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Sample records for jury trial opponents

  1. Trial by Jury in Russian Military Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai P. Kovalev

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available One of peculiar features of the military criminal justice system in Russia is that in some cases military defendants may apply for trial by jury. Unlike the existing U.S. court-martial jury and the Russian military jury of the early 1900s (World War I period which were comprised of the members of the armed forces, in modern Russia jurors trying military defendants are civilians. This article aims to provide a brief history of military jury in Russia and identify issues of independence and impartiality in Russian military courts with participation of lay decision-makers. In particular, the article will analyze two high-profile cases which resulted in acquittals of Russian officers accused of killing several Chechen civilians during counter-terrorist operations in Chechnya.

  2. Popular Sovereignty and the Jury Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Patrick Burns

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive and normative discussions of whether the jury trial is or should be a political institution are complicated by the systematic ambiguity of the most important terms in this discussion. One influential perspective understands a political actor as "he would decide on the exception." This seems to fit the jury insofar as it may nullify the written law in its decisions. It turns out, however, that the jury's actual practices demonstrate that the usual notion of sovereignty is far too narrow. Las discusiones descriptivas y normativas de si el juicio por jurado es o debe ser una institución política son complicadas por la ambigüedad sistemática de los términos más importantes de esta discusión. Una perspectiva influyente entiende que un actor político tomaría una decisión sobre la excepción”. Esto parece encajar en el jurado en la medida en que puede anular en sus decisiones la ley escrita. Resulta, sin embargo, que las prácticas reales del jurado demuestran que la noción habitual de soberanía es demasiado estrecha. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2765477

  3. Jury selection and jury trial in Spain: between theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Jimeno-Bulnes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jury Court in Spain is composed of nine citizens and is headed by a magistrate belonging to the Provincial Court, Chamber of Criminal. These citizens participate as lay assessors in a very particular way. The Spanish Jury Law 5/1995 contemplates its intervention in criminal proceedings as a sort of ‘duty-right’; one hand, inasmuch as it is a right, the law guarantees a remuneration; on the other, inasmuch as it is a duty, the Jury Law does not provide any sort of sanction because of inassistance. Also legal status of the Spanish jurors is established by a complicated system of qualification and disqualifications causes. There are four categories for disqualification: incapacities, incompatibilities, prohibitions and excuses, which contemplate various personal and professional circumstances. In contrast, certain omissions in the regulation may be appreciated such as the conscientious objection for example, which becomes the most controversial question with regard to the duty to act as a juror.The purpose of present paper is to discuss the abover points and examines how jury selection and service actually proceeds in Spanish Jury Courts. An initial reference is made to the composition of the lists of prospective jurors, which includes an explanation of the way in which prospective jurors are designated by random from the electoral census and how the definitive lists are drawn up in each province at two-yearly intervals and delivered to the Provincial Courts. Subsequently, the trial jury selection system is presented along with other measures that relate to jury participation in criminal proceedings, such as the completion of a questionnaire on lawful grounds for disqualification and the distribution of a copy of the ‘jury handbook’ to each selected juror. References are also made to the possibility of challenges for cause and without cause (peremptory challenges both by the parties to the trial, defence and prosecution, as well as to

  4. The trials of indigent defense: type of counsel and case outcomes in felony jury trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cornwell, Erin York

    2015-01-01

    ... Center for State Courts (NCSC) study of 314 felony jury trials in four urban jurisdictions. The data include both the jury's verdict as well as the judge's evaluation of the defendant's guilt, which permit comparison of jury verdicts with probable bench verdicts. I find that judges' evaluations of defendant guilt do not differ across ty...

  5. The American Trial Jury: Current Issues and Controversies. Looking at the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Paul

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the controversial issues involved in the jury systems, such as jury selection, jury service, civic participation, and the role of the mass media. Stresses the importance of maintaining the public courtroom as a means for encouraging fair trials and not allowing closed courtrooms. Provides an accompanying article, "The Citizen's Jury," by…

  6. The verdict on jury trials for juveniles: the effects of defendant's age on trial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warling, Diane; Peterson-Badali, Michele

    2003-01-01

    With the progression to more adult-like policies and procedures for youth in the justice system, the right to a jury trial has been extended to young offenders. These youth would not be tried by a jury of their peers, however, but by a jury of adults. The concern is that adult jurors may hold negative attitudes about youth that might influence their decision making in a case involving a young defendant. Two studies examined whether and under what conditions defendant's age affects jurors' decisions about the guilt and sentencing of an accused. In study 1, data were gathered from two samples of jury eligible adults: one university sample and one public sample. Mock jurors read written transcripts of a trial involving a defendant who was presented as either 13, 17, or 25 years of age. Results indicated that the defendant's age had no effect on mock jurors' verdict or their ratings of defendant guilt. However, younger defendants were granted shorter sentences than the adult defendants. In study 2, mock jurors read the same trial presented in study 1 but were asked to deliberate about the case and render group verdicts. These group verdicts did not differ significantly by defendant's age. Age-related themes that emerged from group deliberations were identified, and results indicated that age tended to be used as a mitigating factor in favor of youth rather than against them. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for youth justice policy and practice.

  7. Goffman on the jury: real jurors' attention to the "offstage" of trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary R; Diamond, Shari Seidman; Baker, Kimberly M

    2010-08-01

    Social psychologist Erving Goffman, in his classic work The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, provides a framework that explains why jurors may turn their attention at the courthouse to information not formally presented from the witness stand. We dub this "offstage observation," a type of juror behavior that has not been systematically examined empirically. Analyzing a unique data source of 50 actual jury deliberations in civil trials, we find that jurors do look to the offstage in evaluating the claims of the parties. However, in contrast to predictions, these observations played a surprisingly minor role in the jury deliberation process.

  8. "Ain't Misbehavin'": Bench Conduct and Nonverbal Expectancy Effects in Criminal Jury Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Wayne

    The possibility that judges' expectancy effects may adversely affect the results of jury trials is a problem that needs careful theoretical analysis and innovative methods of resolution. Traditional efforts by the legal community to counteract the threat of verbal/nonverbal bias by judges include the "Code of Judicial Conduct," curative…

  9. Crime and Punishment: the Impact of Skin Color and Socioeconomic Status of Defendants and Victims in Jury Trials in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rogério Ferreira; Oliveira Lima, Marcus Eugênio

    2016-11-14

    Social judgments are often influenced by racism. Voluntary crimes against life, and in particular the crime of homicide, may be the most critical situations of the impact of racism in social judgments. We analyzed 114 homicide trials conducted by the 1st Jury Court, in a Brazilian judicial capital, concluded between 2003 and 2007, for the purpose of investigating the effects of skin color and the socioeconomic status of the defendant and the victim of homicides in the jury trial court's decision. The results indicate that the social and economic profile of defendants and victims of homicide is identical. They are almost all poor (more than 70%), with low education (more than 73%) and frequently non-Whites (more than 88%). We found that judges assign longer sentences to black (β = .34, p = .01) and poor defendants (β = .23, p < .05). We even verified that the poorer the defendant, the higher was the corresponding conviction rate (Wald's Test = 5.90, p < .05). The results are discussed based on theories of social psychology and criminological sociology, which consider the relationship between skin color and socioeconomic status in social judgments and in discrimination.

  10. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  11. Trial By Jury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    With 600 organizations in 45 states, teen courts are becoming viable alternative to processing first-time youthful offenders through the juvenile justice system. Teen courts may be run by schools, juvenile courts and probation departments, law enforcement agencies, or youth welfare organizations. Successful school-related courts are profiled. (MLH)

  12. [Psychiatry and criminology in Criminal Justice: Jury Trial Courts and Appellate Courts in the Federal District of Rio de Janeiro, during the 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Allister Andrew Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    As part of a research study on the 1930s and 1940s medical-criminological debate in Brazil, this research paper analyzes some of the uses and criticisms of arguments of a psychiatric and criminological nature, among certain jurists who carried out important work in the city of Rio de Janeiro during the 1930s. In this context, these magistrates, tended to have significant psychiatric and criminological knowledge, in spite of all the heterogeneity, plurality and differences in perspectives that existed among them. We selected two principal areas to conduct an analysis of the activities of these jurists: the Appellate Court of the Federal District of Rio de Janeiro and Jury Trial Courts.

  13. Jury panel member perceptions of interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy predict support for execution in a capital murder trial simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jennifer; Clark, John C; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Magyar, Melissa S

    2013-01-01

    Recent research with college undergraduate mock jurors suggests that how psychopathic they perceive a criminal defendant to be is a powerful predictor of whether they will support a death verdict in simulated capital murder trials. Perceived affective and interpersonal traits of psychopathy are especially predictive of support for capital punishment, with perceived remorselessness explaining a disproportionate amount of variance in these attitudes. The present study attempted to extend these findings with a more representative sample of community members called for jury duty (N = 304). Jurors reviewed a case vignette based on an actual capital murder trial, provided sentencing verdicts, and rated the defendant on several characteristics historically associated with the construct of psychopathy. Consistent with prior findings, remorselessness predicted death verdicts, as did the affective and interpersonal features of psychopathy - though the latter effect was more pronounced among jurors who were Caucasian and/or who described their political beliefs as moderate rather than conservative or liberal. Results are discussed in terms of the potentially stigmatizing effects of psychopathy evidence in capital cases.

  14. Extended Jury criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,algebraic criteria are established to determine whether or not a real coefficient polynomial has one or two pairs of conjugate complex roots whose moduli are equal to 1 and the other roots have moduli less than 1 directly from its coefficients.The form and the function of the criteria are similar to those of the Jury criterion which can be used to determine whether or not all the moduli of the roots of a real coefficient polynomial are less than 1.

  15. Einstein's Jury: Trial by Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crelinsten, Jeffrey

    2007-03-01

    While Einstein's theory of relativity ultimately laid the foundation for modern studies of the universe, it took a long time to be accepted. Between 1905 and 1930, relativity was poorly understood and Einstein worked hard to try to make it more accessible to scientists and scientifically literate laypeople. Its acceptance was largely due to the astronomy community, which undertook precise measurements to test Einstein's astronomical predictions. The well-known 1919 British eclipse expeditions that made Einstein famous did not convince most scientists to accept relativity. The 1920s saw numerous attempts to measure light-bending, as well as solar line displacements and even ether-drift. How astronomers approached the ``Einstein problem'' in these early years before and after the First World War, and how the public reacted to what they reported, helped to shape attitudes we hold today about Einstein and his ideas.

  16. The Origin of a Jury in Ancient Greece and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, Dmitriy Yu.; Sakhapov, Rinat R.; Faizrahmanov, Damir I.; Safin, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the implementation of the democratic principles in the court and judicial process in the trial by jury by the example of the history and development of this institution in Russia. The authors used different methods and approaches, in particular, historical, systemic and Aristotelian method, concrete…

  17. Silmapaistev Juri Lotmani ja Zara Mintsi arhiiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikoolis paikneb rahvusvaheliselt tunnustatud semiootiku Juri Lotmani ja tema abikaasa Zara Mintsi arhiiv ja raamatukogu. Juri Lotmani poeg ja Tallinna Ülikooli Eesti Humanitaarinstituudi professor Mihhail Lotman on rahul, et arhiiv asub Eestis

  18. Silmapaistev Juri Lotmani ja Zara Mintsi arhiiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikoolis paikneb rahvusvaheliselt tunnustatud semiootiku Juri Lotmani ja tema abikaasa Zara Mintsi arhiiv ja raamatukogu. Juri Lotmani poeg ja Tallinna Ülikooli Eesti Humanitaarinstituudi professor Mihhail Lotman on rahul, et arhiiv asub Eestis

  19. Blinded by the White: A Comparative Analysis of Jury Challenges on Racial Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalia Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples in Australia, the United States and Canada are significantly overrepresented as defendants in criminal trials and yet vastly underrepresented on juries in criminal trials. This means that all-white juries mostly determine the guilt of Indigenous defendants or white defendants responsible for harming Indigenous victims. In this article, we explore cases in which Indigenous defendants have perceived that an all-white jury’s prejudice against Indigenous people would prevent them receiving a fair trial. It focuses on Indigenous defendants (often facing charges in relation to protesting against white racism challenging the array of all-white juries. Across these cases, Australian courts rely on formal notions of fairness in jury selection to dismiss the Indigenous defendant’s perception of bias and foreclose an inquiry into the potential prejudices of white jurors. We compare the Australian judicial ‘colour-blindness’ towards all-white juries with that of the United States and Canada. We argue that the tendency for courts in the United States and Canada to question jurors on their biases provides useful lessons for Australian judiciaries, including in relation to the impending trials of Indigenous defendants in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, accused of committing crimes in response to white racist violence. Nonetheless, across all jurisdictions where there is a challenge to the array based on racial composition, courts consistently uphold all-white juries. We suggest that the judicial view of the racial neutrality of white jury selection misapprehends the substantive biases in jury selection and the injustice perceived by defendants in having a white jury adjudicate an alleged crime that is committed in circumstances involving protest against white prejudice.

  20. Human Wagering Behavior Depends on Opponents' Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicht, Erik J.; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Camerer, Colin F.; Battaglia, Peter; Nakayama, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best “poker face” for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent. PMID:20657772

  1. Daubert and the Disappearing Jury Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Kanner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In Kafka’s Before the Law, a man is arrested for a crime unknown to him and is tried in a court he does not recognize. To help explain the situation to the bewildered prisoner, a parable is related about a man seeking admittance to the Law. He comes before the gate of the Law and is told by the gatekeeper that it is possible to enter, but not at that moment. The man pleads with the gatekeeper but is denied entry. He spends his entire life before the gate, and just before his death, asks the gatekeeper, “Everyone strives after the law . . . , so how does it happen that in these many years no one but myself has ever begged admittance?” The gatekeeper sees that the man is near death, and shouts at him, “No one else could ever be admitted here, since this gate was made only for you. I am now going to shut it.”

  2. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse.

  3. Whistle-blower Walks: Jury Acquits Nurse Who Reported Physician to TMB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Crystal

    2010-05-01

    A West Texas jury acquitted a nurse on trial for misuse of official information. She and another nurse had reported a physician to the Texas Medical Board for improperly prescribing herbal medicines that he sold on the side and for performing unauthorized surgical procedures.

  4. Citizen Participation in Politics: The Role of the Jury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsohn, Gary J.

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the manner in which petit juries participate in the formulation of public policy. Of central concern is the nature of jury policy-making, involving analysis of ways in which such policy-making is manifested, and the description of a conceptual framework for political analysis of the jury. For journal availability, see SO 505 536.…

  5. Ultraviolet colour opponency in the turtle retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, D F; Zana, Y; de Souza, J M; DeVoe, R D

    2001-07-01

    We have examined the functional architecture of the turtle Pseudemys scripta elegans retina with respect to colour processing, extending spectral stimulation into the ultraviolet, which has not been studied previously in the inner retina. We addressed two questions. (i) Is it possible to deduce the ultraviolet cone spectral sensitivity function through horizontal cell responses? (ii) Is there evidence for tetrachromatic neural mechanisms, i.e. UV/S response opponency? Using a constant response methodology we have isolated the ultraviolet cone input into the S/LM horizontal cell type and described it in fine detail. Monophasic (luminosity), biphasic L/M (red-green) and triphasic S/LM (yellow-blue) horizontal cells responded strongly to ultraviolet light. The blue-adapted spectral sensitivity function of a S/LM cell peaked in the ultraviolet and could be fitted to a porphyropsin cone template with a peak at 372 nm. In the inner retina eight different combinations of spectral opponency were found in the centre of the receptive field of ganglion cells. Among amacrine cells the only types found were UVSM-L+ and its reverse. One amacrine and four ganglion cells were also opponent in the receptive field surround. UV/S opponency, seen in three different types of ganglion cell, provides a neural basis for discrimination of ultraviolet colours. In conclusion, the results strongly suggest that there is an ultraviolet channel and a neural basis for tetrachromacy in the turtle retina.

  6. P1-12: Different Double-Pulse Distinguishability Among the Luminance Opponency, the Red-Green Opponency, and the Blue-Yellow Opponency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The inter-stimuli-interval (ISI thresholds of double pulses discrimination were measured to investigate the temporal distinguishability of double pulses of the luminance opponency, the red-green opponency, and the blue-yellow opponency. Double pulses were presented randomly in one of four quadrants, defined by a central fixation cross on a CRT display controlled by the real time sequencer (RTS of the VSG system in 42-bit color mode calibrated with less than 3% display error rate of the 1931 CIE luminance and chromatic coordinate. Each pulse was of duration 6.7 msec and included a Gaussian patch with gradation of tristimulus values from the peak to the background in equal-energy-white (the luminance opponency or isoluminance (the red-green and the blue-yellow opponency configuration. Eleven observers were asked to report the number of pulses (one or two observed while ISI was adjusted by a psi method. Psychometric functions were estimated using the cumulative distribution function of the extreme value distribution. The threshold was the ISI value corresponding with the rate of 63.21% correct answer. Significant differences were found among ISI thresholds of the luminance, blue-yellow, and red-green opponency. Results supported that the temporal distinguishability of double pulses of the luminance opponency, the red-green opponency, and the blue-yellow opponency were significantly different. The difference can be explained by the impulse response functions (IRF with various first peak time among the luminance opponency, the red-green opponency, and the blue-yellow opponency.

  7. The effect of opponent type on human performance in a three-alternative choice task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Celia; Baxter, Jennifer; Alsop, Brent

    2013-10-01

    Adult participants played computerised games of "Paper Scissors Rock". Participants in one group were told that they were playing against the computer, and those in the other group were told that they were playing against another participant in the adjacent room. The participant who won the most games would receive a $50 prize. For both groups however, the opponent's responses (paper, scissors, or rock) were generated by the computer, and the distribution of these responses was varied across four blocks of 126 trials. Results were analysed using the generalised matching law for the three possible pairs of alternatives (paper vs. scissors, paper vs. rock, and scissors vs. rock) across all participants in each group. Overall, significantly higher estimates of sensitivity to the distribution of opponent's responses were obtained from participants who were told their opponent was a computer compared to participants who were told their opponent was another participant. While adding to the existing literature showing that the generalised matching law is an adequate descriptor of human three-alternative choice behaviour, these findings show that external factors such as perceived opponent type can affect the efficacy of reinforcer contingencies on human behaviour. This suggests that generalising the results from tasks performed against a computer to real-life human-to-human interactions warrants some caution.

  8. Applying the Capital Jury Project Findings to Court-Martial Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Garvey, Lessons From the Capital Jury Project, 162; Stephen P. Garvey, “The Emotional Economy of Capital Sentencing,” New York University Law Review 75...jurors regard that as showing no remorse.37 Jurors expect the defendant to show emotion (as in, cry) at the emotionally tense portions of the trial...bully. The bully may resort to sarcasm , belligerence, name calling, and demeaning comments.86 The bully may believe that his role is to serve as the

  9. Einstein's Jury The Race to Test Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Crelinsten, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Einstein's Jury is the dramatic story of how astronomers in Germany, England, and America competed to test Einstein's developing theory of relativity. Weaving a rich narrative based on extensive archival research, Jeffrey Crelinsten shows how these early scientific debates shaped cultural attitudes we hold today. The book examines Einstein's theory of general relativity through the eyes of astronomers, many of whom were not convinced of the legitimacy of Einstein's startling breakthrough. These were individuals with international reputations to uphold and benefactors and shareholders to p

  10. Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence, the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

  11. How Juries Assess Universal Design in Norwegian Architectural School Competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Leif D

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how architectural school competition juries assess Universal Design. The method used is a case study of 18 recent architectural school competitions in Norway. The results show that most competition briefs ask for Universal Designed buildings. In 8 of the 18 cases, Universal Design is mentioned as an assessment criterion. In 11 of the 18 cases, Universal Design is commented on by the juries in the jury reports, but only in 3 of the cases, do the juries assess this aspect consistently on every competition project. The overall impression is that some amount of uncertainty looms concerning how Universal Design should be assessed in the competition stage. Based on the findings, future juries should concentrate on orientation and overview prior to technicalities and details.

  12. Defendants' Rights in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ralph C., II; Keeley, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the protections afforded by the Constitution for defendants in criminal trials. These include the right to a jury trial (in cases of possible incarceration), an impartial jury, and the requirement of a unanimous verdict. Defends the use of plea bargaining as essential to an efficient criminal justice system. (MJP)

  13. The Consumer as 'Voter', 'Judge' and 'Jury'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    . It was, however, the development of market research methods during the 1930s and 1940s, which provided the crucial backdrop for the sudden rise to prominence of an idea that assumes that consumers dictate what is produced through their ‘‘votes,’’ that is, daily choices. Innovations in the measurement...... of consumer preferences, such as consumer juries, panel surveys, and the program analyzer technique, provided the final touch of scientific credibility to this idea. An understanding of the historical origins and political—philosophical implications of the equation of consumer markets and democracies......This article discusses the origins of the idea that a consumer’s choice is equivalent to a citizen’s vote or a juror’s verdict and that markets therefore resemble the political process of a democracy. The idea of the consumer as sovereign driver of the marketplace emerged during the enlightenment...

  14. Do consumer voices in health-care citizens' juries matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinks, Rachael; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer A; Scuffham, Paul A

    2016-10-01

    There is widespread agreement that the public should be engaged in health-care decision making. One method of engagement that is gaining prominence is the citizens' jury, which places citizens at the centre of the deliberative process. However, little is known about how the jury process works in a health-care context. There is even less clarity about how consumer perspectives are heard within citizens' juries and with what consequences. This paper focuses on what is known about the role of consumer voices within health-care citizens' juries, how these voices are heard by jurors and whether and in what ways the inclusion or exclusion of such voices may matter. Consumer voices are not always included in health-care citizens' juries. There is a dearth of research on the conditions under which consumer voices emerge (or not), from which sources and why. As a result, little is known about what stories are voiced or silenced, and how such stories are heard by jurors, with what consequences for jurors, deliberation, decision-makers, policy and practice. The potential role of consumer voices in influencing deliberations and recommendations of citizens' juries requires greater attention. Much needed knowledge about the nuances of deliberative processes will contribute to an assessment of the usefulness of citizens' juries as a public engagement mechanism. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Judge-Jury Interaction in Deliberation: Enhancement or Obstruction of Independent Jury Decision-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyup Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Korean jury system, jurors deliberate without interference of anyone, except when they cannot reach a unanimous verdict, in which case they must hear the judge’s opinion. If jurors convict the defendant, they also deliberate with the judge on sentencing and provide their opinions. This unique feature of the Korean jury system provides rare opportunities to examine the interaction of the lay people and judges in deliberation. Through direct observation and the content analysis of the shadow jury deliberations on actual cases in Korea, we will examine whether the judge’s intervention was helpful in jury decision-making or hampers the independent judgment of the jury. The result shows the collaborative deliberation amongst jurors and judges in sentencing, and in some cases in conviction, will mutually benefit both. In turn, jurors will retain the credibility of the judiciary while the judges will reflect upon their decisions in accordance with the legal consciousness of the lay people. En el sistema de jurados de Corea, los miembros del jurado deliberan sin interferencia de nadie, excepto cuando no pueden llegar a un veredicto unánime, en cuyo caso deben escuchar la opinión del juez. Si los miembros del jurado condenan al acusado, también deliberan con el juez a la hora de dictar sentencia y expresan sus opiniones. Esta característica única del sistema de jurados de Corea ofrece pocas oportunidades para examinar la interacción del jurado popular y los jueces durante su deliberación. A través de la observación directa y el análisis del contenido de las deliberaciones del jurado en la sombra sobre casos reales en Corea, se analizará si la intervención del juez fue útil en la toma de decisiones del jurado o dificulta su independencia de criterio. El resultado demuestra que la deliberación entre los miembros del jurado y los jueces a la hora de dictar sentencia, y en algunos casos al declarar culpable al acusado, beneficia a

  16. A Color-Opponency Based Biological Model for Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Color constancy is the ability of the human visual system to adaptively correct color-biased scenes under different illuminants. Most of the existing color constancy models are nonphysiologically plausible. Among the limited biological models, the great majority is Retinex and its variations, and only two or three models directly simulate the feature of color-opponency, but only of the very earliest stages of visual pathway, i.e., the single-opponent mechanisms involved at the levels of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN neurons. Considering the extensive physiological evidences supporting that both the single-opponent cells in retina and LGN and the double-opponent neurons in primary visual cortex (V1 are the building blocks for color constancy, in this study we construct a color-opponency based color constancy model by simulating the opponent fashions of both the single-opponent and double-opponent cells in a forward manner. As for the spatial structure of the receptive fields (RF, both the classical RF (CRF center and the nonclassical RF (nCRF surround are taken into account for all the cells. The proposed model was tested on several typical image databases commonly used for performance evaluation of color constancy methods, and exciting results were achieved.

  17. Crayfish recognize the faces of fight opponents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Van der Velden

    Full Text Available The capacity to associate stimuli underlies many cognitive abilities, including recognition, in humans and other animals. Vertebrates process different categories of information separately and then reassemble the distilled information for unique identification, storage and recall. Invertebrates have fewer neural networks and fewer neural processing options so study of their behavior may reveal underlying mechanisms still not fully understood for any animal. Some invertebrates form complex social colonies and are capable of visual memory-bees and wasps, for example. This ability would not be predicted in species that interact in random pairs without strong social cohesion; for example, crayfish. They have chemical memory but the extent to which they remember visual features is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the crayfish Cherax destructor is capable of visual recognition of individuals. The simplicity of their interactions allowed us to examine the behavior and some characteristics of the visual features involved. We showed that facial features are learned during face-to-face fights, that highly variable cues are used, that the type of variability is important, and that the learning is context-dependent. We also tested whether it is possible to engineer false identifications and for animals to distinguish between twin opponents.

  18. Motion opponency and transparency in the human middle temporal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Javier O; Grossman, Emily D

    2009-09-01

    Motion transparency is the perception of multiple, moving surfaces within the same retinal location (for example, a ripple on the surface of a drifting stream), and is an interesting challenge to motion models because multiple velocities must be represented within the same region of space. When these motion vectors are in opposite directions, brief in duration and spatially constrained within a very local region, the result is little or no perceived motion (motion opponency). Both motion transparency and motion opponency inhibit the firing rate of single middle temporal area (MT) neurons as compared with the preferred direction alone, but neither generally influences the firing rate of primary visual cortex neurons. Surprisingly, neuroimaging studies of human middle temporal area (hMT+) have found less activation due only to motion opponency and an increase in neural responses for motion transparency. Here we parametrically manipulate the local balance between competing motion vectors and find an interaction between motion opponency and transparency in the population blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response. We find reduced BOLD amplitude for motion opponency throughout visual cortex, but weakened responses due to perceptual transparency that is most apparent only within the hMT+. We interpret our results as evidence for two distinct mechanisms mediating opponency and transparency.

  19. TRIAL BY PREVIEW

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bert I. Huang

    2013-01-01

    ...—that is, the judge or the jury who will be the finder of fact at trial. Both theory and policy have focused narrowly on previewing the evidence, while barely noticing the complementary effect of previewing the audience...

  20. Evaluating the use of citizens' juries in food policy: a case study of food regulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Julie; House, Elizabeth; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha; Ankeny, Rachel; Ward, Paul; Calnan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper reports a study to examine the feasibility of citizens' juries as a means of collecting data to inform public health policy related to food regulation through evaluation of the conduct of a citizens' jury...

  1. Juri Jakovlev hodil na telegraf po notsham / Oleg Peranov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peranov, Oleg

    2005-01-01

    Tegijad meenutavad, kuidas sündis Oscar Wilde'i näidendi järgi tehtud mängufilm "Ideaalne mees" ("Idealnõi muzh") : režissöör ja stsenarist Viktor Georgijev : peaosades Juri Jakovlev, Ljudmila Gurtshenko : Nõukogude Liit 1980

  2. Juri Jakovlev hodil na telegraf po notsham / Oleg Peranov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peranov, Oleg

    2005-01-01

    Tegijad meenutavad, kuidas sündis Oscar Wilde'i näidendi järgi tehtud mängufilm "Ideaalne mees" ("Idealnõi muzh") : režissöör ja stsenarist Viktor Georgijev : peaosades Juri Jakovlev, Ljudmila Gurtshenko : Nõukogude Liit 1980

  3. Juri Lotman Püha Graali otsinguil / L. G. C.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    L. G. C.

    2008-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm semiootik Juri Lotmanist (1922-1993) "Lotmani maailm" : stsenaristid Agne Nelk, Rein Pakk : režissöör A. Nelk : produtsent Kiur Aarma : animatsioon Rait Siska : Ruut, 2008. Autoriks L. G. C. - Leonard Gaius Cohen e. Lemmit Kaplinski

  4. Juri Apresjan and the Development of Semantics and Lexicography1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    Abstract: The major aim of this article is to highlight Juri Apresjan's impact on the develop- ment of .... language of semantic description (see bibliography in Apresjan 2000).2 ... Within this scientific paradigm the concept of linguistic semantics ... concepts and the structure of language, undoubtedly belongs to the key prob-.

  5. Belorussija bez fobii / Juri Drakahrust, Pjotr Martsev ; interv. Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Drakahrust, Juri

    2008-01-01

    Eestisse on saabunud Valgevene ja Venemaa analüütik ning ettevõtja Juri Drakahrust ja Valgevene ärilehe Belorusskaja Gazeta väljaandja ja peatoimetaja Pjotr Martsev Avatud Eesti Fondi seminari raames. Nad räägivad Valgevene majanduse ja poliitika praegusest olukorrast, võimalikest arengutest

  6. Pain relief as an opponent process: a psychophysical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, Siri; Brooks, Jonathan C W; Wiech, Katja; Tracey, Irene

    2008-08-01

    Relief from pain in humans is frequently measured by computing the reduction on an 11-point pain intensity scale. However, this definition of relief may be insufficient to capture the utility of pain relief for the individual. Based on pain literature and evidence from studies examining relief and reward, it is clear that pain relief is a broad concept comprising several factors, only one of which is pain intensity reduction. According to opponent process theory, all sensations consist of a primary process and a slow 'opponent process' of opposite valence, the purpose of which is to reduce the deviation from homeostatic balance. Here, opponent process theory provided a framework to explore the interaction between pain, relief and reward. We devised three psychophysical studies examining the temporal (Experiment I) and magnitude (Experiments I and II) relationships between pain severity and its subsequent relief. In Experiment III, we further manipulated the magnitude and pleasantness of relief experienced by applying innocuous cooling following noxious heat stimulation of capsaicin-sensitized skin. Results confirmed predictions from opponent process theory and showed that pain intensity reduction was significantly stronger than relief intensity ratings. Furthermore, continuous relief ratings appeared to reflect the speed of pain intensity reduction. Varying pain intensity parametrically confirmed that relief increases with pain intensity. That innocuous cooling following primary hyperalgesia intervention significantly increased the intensity, pleasantness and duration of relief provides further evidence that pain relief encapsulates more than a reduction in pain intensity. Importantly, the high relief pleasantness ratings confirmed the hypothesized link between relief and reward.

  7. Statistical Outlier Detection for Jury Based Grading Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Rosas, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that was developed to identify statistical outliers from the scores of grading jury members in a large project-based first year design course. The background and requirements for the outlier detection system are presented. The outlier detection algorithm...... and the follow-up procedures for score validation and appeals are described in detail. Finally, the impact of various elements of the outlier detection algorithm, their interactions, and the sensitivity of their numerical values are investigated. It is shown that the difference in the mean score produced...... by a grading jury before and after a suspected outlier is removed from the mean is the single most effective criterion for identifying potential outliers but that all of the criteria included in the algorithm have an effect on the outlier detection process....

  8. Judge upholds jury award over employer's HIV disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-30

    A Federal judge has refused to overturn or reduce a jury's $125,000 award to a Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) employee who said his privacy was invaded when his superiors learned he was taking an AIDS medication. The employee, known as John Doe, charged that Judith Pierce, the chief administrative officer of SEPTA, looked at the records of the agency's prescription drug plan to confirm her suspicions that he had HIV. Pierce, who claimed drug report review was part of her job in controlling costs, contended that she wanted to make sure the plan's new administrator, Rite-Aid Corp., was charging the right prices for prescriptions. The judge agreed with the jury that Pierce went far beyond her role as auditor of the drug plan when she asked Rite-Aid to link individuals' names to specific prescriptions and then informed Doe's supervisor, associate, and another employee about Doe's AIDS medication.

  9. Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma contains strategies that dominate any evolutionary opponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, William H; Dyson, Freeman J

    2012-06-26

    The two-player Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game is a model for both sentient and evolutionary behaviors, especially including the emergence of cooperation. It is generally assumed that there exists no simple ultimatum strategy whereby one player can enforce a unilateral claim to an unfair share of rewards. Here, we show that such strategies unexpectedly do exist. In particular, a player X who is witting of these strategies can (i) deterministically set her opponent Y's score, independently of his strategy or response, or (ii) enforce an extortionate linear relation between her and his scores. Against such a player, an evolutionary player's best response is to accede to the extortion. Only a player with a theory of mind about his opponent can do better, in which case Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma is an Ultimatum Game.

  10. Juri Lotmani kunstiteksti lugemise õpetus / Ülle Pärli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärli, Ülle

    2007-01-01

    Ilukirjanduslike tekstide kasutamisest vene keele õpetamisel. Kirjandusteksti analüüsi põhimõtetest Juri Lotmani monograafiates. Lotmani osalusel koostatud kirjandusõpikutest ja kirjanduslikust lugemikust

  11. Using Pretest-Posttest Research Designs to Enhance Jury Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Goodman-Delahunty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When lay jurors are unfamiliar with key evidentiary issues, expert evidence, judicial instructions and group deliberation may enhance their understanding of this evidence. Systematic steps to assess the relationship between juror biases in cases of child sexual abuse are offered as an example to illustrate a programmatic research approach. Using pretest-posttest research designs, the effectiveness of three traditional legal procedural safeguards to reduce common jury misconceptions in the context of simulated trials were tested and compared. By measuring mock-juror knowledge before and after each intervention, knowledge gains attributable to these interventions were distinguished from practice effects. Unexpected increases in acquittals following deliberation underscored the importance of adding adequate control groups and of testing deliberation effects in jury simulation studies. Benefits of this research paradigm to assist courts, legal counsel and policy makers in devising effective methods to enhance jury decisions in complex criminal cases are discussed. Cuando los miembros del jurado popular no están familiarizados con los temas probatorios clave, las pruebas periciales, las instrucciones judiciales y la deliberación de grupo pueden mejorar su comprensión de las evidencias. Se ofrecen pasos sistemáticos para evaluar la relación entre sesgos del jurado en casos de abusos a menores como un ejemplo para ilustrar un enfoque de investigación programática. Se probó y comparó la efectividad de tres garantías procesales jurídicas tradicionales para reducir los malentendidos comunes de los jurados en el contexto de juicios simulados, usando patrones de investigación pre y post análisis. Al medir el conocimiento de jurados en juicios simulados antes y después de cada intervención, se distinguían los conocimientos adquiridos atribuibles a estas intervenciones. Un aumento inesperado de absoluciones después de la deliberación pon

  12. Juri Lotmani raamatu tõlge kandideerib USAs auhinnale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Juri Lotmani monograafia "Непредсказуемые механизмы культуры" tõlge inglise keelde "The Unpredictable Workings of Culture" nomineeriti Ameerika Slaavi ja Ida-Euroopa Keelte Õpetajate Ühingu 2013. aasta parima tõlkeraamatu auhinnale. Tõlke autor on Kenti Ülikooli slavistika professor Brian Baer ning raamat on ilmunud Tallinna Ülikooli Kirjastuse väljaandena

  13. Epistolaarne Juri Lotman : sädelev vaim, armastav / Rein Veidemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veidemann, Rein, 1946-

    2007-01-01

    Arvustus: Lotman, Juri. Valik kirju / koostanud [ja järelsõna:] Marek Tamm ; vene keelest tõlkinud Jüri Ojamaa ja Maiga Varik ; [joonistused: J. Lotman]. Tallinn : Kultuurileht, 2007. (Loomingu Raamatukogu ; 8-9)Tartus avati Juri Lotmani monument, autorid Mati Karmin ja Andres Lunge

  14. The Impact of Voir Dire and the Deliberation Process on Jury Verdicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K. Phillip; Buchanan, Raymond W.

    Recent social scientific interest in juror selection has advanced the "voir dire" (jury selection) process beyond Clarence Darrow's formula for choosing a jury likely to be sympathetic to his client. From a communication perspective, generalization to different cases in different sections of the country and under different conditions…

  15. Evaluating the use of citizens' juries in food policy: a case study of food regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Julie; House, Elizabeth; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha; Ankeny, Rachel; Ward, Paul; Calnan, Michael

    2013-06-19

    Deliberative engagement techniques and citizens' juries are touted as means of incorporating the public into policy decision-making, managing community expectations and increasing commitment to public health policy. This paper reports a study to examine the feasibility of citizens' juries as a means of collecting data to inform public health policy related to food regulation through evaluation of the conduct of a citizens' jury. A citizens' jury was conducted with a representative sample of 17 South Australians to explore their willingness to consider the proposition that food and drink advertising and/or sponsorship should be banned at children's sporting events. The results showed that, in relation to the central proposition and evaluation data from the jury, opinion on the proposition remained comparatively stable. Most jurors indicated that they thought that food and drink sponsorship and/or advertising at children's sporting events would have little or no effect on altering children's diet and eating habits, with the proportion increasing during the jury process. Jurors were given evaluation sheets about the content of the jury and the process of the citizens' jury to complete at the end of the session. The evaluation of the citizens' jury process revealed positive perceptions. The majority of jurors agreed that their knowledge of the issues of food and drink sponsorship in children's sport had increased as a result of participation in the citizens' jury. The majority also viewed the decision-making process as fair and felt that their views were listened to. One important response in the evaluation was that all jurors indicated that, if given the opportunity, they would participate in another citizens' jury. The findings suggest that the citizens' jury increased participant knowledge of the issue and facilitated reflective discussion of the proposition. Citizens' juries are an effective means of gaining insight into public views of policy and the circumstances

  16. Estonija kak tranzitnõi most / Juri Hromov ; interv. Igor Kljujev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hromov, Juri

    2001-01-01

    Majandusdoktor Juri Hromov EL-i ittalaienemisest, Eesti ühinemisest EL-iga, Vene-Eesti kaubandus-majandussuhete arengu seotusest nende riikide vaheliste suhetega, Eesti majanduse ümberorienteerumisest Läände jm.

  17. Novas estratégias em educação: avaliação da técnica Tribunal do Júri na capacitação de conselheiros na área de saúde da mulher em Santa Catarina, Brasil New educational strategies: evaluation of the Jury Trial technique for training council members in women's health in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonor Minho Conill

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se e avalia-se a técnica Tribunal do Júri, instrumento educativo inovador utilizado em uma oficina piloto sobre Controle Social e Gênero para conselheiros de saúde da Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Estudaram-se sua confiabilidade e validade utilizando a opinião dos participantes complementado com observação qualitativa dos trabalhos. Houve unanimidade na aceitação da técnica por parte dos conselheiros pela "aquisição de conhecimentos" e "por ser participativa, democrática e dinâmica". A avaliação positiva coincide com trabalho anterior feito com secretários municipais, notando-se menor preferência por atividades cognitivas formais que também compunham a oficina. Conclui-se reforçando a importância do uso dessa inovação em capacitações, por ser aceita por públicos distintos, permitir o mapeamento de conteúdo programático e ser útil face a temáticas novas e polêmicas ao favorecer vivências práticas e reflexivas.This article describes and evaluates the Jury Trial technique, an innovative educational instrument used in a pilot workshop on Social Control and Gender by health council members in Greater Metropolitan Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The reliability and validity were studied based on the participants' opinions, complemented by qualitative observation of the work. There was consensus in acceptance of the technique based on "acquisition of knowledge" and the fact that it was participatory, democratic, and dynamic. The positive evaluation agrees with a previous study that interviewed municipal health secretaries, with a smaller preference of formal cognitive activities that were also part of the workshop. The article concludes by emphasizing the importance of this innovative technique in training programs, since it is accepted by different target publics, allows for designing the program contents, and is useful in relation to new and controversial issues since it favors

  18. Juri Apresjan and the Development of Semantics and Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Burkhanov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The major aim of this article is to highlight Juri Apresjan's impact on the develop-ment of linguistic semantics and theoretical lexicography. In order to achieve this goal, a number of issues of paramount importance, which have always been in the focus of attention in Apresjan's publications, have to be discussed: (a the notion of "naïve picture of the world", i.e. language-spe-cific folk categorization encoded in the lexical and grammatical semantics of a particular language, as opposed to the supposedly universal and language-independent system of scientific concepts; (b basic properties of the formal metalanguage of semantic desciption, its explanatory power and applicability in dictionary-making; and (c representation of synonymy in a bilingual and a mono-lingual dictionary of synonyms designed within the framework of systematic lexicography. In addition, considerable attention has been given to two basic categories of systematic lexicography, "lexicographic portrait" and "lexicographic type", as well as the zonal structure of dictionary arti-cles.

    Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, COMMONSENSE (EVERYDAY KNOWLEDGE, DEFINITION, DICTIONARY OF SYNONYMS, EXPERT KNOWLEDGE, INTEGRATED LEXICO-GRAPHIC DESCRIPTION, LEXICOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT, LEXICOGRAPHIC TYPE, META-LANGUAGE, NAÏVE PICTURE OF THE WORLD, SCIENTIFIC PICTURE OF THE WORLD, SYNONYM SERIES, SYSTEMATIC LEXICOGRAPHY, TRANSLATION DICTIONARY, ZONAL STRUCTURE (OF A DICTIONARY ENTRY

    Opsomming: Jury Apresjan en die ontwikkeling van die semantiek en lek-sikografie. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om Juri Apresjan se invloed op die ontwikkeling van die linguistiese semantiek en teoretiese leksikografie uit te lig. Om hierdie doel te bereik, moet 'n aantal kwessies van die grootste belang wat nog altyd in die brandpunt van aandag in Apresjan se publikasies was, bespreek word: (a die opvatting van 'n "naïewe beeld van die wêreld", d.w.s. taalspesifieke volkskategorisering

  19. Tree assemblages and diversity patterns in Tropical Juri Forest, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapan Kumar Sarker; Muhammad Nur-Un-Nabi; Md. Mohasinul Haque; Mahmuda Sharmin; Sanjay Saha Sonet; Sourav Das; Niamjit Das

    2015-01-01

    Juri is a biodiversity-rich primary forest in Bangladesh, which remains ecologically unexplored. We identified tree species and examined the richness, alpha (α) diversity and floristic similarity patterns within the identi-fied communities. Vegetation and environmental data were sampled in 120 (0.04 ha) study plots. Tree communities were delimited by two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). In total, 78 tree species of 35 families and 58 genera were identified. TWINSPAN identified six tree communities: A—Tricalysia singularis; B—Kydia calyci-na-Castanopsis tribuloides;C—Polyalthia simiarum-Dua-banga grandiflora; D—Ficus roxburghii; E—Artocarpus lacucha;F—Artocarpus lacucha. Mean richness, Shannon and Gini-Simpson indices were highest for the Polyalthia simiarum-Duabanga grandiflora community, while Ficus roxburghii showed lowest diversity. Significant differences (p=0.05) in three diversity indices were recorded between Polyalthia simiarum-Duabanga grandiflora and Ficus roxburghii. Tree compositional similarity was greatest between Kydia calycina-Castanopsis tribuloides and Polyalthia simiarum-Duabanga grandiflora (0.712).

