagnes de fouilles entreprises par F. Paris au Niger, ont abouti à la rédaction de cet ouvrage en deux tomes. Le premier, de 376 pages est la présentation des travaux réalisés dans le Sahara nigérien, l'Azawagh, l'Aïr, le Djado… L'étude du vaste bassin de l'Azawagh et de l'importance de ses réserves en eau, permet de définir le grand épisode humide du début de l'Holocène (8000-6500 av. J.-C. Un épisode aride se situe entre 5500 et 4500 av. J.-C.. Un autre épisode, de moindr...

  18. Origin and age of deep waters of the Paris Basin; Origine et age des eaux profondes du bassin de Paris par l`utilisation des traceurs chimiques et isotopiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matray, J.M.; Chery, L. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France)

    1998-12-31

    The origin and age of deep waters of the Paris Basin are considered on the basis of chemical and isotopic analyses carried out on almost 150 water samples collected from geothermal wells, oil wells, and Middle Jurassic and LATE Triassic aquifers. The studies reveal that currently only Cl, Br, {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O species are present in the three aquifers, although one of the original waters previously enriched in oxygen- 18 probably due to a temperature effect. The combination of Cl/Br ratios and stable isotopes reveals the complex origin of these aqueous solutions that result from the mixing of two distinct secondary brines formed by the dissolution of Triassic salt by meteoric water. The first brine was derived from an ancient meteoric water that had undergone oxygen- 18 enrichment. The second brine has the same origin as the first, but its isotopic composition has remained constant since infiltration. The evolution of these waters within the framework of the geological history of the Paris Basin suggests that the first generation of brine is sequential to exposure of the reservoir rocks in the east at the beginning of the Cenozoic, and that it is older that the general cooling of the basin at the end of the Oligocene. Vertical fluid transfer along faults also took place during this period which also explains the presence of hydrocarbons and late carbonate cements in the Dogger aquifer. The maximum outcropping in the east initiated the formation of the second brine which mixed with the already existing brine, traces of which can only be detected in the deepest parts of the Triassic aquifers. The addition of meteoric water, unaffected by salt dissolution, is responsible for the present salinity distribution in the three aquifers. (authors) 21 refs.

  19. O séjour de D. Pedro I em Paris e a imprensa francesa: familiaridade e exotismo The séjour of D. Pedro I in Paris and the French press: familiarity and exoticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Lustosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A imagem de d. Pedro I na imprensa francesa, durante o período em que viveu em Paris (de agosto de 1831 a janeiro de 1832, foi fundamental para o sucesso que ele alcançou na busca de apoios para a expedição com que retomaria a coroa de D. Maria II usurpada por D. Miguel. Graças ao empenho de estudiosos do Brasil, já circulava na Europa um considerável volume de informações sobre o país. Ao caráter liberal que d. Pedro dera ao modelo político brasileiro que lhe garantiria o apoio dos liberais franceses, juntavam-se aspectos míticos de sua trajetória e do país onde vivera. A familiaridade com que d. Pedro tratava a todos, nobres e plebeus, também seria um fator importante para a conquista de adesões à causa de d. Maria.The image of d. Pedro I in the French press during the period he lived in Paris (August 1831 to January 1832 was essential to the success he has achieved in seeking support for the expedition to retake the crown with D. D. Maria II usurped by Miguel. Thanks to the efforts of scholars from Brazil, a considerable amount of information about the country has already circulated in Europe. To the liberal character who d. Pedro gave the Brazilian political model that would guarantee the support of the French Liberals, joined mythical aspects of his career and the country where he lived. The familiarity with d. Pedro attended all, nobles and commoners would also be an important factor for achieving membership to the cause of d. Maria.

  20. Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere (Paris, France, September 4-13, 1968), Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document contains twenty recommendations put forth at the Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere under the direction of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). The conference was held at the UNESCO House, Paris,…

  1. Economic models of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents: some lessons for the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Michael G. [Limburg Univ., Maastricht (Netherlands). Faculty of Law

    1995-12-31

    Alternative systems of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents have been proposed. In respect, the question merits attention to whether these alternative models of compensation discussed in the economic literature could be implemented when discussing the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. 55 refs., 1 tab.

  2. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Jiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES, on self-rated health (SRH in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS and in-person interviews (RECORD. All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA. Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle and from real estate sales (Paris. Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  3. Paris dans la cosmographie universelle de François de Belleforest: cartographie et politique au temps des Guerres de religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogvliet, M.

    2008-01-01

    Pour le public moderne la description de Paris dans la Cosmographie universelle, écrite par François de Belleforest et publiée en 1575, est probablement un ouvrage décevant : l’auteur reproduit d’autres textes et il s’occupe plus de l’historiographie que de la cartographie scientifique. Cependant, g

  4. Determination of Paris' law constants and crack length evolution via Extended and Unscented Kalman filter: An application to aircraft fuselage panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Binaud, Nicolas; Gogu, Christian; Bes, Christian; Fu, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Prediction of fatigue crack length in aircraft fuselage panels is one of the key issues for aircraft structural safety since it helps prevent catastrophic failures. Accurate estimation of crack length propagation is also meaningful for helping develop aircraft maintenance strategies. Paris' law is often used to capture the dynamics of fatigue crack propagation in metallic material. However, uncertainties are often present in the crack growth model, measured crack size and pressure differential in each flight and need to be accounted for accurate prediction. The aim of this paper is to estimate the two unknown Paris' law constants m and C as well as the crack length evolution by taking into account these uncertainties. Due to the nonlinear nature of the Paris' law, we propose here an on-line estimation algorithm based on two widespread nonlinear filtering techniques, Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The numerical experiments indicate that both EKF and UKF estimated the crack length well and accurately identified the unknown parameters. Although UKF is theoretical superior to EKF, in this Paris' law application EKF is comparable in accuracy to UKF and requires less computational expense.

  5. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoretic Analysis of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterial Community Structure in the Lower Seine River: Impact of Paris Wastewater Effluents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cébron, A.; Coci, M.; Garnier, J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Seine River is strongly affected by the effluents from the Achères wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) downstream of the city of Paris. We have shown that the effluents introduce large amounts of ammonia and inoculate the receiving medium with nitrifying bacteria. The aim of the present study was

  6. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community structure in the lower Seine River: Impact of Paris wastewater effluents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cebron, A.; Coci, M.; Garnier, J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Seine River is strongly affected by the effluents from the Acheres wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) downstream of the city of Paris. We have shown that the effluents introduce large amounts of ammonia and inoculate the receiving medium with nitrifying bacteria. The aim of the present study was

  7. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoretic Analysis of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterial Community Structure in the Lower Seine River: Impact of Paris Wastewater Effluents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cébron, A.; Coci, M.; Garnier, J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Seine River is strongly affected by the effluents from the Achères wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) downstream of the city of Paris. We have shown that the effluents introduce large amounts of ammonia and inoculate the receiving medium with nitrifying bacteria. The aim of the present study

  8. French Video Cassettes Produced by the Ecole Commerciale de la Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Paris: Maximizing the Cultural and Linguistic Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Charlotte P.

