Full Text Available Th e Republic of Moldova is considering the adoption of trial by jury in select criminal cases. Th e following article is intended to contribute to the discussion of that proposal. Th e article will briefl y describe the history of juries under the English common law and as adopted by the United States. It will then outline some of the basic procedures in trials by jury as currently practiced in the United States federal court system.
Nikolai P. Kovalev
Full Text Available One of peculiar features of the military criminal justice system in Russia is that in some cases military defendants may apply for trial by jury. Unlike the existing U.S. court-martial jury and the Russian military jury of the early 1900s (World War I period which were comprised of the members of the armed forces, in modern Russia jurors trying military defendants are civilians. This article aims to provide a brief history of military jury in Russia and identify issues of independence and impartiality in Russian military courts with participation of lay decision-makers. In particular, the article will analyze two high-profile cases which resulted in acquittals of Russian officers accused of killing several Chechen civilians during counter-terrorist operations in Chechnya.
Horowitz, Irwin A; Bordens, Kenneth S
A total of 567 jury-eligible men and women who were assigned to 6- or 12-person juries saw a videotaped civil trial that contained either I or 4 plaintiffs. Half the juries took notes, whereas the remainder did not. Six-person juries that did not take notes awarded multiple plaintiffs the highest amounts of compensation. Six-person juries also gave the highest punitive damages when they did not take notes and judged multiple plaintiffs. The punitive awards of 6-person juries were highly variable compared with 12-person juries. Multiple plaintiffs also increased the unpredictability of jury punitive awards. Twelve-person juries deliberated longer, recalled more probative information, and relied less than 6-person juries on evaluative statements and nonprobative evidence. Limitations and implications are discussed.
Full Text Available The Jury Court in Spain is composed of nine citizens and is headed by a magistrate belonging to the Provincial Court, Chamber of Criminal. These citizens participate as lay assessors in a very particular way. The Spanish Jury Law 5/1995 contemplates its intervention in criminal proceedings as a sort of ‘duty-right’; one hand, inasmuch as it is a right, the law guarantees a remuneration; on the other, inasmuch as it is a duty, the Jury Law does not provide any sort of sanction because of inassistance. Also legal status of the Spanish jurors is established by a complicated system of qualification and disqualifications causes. There are four categories for disqualification: incapacities, incompatibilities, prohibitions and excuses, which contemplate various personal and professional circumstances. In contrast, certain omissions in the regulation may be appreciated such as the conscientious objection for example, which becomes the most controversial question with regard to the duty to act as a juror.The purpose of present paper is to discuss the abover points and examines how jury selection and service actually proceeds in Spanish Jury Courts. An initial reference is made to the composition of the lists of prospective jurors, which includes an explanation of the way in which prospective jurors are designated by random from the electoral census and how the definitive lists are drawn up in each province at two-yearly intervals and delivered to the Provincial Courts. Subsequently, the trial jury selection system is presented along with other measures that relate to jury participation in criminal proceedings, such as the completion of a questionnaire on lawful grounds for disqualification and the distribution of a copy of the ‘jury handbook’ to each selected juror. References are also made to the possibility of challenges for cause and without cause (peremptory challenges both by the parties to the trial, defence and prosecution, as well as to
National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.
Featuring a mock trial tested in the District of Columbia, the objective of this manual is to help students learn more about the constitutional guarantee of trial by jury. Prepared as five separate lessons, the manual examines one alternative to the jury system--trial by ordeal; traces the development of the guarantee of trial by jury; explores…
Radik N. Hamitov
Full Text Available Traditionally it is believed that the birthplace of the jury trial creation is England, but the issue of the birthplace location of this particular form of popular participation in the criminal justice administration is not yet fully resolved by the historical science. The continental lawyers were particularly interested in the jury trial among other institutions of English law, in which the English themselves identified the stronghold of the country's law and order, its political and civil freedom. It is not difficult to see that the main role was not played by the judges, but by the community representatives in this form of justice administration. Since then the community has been gaining more and more importance in England as a state body in the matter of justice administration, and the initial forms of its activity have being further developed in this direction. This works investigates roots of jury trial by basing on such methods as historical, systemic, formally logical, concrete-historical, comparative legal analysis method. The authors, in turn, come to the conclusion that the jury trial has its roots still in the Ancient States, but the classical modern model owes its origin to England.
Warling, Diane; Peterson-Badali, Michele
With the progression to more adult-like policies and procedures for youth in the justice system, the right to a jury trial has been extended to young offenders. These youth would not be tried by a jury of their peers, however, but by a jury of adults. The concern is that adult jurors may hold negative attitudes about youth that might influence their decision making in a case involving a young defendant. Two studies examined whether and under what conditions defendant's age affects jurors' decisions about the guilt and sentencing of an accused. In study 1, data were gathered from two samples of jury eligible adults: one university sample and one public sample. Mock jurors read written transcripts of a trial involving a defendant who was presented as either 13, 17, or 25 years of age. Results indicated that the defendant's age had no effect on mock jurors' verdict or their ratings of defendant guilt. However, younger defendants were granted shorter sentences than the adult defendants. In study 2, mock jurors read the same trial presented in study 1 but were asked to deliberate about the case and render group verdicts. These group verdicts did not differ significantly by defendant's age. Age-related themes that emerged from group deliberations were identified, and results indicated that age tended to be used as a mitigating factor in favor of youth rather than against them. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for youth justice policy and practice. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Librarians frequently utilize product trials to assess the content and usability of a database prior to committing funds to a new subscription or purchase. At the 2012 Electronic Resources and Libraries Conference in Austin, Texas, three librarians presented a panel discussion on their institutions' policies and practices regarding database…
Konings, Marco J; Schoenmakers, Patrick P J M; Walker, Andrew J; Hettinga, Florentina J
The present study aimed to explore how athletes respond to different behaviors of their opponents. Twelve moderately to highly physically active participants with at least two years of cycling experience completed four 4-km time trials on a Velotron cycle ergometer. After a familiarization time trial (FAM), participants performed three experimental time trials in randomized order with no opponent (NO), a virtual opponent who started slower and finished faster compared to FAM (OP-SLOWFAST), or a virtual opponent who started faster and finished slower compared to FAM (OP-FASTSLOW). Repeated-measures ANOVAs (Ppower output, velocity and RPE. OP-SLOWFAST and OP-FASTSLOW were completed faster compared to NO (385.5±27.5, 385.0±28.6, and 390.6±29.3s, respectively). An interaction effect for condition×distance (F=3.944, Ppower outputs by the participants in the initial 750m compared to a slower starting opponent. The present study is the first to show that the behavior of an opponent affects pacing-related decisions in laboratory-controlled conditions. Our findings support the recently proposed interdependence of perception and action, and emphasize the interaction with the environment as an important determinant for an athlete's pacing decisions, especially during the initial stages of a race. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rose, Mary R; Diamond, Shari Seidman; Baker, Kimberly M
Social psychologist Erving Goffman, in his classic work The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, provides a framework that explains why jurors may turn their attention at the courthouse to information not formally presented from the witness stand. We dub this "offstage observation," a type of juror behavior that has not been systematically examined empirically. Analyzing a unique data source of 50 actual jury deliberations in civil trials, we find that jurors do look to the offstage in evaluating the claims of the parties. However, in contrast to predictions, these observations played a surprisingly minor role in the jury deliberation process.
Full Text Available In Istria, as a part of the Austrian legal system, jury trial was initially introduced in the revolutionary year of 1848 only for press offenses, in the framework of aspirations for freedom of thought and expression through the press, which represented the most appropriate medium for the dissemination of new ideas and mobilization of the political masses. Trial by jury was supposed to secure impartial and objective trials, which could not be expected of professional judges due to insufficient guarantees of their impartiality. This paper examines the press-related orders and laws passed during 1848 and 1849 which regulated the freedom of press and jury jurisdiction. On the basis of an analysis of the legislative framework, jurisprudence, and the Istrian press during the examined time period, the author has decided that the introduction of the freedom of the press and jury trials for press offenses in 1848/1849 on the territory of Istria didn’t have a large practical significance.
A medical courier who was exposed to blood from a leaking container will be granted a jury trial in Albuquerque, NM. Courier [name removed] was splashed with blood and became alarmed because she had paper cuts on her hands. Repeated blood tests for HIV and hepatitis B were negative. A Bernallilo County judge initially dismissed [name removed]'s lawsuit when the hospital revealed that there was no HIV present in the splashed liquid. A three-judge panel of the Court of Appeals ruled to allow [name removed] a jury trial because New Mexico law no longer requires a plaintiff to prove that the defendant's actions created actual danger or physical impact. The panel determined that [name removed]'s allegations stated a cause for negligent infliction of emotional distress.
da Silva, Rogério Ferreira; Oliveira Lima, Marcus Eugênio
Social judgments are often influenced by racism. Voluntary crimes against life, and in particular the crime of homicide, may be the most critical situations of the impact of racism in social judgments. We analyzed 114 homicide trials conducted by the 1st Jury Court, in a Brazilian judicial capital, concluded between 2003 and 2007, for the purpose of investigating the effects of skin color and the socioeconomic status of the defendant and the victim of homicides in the jury trial court's decision. The results indicate that the social and economic profile of defendants and victims of homicide is identical. They are almost all poor (more than 70%), with low education (more than 73%) and frequently non-Whites (more than 88%). We found that judges assign longer sentences to black (β = .34, p = .01) and poor defendants (β = .23, p socioeconomic status in social judgments and in discrimination.
A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.
Ahmad, Muhammad Aurangzeb; Elidrisi, Mohamed
Modeling games has a long history in the Artificial Intelligence community. Most of the games that have been considered solved in AI are perfect information games. Imperfect information games like Poker and Bridge represent a domain where there is a great deal of uncertainty involved and additional challenges with respect to modeling the behavior of the opponent etc. Techniques developed for playing imperfect games also have many real world applications like repeated online auctions, human computer interaction, opponent modeling for military applications etc. In this paper we explore different techniques for playing poker, the core of these techniques is opponent modeling via classifying the behavior of opponent according to classes provided by domain experts. We utilize windows of full observation in the game to classify the opponent. In Poker, the behavior of an opponent is classified into four standard poker-playing styles based on a subjective function.
Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj
of how the opponent format and relationships impact a game are almost absent in current research. Thus, this paper aims to elucidate how the perception of a competition differs, depending on the opponent format, by presenting a game mechanic framework. The paper furthermore presents an interactive...... football-training platform, as well as games designed to explore the different opponent formats. The games are qualitatively evaluated to illuminate the qualities of and distinctions between different types of opponent formats, proposed by the framework terminology....
Dias, Allister Andrew Teixeira
As part of a research study on the 1930s and 1940s medical-criminological debate in Brazil, this research paper analyzes some of the uses and criticisms of arguments of a psychiatric and criminological nature, among certain jurists who carried out important work in the city of Rio de Janeiro during the 1930s. In this context, these magistrates, tended to have significant psychiatric and criminological knowledge, in spite of all the heterogeneity, plurality and differences in perspectives that existed among them. We selected two principal areas to conduct an analysis of the activities of these jurists: the Appellate Court of the Federal District of Rio de Janeiro and Jury Trial Courts.
Ezilda Claudia de Melo
Full Text Available It identified the intersections between the jury and literature , the "Auto da Compadecida " Ariano Suassuna . He embarked at the intersection field between law and Literary Arts to identify the characters, ritual and emotion in the jury of the show presented by him . The trial is the real key to understanding this work and is the intersection point of this research, with the law as it is intended to relate the institution of the jury from the buildings Ariano Suassuna . It was concluded that emotionality gives on the rationality of the jury.
Tallinna Ülikoolis paikneb rahvusvaheliselt tunnustatud semiootiku Juri Lotmani ja tema abikaasa Zara Mintsi arhiiv ja raamatukogu. Juri Lotmani poeg ja Tallinna Ülikooli Eesti Humanitaarinstituudi professor Mihhail Lotman on rahul, et arhiiv asub Eestis
Sacramento County Probation Dept., Sacramento, CA.
JurisLIT was a literacy training effort operated jointly by the Sacramento County Probation Department, the Sacramento County Office of Education, the Los Rios Community College District, and the Superior and Municipal Courts of Sacramento County from March 1990 to March 1994. The program required selected probationers aged 18-30 to participate in…
Full Text Available Indigenous peoples in Australia, the United States and Canada are significantly overrepresented as defendants in criminal trials and yet vastly underrepresented on juries in criminal trials. This means that all-white juries mostly determine the guilt of Indigenous defendants or white defendants responsible for harming Indigenous victims. In this article, we explore cases in which Indigenous defendants have perceived that an all-white jury’s prejudice against Indigenous people would prevent them receiving a fair trial. It focuses on Indigenous defendants (often facing charges in relation to protesting against white racism challenging the array of all-white juries. Across these cases, Australian courts rely on formal notions of fairness in jury selection to dismiss the Indigenous defendant’s perception of bias and foreclose an inquiry into the potential prejudices of white jurors. We compare the Australian judicial ‘colour-blindness’ towards all-white juries with that of the United States and Canada. We argue that the tendency for courts in the United States and Canada to question jurors on their biases provides useful lessons for Australian judiciaries, including in relation to the impending trials of Indigenous defendants in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, accused of committing crimes in response to white racist violence. Nonetheless, across all jurisdictions where there is a challenge to the array based on racial composition, courts consistently uphold all-white juries. We suggest that the judicial view of the racial neutrality of white jury selection misapprehends the substantive biases in jury selection and the injustice perceived by defendants in having a white jury adjudicate an alleged crime that is committed in circumstances involving protest against white prejudice.
The question treated in this article is: what do the members of the Austrian parliament - of the different parties - against nuclear energy, in particular against nuclear installations in neighbour countries? Of special interest is the Green party, now also represented in the parliament. The conclusion is that even this party, though in principle definitely anti-nuclear, is of no help to nuclear opponents in general, and to the Working Group No to Zwentendorf in particular. (qui)
Erik J Schlicht
Full Text Available Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best "poker face" for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent.
Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016
5.-7. juulini mängitakse Estonia teatris Mossoveti teatris valminud Juri Jerjomini lavastusi - Fjodor Dostojevski ja Ivan Turgenevi teoste põhjal "Mees, naine ja armuke" ja Tennessee Williamsi "Tramm nimega iha"
Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse.
This study aimed to evaluate psychological impression of visual comfort when we see an image of ordinary colored scene presented in a color display. Effects of opponent colors, i.e. red, green, yellow and blue component, on the subjective judgement on visual comfort to the image were investigated. Three kinds of psychological experiment were designed to see the effects and the results indicated that the red/green opponent color component was more affecting than the yellow-blue one, and red color in particular was the most affecting factor on visual comfort.
Kline, John P; Blackhart, Ginette C; Williams, William C
The opponent process theory of emotion [Solomon, R.L., and Corbit, J.D. (1974). An opponent-process theory of motivation: I. Temporal dynamics of affect. Psychological Review, 81, 119-143.] predicts a temporary reversal of emotional valence during the recovery from emotional stimulation. We hypothesized that this affective contrast would be apparent in asymmetrical activity patterns in the frontal lobes, and would be more apparent for left frontally active individuals. The present study tested this prediction by examining EEG asymmetries during and after blocked presentations of aversive pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). 12 neutral images, 12 aversive images, and 24 neutral images were presented in blocks. Participants who were right frontally active at baseline did not show changes in EEG asymmetry while viewing aversive slides or after cessation. Participants left frontally active at baseline, however, exhibited greater relative left frontal activity after aversive stimulation than before stimulation. Asymmetrical activity patterns in the frontal lobes may relate to affect regulatory processes, including contrasting opponent after-reactions to aversive stimuli.
Chalmers, James; Leverick, Fiona
Considers why jury research is needed in Scotland, and the methods that could be used. Discusses the justifications for research into jury reasoning and decision-making advanced by the Post-Corroboration Safeguards Review, and its proposals on issues such as simple majority verdicts. Examines options for research with real or mock juries, the possible research questions, and whether reform of the Contempt of Court Act 1981 would be necessary.
Konings, Marco J; Parkinson, Jordan; Zijdewind, Inge; Hettinga, Florentina
PURPOSE: Performing against a virtual opponent has been shown to invite a change in pacing and improve time trial (TT) performance. This study explored how this performance improvement is established by assessing changes in pacing, neuromuscular function and perceived exertion. METHODS: After a peak
Full Text Available The inter-stimuli-interval (ISI thresholds of double pulses discrimination were measured to investigate the temporal distinguishability of double pulses of the luminance opponency, the red-green opponency, and the blue-yellow opponency. Double pulses were presented randomly in one of four quadrants, defined by a central fixation cross on a CRT display controlled by the real time sequencer (RTS of the VSG system in 42-bit color mode calibrated with less than 3% display error rate of the 1931 CIE luminance and chromatic coordinate. Each pulse was of duration 6.7 msec and included a Gaussian patch with gradation of tristimulus values from the peak to the background in equal-energy-white (the luminance opponency or isoluminance (the red-green and the blue-yellow opponency configuration. Eleven observers were asked to report the number of pulses (one or two observed while ISI was adjusted by a psi method. Psychometric functions were estimated using the cumulative distribution function of the extreme value distribution. The threshold was the ISI value corresponding with the rate of 63.21% correct answer. Significant differences were found among ISI thresholds of the luminance, blue-yellow, and red-green opponency. Results supported that the temporal distinguishability of double pulses of the luminance opponency, the red-green opponency, and the blue-yellow opponency were significantly different. The difference can be explained by the impulse response functions (IRF with various first peak time among the luminance opponency, the red-green opponency, and the blue-yellow opponency.
5.-7. juulini toimuvad Estonia teatris Moskva Mossoveti-nim. Teatri külalisetendused. Mängitakse Juri Jerjomini lavastusi "Mees, naine ja armuke" (F. Dostojevski ja I. Turgenevi teoste põhjal) ja Tennessee Williamsi "Tramm nimega Iha". Vestluses lavastajaga ka vene teatrist, arengust, näitekirjanikest, lavastustest
Lie, Celia; Baxter, Jennifer; Alsop, Brent
Adult participants played computerised games of "Paper Scissors Rock". Participants in one group were told that they were playing against the computer, and those in the other group were told that they were playing against another participant in the adjacent room. The participant who won the most games would receive a $50 prize. For both groups however, the opponent's responses (paper, scissors, or rock) were generated by the computer, and the distribution of these responses was varied across four blocks of 126 trials. Results were analysed using the generalised matching law for the three possible pairs of alternatives (paper vs. scissors, paper vs. rock, and scissors vs. rock) across all participants in each group. Overall, significantly higher estimates of sensitivity to the distribution of opponent's responses were obtained from participants who were told their opponent was a computer compared to participants who were told their opponent was another participant. While adding to the existing literature showing that the generalised matching law is an adequate descriptor of human three-alternative choice behaviour, these findings show that external factors such as perceived opponent type can affect the efficacy of reinforcer contingencies on human behaviour. This suggests that generalising the results from tasks performed against a computer to real-life human-to-human interactions warrants some caution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Einstein's Jury is the dramatic story of how astronomers in Germany, England, and America competed to test Einstein's developing theory of relativity. Weaving a rich narrative based on extensive archival research, Jeffrey Crelinsten shows how these early scientific debates shaped cultural attitudes we hold today. The book examines Einstein's theory of general relativity through the eyes of astronomers, many of whom were not convinced of the legitimacy of Einstein's startling breakthrough. These were individuals with international reputations to uphold and benefactors and shareholders to p
This article reviews the situation of renewable energies in Switzerland after a popular vote turned down promotional measures in the year 2000. The situation is analysed and the opinions of various leaders of professional associations and political groups are discussed. Comparisons are made between ideas said to evolve from short-term narrow-mindedness and those developed by more visionary corporations and governments. The effect of the negative outcome of the popular vote on research and development and economic development are discussed. The author expresses his opinion that measures will still have to be taken, thus making the opponents' success more of a Pyrrhic sort of victory
Houck, Leif D
This paper investigates how architectural school competition juries assess Universal Design. The method used is a case study of 18 recent architectural school competitions in Norway. The results show that most competition briefs ask for Universal Designed buildings. In 8 of the 18 cases, Universal Design is mentioned as an assessment criterion. In 11 of the 18 cases, Universal Design is commented on by the juries in the jury reports, but only in 3 of the cases, do the juries assess this aspect consistently on every competition project. The overall impression is that some amount of uncertainty looms concerning how Universal Design should be assessed in the competition stage. Based on the findings, future juries should concentrate on orientation and overview prior to technicalities and details.
In its decison of March 19, 1980 the Local Court of Hamburg sentenced a nuclear opponent to pay the sum withheld to the electricity supply utility. He had remitted 10 per cent of the rate on a blocked account. A right to refuse payment cannot be founded on Art. 4 of the Basic Law, since the freedom of conscience is not unilimited but may be restricted by the legal system or by obligations undertaken by oneself. Nor does the defendant have a right to withhold, since he is not entitled to a counter-claim from the power supply contract. Against the right to refuse payment in good faith speaks the fact that the plaintiff operates the nuclear power plant legally persuant to a licence. Even if the licence was withdrawn by an administrative court, this would not abolish with retroactive effect the existing reasonability of payment. (HSCH) [de
Martin, Ralph C., II; Keeley, Elizabeth
Reviews the protections afforded by the Constitution for defendants in criminal trials. These include the right to a jury trial (in cases of possible incarceration), an impartial jury, and the requirement of a unanimous verdict. Defends the use of plea bargaining as essential to an efficient criminal justice system. (MJP)
Full Text Available Color constancy is the ability of the human visual system to adaptively correct color-biased scenes under different illuminants. Most of the existing color constancy models are nonphysiologically plausible. Among the limited biological models, the great majority is Retinex and its variations, and only two or three models directly simulate the feature of color-opponency, but only of the very earliest stages of visual pathway, i.e., the single-opponent mechanisms involved at the levels of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN neurons. Considering the extensive physiological evidences supporting that both the single-opponent cells in retina and LGN and the double-opponent neurons in primary visual cortex (V1 are the building blocks for color constancy, in this study we construct a color-opponency based color constancy model by simulating the opponent fashions of both the single-opponent and double-opponent cells in a forward manner. As for the spatial structure of the receptive fields (RF, both the classical RF (CRF center and the nonclassical RF (nCRF surround are taken into account for all the cells. The proposed model was tested on several typical image databases commonly used for performance evaluation of color constancy methods, and exciting results were achieved.
'I know very well that my theory rests on a shaky foundation. What attracts me to it is that it leads to consequences that seem to be accessible to experiment, and it provides a starting point for the theoretical understanding of gravitation', wrote Einstein in 1911. Einstein's Jury by Jeffrey Crelinsten-well documented, well written, and fascinating to read-describes how, from 1909 on, Einstein's two theories of relativity became known to astronomers, and how the predictions made between 1907 and 1915 were received as challenges to observers. The author gives a non-technical account of the efforts made until 1930 to test these predictions; he focuses on two of the three classical tests, namely gravitational redshift and bending of light; the 'jury' consists mainly of American observers-Adams, Campbell, Curtis, Hale, Perrin, St John, Trumpler and others-working with newly built large telescopes, and the Britons Eddington and Evershed. The major steps which, after a long struggle, convinced the majority of astronomers that Einstein was right, are narrated chronologically in rather great detail, especially the work at Lick Observatory, before and after the famous British observation of 1919, on solar eclipses, and the work at Mount Wilson and the Indian Kodaikanal Observatories to extract the gravitational redshift from the complicated spectrum of the sun. The account of the eclipse work which was carried out between 1918 and 1923 by Lick astronomers corrects the impression suggested by many historical accounts that the British expedition alone settled the light-bending question. Apart from these main topics, the anomalous perihelion advance of Mercury and the ether problem are covered. By concentrating on astronomy rather than on physics this book complements the rich but repetitive literature on Einstein and relativity which appeared in connection with the commemoration of Einstein's annus mirabilis, 2005. The well told stories include curiosities such as the
Witte, M.; Sonke, J.-J.; van Herk, M.
Purpose: Over a decade ago, the 'Van Herk margin recipe paper' introduced plan evaluation through DVH statistics based on population distributions of systematic and random errors. We extended this work for structures with correlated uncertainties (e.g. lymph nodes or parotid glands), and considered treatment plans containing multiple (overlapping) dose distributions (e.g. conventional lymph node and hypo-fractionated tumor doses) for which different image guidance protocols may lead to correlated errors. Methods: A command-line software tool 'PlanJury' was developed which reads 3D dose and structure data exported from a treatment planning system. Uncertainties are specified by standard deviations and correlation coefficients. Parameters control the DVH statistics to be computed: e.g. the probability of reaching a DVH constraint, or the dose absorbed at given confidence in a (combined) volume. Code was written in C++ and parallelized using OpenMP. Testing geometries were constructed using idealized spherical volumes and dose distributions. Results: Negligible stochastic noise could be attained within two minutes computation time for a single target. The confidence to properly cover both of two targets was 90% for two synchronously moving targets, but decreased by 7% if the targets moved independently. For two partially covered organs at risk the confidence of at least one organ below the mean dose threshold was 40% for synchronous motion, 36% for uncorrelated motion, but only 20% for either of the organs separately. Two abutting dose distributions ensuring 91% confidence of proper target dose for correlated motions led to 28% lower confidence for uncorrelated motions as relative displacements between the doses resulted in cold spots near the target. Conclusions: Probabilistic plan evaluation can efficiently be performed for complicated treatment planning situations, thus providing important plan quality information unavailable in conventional PTV based evaluations.
Solomon, Richard L.; Corbit, John D.
Methods suggested by opponent-process theory of acquired motivation in helping smokers to quit the habit include use of antagonistic drugs, total cessation from tobacco, and decrease in intensity and frequency of tobacco use. (DS)
Kieff, F Scott
Determinations of patentability over the prior art are often thought to raise questions that are so technologically complex that they require special training and judgment to answer, especially in fast-moving fields like modern biotechnology. This essay explores the somewhat counterintuitive argument that under the U.S. system they do not and should not. According to this view, determinations of patentability over the prior art are based entirely on factual inquiries that are best made by lay judges and juries, just like the factual determinations these people regularly make in any ordinary nonpatent trial. This is good because judges and juries are adept at these determinations, and because appellate courts are adept at reviewing them. It leads to a system that is cheaper overall in allowing private litigants to better predict outcomes that also better approximate the correct answer than would be possible under other regimes premised upon the expert technological knowledge and judgment of a decisionmaker.