  20. Challenging the other: exploring the role of opponent gender in digital game competition for female players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lotte; Núñez Castellar, Elena; Van Looy, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Abstract The present study investigated the effect of opponent gender on the game experience of female players. Concretely, it looked into skill perception and player emotions of women in same gender and cross-gender game competition. We set up a 2×2×2 (male vs. female opponent×low vs. high competitive women×lost vs. won game) experimental design in which women were instructed to play against a proclaimed male and female competitor. Unknowingly, however, participants played against an AI, which was configured to produce a winning and a losing condition for each opponent by manipulating difficulty. Results indicated that opponent gender only had an effect on perceived stress, which was higher with male opponents. Moreover, players evaluated their own gaming skills as lower and the skills of presumed male opponents as higher when they thought they were playing against men. Importantly, our results also showed that the above described pattern for self-perceived skills and perceived opponent skills was modulated by trait competitiveness with a larger effect size for low competitive women. Overall, this study illustrates that gender dynamics affect the play experience of women in cross-gender gaming competition. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  1. Mistrust and Mediation in Judiciary -Analysis of Danish Jury System%司法中的不信任与协调——丹麦陪审制剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军辉

    2012-01-01

    在陪审制发展过程中总是伴随着对职业法官司法的批评以及对普通大众司法的批评,这种对立意见表现的是对两种司法模式中执掌权力之人的不信任。为协调这种冲突,丹麦在有利于发挥陪审制的作用、有利于保障被告人的合法权益的原则之下既保留陪审团制、又实施参审制,发展出独具特色的陪审制模式。%Development of jury system has always been accompanied with criticism of justice by professional judges and criticism of justice by ordinary mass. Such opposed positions reflect mistrust of those in control of power in the aforesaid two modes of justice. In order to mediate the conflict, Denmark has developed a unique jury system which keeps jury trial while applying mixed court system under the principle that legitimate interest of defendant should be protected and jury system should play an active role

  2. Opponent and bidirectional control of movement velocity in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yttri, Eric A; Dudman, Joshua T

    2016-05-02

    For goal-directed behaviour it is critical that we can both select the appropriate action and learn to modify the underlying movements (for example, the pitch of a note or velocity of a reach) to improve outcomes. The basal ganglia are a critical nexus where circuits necessary for the production of behaviour, such as the neocortex and thalamus, are integrated with reward signalling to reinforce successful, purposive actions. The dorsal striatum, a major input structure of basal ganglia, is composed of two opponent pathways, direct and indirect, thought to select actions that elicit positive outcomes and suppress actions that do not, respectively. Activity-dependent plasticity modulated by reward is thought to be sufficient for selecting actions in the striatum. Although perturbations of basal ganglia function produce profound changes in movement, it remains unknown whether activity-dependent plasticity is sufficient to produce learned changes in movement kinematics, such as velocity. Here we use cell-type-specific stimulation in mice delivered in closed loop during movement to demonstrate that activity in either the direct or indirect pathway is sufficient to produce specific and sustained increases or decreases in velocity, without affecting action selection or motivation. These behavioural changes were a form of learning that accumulated over trials, persisted after the cessation of stimulation, and were abolished in the presence of dopamine antagonists. Our results reveal that the direct and indirect pathways can each bidirectionally control movement velocity, demonstrating unprecedented specificity and flexibility in the control of volition by the basal ganglia.

  3. Facial Comparison from CCTV footage: The competence and confidence of the jury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Heather; Tough, Ann

    2015-12-01

    CCTV footage is commonly used in the court room to help visualise the crime in question and to help identify the offender. Unfortunately the majority of surveillance cameras produce such poor quality images that the task of identifying individuals can be extremely difficult. This study aimed at determining whether the task of identifying the offender in CCTV footage was one which a jury should be competent to do, or whether expert evidence would be beneficial in such cases. The ability of potential jury members, the general public, was tested by asking participants to play the role of a jury member by means of an online survey. Potential jury members viewed CCTV in which a simulated offence took place, and were subsequently asked to compare still images of a defendant to the offender to try to determine if they were competent and confident about making a judgement as to whether the defendant committed the crime. Factors such as age, gender and profession of the potential jury members were considered, as well as the type of crime committed, in order to establish if these play any role in the decision made by potential jury members. These factors did not appear to play a significant role; however confidence was also investigated and it became very evident that this was a factor that must be taken into consideration when determining the requirement for expert contribution in facial comparisons. Jury members may well be willing and competent to a basic level in carrying out a facial comparison but if they lack a certain level of confidence in their ability and decision making then this task is more suitable for an expert with experience and skills in this field.

  4. Social Justice and Environmental Awareness Developed through a Citizens' Jury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J.

    2014-12-01

    A Citizens' Jury (CJ) is a discussion forum in which managers, policymakers or politicians are able to present their case to the general public ('citizens') to whom they are accountable, and for these citizens to critically ask questions of the managers/policymakers/politicians in order to better understand issues surrounding local development, planning and policy, impacts and adaptive measures, and to highlight their concerns. A CJ can be useful with respect to developing social justice and environmental awareness issues because it can empower community action and present different viewpoints. A practical CJ exercise is used in a second-year undergraduate course entitled Climate Change and Society, at University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The CJ is used to consider some of the impacts of management policies used for climate change and sustainable development adaption, based on a hypothetical scenario. This scenario is that a major energy company wants to build a dam with hydroelectric power station in a developing country. This will provide low-carbon renewable energy to the country, investment in electricity infrastructure, and the company is committed to help economic development in the country, including in jobs and education. However, building and flooding of the dam will involve displacing 10,000 people from rural communities, flooding agricultural areas and areas of high biodiversity, and archaeological sites. The exercise is based on students, in groups, assuming different 'identities' which may include a local business person, resident, politician, member of an NGO, tourist, engineer, farmer etc, from which viewpoint they must argue for/against the proposal and to question other peoples' viewpoints. This exercise is useful because it allows students to develop understandings of different viewpoints, evaluate risk and impacts on different communities, and highlights the complexity of real-world decision-making.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    'I know very well that my theory rests on a shaky foundation. What attracts me to it is that it leads to consequences that seem to be accessible to experiment, and it provides a starting point for the theoretical understanding of gravitation', wrote Einstein in 1911. Einstein's Jury by Jeffrey Crelinsten—well documented, well written, and fascinating to read—describes how, from 1909 on, Einstein's two theories of relativity became known to astronomers, and how the predictions made between 1907 and 1915 were received as challenges to observers. The author gives a non-technical account of the efforts made until 1930 to test these predictions; he focuses on two of the three classical tests, namely gravitational redshift and bending of light; the 'jury' consists mainly of American observers—Adams, Campbell, Curtis, Hale, Perrin, St John, Trumpler and others—working with newly built large telescopes, and the Britons Eddington and Evershed. The major steps which, after a long struggle, convinced the majority of astronomers that Einstein was right, are narrated chronologically in rather great detail, especially the work at Lick Observatory, before and after the famous British observation of 1919, on solar eclipses, and the work at Mount Wilson and the Indian Kodaikanal Observatories to extract the gravitational redshift from the complicated spectrum of the sun. The account of the eclipse work which was carried out between 1918 and 1923 by Lick astronomers corrects the impression suggested by many historical accounts that the British expedition alone settled the light-bending question. Apart from these main topics, the anomalous perihelion advance of Mercury and the ether problem are covered. By concentrating on astronomy rather than on physics this book complements the rich but repetitive literature on Einstein and relativity which appeared in connection with the commemoration of Einstein's annus mirabilis, 2005. The well told stories include curiosities such as

  6. He Called for His Pipe, and He Called for His Bowl, and He Called for His Members Three--Selection of Military Juries by the Sovereign: Impediment to Military Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    judiciary routinely and thoroughly defers to Congress and the President in handling military matters in general. In Chappell v. Wallace,ś the Supreme...application to the military establishment and wholly different from civilian patterns. Chappell v. Wallace, 462 U.S. 296, 300 (1983) (holding that...jury.436 The Supreme Court has long since denied ajury trial, as a ... Edward F. Sherman , The Civilianization of Military Law, 22 ME. L. REV. 3 (1970

  7. Application of uti possidetis juris principle in the process of determination of international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uti possidetis juris principle was basic rule in determining international borders in the period of decolonization. It was applied in Latin America and Africa, but also at the end of 20th century in the processes of dissolution of USSR, SFRY and Czechoslovakia. Uti possidetis juris principle is based on the presumption that former colonial administrative borders kept stability and territorial integrity. It was undoubtedly connected with the right of self-determination. It keeps the existing borders by preventing secession, but in that way it does not solve the problem of badly determined and disputed borders. The unclear foundations on which the borders were determined can be a source of chaos and indisputes, which was shown n some cases before the International Court of Justice. The dominant theory is that uti possidetis juris principle should be applied with certain limitations, in the period after decolonization as a basis for preserving the territorial integrity of postcolonial states.

  8. An optimized outlier detection algorithm for jury-based grading of engineering design projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Espensen, Christina; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2016-01-01

    This work characterizes and optimizes an outlier detection algorithm to identify potentially invalid scores produced by jury members while grading engineering design projects. The paper describes the original algorithm and the associated adjudication process in detail. The impact of the various......, but no true optimum seems to exist. The performance of the best optimizations and the original algorithm are similar. Therefore, it should be possible to choose new coefficient values for jury populations in other cultures and contexts logically and empirically without a full optimization as long...

  9. Emergence of Exploratory, Technical and Tactical Behavior in Small-Sided Soccer Games when Manipulating the Number of Teammates and Opponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ric, Angel; Hristovski, Robert; Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Vicente, Emili; Sampaio, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    The effects that different constraints have on the exploratory behavior, measured by the variety and quantity of different responses within a game situation, is of the utmost importance for successful performance in team sports. The aim of this study was to determine how the number of teammates and opponents affects the exploratory behavior of both professional and amateur players in small-sided soccer games. Twenty-two professional (age 25.6 ± 4.9 years) and 22 amateur (age 23.1 ± 0.7 years) male soccer players played three small-sided game formats (4 vs. 3, 4 vs. 5, and 4 vs. 7). These trials were video-recorded and a systematic observation instrument was used to notate the actions, which were subsequently analyzed by means of a principal component analysis and the dynamic overlap order parameter (measure to identify the rate and breadth of exploratory behavior on different time scales). Results revealed that a higher the number of opponents required for more frequent ball controls. Moreover, with a higher number of teammates, there were more defensive actions focused on protecting the goal, with more players balancing. In relation to attack, an increase in the number of opponents produced a decrease in passing, driving and controlling actions, while an increase in the number of teammates led to more time being spent in attacking situations. A numerical advantage led to less exploratory behavior, an effect that was especially clear when playing within a team of seven players against four opponents. All teams showed strong effects of the number of teammates on the exploratory behavior when comparing 5 vs 7 or 3 vs 7 teammates. These results seem to be independent of the players’ level. PMID:28005978

  10. (Almost) Everything I Need to Know about Multiculturalism I Learned on Jury Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shaunna

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that during her experience on jury duty--spent with a melting pot of socially-conscious citizens--she reflected upon the implications for education and her own teaching practice. Three major themes centering around her understanding of multiculturalism surfaced: (1) Defining multiculturalism; (2) The cult of…

  11. Regelgeving moet smart solution niet hinderen : interview met Arnold Stokking, voorzitter jury award

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, T. van der

    2013-01-01

    Juryvoorzitter Arnold Stokking reikt op z6 juni 2013 de Smart Solution Award uit aan hét mkb-metaalbedrijf dat zich het meest onderscheidt door met slimme oplossingen nieuwe kansen te verzilveren. De inschrijving is inmiddels gesloten en de jury buigt zich over de inzendingen. Stokking, Managing Dir

  12. (Almost) Everything I Need to Know about Multiculturalism I Learned on Jury Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shaunna

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that during her experience on jury duty--spent with a melting pot of socially-conscious citizens--she reflected upon the implications for education and her own teaching practice. Three major themes centering around her understanding of multiculturalism surfaced: (1) Defining multiculturalism; (2) The cult of…

  13. Receiving post-conflict affiliation from the enemy's friend reconciles former opponents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman M Wittig

    Full Text Available The adaptive function of bystander initiated post-conflict affiliation (also: consolation & appeasement has been debated for 30 years. Three influential hypotheses compete for the most likely explanation but have not previously been tested with a single data set. The consolation hypothesis argues that bystander affiliation calms the victim and reduces their stress levels. The self-protection hypothesis proposes that a bystander offers affiliation to either opponent to protect himself from redirected aggression by this individual. The relationship-repair hypothesis suggests a bystander can substitute for a friend to reconcile the friend with the friend's former opponent. Here, we contrast all three hypotheses and tested their predictions with data on wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We examined the first and second post-conflict interactions with respect to both the dyadic and triadic relationships between the bystander and the two opponents. Results showed that female bystanders offered affiliation to their aggressor friends and the victims of their friends, while male bystanders offered affiliation to their victim friends and the aggressors of their friends. For both sexes, bystander affiliation resulted in a subsequent interaction pattern that is expected for direct reconciliation. Bystander affiliation offered to the opponent's friend was more likely to lead to affiliation among opponents in their subsequent interaction. Also, tolerance levels among former opponents were reset to normal levels. In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence for the relationship-repair hypothesis, moderate evidence for the consolation hypothesis and no evidence for the self-protection hypothesis. Furthermore, that bystanders can repair a relationship on behalf of their friend indicates that recipient chimpanzees are aware of the relationships between others, even when they are not kin. This presents a

  14. Evidence for opponent process analysis of sound source location in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Paul M; Kitterick, Pádraig T; Summerfield, A Quentin

    2013-02-01

    Research with barn owls suggested that sound source location is represented topographically in the brain by an array of neurons each tuned to a narrow range of locations. However, research with small-headed mammals has offered an alternative view in which location is represented by the balance of activity in two opponent channels broadly tuned to the left and right auditory space. Both channels may be present in each auditory cortex, although the channel representing contralateral space may be dominant. Recent studies have suggested that opponent channel coding of space may also apply in humans, although these studies have used a restricted set of spatial cues or probed a restricted set of spatial locations, and there have been contradictory reports as to the relative dominance of the ipsilateral and contralateral channels in each cortex. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) in conjunction with sound field stimulus presentation to address these issues and to inform the development of an explicit computational model of human sound source localization. Neural responses were compatible with the opponent channel account of sound source localization and with contralateral channel dominance in the left, but not the right, auditory cortex. A computational opponent channel model reproduced every important aspect of the EEG data and allowed inferences about the width of tuning in the spatial channels. Moreover, the model predicted the oft-reported decrease in spatial acuity measured psychophysically with increasing reference azimuth. Predictions of spatial acuity closely matched those measured psychophysically by previous authors.

  15. The voice of the other : A dialogico-rhetorical understanding of opponent and of Toulmin's rebuttal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, Wouter H.; Hitchcock, D; Verheij, B

    2006-01-01

    Although contemporary dialectical logic recognizes an important role for the opponent in argumentation, it remains loyal to the idea that arguments are supportive. In this paper, it is argued that because of this dialectical logic does not take seriously its own dialogical perspective. Without ackno

  16. Video Game Violence and the Female Game Player: Self- and Opponent Gender Effects on Presence and Aggressive Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastin, Matthew S.

    2006-01-01

    Adding depth and breadth to the general aggression model, this paper presents three experiments that test the relationships among user and opponent gender representation, opponent type, presence, and aggressive thoughts from violent video game play. Studies 1 and 2 suggest that females experience greater presence and more aggressive thoughts from…

  17. The problem of the autocatalytic origin of culture in Juri Lotman's cultural philosophy / Linnar Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Linnar, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Kultuuri ülesehitusest ja funktsioonidest Juri Lotmani kultuurifilosofias. Kultuuri autokatalüütilisuses on paradoks, mille kohaselt kultuur ei saa tekkida millegi muu kui kultuuri olemasolu eeldusel

  18. The problem of the autocatalytic origin of culture in Juri Lotman's cultural philosophy / Linnar Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Linnar, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Kultuuri ülesehitusest ja funktsioonidest Juri Lotmani kultuurifilosofias. Kultuuri autokatalüütilisuses on paradoks, mille kohaselt kultuur ei saa tekkida millegi muu kui kultuuri olemasolu eeldusel

  19. An optimized outlier detection algorithm for jury-based grading of engineering design projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Espensen, Christina; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2016-01-01

    This work characterizes and optimizes an outlier detection algorithm to identify potentially invalid scores produced by jury members while grading engineering design projects. The paper describes the original algorithm and the associated adjudication process in detail. The impact of the various...... conditions in the algorithm on the false positive and false negative rates is explored. Aresponse surface design is performed to optimize the algorithm using a data set from Fall 2010. Finally, the results are tested against a data set from Fall 2011. It is shown that all elements of the original algorithm......, but no true optimum seems to exist. The performance of the best optimizations and the original algorithm are similar. Therefore, it should be possible to choose new coefficient values for jury populations in other cultures and contexts logically and empirically without a full optimization as long...

  20. Jury awards $6,000 in firing of hair stylist with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-27

    A Federal jury in New Mexico awarded $6,000 to the estate of a hairdresser after deciding that his employer retaliated against him for filing a discrimination complaint. The employer, MTS Corp., fired [name removed] after other workers refused to work with him. MTS Corp. also denied his request to work at his primary salon, denied his attendance at the company Christmas party, and claimed that he worked fewer hours than required. Outstanding legal costs are still being disputed.

  1. Yes, The Government Should Tax Soft Drinks: Findings from a Citizens’ Jury in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Moretto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from

  2. Cohesion and Coherence in Discourse Extracted from Clinton's Testimony to the Grand Jury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟

    2016-01-01

    Cohesion and coherence are two important terms in discourse analysis. This paper deals with cohesion and coherence in a discourse extracted from Clinton's Testimony to the Grand Jury. The paper falls into four parts: the background knowledge of president Clinton's affair with Monica Lewinsky; the theoretical foundation—definitions of cohesion and coherence; the application of cohesion and coherence in the extracted discourse and a summary of the findings.

  3. Yes, the government should tax soft drinks: findings from a citizens' jury in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-02-27

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public's viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens' Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens' Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens' Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of obesity.

  4. Yes, The Government Should Tax Soft Drinks: Findings from a Citizens’ Jury in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P.; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of

  5. Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed in the literature that the testosterone (T) response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables. In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (20 dyads)...

  6. Flexibility of theory of mind in a matrix game when the opponent's level changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Xi-Ping; Tang, Wei-Hai

    2014-01-01

    This study used a matrix game to explore adolescents' and young adults' flexibility of theory of mind (ToM) and to examine whether prediction could promote a person's ToM reasoning when the opponent's level of ToM changed during the course of the game. A total of 202 participants of different ages (13, 16, 19, and 24 years) were presented with the task. Results showed that the ToM flexibility in prediction and decision making was not significantly different across the age groups. A person's flexibility of ToM was better when the opponent's level was stable than when the level changed. It was even more difficult for a person to adapt when the opponent changed from a higher-order to lower-order level. The results showed prediction to be a kind of information clue that would prompt people to think further. It is both feasible and discriminative to explore even higher levels of ToM with matrix games.

  7. Chromatic clocks: Color opponency in non-image-forming visual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitschan, Manuel; Lucas, Robert J; Brown, Timothy M

    2017-07-01

    During dusk and dawn, the ambient illumination undergoes drastic changes in irradiance (or intensity) and spectrum (or color). While the former is a well-studied factor in synchronizing behavior and physiology to the earth's 24-h rotation, color sensitivity in the regulation of circadian rhythms has not been systematically studied. Drawing on the concept of color opponency, a well-known property of image-forming vision in many vertebrates (including humans), we consider how the spectral shifts during twilight are encoded by a color-opponent sensory system for non-image-forming (NIF) visual functions, including phase shifting and melatonin suppression. We review electrophysiological evidence for color sensitivity in the pineal/parietal organs of fish, amphibians and reptiles, color coding in neurons in the circadian pacemaker in mice as well as sporadic evidence for color sensitivity in NIF visual functions in birds and mammals. Together, these studies suggest that color opponency may be an important modulator of light-driven physiological and behavioral responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Community Jury on PSA screening: what do well-informed men want the government to do about prostate cancer screening--a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Doust, Jenny; Thomas, Rae; Gardiner, Robert; Mackenzie, Geraldine; Glasziou, Paul

    2014-04-30

    Cancer screening policies and programmes should take account of public values and concerns. This study sought to determine the priorities, values and concerns of men who were 'fully informed' about the benefits and harms of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening; and empirically examine the value of a community jury in eliciting public values on PSA screening. Community jury was convened on the Gold Coast, Queensland (Australia) to consider PSA screening benefits and harms, and whether government campaigns on PSA screening should be conducted. 27 men (volunteers) aged 50-70 with no personal history of prostate cancer and willing to attend jury 6-7 April 2013: 12 were randomly allocated to jury (11 attended). A qualitative analysis was conducted of the jury deliberations (audio-recorded and transcribed) to elicit the jury's views and recommendations. A survey determined the impact of the jury process on participants' individual testing decisions compared with control group. The jury concluded governments should not invest in programmes focused on PSA screening directed at the public because the PSA test did not offer sufficient reassurance or benefit and could raise unnecessary alarm. It recommended an alternative programme to support general practitioners to provide patients with better quality and more consistent information about PSA screening. After the jury, participants were less likely to be tested in the future compared with the controls, but around half said they would still consider doing so. The jury's unanimous verdict about government programmes was notable in the light of their divergent views on whether or not they would be screened themselves in the future. Community juries provide valuable insights into the priorities and concerns of men weighing up the benefits and harms of PSA screening. It will be important to assess the degree to which the findings are generalisable to other settings.

  9. Identifying and tracking switching, non-stationary opponents: a Bayesian approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hernandez-Leal, P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available and Tracking Switching, Non-stationary Opponents: a Bayesian Approach Pablo Hernandez-Leal1, Matthew E. Taylor2, Benjamin Rosman3, L. Enrique Sucar1 and Enrique Munoz de Cote1 1Instituto Nacional de Astrofı´sica, O´ptica y Electro´nica Sta. Marı´a Tonantzintla..., Puebla, Mexico 2Washington State University Pullman, Washington, USA 3Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, and the University of the Witwatersrand South Africa Abstract In many situations, agents are required to use a set of strategies...

  10. A bayesian approach for learning and tracking switching, non-stationary opponents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hernandez-Leal, P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available and Multiagent Systems, 9-13 May 2016, Singapore A Bayesian Approach for Learning and Tracking Switching, Non- Stationary Opponents (Extended Abstract) Pablo Hernandez-Leal Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica Puebla, México pablohl...@ccc.inaoep.mx Benjamin Rosman Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, and the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa brosman@csir.co.za Matthew E. Taylor Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA taylorm@eecs.wsu.edu L. Enrique Sucar...

  11. Memory of opponents is more potent than visual sign stimuli after social hierarchy has been established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzan, W.J.; Höglund, Erik; Watt, M.J.;

    2007-01-01

    was designed to examine the effect of eyespot manipulation on behavior and social rank during a second interaction between opponents that had previously established a natural dyadic social hierarchy. Prior to a second interaction, eyespots of familiar size-matched combatants were manipulated to reverse...... when animals were re-introduced, regardless of visual signal reversal or length of separation between interactions. However in males with "normal" eyespot color, dominant males had reduced serotonergic activity in CA3 and raphe, while subordinate males exhibited elevated CA3 dopaminergic activity...

  12. In the aftermath of State v. Becker: a review of state and federal jury instructions on insanity acquittal disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    An important topic related to the insanity defense is what jurors should be told about the disposition of a defendant found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). In the federal court system, jurors are not instructed about the consequences of an NGRI verdict. State courts, however, are divided on the question. The federal precedent, Shannon v. United States, and the most recent state case to rule on NGRI juror instructions, State v. Becker, are reviewed in detail. What follows is the author's critique of the principal arguments for and against a jury instruction on NGRI disposition. The author argues in favor of a jury instruction on the consequences of an NGRI verdict.

  13. Venire Reform-Assessing the State and Federal Efforts to Attain Fair, Cross-Sectional Representation in Jury Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas White

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The sixth amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees criminal defendants the right to be tried by an impartial jury of peers and the question of what constitutes an “impartial” jury has spawned constitutional controversies in the last several decades as the population of the United States became more ethnically and racially diverse. The Supreme Court has consistently held that an “impartial” jury is a jury chosen from a venire, or jury pool, fairly representative of the community’s demographics and this became known as the fair, cross-section requirement for the venire. Federal and state governments have traditionally relied on voter registration lists as their venire source and scholars have argued that the venire source must expand beyond voter registration lists in order to better represent minority groups and thus to meet the fair, cross-section requirement mandated by the Supreme Court. In this study, we examined whether state and federal governments have expanded their venire sources to attain a more representative venire. Approach: To determine whether the federal and state governments have expanded their venire source lists we compiled federal and state requirements on jury source lists. To obtain federal source lists, we analyzed the most recent court orders specifying jury sources to be used in the districts. To determine states’ venire sources, we compiled and analyzed the jury venire statutes of fifty states. Results: Interestingly, we found that states were more proactive in expanding their venire source lists. A majority of federal districts continue to solely rely on voter registration lists as their venire source while a majority of states are supplementing voter registration lists with other lists, such as drivers’ license records. Some of the states have completely discarded the usage of voter registration lists as their venire source. Conclusion: Mapping of federal rulings and state

  14. Wine competition: from between-juries consistency to sensory perception of consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoré-Chedozeau Carole

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a complex product offering to consumer a multitude of choices. Considering this diversity, wine competitions provide a way of helping consumers in their choices. However, the dramatic increase of wine contests in the last fifteen years has led to an increase in the number of award-winning wines. Is a medal really a guarantee of quality or having a medal is just a matter of chance? Two studies were therefore conducted during 3 years in a French wine competition. The first study assessed the impact of the order in which the wine was assessed, and the variability between juries’ judgements and therefore the chances of winning an award. For this purpose, the same wine was placed on all jury tables at the first and penultimate positions of the tasting series. Wines were rated, using the OIV-UIOE score sheet. Score differences were analyzed between tasting juries. The second study sought confirmation by a consumer panel of the medals awarded during the competition. A hedonic test of both award-winning and non-awarded wines was organised, in order to verify whether the awarded wines were indeed preferred by consumers.

  15. Diep snydende vrae, met antwoorde gebore uit weerloosheid: Nav Jurie le Roux se 'spirituele empatie'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani�l P. Veldsman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep probing questions but answers conceived in vulnerability: On Jurie le Roux�s �spiritual empathy�. Taking the conversation between the Old Testament scholar Jurie le Roux and the dogmatician Johan Heyns as point of departure, it is argued that his well-founded criticism of Heyns has to be taken seriously, as well as his proposition in favour of spiritual empathy to enhance the understanding of historical texts. However, his recommendation for spiritual emphaty is subsequently constructively valued and criticised from a theological-experiential perspective. It is especially noted that, on the one hand, Le Roux�s reactionary historical point of view regarding, amongst others, the retrieval of the orginal intention of the author/text is convincing. On the other hand, it is argued that his perspective is predisposed toward an unproblematical self in the present. As a result, the act of historical interpretation is reduced to dependence on �the seams of the heart� in the individual quester. It is after all argued and substantiated from systematic-theological, postmodern, philosophical and theological-scientific perspectives that historicity does not consist solely of historical �seeing� in the sense of retaining the original intention of the author. Historical understanding also entails historical �hearing� (that is, a surplus of meaning which broadens and enriches historical understanding.

  16. Tempest in a Teapot – The Role of the Decision Tree in Enhancing Juror Comprehension and Whether It Interferes with the Jury’s Right to Deliberate Freely?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Comiskey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the potential of the decision tree (also referred to as a flow-chart, “Route to Verdict” or question-trail to improve the legal comprehension of jurors in criminal trials. It examines why the decision tree has not yet been adopted as a mainstream jury aid in the United States and suggests that the hesitancy is rooted in longstanding distrust of any attempt to encroach on the freedom of the jury and the concern that a list of questions to guide jury deliberations may unduly influence and compel a verdict that the jury would not otherwise render. The findings from research from England, Canada, Australia and the United States on the effectiveness of decision trees in enhancing juror comprehension is discussed. The reliance on decision trees in medicine to facilitate patient comprehension of treatment options and in assisting physicians to navigate through complex treatment protocols is also considered as instructive for the legal system. The paper suggests that decision trees neither interfere with a defendant’s constitutional right to a jury trial nor with a jury’s right to deliberate freely, and that greater use of this tool should be considered given the promising indications from empirical research that decision trees can enhance jurors’ recall and comprehension of legal concepts. Any concerns about the potential misuse of decision trees are overstated and can be remedied through clear instructions to the jury. En este artículo se analiza el potencial del árbol de decisiones (también conocido como diagrama de flujo, “ruta al veredicto” o camino de preguntas para mejorar la comprensión legal de los miembros del jurado en los juicios penales. Analiza por qué en Estados Unidos aún no se ha adoptado el árbol de decisiones como una ayuda habitual al jurado y sugiere que la duda tiene sus raíces en la desconfianza antigua de cualquier intento de invadir la libertad del jurado y en la preocupación de que

  17. Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal

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    Rui F Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed in the literature that the Testosterone (T response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables.In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the Testosterone (T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (twenty dyads were recruited to engage in a same sex, face to face competition using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Levels of T, Cortisol (C and Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA were measured before and twenty minutes after the competition. Results show that losers report higher levels of threat than winners and increased their T levels after the competition, however this T change was not predicted by opponent familiarity or threat appraisal. No variation was detected for C and DHEA levels. These findings suggest that there could be sex differences for the moderators/mediators of the T response to competition in humans.

  18. Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia F; Fernandes, Alexandre C; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed in the literature that the testosterone (T) response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables. In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (20 dyads) were recruited to engage in a same sex, face to face competition using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Levels of T, cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured before and 20 min after the competition. Results show that losers report higher levels of threat than winners and increased their T levels after the competition, however this T change was not predicted by opponent familiarity or threat appraisal. No variation was detected for C and DHEA levels. These findings suggest that there could be sex differences for the moderators/mediators of the T response to competition in humans.

  19. Lay Adjudication in Europe: The Rise and Fall of the Traditional Jury

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    John Jackson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a second survey of lay adjudication in Europe conducted by the authors in 2011-2012, this article points to a general decline across Europe in the use of the ‘traditional’ jury and a trend towards diminishing its capacity to deliver independent decisions. Two examples from Eastern and Western Europe are used to illustrate this trend: a case study of the Russian jury shows how a lack of respect within the legal culture of professionals for lay adjudication has reduced the jury in Russia to a mere ‘decorative’ institution and an analysis of the ECtHR’s jurisprudence shows how the Court’s concern to avoid arbitrary decision making has been encouraging Western European states to introduce greater accountability measures, which threaten the jury’s independence. The article ends on a more optimistic note by arguing that greater accountability measures need not detract from the jury’ s traditional role in promoting lay and political participation in the administration of justice. Basándose en una segunda encuesta sobre adjudicación de legos en Europa desarrollada por los autores entre 2011 y 2012, este artículo apunta a una disminución general en toda Europa del uso del jurado "tradicional" y una tendencia hacia su capacidad cada vez menor de prestar decisiones independientes. Se utilizan dos ejemplos de Europa oriental y occidental para ilustrar esta tendencia: un estudio de caso del jurado ruso demuestra cómo dentro de la cultura jurídica, la falta de respeto de los profesionales hacia la adjudicación de legos ha reducido el jurado en Rusia a una institución meramente “decorativa” y un análisis de la jurisprudencia del TEDH muestra cómo la preocupación de la Corte para evitar la toma de decisiones arbitrarias ha fomentado que los estados de Europa occidental introduzcan mayores medidas de control, que ponen en peligro la independencia del jurado. El artículo termina con una nota más optimista con el

  20. Employing a Mock Trial in a Criminology Course: An Applied Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelak, Norma J.

    1996-01-01

    Recounts a criminology class exercise that consisted of staging a mock trial using the murders from Truman Capote's "In Cold Blood" as source material. Students research the case and role play various lawyers, jury members, and witnesses. Identifies and discusses four educational objectives attainable through the staging of mock trials. (MJP)

  1. Employing a Mock Trial in a Criminology Course: An Applied Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelak, Norma J.

    1996-01-01

    Recounts a criminology class exercise that consisted of staging a mock trial using the murders from Truman Capote's "In Cold Blood" as source material. Students research the case and role play various lawyers, jury members, and witnesses. Identifies and discusses four educational objectives attainable through the staging of mock trials. (MJP)

  2. Expert Testimony, "Regular People," and Public Values: Arguing Common Sense at a Death Penalty Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Virginia A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study of a particular courtroom case dealing with the death penalty. Analyzes the processes and communications of the trial jury. Discusses the interplay of common-sense and expert claims at three crucial stages of the trial. (HB)

  3. Cognitio Juris - Ano IV - Número 10 – Junho 2014 - ISSN 2236-3009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Samuel Leite Norat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentação É com enormíssima satisfação que apresentamos a décima edição da Revista Jurídica Cognitio Juris, que é uma publicação científica minuciosamente elaborada com todo o esmero e primor que a excelência exige, especialmente desenvolvida com o desígnio de espargir e incentivar o conhecimento das mais diversas áreas jurídicas e afins. No decorrer dessas dez edições publicadas, a Revista Cognitio Juris, sempre primando pela qualidade e excelência, passou a ser publicada e indexada em países diversos da América e Europa, por diferentes instituições e bibliotecas das mais variadas Universidades e Faculdades. O rápido reconhecimento científico e a repercussão alcançada pela Cognitio Juris em muito superou todas as mais otimistas das nossas expectativas; mostrando, por conseguinte, a nossa responsabilidade de continuar estabelecendo uma seleção criteriosa do material divulgado no periódico, para assim viabilizar uma disseminação do conhecimento científico jurídico mais completa e didática. Os trabalhos selecionados na produção desta edição são textos voltados para temas contemporâneos e em perspectivas interdisciplinares. Além dos artigos científicos tradicionais, esta décima edição da Cognitio Juris traz o material apresentado nos Anais dos Ciclos de Palestras e Debates Jurídicos: Direito e Desenvolvimento do Centro Universitário de João Pessoa (Instituição de Ensino Superior sediada na Paraíba – Brasil, dos anos de 2013 e 2014. São palestras dos mais variados temas, com ênfase na área socioeconômica e jurídica da contemporaneidade, que foram amplamente debatidos pela comunidade jurídica, de maneira a permitir uma justaposição da realidade vivenciada pela sociedade brasileira à ordem jurídica. Esta edição apresenta todo o esmero e primor que a excelência exige. Por conseguinte, temos a certeza do engrandecimento que este periódico trará à comunidade científica, bem como

  4. Involving a Citizens' Jury in Decisions on Individual Screening for Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mosconi

    Full Text Available Most public health agencies and learned societies agree that the prostate-specific antigen (PSA test in asymptomatic men should not be recommended, on account of its potential for harm. Yet PSA is still widely used as a screening test and is not being abandoned. This remains a significant public health issue, and citizens' engagement is needed. This study was designed to produce a deliberation on the PSA screening test by a citizens' jury.Fifteen citizens were selected and balanced for sex, age, and education. They received an information booklet and participated in a two-day meeting with experts to reach a deliberation on the question "Should the National Health Service discourage or recommend PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in men 55-69 years old?". A facilitator ran the jurors' discussion.All except three of the jurors decided that the National Health Service should discourage the use of PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in 55-69 year-old men. The jury was particularly convinced by the uncertainty of the test outcomes, the utility of the test, and its cost/benefit ratio. Before the meeting 60% of jurors would have recommended the test to a relative, and all the male jurors would have done so. After the meeting these percentages fell to 15% and 12%.This experience confirms the feasibility and effectiveness of delegating to a group of citizens the responsibility to decide on public health issues on behalf of the community. Public health authorities should invest in information campaigns aimed at the public and in educational initiatives for physicians. This also provided an opportunity to disseminate information on screening, over-diagnosis, and over-treatment.

  5. Introduction to Juries and Mixed Tribunals across the Globe: New Developments, Common Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S. Marder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction to the special issue describes the goals of the conference on Juries and Mixed Tribunals across the Globe, and identifies themes that emerged as jury scholars from all over the world examined different forms of lay participation in legal decision-making. The introduction focuses on common challenges that different systems of lay participation face, including the selection of impartial fact finders and the presentation of complex cases to lay citizens. The introduction and special issue articles also highlight new developments and innovative practices to address these challenges, including some tools, like decision trees, that remain highly controversial. The introduction closes by emphasizing the enduring political importance of citizen participation in law. La introducción a este número especial describe los objetivos de la conferencia sobre jurados y tribunales mixtos en el mundo, e identifica los temas que surgieron cuando académicos de todo el mundo especializados en jurados analizaron diferentes formas de participación de legos en la toma de decisiones jurídicas. La introducción se centra en los desafíos comunes a los que se enfrentan los diferentes sistemas de participación de legos, incluyendo la selección de jurados imparciales y la presentación de casos complejos a ciudadanos profanos en la materia. La introducción y el número especial también destacan nuevos desarrollos y prácticas innovadoras para afrontar estos retos, incluyendo algunas herramientas, como los árboles de decisiones, que todavía son muy controvertidas. La introducción finaliza, haciendo hincapié en la importancia política duradera de la participación ciudadana en el derecho. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2785708

  6. Involving a Citizens’ Jury in Decisions on Individual Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosconi, Paola; Colombo, Cinzia; Satolli, Roberto; Carzaniga, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Aims Most public health agencies and learned societies agree that the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in asymptomatic men should not be recommended, on account of its potential for harm. Yet PSA is still widely used as a screening test and is not being abandoned. This remains a significant public health issue, and citizens’ engagement is needed. This study was designed to produce a deliberation on the PSA screening test by a citizens’ jury. Methods Fifteen citizens were selected and balanced for sex, age, and education. They received an information booklet and participated in a two-day meeting with experts to reach a deliberation on the question “Should the National Health Service discourage or recommend PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in men 55–69 years old?”. A facilitator ran the jurors’ discussion. Results All except three of the jurors decided that the National Health Service should discourage the use of PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in 55–69 year-old men. The jury was particularly convinced by the uncertainty of the test outcomes, the utility of the test, and its cost/benefit ratio. Before the meeting 60% of jurors would have recommended the test to a relative, and all the male jurors would have done so. After the meeting these percentages fell to 15% and 12%. Conclusions This experience confirms the feasibility and effectiveness of delegating to a group of citizens the responsibility to decide on public health issues on behalf of the community. Public health authorities should invest in information campaigns aimed at the public and in educational initiatives for physicians. This also provided an opportunity to disseminate information on screening, over-diagnosis, and over-treatment. PMID:26751212

  7. Involving a Citizens' Jury in Decisions on Individual Screening for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosconi, Paola; Colombo, Cinzia; Satolli, Roberto; Carzaniga, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Most public health agencies and learned societies agree that the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in asymptomatic men should not be recommended, on account of its potential for harm. Yet PSA is still widely used as a screening test and is not being abandoned. This remains a significant public health issue, and citizens' engagement is needed. This study was designed to produce a deliberation on the PSA screening test by a citizens' jury. Fifteen citizens were selected and balanced for sex, age, and education. They received an information booklet and participated in a two-day meeting with experts to reach a deliberation on the question "Should the National Health Service discourage or recommend PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in men 55-69 years old?". A facilitator ran the jurors' discussion. All except three of the jurors decided that the National Health Service should discourage the use of PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in 55-69 year-old men. The jury was particularly convinced by the uncertainty of the test outcomes, the utility of the test, and its cost/benefit ratio. Before the meeting 60% of jurors would have recommended the test to a relative, and all the male jurors would have done so. After the meeting these percentages fell to 15% and 12%. This experience confirms the feasibility and effectiveness of delegating to a group of citizens the responsibility to decide on public health issues on behalf of the community. Public health authorities should invest in information campaigns aimed at the public and in educational initiatives for physicians. This also provided an opportunity to disseminate information on screening, over-diagnosis, and over-treatment.

  8. Etnografia dissonante dos tribunais do júri Jury Courts: dissonant ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Pastore Schritzmeyer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de etnografia realizada, entre 1997 e 2001, nos cinco Tribunais do Júri da cidade de São Paulo, questiono se tribunais, em geral, e os do júri, em particular, se esgotam como arenas de luta nas quais o binômio dominação-sujeição se realiza de forma privilegiada. Sustento que, embora observemos, nesses espaços, rituais que reiteram hierarquias tradicionalmente estabelecidas, eles também permitem a construção de novas subjetividades e a redefinição de experiências sociais. Os fatos-dramas reconstituídos nos júris estão longe de seus contextos originais tanto quanto da possibilidade de se explicarem legalmente. Eles são de outra natureza, cujo sentido só se alcança no domínio ritualizado, lúdico e poético de sua própria expressão.Ethnographical research carried out between 1997 and 2001 of the five Jury Courts in the city of São Paulo leads me to ask whether courts in general, and the Jury Court in particular, can be explained merely as arenas of conflict and privileged sites for the interplay of domination and subjection. Although in such places we can observe rituals that reinforce traditionally established hierarchies, they also allow for the construction of new subjectivities and the redefinition of social experiences. The facts/dramas reconstructed in the courts are as far removed from their original contexts as they are from the possibility of being explained from a legal perspective alone. They are of a different nature and their meaning can only be understood from within the ritual, playful and poetic domains of their own expression.

  9. Friends shrink foes: the presence of comrades decreases the envisioned physical formidability of an opponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Holbrook, Colin

    2013-05-01

    In situations of potential violent conflict, deciding whether to fight, flee, or try to negotiate entails assessing many attributes contributing to the relative formidability of oneself and one's opponent. Summary representations can usefully facilitate such assessments of multiple factors. Because physical size and strength are both phylogenetically ancient and ontogenetically recurrent contributors to the outcome of violent conflicts, these attributes provide plausible conceptual dimensions that may be used by the mind to summarize the relative formidability of opposing parties. Because the presence of allies is a vital factor in determining victory, we hypothesized that men accompanied by male companions would therefore envision a solitary foe as physically smaller and less muscular than would men who were alone. We document the predicted effect in two studies, one using naturally occurring variation in the presence of male companions and one employing experimental manipulation of this factor.

  10. Distinguishing the opponents in the prisoner dilemma in well-mixed populations

    CERN Document Server

    Wardil, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Here we study the effects of adopting different strategies against different opponent instead of adopting the same strategy against all of them in the prisoner dilemma structured in well-mixed populations. We consider an evolutionary process in which strategies that provide reproductive success are imitated and players replace one of their worst interactions by the new one. We set individuals in a well-mixed population so that network reciprocity effect is excluded and we analyze both synchronous and asynchronous updates. As a consequence of the replacement rule, we show that mutual cooperation is never destroyed and the initial fraction of mutual cooperation is a lower bound for the level of cooperation. We show by simulation and mean-field analysis that for synchronous update cooperation dominates while for asynchronous update only cooperations associated to the initial mutual cooperations are maintained. As a side effect of the replacement rule, an "implicit punishment" mechanism comes up in a way that exp...

  11. Communication, opponents, and clan performance in online games: a social network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Joo; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Jong Woo; Park, Sung Joo; Gloor, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Online gamers form clans voluntarily to play together and to discuss their real and virtual lives. Although these clans have diverse goals, they seek to increase their rank in the game community by winning more battles. Communications among clan members and battles with other clans may influence the performance of a clan. In this study, we compared the effects of communication structure inside a clan, and battle networks among clans, with the performance of the clans. We collected battle histories, posts, and comments on clan pages from a Korean online game, and measured social network indices for communication and battle networks. Communication structures in terms of density and group degree centralization index had no significant association with clan performance. However, the centrality of clans in the battle network was positively related to the performance of the clan. If a clan had many battle opponents, the performance of the clan improved.

  12. Preparatory Body State before Reacting to an Opponent: Short-Term Joint Torque Fluctuation in Real-Time Competitive Sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Fujii

    Full Text Available In a competitive sport, the outcome of a game is determined by an athlete's relationship with an unpredictable and uncontrolled opponent. We have previously analyzed the preparatory state of ground reaction forces (GRFs dividing non-weighted and weighted states (i.e., vertical GRFs below and above 120% of body weight, respectively in a competitive ballgame task and demonstrated that the non-weighted state prevented delay of the defensive step and promoted successful guarding. However, the associated kinetics of lower extremity joints during a competitive sports task remains unknown. The present study aims to investigate the kinetic characteristics of a real-time competitive sport before movement initiation. As a first kinetic study on a competitive sport, we initially compared the successful defensive kinetics with a relatively stable preparatory state and the choice-reaction sidestep as a control movement. Then, we investigated the kinetic cause of the outcome in a 1-on-1 dribble in terms of the preparatory states according to our previous study. The results demonstrated that in successful defensive motions in the non-weighted state guarding trial, the times required for the generation of hip abduction and three extension torques for the hip, knee, and ankle joints were significantly shortened compared with the choice-reaction sidestep, and hip abduction and hip extension torques were produced almost simultaneously. The sport-specific movement kinetics emerges only in a more-realistic interactive experimental setting. A comparison of the outcomes in the 1-on-1 dribble and preparatory GRF states showed that, in the non-weighted state, the defenders guarded successfully in 68.0% of the trials, and the defender's initiation time was earlier than that in the weighted state (39.1%. In terms of kinetics, the root mean squares of the derivative of hip abduction and three extension torques in the non-weighted state were smaller than those in the

  13. Chromatic aberration and the roles of double-opponent and color-luminance neurons in color vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, Tony

    How does the visual cortex encode color? I summarize a theory in which cortical double-opponent color neurons perform a role in color constancy and a complementary set of color-luminance neurons function to selectively correct for color fringes induced by chromatic aberration in the eye. The theory

  14. Reinforcement Learning in the Game of Othello: Learning Against a Fixed Opponent and Learning from Self-Play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Michiel; Wiering, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares three strategies in using reinforcement learning algorithms to let an artificial agent learnto play the game of Othello. The three strategies that are compared are: Learning by self-play, learning from playing against a fixed opponent, and learning from playing against a fixed

  15. Reinforcement Learning in the Game of Othello: Learning Against a Fixed Opponent and Learning from Self-Play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Michiel; Wiering, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares three strategies in using reinforcement learning algorithms to let an artificial agent learnto play the game of Othello. The three strategies that are compared are: Learning by self-play, learning from playing against a fixed opponent, and learning from playing against a fixed op

  16. Chromatic aberration and the roles of double-opponent and color-luminance neurons in color vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, Tony

    2007-01-01

    How does the visual cortex encode color? I summarize a theory in which cortical double-opponent color neurons perform a role in color constancy and a complementary set of color-luminance neurons function to selectively correct for color fringes induced by chromatic aberration in the eye. The theory

  17. Automated processes in tennis: do left-handed players benefit from the tactical preferences of their opponents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert; Strauss, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Previous research on laterality in sport suggests an over-representation of left-handers in interactive sports such as tennis and cricket. These findings potentially reflect left-handers' advantage over their right-handed competitors in those sports. Although considered crucial for successful performance, the tactical component of their superiority has yet to be analysed. Two studies were conducted to test for a side bias in tennis players' tactical preferences. In the first study, 108 right- and left-handed players of varying skill watched rallies on a computer screen and had to indicate where they would place the ball in the opposing half. The results showed the tactical preference of players to place more balls on a left-handed opponent's mostly stronger forehand side compared with when faced with a right-hander. In the second study, 54 professional tennis matches involving right- and left-handers were analysed with respect to ball placement frequencies on the opponent's backhand side. Significantly fewer balls were hit to the backhand side of a left-handed opponent, thus replicating the findings of Study 1 in on-court situations. Both studies indicate players' preference to place shots to their right irrespective of their opponent's handedness. Findings support the assumption that left-handers might enjoy a strategic advantage in tennis.