    This paper discusses the use of videotapes furnished with the "Valise du Francais des Affaires" from the Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Paris to teach business French. In the videotapes, French employers discuss the type of employee they would like to hire, and the problems they have encountered in some of the interviews they have conducted…

  9. Power, Identity, and Organizational Structure as Reflected in Schools for Minority Groups: A Case Study of Jewish Schools in Paris, Brussels, and Geneva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the linkages between organizational structure, power relations, and group identities within the private schools operated by the francophone Jewish communities of Brussels, Paris, and Geneva. A school's organizational structure and balance of power reflect its identity and its conceptual world. That is, its organizational…

  10. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Junfeng; Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Aggarwal, Anju; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES), on self-rated health (SRH) in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS) and in-person interviews (RECORD). All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle) and from real estate sales (Paris). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  11. Getting Its Ducks in a Row? Qatar Foundation's Agreement with HEC Paris and the Launch of the Qatar Foundation Management, Education and Research Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Last week, private, non-profit organisation the Qatar Foundation (QF) announced a partnership agreement with French business institution HEC Paris to offer executive education programmes. According to the terms of the agreement, a full-time faculty will provide executive and short certificate programmes and corporate-specific training, including…

  12. Influence of the water quality improvement on fish population in the Seine River (Paris, France) over the 1990-2013 period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent

    2016-01-15

    Over the past 20 years, rules concerning wastewater treatment and quality of water discharged into the environment have changed considerably. Huge investments have been made in Paris conurbation to improve waste water treatment processes in accordance with the European Water Framework Directive. The interdepartmental association for sewage disposal in Paris conurbation (SIAAP) carried out a monitoring of both fish assemblages and water quality in the Seine River around the Paris conurbation (France) since the early 90's. The main goal of this study was to estimate the influence of the water quality improvement on fish. On one hand, the study confirmed the improvement of the water quality (dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, organic matter) in the Seine River, mostly focused downstream of Paris conurbation. On the other hand, an increase of the number of species occurred from 1990 (14) to 2013 (21). Moreover, changes in the river Seine assemblages happened over that 23-year period with emergence of sensitive species (ruffe, scalpin and pike-perch). The improvement of the water quality was also reported with respect to the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). However, no variation of pollutant concentrations in roach, eel and chub muscles has been observed. An exceedance of the environmental quality standards have even been reported all over this period as regards mercury and organochlorine.

  13. The Social Function of the Law Faculty: Demographics, Republican Reform, and Professional Training at the Paris Law Faculty, 1870-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, John

    2008-01-01

    Even before the legal integration of the Parisian faculties into the single entity of the "Universite de Paris" in 1896, the law faculty stood out as the most recalcitrant and resistant to the spirit of reform. In the years that followed, far from embodying republican ideals, it became known as a site of anti-republican ideological fervor. Even as…

  14. PERBANDINGAN KANDUNGAN MERKURI PADA EUCHEUMA SPINOSUM DI PULAU PARI, TELUK JAKARTA DENGAN DI PANTAI PASAURAN, BANTEN, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Seregeg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystem of Jakarta Bay has already been contaminated by mercury on the average of 20 ppb due to the increasing number of industries in Jakarta and its surroundings which dispose their wastes to the rivers ended at Jakarta Bay. The average concen­tration of mercury in sea water at the Jakarta Bay is significantlv different from the concentration of mercury in sea water at Pasauran Beach, Banten, West Java which is still undetectable. The increasing mercury in sea water caused also increasing mercury in Eucheuma spinosum, a kind of algae consumed by many people. Samples of E. spinosum taken from Pulau Pari in Jakarta Bay showed the average of 0,3184 ppm mercury which is significantly different from the samples taken, from Pasauran Beach with an average of 0,0796 ppm mercury.

  15. New observations on the miniature of the vision of Saint Gregory of Nazianzus in Paris. GR. 510

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Zaga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the iconography of the illustration of the Second Paschal Homily of St. Gregory of Nazianzus on fol. 285r of the Paris manuscript. It questions the identity of the woman saint represented on the right of St. Paraskeve in the lower register of the scene. Unlike that above St. Paraskeve, the inscription identifying this second woman saint is fragmentary and difficult to read, but it has been widely accepted that she is Saint Helena, mother of the Emperor Constantine the Great. On the basis of two other representations of Helena in the same manuscript and of the style of the inscription accompanying them, as well as taking into account the importance of the theological meaning expounded by St. Gregory in his oration, it is suggested that the second woman saint may be St. Kyriake.

  16. How to catch all those mutations--the report of the third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Auerbach, Arleen D;

    2010-01-01

    . The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current......The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting "Integration and Implementation" was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10-14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health...... framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access-Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation...

  17. La salle de cinéma comme attraction spectacle : le cas Captain Eo à Disneyland Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Massuet, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-01-01

    Cet article a pour ambition d’interroger le rapport du public à une salle de cinéma précise, au cœur du parc Disneyland Paris à Marne-La-Vallée. Cette salle projette à nouveau depuis juin 2010 l’attraction Captain Eo, film de science-fiction en 3D relief réalisé par Francis Ford Coppola en 1986, avec Michael Jackson dans le rôle-titre. Remplacé depuis 1998 par une autre attraction, Captain Eo fait son retour un an après le décès de la star, et implique dès lors un rapport très particulier à s...

  18. How to catch all those mutations--the report of the third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Auerbach, Arleen D;

    2010-01-01

    The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting "Integration and Implementation" was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10-14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health...... framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access-Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation...... to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access-Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance...

  19. Un recueil liturgique et historique du tournant des années 1200 (Paris, BnF, ms. latin 17716

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Iogna-Prat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Entamée il y a une dizaine d’années dans le cadre d’un atelier clunisien réunissant M. Huglo, M. Hillebrandt, D. Iogna-Prat, C. Magne, D. Méhu et P. Stirnemann, l’étude du recueil manuscrit Paris, BnF, latin 17716 doit trouver un terme dans cette ultime rencontre consacrée à un réexamen des problèmes posés par cet ensemble composite mais cohérent de pièces liturgiques, historiographiques et diplomatiques. Une place spéciale sera accordée à la liturgie de la Transfiguration (introduite à Cluny...

  20. [Prehospital management of very elderly patients with ST segment elevation in Paris by mobile intensive care units (Samu)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, J E; Bensouda, C; Durand, E; Greffet, A; Scemama, A; Carli, P; Danchin, N; Sauval, P

    2005-03-01

    More and more elderly people are hospitalised with myocardial infarction. Little is known on their pre-hospital management. In 2001 and 2002, 105 patients aged 80 years or more with suspected ST elevation infarction were managed by the mobile intensive care unit system of the SAMU de Paris-Necker. Diagnosis of infarction was confirmed in 92 (88%). Over 60% of the patients were women. Median time delay from symptom onset to call to the emergency service was 127 minutes, longer in nonagenarians (175 vs 101 minutes). Prehospital use of aspirin was 81% and 39% received an intravenous bolus of heparin. A reperfusion strategy was decided in only 30% (primary PCI: 23/26). One-month mortality was 21% and was related to older age, time when the call to the Samu was made, and absence of current smoking. Overall, the prehospital management of very elderly patients with suspected ST elevation infarction appears far from optimal.