Charrow, Veda R.; Charrow, Robert
This paper discusses the results of part of an ongoing project studying an aspect of real world language usage, the comprehension of standard jury instructions. Problems in the comprehension of these instructions include the memory load that they impose, the fact that most instructions are read only once, and the fact that instructions are written…
L. G. C.
Dokumentaalfilm semiootik Juri Lotmanist (1922-1993) "Lotmani maailm" : stsenaristid Agne Nelk, Rein Pakk : režissöör A. Nelk : produtsent Kiur Aarma : animatsioon Rait Siska : Ruut, 2008. Autoriks L. G. C. - Leonard Gaius Cohen e. Lemmit Kaplinski
Hettinga, Florentina J; Konings, Marco J; Pepping, Gert-Jan
Athlete-environment interactions are crucial factors in understanding the regulation of exercise intensity in head-to-head competitions. Previously, we have proposed a framework based on the interdependence of perception and action, which allows us to explore athletic behavior in the more complex pacing situations occurring when athletes need to respond to actions of their opponents. In the present perspective we will further explore whether opponents, crucial external factors in competitive sports, could indeed be perceived as social invitations for action. Decisions regarding how to expend energy over the race are based on internal factors such as the physiological/biomechanical capacity of the athlete in relation to external factors such as those presented by opponents. For example: Is the athlete able to overtake competitors, or not? We present several experimental studies that demonstrate that athletes regulate their exercise intensity differently in head-to-head competition compared to time-trial exercises: Relational athlete-environment aspects seem to outweigh benefits of the individual optimal energy distribution. Also, the behavior of the opponents has been shown to influence pacing strategies of competing athletes, again demonstrating the importance of relational athlete-environment aspects in addition to strictly internal factors. An ecological perspective is presented in which opponents are proposed to present social affordances, and decision-making is conceptualized as a resultant of affordance-competition. This approach will provide novel insights in tactical decision-making and pacing behavior in head-to-head competitions. Future research should not only focus on the athlete's internal state, but also try to understand opponents in the context of the social affordances they provide.
Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Rosas, Harvey
This paper presents an algorithm that was developed to identify statistical outliers from the scores of grading jury members in a large project-based first year design course. The background and requirements for the outlier detection system are presented. The outlier detection algorithm...... and the follow-up procedures for score validation and appeals are described in detail. Finally, the impact of various elements of the outlier detection algorithm, their interactions, and the sensitivity of their numerical values are investigated. It is shown that the difference in the mean score produced...... by a grading jury before and after a suspected outlier is removed from the mean is the single most effective criterion for identifying potential outliers but that all of the criteria included in the algorithm have an effect on the outlier detection process....
Peters, Christopher S; Lampinen, James Michael; Malesky, L Alvin
This article examines the opinions of jury-eligible participants regarding entrapment-related issues in online sex offender sting operations. Participants provided lower guilt ratings when the undercover officer initiated the online sexual solicitation than when the defendant initiated the online sexual solicitation. This effect was mediated by the causal attributions (situational vs. dispositional) made by mock jurors for the defendant's actions. The results also suggested that the entrapment defense was less successful for participants with a crime control orientation than for participants with a due process orientation. Based on the results, it is implied that law enforcement should exercise caution when performing these types of sting operations. Furthermore, defense and prosecuting attorneys should take into account the originators of the sexual solicitation when deciding whether to plea bargain or take a case to trial.
Reidy, Thomas J; Sorensen, Jon R; Cunningham, Mark D
The ability of capital juries to accurately predict future prison violence at the sentencing phase of aggravated murder trials was examined through retrospective review of the disciplinary records of 115 male inmates sentenced to either life (n = 65) or death (n = 50) in Oregon from 1985 through 2008, with a mean post-conviction time at risk of 15.3 years. Violent prison behavior was completely unrelated to predictions made by capital jurors, with bidirectional accuracy simply reflecting the base rate of assaultive misconduct in the group. Rejection of the special issue predicting future violence enjoyed 90% accuracy. Conversely, predictions that future violence was probable had 90% error rates. More than 90% of the assaultive rule violations committed by these offenders resulted in no harm or only minor injuries. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This study suggests that fighting against different types of opponents in video games (e.g., human opponents vs. monster opponents) may lead to different emotional responses and moral judgments toward game characters. Based on Bandura's moral disengagement theory, this study proposes that shooting at monster opponents makes game players feel less guilty and judge the player-controlled character as more morally justified. An experiment was conducted in which participants played shooting games with either human opponents or monster opponents. The results show that when playing against monster opponents, participants felt both less ashamed and less guilty, reported enjoying the game more, and judged their character as more justified than participants who played against human opponents.
Ilukirjanduslike tekstide kasutamisest vene keele õpetamisel. Kirjandusteksti analüüsi põhimõtetest Juri Lotmani monograafiates. Lotmani osalusel koostatud kirjandusõpikutest ja kirjanduslikust lugemikust
Billock, Vincent A
Neural spike rate data are more restricted in range than related psychophysical data. For example, several studies suggest a compressive (roughly cube root) nonlinear relationship between wavelength-opponent spike rates in primate midbrain and color appearance in humans, two rather widely separated domains. This presents an opportunity to partially bridge a chasm between these two domains and to probe the putative nonlinearity with other psychophysical data. Here neural wavelength-opponent data are used to create cortical competition models for hue opponency. This effort led to creation of useful models of spiking neuron winner-take-all (WTA) competition and MAX selection. When fed with actual primate data, the spiking WTA models generate reasonable wavelength-opponent spike rate behaviors. An average psychophysical observer for red-green and blue-yellow opponency is curated from eight applicable studies in the refereed and dissertation literatures, with cancellation data roughly every 10 nm in 18 subjects for yellow-blue opponency and 15 subjects for red-green opponency. A direct mapping between spiking neurons with broadband wavelength sensitivity and human psychophysical luminance yields a power law exponent of 0.27, similar to the cube root nonlinearity. Similarly, direct mapping between the WTA model opponent spike rates and psychophysical opponent data suggests power law relationships with exponents between 0.24 and 0.41.
Full Text Available When lay jurors are unfamiliar with key evidentiary issues, expert evidence, judicial instructions and group deliberation may enhance their understanding of this evidence. Systematic steps to assess the relationship between juror biases in cases of child sexual abuse are offered as an example to illustrate a programmatic research approach. Using pretest-posttest research designs, the effectiveness of three traditional legal procedural safeguards to reduce common jury misconceptions in the context of simulated trials were tested and compared. By measuring mock-juror knowledge before and after each intervention, knowledge gains attributable to these interventions were distinguished from practice effects. Unexpected increases in acquittals following deliberation underscored the importance of adding adequate control groups and of testing deliberation effects in jury simulation studies. Benefits of this research paradigm to assist courts, legal counsel and policy makers in devising effective methods to enhance jury decisions in complex criminal cases are discussed. Cuando los miembros del jurado popular no están familiarizados con los temas probatorios clave, las pruebas periciales, las instrucciones judiciales y la deliberación de grupo pueden mejorar su comprensión de las evidencias. Se ofrecen pasos sistemáticos para evaluar la relación entre sesgos del jurado en casos de abusos a menores como un ejemplo para ilustrar un enfoque de investigación programática. Se probó y comparó la efectividad de tres garantías procesales jurídicas tradicionales para reducir los malentendidos comunes de los jurados en el contexto de juicios simulados, usando patrones de investigación pre y post análisis. Al medir el conocimiento de jurados en juicios simulados antes y después de cada intervención, se distinguían los conocimientos adquiridos atribuibles a estas intervenciones. Un aumento inesperado de absoluciones después de la deliberación pon
Juri Lotmani monograafia "Непредсказуемые механизмы культуры" tõlge inglise keelde "The Unpredictable Workings of Culture" nomineeriti Ameerika Slaavi ja Ida-Euroopa Keelte Õpetajate Ühingu 2013. aasta parima tõlkeraamatu auhinnale. Tõlke autor on Kenti Ülikooli slavistika professor Brian Baer ning raamat on ilmunud Tallinna Ülikooli Kirjastuse väljaandena
Full Text Available Described herein is a general-purpose software engineering architecture for autonomous, computer controlled opponent implementation in modern maneuver warfare simulation and training. The implementation has been developed, refined, and tested in the user crucible for several years. The approach represents a hybrid application of various well-known AI techniques, including domain modeling, agent modeling, and object-oriented programming. Inspired by computer chess approaches, the methodology combines this theoretical foundation with a hybrid and scalable portfolio of additional techniques. The result remains simple enough to be maintainable, comprehensible for the code writers as well as the end-users, and robust enough to handle a wide spectrum of possible mission scenarios and circumstances without modification.
Full Text Available Stating that 'good' communication plays a crucial role in everybody's personal and professional life would be to state the obvious. However, this well-established concept constantly seems to call for a reflection upon basic questions, such as: how can we define 'good' communication? What are the criteria that can be applied in order to identify it and to discern it, if possible, from 'bad' communication? Is it possible to achieve it? How? Between whom? In which circumstances? What are its consequences?
Arnott, Gareth; Beattie, Emma; Elwood, Robert W
Displays are a feature of animal contest behaviour and have been interpreted as a means of gathering information on opponent fighting ability, as well as signalling aggressive motivation. In fish, contest displays often include frontal and lateral elements, which in the latter involves contestants showing their flanks to an opponent. Previous work in a range of fish species has demonstrated population-level lateralization of these displays, preferentially showing one side to their opponent. Mirrors are commonly used in place of a real opponent to study aggression in fish, yet they may disrupt the normal pattern of display behaviour. Here, using Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, we compare the aggressive behaviour of males to a mirror image and real opponent behind a transparent barrier. As this species is a facultative air-breather, we also quantify surface breathing, providing insights into underlying fight motivation. Consistent with previous work, we found evidence of population-level lateralization, with a bias to present the left side and use the left eye when facing a real opponent. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the aggressive displays to a mirror and real opponent, with positive correlations between the behaviour in the two scenarios. However, there were important differences in surface breathing, which was more frequent and of longer duration in the mirror treatment. The reasons for these differences are discussed in relation to the repertoire of contest behaviour and motivation when facing a real opponent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In this paper the author deals with the opinions on NPP, using of science by opponents as aid of the knowledge, with the opponents of variants of the development of the slovak energetic, with the public relations. New activities in the public relations are proposed
A Missouri Court of Appeals judge reversed a $14.5 million judgement against [name removed] Inc., which had been held liable for the beating and sexual assault of a guest in its hotel. The guest, identified as [name removed], had requested an upgrade to a concierge room, to increase her safety, but the hotel did not fill her request. When [name removed] opened her hotel room door the next morning, an assailant attacked, beat and raped her. The assailant escaped hotel security, but was later apprehended. The initial case against [name removed] and the assailant resulted in a $22.5 million judgement for [name removed] Both parties appealed. [Name removed] prevailed in its argument that the initial trial judge misinstructed the jury, and that [name removed] was unable to show clear and convincing evidence that the hotel's willful or conscious disregard for guest safety caused the situation. However, the court ruled against [name removed] on the basis of [name removed]'s fear-of-AIDS claim, because of her exposure to the virus.
Ranieri, D J; Zeiss, A M
Solomon's (1980) opponent-process theory of acquired motivation has been used to explain many phenomena in which affective or hedonic contrasts appear to exist, but has not been applied to the induction of depressed mood. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether opponent-process theory can be applied to this area. Velten's (1968) mood-induction procedure was used and subjects were assigned either to a depression-induction condition or to one of two control groups. Self-report measures of depressed mood were taken before, during, and at several points after the mood induction. Results were not totally consistent with a rigorous set of criteria for supporting an opponent-process interpretation. This suggests that the opponent-process model may not be applicable to induced depressed mood. Possible weaknesses in the experimental design, along with implications for opponent-process theory, are discussed.
Novas estratégias em educação: avaliação da técnica Tribunal do Júri na capacitação de conselheiros na área de saúde da mulher em Santa Catarina, Brasil New educational strategies: evaluation of the Jury Trial technique for training council members in women's health in Santa Catarina, Brazil
Eleonor Minho Conill
Full Text Available Descreve-se e avalia-se a técnica Tribunal do Júri, instrumento educativo inovador utilizado em uma oficina piloto sobre Controle Social e Gênero para conselheiros de saúde da Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Estudaram-se sua confiabilidade e validade utilizando a opinião dos participantes complementado com observação qualitativa dos trabalhos. Houve unanimidade na aceitação da técnica por parte dos conselheiros pela "aquisição de conhecimentos" e "por ser participativa, democrática e dinâmica". A avaliação positiva coincide com trabalho anterior feito com secretários municipais, notando-se menor preferência por atividades cognitivas formais que também compunham a oficina. Conclui-se reforçando a importância do uso dessa inovação em capacitações, por ser aceita por públicos distintos, permitir o mapeamento de conteúdo programático e ser útil face a temáticas novas e polêmicas ao favorecer vivências práticas e reflexivas.This article describes and evaluates the Jury Trial technique, an innovative educational instrument used in a pilot workshop on Social Control and Gender by health council members in Greater Metropolitan Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The reliability and validity were studied based on the participants' opinions, complemented by qualitative observation of the work. There was consensus in acceptance of the technique based on "acquisition of knowledge" and the fact that it was participatory, democratic, and dynamic. The positive evaluation agrees with a previous study that interviewed municipal health secretaries, with a smaller preference of formal cognitive activities that were also part of the workshop. The article concludes by emphasizing the importance of this innovative technique in training programs, since it is accepted by different target publics, allows for designing the program contents, and is useful in relation to new and controversial issues since it favors
Wardil, Lucas; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.
Cooperation has been widely studied when an individual strategy is adopted against all coplayers. In this context, some extra mechanisms, such as punishment, reward, memory, and network reciprocity must be introduced in order to keep cooperators alive. Here, we adopt a different point of view. We study the adoption of different strategies against different opponents instead of adoption of the same strategy against all of them. In the context of the prisoner dilemma, we consider an evolutionary process in which strategies that provide more benefits are imitated and the players replace the strategy used in one of the interactions furnishing the worst payoff. Individuals are set in a well-mixed population, so that network reciprocity effect is excluded and both synchronous and asynchronous updates are analyzed. As a consequence of the replacement rule, we show that mutual cooperation is never destroyed and the initial fraction of mutual cooperation is a lower bound for the level of cooperation. We show by simulation and mean-field analysis that (i) cooperation dominates for synchronous update and (ii) only the initial mutual cooperation is maintained for asynchronous update. As a side effect of the replacement rule, an “implicit punishment” mechanism comes up in a way that exploitations are always neutralized providing evolutionary stability for cooperation.
G Christopher Stecker
Full Text Available Although the auditory cortex plays a necessary role in sound localization, physiological investigations in the cortex reveal inhomogeneous sampling of auditory space that is difficult to reconcile with localization behavior under the assumption of local spatial coding. Most neurons respond maximally to sounds located far to the left or right side, with few neurons tuned to the frontal midline. Paradoxically, psychophysical studies show optimal spatial acuity across the frontal midline. In this paper, we revisit the problem of inhomogeneous spatial sampling in three fields of cat auditory cortex. In each field, we confirm that neural responses tend to be greatest for lateral positions, but show the greatest modulation for near-midline source locations. Moreover, identification of source locations based on cortical responses shows sharp discrimination of left from right but relatively inaccurate discrimination of locations within each half of space. Motivated by these findings, we explore an opponent-process theory in which sound-source locations are represented by differences in the activity of two broadly tuned channels formed by contra- and ipsilaterally preferring neurons. Finally, we demonstrate a simple model, based on spike-count differences across cortical populations, that provides bias-free, level-invariant localization-and thus also a solution to the "binding problem" of associating spatial information with other nonspatial attributes of sounds.
Vermeulen, Lotte; Núñez Castellar, Elena; Van Looy, Jan
Abstract The present study investigated the effect of opponent gender on the game experience of female players. Concretely, it looked into skill perception and player emotions of women in same gender and cross-gender game competition. We set up a 2×2×2 (male vs. female opponent×low vs. high competitive women×lost vs. won game) experimental design in which women were instructed to play against a proclaimed male and female competitor. Unknowingly, however, participants played against an AI, which was configured to produce a winning and a losing condition for each opponent by manipulating difficulty. Results indicated that opponent gender only had an effect on perceived stress, which was higher with male opponents. Moreover, players evaluated their own gaming skills as lower and the skills of presumed male opponents as higher when they thought they were playing against men. Importantly, our results also showed that the above described pattern for self-perceived skills and perceived opponent skills was modulated by trait competitiveness with a larger effect size for low competitive women. Overall, this study illustrates that gender dynamics affect the play experience of women in cross-gender gaming competition. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Nunez, Valerie; Shapley, Robert M; Gordon, James
In the early visual cortex V1, there are currently only two known neural substrates for color perception: single-opponent and double-opponent cells. Our aim was to explore the relative contributions of these neurons to color perception. We measured the perceptual scaling of color saturation for equiluminant color checkerboard patterns (designed to stimulate double-opponent neurons preferentially) and uniformly colored squares (designed to stimulate only single-opponent neurons) at several cone contrasts. The spatially integrative responses of single-opponent neurons would produce the same response magnitude for checkerboards as for uniform squares of the same space-averaged cone contrast. However, perceived saturation of color checkerboards was higher than for the corresponding squares. The perceptual results therefore imply that double-opponent cells are involved in color perception of patterns. We also measured the chromatic visual evoked potential (cVEP) produced by the same stimuli; checkerboard cVEPs were much larger than those for corresponding squares, implying that double-opponent cells also contribute to the cVEP response. The total Fourier power of the cVEP grew sublinearly with cone contrast. However, the 6-Hz Fourier component's power grew linearly with contrast-like saturation perception. This may also indicate that cortical coding of color depends on response dynamics.
Drumond Vieira, Rodrigo; da Rocha Bernardo, José Roberto; Evagorou, Maria; Florentino de Melo, Viviane
In this article, we focus on the contributions that a simulated jury-based activity might have for pre-service teachers, especially for their active participation and learning in teacher education. We observed a teacher educator using a series of simulated juries as teaching resources to help pre-service teachers develop their pedagogical knowledge and their argumentation abilities in a physics teacher methods course. For the purposes of this article, we have selected one simulated jury-based activity, comprising two opposed groups of pre-service teachers that presented aspects that hinder the teachers' development of professional knowledge (against group) and aspects that allow this development (favor group). After the groups' presentations, a group of judges was formed to evaluate the discussion. We applied a multi-level method for discourse analysis and the results showed that (1) the simulated jury afforded the pre-service teachers to position themselves as active knowledge producers; (2) the teacher acted as 'animator' of the pre-service teachers' actions, showing responsiveness to the emergence of circumstantial teaching and learning opportunities and (3) the simulated jury culminated in the judges' identification of the pattern 'concrete/obstacles-ideological/possibilities' in the groups' responses, which was elaborated by the teacher for the whole class. Implications from this study include using simulated juries for teaching and learning and for the development of the pre-service teachers' argumentative abilities. The potential of simulated juries to improve teaching and learning needs to be further explored in order to inform the uses and reflections of this resource in science education.
A Citizens' Jury (CJ) is a discussion forum in which managers, policymakers or politicians are able to present their case to the general public ('citizens') to whom they are accountable, and for these citizens to critically ask questions of the managers/policymakers/politicians in order to better understand issues surrounding local development, planning and policy, impacts and adaptive measures, and to highlight their concerns. A CJ can be useful with respect to developing social justice and environmental awareness issues because it can empower community action and present different viewpoints. A practical CJ exercise is used in a second-year undergraduate course entitled Climate Change and Society, at University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The CJ is used to consider some of the impacts of management policies used for climate change and sustainable development adaption, based on a hypothetical scenario. This scenario is that a major energy company wants to build a dam with hydroelectric power station in a developing country. This will provide low-carbon renewable energy to the country, investment in electricity infrastructure, and the company is committed to help economic development in the country, including in jobs and education. However, building and flooding of the dam will involve displacing 10,000 people from rural communities, flooding agricultural areas and areas of high biodiversity, and archaeological sites. The exercise is based on students, in groups, assuming different 'identities' which may include a local business person, resident, politician, member of an NGO, tourist, engineer, farmer etc, from which viewpoint they must argue for/against the proposal and to question other peoples' viewpoints. This exercise is useful because it allows students to develop understandings of different viewpoints, evaluate risk and impacts on different communities, and highlights the complexity of real-world decision-making.
.... Building on the work reported in two of our earlier papers from IRIS Passive Sensors 1996, we show how opponent-color processing and center-surround shunting neural networks can be used to develop...
Full Text Available extend BPR to adversarial settings, in particular, to opponents that switch from one stationary strategy to another. Our proposed extension enables learning new models in an online fashion when the learning agent detects that the current policies...
Full Text Available Uti possidetis juris principle was basic rule in determining international borders in the period of decolonization. It was applied in Latin America and Africa, but also at the end of 20th century in the processes of dissolution of USSR, SFRY and Czechoslovakia. Uti possidetis juris principle is based on the presumption that former colonial administrative borders kept stability and territorial integrity. It was undoubtedly connected with the right of self-determination. It keeps the existing borders by preventing secession, but in that way it does not solve the problem of badly determined and disputed borders. The unclear foundations on which the borders were determined can be a source of chaos and indisputes, which was shown n some cases before the International Court of Justice. The dominant theory is that uti possidetis juris principle should be applied with certain limitations, in the period after decolonization as a basis for preserving the territorial integrity of postcolonial states.
Yttri, Eric A.
For goal-directed behavior it is critical that we can both select the appropriate action and learn to modify the underlying movements (e.g. the pitch of a note or velocity of a reach) to improve outcomes. The basal ganglia are a critical nexus where circuits necessary for the production of behavior, such as neocortex and thalamus, are integrated with reward signaling 1 to reinforce successful, purposive actions 2. Dorsal striatum, a major input structure of basal ganglia is composed of two opponent pathways, direct and indirect, thought to select actions that elicit positive outcomes or suppress actions that do not, respectively 3,4. Activity-dependent plasticity modulated by reward is thought to be sufficient for selecting actions in striatum 5,6. Although perturbations of basal ganglia function produce profound changes in movement 7, it remains unknown whether activity-dependent plasticity is sufficient to produce learned changes in movement kinematics, such as velocity. Here we used cell-type specific stimulation delivered in closed-loop during movement to demonstrate that activity in either the direct or indirect pathway is sufficient to produce specific and sustained increases or decreases in velocity without affecting action selection or motivation. These behavioral changes were a form of learning that accumulated over trials, persisted after the cessation of stimulation, and were abolished in the presence of dopamine antagonists. Our results reveal that the direct and indirect pathways can each bidirectionally control movement velocity, demonstrating unprecedented specificity and flexibility in the control of volition by the basal ganglia. PMID:27135927
5.-7. juulini toimuvad Estonia teatris Moskva Mossoveti-nim. Teatri külalisetendused. Juri Jerjomini lavastus "Mees, naine ja armuke" F. Dostojevski ja I. Turgenevi teoste põhjal, peaosas Valentin Gaft ning lavastus Tennessee Williamsi järgi "Tramm nimega Iha". Teatrist, näitlejatest, lavastustest
Priimägi, Linnar, 1954-
Kultuuri ülesehitusest ja funktsioonidest Juri Lotmani kultuurifilosofias. Kultuuri autokatalüütilisuses on paradoks, mille kohaselt kultuur ei saa tekkida millegi muu kui kultuuri olemasolu eeldusel
Korzan, W.J.; Höglund, Erik; Watt, M.J.
During agonistic interactions between male Anolis carolinensis, perception of a visual sign stimulus (darkened eyespots) not only inhibits aggression and promotes initial attainment of dominant social status, but also evokes distinct neuroendocrine responses in each opponent. This study was desig......During agonistic interactions between male Anolis carolinensis, perception of a visual sign stimulus (darkened eyespots) not only inhibits aggression and promotes initial attainment of dominant social status, but also evokes distinct neuroendocrine responses in each opponent. This study...... was designed to examine the effect of eyespot manipulation on behavior and social rank during a second interaction between opponents that had previously established a natural dyadic social hierarchy. Prior to a second interaction, eyespots of familiar size-matched combatants were manipulated to reverse...... information conveyed by this visual signal. Eyespots on the previously dominant male were masked with green paint to indicate low aggression and social status. Previously subordinate males had their eyespots permanently marked with black paint to convey high aggression and status. Opponents were then re...
P.J. 't Hoen (Pieter Jan); S.M. Bohte (Sander); J.A. La Poutré (Han)
textabstractMulti-agent learning is a growing area of research. An important topic is to formulate how an agent can learn a good policy in the face of adaptive, competitive opponents. Most research has focused on extensions of single agent learning techniques originally designed for agents in more
Bratkova, Margarita; Boulos, Solomon; Shirley, Peter
Designed for computer graphics, oRGB is a new color model based on opponent color theory. It works well for both HSV-style color selection and computational applications such as color transfer. oRGB also enables new applications such as a quantitative cool-to-warm metric, intuitive color manipulation and variations, and simple gamut mapping.
Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Espensen, Christina; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder
This work characterizes and optimizes an outlier detection algorithm to identify potentially invalid scores produced by jury members while grading engineering design projects. The paper describes the original algorithm and the associated adjudication process in detail. The impact of the various...... (the base rule and the three additional conditions) play a role in the algorithm's performance and should be included in the algorithm. Because there is significant interaction between the base rule and the additional conditions, many acceptable combinations that balance the FPR and FNR can be found......, but no true optimum seems to exist. The performance of the best optimizations and the original algorithm are similar. Therefore, it should be possible to choose new coefficient values for jury populations in other cultures and contexts logically and empirically without a full optimization as long...
Eastin, Matthew S.
Adding depth and breadth to the general aggression model, this paper presents three experiments that test the relationships among user and opponent gender representation, opponent type, presence, and aggressive thoughts from violent video game play. Studies 1 and 2 suggest that females experience greater presence and more aggressive thoughts from…
Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy
Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public's viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens' Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens' Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens' Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of obesity.
Caldwell, Charles; Seamone, Evan R
This article unwraps the nature and source of human errors involved in Radiology, revealing unique elements of the specialty that warrant special consideration in medical malpractice cases. The authors compare these errors to negligent practices in other professions and conclude that a general concept of negligence cannot adequately address the complexities of decision-making in Radiology. After analyzing legal precedent, they develop an innovative jury instruction that recognizes particular situations of error in Radiology that occur in the absence of negligence.
Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P.; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy
Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of
Full Text Available Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from
Au, Al K C; Lam, Shui-Fong
Previous works on the effect of self-construal in interpersonal behaviours tend to adopt a main effect approach. The present research proposes an interactive approach in understanding two response patterns in dyadic conflict by combining self-construal and the stance of the opponent. Independent self-construal was hypothesised to be associated with a self-centred pattern of conflict response, which is characterised by taking contending responses regardless of whether the stance of the opponent is dominant or submissive. Relational self-construal was hypothesised to be associated with a tuning-in pattern of conflict response, which is characterised by showing contending responses when the opponent is submissive but yielding responses when the opponent is dominant. With trait self-construal measured and opponent's stance manipulated, Study 1 provided initial support for the hypotheses. Study 2 showed a three-way interaction effect between trait self-construal, manipulated self-construal and the opponent's stance on actual conflict responses during discussion of a scenario. The effect of self-construal manipulation was only observed among people who were low in trait independent self-construal and average in trait relational self-construal. The results pinpoint the importance of considering personal and opponent factors simultaneously in understanding the dynamics of dyadic conflict processes. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Full Text Available Opponents of hydroelectricity claim falsely that hydrotechnical development of the Lower Vistula River constitutes implementation of Edward Gierek’s concept of bringing only environmental damage1. Statements on the negative environmental impact of constructing small hydroelectric power stations (SHPS are equally groundless. Permanent protests against the construction of dams and river damming, regardless of the motivations and will of protesters, increase energy dependence on Russia, and preserves the poor, post-Bierut hydrological situation2. The main fallacy made by hydropower opponents is the alternative treatment of power and environmental purposes. Environmental errors consist in continuous omission of even the most obvious positive ecological effects of constructing river dams and – what is especially reprehensible – inventing non-existent threats, e.g. lethal concentration of toxic heavy metals in deposits of the Włocławek Reservoir or the detrimental impact of warming up water in stage of falls on the fish population below the dam.
Full text: The opponents of industry, and most Green campaigning groups, thrive on controversy. Opponents of industry, and of the nuclear industry in particular, can expect to find a more receptive public audience than do the companies they attack. Therefore, there is little to be gained by industry entering into direct conflict, or even high-profile debate, with opponents. Industry spokesmen do not rate as being trustworthy in the eyes of the public. And it does not pay to directly attack the credibility, however justified such criticisms are, of the likes of Greenpeace. In a polarised debate, if your company is seen to be partisan and the opponents to be neutral, the public will gravitate towards the opponents. The way forward is to influence the forces which ran help industry establish the middle ground to dissipate the tension. The problem for industry is not so much that it has opponents, but that it does not have enough third party advocates to mediate in disputes. Therefore, the first step is to identify the key issues facing a company or industry. The second, is to work with credible people and organisations to establish independent mechanisms which can prevent an unfavourable climate building up around those issues. The art of dealing with opponents, is the art of identifying such mechanisms (people, organisations and professions) to influence an increasingly cynical and distrusting public. These opinion-formers should be the main focus of a communications strategy designed to counter opponents. They are the conduit through which to influence public opinion in general. For instance, the debate surrounding the incidence of leukaemia around nuclear sites cannot be answered by the industry using the facts, scientific evidence, or by entering into a noisy dialogue with opponents. However, the medical profession, along with scientists working outside the nuclear industry, is in a position to shift public concern away from nuclear sites. BNFL has promoted
Derey, Kiki; Valente, Giancarlo; de Gelder, Beatrice; Formisano, Elia
Coding of sound location in auditory cortex (AC) is only partially understood. Recent electrophysiological research suggests that neurons in mammalian auditory cortex are characterized by broad spatial tuning and a preference for the contralateral hemifield, that is, a nonuniform sampling of sound azimuth. Additionally, spatial selectivity decreases with increasing sound intensity. To accommodate these findings, it has been proposed that sound location is encoded by the integrated activity of neuronal populations with opposite hemifield tuning ("opponent channel model"). In this study, we investigated the validity of such a model in human AC with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a phase-encoding paradigm employing binaural stimuli recorded individually for each participant. In all subjects, we observed preferential fMRI responses to contralateral azimuth positions. Additionally, in most AC locations, spatial tuning was broad and not level invariant. We derived an opponent channel model of the fMRI responses by subtracting the activity of contralaterally tuned regions in bilateral planum temporale. This resulted in accurate decoding of sound azimuth location, which was unaffected by changes in sound level. Our data thus support opponent channel coding as a neural mechanism for representing acoustic azimuth in human AC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
Alder, David; Ford, Paul R; Causer, Joe; Williams, A Mark
We examined links between the kinematics of an opponent's actions and the visual search behaviors of badminton players responding to those actions. A kinematic analysis of international standard badminton players (n = 4) was undertaken as they completed a range of serves. Video of these players serving was used to create a life-size temporal occlusion test to measure anticipation responses. Expert (n = 8) and novice (n = 8) badminton players anticipated serve location while wearing an eye movement registration system. During the execution phase of the opponent's movement, the kinematic analysis showed between-shot differences in distance traveled and peak acceleration at the shoulder, elbow, wrist and racket. Experts were more accurate at responding to the serves compared to novice players. Expert players fixated on the kinematic locations that were most discriminating between serve types more frequently and for a longer duration compared to novice players. Moreover, players were generally more accurate at responding to serves when they fixated vision upon the discriminating arm and racket kinematics. Findings extend previous literature by providing empirical evidence that expert athletes' visual search behaviors and anticipatory responses are inextricably linked to the opponent action being observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bozentko, Kyle; Clement, Sarah; Hunn, Amanda; Hassan, Lamiece; Norris, Ruth; Oswald, Malcolm; Peek, Niels
Background The secondary use of health data for research raises complex questions of privacy and governance. Such questions are ill-suited to opinion polling where citizens must choose quickly between multiple-choice answers based on little information. Objective The aim of this project was to extend knowledge about what control informed citizens would seek over the use of health records for research after participating in a deliberative process using citizens’ juries. Methods Two 3-day citizens’ juries, of 17 citizens each, were convened to reflect UK national demographics from 355 eligible applicants. Each jury addressed the mission “To what extent should patients control access to patient records for secondary use?” Jurors heard from and questioned 5 expert witnesses (chosen either to inform the jury, or to argue for and against the secondary use of data), interspersed with structured opportunities to deliberate among themselves, including discussion and role-play. Jurors voted on a series of questions associated with the jury mission, giving their rationale. Individual views were polled using questionnaires at the beginning and at end of the process. Results At the end of the process, 33 out of 34 jurors voted in support of the secondary use of data for research, with 24 wanting individuals to be able to opt out, 6 favoring opt in, and 3 voting that all records should be available without any consent process. When considering who should get access to data, both juries had very similar rationales. Both thought that public benefit was a key justification for access. Jury 1 was more strongly supportive of sharing patient records for public benefit, whereas jury 2 was more cautious and sought to give patients more control. Many jurors changed their opinion about who should get access to health records: 17 people became more willing to support wider information sharing of health data for public benefit, whereas 2 moved toward more patient control over
Tamer Fakhoury Filho
Full Text Available It is necessary to (rethink legal education using new methodologies. This requires changing the dominant mindset in teaching and practice of law (still essentially based on conflict and judicial proceedings. A new model can be implemented with the strategic analysis of the law and the storytelling. The storytelling in the classroom and in professional practice, is one of the viable ways to implement these changes. As the storytelling is already used in the jury, it can also be used in other professional fields and enhanced as a tool teaching of law, regardless of discipline.
States with separation of powers , including executive, legislative, and judicial branches, granted by the 1917 Constitution. The executive branch role...law system prevents an overreaching judicial branch from legislating new laws. This provides a strong separation of powers . However, when coupled
Scuffham, P A; Moretto, N; Krinks, R; Burton, P; Whitty, J A; Wilson, A; Fitzgerald, G; Littlejohns, P; Kendall, E
Policies addressing ED crowding have failed to incorporate the public's perspectives; engaging the public in such policies is needed. This study aimed at determining the public's recommendations related to alternative models of care intended to reduce crowding, optimising access to and provision of emergency care. A Citizens' Jury was convened in Queensland, Australia, to consider priority setting and resource allocation to address ED crowding. Twenty-two jurors were recruited from the electoral roll, who were interested and available to attend the jury from 15 to 17 June 2012. Juror feedback was collected via a survey immediately following the end of the jury. The jury considered that all patients attending the ED should be assessed with a minority of cases diverted for assistance elsewhere. Jurors strongly supported enabling ambulance staff to treat patients in their homes without transporting them to the ED, and allowing non-medical staff to treat some patients without seeing a doctor. Jurors supported (in principle) patient choice over aspects of their treatment (when, where and type of health professional) with some support for patients paying towards treatment but unanimous opposition for patients paying to be prioritised. Most of the jurors were satisfied with their experience of the Citizens' Jury process, but some jurors perceived the time allocated for deliberations as insufficient. These findings suggest that the general public may be open to flexible models of emergency care. The jury provided clear recommendations for direct public input to guide health policy to tackle ED crowding. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Baena-Cañada, José M; Luque-Ribelles, Violeta; Quílez-Cutillas, Alicia; Rosado-Varela, Petra; Benítez-Rodríguez, Encarnación; Márquez-Calderón, Soledad; Rivera-Bautista, Juan Manuel
Objectives To verify whether a citizens' jury study is feasible to the Andalusian population and to know if women, when better informed, are able to answer the research question of whether the Andalusian Public Health System must continue offering screening mammography to women aged 50–69. The reasons for the pertinent decision and recommendations to the political authorities will be stated. Design Qualitative research study with the methodology of citizens' jury. Setting Breast cancer screening programme in Andalusia (Spain). Participants Thirteen women aged 50–69 with secondary school or higher education accepted to participate as a jury. Two epidemiologists were the expert witnesses. The main researcher was the neutral moderator. Interventions Jury met on Monday, 15 February 2016. The moderator indicated to the jury that it had to assess the screening programme’s key benefits and main harm. On Tuesday, 16 February, the expert witnesses positioned for and against the programme. On Thursday, 18 February, the jury deliberated, reached final conclusions, submitted its vote and stated its recommendations to politicians. The deliberation session was transcribed and analysed with the support of ATLAS.ti.5.2 software. Primary and secondary outcome measures Feasibility in the Andalusian population, women’s vote and opinion, reasons for votes and recommendations to political authorities. Results Eleven participants voted yes and two voted no. There are three reasons to vote ‘yes’: health, the test nature, and individual freedom. Some women invoke the lack of efficacy and the cost to justify their negative vote, at least in universal terms. On completion, they made suggestions to be submitted to the pertinent authorities for the improvement of information, psychology services and research. Conclusions The deliberative strategy is feasible and causes a favourable positioning regarding screening mammography, although information changes the opinion of some women
Marcos Marques Formigosa
Full Text Available The physics teaching still finds many obstacles in basic education, mainly because of the strong resistance that we find within its methodologies, still centered in the didactic book and the memorization of formulas and laws. This manuscript aims to present the results of the strategies of Simulated Jury and Brain Storm developed in a Countryside Education Degree (emphasis in Natural Sciences, specifically at Fundamentals of Physics III in two classes of the 4th Period, in the countryside Of Paraense Amazon. In one class we used the strategy Cerebral Storm and another strategy was the Simulated Jury, the Electricity content. The analyzes were made based on the reports of the students in the class and notes made by the teacher/researcher. These developed strategies allowed the rupture of the stereotypes presented among the students about the methodologies used by their teachers in teaching Physics contents, which was based on traditional expository classes, and with the strategies used they realized that they can approach the contents of and, above all, led them to a critical reality understanding in which they are inserted.
The Swedish Parliament has voted for massive expansion of wind power within the next decade. As in many other countries, the establishment of new wind farms has aroused local opposition. This paper contributes to the literature using a qualitative methodology to analyse attitudes towards wind power. In 2007, we carried out in-depth interviews with 40 stakeholders concerned with two planned near-shore farms in Sweden; despite their location, the wind farms' visual impact provoked strong negative attitudes. However, we found no evidence of the NIMBY-syndrome; rather, those opposing the wind farms question wind power more generally, especially vis-à-vis nuclear power. The analysis of attitudes is based on three components: cognition, feeling and action tendency. The results show high consistency between the feeling and cognitive components of attitudes: a negative feeling regarding landscape impact, for example, is accompanied by a belief that wind power is inefficient and unprofitable. However, in many cases the action tendency component is in dissonance with the other two: opponents remain passive despite being against the establishment of new wind farms. These passive opponents represent elements of uncertainty as they may suddenly, at a late stage, turn into active opponents exerting an effect on the decision process. - Highlights: ► Opposition to near-shore wind farms expressed in in-depth interviews is analysed. ► Wind power is viewed as a threat to landscape qualities regardless of proximity. ► Inefficiency and unprofitability are reasons to question wind power establishments. ► Passive opposition is an element of uncertainty that may turn into active opposition. ► Understanding of local response must rest on level of support as well as activity.
Sara Daiane Silva José
Full Text Available The Syriac Apocalypse of Daniel (Syr Apoc Dan, a Christian apocalypse from the seventh century of Common Era, is clearly tributary to the canonical book of Daniel (Dn. In its turn, Dn provided the figure of an eschatological opponent who was re-signified in Christianity: the Antichrist. The cosmic dimensions of the malevolent character of oppressive tyrant of Dn – his arrogance against the gods, the abomination of desolation, military conquests and persecutions of the saints, the change of the cosmic order, the time of the reign and death of the tyrant – are considered in this work compared with the Antichrist of the Syr Apoc Dan.
Lucia P. Pavlova
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opponent dynamics of human motivational and affective processes, as conceptualized by RS Solomon, from the position of AA Ukhtomsky’s neurophysiological principle of the dominant and its applications in the field of human electroencephalographic analysis. As an experimental model, we investigate the dynamics of cortical activity in students submitting university final course oral examinations in naturalistic settings, and show that successful performance in these settings depends on the presence of specific types of cortical activation patterns, involving high indices of left-hemispheric and frontal cortical dominance, whereas the lack thereof predicts poor performance on the task, and seems to be associated with difficulties in the executive regulation of cognitive (intellectual and motivational processes in these highly demanding and stressful conditions. Based on such knowledge, improved educational and therapeutic interventions can be suggested which take into account individual variability in the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying adaptation to motivationally and intellectually challenging, stressful tasks, such as oral university exams. Some implications of this research for opponent-process theory and its closer integration into current neuroscience research on acquired motivations are discussed.
Laver, Kate; Gnanamanickam, Emmanuel; Whitehead, Craig; Kurrle, Susan; Corlis, Megan; Ratcliffe, Julie; Shulver, Wendy; Crotty, Maria
Objectives Health services worldwide are increasingly adopting consumer directed care approaches. Traditionally, consumer directed care models have been implemented in home care services and there is little guidance as to how to implement them in residential care. This study used a citizens' jury to elicit views of members of the public regarding consumer directed care in residential care. Methods A citizens' jury involving 12 members of the public was held over two days in July 2016, exploring the question: For people with dementia living in residential care facilities, how do we enable increased personal decision making to ensure that care is based on their needs and preferences? Jury members were recruited through a market research company and selected to be broadly representative of the general public. Results The jury believed that person-centred care should be the foundation of care for all older people. They recommended that each person's funding be split between core services (to ensure basic health, nutrition and hygiene needs are met) and discretionary services. Systems needed to be put into place to enable the transition to consumer directed care including care coordinators to assist in eliciting resident preferences, supports for proxy decision makers, and accreditation processes and risk management strategies to ensure that residents with significant cognitive impairment are not taken advantage of by goods and service providers. Transparency should be increased (perhaps using technologies) so that both the resident and nominated family members can be sure that the person is receiving what they have paid for. Conclusions The views of the jury (as representatives of the public) were that people in residential care should have more say regarding the way in which their care is provided and that a model of consumer directed care should be introduced. Policy makers should consider implementation of consumer directed care models that are economically viable
Mitchell, Marc; Faulkner, Guy
A comprehensive, multi-level approach to curb chronic disease-related costs in Canada is needed. One target for intervention is the economic domain. The emergence of user financial incentives (UFI) in public health policy as well as their broad implementation in corporate settings has stimulated a growing but limited body of research in this area. The authors'position is that the jury is still out on the question of their effectiveness in sustaining long-term health behaviour change, given the nature of the UFI that have been designed and delivered to date--that is, UFI with limited theoretical and contextual consideration. It is their contention that manipulating UFI design features (there are seven core features with a range of attributes) to exploit contextual (e.g., personal income) and theoretical (e.g., self-efficacy) factors may optimize UFI effectiveness over the long term. Although UFI are not the solution, they might very well be apart.
Jennifer A. Whitty
Full Text Available Despite progress towards greater public engagement, questions about the optimal approach to access public preferences remain unanswered. We review two increasingly popular methods for engaging the public in healthcare priority-setting and determining their preferences; the Citizens’ Jury (CJ and Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE. We discuss the theoretical framework from which each method is derived, its application in healthcare, and critique the information it can provide for decision-makers. We conclude that combining deliberation of an informed public via CJs and quantification of preferences using DCE methods, whilst it remains to be tested as an approach to engaging the public in priority-setting, could potentially achieve much richer information than the application of either method in isolation.
Full Text Available Background: An experience serving jury duty prompted reflection on the parallels between evidenced based medicine and our legal system. Findings: The steps of the legal system can be tied to each step of the practice of evidenced based medicine. Implications: Patients should be included in evidence based decisions. Pharmacists can act as resources for other providers practicing evidenced based medicine. Educators can use this analogy to teach evidence based medicine. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties. Type: Commentary
Full Text Available Most public health agencies and learned societies agree that the prostate-specific antigen (PSA test in asymptomatic men should not be recommended, on account of its potential for harm. Yet PSA is still widely used as a screening test and is not being abandoned. This remains a significant public health issue, and citizens' engagement is needed. This study was designed to produce a deliberation on the PSA screening test by a citizens' jury.Fifteen citizens were selected and balanced for sex, age, and education. They received an information booklet and participated in a two-day meeting with experts to reach a deliberation on the question "Should the National Health Service discourage or recommend PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in men 55-69 years old?". A facilitator ran the jurors' discussion.All except three of the jurors decided that the National Health Service should discourage the use of PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in 55-69 year-old men. The jury was particularly convinced by the uncertainty of the test outcomes, the utility of the test, and its cost/benefit ratio. Before the meeting 60% of jurors would have recommended the test to a relative, and all the male jurors would have done so. After the meeting these percentages fell to 15% and 12%.This experience confirms the feasibility and effectiveness of delegating to a group of citizens the responsibility to decide on public health issues on behalf of the community. Public health authorities should invest in information campaigns aimed at the public and in educational initiatives for physicians. This also provided an opportunity to disseminate information on screening, over-diagnosis, and over-treatment.
Nancy S. Marder
Full Text Available The introduction to the special issue describes the goals of the conference on Juries and Mixed Tribunals across the Globe, and identifies themes that emerged as jury scholars from all over the world examined different forms of lay participation in legal decision-making. The introduction focuses on common challenges that different systems of lay participation face, including the selection of impartial fact finders and the presentation of complex cases to lay citizens. The introduction and special issue articles also highlight new developments and innovative practices to address these challenges, including some tools, like decision trees, that remain highly controversial. The introduction closes by emphasizing the enduring political importance of citizen participation in law. La introducción a este número especial describe los objetivos de la conferencia sobre jurados y tribunales mixtos en el mundo, e identifica los temas que surgieron cuando académicos de todo el mundo especializados en jurados analizaron diferentes formas de participación de legos en la toma de decisiones jurídicas. La introducción se centra en los desafíos comunes a los que se enfrentan los diferentes sistemas de participación de legos, incluyendo la selección de jurados imparciales y la presentación de casos complejos a ciudadanos profanos en la materia. La introducción y el número especial también destacan nuevos desarrollos y prácticas innovadoras para afrontar estos retos, incluyendo algunas herramientas, como los árboles de decisiones, que todavía son muy controvertidas. La introducción finaliza, haciendo hincapié en la importancia política duradera de la participación ciudadana en el derecho. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2785708
Chappell, Virginia A.
Presents a case study of a particular courtroom case dealing with the death penalty. Analyzes the processes and communications of the trial jury. Discusses the interplay of common-sense and expert claims at three crucial stages of the trial. (HB)
Seymour, Ben; O'Doherty, John P; Koltzenburg, Martin; Wiech, Katja; Frackowiak, Richard; Friston, Karl; Dolan, Raymond
Termination of a painful or unpleasant event can be rewarding. However, whether the brain treats relief in a similar way as it treats natural reward is unclear, and the neural processes that underlie its representation as a motivational goal remain poorly understood. We used fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) to investigate how humans learn to generate expectations of pain relief. Using a pavlovian conditioning procedure, we show that subjects experiencing prolonged experimentally induced pain can be conditioned to predict pain relief. This proceeds in a manner consistent with contemporary reward-learning theory (average reward/loss reinforcement learning), reflected by neural activity in the amygdala and midbrain. Furthermore, these reward-like learning signals are mirrored by opposite aversion-like signals in lateral orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. This dual coding has parallels to 'opponent process' theories in psychology and promotes a formal account of prediction and expectation during pain.
Solomon, R L
There are acquired motives of the addiction type which seem to be non-associative in nature. They all seem to involve affective phenomena caused by reinforcers, unconditioned stimuli or innate releasers. When such stimuli are repeatedly presented, at least three affective phenomena occur: (1) affective contrast effects, (2) affective habituation (tolerance), and (3) affective withdrawal syndromes. These phenomena can be precipitated either by pleasant or unpleasant events (positive or negative reinforcers). Whenever we see these three phenomena, we also see the development of an addictive cycle, a new motivational system. These phenomena are explained by an opponent-process theory of motivation which holds that there are affect control systems which oppose large departures from affective equilibrium. The control systems are strengthened by use and weakened by disuse. Current observations and experiments testing the theory are described for: (1) the growth of social attachment (imprinting) in ducklings; and (2) the growth of adjunctive behaviors. The findings so far support the theory.
Lee, Hong Joo; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Jong Woo; Park, Sung Joo; Gloor, Peter
Online gamers form clans voluntarily to play together and to discuss their real and virtual lives. Although these clans have diverse goals, they seek to increase their rank in the game community by winning more battles. Communications among clan members and battles with other clans may influence the performance of a clan. In this study, we compared the effects of communication structure inside a clan, and battle networks among clans, with the performance of the clans. We collected battle histories, posts, and comments on clan pages from a Korean online game, and measured social network indices for communication and battle networks. Communication structures in terms of density and group degree centralization index had no significant association with clan performance. However, the centrality of clans in the battle network was positively related to the performance of the clan. If a clan had many battle opponents, the performance of the clan improved.
Horowitz, I A; ForsterLee, L; Brolly, I
The ability of a civil jury to render fair and rational decisions in complex trials has been questioned. However, the nature, dimensions, and effects of trial complexity on decision making have rarely been addressed. In this research, jury-eligible adults saw a videotape of a complex civil trial that varied in information load and complexity of the language of the witnesses. Information load and complexity differentially affected liability and compensatory decisions. An increase in the number of plaintiffs decreased blameworthiness assigned to the defendant despite contrary evidence and amount of probative evidence processed. Complex language did not affect memory but did affect jurors' ability to appropriately compensate differentially worthy plaintiffs. Jurors assigned compensatory awards commensurate with the plaintiffs' injuries only under low-load and less complex language conditions.
Fujii, Keisuke; Yamashita, Daichi; Kimura, Tetsuya; Isaka, Tadao; Kouzaki, Motoki
In a competitive sport, the outcome of a game is determined by an athlete's relationship with an unpredictable and uncontrolled opponent. We have previously analyzed the preparatory state of ground reaction forces (GRFs) dividing non-weighted and weighted states (i.e., vertical GRFs below and above 120% of body weight, respectively) in a competitive ballgame task and demonstrated that the non-weighted state prevented delay of the defensive step and promoted successful guarding. However, the associated kinetics of lower extremity joints during a competitive sports task remains unknown. The present study aims to investigate the kinetic characteristics of a real-time competitive sport before movement initiation. As a first kinetic study on a competitive sport, we initially compared the successful defensive kinetics with a relatively stable preparatory state and the choice-reaction sidestep as a control movement. Then, we investigated the kinetic cause of the outcome in a 1-on-1 dribble in terms of the preparatory states according to our previous study. The results demonstrated that in successful defensive motions in the non-weighted state guarding trial, the times required for the generation of hip abduction and three extension torques for the hip, knee, and ankle joints were significantly shortened compared with the choice-reaction sidestep, and hip abduction and hip extension torques were produced almost simultaneously. The sport-specific movement kinetics emerges only in a more-realistic interactive experimental setting. A comparison of the outcomes in the 1-on-1 dribble and preparatory GRF states showed that, in the non-weighted state, the defenders guarded successfully in 68.0% of the trials, and the defender's initiation time was earlier than that in the weighted state (39.1%). In terms of kinetics, the root mean squares of the derivative of hip abduction and three extension torques in the non-weighted state were smaller than those in the weighted state
Vargas-Perez, Hector; Ting-A-Kee, Ryan A; Heinmiller, Andrew; Sturgess, Jessica E; van der Kooy, Derek
The opponent-process theory of motivation postulates that motivational stimuli activate a rewarding process that is followed by an opposed aversive process in a homeostatic control mechanism. Thus, an acute injection of morphine in nondependent animals should evoke an acute rewarding response, followed by a later aversive response. Indeed, the tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus (TPP) mediates the rewarding effects of opiates in previously morphine-naive animals, but not other unconditioned effects of opiates, or learning ability. The aversive opponent process for acute morphine reward was revealed using a place-conditioning paradigm. The conditioned place aversion induced by 16-h spontaneous morphine withdrawal from an acute morphine injection in nondependent rats was abolished by TPP lesions performed prior to drug experience. However, TPP-lesioned rats did show conditioned aversions for an environment paired with the acute administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone, which blocks endogenous opioids. The results show that blocking the rewarding effects of morphine with TPP lesions also blocked the opponent aversive effects of acute morphine withdrawal in nondependent animals. Thus, this spontaneous withdrawal aversion (the opponent process) is induced by the acute rewarding effects of morphine and not by other unconditioned effects of morphine, the pharmacological effects of morphine or endogenous opioids being displaced from opiate receptors.