  18. Skilled players' and novices' difficulty anticipating left- vs. right-handed opponents' action intentions varies across different points in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    A left-handers' performance advantage in interactive sports is assumed to result from their relative rarity compared to right-handers. Part of this advantage may be explained by athletes facing difficulties anticipating left-handers' action intentions, particularly when anticipation is based on kinematic cues available at an early stage of an opponent's movement. Here we tested whether the type of volleyball attack is predicted better against right- vs. left-handed opponents' movements and whether such handedness effects are evident at earlier time points in skilled players than novices. In a video-based experiment volleyball players and novices predicted the type of shot (i.e., smash vs. lob) of left- and right-handed volleyball attacks occluded at six different time points. Overall, right-handed attacks were better anticipated than left-handed attacks, volleyball players outperformed novices, and performance improved in later occlusion conditions. Moreover, in skilled players the handedness effect was most pronounced when attacks were occluded 480 ms prior to hand-ball-contact, whereas in novices it was most evident 240 ms prior to hand-ball-contact. Our findings provide further evidence of the effect of an opponent's handedness on action outcome anticipation and suggest that its occurrence in the course of an opponent's unfolding action likely depends on an observers' domain-specific skill.

  19. Chromatic aberration and the roles of double-opponent and color-luminance neurons in color vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, Tony

    2007-01-01

    How does the visual cortex encode color? I summarize a theory in which cortical double-opponent color neurons perform a role in color constancy and a complementary set of color-luminance neurons function to selectively correct for color fringes induced by chromatic aberration in the eye. The theory

  20. Proton feedback mediates the cascade of color-opponent signals onto H3 horizontal cells in goldfish retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiji, Nilton L; Yamamoto, Kazunori; Hirasawa, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Usui, Shiro; Kurokawa, Makoto

    2012-04-01

    It has been postulated that horizontal cells (HCs) send feedback signals onto cones via a proton feedback mechanism, which generates the center-surround receptive field of bipolar cells, and color-opponent signals in many non-mammalian vertebrates. Here we used a strong pH buffer, HEPES, to reduce extracellular proton concentration changes and so determine whether protons mediate color-opponent signals in goldfish H3 (triphasic) HCs. Superfusion with 10mM HEPES-fortified saline elicited depolarization of H3 HCs' dark membrane potential and enhanced hyperpolarizing responses to blue stimuli, but suppressed both depolarization by yellow and orange and hyperpolarization by red stimuli. The response components suppressed by HEPES resembled the inverse of spectral responses of H2 (biphasic) HCs. These results are consistent with the Stell-Lightfoot cascade model, in which the HEPES-suppressed component of H3 HCs was calculated using light responses recorded experimentally in H1 (monophasic) and H2 HCs. Selective suppression of long- or long-+middle-wavelength cone signals by long-wavelength background enhanced the responses to short-wavelength stimuli. These results suggest that HEPES inhibited color opponent signals in H3 HCs, in which the source of opponent-color signals is primarily a feedback from H2 HCs and partly from H1 HCs onto short-wavelength cones, probably mediated by protons.

  1. Is the Jury Still Out? Toward Greater Insight in Policy Learning in Participatory Decision Processes—the Case of Dutch Citizens' Juries on Water Management in the Rhine Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Cornelisse

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the potential for policy learning offered by participatory processes, specifically so-called citizens' juries. We establish the need for policy learning by pointing to the increased complexity of water management tasks and challenges. A conceptual discussion subsequently distinguishes between cognitive, normative, and relational learning. The public participation literature suggests that participatory processes will contribute to various forms of learning. We assess the truth of this assumption on the basis of three case studies: citizens' juries on water management in the Dutch part of Rhine basin. We analyze whether the three forms of learning have occurred among jurors, and among policy makers. We find high levels of cognitive, normative, and relational levels of learning for the jurors, but relatively low levels of learning for policy makers. We analyze the reason for this divergence.

  2. Dopaminergic signaling mediates the motivational response underlying the opponent process to chronic but not acute nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Taryn E; Sellings, Laurie H; Vargas-Perez, Hector; Ting-A-Kee, Ryan; Siu, Eric C; Tyndale, Rachel F; van der Kooy, Derek

    2010-03-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is implicated in the processing of the positive reinforcing effect of all drugs of abuse, including nicotine. It has been suggested that the dopaminergic system is also involved in the aversive motivational response to drug withdrawal, particularly for opiates, however, the role for dopaminergic signaling in the processing of the negative motivational properties of nicotine withdrawal is largely unknown. We hypothesized that signaling at dopaminergic receptors mediates chronic nicotine withdrawal aversions and that dopaminergic signaling would differentially mediate acute vs dependent nicotine motivation. We report that nicotine-dependent rats and mice showed conditioned place aversions to an environment paired with abstinence from chronic nicotine that were blocked by the DA receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol (alpha-flu) and in DA D(2) receptor knockout mice. Conversely, alpha-flu pretreatment had no effect on preferences for an environment paired with abstinence from acute nicotine. Taken together, these results suggest that dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the opponent motivational response to nicotine in dependent, but not non-dependent, rodents. Further, signaling at the DA D(2) receptor is critical in mediating withdrawal aversions in nicotine-dependent animals. We suggest that the alleviation of nicotine withdrawal primarily may be driving nicotine motivation in dependent animals.

  3. Influencing health policy through public deliberation: Lessons learned from two decades of Citizens'/community juries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, Chris; Rychetnik, Lucie; Street, Jackie; Thomas, Rae; Carter, Stacy M

    2017-04-01

    Citizens'/community juries [CJs] engage members of the public in policy decision-making processes. CJs can be employed to develop policy responses to health problems that require the consideration of both community values and scientific evidence. Based on the principles of deliberative democracy, recent reviews indicate that findings from CJs have successfully been used to influence health policy decision-making. Despite this evidence of success, there appears to be a gap between the goals of health researchers who organize CJs and the needs of policy actors and decision makers. Drawing on our experiences working with CJs and recent research on CJ methods, we describe a synopsis of the current state of the art organized around four key questions, and informed by insights from deliberative theory and critical policy studies. Our intention is to stimulate further discussion as to the types of health policy questions that can be usefully addressed through public deliberation, and provide guidance on the methodological and political dimensions that need to be considered in deciding whether a CJ is an appropriate approach for informing a policy decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromatic aberration and the roles of double-opponent and color-luminance neurons in color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladusich, Tony

    2007-03-01

    How does the visual cortex encode color? I summarize a theory in which cortical double-opponent color neurons perform a role in color constancy and a complementary set of color-luminance neurons function to selectively correct for color fringes induced by chromatic aberration in the eye. The theory may help to resolve an ongoing debate concerning the functional properties of cortical receptive fields involved in color coding.

  5. Roughness perception in tactile channels: evidence for an opponent process in the sense of touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gescheider, George A; Wright, John H

    2013-09-01

    Magnitude estimates of the tactile roughness of raised-dot surfaces revealed that perceived overall roughness, defined as the combination of the perceived roughness of the dot pattern and the perceived roughness of the individual dots in the pattern, is an inverted U-shaped function of dot spacing, reaching a maximum at approximately 3.0 mm of dot separation. The hypothesis that Pacinian corpuscles are involved in roughness perception has been supported by the finding that selective adaptation of the Pacinian corpuscle (PC) channel with a 250-Hz stimulus at 20-dB SL results in a decrease in the perceived overall roughness of the raised-dot surface at the fingertip. The effect of PC channel adaptation on perceived overall roughness was attributable entirely to a reduction in the perceived roughness of the individual raised dots; PC adaptation had no effect on the perceived roughness of the raised-dot pattern. Selective adaptation of the slowly adapting type I (SA I) channel with a 5-Hz stimulus at 20-dB SL had the opposite effect of PC channel adaptation and resulted in an increase in the perceived roughness of the individual raised dots, and consequently the perceived overall roughness of the raised-dot surface. As was the case with PC channel adaptation, SA I channel adaptation had no effect on the perceived roughness of the pattern. Adaptation with a compound adapting stimulus containing 5- and 250-Hz components at 20-dB SL had no effect on perceived overall roughness, which suggests that the PC and SA I channels operate antagonistically in an opponent-process fashion in the perception of the microstructure of a textured surface. Neither PC adaptation nor SA I adaptation affected perceived pattern roughness, which suggests that pattern roughness is coded by relative rather than by absolute spatial variation in firing rate.

  6. When domestic goes capital: Juror decision making in capital murder trials involving domestic homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tara N; Smith, M Dwayne; Fogel, Sondra J; Bjerregaard, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Prior research suggests that homicide cases involving familial offenders and victims are subject to a "domestic discount" that reduces sentencing severity. However, the operation of a domestic discount in regard to death penalty sentencing has been rarely examined. The current research uses a near-population of jury decisions in capital murder trials conducted in North Carolina from 1991 to 2009 (n = 800), and a series of logistic regression analyses to determine whether there is (a) a direct effect between offender-victim relationship (e.g., domestic, friend/acquaintance, and stranger) and jury decision making, and/or (b) whether domestic offender-victim relationship (as well as other offender-victim relationships) moderates the effect of legal and extralegal case characteristics on jury assessment of the death penalty. Our findings revealed no empirical support for a "domestic discount" whereby juries are less likely to impose death sentences in cases involving domestic homicides. However, substantial differences in predictors of death sentencing were found across offender-victim dyads; most notably, domestic homicide cases demonstrated the most legalistic model of jury decisions to impose death sentences.

  7. DE JURADOS Y ARQUITECTOS: IDEAS SOBRE LOS CONCURSOS / Juries and architects: ideas on competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rojo Carrero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Los concursos de ideas de arquitectura fallados por jurados participados por profesionales cualificados prestigian a las entidades que los promueven y a los arquitectos premiados. Pero también entrañan aspectos polémicos que ponen de relieve sus debilidades y que pocas veces son analizados con actitud crítica. Pese a todo, los arquitectos prefieren este sistema de adjudicación por cuanto les reporta el íntimo beneficio de ejercitarse en el proyecto de arquitectura con un margen de libertad poco viable en los encargos directos u otros tipos de concursos más codificados. El análisis de los parámetros que determinan un buen concurso; el binomio concurso–investigación; el alcance de la intervención de los jurados; el derroche de tanta actividad creativa; el trabajo no remunerado de los concursantes... En este artículo avanzamos una reflexión sobre algunos de estos temas a partir de las opiniones de relevantes arquitectos vinculados de uno u otro modo a estos procedimientos competitivos.SUMMARY Competitions of architectural ideas that are judged by professionally qualified juries bring prestige to the institutions that promote them and to the award-winning architects. However, controversial aspects are also involved that highlight the weaknesses of these competitions and which are rarely analysed critically. None the less, architects prefer this award system because of the concomitant benefit of practicing in architectural projects, with a margin of freedom that is unfeasible in direct commissions or other more codified competitions. The analysis of the parameters which determine a good competition involves: the competition-research relationship; the scope of intervention of the jurors; the involvement of so much creative activity; the unpaid work of the competitors, etc. In this article we put forward a reflection on some of these issues from the opinions of important architects linked in one way or another to these

  8. Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental Retardation (MR is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for “agitated” TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  9. Ready for a fight? The physiological effects of detecting an opponent's pheromone cues prior to a contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mark J; Williams, John; Sinderman, Benjamin; Earley, Ryan L

    2015-10-01

    Reception of pheromone cues can elicit significant physiological (e.g. steroid hormone levels) changes in the recipient. These pheromone-induced physiological changes have been well documented for male-female interactions, but scarcely in same-sex interactions (male-male and female-female). We sought to address this dearth in the current literature and examine whether mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) could detect and, ultimately, mount a physiological response to the pheromone signature of a potential, same-sex competitor. We examined steroid hormone levels in mangrove rivulus exposed to one of three treatments: 1) isolation, 2) exposure to pheromones of a size-matched partner, and 3) pheromone exposure to a size-matched opponent followed by a physical encounter with the opponent. We found that exposure to a competitor's pheromone cues elicited a significant increase in testosterone levels. Increases in testosterone were similar across genetically distinct lineages derived from geographically distinct populations. Further, testosterone levels were similar between individuals only exposed to pheromone cues and individuals exposed to both pheromone cues and a subsequent physical encounter. Our findings led us to generate a number of testable predictions regarding how mangrove rivulus utilize pheromone signals in social interactions, the molecular mechanisms linking social stimuli and hormonal responses, and the possible adaptive benefits of hormonal responsiveness to receiving a potential competitor's pheromone cues.

  10. Put your Hands up in the Air? The Interpersonal Effects of Pride and Shame Expressions on Opponents and Teammates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eFurley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to investigate the interpersonal effects of pride and shame expressions amongst opponents and teammates in a soccer penalty scenario. Across a series of experiments using the point-light method, pride and shame expressions exerted strong effects upon observers’ anticipated emotions, associated cognitions, and performance expectations. Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT in two pilot studies we demonstrated that the created pride and shame point-light stimuli were implicitly associated with status and performance related attributes. In Experiment 1, observing pride expressions caused opponents to anticipate more negative emotions, cognitions, and lower performance expectancies towards their next performance in comparison with neutral expressions. In contrast, pride expressions led teammates to anticipate more positive emotions (i.e., pride and happiness, cognitions, and performance expectations towards their next performance than neutral expressions (Experiments 2-4. The results are discussed within the emotions as social information (EASI, van Kleef, 2009 framework by arguing that the social context has to be taken into account when investigating the interpersonal effects of emotion expressions. In conclusion, the present research highlights the potential interpersonal influence of the nonverbal expressions of pride and shame in soccer penalty shootouts.

  11. Ulric Huber (1636-1694) : 'De ratione juris docendi & discendi diatribe per modum dialogi : nonnullis aucta paralipomenois' : with a translation and commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hewett, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Margaret Hewett onderzocht de dialoog De Ratione Juris Docendi et Discendi Diatribe die is geschreven door Ulric Huber (1636-1694), hoogleraar aan de Universiteit van Franeker. Met haar onderzoek probeert ze de waarde in te schatten van Hubers dialoog voor de ontwikkeling van het rechtenonderwijs in

  12. Opponent actor learning (OpAL): modeling interactive effects of striatal dopamine on reinforcement learning and choice incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The striatal dopaminergic system has been implicated in reinforcement learning (RL), motor performance, and incentive motivation. Various computational models have been proposed to account for each of these effects individually, but a formal analysis of their interactions is lacking. Here we present a novel algorithmic model expanding the classical actor-critic architecture to include fundamental interactive properties of neural circuit models, incorporating both incentive and learning effects into a single theoretical framework. The standard actor is replaced by a dual opponent actor system representing distinct striatal populations, which come to differentially specialize in discriminating positive and negative action values. Dopamine modulates the degree to which each actor component contributes to both learning and choice discriminations. In contrast to standard frameworks, this model simultaneously captures documented effects of dopamine on both learning and choice incentive-and their interactions-across a variety of studies, including probabilistic RL, effort-based choice, and motor skill learning.

  13. Physiological outperformance at the morphologically-transformed edge of the cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae: Hadromerida when confronting opponent corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available Terpios hoshinota, an encrusting cyanosponge, is known as a strong substrate competitor of reef-building corals that kills encountered coral by overgrowth. Terpios outbreaks cause significant declines in living coral cover in Indo-Pacific coral reefs, with the damage usually lasting for decades. Recent studies show that there are morphological transformations at a sponge's growth front when confronting corals. Whether these morphological transformations at coral contacts are involved with physiological outperformance (e.g., higher metabolic activity or nutritional status over other portions of Terpios remains equivocal. In this study, we compared the indicators of photosynthetic capability and nitrogen status of a sponge-cyanobacteria association at proximal, middle, and distal portions of opponent corals. Terpios tissues in contact with corals displayed significant increases in photosynthetic oxygen production (ca. 61%, the δ13C value (ca. 4%, free proteinogenic amino acid content (ca. 85%, and Gln/Glu ratio (ca. 115% compared to middle and distal parts of the sponge. In contrast, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, which is the indicator usually used to represent the integrity of photosystem II, of cyanobacteria photosynthesis was low (0.256~0.319 and showed an inverse trend of higher values in the distal portion of the sponge that might be due to high and variable levels of cyanobacterial phycocyanin. The inconsistent results between photosynthetic oxygen production and Fv/Fm values indicated that maximum quantum yields might not be a suitable indicator to represent the photosynthetic function of the Terpios-cyanobacteria association. Our data conclusively suggest that Terpios hoshinota competes with opponent corals not only by the morphological transformation of the sponge-cyanobacteria association but also by physiological outperformance in accumulating resources for the battle.

  14. Dr. Đura Đurović a lifelong opponent of Yugoslav communist totalitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovich Slobodan G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the life story of Dr. Đura Đurović (1900-1983, one of key targets of Yugoslav communist totalitarianism. He was a Belgrade lawyer who worked in the Administration of the City of Belgrade before WWII. In 1943 he joined the Yugoslav Home Army (YHA of General Mihailović, and held high positions in the YHA press and propaganda departments. His duties included running the Radio-telegraphic agency Democratic Yugoslavia. He accompanied General Mihailović on his meetings with OSS Colonel McDowell, and with Captain Raković he established successful cooperation with Red Army units in October 1944. He was arrested by Tito’s partisans in 1945, given a show-trial and sentenced to twenty years in prison. In his writings he described horrible conditions, sufferings and various types of torture used against political prisoners in Yugoslav communist prisons. He himself spent more than two years in solitary confinement, and on several occasions nearly died in prison. He was released in 1962, and was able to establish a circle of former political convicts from the ranks of the YHA and other anticommunists in Belgrade and Serbia. He maintained this network, advocated pro-American policies and hoped that at some point the United States might intervene against communism in Yugoslavia. Gradually he came to the conclusion that Tito was an American ally, and was satisfied to maintain his network of likeminded anticommunists and prepare reports on the situation in Yugoslavia. As a pre-war freemason, he sent one such report to Luther Smith, Grand Commander of AAFM of Southern Jurisdiction of American masons, describing the ghastly conditions in Yugoslav communist prisons. He was rearrested in 1973 on account of his relations with a Serbian émigré in Paris, Andra Lončarić, and spent another four years in prison. Thus, the almost twenty-one years he spent in communist prisons qualify him for the top of the list of political prisoners in

  15. Using a Mock Trial Method to Enhance Effectiveness of Teaching Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Cindy T

    2015-01-01

    Traditional teaching methodologies may deter adult learning because of passive the exchange of knowledge. Teaching to the "evidence" substantiating best practice requires a systematic approach to transfer knowledge into clinical inquiry. A mock trial simulated role-play activity was selected to show the value of learning through active engagement. The nurse "defendant" was challenged to substantiate practice based on the evidence. Seminar participants (the jury) scrutinized testimony through deliberation before delivering the final verdict.

  16. Attorney Questions Predict Jury-eligible Adult Assessments of Attorneys, Child Witnesses, and Defendant Guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugno, Allison P; Klemfuss, J Zoe; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Children are often the primary source of evidence in maltreatment cases, particularly cases of child sexual abuse, and may be asked to testify in court. Although best-practice protocols for interviewing children suggest that interviewers ask open-ended questions to elicit detailed responses from children, during in-court testimony, attorneys tend to rely on closed-ended questions that elicit simple (often "yes" or "no") responses (e.g., Andrews, Lamb, & Lyon, ; Klemfuss, Quas, & Lyon, ). How then are jurors making decisions about children's credibility and ultimately the case outcome? The present study examined the effect of two attorney-specific factors (e.g., temporal structure and questioning phase) on mock jurors' perceptions of attorney performance, child witness credibility, storyline clarity, and defendant guilt. Participants were randomly assigned to read a trial excerpt from one of eight conditions and were then asked to evaluate the attorney, child witness, and the case. Selected excerpts were from criminal court case transcripts and contained either high attorney temporal structure (e.g., use of temporal markers) or low temporal structure (e.g., frequent topic switching), involved direct or cross-examination, and represented cases resulting in a conviction or acquittal. Child responses were kept consistent across all excerpts. Results showed that participants perceived the attorney's performance and child's credibility more favorably and thought the storyline was clearer when attorneys provided high rather than low temporal structure and when the excerpt contained direct rather than cross-examination. Participants who read a direct rather than cross-examination excerpt were also more likely to think the defendant was guilty. The study highlights the impact of attorney questioning style on mock jurors' perceptions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Color opponent receptive fields self-organize in a biophysical model of visual cortex via spike-timing dependent plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akihiro; Neymotin, Samuel A; Stringer, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    Although many computational models have been proposed to explain orientation maps in primary visual cortex (V1), it is not yet known how similar clusters of color-selective neurons in macaque V1/V2 are connected and develop. In this work, we address the problem of understanding the cortical processing of color information with a possible mechanism of the development of the patchy distribution of color selectivity via computational modeling. Each color input is decomposed into a red, green, and blue representation and transmitted to the visual cortex via a simulated optic nerve in a luminance channel and red-green and blue-yellow opponent color channels. Our model of the early visual system consists of multiple topographically-arranged layers of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, with sparse intra-layer connectivity and feed-forward connectivity between layers. Layers are arranged based on anatomy of early visual pathways, and include a retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and layered neocortex. Each neuron in the V1 output layer makes synaptic connections to neighboring neurons and receives the three types of signals in the different channels from the corresponding photoreceptor position. Synaptic weights are randomized and learned using spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). After training with natural images, the neurons display heightened sensitivity to specific colors. Information-theoretic analysis reveals mutual information between particular stimuli and responses, and that the information reaches a maximum with fewer neurons in the higher layers, indicating that estimations of the input colors can be done using the output of fewer cells in the later stages of cortical processing. In addition, cells with similar color receptive fields form clusters. Analysis of spiking activity reveals increased firing synchrony between neurons when particular color inputs are presented or removed (ON-cell/OFF-cell).

  18. Exploring Opponent Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    The recent growth in development and research in computer-supported physical games has sprouted a wide variety of games merging qualities from both computer games and sports. Despite the increasing interest in this type of games, exploration of their specific game mechanics and the understanding...

  19. The relationship of psychophysiological characteristics karate qualifications in light weight category with the effective implementation of kick leg techniques in upper level of the opponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Saienko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: set the density of the relationship of psycho-physiological characteristics of karate qualifications in light weight category with the efficiency of the implementation of kick leg techniques in the upper level of the opponent. Material and Methods: The study involved thirty highly skilled karatekas in light weight category. Conducted pedagogical and psychophysiological testing, carried out an analysis of competitive actions, carried out a special analysis of scientific and methodical literature, applied the methods of mathematical statistics. Results: The degree of correlation between the obtained numerical results of psycho-physiological characteristics and indicators of the effectiveness different types of gradient kicking karate qualifications in light weight category in upper level of the opponent. Conclusions: karatekas high qualifications in light weight category, the higher the strength of neural processes in the processing of information in the imposed rhythm, the more reliable in a competitive match under implementation methods kick leg them with maximum power and speed-up in upper level of the opponent, and at the higher they characteristic of functional mobility of nervous processes in the processing of information in the imposed rhythm, the greater the likelihood of fighters attacking moves fast.

  20. Examination of Public Participation in Administration of Justice: Understanding of the Value Function of Criminal Jury System%民众参与司法的审视:陪审团制度价值功能解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任蓉

    2011-01-01

    近年来,中国立法和公共决策过程中民众参与听证会、法律草案评论等情形使得民众参与日益具有促进立法和公共决策的民主化功能。作为民主的产物,陪审团审判具有非职业性、社区代表性、公正性等特点,这些特点使得它具有4方面的价值功能:有利于发现案件事实真相,实现实体公正;作为一道屏障,介于被告人与国家权力之间,保护被告人权益免受侵害;提高公民素质、塑造国民性格、培养法治观念;提升审判公信力。陪审团审判制度为民众分享政府职能提供了有价值的机会,给刑事司法注入了大众价值观,增加了实现正义和防止政府滥用职权的可能性,强化了刑事司法裁判的权威性,是政府运作中民众参与的象征。%In recent years, public participation in hearings and review of the draft law in China's legislative and public policy-making process has shown "democratization" function of people's participation in legislation and public policy making. As a product of democracy, a jury trial with the characteristics of non-occupation, community representation and justice has the value of four functions: discovering the facts of cases so as to achieve substantive justice, protecting the rights of the defendant from infringement as a barrier medium between the defendant and the state power, improving the quality of citizens, shaping the national character, cultivating the rule of law, and enhancing the credibility of the trial. The jury trial system provides a very valuable opportunity for the public to share governmental functions. It instills the public values into the criminal justice, increases the possibility of achieving justice and prevents the possibility of government's abuse of power and strengthens the authority of criminal justice. It is the symbol of public participation in government operation.

  1. Obtaining consumer perspectives using a citizens' jury: does the current country of origin labelling in Australia allow for informed food choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withall, Elizabeth; Wilson, Annabelle M; Henderson, Julie; Tonkin, Emma; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Clark, Jacinta; McCullum, Dean; Ankeny, Rachel; Ward, Paul R

    2016-12-09

    Contemporary food systems are vast and complex, creating greater distance between consumers and their food. Consequently, consumers are required to put faith in a system of which they have limited knowledge or control. Country of origin labelling (CoOL) is one mechanism that theoretically enables consumer knowledge of provenance of food products. However, this labelling system has recently come under Australian Government review and recommendations for improvements have been proposed. Consumer engagement in this process has been limited. Therefore this study sought to obtain further consumer opinion on the issue of CoOL and to identify the extent to which Australian consumers agree with Australian Government recommendations for improvements. A citizens' jury was conducted with a sample of 14 South Australian consumers to explore their perceptions on whether the CoOL system allows them to make informed food choices, as well as what changes (if any) need to be made to enable informed food choices (recommendations). Overall, jurors' perception of usefulness of CoOL, including its ability to enable consumers to make informed food choices, fluctuated throughout the Citizens' Jury. Initially, the majority of the jurors indicated that the labels allowed informed food choice, however by the end of the session the majority disagreed with this statement. Inconsistencies within jurors' opinions were observed, particularly following delivery of information from expert witnesses and jury deliberation. Jurors provided recommendations for changes to be made to CoOL, which were similar to those provided in the Australian Government inquiry. Consumers in this study engaged with the topical issue of CoOL and provided their opinions. Overall, consumers do not think that the current CoOL system in Australia enables consumers to make informed choices. Recommendations for changes, including increasing the size of the label and the label's font, and standardising its position, were made.

  2. Cognitio Juris - Quarta Edição - Apresentação - Ano II - Número 4 - Abril 2012 - ISSN 2236-3009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cavalieri Filho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A Revista Cognitio Juris chega ao seu quarto número com extraordinário sucesso. Além de indexada, está disponível através do Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia - IBICT - ISSN 2236-3009; Bibliothekssystem der Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen - Regensburg, Alemanha; Bibliothekssystem Universität Hamburg, Alemanha; Directorio de Publicaciones científicas españolas e hispanoamericanas - Universidad de La Rioja - Fundación Dialnet; Directory of Open Access Journals - DOAJ, Lund University Libraries - Lund, Suécia; eBibliothek E-Zeitschriften - Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Alemanha; Sistema Regional de Información en Línea para Revistas Científicas de América Latina, el Caribe, España y Portugal - LATINDEX; Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin; The Social Science Research Center Berlin - The WZB Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung e, também, através da Universitätsbibliothek Clausthal - Technischen Universität Clausthal. O rápido reconhecimento científico da Cognitio Juris é o resultado da elevada qualidade dos seus artigos e da fidelidade ao seu compromisso de estimular a produção e o conhecimento do Direito em seus diversos campos. Em sua quarta edição, a Cognitio Juris realça a visão tridimensional do Direito, trazendo artigos sobre Sociologia Jurídica, Filosofia Jurídica e áreas da Ciência do Direito. Como bem exposto pelo genial Miguel Reale na sua teoria tridimensional do Direito, fato, valor e norma formam uma unidade fático-axiológico-normativa, uma verdadeira trilogia, uma espécie de santíssima trindade do Direito. Cada um desses três fatores se refere aos demais e, por isso, só alcança sentido em conjunto, quando formam uma implicação dinâmica. Se não bastasse, os temas abordados nos artigos focam áreas de grande incidência e aplicação prática do Direito: consumidor, ambiental, trabalho, constitucional e internacional, o que nos dá a

  3. Dom Stenboka / Juri Nikiforov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nikiforov, Juri

    2003-01-01

    Tallinna Stenbocki maja ehitus- ja ümberehituslugu. Projekteeris arhitekt J. C. Mohr 1784. a. Viimasest ümberkujundamisest 1996-2000 Eesti Vabariigi valitsuse tarvis. Uus ruumikujundus, mööbel, valgustid, fassaad

  4. "Govorjashtshaja" arhitektura / Juri Nikiforov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nikiforov, Juri

    2003-01-01

    Kirjeldatakse prof. Martin Philipp Gropiuse poolt krahv Evald von Ungern-Sternbergile projekteeritud aadlipaleed Tallinnas Toompeal, Kohtu t. 6: vaadeldakse fassaade ja siseruumide rikkalikku kujundust. Ehitust alustati 1865

  5. The People's Jury System and the Public Judicial Participation%人民陪审员制度与民众的司法参与

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范愉

    2014-01-01

    尽管人民陪审员制度不可能解决我国司法体制改革和司法公正的所有根本性问题,但其所具有的重要司法民主价值和功能是值得重视的。在我国,围绕人民陪审员制度存在多种争议,同时其实践也显示出某些制度异化的迹象。这种情况与我国的治理传统和复杂的社会因素有关。为了更好地发挥人民陪审员制度的预期功能和目标,目前应避免简单追求数量与规模的扩张,注重从个案(尤其是重大刑事案件和死刑案件)的示范作用入手,循序渐进地推进民众对司法活动的有序参与,逐步畅通和规范普通民众参与司法的途径,孕育司法民主的文化氛围和社会基础。%Although the people's jury system can not solve all the fundamental issues in the judicial re-form and justice of our country,it has important judicial democratic values and functions which are worthy of attention.In China,there are several disputes around the people's jury system,while its practice also shows some signs of alienation of certain systems.This situation has something to do with the governance traditions and complex social factors of our country.In order to play the expected function and to reach the target of the people's jury system better,currently we should avoid simple pursuit of expansion in amount and scale,pay at-tention to start from the model function of individual cases (especially major criminal cases and death penalty cases),gradually promote the orderly public participation in the judicial activities,gradually smooth and regu-late the means of ordinary people's judicial participation,and nurture a cultural atmosphere and social founda-tions.of democracy and justice.

  6. Fast and Accurate Identification of Cross-Linked Peptides for the Structural Analysis of Large Protein Complexes and Elucidation of Interaction Networks. / Tahir, Salman; Bukowski-Wills, Jimi-Carlo; Rasmussen, Morten; Rappsilber, Juri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    Fast and Accurate Identification of Cross-Linked Peptides for the structural analysis of large protein complexes and to elucidate interaction networks. Salman Tahir Jimi-Carlo Bukowski-Wills; Morten Rasmussen; Juri RappsilberWellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Edinburgh , United Kingdom   Novel...

  7. Moskva pisaraid ei usu : 5. Venemaa rahvuslik teatrifestival "Zolotaja Maska" 10. märtsist 5. aprillini 1999 Moskvas / Juri Ljubimov, Kadi Herkül ; interv. Olga Jero

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ljubimov, Juri, 1917-2014

    1999-01-01

    Vaadeldakse lavastusi - A. Tshehhovi "Tatjana Repina" (lav. Valeri Fokin), W. Shakespeare'i "Talvemuinasjutt" (lav. Declan Donnellan), A. Ostrovski "Äike" (lav.Henrietta Janovskaja), A. Krutshjonõhhi "Võit päikese üle" (lav. Aleksandr Ponomarjov), W. Gombrowiczi "Iwona, Burgundia printsess" (lav. Oleg Rõbkin) ja H. Pinteri "Majahoidja" (lav. Juri Butussov)

  8. Cognitio Juris - Sexta Edição - Apresentação - Ano II - Número 6 - Dezembro 2012 - ISSN 2236-3009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio Maia e Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A revista Cognitio Juris chega à sexta edição fiel ao seu compromisso de abordar e apresentar um saber dogmático jurídico multidisciplinar atual e engajado com as transformações sociais mais relevantes do nosso tempo e, segundo Tércio Sampaio Ferraz Junior, possibilitar que esse conhecimento jurídico ofereça formas para a decisão dos conflitos decorrentes do viver em sociedade. Afirmar que a doutrina jurídica não pode estar desconectada das transformações sociais é algo tão pueril como a afirmação em si. O que é relevante é a forma como ela se posiciona diante de tais transformações, o viés a ser adotado. A ordem jurídica constitucional da maioria dos países ocidentais erigiu os direitos fundamentais como sua base. O Brasil inclui-se nesta leva, acrescentando como outra pedra de toque de sua ordem constitucional o principio da dignidade da pessoa humana. O viés dos direitos fundamentais e da dignidade da pessoa humana é, portanto, a opção do modelo constitucional brasileiro e revela eloquentemente para o doutrinador a instrumentalidade do direito, ou seja, o direito como de meio de tutela e garantia do valor da pessoa humana sobre todos os demais valores e não o inverso. É com este fundamento constitucional que o conhecimento jurídico oferecido e abordado na Cognitio Juris se lastreia e se propõe. Vivemos tempos em que as estruturas sociais, influenciadas por inúmeras variantes, entre elas uma forte economia de mercado, desumanizam as relações e as pessoas. Vivemos, segundo Zygmunt Bauman, numa modernidade líquida, assim caracterizada em razão da volatilidade e facilidade com que os líquidos mudam de forma, e, por conta desta natureza, de não se solidificarem. A dogmática jurídica, o cognitio juris, não pode ser líquido, segundo esta concepção de Bauman, mas sim ter como bases sólidas os direitos fundamentais e a dignidade da pessoa humana, associadas à busca dos meios que assegurem a sua

  9. Cortical fMRI activation to opponents' body kinematics in sport-related anticipation: expert-novice differences with normal and point-light video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M J; Bishop, D T; Jackson, R C; Abernethy, B

    2011-08-18

    Badminton players of varying skill levels viewed normal and point-light video clips of opponents striking the shuttle towards the viewer; their task was to predict in which quadrant of the court the shuttle would land. In a whole-brain fMRI analysis we identified bilateral cortical networks sensitive to the anticipation task relative to control stimuli. This network is more extensive and localised than previously reported. Voxel clusters responding more strongly in experts than novices were associated with all task-sensitive areas, whereas voxels responding more strongly in novices were found outside these areas. Task-sensitive areas for normal and point-light video were very similar, whereas early visual areas responded differentially, indicating the primacy of kinematic information for sport-related anticipation.

  10. Commentary: Pursuing justice in death penalty trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Clarence; Eth, Spencer; Leong, Gregory B

    2012-01-01

    The capital trial, by its nature, is fraught with emotionally disturbing elements that jurors must face when deciding the ultimate fate of a guilty defendant. A confluence of mitigating and aggravating factors influences a capital jury's decision to impose a sentence of death. The presence or absence of defendant remorse in these cases may make all the difference in whether a capital defendant's life is spared. This commentary examines the onerous emotional toll encountered by capital jurors in light of the findings of Corwin and colleagues regarding defendant remorse and juror's need for affect. The commentary also presents practical and ethics-related considerations that should be kept in mind when reflecting on their study.

  11. Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the defendant's appearance during the trial on capital jurors' punishment decision. The data used in this analysis were gathered by the Capital Jury Project (CJP), a national program of research on the decision-making of capital jurors. A series of multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using four aggravating circumstances related to the killing and eight defendant appearance variables as predictors of jurors' punishment decision at three points during the capital trial: (1) after the punishment phase ended, but before formal deliberation began; (2) when the first vote was taken on punishment at jury deliberations; and (3) at the final vote on punishment. Results indicated that when the defendant appeared emotionally involved during the trial (i.e. sorry and sincere) jurors either favored a life sentence or were undecided about punishment; however, when the defendant appeared emotionally uninvolved during the trial (i.e. bored) jurors either sought a death sentence or remained undecided. Policy implications will be discussed.

  12. The duty to give reasons as a guarantee for a fair trial under the sight of the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Alves Mascarenhas Nardelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to define the outlines of the judicial duty to provide reasons for their decisions in its theoretical aspect - according to contemporary procedural knowledge -, as well as to establish its importance for the concretion of a fair trial. At the same time, the duty to give reasons will be analyzed in a practical perspective according to the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, with a special emphasis in the case Taxquet v. Belgium and its impact on Jury Trials.

  13. Role of anti-angiogenesis therapy in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma: The jury is still out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; Sun; Man-Sheng; Zhu; Wen-Rui; Wu; Xiang-De; Shi; Lei-Bo; Xu

    2014-01-01

    As the leading cause of disease-related deaths,cancer is a major public health threat worldwide.Surgical resection is still the first-line therapy for patients with early-stage cancers.However,postoperative relapse and metastasis remain the cause of 90%of deaths of patients with solid organ malignancies,including hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).With the rapid development of molecular biology techniques in recent years,molecularly targeted therapies using monoclonal antibodies,small molecules,and vaccines have become a milestone in cancer therapeutic by significantly improv-ing the survival of cancer patients,and have opened a window of hope for patients with advanced cancer.Hypervascularization is a major characteristic of HCC.It has been reported that anti-angiogenic treatments,which inhibit blood vessel formation,are highly effective for treating HCC.However,the efficacy and safety of anti-angiogenesis therapies remain controversial.Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor with antiproliferative and anti-angiogenic effects and is the first molecular target drug approved for the treatment of advanced HCC.While sorafenib has shown promising therapeutic effects,substantial evidence of primary and acquired resistance to sorafenib has been reported.Numerous clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate a large number of molecularly targeted drugs for treating HCC,but most drugs exhibited less efficacy and/or higher toxicity compared to sorafenib.Therefore,understanding the mechanism(s)underlying sorafenib resistance of cancer cells is highlighted for efficiently treating HCC.This concise review aims to provide an overview of anti-angiogenesis therapy in the management of HCC and to discuss the common mechanisms of resistance to anti-angiogenesis therapies.

  14. Heart Rate, Time-Motion, and Body Impacts When Changing the Number of Teammates and Opponents in Soccer Small-Sided Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Gonçalves, Bruno; Marcelino, Rui; Torrents, Carlota; Vicente, Emili; Sampaio, Jaime

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the internal (heart rate) and external load (body load, distance covered, and exertion index) during different types of unbalanced soccer small-sided games (SSGs) in professional (PRO) and amateur (AMA) players. In 2 separated sessions (PRO and AMA), participants played 3 SSG formats (4vs3, 4vs5, and 4v7). Data were analyzed from the fixed team's perspective (4vsX) according to the number of opponents (3, 5 and 7) and from the variable team (3 + Xvs4) according to the teammates (without teammates, 2 and 4 teammates). The time-motion and body impact data were collected using a nondifferential global positioning system with integrated heart rate measurement. Differences in internal and external workload between the game formats were compared using Cohen's dunb effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals. Results reveal that the higher the number of players involved in the task, the lower the internal and external workload. The analysis also showed different teammates and opposition-related trends that need to be considered when planning and monitoring training performance. Playing in low-inferiority (4vs3 and 4vs5) had higher physiologic impact to players than the other higher unbalanced situations. This evidence was similar to both PRO and AMA players; however, the PRO presented higher physical and lower physiological responses across games. Our results suggest that coaches should consider the usage of unbalanced SSG formats to simultaneously facilitate the emergence of defensive and offensive proficient scenarios also representing opportunities to increase the practice workload.

  15. RELATION OF EFFECTIVENESS IN PICK N’ ROLL APPLICATION BETWEEN THE NATIONAL GREEK TEAM OF AND ITS OPPONENTS DURING THE MEN’S WORLD BASKETBALL CHAMPIONSHIP OF 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLYKRATIS MATTHEOS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to register and analyse the alterations of Pick n’ Roll effectiveness between the national team of Greece and its opponents during the Mundobasket 2006 in Japan. The sampleconsisted of the 9 games that took place between them during the Mundobasket 2006. In the 1528 cases which were registered, we analyzed all the Pick n’ Rolls according to 26 pre-estimated factors (form, court area, players combination, way of attack, attack player, shot area, way of defending Pick n’ Roll, to reveal all the comparingdifferences in the Pick n’ Roll application and the relation of Pick n’ Roll effectiveness and productivity. The statistical analysis package SPSS was used for the statistical analysis of the data, correlation analysis, classification (cluster and Crosstabs command with χ2 (Chi-square test. The results of the Crosstab analysis,revealed that there are statistically significant differences between the Greek and the other National Teams according to the use of Pick n’ Roll move in the offensive set plays and also according the offence efficacy and offence productivity. The Correlation analysis revealed extremely high interrelation between offence efficacyand shot area (p= -0,209(** , α=0,01, and as far as offence productivity is concerned extremely high interrelation revealed first of all with the final shot player and secondly with the shot area ( p= -0,2877(**α=0,01. According to the Cluster analysis the results revealed that as far as both offence efficacy and offence roductivity are concerned the maximum similarity is modulating in relation with the Pick n’ Roll form.

  16. Rossiiskaja prezidentskaja respublika / Juri Filippov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Filippov, Juri

    2006-01-01

    Presidendi institutsioonist Venemaal, Föderatsiooninõukogust ja Riigiduumast, Vladimir Putini saamisest presidendiks. Poliitilise elu muutumise mõjust kodanikuühiskonna arengule, ühiskondlikest organisatsioonidest ja neid käsitlevast seadusest, Venemaa Ühiskondlikust Kojast. Autori sõnul sai Venemaast just 2000. aastal, kui Vladimir Putin sai presidendiks, presidentaalne vabariik, mitte 1993. aastal, kui võeti vastu põhiseadus

  17. Majak tsarstva ptits / Juri Revalshtein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Revalshtein, Juri

    1999-01-01

    Vilsandi tuletornist. Teatatakse kunstnik Roman Matkiewiczi graafilise miniatuuri järgi loodud Vilsandi tuletorni kujutava postmargi (sarjast 'Eesti tuletornid') väljalaskmisest. Artiklit illustreerivad tuletorni foto ja margi eskiis.

  18. Olestra? The Jury's Still Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-04-01

    Although it has been more than a year since the FDA approved the use of olestra in certain foods, this fat substitute, a mixture of sucrose polyesters, is still controversial. It would seem that a fat substitute that is heat stable and has an acceptable flavor and texture would be welcomed enthusiastically in a country where increasing numbers of people, young and old, exceed their ideal body weight. Obesity and diets containing high levels of fat have been linked to numerous health problems, including cardiovascular diseases, certain types of cancer, and adult-onset diabetes; they may also exacerbate some chronic problems such as arthritis in joints of the lower extremities. Nevertheless, some scientists and consumer groups question olestra's safety and usefulness.

  19. Fast and Accurate Identification of Cross-Linked Peptides for the Structural Analysis of Large Protein Complexes and Elucidation of Interaction Networks. / Tahir, Salman; Bukowski-Wills, Jimi-Carlo; Rasmussen, Morten; Rappsilber, Juri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    Fast and Accurate Identification of Cross-Linked Peptides for the structural analysis of large protein complexes and to elucidate interaction networks. Salman Tahir Jimi-Carlo Bukowski-Wills; Morten Rasmussen; Juri RappsilberWellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Edinburgh , United Kingdom   Novel...... to investigate protein structure and protein-protein interactions. When applied to single proteins or small purified protein complexes, this methodology works well. However certain challenges arise when applied to more complex samples. One of the main problems is the combinatorial increase in the search space...... Aspect: Our software efficiently and correctly identifies cross-links within large protein complexes, facilitating the construction of low-resolution 3D-models and interaction networks   .Introduction Chemical cross-linking of peptides coupled with mass spectrometry emerges as a powerful method...