  1. Investigating the taste in the city : Très très bon, gourmet stroll in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille BRACHET

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, will be examined the potential of television regarding the representation of food and taste. The analysis focuses on a particular TV show, Très très bon, a weekend program broadcast on the channel Paris Première. Since the success of many TV programs has already shown that cooking and television can go together, it is interesting to try to understand the terms of staging which are very specific to Très très bon. For this purpose, the apparatus behind this TV program will be analysed in order to understand how the TV show seduces the viewer for whom any form of tasting remains technically impossible.

  2. Public Expenditure in Education in Latin America. Recommendations to Serve the Purposes of the Paris Open Educational Resources Declaration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Toledo Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors identify and analyze public policy and the investment and expenditure that the governments of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay and Uruguay commit to make in the development and procurement of textbooks, books and digital content for primary and secondary education (K-12. The aim is to identify and propose a roadmap for developing policies that advance the principles of the Paris Open Educational Resources Declaration. In the region, digital content coexists with and complements the traditional ones. Paper textbooks continue to have a leading role in the education systems of the region. In this context, the authors assess how the acquisition of traditional and digital materials occurs and offer some recommendations to the governments to adjust their public spending policies on educational resources development and procurement.

  3. [The birth of the international conference "Biology and the future of man", Paris, 18-24 September 1974].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In 1974, a symposium was organized in Paris entitled "Biology and the future of man". It was focused on the analysis of "new powers of science and new duties of man" in the field of medically assisted procreation, agriculture, demography, and environmental issues. This small introductory text begins by describing the circumstances that led to the organization of this prestigious conference. Then, in order to go further than the silent framework of the presentation of the themes, we will focus on the report of Dr. Robert Edwards on medically assisted procreation, we will recall the duel between Jacques Monod and Jérôme Lejeune on abortion, then we will give center stage to physicians like Jean Bernard and Alexandre Minkowski about the right to die, and finally we will remind the conclusion brought to the conference by Georges Canguilhem. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Nestor Capdevila, Le concept d’idéologie, Paris, PUF, 2004, 326 pages, 25 euros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie GAILLE-NIKODIMOV

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Que la philosophie puisse se pratiquer dans toute sa rigueur conceptuelle en s’appliquant à des notions politiques, voilà qui n’a pas été et n’est pas toujours évident pour tous. Le concept d’idéologie de Nestor Capdevila est une lecture tout indiquée pour les sceptiques. Le pari n’est pourtant pas gagné a priori : ce terme, forgé en 1798 par Destutt de Tracy pour désigner la science des idées prises au sens général de perceptions, est on ne peut plus fuyant. S’il n’a pas, à l’origine, la con...

  5. Gilles Campagnolo, Critique de l’économie politique classique, Paris, PUF, 2004, 28 euros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Vivel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Face à l’oubli relatif dans lequel est tombée aujourd’hui la pensée des économistes germanophones du XIXe siècle qui ont critiqué l’économie classique, ce livre fait le pari de « réparer l’oubli » en resituant leurs idées dans leur contexte historique. Comme le rappelle l’auteur, le point commun des économistes étudiés dans l’ouvrage ne réside pas dans l’unité de leurs positions, mais seulement dans leur opposition au classicisme. L’intérêt de cet ouvrage, au-delà du simple exposé concernant ...

  6. How much drinking water can be saved by using rainwater harvesting on a large urban area? application to Paris agglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmeziti, Ali; Coutard, Olivier; de Gouvello, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a prospective scenario of development of rainwater harvesting (RWH) on a given large urban area (such as metropolitan area or region). In such a perspective, a new method is proposed to quantify the related potential of potable water savings (PPWS) indicator on this type of area by adapting the reference model usually used on the building level. The method is based on four setting-up principles: gathering (definition of buildings-types and municipalities-types), progressing (use of an intermediate level), increasing (choice of an upper estimation) and prioritizing (ranking the stakes of RWH). Its application to the Paris agglomeration shows that is possible to save up to 11% of the total current potable water through the use of RWH. It also shows that the residential sector offers the most important part because it holds two-thirds of the agglomeration PPWS.

  7. [The apothecaries of the rue de l'Arbre-Sec in Paris in the 17th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warolin, Christian

    2014-06-01

    The mud tax imposed by the king in 1637 to pay for street-cleaning is a useful tool for identifying the people who were liable for the tax, their profession, and whether they were owners or tenants. The survey of the Rue de l'Arbre-Sec, a very old street in Paris close to the Louvre, reveals that seven apothecaries lived there in 1637. Two of them were particularly important: Hiérosme Lambert, who had an apothecary'shop near the church of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois, and Michel Dansse, apothecary to Queen Anne of Austria. The two families established links through the marriage of Marie Lambert, the daughter of Hiérosme Lambert and Marie Gauche, to Michel Dansse. One of their sons, Jean Dansse, was also apothecary to Anne of Austria and then to Queen Marie-Thérèse.

  8. The Lack of Consistent Diaspirin Cross-Linked Hemoglobin Infusion Blood Pressure Effects in the US and EU Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Jackson Foundation. Dr. Sloan provided consultation to Northfield Inc on February 29, 2009, regarding Poly Heme and to Biopure Inc on May 2006 as part of...Professor Payen (Principal Investigator, Hopiatl Lariboisiere, Paris Cedex I 0); Docteur Rouvier, MD (Principal Investigator, Hopital Percy , Clamart

  9. Diaspirin Cross-Linked Hemoglobin Infusion Did Not Influence Base Deficit and Lactic Acid Levels in Two Clinical Trials of Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock Patient Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Program, University of Illinois School of Public Health (W.G.), Chicago, Illinois. Supported by a contract with the Henry M. Jackson Foundation...fessor Payen (Principal Investigator, Hopiatl Lariboisiere, Paris Cedex 1 0); Docteur Rouvier, MD (Principal Investiga- tor, Hopital Percy , Clamart

  10. Initial Evaluation of Advanced Powder Metallurgy Magnesium Alloys for Armor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    4. Conclusions and Future Research Ballistic performance appeared constant regardless of processing route . The magnesium plate may not be thick...00460 ARMEES F 75015 PARIS FRANCE 1 CONDAT PROJEKT GMBH ATTN J KIERMEIR MAXIMILIANSTR 28 SCHEYERN 85298 GERMANY 1 OSAKA...COPIES ORGANIZATION COPIES ORGANIZATION 36 2 ETBS DSTI P BARNIER M SALLES ROUTE DE GUERAY BOITE POSTALE 712 18015 BOURGES CEDEX