Color is a complex and rich perceptual phenomenon that relates physical properties of light to certain perceptual qualia associated with vision. Hering's opponent color theory, widely regarded as capturing the most fundamental aspects of color phenomenology, suggests that certain unique hues are mutually exclusive as components of a single color.…
van der Ree, Michiel; Wiering, Marco
This paper compares three strategies in using reinforcement learning algorithms to let an artificial agent learnto play the game of Othello. The three strategies that are compared are: Learning by self-play, learning from playing against a fixed opponent, and learning from playing against a fixed
Buscombe, Richard; Greenlees, Iain; Holder, Tim; Thelwell, Richard; Rimmer, Matt
In this study, we examined the impact of a male opponent's pre-match body language and clothing (general vs. sports-specific) on how his performances were judged by an observer. Forty male tennis players viewed videos of a male target tennis player warming up and then observed playing footage of the target. Each participant viewed the target player warming up displaying one of four combinations of body language and clothing (positive body language/tennis-specific clothing; positive body language/general sportswear; negative body language/tennis-specific clothing; negative body language/general sportswear). Participants rated the performance of the tennis player and gave their perceptions of the likely outcome of a tennis match with the target player. Analyses of variance indicated that clothing and body language had an interactive effect on both outcome expectations and ratings of performance. The findings support the contention that the initial impressions athletes form of their opponents can influence the way in which they judge the performances of opponents and their perceived likelihood of success against the same opponents.
Drum, Bruce; Sternheim, Charles E.
We present evidence that steady achromatic adapting fields can produce response saturation in color-opponent pathways. We measured tvi (log increment threshold illuminance versus log background illuminance) functions at four test wavelengths (430, 490, 575, and 660 nm) and nine background illuminances from 4.0 to 5.6 log Td. Foveal, 2° diameter, 1 s duration test stimuli were presented on a concentric, perceptually white (5128°K color temperature), 7° diameter, steady background. Thresholds were obtained by the method of adjustment, after which the test stimulus illuminances were increased 0.6 log unit and the subject estimated percentages of red, yellow, green, blue, and white. Average tvi slopes for two subjects were 2.06 for 430 nm, 1.6 for 490 nm, 1.11 for 575 nm and 1.34 for 660 nm, consistent with the estimated ratios of chromatic to achromatic sensitivity at the same wavelengths. Also, the percentage of white seen in the suprathreshold increments increased with increasing background illuminance despite increases in excitation purity. These findings imply that steady, intense, achromatic backgrounds can produce response saturation in color-opponent mechanisms at wavelengths across the visible spectrum. The saturation was more extreme at short wavelengths than at middle or long wavelengths, producing a tritanopic condition at the highest background illuminances. The tritanopia reduced color space to a predominately red-blue dichromacy, in agreement with previous findings. The results support a multistage opponent-color model in which precortical koniocellular and parvocellular opponent pathways interact to produce the observed red-green and yellow-blue color-opponent channels at a cortical level.
Street, Jackie M; Sisnowski, Jana; Tooher, Rebecca; Farrell, Lucy C; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J
Childhood obesity is a significant challenge for public health internationally. Regulatory and fiscal measures propagated by governments offer a potentially effective response to this issue. Fearing public criticism, governments are often reluctant to use such measures. In this study we asked a descriptively representative and informed group of Australians their views on the use of legislation and fiscal measures by governments to address childhood obesity. A citizens' jury, held in South Australia in April 2015, was asked to consider the question: What laws, if any, should we have in Australia to address childhood obesity? The jury agreed that prevention of obesity was complex requiring multifaceted government intervention. Recommendations fell into the areas of health promotion and education (n=4), regulation of food marketing (n=3), taxation/subsidies (n=2) and a parliamentary enquiry. School-based nutrition education and health promotion and mandatory front-of-pack interpretive labelling of food and drink were ranked 1 and 2 with taxation of high fat, high sugar food and drink third. The recommendations were similar to findings from other citizens' juries held in Australia suggesting that the reticence of decision makers in Australia, and potentially elsewhere, to use legislative and fiscal measures to address childhood obesity is misguided. Supporting relevant informed public discussion could facilitate a politically acceptable legislative approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Myers, H H; Siegel, P S
The opponent-process theory, a dynamic model of acquired motivation presented by Solomon and Corbit (1974), was applied to the process of breastfeeding. A modified form of the Nowlis Mood Adjective Checklist (MACL, Nowlis, 1965, 1970) and a discomfort measure were used in assessing through recall the affective course predicted by the theory. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and correlational procedures. Results were highly significant: Women who breastfed for relatively long periods recalled positive affective responses while the baby was at breast and a subsequent negative or dysphoric response. The additional characteristics of acquired motivation, habituation, and withdrawal, were also evidenced in the data. As a control for possible confounding demand characteristics inherent in the methodology, a sample of childless women was surveyed using an "as-if" form of the same questionnaire. Very little similarity to the breastfeeders was found in the pattern of responses yielded by this group. It was concluded that our major findings are quite likely free of influence from this source.
Jesudason, Sujatha; Weitz, Tracy
In this paper we undertake an examination of the presence of similar "women-protective" discourses in policy debates occurring over two bills on reproductive-related topics considered during the 2013 California legislature session. The first bill (AB154), now signed into law, allows nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives, and physician assistants to perform first-trimester aspiration abortions. The second bill (AB926), had it passed, would remove the prohibition on paying women for providing eggs to be used for research purposes. Using frame analysis we find evidence of similar protective arguments by opponents of both bills, although these advocates do not share ideological positions on abortion rights or women's autonomy. In the case of AB154, anti-abortion advocates use language and frames that call for protecting the health of women against the imputed interests of the "abortion industry." In the case of AB926, feminists and pro-choice advocates evoke similar frameworks for the protection of women against the interests of the "medical research industry." Both sides argue for the "protection of women," from opposing positions on the rights and autonomy of women in relationship to reproductive freedom. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Religion and psychiatry have had complicated, sometimes neutral or friendly and cooperative, sometimes competitive and antagonistic relations over their long histories. Relations between psychiatry and religion are influenced by complex belief systems, each diverse and changing. Psychiatry has often ignored spiritual and religious dimension in health and illness while religions influenced the treatment of mental disorders directly by defining mental disorders as evil spirit possessions and prescribing exorcism as treatment. It has been a long way to prevail looking for natural over supra-natural explanations for mental disorders. Psychiatry and religion as social practices should be regarded as allies against pseudoscientific nonsense and superstitions. This alliance is based on the next evidence: 1. religious and spiritual well-being is an important component of mental health as well as of health in general; 2. research and empirical evidence reveals that healthy-minded and distorted or sick faith are quite distinct in the effects in the lives of the faithful; 3. psychiatrists are professionally expected to always respect and be sensitive to the spiritual and religious beliefs and practices of their patients; 4. religious and spiritual beliefs and practice is very important aspect of person-centered psychiatry. The enduring task for both psychiatry and religion is to enable human beings to live their lives with courage, sense, and optimism, to strive towards creating conditions of well-being and individual, public and global mental health as well as to dispel beliefs and patterns which trap people in lives of misery and mental disorders. Psychiatry and religion in creative dialogues as allies can significantly contribute to the healing of our broken world and promoting compassionate society and empathic civilization. When psychiatry and religion see each other as opponents or even enemies this is only because of their mutual misreading and pseudoscientific
Anaf, Julia; Baum, Fran; Fisher, Matthew
1) To report outcomes from a citizens' jury examining regulatory responses to the health impacts of McDonald's Australia; 2) To determine the value of using citizens' juries to develop policy recommendations based on the findings of health impact assessment of transnational corporations (TNCs). A citizens' jury engaged 15 randomly selected and demographically representative jurors from metropolitan Adelaide to deliberate on the findings of a Corporate Health Impact Assessment, and to decide on appropriate policy actions. Jurors unanimously called for government regulation to ensure that transnational fast food corporations pay taxes on profits in the country of income. A majority (two-thirds) also recommended government regulation to reduce fast food advertising, and improve standards of consumer information including a star-ratings system. A minority held the view that no further regulation is required of the corporate fast food industry in Australia. The jury's recommendations can help inform policy makers about the importance of ending the legal profit-shifting strategies by TNCs that affect taxation revenue. They also endorse regulating the fast food industry to provide healthier food, and employing forms of community education and awareness-raising. Implications for public health: Citizens' juries can play an important role in providing feedback and policy recommendations in response to the findings of a health impact assessment of transnational corporations. © 2018 The Authors.
Richards, Tara N; Smith, M Dwayne; Fogel, Sondra J; Bjerregaard, Beth
Prior research suggests that homicide cases involving familial offenders and victims are subject to a "domestic discount" that reduces sentencing severity. However, the operation of a domestic discount in regard to death penalty sentencing has been rarely examined. The current research uses a near-population of jury decisions in capital murder trials conducted in North Carolina from 1991 to 2009 (n = 800), and a series of logistic regression analyses to determine whether there is (a) a direct effect between offender-victim relationship (e.g., domestic, friend/acquaintance, and stranger) and jury decision making, and/or (b) whether domestic offender-victim relationship (as well as other offender-victim relationships) moderates the effect of legal and extralegal case characteristics on jury assessment of the death penalty. Our findings revealed no empirical support for a "domestic discount" whereby juries are less likely to impose death sentences in cases involving domestic homicides. However, substantial differences in predictors of death sentencing were found across offender-victim dyads; most notably, domestic homicide cases demonstrated the most legalistic model of jury decisions to impose death sentences. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia la teoría de los diferenciales de Salomon Maimon como respuesta a la cuestión quid juris y a la vez como clave para la fundamentación de la posibilidad de la metafísica como ciencia. Se reconstruye primero la crítica de Maimon al tratamiento kantiano de la pregunta quid juris. Luego, se analiza la respuesta del propio Maimon a esa pregunta, para establecer finalmente cómo tal respuesta abre el camino para la explicación de la posibilidad de la metafísica como ciencia.
Iredale, Rachel; Longley, Marcus; Thomas, Christian; Shaw, Anita
Young people will increasingly have the option of using new technologies for reproductive decision making but their voices are rarely heard in debates about acceptable public policy in this area. Capturing the views of young people about potentially esoteric topics, such as genetics, is difficult and methodologically challenging. A Citizens' Jury is a deliberative process that presents a question to a group of ordinary people, allows them to examine evidence given by expert witnesses and personal testimonies and arrive at a verdict. This Citizens' Jury explored designer babies in relation to inherited conditions, saviour siblings and sex selection with young people. Fourteen young people aged 16-19 in Wales. Acceptance of designer baby technology was purpose-specific; it was perceived by participants to be acceptable for preventing inherited conditions and to create a child to save a sibling, but was not recommended for sex selection. Jurors stated that permission should not depend on parents' age, although some measure of suitability should be assessed. Preventing potential parents from going abroad was considered impractical. These young people felt the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority should have members under 20 and that the term 'designer baby' was not useful. Perspectives on the acceptability of this technology were nuanced, and based on implicit value judgements about the extent of individual benefit derived. Young people have valuable and interesting contributions to make to the debate about genetics and reproductive decision making and a variety of innovative methods must be used to secure their involvement in decision-making processes.
Markowitz, Sarah M; Arent, Shawn M
This study examined the relationship between exertion level and affect using the framework of opponent-process theory and the dual-mode model, with the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Checklist and the State Anxiety Inventory among 14 active and 14 sedentary participants doing 20 min of treadmill exercise at speeds of 5% below, 5% above, and at lactate threshold (LT). We found a significant effect of time, condition, Time × Condition, and Time × Group, but no group, Group × Condition, or Time × Group × Condition effects, such that the 5% above LT condition produced a worsening of affect in-task compared with all other conditions whereas, across conditions, participants experienced in-task increases in energy and tension, and in-task decreases in tiredness and calmness relative to baseline. Posttask, participants experienced mood improvement (decreased tension, anxiety, and increased calmness) across conditions, with a 30-min delay in the above LT condition. These results partially support the dual-mode model and a modified opponent-process theory.
Garcia, Mark J; Williams, John; Sinderman, Benjamin; Earley, Ryan L
Reception of pheromone cues can elicit significant physiological (e.g. steroid hormone levels) changes in the recipient. These pheromone-induced physiological changes have been well documented for male-female interactions, but scarcely in same-sex interactions (male-male and female-female). We sought to address this dearth in the current literature and examine whether mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) could detect and, ultimately, mount a physiological response to the pheromone signature of a potential, same-sex competitor. We examined steroid hormone levels in mangrove rivulus exposed to one of three treatments: 1) isolation, 2) exposure to pheromones of a size-matched partner, and 3) pheromone exposure to a size-matched opponent followed by a physical encounter with the opponent. We found that exposure to a competitor's pheromone cues elicited a significant increase in testosterone levels. Increases in testosterone were similar across genetically distinct lineages derived from geographically distinct populations. Further, testosterone levels were similar between individuals only exposed to pheromone cues and individuals exposed to both pheromone cues and a subsequent physical encounter. Our findings led us to generate a number of testable predictions regarding how mangrove rivulus utilize pheromone signals in social interactions, the molecular mechanisms linking social stimuli and hormonal responses, and the possible adaptive benefits of hormonal responsiveness to receiving a potential competitor's pheromone cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iredale, Rachel; Longley, Marcus; Thomas, Christian; Shaw, Anita
Abstract Background Young people will increasingly have the option of using new technologies for reproductive decision making but their voices are rarely heard in debates about acceptable public policy in this area. Capturing the views of young people about potentially esoteric topics, such as genetics, is difficult and methodologically challenging. Design A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative process that presents a question to a group of ordinary people, allows them to examine evidence given by expert witnesses and personal testimonies and arrive at a verdict. This Citizens’ Jury explored designer babies in relation to inherited conditions, saviour siblings and sex selection with young people. Participants Fourteen young people aged 16–19 in Wales. Results Acceptance of designer baby technology was purpose‐specific; it was perceived by participants to be acceptable for preventing inherited conditions and to create a child to save a sibling, but was not recommended for sex selection. Jurors stated that permission should not depend on parents’ age, although some measure of suitability should be assessed. Preventing potential parents from going abroad was considered impractical. These young people felt the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority should have members under 20 and that the term ‘designer baby’ was not useful. Conclusions Perspectives on the acceptability of this technology were nuanced, and based on implicit value judgements about the extent of individual benefit derived. Young people have valuable and interesting contributions to make to the debate about genetics and reproductive decision making and a variety of innovative methods must be used to secure their involvement in decision‐making processes. PMID:16911135
Full Text Available Mental Retardation (MR is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for “agitated” TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.
Full Text Available Terpios hoshinota, an encrusting cyanosponge, is known as a strong substrate competitor of reef-building corals that kills encountered coral by overgrowth. Terpios outbreaks cause significant declines in living coral cover in Indo-Pacific coral reefs, with the damage usually lasting for decades. Recent studies show that there are morphological transformations at a sponge's growth front when confronting corals. Whether these morphological transformations at coral contacts are involved with physiological outperformance (e.g., higher metabolic activity or nutritional status over other portions of Terpios remains equivocal. In this study, we compared the indicators of photosynthetic capability and nitrogen status of a sponge-cyanobacteria association at proximal, middle, and distal portions of opponent corals. Terpios tissues in contact with corals displayed significant increases in photosynthetic oxygen production (ca. 61%, the δ13C value (ca. 4%, free proteinogenic amino acid content (ca. 85%, and Gln/Glu ratio (ca. 115% compared to middle and distal parts of the sponge. In contrast, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, which is the indicator usually used to represent the integrity of photosystem II, of cyanobacteria photosynthesis was low (0.256~0.319 and showed an inverse trend of higher values in the distal portion of the sponge that might be due to high and variable levels of cyanobacterial phycocyanin. The inconsistent results between photosynthetic oxygen production and Fv/Fm values indicated that maximum quantum yields might not be a suitable indicator to represent the photosynthetic function of the Terpios-cyanobacteria association. Our data conclusively suggest that Terpios hoshinota competes with opponent corals not only by the morphological transformation of the sponge-cyanobacteria association but also by physiological outperformance in accumulating resources for the battle.
This research examines the effect of bias on Insanity Defense cases, theorizing that juries treat Insanity Defense cases differently from other types of cases because they are ill equipped to contemplate them. Insanity Defense cases are statistically rare, yet the success rate of such defenses is surprisingly high. This thesis presents a qualitative argument examining reasons for the success of the Insanity Defense, explains the neuroscience, and effect of group dynamics on decision making, a...
Full Text Available The starting hypothesis is connected to the new role of the Roman Catholic Church (RCC in policy discussions on issues related to sexual citizenship: RCC is secularizing its image and discourse by establishing satellite organizations working on its behalf, in order to clericalize society. One of such satellite organizations is the Civil Initiative for the Family and Rights of Children (CIFRC, which was the main opponent of the new Family Code. In this paper we use critical frame analysis in order to analyze CIFRC’s discourse, placing it in the context of political homophobia and populist action. The central framework of CIFRC’s discourse was a creation of homosexuality as a threat — first in relation to the “innocent” children, but also in relation to the “real” family. Their discourse contains simple problem-solution binaries, in which the problem can be solved by (legal, symbolic, physical removal of those who are constituted as a problem in the first place (homosexuals. In the concluding part of the article, we contextualize the results of the study by introducing a broader European dimension of conservative mass movements against so-called theory or ideology of gender. This is a new chapter in the battle against human rights of LGBT-persons, in which language and concepts, which were until recently used by the proponents of gender equality and human rights of LGBT-persons, are now (abused by conservative forces.
Full Text Available Background Although previous research has indicated that sequential line-up procedures result in fewer mistaken identifications, this was found to be at the expense of accurate identifications more typical within simultaneous procedures. Hence, there remains a lack of agreement about which procedure is superior, and the interaction such procedures have with eyewitness confidence. The interaction between witness demographics and identification accuracy also remains unclear. Participants and procedure The opportunistic sample, consisting of 60 people from the general population, was divided randomly into two experimental conditions: simultaneous (SIM and sequential (SEQ. Participants in the sequential procedure observed 12 photographs, one at a time, deciding if they believed the suspect to be the person shown in the current photograph and unable to return to a given picture once they decided the individual shown was not the suspect described. Participants in the simultaneous condition were shown all 12 photographs concurrently and asked to determine which, if any, of the photographs was the suspect described. Results No significant differences were found in identification accuracy between line-up procedures, but significant differences in confidence levels between the two line-up procedures were found. Additionally, analysis of demographic features showed previous line-up experience to be significantly associated with identification accuracy. Conclusions The present research provides new insight into the interaction of eyewitness confidence between line-up techniques, offering an alternative explanation of witness confidence as well as procedural fairness. Evidence of practice effects increasing the accuracy of identification provides beneficial future implications for police line-up procedures and safer jury decisions, often reliant on identification evidence.
Withall, Elizabeth; Wilson, Annabelle M; Henderson, Julie; Tonkin, Emma; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Clark, Jacinta; McCullum, Dean; Ankeny, Rachel; Ward, Paul R
Contemporary food systems are vast and complex, creating greater distance between consumers and their food. Consequently, consumers are required to put faith in a system of which they have limited knowledge or control. Country of origin labelling (CoOL) is one mechanism that theoretically enables consumer knowledge of provenance of food products. However, this labelling system has recently come under Australian Government review and recommendations for improvements have been proposed. Consumer engagement in this process has been limited. Therefore this study sought to obtain further consumer opinion on the issue of CoOL and to identify the extent to which Australian consumers agree with Australian Government recommendations for improvements. A citizens' jury was conducted with a sample of 14 South Australian consumers to explore their perceptions on whether the CoOL system allows them to make informed food choices, as well as what changes (if any) need to be made to enable informed food choices (recommendations). Overall, jurors' perception of usefulness of CoOL, including its ability to enable consumers to make informed food choices, fluctuated throughout the Citizens' Jury. Initially, the majority of the jurors indicated that the labels allowed informed food choice, however by the end of the session the majority disagreed with this statement. Inconsistencies within jurors' opinions were observed, particularly following delivery of information from expert witnesses and jury deliberation. Jurors provided recommendations for changes to be made to CoOL, which were similar to those provided in the Australian Government inquiry. Consumers in this study engaged with the topical issue of CoOL and provided their opinions. Overall, consumers do not think that the current CoOL system in Australia enables consumers to make informed choices. Recommendations for changes, including increasing the size of the label and the label's font, and standardising its position, were made.
Ljubimov, Juri, 1917-2014
Vaadeldakse lavastusi - A. Tshehhovi "Tatjana Repina" (lav. Valeri Fokin), W. Shakespeare'i "Talvemuinasjutt" (lav. Declan Donnellan), A. Ostrovski "Äike" (lav.Henrietta Janovskaja), A. Krutshjonõhhi "Võit päikese üle" (lav. Aleksandr Ponomarjov), W. Gombrowiczi "Iwona, Burgundia printsess" (lav. Oleg Rõbkin) ja H. Pinteri "Majahoidja" (lav. Juri Butussov)
Wright, M J; Bishop, D T; Jackson, R C; Abernethy, B
Badminton players of varying skill levels viewed normal and point-light video clips of opponents striking the shuttle towards the viewer; their task was to predict in which quadrant of the court the shuttle would land. In a whole-brain fMRI analysis we identified bilateral cortical networks sensitive to the anticipation task relative to control stimuli. This network is more extensive and localised than previously reported. Voxel clusters responding more strongly in experts than novices were associated with all task-sensitive areas, whereas voxels responding more strongly in novices were found outside these areas. Task-sensitive areas for normal and point-light video were very similar, whereas early visual areas responded differentially, indicating the primacy of kinematic information for sport-related anticipation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oliveira, Irismar Reis de
To propose the Trial-Based Thought Record, a modified, 7-column thought record addressing core beliefs by sentence reversion and the analogy to a trial. Clients (n = 30) participated in a simulation of a trial and exhibited shifts in their adherence to core beliefs and in the intensity of corresponding emotions after each step (investigation, prosecutor s plea, defense attorney s plea, prosecutor s second plea, defense attorney s second plea, and jury verdict) during a session. Significant mean reductions existed between percent values after investigation (taken as baseline) and defense attorney s plea (p < 0.001), and after the jury s verdict, either in beliefs (p < 0.001) or in intensity of emotions (p < 0.001). Significant differences also emerged between the defense attorney s first and second pleas (p = 0.009) and between the defense attorney s second plea and jury s verdict concerning core beliefs (p = 0.005) and emotions (p = 0.02). Trial-Based Thought Record may at least temporarily help patients constructively reduce attachment to negative core beliefs and corresponding emotions.
Hardcastle, Valerie Gray; Lamb, Edward
One of the early concerns regarding the use of neuroscience data in criminal trials is that even if the brain images are ambiguous or inconclusive, they still might influence a jury in virtue of the fact that they appear easy to understand. By appearing visually simple, even though they are really statistically constructed maps with a host of assumptions built into them, a lay jury or a judge might take brain scans to be more reliable or relevant than they actually are. Should courts exclude brain scans for being more prejudicial than probative? Herein, we rehearse a brief history of brain scans admitted into criminal trials in the United States, then describe the results of a recent analysis of appellate court decisions that referenced 1 or more brain scans in the judicial decision. In particular, we aim to explain how courts use neuroscience imaging data: Do they interpret the data correctly? Does it seem that scans play an oversized role in judicial decision-making? And have they changed how criminal defendants are judged? It is our hope that in answering these questions, clinicians and defence attorneys will be able to make better informed decisions regarding about how to manage those incarcerated. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rauscher, Franziska G; Plant, Gordon T; James-Galton, Merle; Barbur, John L
Damage to ventral occipito-temporal extrastriate visual cortex leads to the syndrome of prosopagnosia often with coexisting cerebral achromatopsia. A patient with this syndrome resulting in a left upper homonymous quadrantanopia, prosopagnosia, and incomplete achromatopsia is described. Chromatic sensitivity was assessed at a number of locations in the intact visual field using a dynamic luminance contrast masking technique that isolates the use of colour signals. In normal subjects chromatic detection thresholds form an elliptical contour when plotted in the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage, (x-y), chromaticity diagram. Because the extraction of colour signals in early visual processing involves opponent mechanisms, subjects with Daltonism (congenital red/green loss of sensitivity) show symmetric increase in thresholds towards the long wavelength ("red") and middle wavelength ("green") regions of the spectrum locus. This is also the case with acquired loss of chromatic sensitivity as a result of retinal or optic nerve disease. Our patient's results were an exception to this rule. Whilst his chromatic sensitivity in the central region of the visual field was reduced symmetrically for both "red/green" and "yellow/blue" directions in colour space, the subject's lower left quadrant showed a marked asymmetry in "red/green" thresholds with the greatest loss of sensitivity towards the "green" region of the spectrum locus. This spatially localized asymmetric loss of "green" but not "red" sensitivity has not been reported previously in human vision. Such loss is consistent with selective damage of neural substrates in the visual cortex that process colour information, but are spectrally non-opponent.
Watson, Clarence; Eth, Spencer; Leong, Gregory B
The capital trial, by its nature, is fraught with emotionally disturbing elements that jurors must face when deciding the ultimate fate of a guilty defendant. A confluence of mitigating and aggravating factors influences a capital jury's decision to impose a sentence of death. The presence or absence of defendant remorse in these cases may make all the difference in whether a capital defendant's life is spared. This commentary examines the onerous emotional toll encountered by capital jurors in light of the findings of Corwin and colleagues regarding defendant remorse and juror's need for affect. The commentary also presents practical and ethics-related considerations that should be kept in mind when reflecting on their study.
Antonio, Michael E
This paper examines the impact of the defendant's appearance during the trial on capital jurors' punishment decision. The data used in this analysis were gathered by the Capital Jury Project (CJP), a national program of research on the decision-making of capital jurors. A series of multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using four aggravating circumstances related to the killing and eight defendant appearance variables as predictors of jurors' punishment decision at three points during the capital trial: (1) after the punishment phase ended, but before formal deliberation began; (2) when the first vote was taken on punishment at jury deliberations; and (3) at the final vote on punishment. Results indicated that when the defendant appeared emotionally involved during the trial (i.e. sorry and sincere) jurors either favored a life sentence or were undecided about punishment; however, when the defendant appeared emotionally uninvolved during the trial (i.e. bored) jurors either sought a death sentence or remained undecided. Policy implications will be discussed. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Marcella Alves Mascarenhas Nardelli
Full Text Available This paper aims to define the outlines of the judicial duty to provide reasons for their decisions in its theoretical aspect - according to contemporary procedural knowledge -, as well as to establish its importance for the concretion of a fair trial. At the same time, the duty to give reasons will be analyzed in a practical perspective according to the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, with a special emphasis in the case Taxquet v. Belgium and its impact on Jury Trials.