  20. Monitoring Protein Conformation Changes as an Activating Step for Protein Interactions with Cross-linking/MS Analysis. / Chen, Zhuo; Rasmussen, Morten; Tahir, Salman; Clark, C.A.C; Barlow, Paul; Rappsilber, Juri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    Monitoring protein conformation changes as an activating step for protein interactions with cross-linking/MS analysis. Chen, Zhou; Rasmussen, Morten; Tahir, Salman; Clark, C.A.C; Barlow, Paul; Rappsilber, Juri.   Introduction Protein interactions often require conformational changes in proteins....... Chemical cross-linking of proteins coupled with mass spectrometric analysis is emerging as a versatile tool for determining low-resolution three-dimensional structures of proteins. We show in this study that this technique is also able to resolve protein conformation changes, investigating the transition......-linked peptides and manual validation were performed using in-house software. The structural information determined by validated cross-links was compared against C3 and C3b crystal structure using Pymol.   Preliminary results We portray conformation changes from C3 to C3b through observing different group...

  1. Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Each study answers ... prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. Clinical trials may also compare a new treatment to a ...

  2. Examining Harry Thaw's "brain-storm" defense: APA and ANA presidents as expert witnesses in a 1907 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinta, Emil R

    2008-06-01

    In 1907, Harry K. Thaw, son of a railroad multi-millionaire, stood trial for shooting and killing architect Stanford White during the performance of a Broadway musical. The defense claimed that Thaw had experienced a "brain storm" causing temporary insanity. The brain-storm defense was ridiculed by professional groups, the public and the press. However, the defense experts were all respected leaders in their fields. They included five past or future presidents of the American Psychiatric Association and American Neurological Association. With no standard terminology in 1907, the much-maligned brain-storm diagnosis was in many respects an appropriate term for a sudden, drastic and temporary defect of reasoning having a physical cause. In spite of a strict test for mental nonresponsibility, the jury did not return a murder verdict.

  3. Stroke Trials Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Trials Registry Clinical Trials Interventions Conditions Sponsors ... a clinical trial near you Welcome to the Stroke Trials Registry Our registry of clinical trials in ...

  4. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z > Participating in Clinical Trials: About Clinical Trials In This Topic About Clinical Trials Risks and Benefits ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Participating in Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study ...

  5. 用于复杂场景背景减除的拮抗方向能量时空显著性%Spatiotemporal saliency based on opponent oriented energy for background subtraction in complex scenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施鹍; 周越

    2012-01-01

    本文基于生物视觉启发构建了一种用于复杂场景下的无监督时空显著性检测方法.为了紧致描述场景局部动态纹理运动,首先提出分布式拮抗方向能量导出的动态纹理描述子获取局部运动信息.然后,本文探索了利用该表达结合扩展的自相似显著性框架得到时空显著性检测器.在多个极端动态背景和摄像头运动的图像序列中,利用本文提出的算法进行了背景减除实验.广泛的定性与定量实验结果表明本文方法快速且高效.在检测精度与计算代价平衡性方面,本文算法与最先进算法具有一定竞争力.%A computational unsupervised saliency model utilizing bio-inspired features for spatiotemporal saliency is presented in this paper. We first propose distributed opponent oriented energy for capturing local dynamic texture ensemble motion. Then, we integrate the derived characterization and a revised self-resemblance saliency framework. High effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method is extensively demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively, for background subtraction in the cases of extremely dynamic scenes and camera jitter. In terms of the trade-off between accuracy and computation cost, our method achieved competitive results in contrast to the state-of-art algorithm.

  6. On Einstein's opponents, and other crackpots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Einsteins Gegner: Die öffentliche Kontroverse um die Relativitätstheorie in den 1920er Jahren, Milena Wazeck. Campus Verlag, pp. 429, EUR 39.90. ISBN: 978-3593389141 “This world is a strange madhouse. Currently, every coachman and every waiter is debating whether relativity theory is correct. Belief

  7. On Einstein's opponents, and other crackpots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.A.E.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/242629431

    2010-01-01

    Einsteins Gegner: Die öffentliche Kontroverse um die Relativitätstheorie in den 1920er Jahren, Milena Wazeck. Campus Verlag, pp. 429, EUR 39.90. ISBN: 978-3593389141 “This world is a strange madhouse. Currently, every coachman and every waiter is debating whether relativity theory is correct. Belief

  8. PPARs: Protectors or Opponents of Myocardial Function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J. Pol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 5 million people in the United States suffer from the complications of heart failure (HF, which is a rapidly expanding health complication. Disorders that contribute to HF include ischemic cardiac disease, cardiomyopathies, and hypertension. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are members of the nuclear receptor family. There are three PPAR isoforms: PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARδ. They can be activated by endogenous ligands, such as fatty acids, as well as by pharmacologic agents. Activators of PPARs are used for treating several metabolic complications, such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia that are directly or indirectly associated with HF. However, some of these drugs have adverse effects that compromise cardiac function. This review article aims to summarize the current basic and clinical research findings of the beneficial or detrimental effects of PPAR biology on myocardial function.

  9. PPARs: Protectors or Opponents of Myocardial Function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Christine J.; Lieu, Melissa; Drosatos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Over 5 million people in the United States suffer from the complications of heart failure (HF), which is a rapidly expanding health complication. Disorders that contribute to HF include ischemic cardiac disease, cardiomyopathies, and hypertension. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor family. There are three PPAR isoforms: PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARδ. They can be activated by endogenous ligands, such as fatty acids, as well as by pharmacologic agents. Activators of PPARs are used for treating several metabolic complications, such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia that are directly or indirectly associated with HF. However, some of these drugs have adverse effects that compromise cardiac function. This review article aims to summarize the current basic and clinical research findings of the beneficial or detrimental effects of PPAR biology on myocardial function. PMID:26713088

  10. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment, screening, diagnostic, prevention, and supportive care trials. Treatment Trials In treatment trials, researchers may gather information about experimental treatments, ...

  11. The Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jen

    2004-01-01

    Growing up in Flemington, New Jersey, put Jen Bryant in the heart of the lore behind the Lindbergh baby kidnapping. Family stories of the events of the day and extensive research led to "The Trial," a novel in verse. The first several parts of this novel are included here.

  12. What Are Clinical Trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Clinical ... conducted all the time. The Different Phases of Clinical Trials Clinical trials related to drugs are classified into ...

  13. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Participating in Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study With Human Subjects A clinical ... to treat or cure a disease. Phases of Clinical Trials Clinical trials of drugs are usually described based ...

  14. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Usually, trial participants must show signs of the disease or condition before they can join this type of trial. Prevention Trials Click for more information In prevention trials, ...

  15. Varas karjub : "Pidage varas kinni!" / Juri Vdovin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vdovin, Juri

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 16. mai 2007, lk. 2. Ühiskondliku õiguskaitseorganisatsiooni Kodanikukontroll aseesimees, ühenduse Memoriaal liige ja Peterburi avalikustamise kaitse fondi eksperdi hinnangul peab Venemaa täiel häälel distantseeruma kommunistliku režiimi kuritegudest SRÜ riikide territooriumil ja üldse terves maailmas. Samas sõnab ta, et Eesti-vastase viha õhutamisel, korratustel Eestis koos marodöörluse ja pogrommidega, rünnakrühmlaste käitumisel Eesti Moskva saatkonna ees pole midagi ühist patriotismi ja armastusega Venemaa vastu

  16. Aleksandro-Nevski sobor / Juri Nikiforov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nikiforov, Juri

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna Aleksander Nevski peakiriku ehituslugu: arhitekt Mihhail Preobrazhenski. Mosaiikpannoode looja on akadeemik A. Frolov, ikonostaasid (puit) teostas Pjotr Abrosimov (?), ikoonimaalid - akadeemik Aleksandr Novoskoltsev ja tema töökoda, vitraažid - Emil Schteinke (?), maalid - Mihhail Vassiljev ja Aleksandr Blazov, seinamaalingud - Grigori Prokofjev. 2002. a. lisandusid kaks Andrei Lobanovi vitraaži

  17. Jubilei majaka-"grafina" / Juri Revalshtein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Revalshtein, Juri

    2003-01-01

    Ilmus Keri tuletorni ehitamise (arhitekt Charles Cameron) 145-aastapäevale pühendatud mark seeriast "Eesti tuletornid". Kunstnik Roman Matkiewicz. Pikem ülevaade tuletorni ehituse ajaloost alates 1718. a

  18. Horoshi v svojom rode / Juri Nikiforov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nikiforov, Juri

    1998-01-01

    Tallinnas, Pikk tän.19 ja 21-25 asuvate hoonete arhitektuurist. Esimene neist on varaklassitsistlik 18. saj. elamu, teine arhitekt J. Rosenbaumi projekteeritud juugendstiilis nurgamaja, ehitatud 1908-09. Praegu asub neis Venemaa saatkond

  19. Akademik Poleshtshuk iz Arensburga / Juri Nikiforov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nikiforov, Juri

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade Kuressaares sündinud arhitekti Aleksander Poleshtshuki (1863-1944) elust, õpingutest ja loomingust. Lõpetas Peterburi Kunstiakadeemia arhitektuuri erialal, oli selle professor ja akadeemik

  20. Einstein's Jury -The Race to Test Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crelinsten, Jeffrey

    2006-12-01

    It is common belief that Einstein’s general theory of relativity won worldwide acceptance after British astronomers announced in November 1919 that the sun’s gravitational field bends starlight by an amount predicted by Einstein. This paper demonstrates that the case for Einstein was not settled until much later and that there was considerable confusion and debate about relativity during this period. Most astronomers considered Einstein’s general theory too metaphysical and abstruse, and many tried to find more conventional explanations of the astronomical observations. Two American announcements before the British results appeared had been contrary to Einstein’s prediction. They came from Lick and Mt. Wilson observatories, which enjoyed international reputations as two of the most advanced astrophysical research establishments in the world. Astronomers at these renowned institutions were instrumental in swaying the court of scientific opinion during the decade of the 1920s, which saw numerous attempts to measure light-bending, as well as solar line displacements and even ether-drift. How astronomers approached the “Einstein problem” in these early years before and after the First World War, and how the public reacted to what they reported, helped to shape attitudes we hold today about Einstein and his ideas.

  1. Aleksandro-Nevski sobor / Juri Nikiforov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nikiforov, Juri

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna Aleksander Nevski peakiriku ehituslugu: arhitekt Mihhail Preobrazhenski. Mosaiikpannoode looja on akadeemik A. Frolov, ikonostaasid (puit) teostas Pjotr Abrosimov (?), ikoonimaalid - akadeemik Aleksandr Novoskoltsev ja tema töökoda, vitraažid - Emil Schteinke (?), maalid - Mihhail Vassiljev ja Aleksandr Blazov, seinamaalingud - Grigori Prokofjev. 2002. a. lisandusid kaks Andrei Lobanovi vitraaži

  2. Securities against Misrule. Juries, Assemblies, Elections

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    En un contexto en el que aumenta el cuestionamiento del papel de las instituciones políticas y en el que proliferan los partidos de carácter xenófobo en el conjunto de Europa y España, Jon Elster desarrolla en esta obra la propuesta de diseñar unas instituciones democráticas en las que se reduzca al máximo el impacto del propio interés.

  3. Varas karjub : "Pidage varas kinni!" / Juri Vdovin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vdovin, Juri

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 16. mai 2007, lk. 2. Ühiskondliku õiguskaitseorganisatsiooni Kodanikukontroll aseesimees, ühenduse Memoriaal liige ja Peterburi avalikustamise kaitse fondi eksperdi hinnangul peab Venemaa täiel häälel distantseeruma kommunistliku režiimi kuritegudest SRÜ riikide territooriumil ja üldse terves maailmas. Samas sõnab ta, et Eesti-vastase viha õhutamisel, korratustel Eestis koos marodöörluse ja pogrommidega, rünnakrühmlaste käitumisel Eesti Moskva saatkonna ees pole midagi ühist patriotismi ja armastusega Venemaa vastu

  4. Jubilei majaka-"grafina" / Juri Revalshtein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Revalshtein, Juri

    2003-01-01

    Ilmus Keri tuletorni ehitamise (arhitekt Charles Cameron) 145-aastapäevale pühendatud mark seeriast "Eesti tuletornid". Kunstnik Roman Matkiewicz. Pikem ülevaade tuletorni ehituse ajaloost alates 1718. a

  5. Types of Treatment: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Information Treatment Types of Treatment Clinical Trials Clinical Trials Clinical Trials SHARE: Print Glossary Taking part in a clinical ... for cancer are based on previous clinical trials. Clinical Trial Service: LLS provides personalized clinical trial navigation when ...

  6. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... trial is to find out if an experimental drug, therapy, medical device, lifestyle change, or test will ... disease. Phases of Clinical Trials Clinical trials of drugs are usually described based on their phase. The ...

  7. Clinical Trials in Vision Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health Information > Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical studies depend on people ... vision research in the United States. Basics of Clinical Trials What is a clinical trial? Clinical trials are ...

  8. How Do Clinical Trials Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites How Do Clinical Trials Work? If you take part in a clinical ... protect patients and help produce reliable study results. Clinical Trial Protocol Each clinical trial has a master plan ...

  9. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... trial. Prevention Trials Click for more information In prevention trials, researchers study ways to reduce the risk of getting a disease or a specific medical problem. These trials find out if lifestyle changes, such as exercising more, getting more sleep, ...

  10. A petition to Mr Peel: Gideon Mantell and the trial of Hannah Russell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, R J; Watson, K D

    2009-07-01

    In the summer of 1826, Hannah Russell was tried for petty treason, viz. the murder of her husband, Benjamin Russell, by poisoning. Their lodger, Daniel Leney, was indicted as her accomplice. The exact circumstances surrounding the death were unclear but Hannah was known to have purchased white arsenic (arsenious oxide). A local surgeon, Thomas Evans, supported at the post-mortem examination by two further surgeons, not only reported severe corrosion of the gastrointestinal tract, but also the recovery of nearly an eighth of an ounce of arsenic from the victim's stomach. Both accused were convicted and sentenced to death. Leney was executed, but Hannah Russell was respited because the trial judge, Sir Robert Graham, had doubts as to a direction he had given to the jury. The surgeon and paleontologist Gideon Mantell took up her case, stressing that death from arsenic could not have taken place as quickly as was alleged and maintaining that the chemical evidence of arsenic poisoning was inconclusive. He gained the support of some eminent chemists and physicians. Subsequently, forensic toxicologists [Sir] Robert Christison and Alfred Swaine Taylor pointed out that Mantell's arguments as to the possible time to death in arsenic poisoning were quite wrong. Moreover, Evans gave details of the analyses he and his colleagues had undertaken to Christison, who pronounced the findings sound, as indeed did Mantell after Evans and his colleagues published details of their investigations in the Sussex Advertiser. Papers in The National Archives show that Hannah was pardoned for the offence for which she was indicted, leaving it open to prefer a lesser charge. That this was never done may have been due to Mantell's campaign, at least in part, but the pardon she did receive was due to the concern of the trial judge as to the implications of the evidence presented at trial.

  11. Jury tests for noise quality and psycho-acoustics; Jury-Tests fuer Geraeuschqualitaet und Psychoakustik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, P.; Sielaff, T. [Brueel und Kjaer GmbH, Bremen (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    Optimisation of product noise is an interative process which is decided by humans when all is said and done. This means that product noise must pass subjective hearing tests - which as a rule are time-consuming, indirect and expensive as compared with direct objective measurements. In consequence, objective metric tests based on psychoacoustic research are very attractive. They are low-cost and fast, but they can replace subjective tests only if subjective judgement is modelled correctly. (orig.)

  12. Voting for image scoring and assessment (VISA)--theory and application of a 2 + 1 reader algorithm to improve accuracy of imaging endpoints in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Klaus; Hussain, Fez

    2015-02-19

    Independent central reading or off-site reading of imaging endpoints is increasingly used in clinical trials. Clinician-reported outcomes, such as endoscopic disease activity scores, have been shown to be subject to bias and random error. Central reading attempts to limit bias and improve accuracy of the assessment, two factors that are critical to trial success. Whether one central reader is sufficient and how to best integrate the input of more than one central reader into one output measure, is currently not known.In this concept paper we develop the theoretical foundations of a reading algorithm that can achieve both objectives without jeopardizing operational efficiency We examine the role of expert versus competent reader, frame scoring of imaging as a classification task, and propose a voting algorithm (VISA: Voting for Image Scoring and Assessment) as the most appropriate solution which could also be used to operationally define imaging gold standards. We propose two image readers plus an optional third reader in cases of disagreement (2 + 1) for ordinary scoring tasks. We argue that it is critical in trials with endoscopically determined endpoints to include the score determined by the site reader, at least in endoscopy clinical trials. Juries with more than 3 readers could define a reference standard that would allow a transition from measuring reader agreement to measuring reader accuracy. We support VISA by applying concepts from engineering (triple-modular redundancy) and voting theory (Condorcet's jury theorem) and illustrate our points with examples from inflammatory bowel disease trials, specifically, the endoscopy component of the Mayo Clinic Score of ulcerative colitis disease activity. Detailed flow-diagrams (pseudo-code) are provided that can inform program design.The VISA "2 + 1" reading algorithm, based on voting, can translate individual reader scores into a final score in a fashion that is both mathematically sound (by avoiding

  13. “黄飞鸿”对手群体的演变分析--以徐克“黄飞鸿”系列为例%Analysis on the evolvement of “Huang Feihong” opponents groups---take “Huang Feihong” series of Tsui Hark as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旸

    2015-01-01

    In the past ,in the martial arts films that take late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China as the back-ground ,the West and the East are usually set as an extreme opposite binary mode that is evil vs kind ,colonial vs the colonized ,and oppression vs resistance .The west is the Chinese biggest rivals and enemies .But in “Huang Feihong” series,Tsui Hark abandons the old nationalist ideas .He puts the narrative focus on top of the “national character criticism”.Subsequently ,Huang Feihong opponents ’ types and cultural concepts contained in the oppo-nents also have changed accordingly .%研究指出,在过往以晚清和民国为背景的武侠电影中,西方与东方往往被设置成邪恶/善良、殖民/被殖民、压迫/反抗这样极端对立的二元模式,西方是中国人最大的对手和敌人。但是在“黄飞鸿”系列中,徐克摒弃了既有了民族主义思路,而把叙事重心放在了“国民性批判”上面,随之而来,黄飞鸿对手的类型以及对手身上所蕴涵的文化观念也发生了相应的变化。

  14. Informed Consent (Clinical Trials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Cancer Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs ... Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer ...

  15. Research Areas - Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about NCI programs and initiatives that sponsor, conduct, develop, or support clinical trials, including NCI’s Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) initiatives.

  16. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutes of Health funds much of this basic research. Screening Trials In screening trials, researchers study ways of finding a disease before symptoms occur. These methods, often called screening tests, can include imaging tests ...

  17. ClinicalTrials.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to This Site Terms and Conditions Disclaimer ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry and results database of publicly ... of human participants conducted around the world. ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry and results database of publicly ...

  18. Understanding noninferiority trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokyung Hahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Noninferiority trials test whether a new experimental treatment is not unacceptably less efficacious than an active control treatment already in use. With continuous improvements in health technologies, standard care, and clinical outcomes, the incremental benefits of newly developed treatments may be only marginal over existing treatments. Sometimes assigning patients to a placebo is unethical. In such circumstances, there has been increasing emphasis on the use of noninferiority trial designs. Noninferiority trials are more complex to design, conduct, and interpret than typical superiority trials. This paper reviews the concept of noninferiority trials and discusses some important issues related to them.

  19. Mutual Influence and Inspiration: The Theories of Juri Lotman's Semiotics and Life Science%与生命科学的交光互影:论尤里·洛特曼的符号学理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佳; 汤黎

    2012-01-01

    洛特曼的“符号域”观念和自然科学颇有渊源,他的符号学理论与生命科学更是有诸多相互借镜和影响之处。本文从跨学科的角度出发,讨论了洛特曼的符号学理论对生物学的借鉴和在生物符号学脉络中起到的重要作用,并指出文理学科之间的这种相互影响体现了符号学和文化研究发展的未来趋势和动向。%The conception of " Semiosphere", the semiotic term coined by Juri Lotman, owes much to natural science. Moreover, Lotman's semiotic theory borrows ideas from and influences life science. From the perspective of interdisciplinary study, this paper discusses how biological conceptions influence Lotman and how his semiotic theory sheds light on the establishing of biosemiotics system. It is pointed out, in the final part of the paper, that the mutual influence and inspiration between arts and science indicates a future trend in semiotics and culture studies.

  20. The COLOFOL trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansdotter Andersson, Pernilla; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The COLOFOL trial, a prospective randomized multicenter trial comparing two follow-up regimes after curative surgical treatment for colorectal cancer, focuses on detection of asymptomatic recurrences. This paper aims to describe the design and recruitment procedure in the COLOFOL...... trial, comparing demographic characteristics between randomized patients and eligible patients not included in the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: COLOFOL was designed as a pragmatic trial with wide inclusion criteria and few exclusion criteria, in order to obtain a sample reflecting the general patient...

  1. Beyond trial types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-05-01

    Conventional wisdom on psychological experiments has held that when one or more independent variables are manipulated it is essential that all other conditions are kept constant such that confounding factors can be assumed negligible (Woodworth, 1938). In practice, the latter assumption is often questionable because it is generally difficult to guarantee that all other conditions are constant between any two trials. Therefore, the most common way to check for confounding violations of this assumption is to split the experimental conditions in terms of "trial types" to simulate a reduction of unintended trial-by-trial variation. Here, we pose a method which is more general than the use of trial types: use of mathematical models treating measures of potentially confounding factors and manipulated variables as equals on the single-trial level. We show how the method can be applied with models that subsume under the generalized linear item response theory (GLIRT), which is the case for most of the well-known psychometric models (Mellenbergh, 1994). As an example, we provide a new analysis of a single-letter recognition experiment using a nested likelihood ratio test that treats manipulated and measured variables equally (i.e., in exactly the same way) on the single-trial level. The test detects a confounding interaction with time-on-task as a single-trial measure and yields a substantially better estimate of the effect size of the main manipulation compared with an analysis made in terms of trial types.

  2. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease or prevent a disease from returning. Supportive Care Trials In supportive care trials, researchers look for ways to make life ... groups, and various types of social interventions. Supportive care interventions are not intended to treat or cure ...

  3. Comparability of prostate trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suciu, S; Sylvester, R; Iversen, P

    1993-01-01

    The present overview of advanced prostate cancer required the identification of randomized clinical trials studying the question of maximal androgen blockade versus the classic castration therapy. The heterogeneity of the trials concerned the type of castration (surgical or chemical) and the type...

  4. 第27届男篮亚锦赛中国队与前四强对手攻防能力分析%Analysis on the Offensive and Defensive Abilities of Chinese Men’s Basketball Team and the Semi-finals Opponents in the 27th Asian Men’s Basketball Championship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安迪

    2014-01-01

    采用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法等,分析和研究了第27届亚洲男子篮球锦标赛中国队与前四强及前四强之间的45场比赛情况,找出了中国男子篮球队打出最差战绩的原因以及在进攻与防守方面的优势与差距,提出了相应的对策,期望为推动中国男子篮球队的进步和发展提供借鉴。%Employing the methods of documentation ,video observation and statistics ,the 45 games of Chinese and the semi-finals opponents are analyzed and researched in 27th Asian men's basketball championship .The reasons are found out for the worst record of Chinese men’s basketball team play in Asian championships ,as well as the advanta-ges and disadvantages in the aspects of offensive and defensive ,and relevant solutions are put forward to promote the progress and development of the Chinese men’s basketball team .

  5. 2013赛季亚洲足球俱乐部冠军联赛广州恒大队与竞争对手攻防能力对比研究%Comparative Analysis on the Ability of Offense and Defense between Guangzhou Evergrande Football Team and Opponents in the 2013 AFC Champions League

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝信

    2014-01-01

    采用文献资料、录像观察及数理统计等研究方法,统计与分析2013赛季亚洲足球俱乐部冠军联赛广州恒大队的全部14场比赛,对比研究竞争对手的攻防能力。结果表明,广州恒大队与竞争对手的攻防能力相比存在较大优势。%With the methods of literature review,video watching and mathematical statistics,the paper studies comparative analysis on the ability of offense and defense between Guangzhou Evergrande football team and its opponents, based on the statistics and analysis in all 14 games of Guangzhou Evergrande Football Team in 2013 AFC Champions League. The result shows that there are obvious advantages on the ability of offense and defense of Guangzhou Evergrande football team compared with competitors.

  6. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials Insurance Coverage and Clinical Trials How to Work With Your Health Insurance Plan Federal Government Programs Patient Safety Informed Consent Children's Assent Scientific Review Ending Trials Early Deciding to Take Part ...

  7. Fundamentals of clinical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Lawrence M; DeMets, David L; Reboussin, David M; Granger, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    This is the fifth edition of a very successful textbook on clinical trials methodology, written by recognized leaders who have long and extensive experience in all areas of clinical trials. The three authors of the first four editions have been joined by two others who add great expertise.  Most chapters have been revised considerably from the fourth edition.  A chapter on regulatory issues has been included and the chapter on data monitoring has been split into two and expanded.  Many contemporary clinical trial examples have been added.  There is much new material on adverse events, adherence, issues in analysis, electronic data, data sharing, and international trials.  This book is intended for the clinical researcher who is interested in designing a clinical trial and developing a protocol. It is also of value to researchers and practitioners who must critically evaluate the literature of published clinical trials and assess the merits of each trial and the implications for the care and treatment of ...

  8. Comparability of prostate trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suciu, S; Sylvester, R; Iversen, P;

    1993-01-01

    The present overview of advanced prostate cancer required the identification of randomized clinical trials studying the question of maximal androgen blockade versus the classic castration therapy. The heterogeneity of the trials concerned the type of castration (surgical or chemical) and the type...... of antiandrogen (flutamide, Anandron, or cyproterone acetate) added to castration. This paper reviews the different types of heterogeneity that might exist among trials that are involved in the overview: study design, randomization procedure, treatment evaluation, statistical evaluation, and data maturity...... with a larger number of patients and a longer follow-up will contribute more to the overview's results....

  9. Inept media trials of clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Ramamurthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indian media in general, with the exception of a few domain expert journalists, have failed to comprehend the complexities involved in the clinical trial process. In the run up to the deadline-based coverage of a story, a majority of them fall short in conveying the right perspective to readers, but nevertheless they have been successful in sensationalizing an event in this arena. Possibly by unintended misrepresentation, or mostly out of ignorance of the nuances involved in the clinical trials process, the media has done more harm than good, and got away with it. On the other side, the industry has been reluctant to engage with the media in a meaningful dialog for too long now. It bears not only the consequences of damage to its professional reputation following such reportage, but also the repercussions of unnecessary clampdowns by the regulators. Science journalism in India has yet to rise as a profession.

  10. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to obtain preliminary data on whether the drug works in people who have a certain disease or condition. These trials also continue to study safety, including short-term side effects. This phase ...

  11. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out if an experimental drug, therapy, medical device, lifestyle change, or test will help treat, find, or ... specific medical problem. These trials find out if lifestyle changes, such as exercising more, getting more sleep, ...

  12. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a disease. A clinical trial may compare experimental products or tests to those already available or may ... Institutes of Health | U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Customer Support | Accessibility | Copyright | Privacy | Viewers and Players

  13. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, J N; Losina, E; Lohmander, L S

    2015-01-01

    To highlight methodological challenges in the design and conduct of randomized trials of surgical interventions and to propose strategies for addressing these challenges. This paper focuses on three broad areas: enrollment; intervention; and assessment including implications for analysis. For eac...

  14. ClinicalTrials.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides patients, family members, health care professionals, and members of the public easy access to information on clinical trials for a wide range of diseases...

  15. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... new tests that could identify a disease in its early stages. Usually, trial participants must show signs ... often healthy people (20 to 80), to judge its safety and side effects, and to find the ...

  16. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  17. Anchor Trial Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  18. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experimental drug, therapy, medical device, lifestyle change, or test will help treat, find, or prevent a disease. A clinical trial may compare experimental products or tests to those already available or may compare existing ...

  19. Falsificationism and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, S J

    1991-11-01

    The relevance of the philosophy of Sir Karl Popper to the planning, conduct and analysis of clinical trials is examined. It is shown that blinding and randomization can only be regarded as valuable for the purpose of refuting universal hypotheses. The purpose of inclusion criteria is also examined. It is concluded that a misplaced belief in induction is responsible for many false notions regarding clinical trials.

  20. Comparative analysis on several technical indexes between Chinese Team and its opponents in men' s wheelchair basketball match of Guangzhou Asian Para Games%对广州亚残运会男子轮椅篮球赛中国队与对手若干技术指标的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜明; 董浩

    2011-01-01

    By means of literature review, video observation, mathematical statistics and logic analysis, the author carries on a comparative research on the indexes of several techniques between Chinese team and its opponents of men wheelchair basketball in Guangzhou Asian Para Games. The results show that the team still has weaknesses in the free -throws, shooting, assists, offense rebounds and turnovers against the other teams. The authors believe that Chinese players should strengthen offensive and defensive high- intensity training in body and techniques, elevate offense and defense conversion rate, strengthen the contacts with the strong teams of America and Europe, raise the competitive level and competition quality of wheelchair basketball, and to help the Chinese wheelchair basketball development.%采用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法、逻辑分析法等方法,对广州亚残运会男子轮椅篮球赛中国队与对手技术指标进行统计分析,结果表明,中国队的罚球命中率、投篮、助攻、前场篮板球和失误上与对手有一定的差距;应加强中国球员身体和技术的高强度攻守对抗训练;提高个人防守的攻击性、整体的协作性;注重外线球员的培养;提高攻守转换速度;加强与欧美强队的比赛交流,提高轮椅篮球联赛的比赛质量,为我国轮椅篮球运动发展提供帮助。

  1. “Why I don’t wish to get married”: desisting marriage at the dissent trials in Nueva Galicia in the late XVIII century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Cervantes Cortés

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Hispanic world, the implementation of the “Real pragmática de matrimonios” [Royal sanction for marriage], in 1776, originated a great amount of family controversy, due to the matrimonial choice made by the children of the family. On the one hand, parents defended the lineage and reputation of their families, while the children chose to express their free will to marry. Several lawsuits were iled before the courts in order to solve these conlicts. This is the context in which the present research project is framed, where eight dissent trials were analyzed, that ended with the rejection of the marriage proposal by the female part, without having to justify the reasons concerning to their decision. Nevertheless, in reading these cases, external inluences over the speech of the young ladies are evident, convincing them to avoid the fulillment of the weddings. We can also identify different strategies used by the parents such as the “deposit of wives” in the homes of honorable families or other places suggested by the jury, discrediting the reputation of the iancé or reinforcing patriarchal authority, in order to dissuade them from engaging in these marital unions.

  2. Using Knowledge about the Opponent in Game-Tree Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Schaeffer’s stimulating enthusiasm and dynamism spurred me on when I seemed to be stuck in perpetual check. Though I interacted with Jaime Carbonell...and Gene, Pierre, Fang and XiaoGang, Sabine and Consuelo. To them, and all the others I had to omit here, my sincere thanks. Finally, all of this

  3. Swarm Observations: Implementing Integration Theory to Understand an Opponent Swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    objects and satisfaction of the interface boundary conditions creates a function that did not exist before the connection. A function is described...CapacityDimension.html Wilson, E. O. (1984). The relation between caste ratios and division of labour in the ant genus Pheidole. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 16, 89–98

  4. Whole brain radiotherapy after local treatment of brain metastases in melanoma patients - a randomised phase III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forder Peta M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral metastases are a common cause of death in patients with melanoma. Systemic drug treatment of these metastases is rarely effective, and where possible surgical resection and/or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS are the preferred treatment options. Treatment with adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT following neurosurgery and/or SRS is controversial. Proponents of WBRT report prolongation of intracranial control with reduced neurological events and better palliation. Opponents state melanoma is radioresistant; that WBRT yields no survival benefit and may impair neurocognitive function. These opinions are based largely on studies in other tumour types in which assessment of neurocognitive function has been incomplete. Methods/Design This trial is an international, prospective multi-centre, open-label, phase III randomised controlled trial comparing WBRT to observation following local treatment of intracranial melanoma metastases with surgery and/or SRS. Patients aged 18 years or older with 1-3 brain metastases excised and/or stereotactically irradiated and an ECOG status of 0-2 are eligible. Patients with leptomeningeal disease, or who have had previous WBRT or localised treatment for brain metastases are ineligible. WBRT prescription is at least 30 Gy in 10 fractions commenced within 8 weeks of surgery and/or SRS. Randomisation is stratified by the number of cerebral metastases, presence or absence of extracranial disease, treatment centre, sex, radiotherapy dose and patient age. The primary endpoint is the proportion of patients with distant intracranial failure as determined by MRI assessment at 12 months. Secondary end points include: survival, quality of life, performance status and neurocognitive function. Discussion Accrual to previous trials for patients with brain metastases has been difficult, mainly due to referral bias for or against WBRT. This trial should provide the evidence that is currently lacking in

  5. Ethics and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassany, O; Duracinský, M

    1999-01-01

    The current reference guideline about ethics in clinical trials is the Declaration of Helsinki of human rights in medical research. Three major principles are emphasised: respect of the patient to accept or not to participate in a trial, the constraints and the presumed risks must be acceptable for patients included in a study, and vulnerable subjects should not participate in studies. The investigator is responsible for obtaining a free and well-informed consent from patients before their inclusion in a study. Where possible, a new drug should always first be compared to placebo in order to prove its superiority. Else, a small-sized trial comparing a new drug versus a reference treatment can lead to an erroneous conclusion of absence of difference. Moreover, good results or improvement are obtained in at least 30% of cases with placebo, whatever the disease. The use of placebo is unethical in life-threatening diseases and when an effective proved drug exists. The use of placebo is ethical in severe diseases with no efficient drug, in some severe diseases even when an active reference treatment is available, and in all moderate and functional diseases. In order to detect flawed studies, most journals now ask for any manuscript submitted and reporting results of a randomised clinical trial to join a checklist in order to verify the quality of the trial. Finally, it remains the responsibility of the doctor to decide whether or not a protocol is ethical, to participate or not and to include patients or not.

  6. The FOCUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Randers, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    trial enrolling 126 patients meeting the standardised criteria of being at UHR for psychosis. Patients are recruited from psychiatric in- and outpatient facilities in the Copenhagen catchment area. Patients are randomised to one of the two treatment arms: cognitive remediation plus standard treatment...... functioning, psychosis-like symptoms, negative symptomatology, and depressive symptomatology as measured with the Personal and Social Performance Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Expanded Version, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. DISCUSSION......: This is the first trial to evaluate the effects of neurocognitive and social cognitive remediation in UHR patients. The FOCUS trial results will provide evidence on the effect of targeted and comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation on cognition, daily living, and symptomatology as well as long-term outcome...

  7. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, V B; Blanco, F J; Englund, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to describe requirements for inclusion of soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials and progress toward OA-related biomarker qualification. The Guidelines for Biomarkers Working Group, representing experts in the field of OA biomarker research from...... of reasons but in particular, to determine whether biomarkers are useful in identifying those individuals most likely to receive clinically important benefits from an intervention; and to determine whether biomarkers are useful for identifying individuals at earlier stages of OA in order to institute...... both academia and industry, convened to discuss issues related to soluble biomarkers and to make recommendations for their use in OA clinical trials based on current knowledge and anticipated benefits. This document summarizes current guidance on use of biomarkers in OA clinical trials...

  8. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlindon, T. E.; Driban, J. B.; Henrotin, Y.;

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this document is to update the original OARSI recommendations specifically for the design, conduct, and reporting of clinical trials that target symptom or structure modification among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). To develop recommendations for the design, conduct...... and index knee, describing interventions, patient-reported and physical performance measures, structural outcome measures, biochemical biomarkers, and reporting recommendations. In summary, the working group identified 25 recommendations that represent the current best practices regarding clinical trials...... that target symptom or structure modification among individuals with knee OA. These updated recommendations incorporate novel technologies (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and strategies to address the heterogeneity of knee OA....

  9. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emery, C. A.; Roos, Ewa M.; Verhagen, E.;

    2015-01-01

    The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) substantially increases following joint injury. Research efforts should focus on investigating the efficacy of preventative strategies in high quality randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of these OARSI RCT recommendations is to inform...

  10. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available skip navigation Help Search home health topics A-Z Videos A-Z about us Customer Support NIH SeniorHealth Built with You in Mind Resize Text: A A A Change Contrast print sign up Share Home > Health topics A-Z > Participating in Clinical Trials: About ...

  11. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not know if you are taking the medicine or the placebo until the clinical trial is over. How do ... can already get by prescription ) or sugar pills ( placebos ) with the new medicine may last longer than Phases I and II ...

  12. The CYTONOX trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christina; Mikus, Gerd; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed

    2016-01-01

    will be defined by using well-tested probes; midazolam, chlorzoxazone and caffeine. Each of the probes will be administered as a single dose. Subsequently, blood and urine samples will be collected at pre-specified times. CONCLUSION: The aim of the CYTONOX trial is to investigate the in vivo activity of CYP3A4...

  13. Clinical Trial Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Am I Protected? Mark Bowden / iStock Ethical guidelines The goal of clinical research is to develop knowledge that improves human ... data and decide whether the results have medical importance. Results from clinical trials are often published in peer-reviewed scientific ...

  14. Clinical Research and Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Publications Data Sharing and Other Resources Research Clinical Trials & Clinical Research Skip sharing on social media links ... health care providers, and researchers. Find NICHD-Supported Clinical Trials Use this link to find a list of ...

  15. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  16. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study Findings Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer ... Trials Insurance Coverage and Clinical Trials How to Work With Your Health Insurance Plan Federal Government Programs ...

  17. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  18. V Juri posselitsja "Fobos" / Ksenia Repson, Andrei Babin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2008-01-01

    Harjumaal Jüris algavad täna Eesti (Taska Film)-Vene (Art Pictures) koostöös sündiva õudusfilmi "Fobus" võtted. Filmi režissöör on Oleg Assadulin, produtsendid Fjodor Bondartshuk, Kristian Taska jt, peaosades Renata Piotrovski, Pjotr Fjodorov

  19. Treatment of limb arterial in juries caused by traffic accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the features,diagonosis and treatment of limb arterial injuries caused by traffic accidents.Methods:A total of 43 patients with limb arterial injury admitted in our department over the past 30years(about50%of them happened during the last10 years)were analyzed retrospectively in this article.The popliteal,femoral and brachial arteries were mainly involved,accounting for 432%,20.5%and20.5%respectively of all the involvements.There were 35cases of open injury and9of close injury,The involved vessels were transected in 43.2%of the cases and contused in 40.9%,All the patients had various complications,such as fractures,dislocations and severe soft tissue injuries.The injured vessels were repaired by means of end-to-end anastomosis in 10cases,autogenous vein graft in 23cases and intraluminal hydraulic dilatation in 4cases.Results:Successful limb salvage was achieved in 34cases initially,whereas10amputations were carried out due to injuries to popliteal arteries in7,femoral arteries in2and humeral artery in 1and severe soft tissue damages in9 cases.Twenty-nine patients were followed up for 1-156months,with the averageof48.8months.There was good circulation in 22 cases and certain ischemia in 5cases.Two amputations were carried out in the late stage because of popliteal artery thrombosis after repair in 2cases.There was no death in this series.Conclusions:The limb arterial injuries caused by traffic accidents are severe and complicated.It is proposed that particulatr attentions should be paid to the features in diagnosis and treatment for this type of injury and special efforts should be made for both life saving and limb salvage.

  20. Duell diktaatoriga / Juri Hashtshevatski ; interv. Kelly Grossthal, Maari Ross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hashtshevatski, Juri

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas linastub esimene Eesti-Valgevene ühistöö "Kalinovski väljak", dokumentaalfilm Valgevene kuulsaima režissööri pikalt kestnud ja ohtlikust konfliktist diktaator Lukashenkaga. Poliitilisest olukorrast Valgevenes, president Aleksandr Lukashenkast

  1. Eho "Zolotogo Vitjazja" - dõhanije Serbii / Juri Tjurin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tjurin, Juri

    1999-01-01

    Smolenskis toimunud VIII rahvusvaheline slaavi- ja õigeusklike rahvaste kinofestival "Kuldne Vägilane". Ka Nikita Mihhalkovi, Jelena Koprivitsa, Valentin Kurbatovi ja Angelo di Genti sõnavõttudest

  2. Nefteeksportnõi potentsial Severo-Zapada / Juri Hromov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hromov, Juri

    2003-01-01

    Autor analüüsib Loode-Venemaa naftatootmise ja -ekspordi infrastruktuuri ning selle muutusi seoses plaaniga loobuda Balti riikide sadamate teenuste kasutamisest, ehitades naftajuhtmed Soome lahte ja Murmanski piirkonda

  3. Dialog vozmozhen. No s novõm pravitelstvom / Juri Uit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uit, Juri

    2007-01-01

    Autor leiab, et meie ühiskond on raskelt haige, ja see haigus pole tekkinud äkki ega tühjalt kohalt. Dialoog praeguses olukorras on vajalik, kuid seda peab autori arvates pidama uus valitsus ja soovitavalt uus president

  4. Corpus Juris ja Eesti kriminaalõigus / Jaan Sootak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sootak, Jaan, 1948-

    1999-01-01

    Euroopa Ühenduse kriminaalõigusest; sanktsioonist, individuaalsest süüksarvamisest ja ebaõigusest Euroopa majanduskriminaalõiguses ning pettuse, altkäemaksu, rahapesu ja kuritegeliku ühenduse kuriteokoosseisudest

  5. Corpus Juris ja Eesti kriminaalõigus / Jaan Sootak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sootak, Jaan, 1948-

    1999-01-01

    Euroopa Ühenduse kriminaalõigusest; sanktsioonist, individuaalsest süüksarvamisest ja ebaõigusest Euroopa majanduskriminaalõiguses ning pettuse, altkäemaksu, rahapesu ja kuritegeliku ühenduse kuriteokoosseisudest

  6. Eho "Zolotogo Vitjazja" - dõhanije Serbii / Juri Tjurin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tjurin, Juri

    1999-01-01

    Smolenskis toimunud VIII rahvusvaheline slaavi- ja õigeusklike rahvaste kinofestival "Kuldne Vägilane". Ka Nikita Mihhalkovi, Jelena Koprivitsa, Valentin Kurbatovi ja Angelo di Genti sõnavõttudest

  7. Zapredelnõi "Ilmarine" / Juri Mihhaljov ; interv. Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihhaljov, Juri, 1947-

    2004-01-01

    Narva teater "Ilmarine" on Narva linnavalitsuses vastuvõetud otsuste tõttu kaotanud nii dekoratsioonide töökoja kui õiguse kultuurikeskuse "Energeetik" lava soovikohasele kasutusele. Raskustega võideldes otsib-leiab teater võimalusi elus püsida

  8. Natural Supports in the Workplace: The Jury Is Still Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Test, David W.; Wood, Wendy M.

    1996-01-01

    Fifteen studies were reviewed and compared to document the contribution of strategies based on the concept of natural supports to supported employment and consumer outcomes. Results indicate that strategies based on the concept of natural supports are improving supported employment procedures or outcomes. (CR)

  9. Zika mosquito vectors: the jury is still out

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    After a 40-year hiatus, the International Congress of Entomology (ICE 2016) convened in Orlando, Florida (September 25-30, 2016). One of the symposia at ICE 2016, the Zika Symposium, covered multiple aspects of the Zika epidemic, including epidemiology, sexual transmission, genetic tools for reducing transmission, and particularly vector competence. While there was a consensus among participants that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a vector of the Zika virus, there is growing evi...

  10. Ja rasskazhu vsjo, kak bõlo ... / Juri Tshurbanov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tshurbanov, Juri

    1994-01-01

    Venemaa lähiajalugu, stagnatsiooniaeg. Järg Jul/6,7,8,9,13,14,15,16,19,20,21,22,23,26,27,30. lk. 6,3,6,8,6,3,6,4,3,6,3,6,4,3,6,4; Aug/2.,3.,4.,5.,9.,10.,11.,16.,19.,23.,27.,30.,31. lk. 3, Sep/ 3., 7.,9.,21.,28. lk.4,6,6,6,6; Oct/7.,12.,14.,19.,21.,28. lk. 6,6,6,3,6,6; Nov/2.,4.,11.,16.,18. lk. 6

  11. The Trial of Katherine Harrison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Walter W.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan in which the teacher and students participate in a mock trial of Katherine Harrison, who was accused of witchcraft in the seventeenth century. Provides background information about the trial, as well as primary sources of the testimonies given by witnesses during the trial. (CMK)

  12. The Trial of Katherine Harrison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Walter W.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan in which the teacher and students participate in a mock trial of Katherine Harrison, who was accused of witchcraft in the seventeenth century. Provides background information about the trial, as well as primary sources of the testimonies given by witnesses during the trial. (CMK)

  13. A guide to clinical trials for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000823.htm A guide to clinical trials for cancer To use ... trial and where to find one. What is a Clinical Trial for Cancer? Clinical trials for cancer ...