  11. Ballistic Testing of SSAB Ultra-High-Hardness Steel for Armor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    STTC G BRAULT 4 RUE DE LA PORTE D’ISSY 00460 ARMEES F 75015 PARIS FRANCE 1 CONDAT PROJEKT GMBH ATTN J KIERMEIR MAXIMILIANSTR 28...SALLES ROUTE DE GUERAY BOITE POSTALE 712 18015 BOURGES CEDEX FRANCE 1 FEDERAL MINISTRY OF DEFENCE DIR OF EQPT & TECH LAND RUV 2

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Jean- Rene Fourtou, Rhone-Poulenc chief executive officer. The Association, created within only six weeks, includes—in addition to Rhone-Poulenc... Descartes , 75231 Paris cedex 05. Tel (1).46.34.31.80. Maine Project Leader: Mr Daniel Richet, ADEPA [Asso- ciation for the Development of Automated

  13. Composites 2000: An International Symposium on Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-26

    Temperature Reinforcement Anthony R. Bunsell Ecole des Mines de Paris-Centre des Materiaux B. P. 87, 91003 Evry Cedex, France Voice: (33) 1-607-630-15...and C. L. Tucker, III. Orientation behavior of fibers in concentrated suspensions . J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 3:98-119, 1984. C. A. Hieber and S. F

  14. Calendar of Selected Aeronautical and Space Meetings (Calendrier des Manifestations Aeronautiques et Spatiales (Selection))

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    I LISTE DES THEMES Page 0 1 -𔃻Wdecine et Biologic a~rospatialcs 2 (02 - Electronique . Optique et Mitrologie 6 013 - MWcanique dui Vol 28 04...and Address Country Code GIEL Groupement des Industries Electroniques : I I rue Hamelin, F-75783 Paris Cedex 16 FR GIFAS Groupement des Industries

  15. Calendar of Selected Aeronautical and Space Meetings July 1987 (Calendrier des Manifestations Aeronautiques et Spatiales (Selection) Juillet 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Electronique , Optique et M~trologie 5 03 - Mcanique du Vol 32 04 - Dynamique des Fluides et Acoustique 33 05 - Navigation, Guidage et Pilotage 41 06...Groupement des Industries Electroniques : I I rue Hamelin, F-75783 Paris Cedex 16 FR GWU George Washington University: Continuing Engineering Education

  16. History of psychosurgery at Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France, through translational interactions between psychiatrists and neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Marc; Pallud, Johan; Baup, Nicolas; Peeters, Sophie; Turak, Baris; Krebs, Marie Odile; Oppenheim, Catherine; Gaillard, Raphael; Devaux, Bertrand

    2017-09-01

    Sainte-Anne Hospital is the largest psychiatric hospital in Paris. Its long and fascinating history began in the 18th century. In 1952, it was at Sainte-Anne Hospital that Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker used the first neuroleptic, chlorpromazine, to cure psychiatric patients, putting an end to the expansion of psychosurgery. The Department of Neuro-psychosurgery was created in 1941. The works of successive heads of the Neurosurgery Department at Sainte-Anne Hospital summarized the history of psychosurgery in France. Pierre Puech defined psychosurgery as the necessary cooperation between neurosurgeons and psychiatrists to treat the conditions causing psychiatric symptoms, from brain tumors to mental health disorders. He reported the results of his series of 369 cases and underlined the necessity for proper follow-up and postoperative re-education, illustrating the relative caution of French neurosurgeons concerning psychosurgery. Marcel David and his assistants tried to follow their patients closely postoperatively; this resulted in numerous publications with significant follow-up and conclusions. As early as 1955, David reported intellectual degradation 2 years after prefrontal leucotomies. Jean Talairach, a psychiatrist who eventually trained as a neurosurgeon, was the first to describe anterior capsulotomy in 1949. He operated in several hospitals outside of Paris, including the Sarthe Psychiatric Hospital and the Public Institution of Mental Health in the Lille region. He developed stereotactic surgery, notably stereo-electroencephalography, for epilepsy surgery but also to treat psychiatric patients using stereotactic lesioning with radiofrequency ablation or radioactive seeds of yttrium-90. The evolution of functional neurosurgery has been marked by the development of deep brain stimulation, in particular for obsessive-compulsive disorder, replacing the former lesional stereotactic procedures. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital's Neurosurgery Department sheds

  17. Biogeochemical dynamics of perfluorinated alkyl acids and sulfonates in the River Seine (Paris, France) under contrasting hydrological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labadie, Pierre, E-mail: p.labadie@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [UMR 7619 Sisyphe, CNRS/UPMC, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, BP 105, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Chevreuil, Marc [Laboratoire Hydrologie et Environnement, EPHE, UMR 7619 Sisyphe, CNRS/UPMC, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, BP 105, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-12-15

    The biogeochemical dynamics of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in a heavily urbanised river (River Seine, Paris, France). The target compounds included C4-C10 sulfonates and C5-C14 acids; eleven PFCs were detected and {Sigma}PFCs ranged between 31 and 91 ng L{sup -1} (median: 47 ng L{sup -1}). The molecular pattern was dominated by the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates PFHxS and PFOS (>54% of {Sigma}PFCs), which were the only PFCs quantified in both the dissolved and particulate phases. For these PFCs, the sorbed fraction positively correlated with suspended sediment levels. Total PFC levels negatively correlated with river flow rate, which varied between 150 and 640 m{sup 3} s{sup -1}. This suggests the predominance of point sources (likely WWTP effluent discharge), but a contribution of non-point sources such as combined sewer overflow could not be excluded. The annual PFC mass flow was estimated at 500 kg, which is less than observed for other large European rivers. - Highlights: > Eleven out of fifteen perfluorinated compounds were detected in the River Seine (Paris, France). > Only PFHxS and PFOS were quantified in the particulate phase of water samples. > PFOA, PFHxS and PFOS levels negatively correlated with river flow rate (i.e. point sources were predominant). > The annual PFC mass flow in the River Seine was estimated at nearly 500 kg. - PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS levels in the River Seine negatively correlated with river flow rate, suggesting that point sources were predominant for these major PFCs.

  18. Effect of Polyester and Plaster of Paris Casts on Determination of Volumetric Bone Mineral Density Assessed by Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Michael; Blanchard, Romane; Rodda, Christine; Pivonka, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is a non-invasive, low-radiation tool for measuring volumetric bone mineral density. It has potential for use in fracture healing applications; however, the unknown attenuation effects of cast material on peripheral quantitative computed tomography have contributed to its limited use in this area. The effect of two common cast materials, polyester and Plaster of Paris was investigated by performing both in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro study tested the effect of increasing layers of cast material on bone density measurements performed on a hydroxyapatite phantom. Cast thickness was directly associated with a reduction in bone mineral density, with twelve layers of polyester and Plaster of Paris resulting in a 0.55 and 2.21 % decrease in bone density measurements. Precision error in situ with polyester cast material was 0.71 %, and 2.31 % with Plaster of Paris cast material. The in vivo study comprised a prospective trial with 28 healthy adult participants to evaluate the effect of the two cast materials. Trabecular bone mineral density was increased by 0.5 % in the presence of a polyester cast and decreased by 4.22 % in the presence of a Plaster of Paris cast. Cortical bone mineral density was decreased by 3.46 and 5.54 % for polyester and Plaster of Paris, respectively. This study quantified the effects of orthopaedic casts on pQCT-derived bone parameters. The results suggest applicability of commonly utilised cast materials in combination with pQCT to assess fracture healing.