Hong; Sun; Man-Sheng; Zhu; Wen-Rui; Wu; Xiang-De; Shi; Lei-Bo; Xu
As the leading cause of disease-related deaths,cancer is a major public health threat worldwide.Surgical resection is still the first-line therapy for patients with early-stage cancers.However,postoperative relapse and metastasis remain the cause of 90%of deaths of patients with solid organ malignancies,including hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).With the rapid development of molecular biology techniques in recent years,molecularly targeted therapies using monoclonal antibodies,small molecules,and vaccines have become a milestone in cancer therapeutic by significantly improv-ing the survival of cancer patients,and have opened a window of hope for patients with advanced cancer.Hypervascularization is a major characteristic of HCC.It has been reported that anti-angiogenic treatments,which inhibit blood vessel formation,are highly effective for treating HCC.However,the efficacy and safety of anti-angiogenesis therapies remain controversial.Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor with antiproliferative and anti-angiogenic effects and is the first molecular target drug approved for the treatment of advanced HCC.While sorafenib has shown promising therapeutic effects,substantial evidence of primary and acquired resistance to sorafenib has been reported.Numerous clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate a large number of molecularly targeted drugs for treating HCC,but most drugs exhibited less efficacy and/or higher toxicity compared to sorafenib.Therefore,understanding the mechanism(s)underlying sorafenib resistance of cancer cells is highlighted for efficiently treating HCC.This concise review aims to provide an overview of anti-angiogenesis therapy in the management of HCC and to discuss the common mechanisms of resistance to anti-angiogenesis therapies.
de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Hemmany, Curt; Powell, Vania B; Bonfim, Thaís D; Duran, Erica P; Novais, Nilma; Velasquez, Michella; Di Sarno, Elaine; Alves, Gledson L; Cesnik, Joici A
The best prevention against relapse results when patients are taught to restructure negative core beliefs (CBs). Efficacy of the trial-based thought record (TBTR) in decreasing the credit given by patients to negative CBs and corresponding emotions was evaluated. Patients (n = 166) were submitted to a simulation of a legal trial to assess their adherence to negative CBs and corresponding emotions after each cognitive therapy technique incorporated by TBTR. Significant reductions existed in percent values after the first and second defense attorney pleas, as well as after jury's verdict and initial preparation for the appeal (p < 0.001), relative to the investigation phase. Significant differences also emerged between the defense attorney's first and second pleas and between the defense attorney's second plea and jury's verdict, as well as preparation for the appeal (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between percentages presented by patients submitted to TBTR used in the empty chair format relative to the conventional format. Similarly, there was no difference between outcomes, regardless of therapists' level of exposure to TBTR. TBTR may help patients reduce attachment to negative CBs and corresponding emotions. Outcomes were significantly favorable regardless of the format use and therapists' level of exposure to TBTR.
Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or ... humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or ...
The author, a volunteer researcher on nuclear issues for the Australian Conservation Foundation and Friends of the Earth, claims that opposition to nuclear industry in Australia is based on scientific evidence, moral arguments and year of experience in Australia and globally. He stated that as result on uranium mining the radioactivity on the respective sites increases and that these small increases in background radiation are linked to increases in cancer rates. New scientific evidence also suggests that exposure to low levels of ionising nuclear radiation increases cancer risks. Sites such as Chernobyl in the Ukraine, Sellafield in the United Kingdom, Radium Hill and Maralinga in South Australia and Three Mile Island in America are given as examples of increased health problems arising from nuclear activities. (author) Copyright (1999) Australasian Science
Although it has been more than a year since the FDA approved the use of olestra in certain foods, this fat substitute, a mixture of sucrose polyesters, is still controversial. It would seem that a fat substitute that is heat stable and has an acceptable flavor and texture would be welcomed enthusiastically in a country where increasing numbers of people, young and old, exceed their ideal body weight. Obesity and diets containing high levels of fat have been linked to numerous health problems, including cardiovascular diseases, certain types of cancer, and adult-onset diabetes; they may also exacerbate some chronic problems such as arthritis in joints of the lower extremities. Nevertheless, some scientists and consumer groups question olestra's safety and usefulness.
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Full Text Available ... of clinical trials contribute to medical knowledge and practice. Why Clinical Trials Are Important Clinical trials are ... earlier than they would be in general medical practice. This is because late-phase trials have large ...
Full Text Available ... clinical trials contribute to medical knowledge and practice. Why Clinical Trials Are Important Clinical trials are a ... will be done during the clinical trial and why. Each medical center that does the study uses ...
Full Text Available ... medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective for humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials ... and Centers sponsor clinical trials. Many other groups, companies, and organizations also sponsor clinical trials. Examples include ...
Full Text Available ... and treatments that work best. How Clinical Trials Work If you take part in a clinical trial, ... kol). This plan explains how the trial will work. The trial is led by a principal investigator ( ...
Full Text Available ... Trial Protocol Each clinical trial has a master plan called a protocol (PRO-to-kol). This plan explains how the trial will work. The trial ... clinical trial; and detailed information about the treatment plan. Eligibility Criteria A clinical trial's protocol describes what ...
Kaplan, Martin F.; Miller, Charles E.
Mock juries of six females each listened to a tape-recording of facts in a courtroom trial. Twelve juries heard guilt-appearing facts, and twelve heard innocent-appearing facts. In half the juries hearing each type of trial, jurors heard the facts in the same (Homogeneous) order; in the remaining juries, each of the six jurors heard the facts in a…
Full Text Available ... protocol affect the trial's results. Comparison Groups In most clinical trials, researchers use comparison groups. This means ... study before you agree to take part. Randomization Most clinical trials that have comparison groups use randomization. ...
Full Text Available ... clinical trials are vital to the process of improving medical care. Many people volunteer because they want ... care costs for clinical trials. If you're thinking about taking part in a clinical trial, find ...
Full Text Available ... or vulnerable patients (such as children). A DSMB's role is to review data from a clinical trial ... a Clinical Trial If you're interested in learning more about, or taking part in, clinical trials, ...
Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, ... required to have an IRB. Office for Human Research Protections The U.S. Department of Health and Human ...
Full Text Available ... Trials About Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or ... and Clinical Studies Web page. Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance ...
Full Text Available ... criteria differ from trial to trial. They include factors such as a patient's age and gender, the ... bias. "Bias" means that human choices or other factors not related to the protocol affect the trial's ...
Full Text Available ... more information about eligibility criteria, go to "How Do Clinical Trials Work?" Some trials enroll people who ... for adults. For more information, go to "How Do Clinical Trials Protect Participants?" For more information about ...
Full Text Available ... you agree to take part in the trial. Talk with your doctor about specific trials you're ... part in a clinical trial is your decision. Talk with your doctor about all of your treatment ...
Full Text Available ... any clinical trial before you agree to take part in the trial. Talk with your doctor about specific trials you're interested in. For a list of questions to ask your doctor and the ...
Full Text Available ... and treatments that work best. How Clinical Trials Work If you take part in a clinical trial, ... study? How might this trial affect my daily life? Will I have to be in the hospital? ...
Full Text Available ... and treatments that work best. How Clinical Trials Work If you take part in a clinical trial, ... from a study at any time, for any reason. Also, during the trial, you have the right ...
Full Text Available ... or device is safe and effective for humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials are research studies ... parents, clinicians, researchers, children, and the general public. What to Expect During a clinical trial, doctors, nurses, ...
Full Text Available ... under way. For example, some trials are stopped early if benefits from a strategy or treatment are ... stop a trial, or part of a trial, early if the strategy or treatment is having harmful ...
Full Text Available In its essence, post-trial obligations describe a duty by research sponsors to provide a successfully tested drug to research participants who took part in the relevant clinical trials after the trial has been concluded. In some instances, this duty is extended beyond the research participants. This article is divided into three main parts. The first part outlines the legal basis for post-trial obligations by looking at international guidelines, including those issued by the World Medical Association. National legislation is exemplified through resolutions and guidelines issued by Brazil and South Africa respectively. The second part analyses the ethical foundation for post-trial obligations, in particular the attempt to minimize exploitation of research subjects. The third part raises obstacles and challenges for the implementation of post-trial obligations. The jury is still out on whether post-trial obligations in the form of access to drugs for clinical trial participants is the best, or even a good way, to avoid exploitation in medical research.
Rauscher, Franziska G.; Plant, Gordon T.; James-Galton, Merle; Barbur, John L.
Damage to ventral occipito-temporal extrastriate visual cortex leads to the syndrome of prosopagnosia often with coexisting cerebral achromatopsia. A patient with this syndrome resulting in a left upper homonymous quadrantanopia, prosopagnosia, and incomplete achromatopsia is described. Chromatic sensitivity was assessed at a number of locations in the intact visual field using a dynamic luminance contrast masking technique that isolates the use of colour signals. In normal subjects chromatic detection thresholds form an elliptical contour when plotted in the Commission Internationale d’Eclairage, (x-y), chromaticity diagram. Because the extraction of colour signals in early visual processing involves opponent mechanisms, subjects with Daltonism (congenital red/green loss of sensitivity) show symmetric increase in thresholds towards the long wavelength (“red”) and middle wavelength (“green”) regions of the spectrum locus. This is also the case with acquired loss of chromatic sensitivity as a result of retinal or optic nerve disease. Our patient’s results were an exception to this rule. Whilst his chromatic sensitivity in the central region of the visual field was reduced symmetrically for both “red/green” and “yellow/blue” directions in colour space, the subject’s lower left quadrant showed a marked asymmetry in “red/green” thresholds with the greatest loss of sensitivity towards the “green” region of the spectrum locus. This spatially localized asymmetric loss of “green” but not “red” sensitivity has not been reported previously in human vision. Such loss is consistent with selective damage of neural substrates in the visual cortex that process colour information, but are spectrally non-opponent. PMID:27956924
黄跃凯; 徐丹; 曾昊; 吴达德
本文针对禁止和警告标志提出了一种基于颜色对抗和旋转中心投影的检测方法。颜色对抗来源于人眼视觉机制中存在的相互对立的红/绿、黄/蓝色素对，以此突出红色和黄色区域。投影阶段则利用交通标志规则多边形的特征将点对的梯度向量向其旋转中心投影，得到多边形的中心位置和尺度信息。另外，采用多边形的几何特征进一步区分交通标志的类别。实验证明该方法能够满足实时需求，并对光照、旋转、尺度变化具有一定的不变性。%We present a real time road sign detection framework for warning and prohibition signs based on opponent colors and rotational center voting. The opponent colors exist in human primary visual cortex, like red/green, yellow/blue, by which red and yellow regions can be enhanced. During voting stage, pairwise gradient vectors vote for their rotational symmetry centers then regular polygons’ position and scales will be detected. Furthermore, polygons’ geometric features are used to classify the shape of the road signs. The experiments show that the proposed method satisfies real time application and is partly invariant to changes of illumination, scale and rotation.
Full Text Available ... need to travel or stay in hospitals to take part in clinical trials. For example, the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in ... Maryland, runs clinical trials. Many other clinical trials take place in medical centers and ... trial can have many benefits. For example, you may gain access to new treatments before ...
Full Text Available ... of clinical trials contribute to medical knowledge and practice. Why Clinical Trials Are Important Clinical trials are a key ... Enterprise NHLBI has a strong tradition of supporting clinical trials that have not only shaped medical practice around the world, but have improved the health ...
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Full Text Available ... groups, companies, and organizations also sponsor clinical trials. Examples include Government Agencies, such as the U.S. Departments ... sponsor trials that test principles or strategies. For example, one NHLBI study explored whether the benefits of ...
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Full Text Available ... identified earlier than they would be in general medical practice. This is because late-phase trials have large ... supporting clinical trials that have not only shaped medical practice around the world, but have improved the health ...
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Full Text Available ... people who fit the patient traits for that study (the eligibility criteria). Eligibility criteria differ from trial to trial. They include factors such as a patient's age and gender, the type and stage of disease, and whether ...
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Full Text Available ... needed. For safety purposes, clinical trials start with small groups of patients to find out whether a ... phase I clinical trials test new treatments in small groups of people for safety and side effects. ...
Full Text Available ... trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective ... trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective ...
Full Text Available ... trials show what doesn't work or may cause harm. For example, the NHLBI Women's Health Initiative tested whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. (When the trial began, HT ...
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Full Text Available ... risks that outweigh any possible benefits. Clinical Trial Phases Clinical trials of new medicines or medical devices are done in phases. These phases have different purposes and help researchers ...
Full Text Available ... the past, clinical trial participants often were White men. Researchers assumed that trial results were valid for ... different ethnic groups sometimes respond differently than White men to the same medical approach. As a result, ...
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Full Text Available ... or strategies work best for certain illnesses or groups of people. Some clinical trials show a positive result. For example, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) sponsored a trial of two different ...
Full Text Available ... and Centers sponsor clinical trials. Many other groups, companies, and organizations also sponsor clinical trials. Examples include ... U.S. Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs; private companies; universities; and nonprofit organizations. NIH Institutes and Centers ( ...
Full Text Available ... for trials with cutting-edge approaches, such as gene therapy or new biological treatments. Health insurance and ... trials that involve high-risk procedures (such as gene therapy) or vulnerable patients (such as children). A ...
Full Text Available ... comparison groups by chance, rather than choice. This method helps ensure that any differences observed during a ... to learn more about clinical research and to search for clinical trials: NHLBI Clinical Trials Browse a ...
Full Text Available ... healthy people to test new approaches to prevention, diagnosis, or screening. In the past, clinical trial participants ... DSMBs for large trials comparing alternative strategies for diagnosis or treatment. In addition, the NIH requires DSMBs ...
Full Text Available ... at the smallest dose and for the shortest time possible. Clinical trials, like the two described above, ... in a clinical trial, find out ahead of time about costs and coverage. You should learn about ...
Full Text Available ... Clinical trials produce the best data available for health care decisionmaking. The purpose of clinical trials is research, ... and advance medical care. They also can help health care decisionmakers direct resources to the strategies and treatments ...
Full Text Available ... whether a new approach causes any harm. In later phases of clinical trials, researchers learn more about ... other National Institutes of Health (NIH) Institutes and Centers sponsor clinical trials. Many other groups, companies, and ...
Full Text Available ... are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective for ... a Clinical Trial If you're interested in learning more about, or taking part in, clinical trials, ...
Full Text Available ... treatment, or device is safe and effective for humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials are research ... are required to have an IRB. Office for Human Research Protections The U.S. Department of Health and ...
Full Text Available ... these results are important because they advance medical knowledge and help improve patient care. Sponsorship and Funding ... All types of clinical trials contribute to medical knowledge and practice. Why Clinical Trials Are Important Clinical ...
Full Text Available ... well they work. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees these clinical trials. The NIH may partner with these companies or groups to help sponsor some trials. All ...
Full Text Available ... best data available for health care decisionmaking. The purpose of clinical trials is research, so the studies ... Thus, research in humans is needed. For safety purposes, clinical trials start with small groups of patients ...
Full Text Available ... trials produce the best data available for health care decisionmaking. The purpose of clinical trials is research, ... they advance medical knowledge and help improve patient care. Sponsorship and Funding The National Heart, Lung, and ...
Full Text Available ... Events About NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory ... a Clinical Trial If you're interested in learning more about, or taking part in, clinical trials, ...
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Full Text Available ... Some companies and groups sponsor clinical trials that test the safety of products, such as medicines, and how well they work. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees these clinical trials. ...
Full Text Available ... What to Expect During a clinical trial, doctors, nurses, social workers, and other health care providers might ... enroll in a clinical trial, a doctor or nurse will give you an informed consent form that ...
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Full Text Available ... sponsored a trial of two different combinations of asthma treatments. The trial found that one of the ... much better than the other for moderate persistent asthma. The results provided important treatment information for doctors ...
Full Text Available ... Sponsors also may stop a trial, or part of a trial, early if the strategy or treatment is having harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides oversight ...
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Full Text Available ... including the NHLBI) usually sponsor trials that test principles or strategies. For example, one NHLBI study explored ... risks. Other examples of clinical trials that test principles or strategies include studies that explore whether surgery ...
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Full Text Available ... child to enroll. Also, children aged 7 and older often must agree (assent) to take part in clinical trials. Clinical trials for children have the same scientific safeguards as clinical trials for adults. For more information, go to "How Do Clinical ...
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Direct perception vs inferential processes in reading an opponent's mind: The case of a goalkeeper facing a soccer penalty kick. Comment on "Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds" by Cristina Becchio et al.
Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro
In engineering cybernetics, observability is a measure of how well internal states of a system can be inferred from knowledge of its external outputs. Moreover, observability and controllability of a system are mathematically inter-related properties in the sense that it does not matter to have access to hidden states if this knowledge is not exploited for achieving a goal. While such issues can be well posed in the engineering field, in cognitive neuroscience it is quite difficult to restrict the analysis in such a way to isolate direct perception from other cognitive processes, named as "inferences" by the authors , without losing a great part of the action (unless one trivializes the meaning of "direct" by stating that "all perception is direct": Gallagher and Zahavi ). In other words, in spite of the elegance and scientific rigor of the proposed experimental strategy, in our opinion it misses the fact that in real human-human interactions "direct perception" and "inference" are two faces of the same coin and mental states in a social context are, in a general sense, accessible on the basis of directly perceived sensory signals (here and now) tuned by expectations. In the following, we elaborate this opinion with reference to a competitive interaction paradigm, namely the attempt of a goalkeeper to save a soccer penalty kick by "reading the mind" of his opponent.
Full Text Available ... part. Randomization Most clinical trials that have comparison groups use randomization. This involves assigning patients to different comparison groups by chance, rather than choice. This ...
Full text: 1. Be seen and be heard out in the environmental field: Nuclear power reduces air pollution. - It is an answer to concerns over pollution in cities; - It is an answer to concerns over the earth's changing climate patterns due to the greenhouse effect; - The storage of nuclear waste is now harnessed. 2. Don't let people get away with untruths: The more an untrue notion is repeated, the more truthful it sounds. In confronting this attitude, always take care to denounce lies and assert truths. To this end, I suggest creating an international data bank for quotes, which would collect quotations and the words of internationally known and respected scientists, professors of medicine and experts. 3. Do not forget the basics. Energy power did not develop on the theme of the environment. And it will not do so in the future. Secure power supply and economic appeal are the two themes forming the platform for nuclear power. They must remain the base of our rationale. (author)
van Dongen, J.A.E.F.
Einsteins Gegner: Die öffentliche Kontroverse um die Relativitätstheorie in den 1920er Jahren, Milena Wazeck. Campus Verlag, pp. 429, EUR 39.90. ISBN: 978-3593389141 “This world is a strange madhouse. Currently, every coachman and every waiter is debating whether relativity theory is correct. Belief
des Gachons, Catherine Peyrot; Mura, Emi; Speziale, Camille; Favreau, Charlotte J; Dubreuil, Guillaume F; Breslin, Paul A S
In most cultures, people ingest a variety of astringent foods and beverages during meals, but the reasons for this practice are unclear. Many popular beliefs and heuristics, such as high tannin wines should be balanced with fatty foods, for example 'red wine with red meat', suggest that astringents such as pickles, sorbets, wines, and teas 'cleanse' the palate while eating. Oral astringents elicit 'dry, rough' sensations , in part, by breaking down mucinous lubricating proteins in saliva [2,3]. The introduction of oral lubricants, including fats, partially diminishes strong astringent sensations [4,5]. Thus, it appears that astringency and fattiness can oppose each other perceptually on an oral rheological spectrum. Most teas, wines, and 'palate cleansers', however, are only mildly astringent and an explanation of how they could oppose the fattiness of meals is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that weakly astringent stimuli can elicit strong sensations after repeated sampling. Astringency builds with exposures  to an asymptotic level determined by the structure and concentration of the compound. We also establish that multiple sips of a mild astringent solution, similar to a wine or tea, decrease oral fat sensations elicited by fatty food consumption when astringent and fatty stimuli alternate, mimicking the patterning that occurs during a real meal. Consequently, we reveal a principle underlying the international practice of 'palate cleansing'. Repeatedly alternating samples of astringent beverages with fatty foods yielded ratings of fattiness and astringency that were lower than if rinsing with water or if presented alone without alternation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... trial found that one of the combinations worked much better than the other for moderate persistent asthma. The results provided important treatment information for doctors and patients. The results from other clinical trials show what doesn't work or may cause harm. For example, the NHLBI ...
Full Text Available ... the clinical trial you take part in, the information gathered can help others and add to scientific knowledge. People who take part in clinical trials are vital to the process of improving medical care. Many people volunteer because ...
Full Text Available ... from other clinical trials show what doesn't work or may cause harm. For example, the NHLBI Women's Health Initiative ... safe a treatment is or how well it works. Children (aged 18 and younger) get ... legal consent for their child to take part in a clinical trial. When ...
Full Text Available ... other expenses (for example, travel and child care)? Who will be in charge of my care? What will happen after the trial? Taking part in a clinical trial is your decision. Talk with your doctor about all of your treatment ...
Full Text Available ... for trials with cutting-edge approaches, such as gene therapy or new biological treatments. Health insurance and health ... trials that involve high-risk procedures (such as gene therapy) or vulnerable patients (such as children). A DSMB's ...
Full Text Available ... to Expect During a clinical trial, doctors, nurses, social workers, and other health care providers might be part of your treatment ... clinical trials are vital to the process of improving medical care. Many people ... participants, it may not work for you. A new treatment may have side ...
Full Text Available ... Expect During a clinical trial, doctors, nurses, social workers, and other health care providers might be part of your treatment ... phase II clinical trials. The risk of side effects might be even greater for ... treatments. Health insurance and health care providers don't always ...
Full Text Available ... a Clinical Trial If you're interested in learning more about, or taking part in, clinical trials, talk with your doctor. He or she may know about studies going on in your area. You can visit the following website to learn more about ...
Full Text Available ... benefits of lowering high blood pressure in the elderly outweighed the risks. Other examples of clinical trials ... child to enroll. Also, children aged 7 and older often must agree (assent) to ... as clinical trials for adults. For more information, go to "How Do Clinical ...
Full Text Available ... products, such as medicines, and how well they work. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees these clinical trials. ... cancer also increased. As a result, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration now recommends never using HT ... Clinical Trials Work If you take ...
Full Text Available ... include factors such as a patient's age and gender, the type and stage of disease, and whether ... How long will the trial last? Who will pay for the tests and treatments I receive? Will ...
Full Text Available ... medicines, and how well they work. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees these ... trials are a key research tool for advancing medical knowledge and patient care. ...
Full Text Available ... strict scientific standards. These standards protect patients and help produce reliable study results. Clinical trials are one ... are important because they advance medical knowledge and help improve patient care. Sponsorship and Funding The National ...
Full Text Available ... patients to find out whether a new approach causes any harm. In later phases of clinical trials, ... device improves patient outcomes; offers no benefit; or causes unexpected harm All of these results are important ...
Full Text Available ... and compare new treatments with other available treatments. Steps To Avoid Bias The researchers doing clinical trials take steps to avoid bias. "Bias" means that human choices ...
Full Text Available ... gathered can help others and add to scientific knowledge. People who take part in clinical trials are vital to the process of improving medical care. Many people volunteer because they want to help others. ...
Full Text Available ... materials, and offer advice on research-related issues. Data Safety Monitoring Board Every National Institutes of Health ( ... III clinical trial is required to have a Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). This board consists ...
... of Personal Stories Peers Celebrating Art Peers Celebrating Music Be Vocal Support Locator DBSA In-Person Support ... by participating in a clinical trial is to science first and to the patient second. More About ...
Full Text Available ... to Expect During a clinical trial, doctors, nurses, social workers, and other health care providers might be ... the new approach. You also will have the support of a team of health care providers, who ...
Full Text Available ... final stages of a long and careful research process. The process often begins in a laboratory (lab), where scientists ... part in clinical trials are vital to the process of improving medical care. Many people volunteer because ...
Full Text Available ... as gene therapy) or vulnerable patients (such as children). A DSMB's role is to review data from a clinical trial for safety problems or differences in results among different groups. The DSMB also reviews research results ...
Full Text Available ... medical centers and doctors' offices around the country. Benefits and Risks Possible Benefits Taking part in a clinical trial can have many benefits. For example, you may gain access to new ...
Full Text Available ... or treatment is having harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides oversight for clinical trials that ...
Full Text Available ... Usually, a computer program makes the group assignments. Masking The term "masking" refers to not telling the clinical trial participants which treatment they're getting. Masking, or "blinding," helps avoid bias. For this reason, ...
Full Text Available ... you to explore NIH Clinical Center for patient recruitment and clinical trial information. For more information, please email the NIH Clinical Center Office of Patient Recruitment at firstname.lastname@example.org or call ...
Full Text Available ... organizations also sponsor clinical trials. Examples include Government Agencies, such as the U.S. Departments of Defense and ... how you feel. Some people will need to travel or stay in hospitals to take part in ...
Full Text Available ... clinical trials are required to have an IRB. Office for Human Research Protections The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS’) Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) oversees all research ...
Full Text Available ... clinical trial. IRB members are doctors, statisticians, and community members. The IRB's purpose is to ensure that ... lung, and blood disorders. By engaging the research community and a broad group of stakeholders and advisory ...
Full Text Available ... successfully developed and evaluated to fill an important gap in information and education for parents, clinicians, researchers, ... gathered can help others and add to scientific knowledge. People who take part in clinical trials are ...
Full Text Available ... Masking, or "blinding," helps avoid bias. For this reason, researchers also may not be told which treatments ... from a study at any time, for any reason. Also, during the trial, you have the right ...
Full Text Available ... studies. View funding information for clinical trials optimization . Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn ... and Usage No FEAR Act Grants and Funding Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn ...
Full Text Available Skip to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Health Topics Health Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and ...
Full Text Available ... get special protection as research subjects. Almost always, parents must give legal consent for their child to ... trial's potential risks are greater than minimal, both parents must give permission for their child to enroll. ...
Full Text Available ... risk of heart disease in the first few years, and HT also increased the risk of stroke ... a safety measure. They ensure a trial excludes any people for whom the protocol has known risks ...
Full Text Available ... Initiative tested whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. (When the trial began, HT was already in common use for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. It also ...
Full Text Available ... results. Clinical trials are one of the final stages of a long and careful research process. The ... a patient's age and gender, the type and stage of disease, and whether the patient has had ...