  14. Comparative analysis on the ability of offense and defense between Chinese Man's Basketball Team and its opponents in the 27th Asian Men's Basketball Championship%第27届男篮亚锦赛中国队与对手攻防能力对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦泽方

    2014-01-01

    Teams belong to Grade E.The offensive and defensive RSR values indicate the offense of Chinese Team is better than defense.Compared with the competitors,except the free throw percentage,the other indexes of Chinese Team are all ahead of the competitors,and the two-point field goal percentage has significant difference.Chinese Team lags behind 3 strong competitors in the indexes of shooting percentage,and the total shooting percentage,three-point field goal percentage have significant difference.Steals and blocks are inferior to opponents,and the manufacturing foul is superior to opponents.Above all,Chinese Team should improve attack quality in the high speed and strong power against,focus on the training of outsider shooting and enhance the fighting rebounding of consciousness and technology.

  15. SMi's Conducting Clinical Trials in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Charlotte

    2009-12-01

    The Conducting Clinical Trials in Europe meeting, held in London, included topics covering new developments in the field of clinical trials and recommendations on how to best conduct a trial. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the state of affairs of trials in Europe, conducting trials in emerging markets, strategies for improving trials, trial design options, peri-approval and pediatric trials, and the role of key players, such as physicians. Company perspectives from Pfizer Inc and Nycomed are also included.

  16. The CHANGE trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel-group, superiority......, multi-centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1...... cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal...

  17. Gateways to clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2007-01-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issues focuses on the following selection of drugs: 4'-Thio-ara-C, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate; ABT-089, AD-237, AF-37702, alvocidib hydrochloride, apricitabine, armodafinil, atrasentan, AVE-5883, avian influenza vaccine, azimilide hydrochloride; Banoxantrone, BIBF-1120; CD34+ cells, certolizumab pegol, CHIR-258, cilansetron, CoFactor, CX-3543, cystemustine; D-003, dexloxiglumide, DMXB-anabaseine; Ecogramostim, elcometrine, elcometrine/ethinylestradiol, etravirine; Fenretinide, fingolimod hydrochloride, fospropofol disodium; Gaboxadol, gestodene, glutamine; Human insulin, hyaluronic acid; Incyclinide, indacaterol, ispronicline, istradefylline; Labradimil, lamifiban, lapatinib, L-arginine hydrochloride, liposomal cisplatin, liposome encapsulated paclitaxel, LY-517717; Manidipine hydrochloride/delapril hydrochloride, maraviroc, MBP(82-98), MD-0727, MDX-214, melanotan I, MMR vaccine; Nacystelyn, nalfurafine hydrochloride, nibentan, nilotinib, NK-105; OBI-1, oblimersen sodium, olmesartan medoxomil, olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide, oregovomab; Pexelizumab, PG-116800, PG-CPT, PHA-794428, prasugrel; RC-3095, rDNA insulin, RFB4(dsFv)-PE38, rhEndostatin, rhenium Re-186 etidronate, rhGM-CSF, roflumilast, romidepsin; Sarcosine, SGLU1, SGN-40, succinobucol; TAU, teduglutide, telatinib, tesofensine, tipifarnib, tirapazamine, TKA-731, tolvaptan, trabectedin; Vaccimel, vatalanib succinate, velafermin, vildagliptin, vinflunine; XP-19986; YM-155.

  18. The sexual history provisions in the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999--a violation of the right to a fair trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G

    2001-07-01

    In response to the Home Office recommendations contained in Speaking Up for Justice (1998) the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act (YJCEA) 1999 introduced a new regime for the conduct of sexual offence trials. Section 41 of the Act, which came into force on 4 December 2000, brings about dramatic changes to the rules on the admissibility of evidence of complainants' sexual behaviour, severely restricting the discretion of trial judges to introduce such evidence or to allow questioning concerning it. This represents a radical new departure that will fundamentally affect an accused's position at trial. Responses to section 41 have predictably been divided given the extremely sensitive nature of this area of the law of evidence and the complex set of social and political issues which are at stake. Many have greeted it as a long overdue reform of a system premised upon outmoded and sexist beliefs concerning women's sexual behaviour which has routinely functioned to admit prejudicial and irrelevant evidence. Others, predominantly within the legal profession, have expressed serious concerns over whether the new law is workable and the extent to which, by potentially excluding critically relevant evidence, it may infringe upon a defendant's right to a fair trial. The quality of the legislation is soon to be tested. On 26 and 27 March 2001 the House of Lords heard an interlocutory appeal in the case of R v. A and were asked to decide if the new provisions, by excluding previous sexual history evidence between the complainant and the defendant, contravened Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Their Lordships are, at the time of writing, yet to give judgment and the fate of the defendant in question, and several others whose trials have been postponed pending their decision, hangs in the balance. This article seeks to show that the new Act, despite being well-intentioned, does not adopt a coherent or sustainable approach to the relevance of previous

  19. The Clinical Curative Effect of Tendon Adhesion after Tendon Injury Prolene Suture Combined with Sodium Hyaluronate Opponent%普理灵缝线联合玻璃酸钠对手外伤肌腱损伤后肌腱粘连的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨日新; 张健生; 吴宝茵; 刘亚民; 杨振林; 黎艳红; 谭健忠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of prevention of tendon adhesion after tendon injury Prolene suture combined with sodium hyaluronate opponent. Methods Acute hand fresh lfexor tendon of sharp injury in 80 cases, were randomly divided into study group and control group with 40 cases in each group, routine treatment given in accordance with the operation treatment, tendon anastomosis for Kessler suture. Among them: the study group using Prolene suture after 3-0tendon, surrounded by sodium hyaluronate 0.5-2 mL sprayed on the tendon suture at. Kessler suture tendon and tendon sheath and tendon suture bare ifber all the control group using ordinary medical suture, surrounded by sodium hyaluronate 0.5-2 mL sprayed on the tendon suture at. The two group ifnally with sterile dressing. Observe and record the patients during and after the treatment with or without tendon re rupture and other adverse events. And eighth weeks after operation the two groups were evaluated in patients with hand tendon total active motion.Results The incision healed patients two groups, no infection and tendon re rupture; study group of hand tendon total active motion was better than that of the control group.Conclusion Prolene suture combined with sodium hyaluronate in economic, convenient, and effective method to prevent tendon adhesion, reduce and avoid the loss of injury of hand tendon injury of hand function.%目的 观察普理灵缝线联合玻璃酸钠对手外伤肌腱损伤后肌腱粘连的预防效果.方法 急性手部新鲜屈肌腱锐性损伤80例患者,随机分为研究组与对照组各40例,按照诊疗常规给予手术治疗,肌腱吻合法为Kessler法缝合.其中:研究组采用普理灵3-0缝线缝合肌腱后,用玻璃酸钠0.5~2 mL喷涂于肌腱缝合处的周围.对照组应用普通医用缝线作Kessler法缝合肌腱并缝合腱鞘及所有的裸露腱纤维,用玻璃酸钠0.5~2 mL喷涂于肌腱缝合处的周围.两组最后都用无菌敷料包扎.观察记录

  20. Gateways to clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-04-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity. prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABX-IL-8, Acclaim, adalimumab, AGI-1067, alagebrium chloride, alemtuzumab, Alequel, Androgel, anti-IL-12 MAb, AOD-9604, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Biphasic insulin aspart, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, bovine lactoferrin, brivudine; Cantuzumab mertansine, CB-1954, CDB-4124, CEA-TRICOM, choriogonadotropin alfa, cilansetron, CpG-10101, CpG-7909, CTL-102, CTL-102/CB-1954; DAC:GRF, darbepoetin alfa, davanat-1, decitabine, del-1 Genemedicine, dexanabinol, dextofisopam, dnaJP1, dronedarone hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, eletriptan, emtricitabine, EPI-hNE-4, eplerenone, eplivanserin fumarate, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, etoricoxib, ezetimibe; Falecalcitriol, fingolimod hydrochloride; Gepirone hydrochloride; HBV-ISS, HSV-2 theracine, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, insulin glargine, ISAtx-247; L612 HuMAb, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, lidocaine/prilocaine, LL-2113AD, lucinactant, LY-156735; Meclinertant, metelimumab, morphine hydrochloride, morphine-6-glucuronide; Natalizumab, nimotuzumab, NX-1207, NYVAC-HIV C; Omalizumab, onercept, osanetant; PABA, palosuran sulfate, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, PBI-1402, PCK-3145, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, PINC, pregabalin; Ramelteon, rasagiline mesilate, rasburicase, rimonabant hydrochloride, RO-0098557, rofecoxib, rosiglitazone maleate/metformin hydrochloride; Safinamide mesilate, SHL-749, sitaxsentan sodium, sparfosic acid, SprayGel, squalamine, St. John's Wort

  1. The ONTARGET trial programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unger, Thomas; Kintscher, Ulrich; Kappert, Kai;

    2009-01-01

    The ONTARGET trial programme tested the effects of the angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker (ARB), telmisartan, alone or in combination with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, in more than 25.000 patients at high cardiovascular risk including diabetes on a combined endpoint ....... Telmisartan thus proved to be the first and so far the only representative of the ARB class that can be used as an alternative to the "gold standard" ACE-inhibitor, ramipril, in patients at high cardiovascular risk with or without hypertension. © 2009 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd....

  2. [Critical reading of clinical trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, F; Cucherat, M; Blumen-Ohana, E; Denis, P

    2011-12-01

    Clinical trials are playing an increasingly crucial role in modern evidence based medicine, allowing for rigorous scientific evaluation of treatment strategies and validation of patient care. The results of clinical trials often form the rational basis from which physicians draw information used to adapt their therapeutic practices. Critical reading and analysis of trials involves the assessment of whether the available data provide enough credible evidence that the treatment will result in a clinically significant and relevant improvement. Evaluating the quality of a clinical trial is a process that draws upon sometimes complex methodological and statistical concepts, with which the reader should nonetheless be familiar in order to come to impartial conclusions regarding the raw data presented in the clinical trials. The goal of the current article is to review the methodological and statistical concepts required for the design and interpretation of clinical trials, so as to allow for a critical analysis of publications or presentations of clinical trials. The first section describes the major methodological principles of clinical trial design required for a rigorous evaluation of the treatment benefit, as well as the various pitfalls or biases that could lead to erroneous conclusions. The second section briefly describes the main statistical tests used in clinical trials, as well as certain situations that may increase the risk of false positive findings (type 1 error), such as multiple, subgroup, intermediate and non-inferiority analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Phases of Clinical Trials Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Immunotherapy Targeted Therapy Hormone Therapy Stem Cell Transplant Precision ...

  4. Randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, C; Lødrup, A B; Smith, G;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many reflux patients remain symptomatic on a standard dose of proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Alginates decrease the number of reflux events by forming a raft on top of the stomach content and thus offer a supplemental mechanism of action to acid suppression. AIM: To assess the efficacy...... of an alginate (Gaviscon Advance, Reckitt Benckiser, Slough, UK) on reflux symptoms in patients with persistent symptoms despite once daily PPI. METHODS: This was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, 7-day double-blind trial preceded by a 7-day run-in period. Reflux symptoms were assessed using......: In patients with residual reflux symptoms despite PPI treatment, adding an alginate offers additional decrease in the burden of reflux symptoms (EudraCT/IND Number: 2011-005486-21)....

  5. Trial encoding algorithms ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lipin Bill; Yeh, Ren Jye

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes trial algorithms for some basic components in cryptography and lossless bit compression. The symmetric encryption is accomplished by mixing up randomizations and scrambling with hashing of the key playing an essential role. The digital signature is adapted from the Hill cipher with the verification key matrices incorporating un-invertible parts to hide the signature matrix. The hash is a straight running summation (addition chain) of data bytes plus some randomization. One simplified version can be burst error correcting code. The lossless bit compressor is the Shannon-Fano coding that is less optimal than the later Huffman and Arithmetic coding, but can be conveniently implemented without the use of a tree structure and improvable with bytes concatenation.

  6. The CYTONOX trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christina; Mikus, Gerd; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In Denmark, it is estimated that 3-5% of children are obese. Obesity is associated with pathophysiological alterations that may lead to alterations in the pharmacokinetics of drugs. In adults, obesity was found to influence important drug-metabolising enzyme pathways. The impact......, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 in obese and non-obese children. The results are expected to be used in the future as a basis for drug dosing recommendations in obese children. FUNDING: The study was funded by the Danish Regions' "Medicinpuljen". The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis...... of obesity-related alterations on drug metabolism and its consequences for drug dosing remains largely unknown in both children and adults. An altered drug metabolism may contribute significantly to therapeutic failure or toxicity. The aim of this trial is to investigate the in vivo activity of CYP3A4, CYP2E...

  7. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  8. Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about actively enrolling, ongoing, and completed clinical trials of cancer prevention, early detection, and supportive care, including phase I, II, and III agent and action trials and clinical trials management. |

  9. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help researchers ... to HIV Can anyone participate in an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? It depends on the study. Some ...

  10. Frailty Intervention Trial (FIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockwood Keri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frailty is a term commonly used to describe the condition of an older person who has chronic health problems, has lost functional abilities and is likely to deteriorate further. However, despite its common use, only a small number of studies have attempted to define the syndrome of frailty and measure its prevalence. The criteria Fried and colleagues used to define the frailty syndrome will be used in this study (i.e. weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity. Previous studies have shown that clinical outcomes for frail older people can be improved using multi-factorial interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, and single interventions such as exercise programs or nutritional supplementation, but no interventions have been developed to specifically reverse the syndrome of frailty. We have developed a multidisciplinary intervention that specifically targets frailty as defined by Fried et al. We aim to establish the effects of this intervention on frailty, mobility, hospitalisation and institutionalisation in frail older people. Methods and Design A single centre randomised controlled trial comparing a multidisciplinary intervention with usual care. The intervention will target identified characteristics of frailty, functional limitations, nutritional status, falls risk, psychological issues and management of chronic health conditions. Two hundred and thirty people aged 70 and over who meet the Fried definition of frailty will be recruited from clients of the aged care service of a metropolitan hospital. Participants will be followed for a 12-month period. Discussion This research is an important step in the examination of specifically targeted frailty interventions. This project will assess whether an intervention specifically targeting frailty can be implemented, and whether it is effective when compared to usual care. If successful, the study will establish a

  11. Social media in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Social media has potential in clinical trials for pointing out trial issues, addressing barriers, educating, and engaging multiple groups involved in cancer clinical research. Social media is being used in clinical trials to highlight issues such as poor accrual and barriers; educate potential participants and physicians about clinical trial options; and is a potential indirect or direct method to improve accrual. We are moving from a passive "push" of information to patients to a "pull" of patients requesting information. Patients and advocates are often driving an otherwise reluctant health care system into communication. Online patient communities are creating new information repositories. Potential clinical trial participants are using the Twittersphere and other sources to learn about potential clinical trial options. We are seeing more organized patient-centric and patient-engaged forums with the potential to crowd source to improve clinical trial accrual and design. This is an evolving process that will meet many individual, institutional, and regulatory obstacles as we move forward in a changed research landscape.

  12. Acute Stroke | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n(s) being investigated Acute Stroke MedDRA Classification E.1.3Condition being s... General Information on the Trial E.1 Medical condition or disease under investigation E.1.1Medical conditio

  13. Trial analytics--a tool for clinical trial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Anindya; Das, Suman

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged timelines and large expenses associated with clinical trials have prompted a new focus on improving the operational efficiency of clinical trials by use of Clinical Trial Management Systems (CTMS) in order to improve managerial control in trial conduct. However, current CTMS systems are not able to meet the expectations due to various shortcomings like inability of timely reporting and trend visualization within/beyond an organization. To overcome these shortcomings of CTMS, clinical researchers can apply a business intelligence (BI) framework to create Clinical Research Intelligence (CLRI) for optimization of data collection and analytics. This paper proposes the usage of an innovative and collaborative visualization tool (CTA) as CTMS "add-on" to help overwhelm these deficiencies of traditional CTMS, with suitable examples.

  14. Designing clinical trials for amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan M

    2015-09-01

    Randomized clinical trial (RCT) study design leads to one of the highest levels of evidence, and is a preferred study design over cohort studies, because randomization reduces bias and maximizes the chance that even unknown confounding factors will be balanced between treatment groups. Recent randomized clinical trials and observational studies in amblyopia can be taken together to formulate an evidence-based approach to amblyopia treatment, which is presented in this review. When designing future clinical studies of amblyopia treatment, issues such as regression to the mean, sample size and trial duration must be considered, since each may impact study results and conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Data fraud in clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Stephen L; Buyse, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Highly publicized cases of fabrication or falsification of data in clinical trials have occurred in recent years and it is likely that there are additional undetected or unreported cases. We review the available evidence on the incidence of data fraud in clinical trials, describe several prominent cases, present information on motivation and contributing factors and discuss cost-effective ways of early detection of data fraud as part of routine central statistical monitoring of data quality. Adoption of these clinical trial monitoring procedures can identify potential data fraud not detected by conventional on-site monitoring and can improve overall data quality. PMID:25729561

  16. Bayes' postulate for trinomial trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, M. A.; Polpo, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss Bayes' postulate and its interpretation. We extend the binomial trial method proposed by de Finetti [1] to trinomial trials, for which we argue that the consideration of equiprobability a priori for the possible outcomes of the trinomial trials implies that the parameter vector has Dirichlet(1,1) as prior. Based on this result, we agree with Stigler [2] in that the notion in Bayes' postulate stating "absolutely know nothing" is related to the possible outcomes of an experiment and not to "non-information" about the parameter.

  17. Registration of randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østervig, R M; Sonne, A; Rasmussen, L S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Registration of interventional studies is necessary according to the Declaration of Helsinki but implementation has been a challenge for many journals. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica (Acta) requires registration for studies conducted after January 1(st) 2010. We aimed to assess...... registered when it could be verified that patient enrolment was started after registration in a trial registry. RESULTS: We identified 200 RCTs. Dates for patient enrolment were not specified in 51 (25.5%). The proportion of correctly registered trials increased significantly from 17.1% (19/111) for trials...

  18. The Dynamo Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2016-04-01

    The Dynamo Clinical Trial evaluates long-term stellar magnetic health through periodic X-ray examinations (by the Chandra Observatory). So far, there are only three subjects enrolled in the DTC: Alpha Centauri A (a solar-like G dwarf), Alpha Cen B (an early K dwarf, more active than the Sun), and Alpha Canis Majoris A (Procyon, a mid-F subgiant similar in activity to the Sun). Of these, Procyon is a new candidate, so it is too early to judge how it will fare. Of the other two, Alpha Cen B has responded well, with a steady magnetic heartbeat of about 8 years duration. The sickest of the bunch, Alpha Cen A, was in magnetic cardiac arrest during 2005-2010, but has begun responding to treatment in recent years, and seems to be successfully cycling again, perhaps achieving a new peak of magnetic health in the 2016 time frame. If this is the case, it has been 20 years since A's last healthful peak, significantly longer than the middle-aged Sun's 11-year magnetic heartbeat, but perhaps in line with Alpha Cen A's more senescent state (in terms of "relative evolutionary age," apparently an important driver of activity). (By the way, don't miss the exciting movie of the Alpha Cen stars' 20-year X-ray dance.)

  19. GAUSS Project Trials Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fazio, Antonella; Vernucci, Antonio; Rossini, Eugenio

    2003-07-01

    the Consortium Partners. The former ones constitute the ground and space segments, the latter ones include the advanced user terminal and the applications. The assembled system was used as test-bed during the trail campaign, to validate and prove the provided services and developed applications.The GAUSS Demonstrator includes the following components:ß The Mobile User Terminal installed on a car (van) or on a boat. An innovative multi-mode user equipment was developed, consisting of the following main components:- An integrated NAV / COM digital receive front-end (DFRE), able to de-multiplex the NAV signals (the current GNSS1 band and the simulated Galileo bands), and the COM signal in the S-UMTS band;- For COM: a transmit front-end, and a baseband & control section operating in CDMA and supporting the upper protocol layers (UMTS packet transmission standard based - for short packet); a RF subsystem, including the L→S bands conversion;- For NAV: a GNSS (GPS, EGNOS) navigation receiver, the GNSS1 System (MTB - Mediterranean Test bed, ESTB / EGNOS System Test Bed) for navigation;* The Communication capacity on the INMARSAT 3F5 Satellite* The Gateway, located in LARIO Telespazio premises* The Lario07 Station* The Service Centre* The Service Provider.The GAUSS Demonstrator reflects all the main elements of a complete user platform for service provisioning: mobility assistance, safety and transport efficient management are the core of the developed applications. Applications were developed, specifically to provide reliable and effective services to the citizens: road info-mobility and fleet management, inland waterways vessel traffic management and information, port/terminals appointment monitoring & control, dangerous goods transhipment supervision, emergency assistance.A trial campaign, run into real environments, was performed in Summer 2002. GAUSS Demonstrator performances and benefits were validated with the direct involvement of an inter-modal transport user

  20. Modelling trial-by-trial changes in the mismatch negativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Lieder

    Full Text Available The mismatch negativity (MMN is a differential brain response to violations of learned regularities. It has been used to demonstrate that the brain learns the statistical structure of its environment and predicts future sensory inputs. However, the algorithmic nature of these computations and the underlying neurobiological implementation remain controversial. This article introduces a mathematical framework with which competing ideas about the computational quantities indexed by MMN responses can be formalized and tested against single-trial EEG data. This framework was applied to five major theories of the MMN, comparing their ability to explain trial-by-trial changes in MMN amplitude. Three of these theories (predictive coding, model adjustment, and novelty detection were formalized by linking the MMN to different manifestations of the same computational mechanism: approximate Bayesian inference according to the free-energy principle. We thereby propose a unifying view on three distinct theories of the MMN. The relative plausibility of each theory was assessed against empirical single-trial MMN amplitudes acquired from eight healthy volunteers in a roving oddball experiment. Models based on the free-energy principle provided more plausible explanations of trial-by-trial changes in MMN amplitude than models representing the two more traditional theories (change detection and adaptation. Our results suggest that the MMN reflects approximate Bayesian learning of sensory regularities, and that the MMN-generating process adjusts a probabilistic model of the environment according to prediction errors.

  1. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  2. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a research study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute that used low-dose helical CT scans or chest X-ray to screen men and women at risk for lung cancer.

  3. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research and Discovery Stories of Discovery R&D Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data ... about some of NCI's major research initiatives R&D Resources Tools and data sets for researchers Research ...

  4. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer ... Therapy Chemotherapy Immunotherapy Targeted Therapy Hormone Therapy Stem Cell Transplant Precision Medicine Side Effects Clinical Trials Information ...

  5. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Report (RPPR) Grant Closeout Grant Resources NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grants Management Contacts ...

  6. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Report (RPPR) Grant Closeout Grant Resources NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grants Management Contacts ...

  7. Frailty Intervention Trial (FIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhall, Nicola; Aggar, Christina; Kurrle, Susan E; Sherrington, Catherine; Lord, Stephen; Lockwood, Keri; Monaghan, Noeline; Cameron, Ian D

    2008-10-13

    Frailty is a term commonly used to describe the condition of an older person who has chronic health problems, has lost functional abilities and is likely to deteriorate further. However, despite its common use, only a small number of studies have attempted to define the syndrome of frailty and measure its prevalence. The criteria Fried and colleagues used to define the frailty syndrome will be used in this study (i.e. weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity). Previous studies have shown that clinical outcomes for frail older people can be improved using multi-factorial interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, and single interventions such as exercise programs or nutritional supplementation, but no interventions have been developed to specifically reverse the syndrome of frailty.We have developed a multidisciplinary intervention that specifically targets frailty as defined by Fried et al. We aim to establish the effects of this intervention on frailty, mobility, hospitalisation and institutionalisation in frail older people. A single centre randomised controlled trial comparing a multidisciplinary intervention with usual care. The intervention will target identified characteristics of frailty, functional limitations, nutritional status, falls risk, psychological issues and management of chronic health conditions. Two hundred and thirty people aged 70 and over who meet the Fried definition of frailty will be recruited from clients of the aged care service of a metropolitan hospital. Participants will be followed for a 12-month period. This research is an important step in the examination of specifically targeted frailty interventions. This project will assess whether an intervention specifically targeting frailty can be implemented, and whether it is effective when compared to usual care. If successful, the study will establish a new approach to the treatment of older people at risk of further

  8. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Roberts

    2016-10-01

    factfinders in criminal trials.

  9. Birth Control in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.; Beyer, B. K.; Chadwick, K.; De Schaepdrijver, L.; Desai, M.; Enright, B.; Foster, W.; Hui, J. Y.; Moffat, G. J.; Tornesi, B.; Van Malderen, K.; Wiesner, L.; Chen, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee sponsored a pharmaceutical industry survey on current industry practices for contraception use during clinical trials. The objectives of the survey were to improve our understanding of the current industry practices for contraception requirements in clinical trials, the governance processes set up to promote consistency and/or compliance with contraception requirements, and the effectiveness of current contraception practices in preventing pregnancies during clinical trials. Opportunities for improvements in current practices were also considered. The survey results from 12 pharmaceutical companies identified significant variability among companies with regard to contraception practices and governance during clinical trials. This variability was due primarily to differences in definitions, areas of scientific uncertainty or misunderstanding, and differences in company approaches to enrollment in clinical trials. The survey also revealed that few companies collected data in a manner that would allow a retrospective understanding of the reasons for failure of birth control during clinical trials. In this article, suggestions are made for topics where regulatory guidance or scientific publications could facilitate best practice. These include provisions for a pragmatic definition of women of childbearing potential, guidance on how animal data can influence the requirements for male and female birth control, evidence-based guidance on birth control and pregnancy testing regimes suitable for low- and high-risk situations, plus practical methods to ascertain the risk of drug-drug interactions with hormonal contraceptives. PMID:27042398

  10. Do Members of the Public Have a ‘Right to Know’ about Similar Fact Evidence? The Emily Perry Story and the ‘Right to Know’ in the Context of a Fair Re-Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M.A. Spencer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In South Australia in 1981, an intriguing criminal trial took shape around Emily Perry who was charged with two counts of attempting to murder her husband with arsenic. Similar fact evidence about the deaths of a former husband, a de facto partner and a brother led to a jury finding her guilty of the attempted murder of her husband who denied any claim that she had tried to harm him. An appeal to the South Australian Court of Criminal Appeal on the basis that the previous deaths should not have been brought to the attention of the jury was unsuccessful but Emily Perry’s case went all the way to the High Court of Australia. Her conviction was quashed and she was never re-tried. This article examines the dichotomy of an accused’s right to a fair trial (and the rules of evidence that flow from that right and the public’s so-called ‘right to know’ about a person charged with a serious offence. It posits the Perry case as an example of the opposing perspectives of lawyers and journalists, and explores the different narratives to which the case gave rise. The paper questions whether a fair re-trial for Emily Perry would ever have been possible after the vast media attention that it received. En 1981 en Australia Meridional se desarrolló un fascinante juicio criminal alrededor de Emily Perry, a quien se acusó de dos intentos de asesinar a su marido con arsénico. Pruebas similares sobre las muertes de un esposo anterior, su pareja de hecho y su hermano llevaron al jurado a declararla culpable de intento de asesinato de su marido, quien rechazó en sus declaraciones que ella hubiera tratado de hacerle daño. No prosperó una apelación a la Corte de Apelación Penal de Australia Meridional alegando que las muertes previas no deberían haberse mencionado al jurado, pero el caso de Emily Perry siguió su curso hasta el Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Australia. Se anuló su condena y nunca se le volvió a juzgar. Este artículo analiza la

  11. The state of infectious diseases clinical trials: a systematic review of ClinicalTrials.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Neela D; Pfeiffer, Christopher D; Horton, John R; Chiswell, Karen; Tasneem, Asba; Tsalik, Ephraim L

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of clinical trials informing specific questions faced by infectious diseases (ID) specialists. The ClinicalTrials.gov registry offers an opportunity to evaluate the ID clinical trials portfolio. We examined 40,970 interventional trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov from 2007-2010, focusing on study conditions and interventions to identify ID-related trials. Relevance to ID was manually confirmed for each programmatically identified trial, yielding 3570 ID trials and 37,400 non-ID trials for analysis. The number of ID trials was similar to the number of trials identified as belonging to cardiovascular medicine (n = 3437) or mental health (n = 3695) specialties. Slightly over half of ID trials were treatment-oriented trials (53%, vs. 77% for non-ID trials) followed by prevention (38%, vs. 8% in non-ID trials). ID trials tended to be larger than those of other specialties, with a median enrollment of 125 subjects (interquartile range [IQR], 45-400) vs. 60 (IQR, 30-160) for non-ID trials. Most ID studies are randomized (73%) but nonblinded (56%). Industry was the funding source in 51% of ID trials vs. 10% that were primarily NIH-funded. HIV-AIDS trials constitute the largest subset of ID trials (n = 815 [23%]), followed by influenza vaccine (n = 375 [11%]), and hepatitis C (n = 339 [9%]) trials. Relative to U.S. and global mortality rates, HIV-AIDS and hepatitis C virus trials are over-represented, whereas lower respiratory tract infection trials are under-represented in this large sample of ID clinical trials. This work is the first to characterize ID clinical trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, providing a framework to discuss prioritization, methodology, and policy.

  12. Design, analysis, and presentation of crossover trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyatt Gordon H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Although crossover trials enjoy wide use, standards for analysis and reporting have not been established. We reviewed methodological aspects and quality of reporting in a representative sample of published crossover trials. Methods We searched MEDLINE for December 2000 and identified all randomized crossover trials. We abstracted data independently, in duplicate, on 14 design criteria, 13 analysis criteria, and 14 criteria assessing the data presentation. Results We identified 526 randomized controlled trials, of which 116 were crossover trials. Trials were drug efficacy (48%, pharmacokinetic (28%, and nonpharmacologic (30%. The median sample size was 15 (interquartile range 8–38. Most (72% trials used 2 treatments and had 2 periods (64%. Few trials reported allocation concealment (17% or sequence generation (7%. Only 20% of trials reported a sample size calculation and only 31% of these considered pairing of data in the calculation. Carry-over issues were addressed in 29% of trial's methods. Most trials reported and defended a washout period (70%. Almost all trials (93% tested for treatment effects using paired data and also presented details on by-group results (95%. Only 29% presented CIs or SE so that data could be entered into a meta-analysis. Conclusion Reports of crossover trials frequently omit important methodological issues in design, analysis, and presentation. Guidelines for the conduct and reporting of crossover trials might improve the conduct and reporting of studies using this important trial design.

  13. Deceptive manipulation of competitive starting strategies influences subsequent pacing, physiological status and perceptual responses during cycling time trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is currently known regarding competitor influence on pacing at the start of an event and in particular the subsequent effect on the remaining distance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of starting pace on the physiological and psychological responses during cycling time trials (TT utilising an innovative approach allowing pace to be accurately and dynamically replicated, as well as deceptively manipulated. Ten competitive male cyclists completed five 16.1 km TT, two baseline trials performed alone (BLs, and three with a simulated, dynamic avatar of which they were to match the pace of for the initial 4 km. The avatar represented either the cyclist’s fastest BL performance (NORM, 105% (FAST, or 95% (SLOW, of fastest BL performance (FBL. Physiological and psychological responses were measured every quartile of the TT. Despite manipulating a starting speed of ± 5% of fastest previous performance, there was no effect on overall 16.1 km TT performance. Manipulated starting strategies did however evoke different physiological and perceptual responses. Whole trial differences found that SLOW produced lower HR, VO2, BLa and RPE than FBL (p ≤ 0.03 and higher SE than FAST (p ≤ 0.03. Additionally, FAST had greater internal attention than NORM (p < 0.04. Over time all psychological and physiological variables had a significant condition x quartile interaction in the initial or second quartile mediated by the prescribed starting strategies. Furthermore, RPE, affect and internal attention remained elevated throughout FAST despite an attenuation in pace during self-selection of pace. There were no differences in performance time when manipulating a 16.1km cycling TT starting strategy. A slow start, encouraged greater positive perceptions, less negative physiological consequences than a faster start, and produces no impairment to performance time. It would therefore be considered an advantage in a non

  14. Clinical trials. A pending subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Extremera, B; Jiménez-López, P; Mediavilla-García, J D

    2017-07-31

    Clinical trials are essential tools for the progress of clinical medicine in its diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Since the first trial in 1948, which related tobacco use with lung cancer, there have been more than 150,000 clinical trials to date in various areas (paediatrics, cardiology, oncology, endocrinology, etc.). This article highlights the importance for all physicians to participate, over the course of their professional career, in a clinical trial, due to the inherent benefits for patients, the progress of medicine and for curricular prestige. The authors have created a synthesis of their experience with clinical trials on hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and ischaemic heart disease over the course of almost 3 decades. Furthermore, a brief reference has been made to the characteristics of a phase I unit, as well as to a number of research studies currently underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  15. Acute Schizophrenia | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of Three Fixed Doses of OPC-34712 in the Treatment of Adults With Acute...2 in the Treatment of Adults With Acute Schizophrenia A.4.1Sponsor's protocol code number331-10-231 A.5.2US ... Information on the Trial E.1 Medical condition or disease under investigation E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated Acute...ition or disease under investigation E.1.2Version 14.1 E.1.2Level LLT E.1.2Classification code 10001064 E.1.2Term Acute

  16. Acute Schizophrenia | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2, and 1 mg/day) in the Treatment of Adults With Acute Schizophrenia A.3.1Title ...of the trial for lay people, in easily understood, i.e. non-technical, language Efficacy Study of OPC-34712 in Adults With Acute...e Trial E.1 Medical condition or disease under investigation E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated Acute...nder investigation E.1.2Version 14.0 E.1.2Level LLT E.1.2Classification code 10001064 E.1.2Term Acute schizo

  17. Clinical trials on AIDS start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 6-month clinical trial in the Philippines sought to determine the efficacy of coconut oil and of "monolaurin," a coconut oil byproduct, in killing HIV by breaking down its coating. This research is based on the theory that medium-chain fatty acids, like monolaurin, can have this effect on certain viruses. The trial involves 12 women and 3 men in the early stage of HIV infection. 10 patients will take different doses of monolaurin, and 5 will consume coconut oil. It is hypothesized that the regimen will lead to higher CD4 counts and a lower viral load. The trial was almost abandoned because it received only lukewarm approval from the Health Secretary.

  18. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram;

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...... variable. Generation of trial databases and/or biobanks originating in large randomized clinical trials has successfully increased the knowledge obtained from those trials. At the 10th Cardiovascular Trialist Workshop, possibilities and pitfalls in designing and accessing clinical trial databases were......, in particular with respect to collaboration with the trial sponsor and to analytic pitfalls. The advantages of creating screening databases in conjunction with a given clinical trial are described; and finally, the potential for posttrial database studies to become a platform for training young scientists...

  19. Data collection in pragmatic trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinecke, Anna-Katharina; Welsing, Paco; Kafatos, George; Burke, Des; Trelle, Sven; Kubin, Maria; Nachbaur, Gaelle; Egger, Matthias; Zuidgeest, Mira

    2017-07-14

    Pragmatic trials can improve our understanding of how treatments will perform in routine practice. In a series of eight papers, the GetReal Consortium has evaluated the challenges in designing and conducting pragmatic trials and their specific methodological, operational, regulatory, and ethical implications. The present final paper of the series discusses the operational and methodological challenges of data collection in pragmatic trials. A more pragmatic data collection needs to balance the delivery of highly accurate and complete data with minimizing the level of interference that data entry and verification induce with clinical practice. Furthermore, it should allow for the involvement of a representative sample of practices, physicians, and patients who prescribe/receive treatment in routine care. This paper discusses challenges that are related to the different methods of data collection and presents potential solutions where possible. No one-size-fits-all recommendation can be given for the collection of data in pragmatic trials, although in general the application of existing routinely used data-collection systems and processes seems to best suit the pragmatic approach. However, data access and privacy, the time points of data collection, the level of detail in the data, and the lack of a clear understanding of the data-collection process were identified as main challenges for the usage of routinely collected data in pragmatic trials. A first step should be to determine to what extent existing health care databases provide the necessary study data and can accommodate data collection and management. When more elaborate or detailed data collection or more structured follow-up is required, data collection in a pragmatic trial will have to be tailor-made, often using a hybrid approach using a dedicated electronic case report form (eCRF). In this case, the eCRF should be kept as simple as possible to reduce the burden for practitioners and minimize influence on

  20. [Reading a clinical trial report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, J F; Chassany, O

    2000-04-15

    To improve medical knowledge by reading clinical trial reports it is necessary to check for the respect of the methodological rules, and to analyze and criticize the results. A control group and a randomisation are always necessary. Double blind assessment, sample size calculation, intention to treat analysis, a unique primary end point are also important. The conclusions of the trial are valid only for the population included and the clinical signification of the results, depending on the control treatment, has to be evaluated. Respect of the reading rules is necessary to assess the reliability of the conclusions, in order to promote evidence-based practice.

  1. Innovations in clinical trials informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Ron; Vyas, Hiten; Dudhal, Nilesh; Doherty, Neil F; Coombs, Crispin R; Hepworth, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper will investigate innovations in information management for use in clinical trials. The application typifies a complex, adaptive, distributed and information-rich environment for which continuous innovation is necessary. Organisational innovation is highlighted as well as the technical innovations in workflow processes and their representation as an integrated set of web services. Benefits realization uncovers further innovations in the business strand of the work undertaken. Following the description of the development of this information management system, the semantic web is postulated as a possible solution to tame the complexity related to information management issues found within clinical trials support systems.

  2. Randomized clinical trials in HEPATOLOGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, L L; Nikolova, D; Gluud, C

    1999-01-01

    . Quality was assessed by means of a validated 5-point scale and separate quality components associated with empirical evidence of bias. Only 26% of all RCTs reported sample size calculations, 52% adequate generation of the allocation sequence, 34% adequate allocation concealment and 34% double......, single-center trials, and trials with no external funding. Quality did not improve with time and was not associated with country of origin. The main conclusions are that the quality of RCTs in HEPATOLOGY needs improvement and that the probability of high quality increased with the number of centers...

  3. Acute pancreatitis | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lot Trial of Indomethacin in Acute Pancreatitis Ensayo piloto controlado y aleatorizado con indometacina en ....1 Medical condition or disease under investigation E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated Acute...n criteria Patients ages 18 or above admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of Acute pancreatitis (AP) based

  4. Acute Rhinosinusitis | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available edical condition or disease under investigation E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated Acute Rhinosinu....2.3Trial contains a sub-study No E.3Principal inclusion criteria 1. Adult male and female outpatients aged ≥ 18 - 75 years 2. Acute

  5. Clinical Trials in Your Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of investigators, cancer care providers, academic institutions, and other organizations. NCORP conducts multi-site cancer clinical trials and studies in diverse populations in community-based healthcare systems across the United States and Puerto Rico.

  6. Glossary of Clinical Trials Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health grant numbers. (See also Secondary IDs data element on ClinicalTrials.gov.) OUTCOME MEASURE A planned ... and Secondary Outcome Measure . (See also Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures data element and Outcome Measure results data element on ...

  7. The scribe of stroke trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gijn, J

    2003-01-01

    The responsibility for reports about drug trials in medical journals should lie with the clinicians in the steering committee, not with the industrial sponsor. Examples of undue influence of sponsors on the conduct and analysis are the choice of surrogate outcome events, changes in the protocol

  8. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information A to Z ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Coping with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting ...

  9. SARCOPENIA: DESIGNING PHASE IIB TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHUMLEA, WM.C.; CESARI, M.; EVANS, W.J.; FERRUCCI, L.; FIELDING, R.A.; PAHOR, M.; STUDENSKI, S.; VELLAS, B.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-related involuntary loss of skeletal muscle mass and functionality that can lead to the development of disability, frailty and increased health care costs. The development of interventions aimed at preventing and/or treating sarcopenia is complex, requiring the adoption of assumptions and standards that are not well established scientifically or clinically. A number of investigators and clinicians (both from academia and industry) met in Rome (Italy) in 2009 to develop a consensus definition of sarcopenia. Subsequently, in Albuquerque (New Mexico, USA) in 2010, the same group met again to consider the complex issues necessary for designing Phase II clinical trials for sarcopenia. Current clinical trial data indicate that fat-free mass (FFM) parameters are responsive to physical activity/nutritional treatment modalities over short time periods, but pharmacological trials of sarcopenia have yet to show significant efficacy. In order to conduct a clinical trial within a reasonable time frame, groups that model or display accelerated aging and loss of FFM are necessary. Few studies have used acceptable designs for testing treatment effects, sample sizes or primary outcomes that could provide interpretable findings or effects across studies. Dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the measure of choice for assessing FFM, but sufficient time is needed for changes to be detected accurately and reliably. A tool set that would allow clinical, basic and epidemiological research on sarcopenia to advance rapidly toward diagnosis and treatment phases should be those reflecting function and strength. PMID:21623466

  10. The Best Bypass Surgery Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Jensen, Birte Østergaard; Gluud, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Recent trials suggest that off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) reduces the risk of mortality and morbidity compared with conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CCAB) using cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients with a moderate- to high-risk of complications after CCAB may have addit...

  11. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information A to Z ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Coping with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting ...

  12. Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo iStock Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new ...

  13. New Eczema Drug Promising in Early Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163883.html New Eczema Drug Promising in Early Trial Nemolizumab significantly ... the appearance of moderate to severe eczema, a new, preliminary trial finds. Nemolizumab is a man-made, ...

  14. Clinical Trials.Gov: A Topical Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vibha; Cahan, Amos; Ghosh, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    ClinicalTrials.gov was established as a web-based registry for clinical trials of human participants in 2000. Mandatory registration started in 2008. Given more than a decade of registered trials, it's important to understand the "topic" areas and their evolution over time from this resource. This information may help in identifying current knowledge gaps. We use dynamic topic model (DTM) methods to discover topics and their evolution over last 17 years. Our model suggests that there are disease or organ specific trials such as 'Cardiovascular disorders', Heart & Brain conditions', or 'Breast & Prostate cancer' as well as trials registered for general health. General health trials are less likely to be FDA regulated, but both health and pain management, as well as surgical, heart, and brain trials have upward trend in recent years while advanced cancer trials have downward trended. Our model derives unique insights from metadata associated with each topic area.

  15. Clinical trials in neurology: design, conduct, analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravina, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    .... Clinical Trials in Neurology aims to improve the efficiency of clinical trials and the development of interventions in order to enhance the development of new treatments for neurologic diseases...

  16. Clinical Trials Management | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials.

  17. The Design of Cluster Randomized Crossover Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietbergen, Charlotte; Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    The inefficiency induced by between-cluster variation in cluster randomized (CR) trials can be reduced by implementing a crossover (CO) design. In a simple CO trial, each subject receives each treatment in random order. A powerful characteristic of this design is that each subject serves as its own control. In a CR CO trial, clusters of subjects…

  18. 5 CFR 316.304 - Trial period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trial period. 316.304 Section 316.304... Term Employment § 316.304 Trial period. (a) The first year of service of a term employee is a trial period regardless of the method of appointment. Prior Federal civilian service is credited toward...

  19. Varied acceptance of clinical trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimt, C R

    1989-12-01

    The subject of varied acceptance of clinical trial results is discussed in the context of review of trials with which I have been involved and my subjective evaluation of their impact on the practice of clinical medicine. My experience goes back to 1949 and a World Health Organization trial of hyperimmune gamma globulin against rabies. This was followed by a large trial of secondary prevention of poliomyelitis. I participated in the planning and initiation of the first chronic disease trial, the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP). The latter lasted for 15 years and its ramifications continue to this day. My next trial was the Coronary Drug Project (CDP), a complex trial with more than 8,000 patients. The trials of aspirin and aspirin combined with persantine (the CDPA, AMIS, PARIS I, and PARIS II) followed. My last three trials were a trial of photocoagulation in diabetic retinopathy (DRS), a six-country trial of the antiarrhythmic drug mexiletine (IMPACT), and a study involving two diagnostic procedures for pulmonary embolism (PIOPED). When one considers, in retrospect, the plethora of trials one is struck by the uniform absence of a priori considerations of the impact on medical practice, or likely lack thereof, of possible outcomes.

  20. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...

  1. Trial-to-Trial Fluctuations in Attentional State and Their Relation to Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.