  19. Les débuts des relations "officielles" roumaines - françaises. La création de l'agence diplomatique roumaine à Paris (26 août / 7 septembre 1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Oncescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization of diplomatic agents of the United Principalities in Paris was possible after the meeting held on August 26 / September 7 1860. After receiving the note from the Foreign Minister of Moldova, Mihail Jora, and a letter from Prince Cuza, French Foreign Minister, Ed. Thouvenel, said he was very happy to receive the staff of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Even so, he could not consider the Romanian Agent an official agent, because he would violate the 1858 Paris Convention, to which France participated. In this context, the United Principalities Agency was officially recognized and later became the Romanian Legation in Paris (1880.

  20. Algumas raízes do anti-semitismo no Brasil ou um outro olhar sobre Paris Anti-semitic roots in Brazil or a different view of Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Alterman Blay

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A construção da cultura passa por múltiplas influências culturais. A dinâmica cultural desmente pretensas posições etnocêntricas. Ao longo do tempo a história brasileira se viu vinculada a vários sistemas socioculturais e, nos dois últimos séculos, às influências ibérica, africana e indígena houve intensa incorporação da cultura francesa e anglo-saxônica que somadas, moldaram, em grande parte, nossos corações e mentes. Neste trabalho se focaliza a influência da cultura e do catolicismo conservador francês na formação do anti-semitismo brasileiro. A partir da análise da iconografia religiosa se observará uma das fontes da construção da diabolização do judeu no imaginário popular e culto. A construção da exclusão social dos judeus franceses e sua deportação para campos de concentração será observada através de um roteiro pelo Marais, o bairro judaico de Paris. A arquitetura concentracionista de Corbusier completa o quadro da exclusão social. Todos estes elementos, reunidos, permitem entender, em parte, como foi sendo construída a imagem do judeu imigrante no Brasil expressa por vários autores.The construction of culture undergoes a number of cultural influences. Cultural dynamics disavows alleged ethnocentric positions. From the beginning, Brazilian history has been linked to various socio-cultural systems. In the last two centuries, an intense incorporation of French and Anglo-Saxon cultures has been added to the Iberian, African and Native influences. Together, these have molded, to a large extent, our hearts and minds. This paper focuses on the influence of French culture and French conservative Catholicism in the constitution of Brazilian anti-semitism. The analisys of religious iconography reveals one of the sources of the satanization of the Jews in popular and elite imagination. The development of the social exclusion of the French Jews and their deportation to the concentration camps is analysed

  1. Dominance of Paris-type morphology on mycothallus of Lunularia cruciata colonised by Glomus proliferum Predomínio da morfologia tipo-Paris em talo de Lunularia cruciata colonizado por Glomus proliferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique M.A.C. Fonseca

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic evidence confirms that L. cruciata hosting G. proliferum shows major anatomical traits (arbuscules, coils, arbusculate coils and vesicles generally associated arbuscular mycorrhizal roots and the anatomical morphology of intra-thalli mycelium is predominantly of the Paris-type. Colonised L. cruciata showed a reduction of biomass when compared with axenic plants suggesting a drain of resources towards the fungus and depletion of nutrients required for optimum plant growth. The behaviour of mycothalli regarding available KH2PO4 indicates that the nutritional stress threshold for phosphorus (P is above the residual amount of P already present in PhytagelTM and in plant inoculum. These raise the possibility that in certain circumstances the relationship between L. cruciata and G. proliferum be parasitic rather than symbiotic and open the door for future studies to ascertain the nature of liverwort-AM fungi relationships.Observações de microscopia ótica confirmam que L. cruciata colonizada por G. proliferum apresenta caracteres anatomicos (arbúsculos, hifas novelas, arbúsculos enovelados e vesículas geralmente associadas a raízes micorrízicas arbusculares em que o micélio intra-tálico apresenta uma anatomia predominantemente do tipo Paris. L. cruciata colonizada apresentou redução de biomassa quando comparada com plantas axenicas, sugerindo dreno de recursos para o fungo e consequente redução de nutrientes necessários para o ótimo crescimento da planta. O comportamento do talo-colonizado em relação à disponibilidade de KH2PO4 no meio indica que o limiar de stress nutricional para fósforo se encontra acima do somatório das quantidades residuais deste elemento presentes no PhytagelTM e no inóculo. Os resultados aqui discutidos sugerem a possibilidade de, em certas circunstâncias, a relação entre L. cruciata e G. proliferum ter características de parasitismo e não de simbiose, abrindo novas perspectivas para

  2. Compte rendu partiel du 10e Colloque sur l'Exploitation des Océans, Paris, 20-22 janvier 1982 Partial Report on the 10th Symposium on Ocean Exploitation, Paris, 20-22 January 1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand A. R. V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available De ce 10e Colloque de l' ASTEO sur l'exploitation des océans (Paris, 20-22 janvier 1982 nous retiendrons les points suivants : - la reconnaissance unanime du rôle primordial joué par le secteur pétrolier dans l'exploitation des richesse océaniques ; - la grande qualité des communications consacrées à l'exploitation pétrolière marine. On retiendra aussi une excellente table ronde consacrée aux sources d'énergie utilisables en propulsion sous-marine et susceptibles de menacer le quasi monopole des classique batteries au plomb. Les batteries évoluées, dont le développement industriel coûterait trop cher en l'absence de débouchés commerciaux suffisants (le marché de la traction électrique automobile paraissant leur échapper, semblent abandonnées. Les piles à combustible à hydrogène et à électrolyte basique (type IFP et les moteurs Stirling à stockage thermique se présentaient comme les meilleures solutions de remplacement. Mais un conférencier a créé la surprise en présentant un moteur diesel en circuit fermé qui a été certifié par Lloyds Register et dont on parle pour équiper le sous-marin Argyronète. This 10th ASTEO Symposium on Ocean Exploitation (Paris, 20-22 January 1982 concentrated on the following two points: (i unanimous recognition of the primordial rote played by the petroleum sector in exploiting the wealth contained in the ocean, and (ii the high quality of the papers devoted to offshore petroleum operations. There was also an excellent round-table discussion devoted to energy sources that can be used for subsea propulsion and that might act as a threat to the quasi-monopoly of conventional lead batteries. So-called sophisticated batteries, for which industrial development would be too expensive in the absence of a sufficient potential market (since the market for electric automotive traction appears to be beyond their reach, appear to have been abandoned. Hydrogen and basic electrolyte fuel cells

  3. Undocumented Youth Living Between the Lines: Urban Governance, Social Policy, and the Boundaries of Legality in New York City and Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczyk, Stephen P.