Full Text Available ... risk of heart disease in the first few years, and HT also increased the risk of stroke ... master plan called a protocol (PRO-to-kol). This plan explains how the trial will work. The ...
Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood ... of estrogen and progestin, the risk of breast cancer also increased. As a result, the U.S. Food ...
Full Text Available ... issues arise. Participation and Eligibility Each clinical trial defines who is eligible to take part in the ... the strategy or treatment is having harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the ...
Full Text Available Skip to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Health Topics Health Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ...
Full Text Available ... treatment is having harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the Food and Drug ... life? Will I have to be in the hospital? How long will the trial last? Who will ...
Full Text Available ... the same scientific safeguards as clinical trials for adults. For more information, go to "How Do Clinical ... based on what is known to work in adults. To improve clinical care of children, more studies ...
Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... to fill an important gap in information and education for parents, clinicians, researchers, children, and the general ...
Full Text Available ... clinical care of children, more studies are needed focusing on children's health with the goal to develop ... study? How might this trial affect my daily life? Will I have to be in the hospital? ...
Full Text Available ... procedures painful? What are the possible risks, side effects, and benefits of taking part in the study? How might this trial affect my daily life? Will I have to be in the hospital? ...
Full Text Available ... work best for certain illnesses or groups of people. Clinical trials produce the best data available for ... or animals doesn't always work well in people. Thus, research in humans is needed. For safety ...
Full Text Available ... sponsor clinical trials. Examples include Government Agencies, such as the U.S. Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs; ... age and frequency for doing screening tests, such as mammography; and compare two or more screening tests ...
Full Text Available ... harm. In later phases of clinical trials, researchers learn more about the new approach's risks and benefits. ... explore whether surgery or other medical treatments produce better results for certain illnesses or groups of people; ...
Full Text Available ... offer a variety of funding mechanisms tailored to planning and conducting clinical trials at all phases, including ... Center for Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health ...
Full Text Available ... Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. (When the trial began, HT ...
Full Text Available ... patients. Usually, a computer program makes the group assignments. Masking The term "masking" refers to not telling ... questions to ask your doctor and the research staff, go to "How Do Clinical Trials Protect Participants?" ...
Full Text Available ... study explored whether the benefits of lowering high blood pressure in the elderly outweighed the risks. Other examples of clinical trials that test principles or strategies include studies that explore whether ...
Full Text Available ... are ethical and that the participants' rights are protected. The IRB reviews the trial's protocol before the ... may know about studies going on in your area. You can visit the following website to learn ...
Full Text Available ... treatment is having harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides oversight for clinical trials that are ...
Full Text Available ... a laboratory (lab), where scientists first develop and test new ideas. If an approach seems promising, the ... Centers (including the NHLBI) usually sponsor trials that test principles or strategies. For example, one NHLBI study ...
Full Text Available ... Children and Clinical Studies Program has been successfully developed and evaluated to fill an important gap in ... Possible Benefits Taking part in a clinical trial can have many benefits. For example, you may gain ...
Full Text Available ... questions to ask your doctor and the research staff, go to "How Do Clinical Trials Protect Participants?" ... in Bethesda, Maryland. The physicians, nurses, scientists and staff of the NHLBI encourage you to explore NIH ...
Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... women and that are ethnically diverse. Children also need clinical trials that focus on them, as medical ...
Full Text Available ... and evaluated to fill an important gap in information and education for parents, clinicians, researchers, children, and the general public. What to Expect During a clinical trial, ...
Full Text Available ... small groups of people for safety and side effects. Phase II clinical trials look at how well ... confirm how well treatments work, further examine side effects, and compare new treatments with other available treatments. ...
Full Text Available ... whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. (When the trial began, HT ... also was increasingly being used for prevention of heart disease.) The study found that HT increased the risk ...
Full Text Available ... trials optimization . Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn more about getting to NIH Get ... and Funding Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn more about getting to NIH Connect ...
Full Text Available ... Events About NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory ... offer a variety of funding mechanisms tailored to planning and conducting clinical trials at all phases, including ...
Full Text Available ... NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget ... always, parents must give legal consent for their child to take part in a clinical trial. When ...
Full Text Available ... and organizations also sponsor clinical trials. Examples include Government Agencies, such as the U.S. Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs; private companies; universities; and nonprofit organizations. NIH Institutes and ...
Full Text Available ... records can quickly show this information if safety issues arise. Participation and Eligibility Each clinical trial defines ... and materials, and offer advice on research-related issues. Data Safety Monitoring Board Every National Institutes of ...
Full Text Available ... that the participants' rights are protected. The IRB reviews the trial's protocol before the study begins. An IRB will only approve research that deals with medically important questions ...
Full Text Available ... women and that are ethnically diverse. Children also need clinical trials that focus on them, as medical ... often differ for children. For example, children may need lower doses of certain medicines or smaller medical ...
Full Text Available ... you may get tests or treatments in a hospital, clinic, or doctor's office. In some ways, taking ... people will need to travel or stay in hospitals to take part in clinical trials. For example, ...
Full Text Available ... care providers might be part of your treatment team. They will monitor your health closely. You may ... taking part in a clinical trial. Your treatment team also may ask you to do other tasks. ...
Full Text Available ... new treatments in small groups of people for safety and side effects. Phase II clinical trials look at how well treatments work and further review these treatments for safety. Phase ...
Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood ... these results are important because they advance medical knowledge and help improve patient care. Sponsorship and Funding ...
Full Text Available ... and organizations also sponsor clinical trials. Examples include Government Agencies, such as the U.S. Departments of Defense ... FOIA) Accessibility Copyright and Usage No FEAR Act Grants and Funding Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, ...
Full Text Available ... to preexisting differences between the patients. Usually, a computer program makes the group assignments. Masking The term " ... under way. For example, some trials are stopped early if benefits from a strategy or treatment are ...
Full Text Available ... as the U.S. Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs; private companies; universities; and nonprofit organizations. NIH Institutes ... for parents, clinicians, researchers, children, and the general public. What to Expect During a clinical trial, doctors, ...
Full Text Available ... treatment of menopausal symptoms. It also was increasingly being used for prevention of heart disease.) The study ... a trial are due to the different strategies being used, not to preexisting differences between the patients. ...
Full Text Available ... combination of estrogen and progestin, the risk of breast cancer also increased. As a result, the U.S. Food ... to test new approaches to prevention, diagnosis, or screening. In the past, clinical trial participants often were ...
Full Text Available ... from other clinical trials show what doesn't work or may cause harm. For example, the NHLBI Women's Health Initiative tested whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. ( ...
Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... assumed that trial results were valid for other populations as well. Researchers now realize that women and ...
Full Text Available ... always, parents must give legal consent for their child to take part in a clinical trial. When ... minimal, both parents must give permission for their child to enroll. Also, children aged 7 and older ...
Tallinna Aleksander Nevski peakiriku ehituslugu: arhitekt Mihhail Preobrazhenski. Mosaiikpannoode looja on akadeemik A. Frolov, ikonostaasid (puit) teostas Pjotr Abrosimov (?), ikoonimaalid - akadeemik Aleksandr Novoskoltsev ja tema töökoda, vitraažid - Emil Schteinke (?), maalid - Mihhail Vassiljev ja Aleksandr Blazov, seinamaalingud - Grigori Prokofjev. 2002. a. lisandusid kaks Andrei Lobanovi vitraaži
Pittman, Keith A.
Briefly reviews the historical developments of tort law and identifies some of its main component. Tort law concerns wrongful acts (not involving a breach of contract) that may result in a civil action. Major areas include personal injury and wrongful death, intentional torts, negligence, professional malpractice, misrepresentation, and libel.…
. It was, however, the development of market research methods during the 1930s and 1940s, which provided the crucial backdrop for the sudden rise to prominence of an idea that assumes that consumers dictate what is produced through their ‘‘votes,’’ that is, daily choices. Innovations in the measurement...
Lotman, Juri, 1922-1993
17.-18. saj. Lääne-Euroopa ja Venemaa ideoloogilisest olukorrast M. Lomonossovi luuletuse "Iiobist valitud ood" alusel. Lisa: Lomonossov, Mihhail. Oda, võbrannaja iz Iovõ. Lk. 119-123. Varem ilm.: Lotman, J. M. Izbrannõje stati v treh tomah, t. II. - Tallinn, 1992. Lk. 29-39
Full Text Available Bu çalışma 4077 Sayılı Tüketicinin Korunması Hakkında Kanun’la hukuk sistemimize kazandırılan Tüketici Sorunları Hakem Heyetlerinin işleyişi, şikâyetlerin alınma ve değerlendirme sürecine dair 358.566 nüfuslu Odunpazarı ilçesinde tüketici sorunlarına üretilen çözümlerin boyutu ve tüketici davranışlarını sunmayı amaçlayan bir uygulama örneğidir. Çalışmamız; Tüketici Sorunları Hakem Heyeti Yönetmeliğinin 25. Maddesi gereği dörder aylık dönemler hâlinde hazırlanan Eskişehir Odunpazarı Tüketici Sorunları Hakem Heyeti’nin 2009-2012 yılları arasındaki faaliyet raporlarında belirtilen müracaat sayıları, tüketicinin lehine ve aleyhine olarak sonuçlanan karar sayıları ve şikâyetlerin türünü kapsamaktadır. Tüketici Sorunları Hakem Heyetleri aynı yönetmelik çerçevesinde çalışmalarına rağmen şikâyetlerin alınma ve değerlendirme sürecinde uygulama farklılıkları olabilmektedir. Bu farklılıklardan biri de Müdürlüğümüzün iş akışını hızlandırmak amacıyla geliştirdiği bir yazılımla şikâyetleri alıp değerlendirmesidir. Tüketici Sorunları Hakem Heyetlerinin raporlarına ait ülke çapında sistemli bir veri tabanı olmalı; Hakem Heyetlerinin uygulamalarına ve karar sonuçlarına yönelik karşılaştırmaların yapılarak, tüketici sorunlarının detaylı tetkiki sonucu üretilecek çözümlerle tüketici mağduriyetlerinin önüne geçilmelidir. Ground Jury of the Consumer Issues Reports and Consumer Behavior: Odunpazarı Example This study is an example of application with Law No. 4077 on Consumer Protection offered to judicial system functioning ground jury of the consumer Issues, about the process complaints of inclusion and assessment aims to provide generated solutions to consumer problems and consumer behavior of Odunpazarı district with 358.566 population. Our study contains; with the regulation 25 on ground jury of the consumer
Full Text Available ... an important gap in information and education for parents, clinicians, researchers, children, and the general public. What to Expect During a clinical trial, doctors, nurses, social workers, and other health care providers might be part of your treatment team. ...
Full Text Available ... taking the same treatment the same way. These patients are closely watched by Data and Safety Monitoring Boards. Even if you don't directly ... risk procedures (such as gene therapy) or vulnerable patients (such as ... trial for safety problems or differences in results among different groups. ...
Growing up in Flemington, New Jersey, put Jen Bryant in the heart of the lore behind the Lindbergh baby kidnapping. Family stories of the events of the day and extensive research led to "The Trial," a novel in verse. The first several parts of this novel are included here.
Full Text Available Skip to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Health Topics Health Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep ...
Full Text Available ... treatments produce better results for certain illnesses or groups of people; look at the best age and frequency for doing screening tests, such as mammography; and compare two or more screening tests to see which test ... Some companies and groups sponsor clinical trials that test the safety of ...
Full Text Available ... patient has had certain treatments or has other health problems. Eligibility criteria ensure that new approaches are tested ... public. What to Expect During a clinical trial, doctors, nurses, social workers, and other health care providers might be part of your treatment ...
Full Text Available ... This shows how the approach affects a living body and whether it's harmful. However, an approach that works well in the lab or animals doesn't always work well in people. Thus, research in humans is needed. For safety purposes, clinical trials start ...
Full Text Available ... edge approaches, such as gene therapy or new biological treatments. Health insurance and health care providers don't ... of a trial, early if the strategy or treatment is having harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the Food and ...
Full Text Available ... U.S. Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs; private companies; universities; and nonprofit organizations. NIH Institutes and Centers (including the NHLBI) usually sponsor trials that test principles or strategies. For example, one NHLBI study explored whether the ...
Full Text Available ... to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Health Topics Health Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and ...
Full Text Available ... protect patients and help produce reliable study results. Clinical trials are one of the final stages of a long and careful research process. The process often begins in a laboratory (lab), where scientists first develop and test new ...
Full Text Available ... benefits of lowering high blood pressure in the elderly outweighed the risks. Other examples of clinical trials ... child to enroll. Also, children aged 7 and older often must agree (assent) to take part ... about how you feel. Some people will need to travel or stay in hospitals ...
Full Text Available ... Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep ... Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants ... in the Press Research Features All Events Past Events Upcoming ...
Full Text Available ... safe a treatment is or how well it works. Children (aged 18 and younger) get special protection as research subjects. Almost always, parents must give legal consent for their child to take part in a clinical trial. When ...
Full Text Available ... As a result, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration now recommends never using HT to prevent heart disease. When HT is used for menopausal symptoms, it should be taken only at the smallest dose and for the shortest time possible. Clinical trials, like the two described above, ...
Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... include factors such as a patient's age and gender, the type and stage of disease, ... helps ensure that any differences observed during a trial are due to the ...
Full Text Available ... an important gap in information and education for parents, clinicians, researchers, children, and the general public. What to Expect During ... trial's potential risks are greater than minimal, both parents must give permission for their child to enroll. Also, children aged 7 and older ...
Full Text Available ... Wide Range of Audiences The Children and Clinical Studies Program has been successfully developed and evaluated to fill an important gap in information and education for parents, clinicians, researchers, children, and the general public. What to Expect During a clinical trial, doctors, ...
Full Text Available ... approach that works well in the lab or animals doesn't always work well in people. Thus, research in humans is needed. For safety purposes, clinical trials start with small groups of patients to find out whether a ...
Day, Simon; Machin, David; Green, Sylvan B
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 The Development of Clinical Trials Simon...
Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Andy Sparks, S; Marchant, David C; Midgley, Adrian W; Mc Naughton, Lars R
Whilst the presence of a competitor has been found to improve performance, the mechanisms influencing the change in selected work rates during direct competition have been suggested but not specifically assessed. The aim was to investigate the physiological and psychological influences of a visual avatar competitor during a 16.1-km cycling time trial performance, using trained, competitive cyclists. Randomised cross-over design. Fifteen male cyclists completed four 16.1km cycling time trials on a cycle ergometer, performing two with a visual display of themselves as a simulated avatar (FAM and SELF), one with no visual display (DO), and one with themselves and an opponent as simulated avatars (COMP). Participants were informed the competitive avatar was a similar ability cyclist but it was actually a representation of their fastest previous performance. Increased performance times were evident during COMP (27.8±2.0min) compared to SELF (28.7±1.9min) and DO (28.4±2.3min). Greater power output, speed and heart rate were apparent during COMP trial than SELF (pperformance. Competitive cyclists performed significantly faster during a 16.1-km competitive trial than when performing maximally, without a competitor. The improvement in performance was elicited due to a greater external distraction, deterring perceived exertion. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Information about the several types of cancer clinical trials, including treatment trials, prevention trials, screening trials, supportive and palliative care trials. Each type of trial is designed to answer different research questions.
Watch these videos to learn about some basic aspects of cancer clinical trials such as the different phases of clinical trials, methods used to protect patient safety, and how the costs of clinical trials are covered.
Flanagan, R J; Watson, K D
In the summer of 1826, Hannah Russell was tried for petty treason, viz. the murder of her husband, Benjamin Russell, by poisoning. Their lodger, Daniel Leney, was indicted as her accomplice. The exact circumstances surrounding the death were unclear but Hannah was known to have purchased white arsenic (arsenious oxide). A local surgeon, Thomas Evans, supported at the post-mortem examination by two further surgeons, not only reported severe corrosion of the gastrointestinal tract, but also the recovery of nearly an eighth of an ounce of arsenic from the victim's stomach. Both accused were convicted and sentenced to death. Leney was executed, but Hannah Russell was respited because the trial judge, Sir Robert Graham, had doubts as to a direction he had given to the jury. The surgeon and paleontologist Gideon Mantell took up her case, stressing that death from arsenic could not have taken place as quickly as was alleged and maintaining that the chemical evidence of arsenic poisoning was inconclusive. He gained the support of some eminent chemists and physicians. Subsequently, forensic toxicologists [Sir] Robert Christison and Alfred Swaine Taylor pointed out that Mantell's arguments as to the possible time to death in arsenic poisoning were quite wrong. Moreover, Evans gave details of the analyses he and his colleagues had undertaken to Christison, who pronounced the findings sound, as indeed did Mantell after Evans and his colleagues published details of their investigations in the Sussex Advertiser. Papers in The National Archives show that Hannah was pardoned for the offence for which she was indicted, leaving it open to prefer a lesser charge. That this was never done may have been due to Mantell's campaign, at least in part, but the pardon she did receive was due to the concern of the trial judge as to the implications of the evidence presented at trial.
Kleijnen, J; Knipschild, P; ter Riet, G
OBJECTIVE--To establish whether there is evidence of the efficacy of homoeopathy from controlled trials in humans. DESIGN--Criteria based meta-analysis. Assessment of the methodological quality of 107 controlled trials in 96 published reports found after an extensive search. Trials were scored using a list of predefined criteria of good methodology, and the outcome of the trials was interpreted in relation to their quality. SETTING--Controlled trials published world wide. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Results of the trials with the best methodological quality. Trials of classical homoeopathy and several modern varieties were considered separately. RESULTS--In 14 trials some form of classical homoeopathy was tested and in 58 trials the same single homoeopathic treatment was given to patients with comparable conventional diagnosis. Combinations of several homoeopathic treatments were tested in 26 trials; isopathy was tested in nine trials. Most trials seemed to be of very low quality, but there were many exceptions. The results showed a positive trend regardless of the quality of the trial or the variety of homeopathy used. Overall, of the 105 trials with interpretable results, 81 trials indicated positive results whereas in 24 trials no positive effects of homoeopathy were found. The results of the review may be complicated by publication bias, especially in such a controversial subject as homoeopathy. CONCLUSIONS--At the moment the evidence of clinical trials is positive but not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions because most trials are of low methodological quality and because of the unknown role of publication bias. This indicates that there is a legitimate case for further evaluation of homoeopathy, but only by means of well performed trials. PMID:1825800
Full Text Available Abstract Managing clinical trials, of whatever size and complexity, requires efficient trial management. Trials fail because tried and tested systems handed down through apprenticeships have not been documented, evaluated or published to guide new trialists starting out in this important field. For the past three decades, trialists have invented and reinvented the trial management wheel. We suggest that to improve the successful, timely delivery of important clinical trials for patient benefit, it is time to produce standard trial management guidelines and develop robust methods of evaluation.
James, J S
A clinical trial using remune, the anti-HIV vaccine developed by the late Dr. Jonas Salk, has been ended. The study is a clinical-endpoint trial which looks for statistically significant differences in AIDS sickness or death between patients who add remune to their treatment regimens versus those who use a placebo. Agouron Pharmaceuticals and the Immune Response Corporation who were conducting the trial announced their decision to stop it after an analysis by the Data Safety Monitoring Board. No differences in clinical endpoints were found and it was projected that continuing the trial would likely not find any. The companies are now planning two new Phase III trials using viral load testing rather than clinical endpoints as study criteria.
Information about NCI programs and initiatives that sponsor, conduct, develop, or support clinical trials, including NCI’s Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) initiatives.
Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng
"Now viewed as its own scientific discipline, clinical trial methodology encompasses the methods required for the protection of participants in a clinical trial and the methods necessary to provide...
... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...
Hepler, Teri J; Ritchie, Jason; Hill, Christopher R
Self-efficacy has been shown to be a consistent, positive predictor of between-persons performance in sport. However, there have been equivocal results regarding the influence of self-efficacy on a person's performance over time. This study investigated the influence of self-efficacy on motor skill performance across trials with respect to two different task objectives and task types. Participants (N=84) performed 4 blocks of 10 trials of a dart throwing (closed skill) and a hitting (open skill) task under 2 different task objectives: competitive and goal-striving. For the goal-striving condition, success was defined as reaching a pre-determined performance level. The competitive condition involved competing against an opponent. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the influence of past performance and self-efficacy on the within-person performance across multiple trials. Previous performance was negatively related with subsequent performance on all conditions. Self-efficacy was not a significant predictor of performance on any of the conditions. While task objective and task type did not moderate the efficacy-performance relationship in the current study, it is important to consider the role of other moderators in future research.
Full Text Available Noninferiority trials test whether a new experimental treatment is not unacceptably less efficacious than an active control treatment already in use. With continuous improvements in health technologies, standard care, and clinical outcomes, the incremental benefits of newly developed treatments may be only marginal over existing treatments. Sometimes assigning patients to a placebo is unethical. In such circumstances, there has been increasing emphasis on the use of noninferiority trial designs. Noninferiority trials are more complex to design, conduct, and interpret than typical superiority trials. This paper reviews the concept of noninferiority trials and discusses some important issues related to them.
Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng
... in the pharmaceutical industry, Clinical trial methodology emphasizes the importance of statistical thinking in clinical research and presents the methodology as a key component of clinical research...
objects and satisfaction of the interface boundary conditions creates a function that did not exist before the connection. A function is described...CapacityDimension.html Wilson, E. O. (1984). The relation between caste ratios and division of labour in the ant genus Pheidole. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 16, 89–98
Schaeffer’s stimulating enthusiasm and dynamism spurred me on when I seemed to be stuck in perpetual check. Though I interacted with Jaime Carbonell...and Gene, Pierre, Fang and XiaoGang, Sabine and Consuelo. To them, and all the others I had to omit here, my sincere thanks. Finally, all of this
This paper analyzes voluntary disclosure equilibria when the voluntary disclosure model presented inWAGENHOFER (1990) is modified so as to include fixed disclosure costs as used in VERRECCHIA (1983). It turns out that incorporating both disclosure and proprietary costs rules out full disclosure
Three years in the making, the draft program of action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development sets nonbinding policy guidelines to contain the world's population at 7.27 billion in 2015. Although the Vatican was pleased to see Pakistan put forward a compromise formula developed to appease Catholic and Muslim objectors of abortion, the Church was unprepared to accept the compromise immediately and requested further discussion. The Vatican's rejection drew a strong chorus of vocal disapproval from other conference delegates. Even Iran accepted the draft as a "perfect text," while Sweden grudgingly accepted it as a "rock-bottom compromise." With no Catholic countries objecting to the compromise, the Vatican stood alone in its refusal to compromise with the rest of the world's leaders and peoples. Germany, speaking for the European Union, warned that enough concessions had already been made. The rationale for Vatican opposition was unclear since the section explicitly rejects abortion as a means of family planning and urges countries to minimize both the incidence of unsafe abortion and abortion overall by improving family planning. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies must be given highest priority and women should have ready access to compassionate counselling, with abortion never promoted as a means of family planning. Moreover, there is no longer a reference to sexual health education, a plea to governments to review their laws and policies on abortion, and a call to consider women's health rather than relying upon criminal codes and punitive measures. Participants said the Vatican objected to a phrase stating that abortions, where legal, should be safe, while the Church representative argued that any suggestion that abortion is safe contradicts church doctrine on the sanctity of life.
This article by a co-director of the Political Ecology Research Group (UK) is based on a lecture given at a conference on the politics of fast breeder reactors in London at the end of 1978. The conference proceedings will be published in full. The Author feels that risk assessment is inadequately incorporated into democratic decision making in the UK. (U.K.)
Özgüneş, Reşad Emre; Bozok, Düriye
It is seen that brands arebuilding their marketing strategies on technological innovations with the aimof standing out, coming to the leading position in the sector, increase theirprofitability. One of these methods experienced in the virtual world and usedby major brands such as Marshall, L'Oreal Paris, Ray-Ban, Adidas, BMW, Ford,Volkswagen, IKEA as a marketing instrument by being followed closely is AR(Augmented Reality) technology. In essence, it is anticipated that AR will beused ext...
Suciu, S; Sylvester, R; Iversen, P
The present overview of advanced prostate cancer required the identification of randomized clinical trials studying the question of maximal androgen blockade versus the classic castration therapy. The heterogeneity of the trials concerned the type of castration (surgical or chemical) and the type...
Woo, K T
All clinical trials in Singapore will now have to conform to the Medicines (Clinical Trials) Amended Regulations 1998 and the Singapore Good Clinical Practice (GCP) Guidelines 1998. The Medical Clinical Research Committee (MCRC) has been established to oversee the conduct of clinical drug trials in Singapore and together with the legislations in place, these will ensure that clinical trials conducted in Singapore are properly controlled and the well-being of trial subjects are safe guarded. All clinical drug trials require a Clinical Trial Certificate from the MCRC before the trial can proceed. The hospital ethics committee (EC) vets the application for a trial certificate before it is sent to MCRC. The drug company sponsoring the trial has to indemnify the trial investigators and the hospital for negligence arising from the trial. The MCRC, apart from ensuring the safety of trial subjects, has to provide continuing review of the clinical trial and monitors adverse events in the course of the trial. The EC will conduct continuing review of clinical trials. When a non-drug clinical trial is carried out, the EC will ensure that the proposed protocol addresses ethical concerns and meets regulatory requirements for such trials. There is great potential for pharmaceutical Research & Development (R&D) in Singapore. We must develop our skills and infrastructure in clinical trials to enable Singapore to be a regional hub for R&D of drugs in Asia.
Friedman, Lawrence M; DeMets, David L; Reboussin, David M; Granger, Christopher B
This is the fifth edition of a very successful textbook on clinical trials methodology, written by recognized leaders who have long and extensive experience in all areas of clinical trials. The three authors of the first four editions have been joined by two others who add great expertise. Most chapters have been revised considerably from the fourth edition. A chapter on regulatory issues has been included and the chapter on data monitoring has been split into two and expanded. Many contemporary clinical trial examples have been added. There is much new material on adverse events, adherence, issues in analysis, electronic data, data sharing, and international trials. This book is intended for the clinical researcher who is interested in designing a clinical trial and developing a protocol. It is also of value to researchers and practitioners who must critically evaluate the literature of published clinical trials and assess the merits of each trial and the implications for the care and treatment of ...