    2014-01-01

    Trial-to-trial fluctuations in attentional state while performing measures of intelligence were examined in the current study. Participants performed various measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence while also providing attentional state ratings prior to each trial. It was found that pre-trial attentional state ratings strongly predicted…

  2. Acute Gout | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E.1 Medical condition or disease under investigation E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated Acute Gou...t E.1.1.1Medical condition in easily understood language Acute Gout E.1.1.2Therapeutic area Diseases [C] - M...n the trial (if it is different from the expected normal treatment of that condition) Acute gout is a self l

  3. Portfolio of prospective clinical trials including brachytherapy: an analysis of the ClinicalTrials.gov database

    OpenAIRE

    Cihoric, Nikola; Tsikkinis, Alexandros; Miguelez, Cristina Gutierrez; Strnad, Vratislav; Soldatovic, Ivan; Ghadjar, Pirus; Jeremic, Branislav; Dal Pra, Alan; Aebersold, Daniel M; Lössl, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the current status of prospective interventional clinical trials that includes brachytherapy (BT) procedures. Methods The records of 175,538 (100 %) clinical trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov were downloaded on September 2014 and a database was established. Trials using BT as an intervention were identified for further analyses. The selected trials were manually categorized according to indication(s), BT source, applied dose rate, primary sponsor type, location, p...

  4. Portfolio of prospective clinical trials including brachytherapy: an analysis of the ClinicalTrials.gov database

    OpenAIRE

    Cihoric, Nikola; Tsikkinis, Alexandros; Gutierrez Miguelez, Cristina; Strnad, Vratislav; Soldatovic, Ivan; Ghadjar, Pirus; Jeremic, Branislav; Dal Pra, Alan; Aebersold, Daniel M; Lössl, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the current status of prospective interventional clinical trials that includes brachytherapy (BT) procedures. Methods The records of 175,538 (100 %) clinical trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov were downloaded on September 2014 and a database was established. Trials using BT as an intervention were identified for further analyses. The selected trials were manually categorized according to indication(s), BT source, applied dose rate, primary sponsor type,...

  5. Current status and perspectives of interventional clinical trials for glioblastoma - analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihoric, Nikola; Tsikkinis, Alexandros; Minniti, Giuseppe; Lagerwaard, Frank J; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Mathier, Etienne; Soldatovic, Ivan; Jeremic, Branislav; Ghadjar, Pirus; Elicin, Olgun; Lössl, Kristina; Aebersold, Daniel M; Belka, Claus; Herrmann, Evelyn; Niyazi, Maximilian

    2017-01-03

    The records of 208.777 (100%) clinical trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov were downloaded on the 19th of February 2016. Phase II and III trials including patients with glioblastoma were selected for further classification and analysis. Based on the disease settings, trials were classified into three groups: newly diagnosed glioblastoma, recurrent disease and trials with no differentiation according to disease setting. Furthermore, we categorized trials according to the experimental interventions, the primary sponsor, the source of financial support and trial design elements. Trends were evaluated using the autoregressive integrated moving average model. Two hundred sixteen (0.1%) trials were selected for further analysis. Academic centers (investigator initiated trials) were recorded as primary sponsors in 56.9% of trials, followed by industry 25.9%. Industry was the leading source of monetary support for the selected trials in 44.4%, followed by 25% of trials with primarily academic financial support. The number of newly initiated trials between 2005 and 2015 shows a positive trend, mainly through an increase in phase II trials, whereas phase III trials show a negative trend. The vast majority of trials evaluate forms of different systemic treatments (91.2%). In total, one hundred different molecular entities or biologicals were identified. Of those, 60% were involving drugs specifically designed for central nervous system malignancies. Trials that specifically address radiotherapy, surgery, imaging and other therapeutic or diagnostic methods appear to be rare. Current research in glioblastoma is mainly driven or sponsored by industry, academic medical oncologists and neuro-oncologists, with the majority of trials evaluating forms of systemic therapies. Few trials reach phase III. Imaging, radiation therapy and surgical procedures are underrepresented in current trials portfolios. Optimization in research portfolio for glioblastoma is needed.

  6. Accrual to Cancer Clinical Trials

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, C

    2016-07-01

    Accrual to cancer clinical trials (CCT) is imperative to safeguard continued improvement in cancer outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients (n=140) starting a new anti-cancer agent in a north Dublin cancer centre. This review was performed over a four-month period, beginning in November 2015. Only 29% (n=41) had a CCT option. The overall accrual rate to CCT was 5% (n=7), which is comparable to internationally reported figures. The main reasons for failure to recruit to CCT included the lack of a CCT option for cancer type (n=30, 23%), stage (n=25, 19%), and line of treatment (n=23, 17%). Over the last decade, the rate of accrual to CCTs has in fact doubled and the number of trials open to recruitment has tripled. Ongoing governmental and philanthropic support is necessary to continue this trend to further expand CCT patient options with a target accrual rate of 10%.

  7. The ethics of clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have prevailed over clinical judgement, case reports, and observational studies and became the gold evidential standard in medicine. Furthermore, during the same time frame, RCTs became a crucial part of the regulatory process whereby a new therapeutic can gain access to the drug market. Today, clinical trials are large and tightly regulated enterprises that have to comply with ethical requirements while maintaining high epistemic standards, a balance that becomes increasingly difficult as the research questions become more sophisticated. In this review, the author will discuss some of the most important ethical issues surrounding RCTs, with an eye to the most recent debates and the context of oncological research in particular. PMID:24482672

  8. Medical coding in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deven Babre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data generated in all clinical trial are recorded on the data collection instrument Case report Form / Electronic Case Report Form by investigators located at various sites in various countries. In multicentric clinical trials since different investigator or medically qualified experts are from different sites / centers recording the medical term(s uniformly is a big challenge. Medical coders from clinical data management team process these terms and perform medical coding. Medical coding is performed to categorize the medical terms reported appropriately so that they can be analyzed/reviewed. This article describes process which is used for medical coding in clinical data management and two most commonly used medical dictionaries MedDRA and WHO-DDE in brief. It is expected to help medical coders to understand the process of medical coding in clinical data management. Few common issues which the medical coder faces while performing medical coding, are also highlighted.

  9. GPON FTTH trial: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Erik; Hölzl, Rainer; Breuer, Dirk; Lange, Christoph

    2009-11-01

    This paper reports on a FTTH field trial with GPON (Gigabit-capable passive optical network) technology in the network of Deutsche Telekom in the region of the cities of Berlin and Potsdam. Focus of this trial was to gain practical experience regarding GPON technology, fibre installation in existing ducts with micro duct technology, fibre cabling in customer buildings and impact on operational processes. Furthermore it is reported on an initial Deutsche Telekom FTTB deployment based on GPON technology in the city of Dresden with the main targets to obtain practical deployment and operation experiences with fibre-based access networks and to provide broadband access to a part of the city formerly not servable by DSL (digital subscriber line) technology.

  10. Practical trials in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    , limitations and future directions for this kind of research. CURRENT STATE: Practical trials have the overall aim of informing decision makers. They are carried out in real-life settings and are characterised by (i) comparison of viable alternative education strategies, (ii) broad inclusion criteria regarding...... participants across several settings and (iii) multiple outcome measures with long-term follow-up to evaluate both benefits and risks. Questions posed by practical trials may be proactive in applying theory in the development of educational innovations or reactive to educational reforms and innovations. Non......CONTEXT: Concerns have been raised over the gap between education theory and practice and how research can contribute to inform decision makers on their choices and priorities. Little is known about how educational theories and research outcomes produced under optimal conditions in highly...

  11. Clinical trials and gender medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarita Cassese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Women use more medicines than men because they fall ill more often and suffer more from chronic diseases, but also because women pay more attention to their health and have more consciousness and care about themselves. Although medicines can have different effects on women and men, women still represent a small percentage in the first phases of trials (22% which are essential to verify drugs dosage, side effects, and safety. Even though women are more present in trials, studies results are not presented with a gender approach. This situation is due to educational, social, ethical and economical factors. The scientific research must increase feminine presence in clinical trials in order to be equal and correct, and all the key stakeholder should be involved in this process. We still have a long way to cover and it doesn't concern only women but also children and old people. The aim is to have a medicine not only illness-focused but patient-focused: a medicine able to take into consideration all the patient characteristics and so to produce a really personalized therapy. What above described is part of the reasons why in 2005 was founded the National Observatory for Women's Health (Osservatorio Nazionale sulla Salute della Donna, ONDa which promotes a gender health awareness and culture in Italy, at all the levels of the civil and scientific society.

  12. The DiaS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Kate; Krogh, Jesper; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark 8,000 to 10,000 people will attempt suicide each year. The Centre of Excellence in Suicide Prevention in the Capital Region of Denmark is treating patients with suicidal behavior, and a recent survey has shown that 30% of the patients are suffering from borderline personali...... measured at week 28. Other exploratory outcomes are included such as severity of symptoms, suicide intention and ideation, depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, impulsivity, anger, and duration of respective treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial.gov: NCT01512602....... disorder. The majority of patients (70% to 75%) with borderline personality disorder have a history of deliberate self-harm and 10% have a lifetime risk to die by suicide. The DiaS trial is comparing dialectical behavior therapy with collaborative assessment and management of suicidality......-informed supportive psychotherapy, for the risk of repetition of deliberate self-harm in patients with a recent suicide attempt and personality traits within the spectrum of borderline personality disorder. Both treatments have previously shown effects in this group of patients on suicide ideation and self...

  13. Clinical Trials in Noninfectious Uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jane S.; Knickelbein, Jared E.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Sen, H. Nida

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of noninfectious uveitis continues to remain a challenge for many ophthalmologists. Historically, clinical trials in uveitis have been sparse, and thus, most treatment decisions have largely been based on clinical experience and consensus guidelines. The current treatment paradigm favors initiation then tapering of corticosteroids with addition of steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents for persistence or recurrence of disease. Unfortunately, in spite of a multitude of highly unfavorable systemic effects, corticosteroids are still regarded as the mainstay of treatment for many patients with chronic and refractory noninfectious uveitis. However, with the success of other conventional and biologic immunomodulatory agents in treating systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, interest in targeted treatment strategies for uveitis has been renewed. Multiple clinical trials on steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents, biologic agents, intraocular corticosteroid implants, and topical ophthalmic solutions have already been completed, and many more are ongoing. This review discusses the results and implications of these clinical trials investigating both alternative and novel treatment options for noninfectious uveitis. PMID:26035763

  14. Clinical trials: innovation, progress and controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin GS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Greg S MartinDepartment of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USAThe Open Access Journal of Clinical Trials began in 2009 with the goal of being an authoritative, open access source for international, peer-reviewed publications in the field of human research and clinical trials. Since then, the Open Access Journal of Clinical Trials has published approximately 30 high-quality articles on original research, innovative reviews, and critical commentaries. These articles have spanned many aspects of clinical trials wonderfully, including trial design and management; legal, ethical and regulatory issues of clinical trials; subject participation and retention in clinical trials; and data collection and data management.

  15. Bayesian adaptive methods for clinical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Scott M; Muller, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Already popular in the analysis of medical device trials, adaptive Bayesian designs are increasingly being used in drug development for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, from Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis to obesity, diabetes, hepatitis C, and HIV. Written by leading pioneers of Bayesian clinical trial designs, Bayesian Adaptive Methods for Clinical Trials explores the growing role of Bayesian thinking in the rapidly changing world of clinical trial analysis. The book first summarizes the current state of clinical trial design and analysis and introduces the main ideas and potential benefits of a Bayesian alternative. It then gives an overview of basic Bayesian methodological and computational tools needed for Bayesian clinical trials. With a focus on Bayesian designs that achieve good power and Type I error, the next chapters present Bayesian tools useful in early (Phase I) and middle (Phase II) clinical trials as well as two recent Bayesian adaptive Phase II studies: the BATTLE and ISP...

  16. Data monitoring committees for pragmatic clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberg, Susan S; Culbertson, Richard; Gillen, Daniel L; Goodman, Steven; Schrandt, Suzanne; Zirkle, Maryan

    2015-10-01

    In any clinical trial, it is essential to monitor the accumulating data to be sure that the trial continues to be safe for participants and that the trial is being conducted properly. Data monitoring committees, independent expert panels who undertake regular reviews of the data as the trial progresses, serve an important role in safeguarding the interests of research participants and ensuring trial integrity in many trials. Many pragmatic clinical trials, which aim to inform healthcare decisions by comparing alternate interventions in heterogeneous healthcare delivery settings, will warrant review by an independent data monitoring committee due to their potential impact on clinical practice. However, the very features that make a trial "pragmatic" may pose challenges in terms of which aspects of a trial to monitor and when it is appropriate for a data monitoring committee to intervene. Using the Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary tool that draws distinctions between pragmatic and explanatory clinical trials, we review characteristics of pragmatic clinical trials that may have implications for data monitoring committees and interim monitoring plans. These include broad eligibility criteria, a focus on subjective patient-centered outcomes, and in some cases a lack of standardized follow-up procedures across study sites. Additionally, protocol adherence is often purposefully not addressed in pragmatic trials in order to accurately represent the clinical practice setting and maintain practicability of implementation; there are differing viewpoints as to whether adherence should be assessed and acted upon by data monitoring committees in these trials. Some other issues not specifically related to the Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary criteria may also merit special consideration in pragmatic trials. Thresholds for early termination of a pragmatic clinical trial might be controversial. The distinguishing features of pragmatic clinical

  17. Impact of a cancer clinical trials web site on discussions about trial participation: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, R F; Barratt, A L; Askie, L M; Butow, P N; McGeechan, K; Crossing, S; Currow, D C; Tattersall, M H N

    2012-07-01

    Cancer patients want access to reliable information about currently recruiting clinical trials. Oncologists and their patients were randomly assigned to access a consumer-friendly cancer clinical trials web site [Australian Cancer Trials (ACT), www.australiancancertrials.gov.au] or to usual care in a cluster randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome, measured from audio recordings of oncologist-patient consultations, was the proportion of patients with whom participation in any clinical trial was discussed. Analysis was by intention-to-treat accounting for clustering and stratification. Thirty medical oncologists and 493 patients were recruited. Overall, 46% of consultations in the intervention group compared with 34% in the control group contained a discussion about clinical trials (P=0.08). The mean consultation length in both groups was 29 min (P=0.69). The proportion consenting to a trial was 10% in both groups (P=0.65). Patients' knowledge about randomized trials was lower in the intervention than the control group (mean score 3.0 versus 3.3, P=0.03) but decisional conflict scores were similar (mean score 42 versus 43, P=0.83). Good communication between patients and physicians is essential. Within this context, a web site such as Australian Cancer Trials may be an important tool to encourage discussion about clinical trial participation.

  18. Clinical Trials in Peripheral Vascular Disease: Pipeline and Trial Designs: An Evaluation of the ClinicalTrials.gov Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subherwal, Sumeet; Patel, Manesh R.; Chiswell, Karen; Tidemann-Miller, Beth A.; Jones, W. Schuyler; Conte, Michael S.; White, Christopher J.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Laird, John R.; Hiatt, William R.; Tasneem, Asba; Califf, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tremendous advances have occurred in therapies for peripheral vascular disease (PVD); however, until recently it has not been possible to examine the entire clinical trial portfolio of studies for treatment of PVD (both arterial and venous disease). Methods and Results We examined interventional trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov from October 2007 through September 2010 (n=40,970) and identified 676 (1.7%) PVD trials (n=493 arterial only, n=170 venous only, n=13 both arterial and venous). Most arterial studies investigated lower extremity peripheral artery disease and acute stroke (35% and 24%, respectively), while most venous studies examined deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolus prevention (42%) or venous ulceration (25%). A placebo-controlled trial design was used in 27% of the PVD trials, and 4% of the PVD trials excluded patients aged >65 years. Enrollment in at least 1 US site decreased from 51% in 2007 to 41% of trials in 2010. Compared with non-cardiology disciplines, PVD trials were more likely to be double-blinded, investigate use of devices and procedures, and have industry sponsorship and assumed funding source, and less likely to investigate drug and behavioral therapies. Geographic access to PVD clinical trials within the United States is limited to primarily large metropolitan areas. Conclusions PVD studies represent a small group of trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, despite the high prevalence of vascular disease in the general population. This low number, compounded by the decreasing number of PVD trials in the United States, is concerning and may limit the ability to inform current clinical practice of patients with PVD. PMID:25239436

  19. Sponsorship and design characteristics of trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumiantseva, Dina; Carini, Simona; Sim, Ida; Wagner, Todd H

    2013-03-01

    We examine the extent to which ClinicalTrials.gov is meeting its goal of providing oversight and transparency of clinical trials with human subjects. We analyzed the ClinicalTrials.gov database contents as of June 2011, comparing interventions, medical conditions, and trial characteristics by sponsor type. We also conducted a detailed analysis of incomplete data. Among trials with only government sponsorship (N=9252), 36% were observational and 64% interventional; in contrast, almost all (90%) industry-only sponsored trials were interventional. Industry-only sponsored interventional trials (N=30,036) were most likely to report a drug intervention (81%), followed by biologics (9%) and devices (8%). Government-only interventional trials (N=5886) were significantly more likely to test behavioral interventions (28%) and procedures (13%) than industry-only trials (pgov. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Factors predicting publication of spinal cord injury trials registered on www.ClinicalTrials. gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasse, J Mason; Park, Sara; Eltorai, Adam E M; Daniels, Alan H

    2017-08-11

    Treatment options for spinal cord injuries are currently limited, but multiple clinical trials are underway for a variety of interventions, drugs, and devices. The Food and Drug Administration website www.ClinicalTrials.gov catalogues these trials and includes information on the status of the trial, date of initiation and completion, source of funding, and region. This investigation assesses the factors associated with publication and the publication rate of spinal cord injury trials. Retrospective analysis of publically available data on www.ClinicalTrials.gov. The www.ClinicalTrials.gov was queried for all trials on patients with spinal cord injury, and these trials were assessed for status, type of intervention, source of funding, and region. Multiple literature searches were performed on all completed trials to determine publication status. There were 626 studies identified concerning the treatment of patients with spinal cord injury, of which 250 (39.9%) were completed. Of these, only 119 (47.6%) were published. There was no significant difference in the rate of publication between regions (p> 0.16) or by study type (p> 0.29). However, trials that were funded by the NIH were more likely to be published than trials funded by industry (p= 0.01). The current publication rate of spinal cord injury trials is only 47.6%, though this rate is similar to the publication rate for trials in other fields. NIH-funded trials are significantly more likely to become published than industry-funded trials, which could indicate that some trials remain unpublished due to undesirable results. However, it is also likely that many trials on spinal cord injury yield negative results, as treatments are often ineffective.

  1. Making randomised trials more efficient: report of the first meeting to discuss the Trial Forge platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Altman, Doug G; Bower, Peter; Campbell, Marion; Chalmers, Iain; Cotton, Seonaidh; Craig, Peter; Crosby, David; Davidson, Peter; Devane, Declan; Duley, Lelia; Dunn, Janet; Elbourne, Diana; Farrell, Barbara; Gamble, Carrol; Gillies, Katie; Hood, Kerry; Lang, Trudie; Littleford, Roberta; Loudon, Kirsty; McDonald, Alison; McPherson, Gladys; Nelson, Annmarie; Norrie, John; Ramsay, Craig; Sandercock, Peter; Shanahan, Daniel R; Summerskill, William; Sydes, Matt; Williamson, Paula; Clarke, Mike

    2015-06-05

    Randomised trials are at the heart of evidence-based healthcare, but the methods and infrastructure for conducting these sometimes complex studies are largely evidence free. Trial Forge ( www.trialforge.org ) is an initiative that aims to increase the evidence base for trial decision making and, in doing so, to improve trial efficiency.This paper summarises a one-day workshop held in Edinburgh on 10 July 2014 to discuss Trial Forge and how to advance this initiative. We first outline the problem of inefficiency in randomised trials and go on to describe Trial Forge. We present participants' views on the processes in the life of a randomised trial that should be covered by Trial Forge.General support existed at the workshop for the Trial Forge approach to increase the evidence base for making randomised trial decisions and for improving trial efficiency. Agreed upon key processes included choosing the right research question; logistical planning for delivery, training of staff, recruitment, and retention; data management and dissemination; and close down. The process of linking to existing initiatives where possible was considered crucial. Trial Forge will not be a guideline or a checklist but a 'go to' website for research on randomised trials methods, with a linked programme of applied methodology research, coupled to an effective evidence-dissemination process. Moreover, it will support an informal network of interested trialists who meet virtually (online) and occasionally in person to build capacity and knowledge in the design and conduct of efficient randomised trials.Some of the resources invested in randomised trials are wasted because of limited evidence upon which to base many aspects of design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials. Trial Forge will help to address this lack of evidence.

  2. Microbicide clinical trial adherence: insights for introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Woodsong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1 Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2 Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3 Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4 Partner influence on use, (5 Retention and continuation and (6 Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs.

  3. [Profile of clinical trials enrolling Brazilian children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jean Mendes de Lucena; Lima, Elisangela da Costa; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Ventura, Miriam; Coelho, Helena Lutescia Luna

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to characterize the clinical trials with medicines enrolling Brazilian children and adolescents, registered in the databases of Clinical Trials and the Brazilian Clinical Trials Network (ReBEC) from 1994 to 2014. Only 462 clinical trials enrolled Brazilian children and adolescents. There was an increase in registrations beginning in 2003, with an important drop in 2011. Among these trials, 35.5% were hosted in Brazil. The international clinical trials were mostly conducted by North American companies. In both cases, multinational industry was the principal source of funding. The clinical trials were predominantly phase III with injectable and solid oral pharmaceutical forms of antiviral drugs. Domestic clinical trials showed wider variation in the pharmaceutical forms and higher percentage of liquid formulations, when compared to the international trials. In addition to heavy external dependence for conducting clinical trials, the study emphasized the challenge for pediatric care in Brazil, which presents epidemiological peculiarities in an environment prone to the use of unlicensed medicines for children.

  4. Gatekeepers for pragmatic clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicher, Danielle M; Miller, Jennifer E; Dunham, Kelly M; Joffe, Steven

    2015-10-01

    To successfully implement a pragmatic clinical trial, investigators need access to numerous resources, including financial support, institutional infrastructure (e.g. clinics, facilities, staff), eligible patients, and patient data. Gatekeepers are people or entities who have the ability to allow or deny access to the resources required to support the conduct of clinical research. Based on this definition, gatekeepers relevant to the US clinical research enterprise include research sponsors, regulatory agencies, payers, health system and other organizational leadership, research team leadership, human research protections programs, advocacy and community groups, and clinicians. This article provides a framework to help guide gatekeepers' decision-making related to the use of resources for pragmatic clinical trials. Relevant ethical considerations for gatekeepers include (1) concern for the interests of individuals, groups, and communities affected by the gatekeepers' decisions, including protection from harm and maximization of benefits; (2) advancement of organizational mission and values; and (3) stewardship of financial, human, and other organizational resources. Separate from these ethical considerations, gatekeepers' actions will be guided by relevant federal, state, and local regulations. This framework also suggests that to further enhance the legitimacy of their decision-making, gatekeepers should adopt transparent processes that engage relevant stakeholders when feasible and appropriate. We apply this framework to the set of gatekeepers responsible for making decisions about resources necessary for pragmatic clinical trials in the United States, describing the relevance of the criteria in different situations and pointing out where conflicts among the criteria and relevant regulations may affect decision-making. Recognition of the complex set of considerations that should inform decision-making will guide gatekeepers in making justifiable choices regarding

  5. a randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Iyengar yoga in chronic neck pain by means of a randomized clinical trial. 77 with chronic neck pain who scored > 40 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) were randomized to a nine week Iyengar yoga program with weekly 90-minute classes or to a self-care/exercise program. The primary outcome measure was change of mean pain at rest (VAS) from baseline to week ten. Secondary outcomes included pain at motion, functional disabilit...

  6. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations.

  7. Legislation for trial registration and data transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tai-Xiang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Public confidence in clinical trials has been eroded by data suppression, misrepresentation and manipulation. Although various attempts have been made to achieve universal trial registration- e.g., Declaration of Helsinki, WHO clinical Trial Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors requirement- they have not succeeded, probably because they lack the enough power of enforcement. Legislation appears to be the most efficient and effective means to ensure that all researchers register their trials and disseminate their data accurately and in a timely manner. We propose that a global network be established. This could be accomplished in two steps. The first step is to legislate about trial registration and data transparency, such as USA's FDAAA Act 2007; and the second step to establish a global network to ensure uniform, international consistency in policy and enforcement of trial registration and data transparency.

  8. Some ethical implications of "adaptive" trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive trials are a new type of sequential trial, as yet not very widespread, in which each step can be modified on the basis of findings from the preceding step. In other words, the data accumulated during the study are used to modify the trial design. The potential of this type of trial is highly promising, especially for the development of therapies for rare diseases. The planning, conduct and management of data from adaptive trials are extremely complex processes and call for highly specialised skills. Without going into the merits of the experimental protocols, the aim of this article is to point out some ethical aspects that call for caution, as well as the need for ethics committees to be aware of the challenges posed by these trials.

  9. Legislation for trial registration and data transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Wu, Tai-Xiang

    2010-05-26

    Public confidence in clinical trials has been eroded by data suppression, misrepresentation and manipulation. Although various attempts have been made to achieve universal trial registration- e.g., Declaration of Helsinki, WHO clinical Trial Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors requirement- they have not succeeded, probably because they lack the enough power of enforcement.Legislation appears to be the most efficient and effective means to ensure that all researchers register their trials and disseminate their data accurately and in a timely manner. We propose that a global network be established. This could be accomplished in two steps. The first step is to legislate about trial registration and data transparency, such as USA's FDAAA Act 2007; and the second step to establish a global network to ensure uniform, international consistency in policy and enforcement of trial registration and data transparency.

  10. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations: Design and conduct of clinical trials of rehabilitation interventions for osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, G K; Hinman, R S; Zeni, J; Risberg, M A; Snyder-Mackler, L; Bennell, K L

    2015-05-01

    A Task Force of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) has previously published a set of guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials in osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. Limited material available on clinical trials of rehabilitation in people with OA has prompted OARSI to establish a separate Task Force to elaborate guidelines encompassing special issues relating to rehabilitation of OA. The Task Force identified three main categories of rehabilitation clinical trials. The categories included non-operative rehabilitation trials, post-operative rehabilitation trials, and trials examining the effectiveness of devices (e.g., assistive devices, bracing, physical agents, electrical stimulation, etc.) that are used in rehabilitation of people with OA. In addition, the Task Force identified two main categories of outcomes in rehabilitation clinical trials, which include outcomes related to symptoms and function, and outcomes related to disease modification. The guidelines for rehabilitation clinical trials provided in this report encompass these main categories. The report provides guidelines for conducting and reporting on randomized clinical trials. The topics include considerations for entering patients into trials, issues related to conducting trials, considerations for selecting outcome measures, and recommendations for statistical analyses and reporting of results. The focus of the report is on rehabilitation trials for hip, knee and hand OA, however, we believe the content is broad enough that it could be applied to rehabilitation trials for other regions as well.

  11. Trial publication after registration in ClinicalTrials.Gov: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Ross

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ClinicalTrials.gov is a publicly accessible, Internet-based registry of clinical trials managed by the US National Library of Medicine that has the potential to address selective trial publication. Our objectives were to examine completeness of registration within ClinicalTrials.gov and to determine the extent and correlates of selective publication. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined reporting of registration information among a cross-section of trials that had been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov after December 31, 1999 and updated as having been completed by June 8, 2007, excluding phase I trials. We then determined publication status among a random 10% subsample by searching MEDLINE using a systematic protocol, after excluding trials completed after December 31, 2005 to allow at least 2 y for publication following completion. Among the full sample of completed trials (n = 7,515, nearly 100% reported all data elements mandated by ClinicalTrials.gov, such as intervention and sponsorship. Optional data element reporting varied, with 53% reporting trial end date, 66% reporting primary outcome, and 87% reporting trial start date. Among the 10% subsample, less than half (311 of 677, 46% of trials were published, among which 96 (31% provided a citation within ClinicalTrials.gov of a publication describing trial results. Trials primarily sponsored by industry (40%, 144 of 357 were less likely to be published when compared with nonindustry/nongovernment sponsored trials (56%, 110 of 198; p<0.001, but there was no significant difference when compared with government sponsored trials (47%, 57 of 122; p = 0.22. Among trials that reported an end date, 75 of 123 (61% completed prior to 2004, 50 of 96 (52% completed during 2004, and 62 of 149 (42% completed during 2005 were published (p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS: Reporting of optional data elements varied and publication rates among completed trials registered within ClinicalTrials.gov were low

  12. Design, Analysis, and Presentation of Crossover Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Guyatt Gordon H; Vail Andy; Wu Ping; Chan An-Wen; Mills Edward J; Altman Douglas G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective Although crossover trials enjoy wide use, standards for analysis and reporting have not been established. We reviewed methodological aspects and quality of reporting in a representative sample of published crossover trials. Methods We searched MEDLINE for December 2000 and identified all randomized crossover trials. We abstracted data independently, in duplicate, on 14 design criteria, 13 analysis criteria, and 14 criteria assessing the data presentation. Results We identif...

  13. Ethics, Error, and Initial Trials of Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the frequency of failure in late stage drug development have prompted a series of proposals for improving the positive predictivity of trials where clinical activity is first evaluated—typically phase 2 trials. However, many proposed reforms entail ethical and social tradeoffs that might not be immediately apparent. We argue that trial reforms aimed at boosting phase 2 positive predictivity have important repercussions for human subjects, as well as the capacity of the research...

  14. Supported employment: randomised controlled trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Louise M.; Heslin, Margaret; Leese, Morven; McCrone, Paul; Rice, Christopher; Jarrett, Manuela; Spokes, Terry; Huxley, Peter; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Background There is evidence from North American trials that supported employment using the individual placement and support (IPS) model is effective in helping individuals with severe mental illness gain competitive employment. There have been few trials in other parts of the world. Aims To investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IPS in the UK. Method Individuals with severe mental illness in South London were randomised to IPS or local traditional vocational services (treatment as usual) (ISRCTN96677673). Results Two hundred and nineteen participants were randomised, and 90% assessed 1 year later. There were no significant differences between the treatment as usual and intervention groups in obtaining competitive employment (13% in the intervention group and 7% in controls; risk ratio 1.35, 95% CI 0.95–1.93, P = 0.15), nor in secondary outcomes. Conclusions There was no evidence that IPS was of significant benefit in achieving competitive employment for individuals in South London at 1-year follow-up, which may reflect suboptimal implementation. Implementation of IPS can be challenging in the UK context where IPS is not structurally integrated with mental health services, and economic disincentives may lead to lower levels of motivation in individuals with severe mental illness and psychiatric professionals. PMID:20435968

  15. Power analysis of trials with multilevel data

    CERN Document Server

    Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Power Analysis of Trials with Multilevel Data covers using power and sample size calculations to design trials that involve nested data structures. The book gives a thorough overview of power analysis that details terminology and notation, outlines key concepts of statistical power and power analysis, and explains why they are necessary in trial design. It guides you in performing power calculations with hierarchical data, which enables more effective trial design.The authors are leading experts in the field who recognize that power analysis has attracted attention from applied statisticians i

  16. Single-Trial Inference on Visual Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    In this paper we take a step towards single-trial behavioral modeling within a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). In selective attention tasks, such as the Partial Report paradigm, the subject is asked to ignore distractors and only report stimuli that belong to the target class. Nothing about...... Report trial. This result retrodicts a latent attentional state of the subject using the observed response from that particular trial and thus differs from other predictions made with TVA which are based on expected values of observed variables. We show an example of the result in single-trial analysis...

  17. Uncertainty and the ethics of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2006-01-01

    A probabilistic explication is offered of equipoise and uncertainty in clinical trials. In order to be useful in the justification of clinical trials, equipoise has to be interpreted in terms of overlapping probability distributions of possible treatment outcomes, rather than point estimates representing expectation values. Uncertainty about treatment outcomes is shown to be a necessary but insufficient condition for the ethical defensibility of clinical trials. Additional requirements are proposed for the nature of that uncertainty. The indecisiveness of our criteria for cautious decision-making under uncertainty creates the leeway that makes clinical trials defensible.

  18. How Experimental Trial Context Affects Perceptual Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Palmeri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand object categorization, participants are tested in experiments often quite different from how people experience object categories in the real world. Learning and knowledge of categories is measured in discrete experimental trials, those trials may or may not provide feedback, trials appear one after another, after some fixed inter-trial interval, with hundreds of trials in a row, within experimental blocks with some structure dictated by the experimental design. In the real world, outside of certain educational and vocational contexts, opportunities to learn and use categories are intermixed over time with a whole multitude of intervening experiences. It is clear from any elementary understanding of human cognition that sequential effects matter, yet this understanding is often ignored, and categorization trials are often instead treated as independent events, immune to local trial context. In this perspective, we use some of our work to illustrate some of the consequences of the fact that categorization experiments have a particular trial structure. Experimental trial context can affect performance in category learning and categorization experiments in ways that can profoundly affect theoretical conclusions.

  19. Single-Trial Inference on Visual Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we take a step towards single-trial behavioral modeling within a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). In selective attention tasks, such as the Partial Report paradigm, the subject is asked to ignore distractors and only report stimuli that belong to the target class. Nothing about...... Report trial. This result retrodicts a latent attentional state of the subject using the observed response from that particular trial and thus differs from other predictions made with TVA which are based on expected values of observed variables. We show an example of the result in single-trial analysis...

  20. [Situation analysis for drug clinical trial institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Ying; Wu, Ping; Wang, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Drug clinical trial is an important link in the chain of new drug research and development. The results of drug discovery and development directly depend on the extent of standardization of clinical trials. Therefore, improving the quality of drug clinical trials is of great importance, and drug clinical trial institutions play a crucial role in the quality management of drug clinical trials. After years of development, the overall level of drug clinical trials has advanced rapidly in China, and a large number of clinical trials of traditional Chinese medicine have also been carried out. However, there is still a big gap between our country and developed countries. Therefore, for the construction and management of Chinese drug clinical trial institutions, there is still a long way to go. This study aims to analyze the current development of drug clinical trial institutions in China and explore the existing problems from three aspects, including current situations of institutional organization and management, regional and professional distributions, and quality control. And some suggestions are put forward finally, including support of traditional Chinese medicine, introduction of drug-risk management system, and construction of information management.

  1. Terminating a long-term clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimt, C R

    1981-05-01

    Long-term clinical trials often include more than one active treatment group. These may be discontinued independently if found to be ineffective or possibly harmful. Certain subgroups of patients may be discovered, in the course of a clinical trial, who do not respond satisfactorily and are, therefore, excluded during the course of a trial. Yet another kind of termination comes when we have a therapeutic breakthrough or when hope has to be abandoned for demonstrating beneficial effects for one, several, or all treatments included in a trial. Examples from the authors' experience are presented, as are successful and unsuccessful techniques in managing terminations of various types.

  2. Analysis of the first field trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé; Carl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this work package, we evaluate the CASMACAT workbench in eld trials to study the use of the workbench in a real-world environment. We will also integrate the workbench into com- munity translation platforms and collect user activity data from both eld trials and volunteer translators. This Deliverable covers Tasks 6.1 and 6.2. Task 6.1: Field trials at translation agency. Three annual eld trials to evaluate the CASMACAT workbench in a real-world professional translatio...

  3. The impact of advertising patient and public involvement on trial recruitment:embedded cluster randomisedrecruitment trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Hann, Robert; Fraser , Claire; Meade, Oonagh; Lovell, Karina; Young, Bridget; Roberts, Christopher; Cree, Lindsey; More, Donna; O'Leary, Neil; Callaghan, Patrick; Waheed, Waquas; Bower, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundPatient and public involvement in research (PPIR) may improve trial recruitment rates, but it is unclear how. Where trials use PPIR to improve design and conduct, many do not communicate this clearly to potential participants. Better communication of PPIR might encourage patient enrolment, as trials may be perceived as more socially valid, relevant and trustworthy. We aimed to evaluate the impact on recruitment of directly advertising PPIR to potential trial participants.MethodsThis...

  4. Identification of additional trials in prospective trial registers for Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynanda A van Enst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Publication and selective outcome reporting bias are a threat to the validity of systematic reviews. Extensive searching for additional trials in prospective trial registers could reduce this problem. We have evaluated how authors of Cochrane systematic reviews currently make use of trial registers as an additional source for the identification of potentially eligible trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included 210 systematic Cochrane reviews of interventions published between 2008 and 2010 of which the protocol was first published in 2008. When prospective trial registers were searched we recorded the names of the register(s, the authors' motive(s and if they yielded any extra trials. In 80 reviews (38.1% the authors had searched in one or more prospective trial register(s of which 55% had searched in overlapping search portals and individual registers. Most frequently assessed were the MetaRegister (66.3% and Clinicaltrials.gov (60% which is in sharp contrast of other registers or portals like the WHO ICTRP Search Portal (20%. Reported motives to use registers were to identify ongoing trials (83.3%, to identify unpublished outcomes or trials (23.5%, to identify recently published trials (11.8%, or to identify any relevant trial (3.9%.In 28 reviews (35% the authors had selected (ongoing trials identified in trial registers as potentially eligible. DISCUSSION: Trial registers as an additional source of information are gaining acknowledgement amongst Cochrane reviewers. Nevertheless, searches seem to be inefficient as overlapping databases are frequently consulted, while the WHO ICTRP Search Portal that includes the data from all approved registers worldwide is being underused. Moreover, the emphasis is now on the identification of ongoing trials, although the prospective registers offer a broader potential. Further familiarity of registers and guidance how to search and to report will help to implement this as a common method

  5. Patient reported outcomes (PROs) in clinical trials: is 'in-trial' guidance lacking? a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Kyte, DG; Draper, H; Ives, J.; Liles, C; Gheorghe, A.; Calvert, M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient reported outcomes (PROs) are increasingly assessed in clinical trials, and guidelines are available to inform the design and reporting of such trials. However, researchers involved in PRO data collection report that specific guidance on 'in-trial' activity (recruitment, data collection and data inputting) and the management of 'concerning' PRO data (i.e., data which raises concern for the well-being of the trial participant) appears to be lacking. The purpose of this revie...

  6. Acute cough | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated Acute cough Akuter Husten E.1.1.1Medical condition in easily understood language Acu...igation E.1.2Version 17.1 E.1.2Level LLT E.1.2Classification code 10066522 E.1.2Term Acute cough E.1.2System...igible for inclusion in this trial must fulfill all of the following criteria:1. Acute cough with symptoms l...based on medical history and physical examination7. CS score of at least 50 mm on a 100 mm VAS at V1 8. Acute...te cough Akuter Husten E.1.1.2Therapeutic area Diseases [C] - Respiratory Tract Dis

  7. Type 2 diabetes mellitus | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .2 Objective of the trial E.2.1Main objective of the trial The purpose of this trial is to demonstrate that dextromethorphan...– IMP) before and during an OGTT- For dextromethorphan: to assess whether a dose-dependency of PD exists-To

  8. Increasing recruitment to randomised trials: a review of randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgerson David J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor recruitment to randomised controlled trials (RCTs is a widespread and important problem. With poor recruitment being such an important issue with respect to the conduct of randomised trials, a systematic review of controlled trials on recruitment methods was undertaken in order to identify strategies that are effective. Methods We searched the register of trials in Cochrane library from 1996 to end of 2004. We also searched Web of Science for 2004. Additional trials were identified from personal knowledge. Included studies had to use random allocation and participants had to be allocated to different methods of recruitment to a 'real' randomised trial. Trials that randomised participants to 'mock' trials and trials of recruitment to non-randomised studies (e.g., case control studies were excluded. Information on the study design, intervention and control, and number of patients recruited was extracted by the 2 authors. Results We identified 14 papers describing 20 different interventions. Effective interventions included: telephone reminders; questionnaire inclusion; monetary incentives; using an 'open' rather than placebo design; and making trial materials culturally sensitive. Conclusion Few trials have been undertaken to test interventions to improve trial recruitment. There is an urgent need for more RCTs of recruitment strategies.

  9. A Public Trial De Novo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Jane Bjørn; Gad, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the concept of “industrial interests” and examines its role in a topical controversy about a large research grant from a private foundation, the Novo Nordisk Foundation, to the University of Copenhagen. The authors suggest that the debate took the form of a “public trial......” where the grant and close(r) intermingling between industry and public research was prosecuted and defended. First, the authors address how the grant was framed in the media. Second, they redescribe the case by introducing new “evidence” that, because of this framing, did not reach “the court.......” The article ends with a discussion of some implications of the analysis, including that policy making, academic research, and public debates might benefit from more detailed accounts of interests and stakes....

  10. Alien wavelength modeling tool and field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambo, N.; Sgambelluri, A.; Secondini, M.

    2015-01-01

    A modeling tool is presented for pre-FEC BER estimation of PM-QPSK alien wavelength signals. A field trial is demonstrated and used as validation of the tool's correctness. A very close correspondence between the performance of the field trial and the one predicted by the modeling tool has been...

  11. International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The mission of the WHO Intemational Clinical Trials Registry Platform is to ensure that a complete view of research is accessible to all those involved in health care decision making.This will improve research transparency and will ultimately strengthen tha validity and value of the scientific evidence base.The registration of all interventional trials is a scientific, ethical and moral responsibility.

  12. National Lung Screening Trial Results: Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 4, 2010, the NLST reported initial trial results, showing 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT (also known as spiral CT) compared to those who got screened with chest X-rays.

  13. Blinded trials taken to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  14. The design of cluster randomized crossover trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, C.; Moerbeek, M.

    2011-01-01

    The inefficiency induced by between-cluster variation in cluster randomized (CR) trials can be reduced by implementing a crossover (CO) design. In a simple CO trial, each subject receives each treatment in random order. A powerful characteristic of this design is that each subject serves as its own

  15. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  16. Clinical Trials and the Role of the Oncology Clinical Trials Nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Elizabeth A; Royce, Cheryl

    2017-03-01

    Clinical trials are paramount to improving human health. New trial designs and informed consent issues are emerging as a result of genomic profiling and the development of molecularly targeted agents. Many groups and individuals are responsible for ensuring the protection of research participants and the quality of the data produced. The specialty role of the clinical trials nurse (CTN) is critical to clinical trials. Oncology CTNs have competencies that can help guide their practice; however, not all oncology clinical trials are supervised by a nurse. Using the process of engagement, one organization has restructured oncology CTNs under a nurse-supervised model.

  17. Why are clinical trials necessary in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Poongothai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials are emerging as an important activity in India as it is an essential component of the drug discovery and development program to which India is committed. The only robust way to evaluate a new medicine is by doing properly designed clinical trials. In addition to advancing science, clinical trials offer myriad benefits to the participants. The recent hue that created in India about clinical trials is probably an exaggeration of facts. However, these points to the need for ensuring proper compliance with the regulatory norms and proper training of concerned personnel in good clinical practice (GCP. This will ensure that India continues to reap the benefits of clinical trials and also become a world leader in this field.

  18. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David; Roberts, Ian; Elbourne, Diana R; Shakur, Haleema; Knight, Rosemary C; Garcia, Jo; Snowdon, Claire; Entwistle, Vikki A; McDonald, Alison M; Grant, Adrian M; Campbell, Marion K

    2007-11-20

    Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in - hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.

  19. Paperless clinical trials: Myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandeep K.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to expedite the time-to-market for new drugs and to make the approval process simpler. But clinical trials are a complex process and the increased complexity leads to decreased efficiency. Hence, pharmaceutical organizations want to move toward a more technology-driven clinical trial process for recording, analyzing, reporting, archiving, etc., In recent times, the progress has certainly been made in developing paperless systems that improve data capture and management. The adaptation of paperless processes may require major changes to existing procedures. But this is in the best interests of these organizations to remain competitive because a paperless clinical trial would lead to a consistent and streamlined framework. Moreover, all major regulatory authorities also advocate adoption of paperless trial. But challenges still remain toward implementation of paperless clinical trial process. PMID:26288464

  20. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick I Okonta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.

  1. Paperless clinical trials: Myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to expedite the time-to-market for new drugs and to make the approval process simpler. But clinical trials are a complex process and the increased complexity leads to decreased efficiency. Hence, pharmaceutical organizations want to move toward a more technology-driven clinical trial process for recording, analyzing, reporting, archiving, etc., In recent times, the progress has certainly been made in developing paperless systems that improve data capture and management. The adaptation of paperless processes may require major changes to existing procedures. But this is in the best interests of these organizations to remain competitive because a paperless clinical trial would lead to a consistent and streamlined framework. Moreover, all major regulatory authorities also advocate adoption of paperless trial. But challenges still remain toward implementation of paperless clinical trial process.