    This dissertation compares the transition to adulthood of undocumented youth in New York and Paris, along with analysis of the construction of illegality in each city. In both the United States and France, national restrictions against undocumented immigrants increasingly take the form of deportations and limiting access to social rights. New York City and Paris, however, mitigate the national restrictions in important but different ways. They construct "illegality" differently, leading to different young adult outcomes and lived experiences of "illegality." This project uses seven years of multi-site ethnographic data to trace the effects of these mitigated "illegalities" on two dozen (male) youth. We can begin to understand the variation in these undocumented young men's social lives within and between cities by centering on (1) governance structure, the labyrinth of obtaining rights associated with citizenship, (2) citizenship, the possibility of gaining a legal status, steered in particular by civil society actors, and (3) identity, here centered on youths' negotiation of social mobility with the fear of enforcement. Biographical narratives show the shifts in social memberships as youth transition to new countries, new restrictions at adulthood, and new, limiting work. In New York, most social prospects are flattened as future possibilities are whittled down to ones focusing on family and wages. Undocumented status propels New York informants into an accelerated transition to adulthood, as they take on adult responsibilities of work, paying bills, and developing families. In Paris, youth experience more divergent processes of transitioning to adulthood. Those who are more socially integrated use a civil society actor to garner a (temporary) legal status, which does not lead to work opportunities. Those who are less socially integrated face isolation as they wait to gain status and access to better jobs. Paris undocumented youth are thus characterized by a

  4. 458-IJBCS-Article-Dibong Siegfried Didier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    2 Institut de Recherche d'Ecologie Tropicale (IRET), B. P. 13354 Libreville, Gabon. 3 Laboratoire de Parasitologie végétale, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI), 4 place Jussieu, case ... 6 Département de Biologie et Physiologie Végétales, B. P. 812, Université de .... statistiques sont réalisées à l'aide du logiciel.

  5. Orthogonal Matching Pursuit under the Restricted Isometry Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-17

    Research Group 1779; the Excellence Initiative of the German Federal and State Governments, and RWTH Aachen Distinguished Professorship, Graduate School...Marie Curie, 75005, Paris, France cohen@ann.jussieu.fr Wolfgang Dahmen Institut für Geometrie und Praktische Mathematik, RWTH Aachen , Templergraben 55...D-52056 Aachen Germany dahmen@igpm.rwth-aachen.de Ronald DeVore Department of Mathematics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TH77840, USA rdevore@math.tamu.edu 12

  6. The first 1-year-long estimate of the Paris region fossil fuel CO2 emissions based on atmospheric inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufer, Johannes; Broquet, Grégoire; Bréon, François-Marie; Puygrenier, Vincent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Xueref-Rémy, Irène; Dieudonné, Elsa; Lopez, Morgan; Schmidt, Martina; Ramonet, Michel; Perrussel, Olivier; Lac, Christine; Wu, Lin; Ciais, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    The ability of a Bayesian atmospheric inversion to quantify the Paris region's fossil fuel CO2 emissions on a monthly basis, based on a network of three surface stations operated for 1 year as part of the CO2-MEGAPARIS experiment (August 2010-July 2011), is analysed. Differences in hourly CO2 atmospheric mole fractions between the near-ground monitoring sites (CO2 gradients), located at the north-eastern and south-western edges of the urban area, are used to estimate the 6 h mean fossil fuel CO2 emission. The inversion relies on the CHIMERE transport model run at 2 km × 2 km horizontal resolution, on the spatial distribution of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in 2008 from a local inventory established at 1 km × 1 km horizontal resolution by the AIRPARIF air quality agency, and on the spatial distribution of the biogenic CO2 fluxes from the C-TESSEL land surface model. It corrects a prior estimate of the 6 h mean budgets of the fossil fuel CO2 emissions given by the AIRPARIF 2008 inventory. We found that a stringent selection of CO2 gradients is necessary for reliable inversion results, due to large modelling uncertainties. In particular, the most robust data selection analysed in this study uses only mid-afternoon gradients if wind speeds are larger than 3 m s-1 and if the modelled wind at the upwind site is within ±15° of the transect between downwind and upwind sites. This stringent data selection removes 92 % of the hourly observations. Even though this leaves few remaining data to constrain the emissions, the inversion system diagnoses that their assimilation significantly reduces the uncertainty in monthly emissions: by 9 % in November 2010 to 50 % in October 2010. The inverted monthly mean emissions correlate well with independent monthly mean air temperature. Furthermore, the inverted annual mean emission is consistent with the independent revision of the AIRPARIF inventory for the year 2010, which better corresponds to the measurement period than the 2008

  7. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hammer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fog causes a variety of hazards in road traffic, maritime navigation, as well as in air traffic and railway traffic. There is a great demand, e.g. from airports, for more reliable fog forecasts to prevent fog related accidents. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research. SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city centre, France in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring: (1 total and interstitial (non-activated dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2 interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; (3 cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number concentration at different supersaturations (SS with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large with a median value of 2.4 μm and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5 μm between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute siginificantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak

  8. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, E.; Gysel, M.; Roberts, G. C.; Elias, T.; Hofer, J.; Hoyle, C. R.; Bukowiecki, N.; Dupont, J.-C.; Burnet, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2014-04-01

    Fog causes a variety of hazards in road traffic, maritime navigation, as well as in air traffic and railway traffic. There is a great demand, e.g. from airports, for more reliable fog forecasts to prevent fog related accidents. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research). SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city centre, France in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring: (1) total and interstitial (non-activated) dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2) interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; (3) cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration at different supersaturations (SS) with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large with a median value of 2.4 μm and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5 μm) between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute siginificantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak supersaturation

  9. Isotopic mass independent signature of black crusts: a proxy for atmospheric aerosols formation in the Paris area (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, Isabelle; Martin, Erwan; Yang, David Au; De Rafelis, Marc; Cartigny, Pierre; Wing, Boswell; Le Gendre, Erwann; Bekki, Slimane