  2. Paperless clinical trials: Myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandeep K

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to expedite the time-to-market for new drugs and to make the approval process simpler. But clinical trials are a complex process and the increased complexity leads to decreased efficiency. Hence, pharmaceutical organizations want to move toward a more technology-driven clinical trial process for recording, analyzing, reporting, archiving, etc., In recent times, the progress has certainly been made in developing paperless systems that improve data capture and management. The adaptation of paperless processes may require major changes to existing procedures. But this is in the best interests of these organizations to remain competitive because a paperless clinical trial would lead to a consistent and streamlined framework. Moreover, all major regulatory authorities also advocate adoption of paperless trial. But challenges still remain toward implementation of paperless clinical trial process.

  3. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonta, Patrick I

    2014-05-01

    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.

  4. Methodological issues in negative symptom trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Stephen R; Daniel, David G; Alphs, Larry; Awad, A George; Keefe, Richard S E

    2011-03-01

    Individuals from academia, the pharmaceutical industry, and the US Food and Drug Administration used a workshop format to discuss important methodological issues in the design of trials of pharmacological agents for improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The issues addressed included the need for a coprimary functional measure for registration trials; the characteristics of individuals who should enter negative symptom trials; the optimal duration for a proof-of-concept or registration trial; the optimal design of a study of a broad-spectrum agent that treats both positive and negative symptoms or a co-medication that is added to an antipsychotic; the relative strengths and weaknesses of available instruments for measuring negative symptoms; the definition of clinically meaningful improvement for these trials; and whether drugs can be approved for a subdomain of negative symptoms.

  5. Automated information extraction of key trial design elements from clinical trial publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Berry; Carini, Simona; Kiritchenko, Svetlana; Martin, Joel; Sim, Ida

    2008-11-06

    Clinical trials are one of the most valuable sources of scientific evidence for improving the practice of medicine. The Trial Bank project aims to improve structured access to trial findings by including formalized trial information into a knowledge base. Manually extracting trial information from published articles is costly, but automated information extraction techniques can assist. The current study highlights a single architecture to extract a wide array of information elements from full-text publications of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). This architecture combines a text classifier with a weak regular expression matcher. We tested this two-stage architecture on 88 RCT reports from 5 leading medical journals, extracting 23 elements of key trial information such as eligibility rules, sample size, intervention, and outcome names. Results prove this to be a promising avenue to help critical appraisers, systematic reviewers, and curators quickly identify key information elements in published RCT articles.

  6. Clinical Trials: Information and Options for People with Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Clinical Trials: Information and Options for People with Mood Disorders What are clinical trials? Clinical trials are research studies involving people, which ...

  7. Clinical Trials | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Clinical Trials Clinical Trials, A Healthier Future for All Past Issues / Fall ... in was reviewed by an IRB. Find a Clinical Trial Near You Health research takes place at hospitals, ...

  8. Biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored global clinical trials in emerging countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarenga, Lenio Souza; Martins, Elisabeth Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    .... Proportions of sites in each country were compared among emerging countries. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate whether trial placement in Brazil could be predicted by trial location in other countries and/or by trial features...

  9. Transnational Cooperation in Criminal Matters and the Guarantee of a Fair Trial: Approaches to a General Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Gless

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The right to a fair trial has grown in importance over the past few decades as criminal procedures and human rights law have aligned themselves more and more closely. A core aspect of our current European understanding of a ‘fair criminal trial’ is the so-called ‘equality of arms’, which requires that each party be given a reasonable opportunity to present his case under conditions that do not place him at a substantial disadvantage vis-à-vis his opponent. In cases which affect more than one jurisdiction – either because an alleged crime causes damage in different countries, evidence is located abroad or for some other reason – the accused and his defence lawyer may be left without any such a guarantee in the legal ‘black hole’ between the protections that are normally offered by each of the jurisdictions involved, albeit separately.The situation is not one of a dramatic alteration of legal frameworks; instead, it is the small encroachments caused by transnational cooperation that matter and which can be summed up on the basis that domestic and foreign prosecution authorities have, effectively, closed the circuit between them. These authorities are now embedded in formal networks which would have, for instance, the possibility to forum shop (i.e. to choose the ‘best place’ to prosecute. The emerging EU legal framework that has been built on mutual recognition and installing new central agencies has added to the problems faced by the defence. Moreover, the existing legal regimes designed to protect do not grant ‘equality of arms’ in the space between jurisdictions: national law usually provides few answers and international law, including the likes of the ECHR or the EU Charter on Fundamental Rights, do not offer many solutions, either.This article therefore argues that an aspiring ‘right to a fair trial’ or, rather, an entitlement to equality of arms as a general principle of transnational criminal justice that would

  10. Transnational Cooperation in Criminal Matters and the Guarantee of a Fair Trial: Approaches to a General Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Gless

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The right to a fair trial has grown in importance over the past few decades as criminal procedures and human rights law have aligned themselves more and more closely. A core aspect of our current European understanding of a ‘fair criminal trial’ is the so-called ‘equality of arms’, which requires that each party be given a reasonable opportunity to present his case under conditions that do not place him at a substantial disadvantage vis-à-vis his opponent. In cases which affect more than one jurisdiction – either because an alleged crime causes damage in different countries, evidence is located abroad or for some other reason – the accused and his defence lawyer may be left without any such a guarantee in the legal ‘black hole’ between the protections that are normally offered by each of the jurisdictions involved, albeit separately.The situation is not one of a dramatic alteration of legal frameworks; instead, it is the small encroachments caused by transnational cooperation that matter and which can be summed up on the basis that domestic and foreign prosecution authorities have, effectively, closed the circuit between them. These authorities are now embedded in formal networks which would have, for instance, the possibility to forum shop (i.e. to choose the ‘best place’ to prosecute. The emerging EU legal framework that has been built on mutual recognition and installing new central agencies has added to the problems faced by the defence. Moreover, the existing legal regimes designed to protect do not grant ‘equality of arms’ in the space between jurisdictions: national law usually provides few answers and international law, including the likes of the ECHR or the EU Charter on Fundamental Rights, do not offer many solutions, either.This article therefore argues that an aspiring ‘right to a fair trial’ or, rather, an entitlement to equality of arms as a general principle of transnational criminal justice that would

  11. Characteristics of pediatric pulmonary hypertension trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awerbach, Jordan D; Krasuski, Richard A; Hill, Kevin D

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH) drugs has been identified as a high priority by the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). Studying pediatric PH is challenging due to the rare and heterogeneous nature of the disease. We sought to define the pediatric PH clinical trials landscape, to evaluate areas of trial success or failure, and to identify potential obstacles to the study of pediatric PH drugs. Interventional pediatric (ages 0-17 years) PH trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov from June 2005 through December 2014 were analyzed. There were 45 pediatric PH trials registered during the study period. Median (IQR) projected trial enrollment was 40 (24-63), with seven trials (16%) targeting > 100 participants. Industry was the most common trial sponsor (n = 23, 50%), with only two (4.4%) NIH-sponsored trials. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors were the most frequently studied drug (n = 18, 39%). Single group study designs were used in 44% (n = 20) with an active comparator (parallel, factorial, or cross-over designs) in 25 trials, including 22 with randomization and ten that were double-blinded. Study outcomes varied markedly with inconsistent use of known surrogate and composite endpoints. One-third of trials (n = 15, 33%) were terminated, predominantly due to poor participant enrollment. Of the 17 completed trials, 11 had published results and only three efficacy trials met their primary endpoint. There are unique challenges to drug development in pediatric PH, including enrolling patients, identifying appropriate study endpoints, and conducting randomized, controlled, double-blind trials where the likelihood of meeting the study endpoint is optimized.

  12. Characteristics of clinical trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califf, Robert M; Zarin, Deborah A; Kramer, Judith M; Sherman, Rachel E; Aberle, Laura H; Tasneem, Asba

    2012-05-02

    Recent reports highlight gaps between guidelines-based treatment recommendations and evidence from clinical trials that supports those recommendations. Strengthened reporting requirements for studies registered with ClinicalTrials.gov enable a comprehensive evaluation of the national trials portfolio. To examine fundamental characteristics of interventional clinical trials registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov database. A data set comprising 96,346 clinical studies from ClinicalTrials.gov was downloaded on September 27, 2010, and entered into a relational database to analyze aggregate data. Interventional trials were identified and analyses were focused on 3 clinical specialties-cardiovascular, mental health, and oncology-that together encompass the largest number of disability-adjusted life-years lost in the United States. Characteristics of registered clinical trials as reported data elements in the trial registry; how those characteristics have changed over time; differences in characteristics as a function of clinical specialty; and factors associated with use of randomization, blinding, and data monitoring committees (DMCs). The number of registered interventional clinical trials increased from 28,881 (October 2004-September 2007) to 40,970 (October 2007-September 2010), and the number of missing data elements has generally declined. Most interventional trials registered between 2007 and 2010 were small, with 62% enrolling 100 or fewer participants. Many clinical trials were single-center (66%; 24,788/37,520) and funded by organizations other than industry or the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (47%; 17,592/37,520). Heterogeneity in the reported methods by clinical specialty; sponsor type; and the reported use of DMCs, randomization, and blinding was evident. For example, reported use of DMCs was less common in industry-sponsored vs NIH-sponsored trials (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.11; 95% CI, 0.09-0.14), earlier-phase vs phase 3 trials (adjusted OR, 0

  13. Disclosure of investigators' recruitment performance in multicenter clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Moher, David; Gluud, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Rafael Dal-Ré and colleagues argue that the recruitment targets and performance of all site investigators in multi-centre clinical trials should be disclosed in trial registration sites before a trial starts, and when it ends.......Rafael Dal-Ré and colleagues argue that the recruitment targets and performance of all site investigators in multi-centre clinical trials should be disclosed in trial registration sites before a trial starts, and when it ends....

  14. Clinical trial registration in oral health journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaïl-Faugeron, V; Fron-Chabouis, H; Durieux, P

    2015-03-01

    Prospective registration of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) represents the best solution to reporting bias. The extent to which oral health journals have endorsed and complied with RCT registration is unknown. We identified journals publishing RCTs in dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine in the Journal Citation Reports. We classified journals into 3 groups: journals requiring or recommending trial registration, journals referring indirectly to registration, and journals providing no reference to registration. For the 5 journals with the highest 2012 impact factors in each group, we assessed whether RCTs with results published in 2013 had been registered. Of 78 journals examined, 32 (41%) required or recommended trial registration, 19 (24%) referred indirectly to registration, and 27 (35%) provided no reference to registration. We identified 317 RCTs with results published in the 15 selected journals in 2013. Overall, 73 (23%) were registered in a trial registry. Among those, 91% were registered retrospectively and 32% did not report trial registration in the published article. The proportion of trials registered was not significantly associated with editorial policies: 29% with results in journals that required or recommended registration, 15% in those that referred indirectly to registration, and 21% in those providing no reference to registration (P = 0.05). Less than one-quarter of RCTs with results published in a sample of oral health journals were registered with a public registry. Improvements are needed with respect to how journals inform and require their authors to register their trials.

  15. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Grignolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI is a public-private partnership created in 2007 between the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA and Duke University for the purpose of identifying practices that will increase the quality and efficiency of clinical trials. The initiative was generated from the realization that the clinical trials system in the United States has been suffering as a result of increasingly longer study start-up times, slowing enrollment of patients into trials, increasing clinical trial costs, and declining investigator interest in participating in clinical trials. Although CTTI was created to address a crisis for US clinical research, it seeks to identify practice improvements that can be applied internationally, and is therefore engaging international collaborators with international efforts that have similar objectives. CTTI's approach is to involve all sectors in the selection, conduct, and interpretation of its projects; to keep the dialogue open across sectors; to provide evidence that can influence regulatory guidance, and to attempt to create a "level playing field" when recommending change. The hope is that a broad and diverse data-driven discussion of the important issues in clinical trials will lead to meaningful change for the benefit of all concerned, and importantly for patients.

  16. Justifying clinical trials for porcine islet xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Cara E; Korbutt, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Edmonton Protocol encouraged a great deal of optimism that a cell-based cure for type I diabetes could be achieved. However, donor organ shortages prevent islet transplantation from being a widespread solution as the supply cannot possibly equal the demand. Porcine islet xenotransplantation has the potential to address these shortages, and recent preclinical and clinical trials show promising scientific support. Consequently, it is important to consider whether the current science meets the ethical requirements for moving toward clinical trials. Despite the potential risks and the scientific unknowns that remain to be investigated, there is optimism regarding the xenotransplantation of some types of tissue, and enough evidence has been gathered to ethically justify clinical trials for the most safe and advanced area of research, porcine islet transplantation. Researchers must make a concerted effort to maintain a positive image for xenotransplantation, as a few well-publicized failed trials could irrevocably damage public perception of xenotransplantation. Because all of society carries the burden of risk, it is important that the public be involved in the decision to proceed. As new information from preclinical and clinical trials develops, policy decisions should be frequently updated. If at any point evidence shows that islet xenotransplantation is unsafe, then clinical trials will no longer be justified and they should be halted. However, as of now, the expected benefit of an unlimited supply of islets, combined with adequate informed consent, justifies clinical trials for islet xenotransplantation.

  17. The clinically-integrated randomized trial: proposed novel method for conducting large trials at low cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scardino Peter T

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Randomized controlled trials provide the best method of determining which of two comparable treatments is preferable. Unfortunately, contemporary randomized trials have become increasingly expensive, complex and burdened by regulation, so much so that many trials are of doubtful feasibility. Discussion Here we present a proposal for a novel, streamlined approach to randomized trials: the "clinically-integrated randomized trial". The key aspect of our methodology is that the clinical experience of the patient and doctor is virtually indistinguishable whether or not the patient is randomized, primarily because outcome data are obtained from routine clinical data, or from short, web-based questionnaires. Integration of a randomized trial into routine clinical practice also implies that there should be an attempt to randomize every patient, a corollary of which is that eligibility criteria are minimized. The similar clinical experience of patients on- and off-study also entails that the marginal cost of putting an additional patient on trial is negligible. We propose examples of how the clinically-integrated randomized trial might be applied in four distinct areas of medicine: comparisons of surgical techniques, "me too" drugs, rare diseases and lifestyle interventions. Barriers to implementing clinically-integrated randomized trials are discussed. Conclusion The proposed clinically-integrated randomized trial may allow us to enlarge dramatically the number of clinical questions that can be addressed by randomization.

  18. Pragmatic design in randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgato, M; Barbui, C; Stroup, S; Adams, C

    2015-01-01

    At more than 10 years after the paper by Hotopf and colleagues regarding pragmatic trials in psychiatry, the field has evolved and is evolving further. There have been many developments in our understanding of what pragmatism really means, and excellent examples of truly pragmatic trials in psychiatry are currently available. Funders have helped encourage more emphasis on the need for such studies, but 'local' and trans-national regulations could help more. Consumers of the evidence should have a greater voice in generating the research agenda and, as this happens, the questions generated are more likely to be answered by a pragmatic approach to trials.

  19. Lessons Learned from Radiation Oncology Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fei-Fei; Okunieff, Paul; Bernhard, Eric J.; Stone, Helen B.; Yoo, Stephen; Coleman, C. Norman; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Brown, Martin; Buatti, John; Guha, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    A Workshop entitled “Lessons Learned from Radiation Oncology Trials” was held on December 7–8th, 2011 in Bethesda, MD, to present and discuss some of the recently conducted Radiation Oncology clinical trials with a focus on those that failed to refute the null hypothesis. The objectives of this Workshop were to summarize and examine the questions that these trials provoked, to assess the quality and limitations of the pre-clinical data that supported the hypotheses underlying these trials, an...

  20. Analysis of the third field trial

    OpenAIRE

    Alabau, Vicent; Carl, Michael; Martínez, García, G.; González-Rubio, Jesús; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé; Ortiz-Martínez, Daniel; Rodrigues,Sofia; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    In this work package, we evaluate the CasMaCat workbench in eld trials to study the use of the workbench in a real-world environment. We have also integrated the workbench into community translation platforms and collected user activity data from both eld trials and volunteer translators interacting with the workbench. This Deliverable covers Task 6.1 and 6.2. Task 6.1: Third eld trial at a translation agency (Celer Soluciones SL in Madrid) to evaluate the CasMaCat work...

  1. Analysis of the second Field trial

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias, Eva Marcos; Pellegrino, Massimiliano; Carl, Michael; García-Martínez, Mercedes; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé; Underwood, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In this work package, we evaluate the CasMaCat workbench in eld trials to study the use of the workbench in a real-world environment. We will also integrate the workbench into com- munity translation platforms and collect user activity data from both eld trials and volunteer translators. This Deliverable covers Tasks 6.1 and 6.2. Task 6.1: Three eld trials at a translation agency (Celer Soluciones SL)to evaluate the CasMaCat workbench in a real-world professional translat...

  2. Provenance trials of larch in Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milyutin, L.I. [V.N. Sukachev Inst. of Forest SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Some results of provenance trials of larch in Siberia are given. These provenance trials were established in the last thirty years by efforts of V.N. Sukaczev Inst. of Forest. Provenances and species of larch were tested in some field trials distributed over Siberia between Lat. N 52 deg and 66 deg, Long. E 88 deg and 113 deg: near Krasnoyarsk, in Republic Khakasia (an altitudes of 800 and 1200 metres), in the Lower Yenisei near Turukhansk, in the west and south regions of Krasnoyarsk territory, in the Upper Lena, near Chita. 2 refs

  3. Function: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakuri Seyed Kazem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention of pulmonary complications after coronary artery bypass graft is attended as a very important issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of pulmonary rehabilitation before surgery for reducing the risk of pulmonary complications after surgery. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 60 patients undergoing heart surgery were randomly divided into two groups A and B. Chest physiotherapy was performed before and after surgery on group A patients however it was done on group B’s, only after surgery. Effects of preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation were compared between two groups, using spirometry and arterial blood gas (ABG. Results: Thirty nine males (65% and 21 females (35% with mean age of 8.10 ± 9.56 were analyzed.The mean differences were statistically significant for predicted forced vital capacity (FVC (CI95%:1.3 to 8.7 and Predicted Peak Flow indices (PEF (CI 95%: 1.9 to 9.4 of spirometry indicator,PCO2 index (of ABG parameter (CI 95%: 1.4 to 8.9 and mean oxygen saturation (mean Spo2 (CI 95%: 0.6 to 1.7 of ABG index in two groups. Conclusion: The performance of pulmonary rehabilitation program before surgery is recommended, as it may result in the reduction of complications of heart surgery.

  4. Recruitment to randomised trials: strategies for trial enrollment and participation study. The STEPS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M K; Snowdon, C; Francis, D; Elbourne, D; McDonald, A M; Knight, R; Entwistle, V; Garcia, J; Roberts, I; Grant, A; Grant, A

    2007-11-01

    To identify factors associated with good and poor recruitment to multicentre trials. Part A: database of trials started in or after 1994 and were due to end before 2003 held by the Medical Research Council and Health Technology Assessment Programmes. Part B: interviews with people playing a wide range of roles within four trials that their funders identified as 'exemplars'. Part C: a large multicentre trial (the CRASH trial) of treatment for head injury. The study used a number of different perspectives ('multiple lenses'), and three components. Part A: an epidemiological review of a cohort of trials. Part B: case studies of trials that appeared to have particularly interesting lessons for recruitment. Part C: a single, in-depth case study to examine the feasibility of applying a business-orientated analytical framework as a reference model in future trials. In the 114 trials found in Part A, less than one-third recruited their original target within the time originally specified, and around one-third had extensions. Factors observed more often in trials that recruited successfully were: having a dedicated trial manager, being a cancer or drug trial, and having interventions only available inside the trial. The most commonly reported strategies to improve recruitment were newsletters and mailshots, but it was not possible to assess whether they were causally linked to changes in recruitment. The analyses in Part B suggested that successful trials were those addressing clinically important questions at a timely point. The investigators were held in high esteem by the interviewees, and the trials were firmly grounded in existing clinical practices, so that the trial processes were not alien to clinical collaborators, and the results could be easily applicable to future practice. The interviewees considered that the needs of patients were well served by participation in the trials. Clinical collaborators particularly appreciated clear delineation of roles, which

  5. Federal cabinet minister from N.B joins opponents to LNG terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.

    2005-08-25

    This article addressed the debate regarding the United States' proposal to construct liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities on a pristine bay between New Brunswick and Maine. Two LNG projects are currently being promoted for Passamaquoddy Bay, and 2 more proposals are expected to be announced in the near future. However, the proponents have not yet submitted any formal applications to the Canadian government. A federal cabinet minister from New Brunswick has joined the growing opposition to the proposed project, claiming that the location on the Maine side of Passamaquoddy Bay, a large inlet off the Bay of Fundy, poses too many risks to the habitat of several endangered or at-risk species, including the North Atlantic Right Whale. The proposed sites in Maine are directly across a narrow bay where tourism and fishing are prime industries in New Brunswick. The cabinet minister claims that with over 2,000 miles of coastline on the eastern seaboard, another location can be found for the LNG facilities that would not present navigational difficulties. The Canadian federal government has the jurisdiction to stop the project by not allowing the supertankers to cross Canadian waters to enter the Bay. The waters are known for their treacherous navigation. The premier of New Brunswick has also stepped in to ensure that the governor of Maine is made aware of Canada's opposition to the project. Officials with Downeast LNG and Quoddy Bay LLC claim there would not be any safety or environmental risks associated with the LNG project.

  6. Political violence in russia of putin. what happened to political opponents of vladimir putin?

    OpenAIRE

    Boersner Herrera, Adriana M.

    2009-01-01

    Vladimir Putin desde que llegara al poder en el año 2000, ha formado un petroestado, sustentado en las riquezas del petróleo, a la par que ha fortalecido un aparato burocrático de nuevos industriales y de una nueva clase económica. La democracia dirigida rusa, como se ha catalogado, no es más que una insinuación de un sistema político que oculta una dictadura, dado que el monopolio del poder político está en manos de un solo partido- Rusia Unida- dejando sin tregua a los partidos políticos di...

  7. How to Trick Your Opponent: A Review Article on Deceptive Actions in Interactive Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Güldenpenning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Performing deceptive actions is a wide-spread phenomenon in sports and it is of considerable practical relevance to know whether or not a fake or a disguised action decreases the opponents’ performance. Therefore, research on deceptive actions for various sport disciplines (e.g., cricket, rugby, martial arts, soccer, and basketball has been conducted. This research is scattered, both across time and scientific disciplines. Here, we aim to systematically review the empirical work on deceptive actions in interactive sports and want to give an overview about several issues investigated in the last decades. Three main topics of the detected literature were discussed here: (1 the role of expertise for the recognition of deceptive actions, (2 the cognitive mechanisms underlying the processing of deceptive actions, and (3 the pros and cons of in situ research designs. None of these themes seems to be settled and therefore, they should be considered in future research agendas.

  8. Einstein's opponents the public controversy about the theory of relativity in the 1920s

    CERN Document Server

    Wazeck, Milena

    2014-01-01

    This detailed account of the controversy surrounding the publication of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity explores the ferocious popular and academic opposition which at one time encircled one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the twentieth century. Based on extensive archival research, this fascinating discourse includes a compelling and entertaining examination of the contemporary literature created by Einstein's detractors. Exploring the arguments and strategies, social contexts, and motivations of Einstein's detractors, and providing unique insights into the dynamics of scientific controversies, this book is ideal for anyone interested in the history and philosophy of physics, popular science, and the public understanding of science.

  9. Thinking About Opponent Behavior in Crisis and Conflict: A Generic Model for Analysis and Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    relevant strategies will have been surfaced and considered, and that "the gameboard " will be understood. Cufturo-Free Structure Our framework is intended...the gameboard . 21 Identifying Key Variables and Developing Hierarchies The next step is to identify and name key variables (which some may think of as

  10. They shoot horses, don't they? How valid are the arguments of opponents against euthanasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Willem H J

    2009-12-01

    In this article the arguments against euthanasia are examined. One of the weightiest arguments of mental health professionals against the practice of euthanasia is that a doctor's active commitment to euthanasia can be interpreted as causing harm. It is investigated whether this statement can be ethically justified on the basis of the text of the medical oath or medical declaration. Furthermore, it will be discussed whether it is ethically acceptable when doctors refuse a) to help candidates of euthanasia who (would likely) meet the legal standards of euthanasia, or b) to refer them to a colleague.

  11. Potential Opponent for 18FDG: Gd3+-DTPA-DG: A New Synthetic MRI Contrast Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Glucose mediated imaging tools have recently be-come an area of research interest in the field of nuclear medicine, especially Positron Emission Tomography (PET imaging. The difficulties in the use, preparation and cost of radioactively-labeled glycosylated compounds led to the research and development in this present study of a new gadolinium-labeled glucose that does not have a radioactive half-life or difficulties in its synthesis and utilization. Based on the structure of fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG, a new compound consisting of a D-glucose conjugated to a well-known chelator DTPA was synthesized, labeled with Gd3+ and examined in vitro and in vivo. The results showed a good anti-cancer potency for the prepared complex. Gd3+ -DTPA-DG did not produce any significant alteration in the blood glucose level and was also phosphorylated by hexokinase enzyme. In vitro relaxation times T1 and T2 were determined and compared with a standard compound Magnevist®. Finally, imaging studies were performed in tumor-bearing mice and the tumor areas were shown successfully. This compound may have great potential in the future in radio-oncology.

  12. Foveal and peripheral fields of vision influences perceptual skill in anticipating opponents' attacking position in volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, Jörg; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Fischer, Lennart; Baker, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    The importance of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport has been repeatedly demonstrated. In this study we examined the role of different sources of visual information (i.e., foveal versus peripheral) in anticipating volleyball attack positions. Expert (n = 11), advanced (n = 13) and novice (n = 16) players completed an anticipation task that involved predicting the location of volleyball attacks. Video clips of volleyball attacks (n = 72) were spatially and temporally occluded to provide varying amounts of information to the participant. In addition, participants viewed the attacks under three visual conditions: full vision, foveal vision only, and peripheral vision only. Analysis of variance revealed significant between group differences in prediction accuracy with higher skilled players performing better than lower skilled players. Additionally, we found significant differences between temporal and spatial occlusion conditions. Both of those factors interacted separately, but not combined with expertise. Importantly, for experts the sum of both fields of vision was superior to either source in isolation. Our results suggest different sources of visual information work collectively to facilitate expert anticipation in time-constrained sports and reinforce the complexity of expert perception.

  13. Implementation of preventive interventions – what are the contextual co-players and opponents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe

    are lack of time for the intervention, change history in the organization, and that the intervention goals are not linked to the company’s KPIs (Ipsen et al., 2014). Some of the promoting factors will inevitably be inhibiting when they are absent, but we do not know how lack of management support manifest...

  14. The effect of diet and opponent size on aggressive interactions involving caribbean crazy ants (Nylanderia fulva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Katherine C; Eubanks, Micky D; Siemann, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Biotic interactions are often important in the establishment and spread of invasive species. In particular, competition between introduced and native species can strongly influence the distribution and spread of exotic species and in some cases competition among introduced species can be important. The Caribbean crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva, was recently introduced to the Gulf Coast of Texas, and appears to be spreading inland. It has been hypothesized that competition with the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, may be an important factor in the spread of crazy ants. We investigated the potential of interspecific competition among these two introduced ants by measuring interspecific aggression between Caribbean crazy ant workers and workers of Solenopsis invicta. Specifically, we examined the effect of body size and diet on individual-level aggressive interactions among crazy ant workers and fire ants. We found that differences in diet did not alter interactions between crazy ant workers from different nests, but carbohydrate level did play an important role in antagonistic interactions with fire ants: crazy ants on low sugar diets were more aggressive and less likely to be killed in aggressive encounters with fire ants. We found that large fire ants engaged in fewer fights with crazy ants than small fire ants, but fire ant size affected neither fire ant nor crazy ant mortality. Overall, crazy ants experienced higher mortality than fire ants after aggressive encounters. Our findings suggest that fire ant workers might outcompete crazy ant workers on an individual level, providing some biotic resistance to crazy ant range expansion. However, this resistance may be overcome by crazy ants that have a restricted sugar intake, which may occur when crazy ants are excluded from resources by fire ants.

  15. Why do anthropogenic global warming skeptics have poorer scientific credentials than their opponents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, N. L.

    2010-12-01

    A paper published in PNAS (1) analyzed the scientific credentials of two groups of activist scientists. The unconvinced by the evidence group included ~500 scientists and technologists who signed various public documents protesting against various aspects of programs to prevent or mitigate anthropogenic global warming. The convinced by the evidence group (~1200 persons) signed public appeals to implement programs to prevent or mitigate AGW. Scientific credentials were measured by publications and citations. The unspoken message of the paper is that we should have confidence in the canonical program of climate change as outlined by, for example, the IPCC, because those who support the program have better scientific credentials than those that don’t. One of the authors of the paper, James Prall, made available on his website lists of several thousand persons, mostly scientists and technologists, who are in one group or the other. The lists include considerable detail, such as publications, citations and education that relates to scientific qualifications. Using Prall’s lists and relevant anecdotal statements by prominent advocates on both sides of the issue I suggest an alternate reason for the disparity in scientific credentials. The PNAS paper in testing scientific credentials counted the number of publications and citations in the area of climate science. There is a certain circularity in using such a test because persons who are professionally employed as climate scientists will naturally have many publications and citations - that is their professional goal. Professional employment in climate science implies adherence to group standards and to some extent beliefs. To give an analogy, if you are a professional freudian psychoanalyst you can’t say that Freud is a crackpot and retain your professional standing. I’m not saying that climate scientists are crackpots, but that there is surely some sort of shared belief and value system whether or not it is formerly acknowledged. There are lines that one must not cross. The relevant question is, are well qualified and professionally employed climate scientists not skeptics because their superior knowledge gives them insight to the science or are they not skeptics because that is a line they cannot cross? A remarkable disparity in Prall’s lists gives a clue to the answer. Early career scientists are highly dependent on group approval. They are canaries in the coal mine if you like. Looking at the early career scientists on both sides of the issue in Prall’s lists casts light on the answer to the relevant question posed above. (1) Expert credibility in climate change William R. L. Anderegg, James W. Prall, Jacob Harold, and Stephen H. Schneider. PNAS Early Edition April 2010

  16. In the Opponent's Shoes: Increasing the Behavioral Validity of Attackers' Judgments in Counterterrorism Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Bhashyam, Sumitra; Montibeller, Gilberto

    2016-04-01

    A key objective for policymakers and analysts dealing with terrorist threats is trying to predict the actions that malicious agents may take. A recent trend in counterterrorism risk analysis is to model the terrorists' judgments, as these will guide their choices of such actions. The standard assumptions in most of these models are that terrorists are fully rational, following all the normative desiderata required for rational choices, such as having a set of constant and ordered preferences, being able to perform a cost-benefit analysis of their alternatives, among many others. However, are such assumptions reasonable from a behavioral perspective? In this article, we analyze the types of assumptions made across various counterterrorism analytical models that represent malicious agents' judgments and discuss their suitability from a descriptive point of view. We then suggest how some of these assumptions could be modified to describe terrorists' preferences more accurately, by drawing knowledge from the fields of behavioral decision research, politics, philosophy of choice, public choice, and conflict management in terrorism. Such insight, we hope, might help make the assumptions of these models more behaviorally valid for counterterrorism risk analysis.

  17. The opponent channel population code of sound location is an efficient representation of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor

    2015-05-01

    In mammalian auditory cortex, sound source position is represented by a population of broadly tuned neurons whose firing is modulated by sounds located at all positions surrounding the animal. Peaks of their tuning curves are concentrated at lateral position, while their slopes are steepest at the interaural midline, allowing for the maximum localization accuracy in that area. These experimental observations contradict initial assumptions that the auditory space is represented as a topographic cortical map. It has been suggested that a "panoramic" code has evolved to match specific demands of the sound localization task. This work provides evidence suggesting that properties of spatial auditory neurons identified experimentally follow from a general design principle- learning a sparse, efficient representation of natural stimuli. Natural binaural sounds were recorded and served as input to a hierarchical sparse-coding model. In the first layer, left and right ear sounds were separately encoded by a population of complex-valued basis functions which separated phase and amplitude. Both parameters are known to carry information relevant for spatial hearing. Monaural input converged in the second layer, which learned a joint representation of amplitude and interaural phase difference. Spatial selectivity of each second-layer unit was measured by exposing the model to natural sound sources recorded at different positions. Obtained tuning curves match well tuning characteristics of neurons in the mammalian auditory cortex. This study connects neuronal coding of the auditory space with natural stimulus statistics and generates new experimental predictions. Moreover, results presented here suggest that cortical regions with seemingly different functions may implement the same computational strategy-efficient coding.

  18. The opponent channel population code of sound location is an efficient representation of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian auditory cortex, sound source position is represented by a population of broadly tuned neurons whose firing is modulated by sounds located at all positions surrounding the animal. Peaks of their tuning curves are concentrated at lateral position, while their slopes are steepest at the interaural midline, allowing for the maximum localization accuracy in that area. These experimental observations contradict initial assumptions that the auditory space is represented as a topographic cortical map. It has been suggested that a "panoramic" code has evolved to match specific demands of the sound localization task. This work provides evidence suggesting that properties of spatial auditory neurons identified experimentally follow from a general design principle- learning a sparse, efficient representation of natural stimuli. Natural binaural sounds were recorded and served as input to a hierarchical sparse-coding model. In the first layer, left and right ear sounds were separately encoded by a population of complex-valued basis functions which separated phase and amplitude. Both parameters are known to carry information relevant for spatial hearing. Monaural input converged in the second layer, which learned a joint representation of amplitude and interaural phase difference. Spatial selectivity of each second-layer unit was measured by exposing the model to natural sound sources recorded at different positions. Obtained tuning curves match well tuning characteristics of neurons in the mammalian auditory cortex. This study connects neuronal coding of the auditory space with natural stimulus statistics and generates new experimental predictions. Moreover, results presented here suggest that cortical regions with seemingly different functions may implement the same computational strategy-efficient coding.

  19. Visual Coding of Human Bodies: Perceptual Aftereffects Reveal Norm-Based, Opponent Coding of Body Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Boeing, Alexandra; Calder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the discovery of body-selective neural areas in occipitotemporal cortex, little is known about how bodies are visually coded. We used perceptual adaptation to determine how body identity is coded. Brief exposure to a body (e.g., anti-Rose) biased perception toward an identity with opposite properties (Rose). Moreover, the size of this…

  20. [Susmann Galant (1896-1978). A Russian-Swiss supporter and opponent of Sigmund Freud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The scientific activity of this Russian psychiatrist is depicted in a short biography. His ambivalent attitude to Freud's dream theory is emphasized. At the end of his medical career he became full professor of psychiatry at Khabarovsk.

  1. Population activity changes during a trial-to-trial adaptation of bullfrog retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Xiao, Lei; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Pu-Ming; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2014-07-09

    A 'trial-to-trial adaptation' of bullfrog retinal ganglion cells in response to a repetitive light stimulus was investigated in the present study. Using the multielectrode recording technique, we studied the trial-to-trial adaptive properties of ganglion cells and explored the activity of population neurons during this adaptation process. It was found that the ganglion cells adapted with different degrees: their firing rates were decreased in different extents from early-adaptation to late-adaptation stage, and this was accompanied by a decrease in cross-correlation strength. In addition, adaptation behavior was different for ON-response and OFF-response, which implied that the mechanism of the trial-to-trial adaptation might involve bipolar cells and/or their synapses with other neurons and the stronger adaptation in the ganglion cells' OFF-responses might reflect the requirement to avoid possible saturation in the OFF circuit.

  2. Narrating the Mensalão trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Coming to a close in the last days of 2012, the trial of the so-called mensalão network was heralded as Brazil's trial of the century. Involving corruption in the top ranks of the business world and the former government, the process ended with an exceptional result in the sense that severe...... sentences were meted out to 25 of the 38 defendants, thereby breaking an established pattern of impunity for corrupt politicians in Brazilian courts. As a scandal potentially harmful for the governing party and the former president Luis “Lula” da Silva, the eyes and spotlights of the national media were...... fixed on the trial. However, the varying and contested ways in which the case was presented by media from the outbreak of the scandal in 2005 until the end of the trial bears witness to the fact that narratives concerning corruption scandals can potentially encompass a broad range of political...

  3. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...

  4. Monitoring clinical trials: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Síle F; Henley, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the processes and procedures involved in planning, conducting and reporting monitoring activities for large Clinical Trials of Investigational Medicinal Products (CTIMPs), focusing on those conducted in resource-limited settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. the infrastructure supporting hiv vaccine clinical trials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    networks, namely the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN - www.hvtn.org) and the International ... These include life skills education, sanitation, potable water supply ... and data management centre, central laboratories, a community advisory ...

  6. Citicoline for ischemic stroke: ICTUS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Anatolyevich Parfenov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data available in the literature on the use of citicoline in an experimental model of ischemic stroke (IS and in randomized multicenter placebo-controlled trials. It analyzes the results of the ICTUS trial in which 2298 patients with IS who received randomly citicoline or placebo for 24 hours after the onset of symptoms (I000 mg intravenously every I2 hours during the first 3 days, then orally as one 500-mg tablet every 12 hours during 6 weeks. The results of the trial confirmed the safety of citicoline used in IS, but failed to show its significant advantage over placebo in reducing the degree of disability (global improvement 90 days later. However, to pool the results of the ICTUS trial with those of other randomized multicenter placebo-controlled studies demonstrates a significant decrease in the degree of disability in IS patients treated with citicoline.

  7. Nutrition Intervention Trials in Linxian, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randomized controlled trials were launched in 1985 to test the effects of multiple vitamin and mineral interventions on total mortality and total and cause-specific cancer mortality in a rural Chinese population

  8. Ebola Vaccine Appears Very Effective in Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162715.html Ebola Vaccine Appears Very Effective in Trial Drug manufacturer says ... Dec. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental Ebola vaccine was highly effective against the deadly virus in ...

  9. The New Math of Clinical Trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennifer Couzin

    2004-01-01

    ... altering them as they run to take into account accumulating results. Although Bayesian designs are now widely used in everything from astrophysics to ecology, they've been slower to catch on in medical research, particularly clinical trials...

  10. Smart Technology in Lung Disease Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Nancy L; Kim, Dong-Yun; Tian, Xin

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the use of smart technology by investigators and patients to facilitate lung disease clinical trials and make them less costly and more efficient. By "smart technology" we include various electronic media, such as computer databases, the Internet, and mobile devices. We first describe the use of electronic health records for identifying potential subjects and then discuss electronic informed consent. We give several examples of using the Internet and mobile technology in clinical trials. Interventions have been delivered via the World Wide Web or via mobile devices, and both have been used to collect outcome data. We discuss examples of new electronic devices that recently have been introduced to collect health data. While use of smart technology in clinical trials is an exciting development, comparison with similar interventions applied in a conventional manner is still in its infancy. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of using this omnipresent, powerful tool in clinical trials, as well as directions for future research.

  11. Trials of electronet fencing to exclude coyotes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the trials of using electronet fencing to exclude coyotes for the protection of black-footed ferrets in Montana. Reintroduction of black-tailed...

  12. The PACT trial: PAtient Centered Telerehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stefan Rothgangel

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: Several questions concerning the study design that emerged during the preparation of this trial will be discussed. This will include how these questions were addressed and arguments for the choices that were made.

  13. The unintended consequences of clinical trials regulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D McMahon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Alex McMahon and colleagues critique the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH guidance on good clinical practice (GCP, arguing that it is having a disastrous effect on noncommerical randomized clinical trials in Europe.

  14. The unintended consequences of clinical trials regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Alex D McMahon; Conway, David I; MacDonald, Tom M; McInnes, Gordon T

    2009-01-01

    Alex McMahon and colleagues critique the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidance on good clinical practice (GCP), arguing that it is having a disastrous effect on noncommerical randomized clinical trials in Europe.

  15. Involving South Asian patients in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain-Gambles, M; Leese, B; Atkin, K; Brown, J; Mason, S; Tovey, P

    2004-10-01

    To investigate how South Asian patients conceptualise the notion of clinical trials and to identify key processes that impact on trial participation and the extent to which communication difficulties, perceptions of risk and attitudes to authority influence these decisions. Also to identify whether 'South Asian' patients are homogeneous in these issues, and which factors differ between different South Asian subgroups and finally how professionals regard the involvement of South Asian patients and their views on strategies to increase participation. A review of the literature on minority ethnic participation in clinical trials was followed by three qualitative interview studies. Interviews were taped and transcribed (and translated if required) and subjected to framework analysis. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals; 60 South Asian lay people who had not taken part in a trial and 15 South Asian trial participants. Motivations for trial participation were identified as follows: to help society, to improve own health or that of family and friends, out of obligation to the doctor and to increase scientific knowledge. Deterrents were concerns about drug side-effects, busy lifestyles, language, previous bad experiences, mistrust and feelings of not belonging to British society. There was no evidence of antipathy amongst South Asians to the concept of clinical trials and, overall, the younger respondents were more knowledgeable than the older ones. Problems are more likely to be associated with service delivery. Lack of being approached was a common response. Lay-reported factors that might affect South Asian participation in clinical trials include age, language, social class, feeling of not belonging/mistrust, culture and religion. Awareness of clinical trials varied between each group. There are more similarities than differences in attitudes towards clinical trial participation between the South Asian and the general population

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Pharmacologically active: clinical trials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-01-22

    Jan 22, 2008 ... Manufacturers Association, on the basis of a survey of its members ... from this information. The US database, on the other hand, clearly identifies 172 ... workforce involved in clinical trials outside the public sector. This figure ...

  17. Ambiguity Aversion and the Criminal Process

    OpenAIRE

    Uzi Segal; Alex Stein

    2005-01-01

    This is the first article to examine the effects of ambiguity aversion on the criminal process. Ambiguity aversion is a person’s rational attitude towards probability's indeterminacy. When a person is averse towards such ambiguities, he increases the probability of the unfavorable outcome to reflect that fear. This observation is particularly true about a criminal defendant who faces a jury trial. Neither the defendant nor the prosecution knows whether the jury will convict the defendant. The...

  18. Minority Representation in Migraine Treatment Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Nathaniel M; Bernat, James L

    2017-03-01

    Minorities have historically been underrepresented in clinical research trials despite having comparatively poor health indicators. Recognizing the dual inequalities of increased disease burden and decreased research participation, the National Institute of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act of 1993 mandated the inclusion and reporting of women and minorities in NIH-funded research. While progress has been made in the subsequent decades, this underrepresentation of minorities in research trials persists and has been documented in multiple disciplines. However, the extent of adequate representation and reporting of minority inclusion in clinical trials for migraine remains unknown. In this systematic review and study, we review the literature examining the representation of women and minorities in migraine clinical research trials METHODS: First we searched PubMed for pertinent articles examining the inclusion of women and minorities in migraine clinical research trials. Second, we identified controlled-trials for migraine published since 2011 in major neurology, headache, and general medicine journals using the terms "migraine randomized controlled trial." We then reviewed the results manually and excluded pilot studies and those with fewer than 50 participants. We next determined (a) how frequently representation of minorities and women were reported in these major trials; (b) what factors correlated with reporting; and (c) whether women and minority inclusion comprised their ratios in the general population. We identified 128 relevant clinical trials, of which 36 met our inclusion criteria. All 36 trials (100%) reported gender frequency, and 25 of 36 (69.4%) reported ethnicity or race. Among all studies, women and Whites represented 84.2 and 82.9% of participants (mean), respectively. Studies conducted in the United States and funded by a private company were more likely to report race than studies conducted exclusively outside of the U.S. or with a public sponsor

  19. Robust inference for group sequential trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Jitendra; Lin, Yunzhi; Zhou, Kefei

    2017-03-01

    For ethical reasons, group sequential trials were introduced to allow trials to stop early in the event of extreme results. Endpoints in such trials are usually mortality or irreversible morbidity. For a given endpoint, the norm is to use a single test statistic and to use that same statistic for each analysis. This approach is risky because the test statistic has to be specified before the study is unblinded, and there is loss in power if the assumptions that ensure optimality for each analysis are not met. To minimize the risk of moderate to substantial loss in power due to a suboptimal choice of a statistic, a robust method was developed for nonsequential trials. The concept is analogous to diversification of financial investments to minimize risk. The method is based on combining P values from multiple test statistics for formal inference while controlling the type I error rate at its designated value.This article evaluates the performance of 2 P value combining methods for group sequential trials. The emphasis is on time to event trials although results from less complex trials are also included. The gain or loss in power with the combination method relative to a single statistic is asymmetric in its favor. Depending on the power of each individual test, the combination method can give more power than any single test or give power that is closer to the test with the most power. The versatility of the method is that it can combine P values from different test statistics for analysis at different times. The robustness of results suggests that inference from group sequential trials can be strengthened with the use of combined tests. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0477 TITLE: Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ronald R. Bach, Ph.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0477 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...GWI). Elevated biomarkers of inflammation were observed in our pilot observational study of GWI. Thus, chronic inflammation appears to be part of

  1. The Impact of Putting Mubarak on Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On August 3,2011,83-year-old former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was put on trial,lying on a hospital bed an iron cage in a Cairo courtroom. Zhang Zhongxiang,Deputy Director of the Department of the West Asian and African Studies at the Shanghai Institutes for International Studies,believes that the Mubarak trial will not only aggravate conflict among Egyptian people, but also complicate the regional tensions and

  2. Therapeutic trials for systemic sclerosis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardana Kabir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc is complex, and the final story is yet to be elucidated. The clinical heterogeneity of the disease, its various autoimmune and antibody profiles, its long course and tendency for spontaneous cure makes the design of clinical trials difficult. The overwhelming need in this disease is to diagnose it early and identify those patients who will benefit most from early, aggressive treatment. We attempt to review data from recent clinical trials and the lessons derived.

  3. Phase 1 Trials in Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Yu; Muhammad Wasif Saif; Kathryn Huber

    2014-01-01

    Despite many clinical trials over the last two decades since the approval of gemcitabine, the survival of patients with pancreatic cancer has improved by a few only months. This disappointing reality underlines an urgent need to develop more effective drugs or better combinations. A variety of phase I trials were presented at the annual meeting of ASCO 2014 focusing on locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer. We summarize four abstracts (abstracts #4116, #4123, #4026, #4138).

  4. Trial geography, pharmacogenetics, and global drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, R N; Florian, J; Charlab, R; Pacanowski, M

    2015-03-01

    Drug development is increasingly global. The benefits of multiregional trials include worldwide evaluation of safety and efficacy. However, clinical practice, environmental, and genetic factors can vary across geographic regions, significantly influencing trial outcomes within a specific geographic region or the global population relative to the United States (US). Genomic technologies and research discoveries continue to advance at a remarkable pace, offering opportunities to explore intrinsic factors that could account for regional variability in drug pharmacokinetics or response.

  5. Razors versus clippers. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tracy; Tanner, Judith

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this randomised controlled trial was to determine if patients showed a preference for preoperative hair removal with razors or clippers and to identify if one method was associated with more trauma or postoperative infections. The trial took place in a day surgery unit with patients who were having a range of surgical procedures including hernias and varicose veins. This study was sponsored by an award from the NATN/3M Clinical Fellowship.

  6. Strength of Mock-up Trial Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on samples taken and cast during the execution of a mock-up trial placement of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 on January 21, 2009.......The present report describes tests carried out on samples taken and cast during the execution of a mock-up trial placement of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 on January 21, 2009....

  7. Phase 1 Trials in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Yu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite many clinical trials over the last two decades since the approval of gemcitabine, the survival of patients with pancreatic cancer has improved by a few only months. This disappointing reality underlines an urgent need to develop more effective drugs or better combinations. A variety of phase I trials were presented at the annual meeting of ASCO 2014 focusing on locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer. We summarize four abstracts (abstracts #4116, #4123, #4026, #4138.

  8. From international to zonal trials: the origins of the Nuremberg medical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, P

    2000-01-01

    This article examines how plans to have a second International Military Tribunal led to the Medical Trial at Nuremberg. While the British opposed a second international trial because of their distrust of the Soviets, they supported a plan for a series of special zonal trials to be conducted by the American authorities at Nuremberg. In December 1945 the British became aware of the extent of medical war crimes committed by the Germans. Their investigation led to an eventual handover to the Americans of a group of German doctors for trial at Nuremberg. At the same time the British and French Supported an International Scientific Commission for the Investigation of Medical War Crimes.

  9. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341

  10. Clinical trial networks in orthopaedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, A; Jefferson, L; Baker, P; Cook, L

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to review the role of clinical trial networks in orthopaedic surgery. A total of two electronic databases (MEDLINE and EMBASE) were searched from inception to September 2013 with no language restrictions. Articles related to randomised controlled trials (RCTs), research networks and orthopaedic research, were identified and reviewed. The usefulness of trainee-led research collaborations is reported and our knowledge of current clinical trial infrastructure further supplements the review. Searching yielded 818 titles and abstracts, of which 12 were suitable for this review. Results are summarised and presented narratively under the following headings: 1) identifying clinically relevant research questions; 2) education and training; 3) conduct of multicentre RCTs and 4) dissemination and adoption of trial results. This review confirms growing international awareness of the important role research networks play in supporting trials in orthopaedic surgery. Multidisciplinary collaboration and adequate investment in trial infrastructure are crucial for successful delivery of RCTs. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:169-74. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  11. Randomized controlled trials - a matter of design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieth, Peter Markus; Kubasch, Anne Sophie; Penzlin, Ana Isabel; Illigens, Ben Min-Woo; Barlinn, Kristian; Siepmann, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the hallmark of evidence-based medicine and form the basis for translating research data into clinical practice. This review summarizes commonly applied designs and quality indicators of RCTs to provide guidance in interpreting and critically evaluating clinical research data. It further reflects on the principle of equipoise and its practical applicability to clinical science with an emphasis on critical care and neurological research. We performed a review of educational material, review articles, methodological studies, and published clinical trials using the databases MEDLINE, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The most relevant recommendations regarding design, conduction, and reporting of RCTs may include the following: 1) clinically relevant end points should be defined a priori, and an unbiased analysis and report of the study results should be warranted, 2) both significant and nonsignificant results should be objectively reported and published, 3) structured study design and performance as indicated in the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement should be employed as well as registration in a public trial database, 4) potential conflicts of interest and funding sources should be disclaimed in study report or publication, and 5) in the comparison of experimental treatment with standard care, preplanned interim analyses during an ongoing RCT can aid in maintaining clinical equipoise by assessing benefit, harm, or futility, thus allowing decision on continuation or termination of the trial.

  12. The International "Trial of the 20th Century": Nuremberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemerinsky, Erwin

    1999-01-01

    Considers the Nuremberg trials to be the "Trial of the Century." Highlights the series of 13 trials in which Nazi leaders, officials, judges, and others were tried, and most convicted, for war crimes. Relates that these trials had far-reaching effects in that they showed that moral obligations transcend national boundaries. (CMK)

  13. UK Dermatology Clinical Trials Network’s STOP GAP trial (a multicentre trial of prednisolone versus ciclosporin for pyoderma gangrenosum: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Fiona F

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG is a rare inflammatory skin disorder characterised by painful and rapidly progressing skin ulceration. PG can be extremely difficult to treat and patients often require systemic immunosuppression. Recurrent lesions of PG are common, but the relative rarity of this condition means that there is a lack of published evidence regarding its treatment. A systematic review published in 2005 found no randomised controlled trials (RCTs relating to the treatment of PG. Since this time, one small RCT has been published comparing infliximab to placebo, but none of the commonly used systemic treatments for PG have been formally assessed. The UK Dermatology Clinical Trials Network’s STOP GAP Trial has been designed to address this lack of trial evidence. Methods The objective is to assess whether oral ciclosporin is more effective than oral prednisolone for the treatment of PG. The trial design is a two-arm, observer-blind, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial comparing ciclosporin (4 mg/kg/day to prednisolone (0.75 mg/kg/day. A total of 140 participants are to be recruited over a period of 4 years, from up to 50 hospitals in the UK and Eire. Primary outcome of velocity of healing at 6 weeks is assessed blinded to treatment allocation (using digital images of the ulcers. Secondary outcomes include: (i time to healing; (ii global assessment of improvement; (iii PG inflammation assessment scale score; (iv self-reported pain; (v health-related quality of life; (vi time to recurrence; (vii treatment failures; (viii adverse reactions to study medications; and (ix cost effectiveness/utility. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of PG (excluding granulomatous PG; measurable ulceration (that is, not pustular PG; and patients aged over 18 years old who are able to give informed consent are included in the trial. Randomisation is by computer generated code using permuted blocks of randomly varying size

  14. Study of the trial subjects’ protection aspects in Phase I clinical trials and bioequivalence studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Zupanets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Protection of rights, health and well-being of persons who are taking the drug during the trial (trial subjects is one of the basic principles of clinical trials (CT management. Aim. In order to study key aspects of volunteer protection, determine factors that influence these indicators and estimate the importance of ensuring their proper implementation on the clinical site (CS three survey of 135 trial subjects were carried out to evaluate the importance of assessing the impact of factors such as the procedure of signing the informed consent (IC at the CS and testing procedures for HIV / AIDS, hepatitis and others. Assessment of the quality of life of trial subjects as indirect indicator of the quality of clinical trials that ensures the proper protection of their life was the subject of the third survey. Methods and results. The general model of the relationship between the key aspects of the trial subjects protection and the factors which are providing them during the clinical trials of drugs management was substantiated, which included the main aspects of the trial subjects’ protection, protective factors and basic CT management procedures, the impact of the above factors on the possibility of providing protection aspects depends on their implementation quality. It was found that trial subjects’ protection improvement can be achieved during the IC signing process. It is necessary to ensure a higher level of volunteers understanding of the terms that could be used in the IC form. Regarding the procedure of compulsory testing for HIV/AIDS in the course of screening, we can conclude that the majority of the trial subjects believe that this procedure is an additional factor in their health protection and do not consider it as an excessive psychological pressure on them. Conclusion. Assessing the quality of life during the bioequivalence study at the CS makes possible to reach a conclusion on general well-being and satisfaction with those

  15. Biased safety reporting in blinded randomized clinical trials: meta-analysis of angiotensin receptor blocker trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyoshi Takabayashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cough is listed as an adverse drug reaction (ADR on the labels of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB. However, a causal association with cough has also been reported for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, which have frequently been used as comparator drugs in the registration clinical trials of ARBs. This prompted us to examine the possible influence of using comparator drugs with well-known ADRs on the safety reporting of investigational drugs in blinded randomized clinical trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The double-blinded, randomized clinical trials with comparator drugs were identified in the Japanese dossiers for the new drug applications of ARBs. The risk ratios (RR of reporting cough and headache in ARB arms were calculated for each ARB by comparing trials using ACEIs and trials using non-ACEIs, were then combined with a meta-analysis. 23 trials with a total of 6643 patients were identified, consisting 6 trials using an ACEI comparator including 819 ARB patients and 17 trials using a non-ACEI comparator including 5824 ARB patients. The combined RR of cough reporting was significantly elevated (20.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.47 to 57.76, indicating more frequent reporting of cough in clinical trials using an ACEI comparator. In contrast, the combined RR of headache, a negative control, was insignificant (1.45; 95% CI, 0.34 to 6.22. CONCLUSION: The use of comparators with well-known ADRs in blinded randomized trials produces potential bias in the reporting frequency of ADRs for investigational drugs. The selection of appropriate comparator drugs should be critical in unbiased safety assessment in double-blinded, randomized clinical trials and thus have relevance in reviewing the safety results from a regulatory point of view.

  16. An analysis of registered clinical trials in otolaryngology from 2007 to 2010: ClinicalTrials.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsell, David L; Schulz, Kristine A; Lee, Walter T; Chiswell, Karen

    2013-11-01

    To describe the conditions studied, interventions used, study characteristics, and funding sources of otolaryngology clinical trials from the ClinicalTrials.gov database; compare this otolaryngology cohort of interventional studies to clinical visits in a health care system; and assess agreement between clinical trials and clinical activity. Database analysis. Trial registration data downloaded from ClinicalTrials.gov and administrative data from the Duke University Medical Center from October 1, 2007 to September 27, 2010. Data extraction from ClinicalTrials.gov was done using MeSH and non-MeSH disease condition terms. Studies were subcategorized to create the following groupings for descriptive analysis: ear, nose, allergy, voice, sleep, head and neck cancer, thyroid, and throat. Duke Health System visits were queried by using selected ICD-9 codes for otolaryngology and non-otolaryngology providers. Visits were grouped similarly to ClinicalTrials.gov for further analysis. Chi-square tests were used to explore differences between groups. A total of 1115 of 40,970 registered interventional trials were assigned to otolaryngology. Head and neck cancer trials predominated. Study models most frequently incorporated parallel design (54.6%), 2 study groups (46.6%), and randomization (69.1%). Phase 2 or 3 studies constituted 46.4% of the cohort. Comparison of the ClinicalTrials.gov database with administrative health system visit data by disease condition showed discordance between national research activity and clinical visit volume for patients with otolaryngology complaints. Analysis of otolaryngology-related clinical research as listed in ClinicalTrials.gov can inform patients, physicians, and policy makers about research focus areas. The relative burden of otolaryngology-associated conditions in our tertiary health system exceeds research activity within the field.

  17. Likely country of origin in publications on randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials during the last 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2007-01-01

    The number of publications on clinical trials is unknown as well as the countries publishing most trial reports. To try to examine these questions we performed an ecological study.......The number of publications on clinical trials is unknown as well as the countries publishing most trial reports. To try to examine these questions we performed an ecological study....

  18. Information on blinding in registered records of clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viergever Roderik F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Information on blinding is part of the data that should be provided upon registration of a trial at a clinical trials registry. Reporting of blinding is often absent or of low quality in published articles of clinical trials. This study researched the presence and quality of information on blinding in registered records of clinical trials and highlights the important role of data-recording formats at clinical trial registries in ensuring high-quality registration.

  19. Optimizing detector trials for humanitarian demining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, Mate; Baer, Sylke; Bloodworth, Thomas J.; Guelle, Dieter; Lewis, Adam M.; Mueller, Christina; Scharmach, Martina

    2004-09-01

    The performance of mine detecting instruments is embedded in the behavior of a complex system. The total reliability is always composed of the intrinsic physical detection capability of the sensor, application/environmental influences and human factors. The intrinsic capability and some application factors can be investigated in laboratory measurements. Human factors, other application factors and the overall reliability, can only be evaluated in blind field trials in which the probability of detection (PoD) and false alarm rate (FAR) are measured statistically. Both of these approaches are included in CEN Workshop Agreement CWA 14747:2003, which standardizes detector testing in Humanitarian Demining. We report here the results of a study to investigate how to optimize such testing. For efficient and statistically valid field trials, the number, types and burial depths of targets, and the number of test lanes, soil types, repetitions and operators need to be carefully chosen. Laboratory results should be used to help construct field trial protocols and also to help distinguish the different contributions to the PoD and FAR, to determine where to improve insufficient performance. In this study, four models of metal detector were tested in three field trials and in the laboratory. The repeatability of the field trials is assessed, taking into account operator training and experience. Results of the laboratory tests are compared with results of the field trials and used to construct a "modular model" of the system, as used in nondestructive testing. The conclusions are, in principle, applicable to trials of other types of sensor.

  20. Acute Lung Injury | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rnedUK - MHRA A.2EudraCT number2010-021186-70 A.3Full title of the trial Keratinocyte growth factor in Acute...reviated title of the trial where available Keratinocyte Growth Factor in Acute L...nder investigation E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated Acute Lung Injury

  1. Lung-MAP Launches: First Precision Medicine Trial From National Clinical Trials Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    A unique public-private collaboration today announced the initiation of the Lung Cancer Master Protocol (Lung-MAP) trial, a multi-drug, multi-arm, biomarker-driven clinical trial for patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer. Squamous cell carcinom

  2. The Trial of Napoleon: A Case Study for Using Mock Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "The Trial of Napoleon Bonaparte" that focuses on a fictitious mock trial of Napoleon Bonaparte to answer the question: did Napoleon pervert or preserve the gain of the French Revolution? Discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the course. (CMK)

  3. Trial-to-trial fluctuations in attentional state and their relation to intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D

    2014-05-01

    Trial-to-trial fluctuations in attentional state while performing measures of intelligence were examined in the current study. Participants performed various measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence while also providing attentional state ratings prior to each trial. It was found that pre-trial attentional state ratings strongly predicted subsequent trial performance on the fluid intelligence measures, such that when participants rated their current attentional state as highly focused on the current task, performance tended to be high compared to when participants reported their current attentional state as being low and unfocused on the current task. Furthermore, overall attentional state ratings and variability in attentional state ratings were moderately correlated with overall levels of performance on the fluid intelligence measures. However, attentional state ratings did not predict performance on the measure of crystallized intelligence. These results suggest a strong link between variation in attention state and variation in fluid intelligence as postulated by a number of recent theories.

  4. The AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service (ACTIS): a decade of providing clinical trials information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Deborah G; Dutcher, Gale A; Toigo, Theresa A; Bates, Ruthann; Temple, Freda; Cadden, Cynthia G

    2002-01-01

    The AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service (ACTIS) is a central resource for information about federally and privately funded HIV/AIDS clinical trials. Sponsored by four components of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ACTIS has been a key part of U.S. HIV/AIDS information and education services since 1989. ACTIS offers a toll-free telephone service, through which trained information specialists can provide callers with information about AIDS clinical trials in English or Spanish, and a website that provides access to clinical trials databases and a variety of educational resources. Future priorities include the development of new resources to target diverse and underserved populations. In addition, research needs to be conducted on the use of telephone services vs. Web-based information exchange to ensure the broadest possible dissemination of up-to-date information on HIV infection and clinical trials.

  5. Guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials for spinal cord injury as developed by the ICCP panel: clinical trial design

    OpenAIRE

    Lammertse, D; Tuszynski, MH; Steeves, JD; Curt, A; Fawcett, JW; Rask, C; Ditunno, JF; Fehlings, MG; Guest, JD; Ellaway, PH; Kleitman, N; Blight, AR; Dobkin, BH; Grossman, R.; Katoh, H.

    2006-01-01

    The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis established a panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the fourth of four papers. Here, we examine the phases of a clinical trial program, the elements, types, and protocols for valid clinical trial design. The most rigorous and valid SCI clinical trial would be a prospective double-blind randomized contro...

  6. Using e-technologies in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carmen; Campbell, Aimee N C; Miele, Gloria M; Brunner, Meg; Winstanley, Erin L

    2015-11-01

    Clinical trials have been slow to incorporate e-technology (digital and electronic technology that utilizes mobile devices or the Internet) into the design and execution of studies. In the meantime, individuals and corporations are relying more on electronic platforms and most have incorporated such technology into their daily lives. This paper provides a general overview of the use of e-technologies in clinical trials research, specifically within the last decade, marked by rapid growth of mobile and Internet-based tools. Benefits of and challenges to the use of e-technologies in data collection, recruitment and retention, delivery of interventions, and dissemination are provided, as well as a description of the current status of regulatory oversight of e-technologies in clinical trials research. As an example of ways in which e-technologies can be used for intervention delivery, a summary of e-technologies for treatment of substance use disorders is presented. Using e-technologies to design and implement clinical trials has the potential to reach a wide audience, making trials more efficient while also reducing costs; however, researchers should be cautious when adopting these tools given the many challenges in using new technologies, as well as threats to participant privacy/confidentiality. Challenges of using e-technologies can be overcome with careful planning, useful partnerships, and forethought. The role of web- and smartphone-based applications is expanding, and the increasing use of those platforms by scientists and the public alike make them tools that cannot be ignored.

  7. Biomarkers in T cell therapy clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalos Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract T cell therapy represents an emerging and promising modality for the treatment of both infectious disease and cancer. Data from recent clinical trials have highlighted the potential for this therapeutic modality to effect potent anti-tumor activity. Biomarkers, operationally defined as biological parameters measured from patients that provide information about treatment impact, play a central role in the development of novel therapeutic agents. In the absence of information about primary clinical endpoints, biomarkers can provide critical insights that allow investigators to guide the clinical development of the candidate product. In the context of cell therapy trials, the definition of biomarkers can be extended to include a description of parameters of the cell product that are important for product bioactivity. This review will focus on biomarker studies as they relate to T cell therapy trials, and more specifically: i. An overview and description of categories and classes of biomarkers that are specifically relevant to T cell therapy trials, and ii. Insights into future directions and challenges for the appropriate development of biomarkers to evaluate both product bioactivity and treatment efficacy of T cell therapy trials.

  8. Quantitative Imaging in Cancer Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankeelov, Thomas E; Mankoff, David A; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Lieberman, Frank S; Buatti, John M; Mountz, James M; Erickson, Bradley J; Fennessy, Fiona M M; Huang, Wei; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Wahl, Richard L; Linden, Hannah M; Kinahan, Paul E; Zhao, Binsheng; Hylton, Nola M; Gillies, Robert J; Clarke, Laurence; Nordstrom, Robert; Rubin, Daniel L

    2016-01-15

    As anticancer therapies designed to target specific molecular pathways have been developed, it has become critical to develop methods to assess the response induced by such agents. Although traditional, anatomic CT, and MRI examinations are useful in many settings, increasing evidence suggests that these methods cannot answer the fundamental biologic and physiologic questions essential for assessment and, eventually, prediction of treatment response in the clinical trial setting, especially in the critical period soon after treatment is initiated. To optimally apply advances in quantitative imaging methods to trials of targeted cancer therapy, new infrastructure improvements are needed that incorporate these emerging techniques into the settings where they are most likely to have impact. In this review, we first elucidate the needs for therapeutic response assessment in the era of molecularly targeted therapy and describe how quantitative imaging can most effectively provide scientifically and clinically relevant data. We then describe the tools and methods required to apply quantitative imaging and provide concrete examples of work making these advances practically available for routine application in clinical trials. We conclude by proposing strategies to surmount barriers to wider incorporation of these quantitative imaging methods into clinical trials and, eventually, clinical practice. Our goal is to encourage and guide the oncology community to deploy standardized quantitative imaging techniques in clinical trials to further personalize care for cancer patients and to provide a more efficient path for the development of improved targeted therapies.

  9. Quality of clinical trials: A moving target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Bhatt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of clinical trials depends on data integrity and subject protection. Globalization, outsourcing and increasing complexicity of clinical trials have made the target of achieving global quality challenging. The quality, as judged by regulatory inspections of the investigator sites, sponsors/contract research organizations and Institutional Review Board, has been of concern to the US Food and Drug Administration, as there has been hardly any change in frequency and nature of common deficiencies. To meet the regulatory expectations, the sponsors need to improve quality by developing systems with specific standards for each clinical trial process. The quality systems include: personnel roles and responsibilities, training, policies and procedures, quality assurance and auditing, document management, record retention, and reporting and corrective and preventive action. With an objective to improve quality, the FDA has planned new inspection approaches such as risk-based inspections, surveillance inspections, real-time oversight, and audit of sponsor quality systems. The FDA has partnered with Duke University for Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative, which will conduct research projects on design principles, data quality and quantity including monitoring, study start-up, and adverse event reporting. These recent initiatives will go a long way in improving quality of clinical trials.

  10. Public information about clinical trials and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plétan, Yannick; Zannad, Faïez; Jaillon, Patrice

    2003-01-01

    Be it to restore the confused image of clinical research in relation to the lay public, or to develop new ways of accruing healthy volunteers or patients for clinical trials, there is a need to draft some guidance on how best to provide information on research. Although the French legal and regulatory armamentarium in this area is essentially liberal, there is currently little-justified reluctance among study sponsors to advertise publicly. A group of academic and pharmaceutical industry researchers, assembled for a workshop, together with regulators, journalists, representatives from ethics committees, social security, patient and health consumer groups and other French institutional bodies, has suggested the following series of recommendations: there is no need for additional legal or regulatory constraints; sponsors should be aware of and make use of direct public information on trials; a 'good practice charter' on public communication about clinical trials should be developed; all professionals should be involved in this communication platform; communication in the patient's immediate vicinity should be preferred (primary-care physician, local press); clinical databases and websites accessible to professionals, but also to patients and non-professionals, should be developed; genuine instruction on clinical trials for physicians and health professionals unfamiliar with such trials should be developed and disseminated; media groups should receive at least some training in the fundamentals of clinical research.

  11. Prostate cancer vaccines in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubaroff, David M

    2012-07-01

    This review presents important information about the current state of the art for vaccine immunotherapy of prostate cancer. It includes important preclinical research for each of the important prostate cancer vaccines to have reached clinical trials. To date, the only prostate cancer vaccine that has completed Phase III trials and has been approved and licensed by the US FDA is Sipuleucel-T, which immunizes patients against the prostate-associated antigen prostatic acid phosphatase. The benefits and concerns associated with the vaccine are presented. A current Phase III trial is currently underway using the vaccinia-based prostate-specific antigen vaccine Prostvac-TRICOM. Other immunotherapeutic vaccines in trials include the Ad/prostate-specific antigen vaccine Ad5-prostate-specific antigen and the DNA/prostatic acid phosphatase vaccine. A cellular vaccine, GVAX, has been in clinical trials but has not seen continuous study. This review also delves into the multiple immune regulatory elements that must be overcome in order to obtain strong antitumor-associated antigen immune responses capable of effectively destroying prostate tumor cells.

  12. Patient reported outcomes (PROs in clinical trials: is 'in-trial' guidance lacking? a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G Kyte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patient reported outcomes (PROs are increasingly assessed in clinical trials, and guidelines are available to inform the design and reporting of such trials. However, researchers involved in PRO data collection report that specific guidance on 'in-trial' activity (recruitment, data collection and data inputting and the management of 'concerning' PRO data (i.e., data which raises concern for the well-being of the trial participant appears to be lacking. The purpose of this review was to determine the extent and nature of published guidelines addressing these areas. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Systematic review of 1,362 articles identified 18 eligible papers containing 'in-trial' guidelines. Two independent authors undertook a qualitative content analysis of the selected papers. Guidelines presented in each of the articles were coded according to an a priori defined coding frame, which demonstrated reliability (pooled Kappa 0.86-0.97, and validity (<2% residual category coding. The majority of guidelines present were concerned with 'pre-trial' activities (72%, for example, outcome measure selection and study design issues, or 'post-trial' activities (16% such as data analysis, reporting and interpretation. 'In-trial' guidelines represented 9.2% of all guidance across the papers reviewed, with content primarily focused on compliance, quality control, proxy assessment and reporting of data collection. There were no guidelines surrounding the management of concerning PRO data. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight there are minimal in-trial guidelines in publication regarding PRO data collection and management in clinical trials. No guidance appears to exist for researchers involved with the handling of concerning PRO data. Guidelines are needed, which support researchers to manage all PRO data appropriately and which facilitate unbiased data collection.

  13. Patient information in phase I trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Katrine Toubro; Lassen, Ulrik; Mau-Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    influenced by the drug being tested, information procedures, physician-related factors and the patient's individual approach to decision-making. Patients have difficulties correctly repeating the purpose of a phase I trial. In several studies, the majority of the patients expressed expectations of personal......OBJECTIVE: To review what is known about cancer patients' decisions to enter a phase I trial and how they and their relatives perceive the information they receive when they are invited to participate. METHODS: This systematic review is based on the principles of "preferred reporting items...... for systematic reviews and meta-analyses" (PRISMA). A systematic search was performed in the PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo databases, supplemented by a search for unpublished literature. RESULTS: We identified 37 studies for inclusion in this review. Patients' decisions to participate in a phase I trial were...

  14. Developments in statistical evaluation of clinical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Oud, Johan; Ghidey, Wendimagegn

    2014-01-01

    This book describes various ways of approaching and interpreting the data produced by clinical trial studies, with a special emphasis on the essential role that biostatistics plays in clinical trials. Over the past few decades the role of statistics in the evaluation and interpretation of clinical data has become of paramount importance. As a result the standards of clinical study design, conduct and interpretation have undergone substantial improvement. The book includes 18 carefully reviewed chapters on recent developments in clinical trials and their statistical evaluation, with each chapter providing one or more examples involving typical data sets, enabling readers to apply the proposed procedures. The chapters employ a uniform style to enhance comparability between the approaches.

  15. [Radiotherapy phase I trials' methodology: Features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoirard, R; Vallard, A; Langrand-Escure, J; Guy, J-B; Ben Mrad, M; Yaoxiong, X; Diao, P; Méry, B; Pigne, G; Rancoule, C; Magné, N

    2016-12-01

    In clinical research, biostatistical methods allow the rigorous analysis of data collection and should be defined from the trial design to obtain the appropriate experimental approach. Thus, if the main purpose of phase I is to determine the dose to use during phase II, methodology should be finely adjusted to experimental treatment(s). Today, the methodology for chemotherapy and targeted therapy is well known. For radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy phase I trials, the primary endpoint must reflect both effectiveness and potential treatment toxicities. Methodology should probably be complex to limit failures in the following phases. However, there are very few data about methodology design in the literature. The present study focuses on these particular trials and their characteristics. It should help to raise existing methodological patterns shortcomings in order to propose new and better-suited designs. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Perfusion Pressure Cerebral Infarct (PPCI) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anne G.; Holmgaard, Frederik; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2016-01-01

    to be caused by emboli, but inadequate blood flow caused by other mechanisms may increase ischaemia in the penumbra or cause watershed infarcts. During cardiopulmonary bypass, blood pressure can be below the lower limit of cerebral autoregulation. Although much debated, the constant blood flow provided...... by the cardiopulmonary bypass system is still considered by many as appropriate to avoid cerebral ischaemia despite the low blood pressure. Methods/design: The Perfusion Pressure Cerebral Infarct trial is a single-centre superiority trial with a blinded outcome assessment. The trial is randomising 210 patients...... with coronary vessel and/or valve disease and who are undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients are stratified by age and surgical procedure and are randomised 1:1 to either an increased mean arterial pressure (70–80 mmHg) or ‘usual practice’ (40–50 mmHg) during cardiopulmonary...

  17. Franz Kafka's The Trial: guilty or innocent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, E

    1996-07-01

    Through an examination of The Trial by Kafka I attempt to show that the depiction of the Court apparatus is dynamically related to the commission of unconscious crimes of the type we encounter in our patients. To provide a context for the novel, I discuss Kafka's biography and some possible unconscious motivations. My goal is to show how the concept of a particular type of superego pressure can be used to understand the subtle irony in The Trial. Although Joseph K.'s behavior frequently involves oedipal crimes, there are many preoedipal themes that help account for his experience of the Court. I contrast this psychoanalytic understanding of K.'s guilt with that of literary critics who interpret The Trial as an allegory of guilt but who minimize the psychological dimensions.

  18. [Clinical trials: principles of the method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulker, J P

    2000-04-15

    Comparative judgement, which is seminal to any kind of science performing measurements, has been applied to clinical reasoning for many centuries. The need for systematizing the observational methods used in medicine in order to draw more reliable inferences about the effects of therapies has been active all along the 19th century. This has resulted in controlled studies which yielded important advances in clinical and therapeutic knowledge, although their designs were not fully satisfactory. Clinical trials have gained their status of "hard science", methodology allowing causal inference, by the end of the 1940s after having adopted the statistical theories developed in the 1930s by Fisher for experimental design in agronomy. A long way has been run since the first controlled randomized trial. However, half a century later, modern clinical trial remains essentially a controlled randomized prospective study using methods to limit potential biases and to establish statistical significance.

  19. [Ethical implications of clinical trials in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadly, Ali

    2004-11-01

    Clinical trials are necessary for medical advancement. They must respect legal obligations. Ethical questions related to protection of the human being's rights are yielded by these trials. Joining research to medical core is problematical in consideration of patient's consent to clinical trial. Exclusion by the Tunisian law of persons under age, pregnant or breast-feeding women from medical experimentation in the aim of protecting them against clinical research adverse events or abuses is ethically questionable since it deprives them from a possible medical progress. So why not to involve them in clinical research when there is an expected benefit, after bringing them protection as vulnerable persons like we should do for instance for the elderly, handicapped persons or prisoners. Legal creation of research ethics committees is important for the respect of experimentation rules on human beings.

  20. Control groups in recent septic shock trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettilä, Ville; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Jakob, Stephan M

    2016-01-01

    , and mortality outcomes, and calculated a data completeness score to provide an overall view of quality of reporting. RESULTS: A total of 24 RCTs were included (mean n = 287 patients and 71 % of eligible patients were randomized). Of the 24 studies, 14 (58 %) presented baseline data on vasopressors and 58......PURPOSE: The interpretation of septic shock trial data is profoundly affected by patients, control intervention, co-interventions and selected outcome measures. We evaluated the reporting of control groups in recent septic shock trials. METHODS: We searched for original articles presenting...... randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in adult septic shock patients from 2006 to 2016. We included RCTs focusing on septic shock patients with at least two parallel groups and at least 50 patients in the control group. We selected and evaluated data items regarding patients, control group characteristics...

  1. Registration of clinical trials: Is it really needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer Aslam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Withholding findings of clinical trials for publication or presentation to the regulatory authorities is a major concern. We aimed to address the importance of clinical trial registration and whether it is needed or not. Discussion: For ethical conduct of clinical trial, registration is an important but debatable issue due to proprietary interest of the pharmaceutical industry. Over the years, investigating agencies uncovered several instances of misconduct during the clinical trial. The International committee of medical journal editors requires registration of trial methodology, but does not require registration of trial results; however, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Amendments does require researchers to register results. Conclusion: Prospective registration of clinical trial is mandatory for more transparent research and sustaining the validity of evidence based practice and availability of reliable data. Clinical trials registration has the potential to contribute substantially to improve clinical trial transparency and reducing publication bias and selective reporting.

  2. The Hawthorne Effect: a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Haselen Robbert

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Hawthorne Effect' may be an important factor affecting the generalisability of clinical research to routine practice, but has been little studied. Hawthorne Effects have been reported in previous clinical trials in dementia but to our knowledge, no attempt has been made to quantify them. Our aim was to compare minimal follow-up to intensive follow-up in participants in a placebo controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba for treating mild-moderate dementia. Methods Participants in a dementia trial were randomised to intensive follow-up (with comprehensive assessment visits at baseline and two, four and six months post randomisation or minimal follow-up (with an abbreviated assessment at baseline and a full assessment at six months. Our primary outcomes were cognitive functioning (ADAS-Cog and participant and carer-rated quality of life (QOL-AD. Results We recruited 176 participants, mainly through general practices. The main analysis was based on Intention to treat (ITT, with available data. In the ANCOVA model with baseline score as a co-variate, follow-up group had a significant effect on outcome at six months on the ADAS-Cog score (n = 140; mean difference = -2.018; 95%CI -3.914, -0.121; p = 0.037 favouring the intensive follow-up group, and on participant-rated quality of life score (n = 142; mean difference = -1.382; 95%CI -2.642, -0.122; p = 0.032 favouring minimal follow-up group. There was no significant difference on carer quality of life. Conclusion We found that more intensive follow-up of individuals in a placebo-controlled clinical trial of Ginkgo biloba for treating mild-moderate dementia resulted in a better outcome than minimal follow-up, as measured by their cognitive functioning. Trial registration Current controlled trials: ISRCTN45577048

  3. Lessons from randomised direct comparative trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Fredrikson, Sten

    2009-02-01

    For over a decade, four immunomodulatory therapies have been available for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. However, few direct comparative data were available to facilitate the choice of treatment. This choice has been influenced by the perception that interferon-beta preparations have greater efficacy than glatiramer acetate, due to apparently more rapid and robust reduction of gadolinium-enhancing lesions seen on magnetic resonance imaging in the pivotal trials of these agents. This situation has changed in the last year, with the outcomes of three randomised clinical trials comparing the efficacy and safety of glatiramer acetate with that of a high-dose interferon-beta in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. These are the REGARD, BEYOND and BECOME trials. In the REGARD trial, 764 patients were randomised to treatment with either interferon-beta 1a sc 44 microg or glatiramer acetate for 96 weeks; no significant difference in the time to first relapse was observed. The largest of the three comparative studies, the BEYOND trial, compared treatment with interferon-beta 1b sc 500 microg, interferon-beta 1b sc 250 microg or glatiramer acetate for two years in 2,244 patients. The hazard ratio for multiple relapses was close to unity for comparisons between all groups, indicating equivalent efficacy in all three treatment arms. Relapse rates (around 0.3 relapses/year) in all these studies were much lower than anticipated and lower than those reported a decade previously in the pivotal trials of beta-interferons and glatiramer acetate. No unexpected safety issues were identified in any of these studies. The completion of these direct comparative studies has considerably enriched the clinical evidence database by contributing large numbers of patients. This provides an invaluable contribution for helping the physician make an informed choice about treatment. The results of the direct comparative studies provide evidence that glatiramer acetate

  4. Poleznõje sovetõ Jevropõ / Juri Filippov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Filippov, Juri

    2006-01-01

    Venemaa mittetulundusühinguid puudutava seaduseelnõu esialgne variant kutsus esile kriitikat nii Venemaal kui ka Euroopa ja USA poliitikute hulgas. Venemaa arvestas seaduseelnõu ümbertöötamisel Euroopa norme

  5. Sekretõ sekretnõhh sluzhb / Philippe Madelin ; interv. Juri Kovalenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Madelin, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Üks juhtivaid Prantsuse eksperte eriteenistuste alal vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Prantsuse ja Nõukogude, Vene luuret, Prantsuse vastuluuret, samuti A. Litvinenko surma. Tema hinnangul töötasid minevikus efektiivsemalt Nõukogude ja Briti agendid, kuid luureteenistuste üldine tase langes järsult pärast külma sõja lõppu

  6. Zika mosquito vectors: the jury is still out [version 2; referees: 5 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S. Leal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After a 40-year hiatus, the International Congress of Entomology (ICE 2016 convened in Orlando, Florida (September 25-30, 2016. One of the symposia at ICE 2016, the Zika Symposium, covered multiple aspects of the Zika epidemic, including epidemiology, sexual transmission, genetic tools for reducing transmission, and particularly vector competence. While there was a consensus among participants that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a vector of the Zika virus, there is growing evidence indicating that the range of mosquito vectors might be wider than anticipated. In particular, three independent groups from Canada, China, and Brazil presented and discussed laboratory and field data strongly suggesting that the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, also known as the common mosquito, is highly likely to be a vector in certain environments.

  7. Zika mosquito vectors: the jury is still out [version 1; referees: 5 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S. Leal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After a 40-year hiatus, the International Congress of Entomology (ICE 2016 convened in Orlando, Florida (September 25-30, 2016. One of the symposia at ICE 2016, the Zika Symposium, covered multiple aspects of the Zika epidemic, including epidemiology, sexual transmission, genetic tools for reducing transmission, and particularly vector competence. While there was a consensus among participants that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a vector of the Zika virus, there is growing evidence indicating that the range of mosquito vectors might be wider than anticipated. In particular, three independent groups from Canada, China, and Brazil presented and discussed laboratory and field data strongly suggesting that the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, also known as the common mosquito, is highly likely to be a vector in certain environments.

  8. Injury prevalence of netball players in South Africa: The need for in jury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pillay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish baseline data for injury prevalence,mechanism of injury, injury severity and management of injuries in netball playersin South Africa. A cross sectional descriptive design was employed to collect databy means of a questionnaire in 2010. Participants consisted of 254 netball playerswho participated in a netball tournament. Permission was obtained from all therelevant organizations and informed consent obtained from the participants. Thegeneral injury rate was 61.8% with an injury rate of 1.9 injuries per player forthe past season. The most commonly injured structures were the ankle 37.5 % andthe knee 28.6% with the most common mechanism of injury being landing, 19% and 29% respectively. Of those whosustained injuries, 86 (44% of the injured athletes’ sustained severe injuries, 31(16% sustained moderate injuriesand 78 (40% sustained mild injuries. 67% of players reported they were able to continue with the game and 33%received medical assistance losing game and training time. The most common form of management accessed wasphysiotherapy, which accounted for 31%. It is evident that the ankle and knee injury rates amongst South Africannetball players are high in comparison to other netball playing nations. Injury surveillance is an integral part ofdeveloping preventative measures. The article lays a platform for developing these strategies against the backdrop ofits findings and comparison with other authors.

  9. Visual Spatial Attention to Multiple Locations At Once: The Jury Is Still Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Bert; Peters, Judith C.; De Weerd, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Although in traditional attention research the focus of visual spatial attention has been considered as indivisible, many studies in the last 15 years have claimed the contrary. These studies suggest that humans can direct their attention simultaneously to multiple noncontiguous regions of the visual field upon mere instruction. The notion that…

  10. The Effect of Cross-Examination Tactics on Simulated Jury Impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Margaret; And Others

    Past research has demonstrated the negative effects of leading questions by attorneys on eyewitness testimony and has found that adversary lawyers produced less accurate testimony from eyewitnesses. This study was conducted to examine the effects of lawyer's hostile versus non-hostile behavior and lawyer's leading versus non-leading questions on…

  11. Bessedõ o russkoi kulture : kultura i intelligentnost : lektsija 3 / Juri Lotman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Juri, 1922-1993

    1998-01-01

    Kunsti vajalikkusest : vastuolulisest teadmisest, mida annab inimesele kunst ja mis osutub adekvaatsemaks kui elu kunstlikud mudelid. Vaadeldakse van Eycki, Rubensi ja Velazqueze töid vastuolulisuse aspektist

  12. Jury-Contestant Bipartite Competition Network: Identifying Biased Scores and Their Impact on Network Structure Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Gyuhyeon

    2016-01-01

    A common form of competition is one where judges grade contestants' performances which are then compiled to determine the final ranking of the contestants. Unlike in another common form of competition where two contestants play a head-to-head match to produce a winner as in football or basketball, the objectivity of judges are prone to be questioned, potentially undermining the public's trust in the fairness of the competition. In this work we show, by modeling the judge--contestant competition as a weighted bipartite network, how we can identify biased scores and measure their impact on our inference of the network structure. Analyzing the prestigious International Chopin Piano Competition of 2015 with a well-publicized scoring controversy as an example, we show that even a single statistically uncharacteristic score can be enough to gravely distort our inference of the community structure, demonstrating the importance of detecting and eliminating biases. In the process we also find that there does not exist...

  13. Biotechnology and Public opinion: The results of a citizens’ jury case study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) have been a controversial topic in recent years: while the scientific community has largely accepted the validity and safety of using this biotechnology in the food industry, public opinion still shows a certain suspicion and fear. The legislator is interested in knowing how public opinion could be engaged and what policy decisions regarding the assessment of the risks and benefits of GM animals and derived products might be addressed. This paper focuses ...

  14. Fostering Organizational Change through Deliberations: The Deliberative Jury in a University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Universities in Europe face a variety of reform initiatives, and university reform can be seen as a wicked problem that should be resolved through collaborative efforts. In Finland, there has been considerable resistance to proposed reforms, with university personnel complaining that they have not been heard. Students, on the other hand, seem…

  15. Ükskord mul õnnestub : [luuletused] / Juris Kronbergs ; tlk. Guntars Godinsh ja Livia Viitol

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronbergs, Juris

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Ükskord mul õnnestub ; Rahulik hunt ükssilm ; Relatiivsus teooria ; Aprill ; Suvi ilma pisarata ; Memu aariliselt ; Iseteenindamine ; Õudne mõte (08) ; Toiming ; Uus Euroopa ; Ugro-filism ; Oleviku sees ; Sõda ja ilm ; Nagu Šveits ; Panga kruus ; Uni versum

  16. How to keep existing customers and get new ones? / Juris Ozols

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ozols, Juris

    2004-01-01

    Autor selgitab rahulolevate ja lojaalsete klientide peamisi erinevusi, tutvustab klientide lojaalsuse ja pühendumuse hindamise metoodikat ning selgitab, milles seisneb kliendiuuringu läbiviimisest tulenev otsene kasu ettevõtte jaoks. Diagramm

  17. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health.

  18. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health.

  19. Rooting the tree of life: the phylogenetic jury is still out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouy, Richard; Baurain, Denis; Philippe, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to shed light on difficulties in rooting the tree of life (ToL) and to explore the (sociological) reasons underlying the limited interest in accurately addressing this fundamental issue. First, we briefly review the difficulties plaguing phylogenetic inference and the ways to improve the modelling of the substitution process, which is highly heterogeneous, both across sites and over time. We further observe that enriched taxon samplings, better gene samplings and clever data removal strategies have led to numerous revisions of the ToL, and that these improved shallow phylogenies nearly always relocate simple organisms higher in the ToL provided that long-branch attraction artefacts are kept at bay. Then, we note that, despite the flood of genomic data available since 2000, there has been a surprisingly low interest in inferring the root of the ToL. Furthermore, the rare studies dealing with this question were almost always based on methods dating from the 1990s that have been shown to be inaccurate for much more shallow issues! This leads us to argue that the current consensus about a bacterial root for the ToL can be traced back to the prejudice of Aristotle's Great Chain of Beings, in which simple organisms are ancestors of more complex life forms. Finally, we demonstrate that even the best models cannot yet handle the complexity of the evolutionary process encountered both at shallow depth, when the outgroup is too distant, and at the level of the inter-domain relationships. Altogether, we conclude that the commonly accepted bacterial root is still unproven and that the root of the ToL should be revisited using phylogenomic supermatrices to ensure that new evidence for eukaryogenesis, such as the recently described Lokiarcheota, is interpreted in a sound phylogenetic framework. PMID:26323760

  20. O svjatoi Birgitte i "jazõtsheskom idole" Venere Tavritsheskoi / Juri Nikiforov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nikiforov, Juri

    2003-01-01

    Püha Birgitta kloostrist: rajamine, ruumide kirjeldus, saatus. Projekteeris H. Swalbart. Lugu püha Birgitta säilmete vahetamisest Peeter I poolt praegu Ermitaazhis asuva Tauria Venuse (Aphrodite) kuju vastu