    2016-04-01

    In view of the negative forcing of the sulfate aerosols on climate, a more accurate understanding of the formation of these particles is crucial. Indeed, despite the knowledge of their effects, uncertainties remain regarding the formation of sulfate aerosols, particularly the oxidation processes of S-bearing gases. Since the discovery of oxygen and sulfur mass independent fractionation (O- and S-MIF) processes on Earth, the sulfate isotopic composition became essential to investigate the atmospheric composition evolution and its consequences on the climate and the biosphere. Large amount of S-bearing compounds (SO2 mainly) is released into the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources. Their oxidation in the atmosphere generates sulfate aerosols, H2SO4, which precipitate on the earth surface mainly as acid rain. One consequence of this precipitation is the formation of black crust on buildings made of carbonate stones. Indeed the chemical alteration of CaCO3 by H2SO4 leads to gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) concretions on building walls. Associated to other particles, gypsum forms black-crusts. Therefore, black crusts acts as 'sulfate aerosol traps', meaning that their isotopic composition reveals the composition and thus the source and formation processes of sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere in a specific region. In this study we collected 37 black crusts on a 300km NW-SE profile centered on Paris (France). In our samples, sulfate represent 40wt.% and other particles 60wt.% of the black crusts. After sulfate extraction from each samples we measured their O- and S-isotopes composition. Variations of about 10‰ in δ18O and δ34S are observed and both O-MIF (Δ17O from 0 to 1.4‰) and S-MIF (Δ33S from 0 to -0.3‰) compositions have been measured. In regards to these compositions we can discuss the source and formation (oxidation pathways) of the sulfate aerosols in troposphere above the Paris region that covers urban, rural and coastal environments. Furthermore

  10. Megacity emission plume characteristics in summer and winter investigated by mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements: the Paris metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For the investigation of megacity emission plume characteristics mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the greater Paris region in July 2009 and January/February 2010 within the EU FP7 MEGAPOLI project. The deployed instruments measured physical and chemical properties of sub-micron aerosol particles, gas phase constituents of relevance for urban air pollution studies and meteorological parameters. The emission plume was identified based on fresh pollutant (e.g. particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, CO2 and NOx concentration changes in combination with wind direction data. The classification into megacity influenced and background air masses allowed a characterization of the emission plume during summer and winter environmental conditions. On average, a clear increase of fresh pollutant concentrations in plume compared to background air masses was found for both seasons. For example, an average increase of 190% (+8.8 ng m−3 in summer and of 130% (+18.1 ng m−3 in winter was found for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plume air masses. The aerosol particle size distribution in plume air masses was influenced by nucleation and growth due to coagulation and condensation in summer, while in winter only the second process seemed to be initiated by urban pollution. The observed distribution of fresh pollutants in the emission plume – its cross sectional Gaussian-like profile and the exponential decrease of pollutant concentrations with increasing distance to the megacity – are in agreement with model results. Differences between model and measurements were found for plume center location, plume width and axial plume extent. In general, dilution was identified as the dominant process determining the axial variations within the Paris emission plume. For in-depth analysis of transformation processes occurring in the advected plume, simultaneous measurements at a suburban measurement

  11. Geochemical and palynological records for the end-Triassic Mass-Extinction Event in the NE Paris Basin (Luxemburg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Natascha; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Thein, Jean; Fiebig, Jens; Franz, Sven-Oliver; Hanzo, Micheline; Colbach, Robert; Faber, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The End-Triassic mass-extinction event is one of the "big five" mass extinctions in Earth's history. Large scale flood basalt volcanism associated with the break-up of Pangaea, which resulted in the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, is considered as the leading cause. In addition, an asteroid impact in Rochechouart (France; 201 ± 2 Ma) may have had a local influence on ecosystems and sedimentary settings. The Luxembourg Embayment, in the NE Paris Basin, offers a rare chance to study both effects in a range of settings from deltaic to lagoonal. A multidisciplinary study (sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology) has been carried out on a number of outcrops and cores that span from the Norian to lower Hettangian. Combined geochemical and palynological records from the Boust core drilled in the NE Paris Basin, provide evidence for paleoenvironmental changes associated with the end-Triassic mass-extinction event. The Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphy of the Boust core is well constrained by palynomorphs showing the disappaerance of typical Triassic pollen taxa (e.g. Ricciisporites tuberculates) and the occurrence of the marker species Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus within the uppermost Rhaetian, prior to the Hettangian dominance of Classopollis pollen. The organic carbon stable isotope record (δ13Corg) spanning the Norian to Hettangian, shows a series of prominent negative excursions within the middle Rhaetian, followed by a trend towards more positive values (approx -24 per mille) within the uppermost Rhaetian Argiles de Levallois Member. The lowermost Hettangian is characterized by a major negative excursion, reaching - 30 per mille that occurs in organic-rich sediments. This so-called "main negative excursion" is well-known from other locations, for example from Mariental in Northern Germany and from St Audrie's Bay in England, and Stenlille in Denmark. Based on redox-sensitive trace element records (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Th, U) the lowermost Hettangian in most of

  12. Trajectories toward the 1.5°C Paris target: Modulation by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Benjamin J.; King, Andrew D.

    2017-05-01

    Global temperature is rapidly approaching the 1.5°C Paris target. In the absence of external cooling influences, such as volcanic eruptions, temperature projections are centered on a breaching of the 1.5°C target, relative to 1850-1900, before 2029. The phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) will regulate the rate at which mean temperature approaches the 1.5°C level. A transition to the positive phase of the IPO would lead to a projected exceedance of the target centered around 2026. If the Pacific Ocean remains in its negative decadal phase, the target will be reached around 5 years later, in 2031. Given the temporary slowdown in global warming between 2000 and 2014, and recent initialized decadal predictions suggestive of a turnaround in the IPO, a sustained period of rapid temperature rise might be underway. In that case, the world will reach the 1.5°C level of warming several years sooner than if the negative IPO phase persists.Plain Language SummaryGlobal temperature is rapidly approaching the 1.5°C Paris target. In this study, we find that in the absence of external cooling influences, such as volcanic eruptions, the midpoint of the spread of temperature projections exceeds the 1.5°C target before 2029, based on temperatures relative to 1850-1900. We find that the phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), a slow-moving natural oscillation in the climate system, will regulate the rate at which global temperature approaches the 1.5°C level. A transition to the positive phase of the IPO would lead to a projected exceedance of the target centered around 2026. If the Pacific Ocean remains in its negative phase, however, the projections are centered on reaching the target around 5 years later, in 2031. Given the temporary slowdown in global warming between 2000 and 2014, and recent climate model predictions suggestive of a turnaround in the IPO, a sustained period of rapid temperature rise might be underway. In that case, the world

  13. Sedimentology and geochemistry of carbonates diagenesis. Application to the Malm of the eastern edge of the Paris basin; Sedimentologie et geochimie de la diagenese des carbonates. Application au Malm de la Bordure Est du Bassin de Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B

    2001-12-01

    The important heterogeneity of neritic carbonates reflects: 1 - the facies characteristics of the initial sediments, linked with the diversity of sedimentation environments, and 2 - the post-sedimentation diagenesis characteristics. The aim of this work is to explore this heterogeneity using the {delta}{sup 18}O isotopic signal. A three step pluri-disciplinary approach with different observation scales is established: 1 - a sedimentology study (facies inventory, paleo-environment variations, stratigraphic cycles), 2 - an inventory and chronology of the diagenesis phases and products which have modified he initial sediments, and 3 - a geochemical approach based on the {delta}{sup 18}O signal. This last step combines ionic microprobe measurements performed on separated phases and measurements performed on the whole rock carbonated phase. The carbonate formations under study correspond to the HTM102 borehole made by the ANDRA in the Malm of the eastern edge of the Paris basin. For the stratigraphic approach, some field analogues have been studied (Pagny-sur-Meuse and Gudmont-Villiers sections). (J.S.)

  14. Βοοκ Review of "Liquid and Multiple: Individuals and Identities in the Thirteenth-Century Aegean, ed. G. Saint-Guillain, D. Stathakopoulos, Monographies 35, Paris 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Εφη ΡΑΓΙΑ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the volume "Liquid and Multiple: Individuals and Identities in the Thirteenth-Century Aegean, ed. G. Saint-Guillain, D. Stathakopoulos, Monographies 35, Paris 2012.

  15. Façamos nós com nossas mãos: a Comuna de Paris para além do Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel da Fonseca Mateus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta obra no qual resenho é parte integrante de um conjunto de autores que lançaram mão de compreender a Comuna de Paris sob um prisma libertário (teórico e metodologicamente. Organizado pelo sociólogo Nildo Viana, Escritos Revolucionários Sobre a Comuna de Paris conta com textos clássicos e inéditos de vários períodos históricos distintos que analisam a primeira experiência autogestionária da história de forma distinta da historiografia dominante. Ainda, a obra une aos temas de maneira transversal: uma experiência dos trabalhadores para além do Estado e do capital.

  16. The AIRPARIF-AEROSOL project: A comprehensive source apportionment study of fine aerosols (PM2.5) in the region of Paris (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciare, Jean; Ghersi, Veronique; Bressi, Michael; Lameloise, Philippe; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Rosso, Amandine; Nicolas, Jose; Moukhtar, Sophie; Ferron, Anais; Baumier, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    With a population of about 12 millions inhabitants (20% of the French population), Greater Paris (France) is one of the most populated megacity in Europe and among the few located in developed countries. Due to its favorable geographical situation (far from other big European cities and influenced very often by clean oceanic air masses), it may be considered as a good candidate for investigating the build-up of urban air pollution from temperate industrialized countries. Particulate mass of fine aerosols with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5μm (PM2.5) is continuously monitored at several stations from great Paris for almost 8 years by the local air quality network (AIRPARIF), using a conventional on-line automatic system (R&P TEOM; see Patashnik and Rupprecht, 1991). During the period 2000-2006, levels of PM2.5 in the region of Paris have shown rather stable yearly mean values ranging 13 to 16?g/m3 whereas most of the other pollutants monitored by AIRPARIF have shown a net decrease during this period (http:\\www.airparif.asso.fr). Since the year 2007, this situation has becoming worse for particulate pollution with a net increase of the yearly mean concentration of PM2.5 (up to 21?g/m3), which increase is partly due to the use of a new PM2.5 measurement technique (R&P TEOM-FDMS instrument) enabling a proper determination of the semi-volatile fraction of fine aerosols. Although this new method greatly improves the determination of PM2.5, it has also brought PM2.5 levels in the region of Paris closer to the 25?g/m3 yearly mean targeted value recommended by Europe for 2010 (limit value for 2015). Efficient abatement policies aiming at reducing levels of PM2.5 in the region of Paris will have to be fed by preliminary PM2.5 source apportionment studies and exhaustive aerosol chemistry studies (chemical mass balance) allowing a better separation between regional to continental aerosol sources. The objective of the AIRPARIF-AEROSOL project aims to perform a spatially- and

  17. La Salpêtrière de Paris sous l’Ancien Régime : lieu d’exclusion et de punition pour femmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Carrez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A son ouverture, en 1656, la Salpêtrière de Paris s’impose comme le plus grand établissement d’enfermement de femmes à l’époque moderne. Cet article expose les conditions de naissance de cette institution jusqu’à sa transformation en hôpital pour le traitement de la folie durant la période révolutionnaire. 1. Les originesLes premières traces de répression de la pauvreté à Paris sont anciennes. Dès 1350, une ordonnance royale ordonne « que les pauvres valides fuient la ville et fauxbourgs de P...

  18. Pierre Dockès, Hobbes. Économie, terreur et politique, Paris, Economica, 2008, 282 pages, appendice, bibliographie, 29 €

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Weber

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Dockès, professeur à l’université Lumière Lyon 2, est un économiste renommé. Il a commencé par travailler sur l’espace dans la pensée économique à l’âge classique (L’Espace dans la pensée économique du xvie au xviiie siècle, Paris, Flammarion, 1969. Plus récemment, après avoir participé à la fondation en 1983 du Centre Auguste et Léon Walras, il a dirigé l’édition des Œuvres économiques complètes de ces deux auteurs (Paris, Economica, 1987-2005, 14 vol.. Au cours de ses recherches, l...

  19. Staphylococcus aureus skin infections producer leucocidin Panton Valentine: evaluation of professional practices and the state of knowledge of general practitioners in Paris

    OpenAIRE

    cabioch, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    In France in 2009, among dermatological problems seen in physician’s office 10% concerned skin infections. In 2005, the US epidemic of skin infections responsible Staphylococcus aureus producer Panton Valentine leukocidin resulted in more deaths as hepatitis, HIV and tuberculosis combined. The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge of general practitioners in Paris on this bacteria and their professional practices in the management of infectious skin lesions. A descriptive cross...

  20. Seasonal variability of surface and column carbon monoxide over the megacity Paris, high-altitude Jungfraujoch and Southern Hemispheric Wollongong stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Té, Yao; Jeseck, Pascal; Franco, Bruno; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Jones, Nicholas; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Griffith, David W. T.; Buchholz, Rebecca R.; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette; Hurtmans, Daniel; Janssen, Christof

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the seasonal variation of surface and column CO at three different sites (Paris, Jungfraujoch and Wollongong), with an emphasis on establishing a link between the CO vertical distribution and the nature of CO emission sources. We find the first evidence of a time lag between surface and free tropospheric CO seasonal variations in the Northern Hemisphere. The CO seasonal variability obtained from the total columns and free tropospheric partial columns shows a maximum around March-April and a minimum around September-October in the Northern Hemisphere (Paris and Jungfraujoch). In the Southern Hemisphere (Wollongong) this seasonal variability is shifted by about 6 months. Satellite observations by the IASI-MetOp (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) and MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) instruments confirm this seasonality. Ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements provide useful complementary information due to good sensitivity in the boundary layer. In situ surface measurements of CO volume mixing ratios at the Paris and Jungfraujoch sites reveal a time lag of the near-surface seasonal variability of about 2 months with respect to the total column variability at the same sites. The chemical transport model GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model) is employed to interpret our observations. GEOS-Chem sensitivity runs identify the emission sources influencing the seasonal variation of CO. At both Paris and Jungfraujoch, the surface seasonality is mainly driven by anthropogenic emissions, while the total column seasonality is also controlled by air masses transported from distant sources. At Wollongong, where the CO seasonality is mainly affected by biomass burning, no time shift is observed between surface measurements and total column data.