Full text: Validation of treatment methodologies can only be achieved in the context of unambiguous, efficiently managed, randomised and controlled clinical trials. Since 1991, the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) has coordinated over 29 protocols in radiation oncology, including several key randomised controlled trials. The impetus behind TROG is the establishment of an evidence base for particular approaches to radiotherapy and its adjunct use with alternative and complementary treatment methods. As the level of technology incorporated into radiotherapy continues to increase, as the need for improved accuracy in dose assessment increases and as the requirements of realistic quality assurance (QA) for clinical trials becomes more demanding it is imperative that all professionals involved in radiotherapy, including physicists, become actively involved in the QA of trials. This is particularly important for large scale multi-centre trials which intend to prove the benefits of particular treatment approaches on a national or international stage rather then in the context of a single clinic. This talk will: 1. Examine the outcomes of TROG trials to date in terms of the information obtained. 2. Briefly consider current and impending TROG trials and their requirements in terms of clinical and physics input. 3. Examine the results of international clinical trials in terms of the influence they have had on radiotherapy practice and health outcomes, and the advantages they have obtained by consistent co-operation between clinical and technological staff. 4. Consider the benefits of multi-centre clinical trials and the QA controls that are necessary to ensure accuracy of resulting recommendations. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides patients, family members, health care professionals, and members of the public easy access to information on clinical trials for a wide range of diseases...
Katz, J N; Losina, E; Lohmander, L S
To highlight methodological challenges in the design and conduct of randomized trials of surgical interventions and to propose strategies for addressing these challenges. This paper focuses on three broad areas: enrollment; intervention; and assessment including implications for analysis. For eac...
Scheurlen, A.; Kay, R.; Baum, M.
This book contains the proceedings on Cancer clinical trials: A critical appraisal. Topics covered include: Scientific fundamentals; Heterogeneous treatment effects; On combining information: Historical controls, overviews, and comprehensive cohort studies; and assessment of quality of life
Suciu, S; Sylvester, R; Iversen, P
The present overview of advanced prostate cancer required the identification of randomized clinical trials studying the question of maximal androgen blockade versus the classic castration therapy. The heterogeneity of the trials concerned the type of castration (surgical or chemical) and the type...... of antiandrogen (flutamide, Anandron, or cyproterone acetate) added to castration. This paper reviews the different types of heterogeneity that might exist among trials that are involved in the overview: study design, randomization procedure, treatment evaluation, statistical evaluation, and data maturity....... In order to overcome these various types of heterogeneity and to compare like with like, the treatment comparison should be stratified a posteriori by question (i.e., type of castration or type of anti-androgen studied) and by study. In this way, one may draw valid conclusions. Of course, those trials...
Senn, S J
The relevance of the philosophy of Sir Karl Popper to the planning, conduct and analysis of clinical trials is examined. It is shown that blinding and randomization can only be regarded as valuable for the purpose of refuting universal hypotheses. The purpose of inclusion criteria is also examined. It is concluded that a misplaced belief in induction is responsible for many false notions regarding clinical trials.
Mihhaljov, Juri, 1947-
Narva teater "Ilmarine" on Narva linnavalitsuses vastuvõetud otsuste tõttu kaotanud nii dekoratsioonide töökoja kui õiguse kultuurikeskuse "Energeetik" lava soovikohasele kasutusele. Raskustega võideldes otsib-leiab teater võimalusi elus püsida
A study of climatic influences on Vaal River discharge, near Johannesburg, South Africa, finds that peak summer flows in the period 1979–2014 coincide with ocean–atmosphere interaction in the east Atlantic. The analysis has three parts: interannual influences by correlation of summer discharge with climate fields, ...
Tallinnas linastub esimene Eesti-Valgevene ühistöö "Kalinovski väljak", dokumentaalfilm Valgevene kuulsaima režissööri pikalt kestnud ja ohtlikust konfliktist diktaator Lukashenkaga. Poliitilisest olukorrast Valgevenes, president Aleksandr Lukashenkast
Sootak, Jaan, 1948-
Euroopa Ühenduse kriminaalõigusest; sanktsioonist, individuaalsest süüksarvamisest ja ebaõigusest Euroopa majanduskriminaalõiguses ning pettuse, altkäemaksu, rahapesu ja kuritegeliku ühenduse kuriteokoosseisudest
Observers from Common Law countries are often appalled by what they take to be the essential features of Continental criminal procedure: its secluded, bureaucratic character and the fundamental asymmetry of the parties. These features make them think of the institution with the worst reputation in
Venemaa lähiajalugu, stagnatsiooniaeg. Järg Jul/6,7,8,9,13,14,15,16,19,20,21,22,23,26,27,30. lk. 6,3,6,8,6,3,6,4,3,6,3,6,4,3,6,4; Aug/2.,3.,4.,5.,9.,10.,11.,16.,19.,23.,27.,30.,31. lk. 3, Sep/ 3., 7.,9.,21.,28. lk.4,6,6,6,6; Oct/7.,12.,14.,19.,21.,28. lk. 6,6,6,3,6,6; Nov/2.,4.,11.,16.,18. lk. 6
Last September Andrew Lansley claimed that some NHS Trusts occupying PFI healthcare facilities had been 'landed with deals they could not afford', seemingly attributing much of the blame for a scenario where the Department of Health said 22 Trusts in England alone could be at significant financial risk to Labour, which, in the 1990s, greatly expanded a public/private funding partnership originally introduced by the Tories a decade earlier. Two key factors critics claim have put such Trusts 'at risk' are the 'inflexibility' of some PFI contracts, which makes varying terms difficult mid-contract, and the fact that many of the earlier deals were inexpertly negotiated by the 'public sector side'. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie sought the views of Malcolm Austwick, a partner at top commercial law firm, DAC Beachcroft (see panel below), with extensive experience in the legal complexities of PFI, on whether or not the initiative's 'pros' do indeed outweigh the 'cons'.
Fogarty, Gerald; Shivalingam, Brindha; Dhillon, Haryana; Thompson, John F; Morton, Rachael L; Vardy, Janette; Nowak, Anna K; Mandel, Catherine; Forder, Peta M; Hong, Angela; Hruby, George; Burmeister, Bryan
Cerebral metastases are a common cause of death in patients with melanoma. Systemic drug treatment of these metastases is rarely effective, and where possible surgical resection and/or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are the preferred treatment options. Treatment with adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) following neurosurgery and/or SRS is controversial. Proponents of WBRT report prolongation of intracranial control with reduced neurological events and better palliation. Opponents state melanoma is radioresistant; that WBRT yields no survival benefit and may impair neurocognitive function. These opinions are based largely on studies in other tumour types in which assessment of neurocognitive function has been incomplete. This trial is an international, prospective multi-centre, open-label, phase III randomised controlled trial comparing WBRT to observation following local treatment of intracranial melanoma metastases with surgery and/or SRS. Patients aged 18 years or older with 1-3 brain metastases excised and/or stereotactically irradiated and an ECOG status of 0-2 are eligible. Patients with leptomeningeal disease, or who have had previous WBRT or localised treatment for brain metastases are ineligible. WBRT prescription is at least 30 Gy in 10 fractions commenced within 8 weeks of surgery and/or SRS. Randomisation is stratified by the number of cerebral metastases, presence or absence of extracranial disease, treatment centre, sex, radiotherapy dose and patient age. The primary endpoint is the proportion of patients with distant intracranial failure as determined by MRI assessment at 12 months. Secondary end points include: survival, quality of life, performance status and neurocognitive function. Accrual to previous trials for patients with brain metastases has been difficult, mainly due to referral bias for or against WBRT. This trial should provide the evidence that is currently lacking in treatment decision-making for patients with melanoma brain
van Middelkoop, Marienke; Arden, N K; Atchia, I.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular (IA) glucocorticoids for knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA) in specific subgroups of patients with severe pain and inflammatory signs using individual patient data (IPD) from existing trials. Design: Randomized trials evaluating one or more IA...... glucocorticoid preparation in patients with knee or hip OA, published from 1995 up to June 2012 were selected from the literature. IPD obtained from original trials included patient and disease characteristics and outcomes measured. The primary outcome was pain severity at short-term follow-up (up to 4 weeks...... Interval 1.50-26.31) when receiving IA glucocorticoid injection compared to placebo. No statistical significant interaction effects were found between inflammatory signs and IA glucocorticoid injections compared to placebo and to tidal irrigation at all follow-up points. Conclusions: This IPD meta...
Gade, Christina; Mikus, Gerd; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed
INTRODUCTION: In Denmark, it is estimated that 3-5% of children are obese. Obesity is associated with pathophysiological alterations that may lead to alterations in the pharmacokinetics of drugs. In adults, obesity was found to influence important drug-metabolising enzyme pathways. The impact...... of obesity-related alterations on drug metabolism and its consequences for drug dosing remains largely unknown in both children and adults. An altered drug metabolism may contribute significantly to therapeutic failure or toxicity. The aim of this trial is to investigate the in vivo activity of CYP3A4, CYP2E......1 and CYP1A2 substrates in obese versus non-obese children. METHODS: The CYTONOX trial is an open-label explorative pharmacokinetic trial. We intend to include 50 obese and 50 non-obese children. The primary end points are: in vivo clearance of CYP3A4, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 substrates, which...
Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Randers, Lasse
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a distinct feature among people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and pose a barrier to functional recovery. Insufficient evidence exists on how to ameliorate these cognitive deficits in patients at UHR for psychosis and hence improve daily living and quality...... of life. The aim of the trial is to investigate whether cognitive remediation can improve cognitive and psychosocial function in patients at UHR for psychosis. METHODS: The FOCUS trial (Function and Overall Cognition in Ultra-high risk States) is a randomised, parallel group, observer-blinded clinical...... trial enrolling 126 patients meeting the standardised criteria of being at UHR for psychosis. Patients are recruited from psychiatric in- and outpatient facilities in the Copenhagen catchment area. Patients are randomised to one of the two treatment arms: cognitive remediation plus standard treatment...
In response to the Home Office recommendations contained in Speaking Up for Justice (1998) the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act (YJCEA) 1999 introduced a new regime for the conduct of sexual offence trials. Section 41 of the Act, which came into force on 4 December 2000, brings about dramatic changes to the rules on the admissibility of evidence of complainants' sexual behaviour, severely restricting the discretion of trial judges to introduce such evidence or to allow questioning concerning it. This represents a radical new departure that will fundamentally affect an accused's position at trial. Responses to section 41 have predictably been divided given the extremely sensitive nature of this area of the law of evidence and the complex set of social and political issues which are at stake. Many have greeted it as a long overdue reform of a system premised upon outmoded and sexist beliefs concerning women's sexual behaviour which has routinely functioned to admit prejudicial and irrelevant evidence. Others, predominantly within the legal profession, have expressed serious concerns over whether the new law is workable and the extent to which, by potentially excluding critically relevant evidence, it may infringe upon a defendant's right to a fair trial. The quality of the legislation is soon to be tested. On 26 and 27 March 2001 the House of Lords heard an interlocutory appeal in the case of R v. A and were asked to decide if the new provisions, by excluding previous sexual history evidence between the complainant and the defendant, contravened Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Their Lordships are, at the time of writing, yet to give judgment and the fate of the defendant in question, and several others whose trials have been postponed pending their decision, hangs in the balance. This article seeks to show that the new Act, despite being well-intentioned, does not adopt a coherent or sustainable approach to the relevance of previous
Reimer, C; Lødrup, A; Smith, G
of an alginate (Gaviscon Advance, Reckitt Benckiser, Slough, UK) on reflux symptoms in patients with persistent symptoms despite once daily PPI. MethodsThis was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, 7-day double-blind trial preceded by a 7-day run-in period. Reflux symptoms were assessed using...
Kraus, V B; Blanco, F J; Englund, M
The objective of this work was to describe requirements for inclusion of soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials and progress toward OA-related biomarker qualification. The Guidelines for Biomarkers Working Group, representing experts in the field of OA biomarker research from...
McAlindon, T. E.; Driban, J. B.; Henrotin, Y.
The goal of this document is to update the original OARSI recommendations specifically for the design, conduct, and reporting of clinical trials that target symptom or structure modification among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). To develop recommendations for the design, conduct...
Di Giulio, Paola; Campagna, Sara; Dimonte, Valerio
Clinical trials are pivotal for the development of nursing knowledge. To describe the clinical trials published in nursing journals in the last two years and propose some general reflections on nursing research. A search with the key-word trial was done on PubMed (2009-2013) on Cancer Nursing, European Journal of Oncology Nursing, International Journal of Nursing Studies, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Journal of Clinical Nursing and Nursing Research. Of 228 trials identified, 104 (45.8%) were published in the last 2 years. Nurses from Asian countries published the larger number of trials. Educational and supportive interventions were the most studied (61/104 trials), followed by clinical interventions (33/104). Samples were limited and most trials are monocentric. A growing number of trials is published, on issues relevant for the nursing profession, however larger samples and multicentric studies would be necessary.
Hansdotter Andersson, Pernilla; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet
population. To be eligible, patients had to be 75 years or younger and curatively resected for stage II or III colorectal cancer. Exclusion criteria were hereditary colorectal cancer, no signed consent, other malignancy, and life expectancy less than 2 years due to concomitant disease. In four of the 24......INTRODUCTION: The COLOFOL trial, a prospective randomized multicenter trial comparing two follow-up regimes after curative surgical treatment for colorectal cancer, focuses on detection of asymptomatic recurrences. This paper aims to describe the design and recruitment procedure in the COLOFOL...... participating centers, we scrutinized hospital inpatient data to identify all colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery, in order to ascertain all eligible patients who were not included in the study and to compare them with enrolled patients. RESULTS: Of a total of 4,445 eligible patients, 2...
Palter, S F
The modern clinical trial is a form of human experimentation. There is a long history of disregard for individual rights of the patient in this context, and special attention must be paid to ethical guidelines for these studies. Clinical trials differ in basic ways from clinical practice. Foremost is the introduction of outside interests, beyond those of the patient's health, into the doctor-patient therapeutic alliance. Steps must be taken to protect the interests of the patient when such outside influence exists. Kantian moral theory and the Hippocratic oath dictate that the physician must respect the individual patient's rights and hold such interests paramount. These principles are the basis for informed consent. Randomization of patients is justified when a condition of equipoise exists. The changing nature of health care delivery in the United States introduces new outside interests into the doctor-patient relationship.
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Intergrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 249553, 2-Methoxyestradiol; Abatacept, Adalimumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, Agalsidase beta, Albinterferon alfa-2b, Aliskiren fumarate, Alovudine, Amdoxovir, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Anakinra, AQ-13, Aripiprazole, AS-1404, Asoprisnil, Atacicept, Atrasentan; Belimumab, Bevacizumab, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Botulinum toxin type B, Brivaracetam; Catumaxomab, Cediranib, Cetuximab, cG250, Ciclesonide, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Curcumin, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, Denosumab, Dihydrexidine; Eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Etoricoxib, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Febuxostat, Fenspiride hydrochloride, Fondaparinux sodium; Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), GSK-1562902A; HSV-tk/GCV; Iclaprim, Imatinib mesylate, Imexon, Indacaterol, Insulinotropin, ISIS-112989; L-Alanosine, Lapatinib ditosylate, Laropiprant; Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin-beta, Mipomersen sodium, Motexafin gadolinium; Natalizumab, Nimotuzumab; OSC, Ozarelix; PACAP-38, Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein-(1-36), Pasireotide, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Pertuzumab, Picoplatin, Pimecrolimus, Pitavastatin calcium, Plitidepsin; Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Ranolazine, Recombinant human relaxin H2, Regadenoson, RFB4(dsFv)-PE38, RO-3300074, Rosuvastatin calcium; SIR-Spheres, Solifenacin succinate, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Talabostat, Taribavirin hydrochloride, Taxus, Temsirolimus, Teriparatide, Tiotropium bromide, Tipifarnib, Tirapazamine, Tocilizumab; UCN-01, Ularitide
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity. prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABX-IL-8, Acclaim, adalimumab, AGI-1067, alagebrium chloride, alemtuzumab, Alequel, Androgel, anti-IL-12 MAb, AOD-9604, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Biphasic insulin aspart, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, bovine lactoferrin, brivudine; Cantuzumab mertansine, CB-1954, CDB-4124, CEA-TRICOM, choriogonadotropin alfa, cilansetron, CpG-10101, CpG-7909, CTL-102, CTL-102/CB-1954; DAC:GRF, darbepoetin alfa, davanat-1, decitabine, del-1 Genemedicine, dexanabinol, dextofisopam, dnaJP1, dronedarone hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, eletriptan, emtricitabine, EPI-hNE-4, eplerenone, eplivanserin fumarate, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, etoricoxib, ezetimibe; Falecalcitriol, fingolimod hydrochloride; Gepirone hydrochloride; HBV-ISS, HSV-2 theracine, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, insulin glargine, ISAtx-247; L612 HuMAb, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, lidocaine/prilocaine, LL-2113AD, lucinactant, LY-156735; Meclinertant, metelimumab, morphine hydrochloride, morphine-6-glucuronide; Natalizumab, nimotuzumab, NX-1207, NYVAC-HIV C; Omalizumab, onercept, osanetant; PABA, palosuran sulfate, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, PBI-1402, PCK-3145, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, PINC, pregabalin; Ramelteon, rasagiline mesilate, rasburicase, rimonabant hydrochloride, RO-0098557, rofecoxib, rosiglitazone maleate/metformin hydrochloride; Safinamide mesilate, SHL-749, sitaxsentan sodium, sparfosic acid, SprayGel, squalamine, St. John's Wort
Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra
The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India.
Gowri, S; Kannan, Sridharan
Evidence-based practice requires clinical trials to be performed. In India, if any clinical trial has to be performed, it has to be registered with clinical trial registry of India. Studies have shown that the report of clinical trials is poor in dentistry. Hence, the present study has been conducted to assess the type and trends of clinical trials being undertaken in dentistry in India over a span of 6 years. All the clinical trials which were registered with the Central Trial Registry of India (CTRI) (www.ctri.nic.in) from January 1, 2007 to March 3, 2014 were evaluated using the keyword "dental." Following information were collected for each of the clinical trials obtained from the search; number of centres (single center/multicentric), type of the institution undertaking the research (government/private/combined), study (observational/interventional), study design (randomized/single blinded/double-blinded), type of health condition, type of participants (healthy/patients), sponsors (academia/commercial), phase of clinical trial (Phase 1/2/3/4), publication details (published/not published), whether it was a postgraduate thesis or not and prospective or retrospective registration of clinical trials, methodological quality (method of randomization, allocation concealment). Descriptive statistics was used for analysis of various categories. Trend analysis was done to assess the changes over a period of time. The search yielded a total of 84 trials of which majority of them were single centered. Considering the study design more than half of the registered clinical trials were double-blinded (47/84 [56%]). With regard to the place of conducting a trial, most of the trials were planned to be performed in private hospitals (56/84 [66.7%]). Most (79/84, 94.1%) of the clinical trials were interventional while only 5/84 (5.9%) were observational. Majority (65/84, 77.4%) of the registered clinical trials were recruiting patients while the rest were being done in healthy
Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko
The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)
Chidiac, C; Katlama, C; Yeni, P
Just over a decade after identification of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 as coreceptors for HIV, maraviroc (Celsentri), the first CCR5 antagonist, has recently obtained its Marketing Authorization in the United States and Europe, for treatment of treatment-experienced adult patients infected with only CCR5-tropic HIV-1 detectable. CCR5 antagonists, after fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide available since 2003, also belong to entry inhibitors. These molecules, unlike previous antiretrovirals, do not target the virus but its target cell by blocking viral penetration. Maraviroc has shown its clinical efficacy in patients failing other antiretroviral classes. Its safety profile was similar to placebo in two large phase III trials. However, careful assessment of both hepatic and immunologic safety of this new therapeutic class is needed. Viral tropism testing has to be investigated before using maraviroc in the clinic, because CCR5 antagonists are not active against CXCR4 viruses. For the moment indicated for the treatment-experienced patient population, maraviroc could in the future benefit to other types of patients, depending on ongoing trials results.
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issues focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-gossypol, 2-deoxyglucose, 3,4-DAP, 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside; Ad5CMV-p53, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, ADH-1, alemtuzumab, aliskiren fumarate, alvocidib hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, amrubicin hydrochloride, AN-152, anakinra, anecortave acetate, antiasthma herbal medicine intervention, AP-12009, AP-23573, apaziquone, aprinocarsen sodium, AR-C126532, AR-H065522, aripiprazole, armodafinil, arzoxifene hydrochloride, atazanavir sulfate, atilmotin, atomoxetine hydrochloride, atorvastatin, avanafil, azimilide hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, biphasic insulin aspart, BMS-214662, BN-83495, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B; Caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, chrysin, ciclesonide, clevudine, clofarabine, clopidogrel, CNF-1010, CNTO-328, CP-751871, CX-717, Cypher; Dapoxetine hydrochloride, darifenacin hydrobromide, dasatinib, deferasirox, dextofisopam, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, diclofenac, dronedarone hydrochloride, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Edaravone, efaproxiral sodium, emtricitabine, entecavir, eplerenone, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, etoricoxib, ezetimibe, ezetimibe/simvastatin; Finrozole, fipamezole hydrochloride, fondaparinux sodium, fulvestrant; Gabapentin enacarbil, gaboxadol, gefitinib, gestodene, ghrelin (human); Human insulin, human papillomavirus vaccine; Imatinib mesylate, immunoglobulin intravenous (human), indiplon, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, insulin glulisine, intranasal insulin, istradefylline, i.v. gamma
Fox, John A.; Olson, Dennis G.
The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided
Full Text Available Abstract Cross-Over Clinical Trials in comparison with Parallel groups clinical trials have some advantages such as control of confounding variables, small sample size, and short time to implement the research project. But this type of research has few essential limitations that discusses in this monogram.
Emery, C. A.; Roos, Ewa M.; Verhagen, E.
The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) substantially increases following joint injury. Research efforts should focus on investigating the efficacy of preventative strategies in high quality randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of these OARSI RCT recommendations is to inform...... the design, conduct and analytical approaches to RCTs evaluating the preventative effect of joint injury prevention strategies. Recommendations regarding the design, conduct, and reporting of RCTs evaluating injury prevention interventions were established based on the consensus of nine researchers...... internationally with expertise in epidemiology, injury prevention and/or osteoarthritis (OA). Input and resultant consensus was established through teleconference, face to face and email correspondence over a 1 year period. Recommendations for injury prevention RCTs include context specific considerations...
Gelee, M.; Fabre, C.; Villepoix, R. de; Fra, J.; Le Foulgoc, L.; Morel, Y.; Querite, P.; Roques, R.
Prototypes of the plant components, meeting the specifications set by the process and built by industrial firms in collaboration with the supervisor and the C.E.A., are subjected to trial runs on the UF 6 test bench of the Pierrelatte testing zone. These items of equipment (diffuser, compressor, exchanger) are placed in an industrial operation context very similar to that of an enrichment plant. Their performance is measured within a broad region around the working point and their reliability observed over periods up to several tens of thousands of hours. Between 1969 and 1973 six industrial demonstration test benches have been built, marking the stages in the technical preparation of the 1973 file on the basis of which the decision of building was taken by Eurodif [fr
Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially
Rosen von, B.; Contestabile, E. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
This report describes the investigation of a tractor-trailer explosion. A truck loaded with 18,000 kg of commercial explosives, of which 13,000 kg was ammonium nitrate with fuel oil (ANFO), caught fire when it struck a rockcut near Walden, Ontario on August 5, 1998. The fire resulted in the detonation of the load. The Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory (CERL) conducted a test program to examine the suitability of existing explosive transportation regulations. Unconfined burns of ANFO were performed. The accident was recreated in two burn trials in an attempt to identify the mechanism that led from fire to detonation. Two full-scale tests were conducted using complete tractor-trailers, each in a jack-knifed position with most of the explosives placed on the ground in front of the trailer. ANFO was used in the first test to determine its response to thermal stimulus and the likelihood of detonation or explosion. The second test involved ANFO, a slurry and an emulsion. Thermocouples and video cameras were used to observe the burning characteristics of the explosives, the truck and its components. The explosives burned steadily for 80 minutes in each test. Many truck components, such as tires, spring brake chambers and the fuel tank ruptured violently due to the heat. Although no detonation occurred in the test trials, it was concluded that under favourable conditions, many truck components, might produce fragments with enough energy to initiate heat-sensitized explosives. It was suggested that a fragment impact caused the detonation at Walden. 4 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.
Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially
Rachel M.A. Spencer
Full Text Available In South Australia in 1981, an intriguing criminal trial took shape around Emily Perry who was charged with two counts of attempting to murder her husband with arsenic. Similar fact evidence about the deaths of a former husband, a de facto partner and a brother led to a jury finding her guilty of the attempted murder of her husband who denied any claim that she had tried to harm him. An appeal to the South Australian Court of Criminal Appeal on the basis that the previous deaths should not have been brought to the attention of the jury was unsuccessful but Emily Perry’s case went all the way to the High Court of Australia. Her conviction was quashed and she was never re-tried. This article examines the dichotomy of an accused’s right to a fair trial (and the rules of evidence that flow from that right and the public’s so-called ‘right to know’ about a person charged with a serious offence. It posits the Perry case as an example of the opposing perspectives of lawyers and journalists, and explores the different narratives to which the case gave rise. The paper questions whether a fair re-trial for Emily Perry would ever have been possible after the vast media attention that it received. En 1981 en Australia Meridional se desarrolló un fascinante juicio criminal alrededor de Emily Perry, a quien se acusó de dos intentos de asesinar a su marido con arsénico. Pruebas similares sobre las muertes de un esposo anterior, su pareja de hecho y su hermano llevaron al jurado a declararla culpable de intento de asesinato de su marido, quien rechazó en sus declaraciones que ella hubiera tratado de hacerle daño. No prosperó una apelación a la Corte de Apelación Penal de Australia Meridional alegando que las muertes previas no deberían haberse mencionado al jurado, pero el caso de Emily Perry siguió su curso hasta el Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Australia. Se anuló su condena y nunca se le volvió a juzgar. Este artículo analiza la
Matt David Thomas Hitchings
Full Text Available The 2014-6 West African Ebola epidemic highlights the need for rigorous, rapid clinical trial methods for vaccines. A challenge for trial design is making sample size calculations based on incidence within the trial, total vaccine effect, and intracluster correlation, when these parameters are uncertain in the presence of indirect effects of vaccination.We present a stochastic, compartmental model for a ring vaccination trial. After identification of an index case, a ring of contacts is recruited and either vaccinated immediately or after 21 days. The primary outcome of the trial is total vaccine effect, counting cases only from a pre-specified window in which the immediate arm is assumed to be fully protected and the delayed arm is not protected. Simulation results are used to calculate necessary sample size and estimated vaccine effect. Under baseline assumptions about vaccine properties, monthly incidence in unvaccinated rings and trial design, a standard sample-size calculation neglecting dynamic effects estimated that 7,100 participants would be needed to achieve 80% power to detect a difference in attack rate between arms, while incorporating dynamic considerations in the model increased the estimate to 8,900. This approach replaces assumptions about parameters at the ring level with assumptions about disease dynamics and vaccine characteristics at the individual level, so within this framework we were able to describe the sensitivity of the trial power and estimated effect to various parameters. We found that both of these quantities are sensitive to properties of the vaccine, to setting-specific parameters over which investigators have little control, and to parameters that are determined by the study design.Incorporating simulation into the trial design process can improve robustness of sample size calculations. For this specific trial design, vaccine effectiveness depends on properties of the ring vaccination design and on the
Thompson, Michael A
Social media has potential in clinical trials for pointing out trial issues, addressing barriers, educating, and engaging multiple groups involved in cancer clinical research. Social media is being used in clinical trials to highlight issues such as poor accrual and barriers; educate potential participants and physicians about clinical trial options; and is a potential indirect or direct method to improve accrual. We are moving from a passive "push" of information to patients to a "pull" of patients requesting information. Patients and advocates are often driving an otherwise reluctant health care system into communication. Online patient communities are creating new information repositories. Potential clinical trial participants are using the Twittersphere and other sources to learn about potential clinical trial options. We are seeing more organized patient-centric and patient-engaged forums with the potential to crowd source to improve clinical trial accrual and design. This is an evolving process that will meet many individual, institutional, and regulatory obstacles as we move forward in a changed research landscape.
Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Haworth, Annette; Followill, David S.
Cooperative groups, of which the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group is one example, conduct national clinical trials that often involve the use of radiation therapy. In preparation for such a trial, the cooperative group prepares a protocol to define the goals of the trial, the rationale for its design, and the details of the treatment procedure to be followed. The Radiological Physics Center (RPC) is one of several quality assurance (QA) offices that is charged with assuring that participating institutions deliver doses that are clinically consistent and comparable. The RPC does this by conducting a variety of independent audits and credentialing processes. The RPC has compiled data showing that credentialing can help institutions comply with the requirements of a cooperative group clinical protocol. Phantom irradiations have been demonstrated to exercise an institution’s procedures for planning and delivering advanced external beam techniques (1–3). Similarly, RPC data indicate that a rapid review of patient treatment records or planning procedures can improve compliance with clinical trials (4). The experiences of the RPC are presented as examples of the contributions that a national clinical trials QA center can make to cooperative group trials. These experiences illustrate the critical need for comprehensive QA to assure that clinical trials are successful and cost-effective. The RPC is supported by grants CA 10953 and CA 81647 from the National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS. PMID:24392352
Full Text Available Abstract Background Frailty is a term commonly used to describe the condition of an older person who has chronic health problems, has lost functional abilities and is likely to deteriorate further. However, despite its common use, only a small number of studies have attempted to define the syndrome of frailty and measure its prevalence. The criteria Fried and colleagues used to define the frailty syndrome will be used in this study (i.e. weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity. Previous studies have shown that clinical outcomes for frail older people can be improved using multi-factorial interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, and single interventions such as exercise programs or nutritional supplementation, but no interventions have been developed to specifically reverse the syndrome of frailty. We have developed a multidisciplinary intervention that specifically targets frailty as defined by Fried et al. We aim to establish the effects of this intervention on frailty, mobility, hospitalisation and institutionalisation in frail older people. Methods and Design A single centre randomised controlled trial comparing a multidisciplinary intervention with usual care. The intervention will target identified characteristics of frailty, functional limitations, nutritional status, falls risk, psychological issues and management of chronic health conditions. Two hundred and thirty people aged 70 and over who meet the Fried definition of frailty will be recruited from clients of the aged care service of a metropolitan hospital. Participants will be followed for a 12-month period. Discussion This research is an important step in the examination of specifically targeted frailty interventions. This project will assess whether an intervention specifically targeting frailty can be implemented, and whether it is effective when compared to usual care. If successful, the study will establish a
economic and political imperatives surrounding randomised controlled trials and the ambiguous, or even ..... the medicinal properties of the plant, as reported both in the book, and also in the .... London, UK: Harvard University Press. Latour, B.
Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.
Ruva, Christine L; Guenther, Christina C
This 2-part study explored how exposure to negative pretrial publicity (Neg-PTP) influences the jury process, as well as possible mechanisms responsible for its biasing effects on decisions. Study Part A explored how PTP and jury deliberations affect juror/jury verdicts, memory, and impressions of the defendant and attorneys. One week before viewing a criminal trial mock-jurors (N = 320 university students) were exposed to Neg-PTP or unrelated crime stories (No-PTP). Two days later deliberating jurors came to a group decision, whereas nondeliberating jurors completed an unrelated task before making an individual decision. Neg-PTP jurors were more likely to vote guilty, make memory errors, and rate the defendant lower in credibility. Deliberation reduced Neg-PTP jurors' memory accuracy and No-PTP jurors' guilty verdicts (leniency bias). Jurors' memory and ratings of the defendant and prosecuting attorney significantly mediated the effect of PTP on guilt ratings. Study Part B content analyzed 30 mock-jury deliberations and explored how PTP influenced deliberations and ultimately jury decisions. Neg-PTP juries were more likely than No-PTP juries to discuss ambiguous trial evidence in a proprosecution manner and less likely to discuss judicial instructions and lack of evidence. All Neg-PTP juries mentioned PTP, after instructed otherwise, and rarely corrected jury members who mentioned PTP. Discussion of ambiguous trial evidence in a proprosecution manner and lack of evidence significantly mediated the effect of PTP on jury-level guilt ratings. Together the findings suggest that judicial admonishments and deliberations may not be sufficient to reduce PTP bias, because of memory errors, biased impressions, and predecisional distortion. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretching and Mulligan technique on hip flexion range of motion (ROM in subjects with bilateral hamstring tightness. A total of 40 students (mean age: 21.5±1.3 years, mean body height: 172.8±8.2 cm, mean body mass index: 21.9±3.0 kg • m-2 with bilateral hamstring tightness were enrolled in this randomized trial, of whom 26 completed the study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups performing (I typical static stretching, (II PNF stretching, (III Mulligan traction straight leg raise (TSLR technique, (IV no intervention. Hip flexion ROM was measured using a digital goniometer with the passive straight leg raise test before and after 4 weeks by two physiotherapists blinded to the groups. 52 extremities of 26 subjects were analyzed. Hip flexion ROM increased in all three intervention groups (p<0.05 but not in the no-intervention group after 4 weeks. A statistically significant change in initial–final assessment differences of hip flexion ROM was found between groups (p<0.001 in favour of PNF stretching and Mulligan TSLR technique in comparison to typical static stretching (p=0.016 and p=0.02, respectively. No significant difference was found between Mulligan TSLR technique and PNF stretching (p=0.920. The initial–final assessment difference of hip flexion ROM was similar in typical static stretching and no intervention (p=0.491. A 4-week stretching intervention is beneficial for increasing hip flexion ROM in bilateral hamstring tightness. However, PNF stretching and Mulligan TSLR technique are superior to typical static stretching. These two interventions can be alternatively used for stretching in hamstring tightness.
Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing
Vacchelli, Erika; Vitale, Ilio; Tartour, Eric; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo
Radiotherapy has extensively been employed as a curative or palliative intervention against cancer throughout the last century, with a varying degree of success. For a long time, the antineoplastic activity of X- and γ-rays was entirely ascribed to their capacity of damaging macromolecules, in particular DNA, and hence triggering the (apoptotic) demise of malignant cells. However, accumulating evidence indicates that (at least part of) the clinical potential of radiotherapy stems from cancer cell-extrinsic mechanisms, including the normalization of tumor vasculature as well as short- and long-range bystander effects. Local bystander effects involve either the direct transmission of lethal signals between cells connected by gap junctions or the production of diffusible cytotoxic mediators, including reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and cytokines. Conversely, long-range bystander effects, also known as out-of-field or abscopal effects, presumably reflect the elicitation of tumor-specific adaptive immune responses. Ionizing rays have indeed been shown to promote the immunogenic demise of malignant cells, a process that relies on the spatiotemporally defined emanation of specific damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Thus, irradiation reportedly improves the clinical efficacy of other treatment modalities such as surgery (both in neo-adjuvant and adjuvant settings) or chemotherapy. Moreover, at least under some circumstances, radiotherapy may potentiate anticancer immune responses as elicited by various immunotherapeutic agents, including (but presumably not limited to) immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies, cancer-specific vaccines, dendritic cell-based interventions and Toll-like receptor agonists. Here, we review the rationale of using radiotherapy, alone or combined with immunomodulatory agents, as a means to elicit or boost anticancer immune responses, and present recent clinical trials investigating the therapeutic potential of this approach in
factfinders in criminal trials.
Peckham, Emily; Arundel, Catherine; Bailey, Della; Callen, Tracy; Cusack, Christina; Crosland, Suzanne; Foster, Penny; Herlihy, Hannah; Hope, James; Ker, Suzy; McCloud, Tayla; Romain-Hooper, Crystal-Bella; Stribling, Alison; Phiri, Peter; Tait, Ellen; Gilbody, Simon
Randomised controlled trials (RCT) can struggle to recruit to target on time. This is especially the case with hard to reach populations such as those with severe mental ill health. The SCIMITAR+ trial, a trial of a bespoke smoking cessation intervention for people with severe mental ill health achieved their recruitment ahead of time and target. This article reports strategies that helped us to achieve this with the aim of aiding others recruiting from similar populations. SCIMITAR+ is a multi-centre pragmatic two-arm parallel-group RCT, which aimed to recruit 400 participants with severe mental ill health who smoke and would like to cut down or quit. The study recruited primarily in secondary care through community mental health teams and psychiatrists with a smaller number of participants recruited through primary care. Recruitment opened in October 2015 and closed in December 2016, by which point 526 participants had been recruited. We gathered information from recruiting sites on strategies which led to the successful recruitment in SCIMITAR+ and in this article present our approach to trial management along with the strategies employed by the recruiting sites. Alongside having a dedicated trial manager and trial management team, we identified three main themes that led to successful recruitment. These were: clinicians with a positive attitude to research; researchers and clinicians working together; and the use of NHS targets. The overriding theme was the importance of relationships between both the researchers and the recruiting clinicians and the recruiting clinicians and the participants. This study makes a significant contribution to the limited evidence base of real-world cases of successful recruitment to RCTs and offers practical guidance to those planning and conducting trials. Building positive relationships between clinicians, researchers and participants is crucial to successful recruitment.
Gil-Extremera, B; Jiménez-López, P; Mediavilla-García, J D
Clinical trials are essential tools for the progress of clinical medicine in its diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Since the first trial in 1948, which related tobacco use with lung cancer, there have been more than 150,000 clinical trials to date in various areas (paediatrics, cardiology, oncology, endocrinology, etc.). This article highlights the importance for all physicians to participate, over the course of their professional career, in a clinical trial, due to the inherent benefits for patients, the progress of medicine and for curricular prestige. The authors have created a synthesis of their experience with clinical trials on hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and ischaemic heart disease over the course of almost 3 decades. Furthermore, a brief reference has been made to the characteristics of a phase I unit, as well as to a number of research studies currently underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Nieuwenhuis, Joost B.; Irving, Elaine; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Lloyd, Emily; Goetz, Iris; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Stolk, Pieter; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Zuidgeest, Mira G P
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate how pragmatic trial design elements, or inserting explanatory trial elements in pragmatic trials affect validity, generalizability, precision and operational feasibility. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: From illustrative examples identified through the IMI Get Real Consortium, we
Tolsgaard, Martin G; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M; Ringsted, Charlotte
participants across several settings and (iii) multiple outcome measures with long-term follow-up to evaluate both benefits and risks. Questions posed by practical trials may be proactive in applying theory in the development of educational innovations or reactive to educational reforms and innovations. Non......CONTEXT: Concerns have been raised over the gap between education theory and practice and how research can contribute to inform decision makers on their choices and priorities. Little is known about how educational theories and research outcomes produced under optimal conditions in highly...... controlled settings generalise to the real-life education context. One way of bridging this gap is applying the concept of practical trials in medical education. In this paper we elaborate on characteristics of practical trials and based on examples from medical education we discuss the challenges...
Full Text Available In addition to the expensive and lengthy process of developing a new medicine, the attrition rate in clinical research was on the rise, resulting in stagnation in the development of new compounds. As a consequence to this, the US Food and Drug Administration released a critical path initiative document in 2004, highlighting the need for developing innovative trial designs. One of the innovations suggested the use of adaptive designs for clinical trials. Thus, post critical path initiative, there is a growing interest in using adaptive designs for the development of pharmaceutical products. Adaptive designs are expected to have great potential to reduce the number of patients and duration of trial and to have relatively less exposure to new drug. Adaptive designs are not new in the sense that the task of interim analysis (IA/review of the accumulated data used in adaptive designs existed in the past too. However, such reviews/analyses of accumulated data were not necessarily planned at the stage of planning clinical trial and the methods used were not necessarily compliant with clinical trial process. The Bayesian approach commonly used in adaptive designs was developed by Thomas Bayes in the 18th century, about hundred years prior to the development of modern statistical methods by the father of modern statistics, Sir Ronald A. Fisher, but the complexity involved in Bayesian approach prevented its use in real life practice. The advances in the field of computer and information technology over the last three to four decades has changed the scenario and the Bayesian techniques are being used in adaptive designs in addition to other sequential methods used in IA. This paper attempts to describe the various adaptive designs in clinical trial and views of stakeholders about feasibility of using them, without going into mathematical complexities.
In addition to the expensive and lengthy process of developing a new medicine, the attrition rate in clinical research was on the rise, resulting in stagnation in the development of new compounds. As a consequence to this, the US Food and Drug Administration released a critical path initiative document in 2004, highlighting the need for developing innovative trial designs. One of the innovations suggested the use of adaptive designs for clinical trials. Thus, post critical path initiative, there is a growing interest in using adaptive designs for the development of pharmaceutical products. Adaptive designs are expected to have great potential to reduce the number of patients and duration of trial and to have relatively less exposure to new drug. Adaptive designs are not new in the sense that the task of interim analysis (IA)/review of the accumulated data used in adaptive designs existed in the past too. However, such reviews/analyses of accumulated data were not necessarily planned at the stage of planning clinical trial and the methods used were not necessarily compliant with clinical trial process. The Bayesian approach commonly used in adaptive designs was developed by Thomas Bayes in the 18th century, about hundred years prior to the development of modern statistical methods by the father of modern statistics, Sir Ronald A. Fisher, but the complexity involved in Bayesian approach prevented its use in real life practice. The advances in the field of computer and information technology over the last three to four decades has changed the scenario and the Bayesian techniques are being used in adaptive designs in addition to other sequential methods used in IA. This paper attempts to describe the various adaptive designs in clinical trial and views of stakeholders about feasibility of using them, without going into mathematical complexities.
Andreasson, Kate; Krogh, Jesper; Rosenbaum, Bent
BACKGROUND: In Denmark 8,000 to 10,000 people will attempt suicide each year. The Centre of Excellence in Suicide Prevention in the Capital Region of Denmark is treating patients with suicidal behavior, and a recent survey has shown that 30% of the patients are suffering from borderline personali...... measured at week 28. Other exploratory outcomes are included such as severity of symptoms, suicide intention and ideation, depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, impulsivity, anger, and duration of respective treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial.gov: NCT01512602....
Hartgerink, C.H.J.; George, Stephen
Clinical trials are crucial in determining the effectiveness of treatments and directly affect clinical and policy decisions. These decisions are undermined if the data are problematic due to data fabrication or other errors. Researchers have worked on developing statistical methods to detect
Cohen, Mark E.; Ralls, Stephen A.
Although dental school faculty as well as practitioners are interested in evaluating products and procedures used in clinical practice, research design and statistical analysis can sometimes pose problems. Sequential trials methods provide an analytical structure that is both easy to use and statistically valid. (Author/MLW)
CHUMLEA, WM.C.; CESARI, M.; EVANS, W.J.; FERRUCCI, L.; FIELDING, R.A.; PAHOR, M.; STUDENSKI, S.; VELLAS, B.
Sarcopenia is the age-related involuntary loss of skeletal muscle mass and functionality that can lead to the development of disability, frailty and increased health care costs. The development of interventions aimed at preventing and/or treating sarcopenia is complex, requiring the adoption of assumptions and standards that are not well established scientifically or clinically. A number of investigators and clinicians (both from academia and industry) met in Rome (Italy) in 2009 to develop a consensus definition of sarcopenia. Subsequently, in Albuquerque (New Mexico, USA) in 2010, the same group met again to consider the complex issues necessary for designing Phase II clinical trials for sarcopenia. Current clinical trial data indicate that fat-free mass (FFM) parameters are responsive to physical activity/nutritional treatment modalities over short time periods, but pharmacological trials of sarcopenia have yet to show significant efficacy. In order to conduct a clinical trial within a reasonable time frame, groups that model or display accelerated aging and loss of FFM are necessary. Few studies have used acceptable designs for testing treatment effects, sample sizes or primary outcomes that could provide interpretable findings or effects across studies. Dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the measure of choice for assessing FFM, but sufficient time is needed for changes to be detected accurately and reliably. A tool set that would allow clinical, basic and epidemiological research on sarcopenia to advance rapidly toward diagnosis and treatment phases should be those reflecting function and strength. PMID:21623466
Møller, Christian H; Jensen, Birte Østergaard; Gluud, Christian
Recent trials suggest that off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) reduces the risk of mortality and morbidity compared with conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CCAB) using cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients with a moderate- to high-risk of complications after CCAB may have...
may change jobs, with the result that important work remains unfinished; or investigators may discover a recently published trial on the same topic and conclude that their own results are now redundant. Editors must also take some responsibility. There is a limit to the number of reports we can publish and sometimes we are ...
Rozenberg, P; Deruelle, P; Sénat, M-V; Desbrière, R; Winer, N; Simon, E; Ville, Y; Kayem, G; Boutron, I
The data from literature show that trial of labor and elective repeat cesarean delivery after a prior cesarean delivery both present significant risks and benefits, and these risks and benefits differ for the woman and her fetus. The benefits to the woman can be at the expense of her fetus and vice-versa. This uncertainty is compounded by the scarcity of high-level evidence that preclude accurate quantification of the risks and benefits that could help provide a fair counseling about a trial of labor and elective repeat cesarean delivery. An interesting way of research is to evaluate the potential benefits of a decision rule associated to the ultrasound measurement of the lower uterine segment (LUS). Indeed, ultrasonography may be helpful in determining a specific risk for a given patient by measuring the thickness of the LUS, i,e, the thickness of the cesarean delivery scar area. Although only small and often methodologically biased data have been published, they look promising as their results are concordant: ultrasonographic measurements of the LUS thickness is highly correlated with the intraoperative findings at cesarean delivery. Furthermore, the thinner the LUS becomes on ultrasound, the higher the likelihood of a defect in the LUS. Finally, ultrasound assessment of LUS has an excellent negative predictive value for the risk of uterine defect. Therefore, this exam associated with a rule of decision could help to reduce the rate of elective repeat cesarean delivery and especially to reduce the fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity related to trial of labor after a prior cesarean delivery. This is a pragmatic open multicenter randomized trial with two parallel arms. Randomization will be centralized and computerized. Since blindness is impossible, an adjudication committee will evaluate the components of the primary composite outcome in order to avoid evaluation bias. An interim analysis will be planned mid-strength of the trial. Ultrasound will be
The recovery of the patient should be facilitated as the result of therapeutic research. The basic rule for every therapeutic-clinical trial mist involve a comparison of therapeutic approaches. In acute conditions, such as acute infectious diseases, infarcts, etc., comparisons should be made between two or more groups: the collective therapeutic comparison = the between patients trial. The formation of groups, to be compared one with the other can be justified only if one is reasonably sure that a pathogenic condition indeed exists. In chronic diseases, which extend essentially unchanged over a lengthy period but are nevertheless reversible, therapeutic comparisons may be made between two or more time intervals within the course of the disease in the same individual. This type of therapeutic trial rests primarily upon a (refined!) type of specious reasoning and secondarily, upon modified statistics: the individual therapeutic comparison = the within patient trial. The collective therapeutic comparison, on the one hand, and the individual therapeutic comparison on the other, overlap somewhat in scope. The immediate therapeutic effect is not always an indication of its true value, which may become evident only upon long-term treatment. The short-term trials of therapeutic regimens in an individual must, therefore, be frequently supplemented by long-term trials which can only be carried out by comparing two groups. For many clinical investigations, therefore, the joint efforts of numerous hospitals are absolutely necessary. The second basic rule of therapeutic research is the elimination of secondary causes. The difficulties introduced by these secondary considerations are far greater in therapeutic trials carried out on ambulatory patients than has been hitherto realized. In order to remove subjective secondary causes, the author demanded, in 1931, the use of hidden or illusory media (placebos, dummies) that is, unconscious causative agents. The double blind
... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...
Learn about how the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) is structured. The NCTN is a program of the National Cancer Institute that gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.
.... Clinical Trials in Neurology aims to improve the efficiency of clinical trials and the development of interventions in order to enhance the development of new treatments for neurologic diseases...
for ability to continue. If unable to improve, they may be replaced . Two formal interim analyses of efficacy will be performed when 33% and 67% of...will be entered and maintained on a password protected SSL website designed for this trial. The data entered for the PAMPer trial will be...testing procedure for clinical trials. Biometrics , 1979. 35(3): p. 549‐56. 96. Murray, D.M., ed. The Design and Analysis of Group Randomized Trials
Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.
Trial-to-trial fluctuations in attentional state while performing measures of intelligence were examined in the current study. Participants performed various measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence while also providing attentional state ratings prior to each trial. It was found that pre-trial attentional state ratings strongly predicted…
Kurbel, Sven; Mihaljević, Slobodan
Clinical trial results are often interpreted by inductive reasoning, in a trial design-limited manner, directed toward modifications of the current clinical practice. Deductive reasoning is an alternative in which results of relevant trials are combined in indisputable premises that lead to a conclusion easily testable in future trials. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.
McKnight, R. Neal
Describes a college course which examines the organizational and behavioral characteristics of trial courts in the American judicial process. A major course objective is to help students understand the trial court process as a political process by showing how trial court organizations are involved in the allocation of social values. (RM)
de Graaf, B.A.
On 30 March 2011, ICCT – The Hague organised an Expert Meeting entitled ‘Terrorism Trials as Theatre: A Performative Perspective’. The Expert Meeting applied a performative perspective to three well known and recent trials in different parts of the world: the trials against the Dutch Hofstad Group,
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly vari...
Cher, Daniel J; Capobianco, Robyn A
Multicenter prospective randomized clinical trials represent the best evidence to support the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. Industry sponsorship of multicenter clinical trials is purported to lead to bias. To determine what proportion of spine device-related trials are industry-sponsored and the effect of industry sponsorship on trial design. Analysis of data from a publicly available clinical trials database. Clinical trials of spine devices registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, a publicly accessible trial database, were evaluated in terms of design, number and location of study centers, and sample size. The relationship between trial design characteristics and study sponsorship was evaluated using logistic regression and general linear models. One thousand six hundred thrity-eight studies were retrieved from ClinicalTrials.gov using the search term "spine." Of the 367 trials that focused on spine surgery, 200 (54.5%) specifically studied devices for spine surgery and 167 (45.5%) focused on other issues related to spine surgery. Compared with nondevice trials, device trials were far more likely to be sponsored by the industry (74% vs. 22.2%, odds ratio (OR) 9.9 [95% confidence interval 6.1-16.3]). Industry-sponsored device trials were more likely multicenter (80% vs. 29%, OR 9.8 [4.8-21.1]) and had approximately four times as many participating study centers (pdevices not sponsored by the industry. Most device-related spine research is industry-sponsored. Multicenter trials are more likely to be industry-sponsored. These findings suggest that previously published studies showing larger effect sizes in industry-sponsored vs. nonindustry-sponsored studies may be biased as a result of failure to take into account the marked differences in design and purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chan, C. M. C.; Scheinman, J. I.; Roth, K. S.
As the powerful tools of molecular biology continue to delineate new concepts of pathogenesis of diseases, new molecular-level therapeutic modalities are certain to emerge. In order to design and execute clinical trials to evaluate outcomes of these new treatment modalities, we will soon need a new supply of investigators with training and experience in clinical research. The slowly-progressive nature of chronic pediatric kidney disease often results in diagnosis being made at a time remote from initial result, and the inherently slow rate of progression makes changes difficult to measure. Thus, development of molecular markers for both diagnosis and rate of progression will be critical to studies of new therapeutic modalities. We will review general aspects of clinical trials and will use current and past studies as examples to illustrate specific points, especially as these apply to chronic kidney disease associated with obstructive uropathy in children. (author)
Weis, Erik; Hölzl, Rainer; Breuer, Dirk; Lange, Christoph
This paper reports on a FTTH field trial with GPON (Gigabit-capable passive optical network) technology in the network of Deutsche Telekom in the region of the cities of Berlin and Potsdam. Focus of this trial was to gain practical experience regarding GPON technology, fibre installation in existing ducts with micro duct technology, fibre cabling in customer buildings and impact on operational processes. Furthermore it is reported on an initial Deutsche Telekom FTTB deployment based on GPON technology in the city of Dresden with the main targets to obtain practical deployment and operation experiences with fibre-based access networks and to provide broadband access to a part of the city formerly not servable by DSL (digital subscriber line) technology.
Accrual to cancer clinical trials (CCT) is imperative to safeguard continued improvement in cancer outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients (n=140) starting a new anti-cancer agent in a north Dublin cancer centre. This review was performed over a four-month period, beginning in November 2015. Only 29% (n=41) had a CCT option. The overall accrual rate to CCT was 5% (n=7), which is comparable to internationally reported figures. The main reasons for failure to recruit to CCT included the lack of a CCT option for cancer type (n=30, 23%), stage (n=25, 19%), and line of treatment (n=23, 17%). Over the last decade, the rate of accrual to CCTs has in fact doubled and the number of trials open to recruitment has tripled. Ongoing governmental and philanthropic support is necessary to continue this trend to further expand CCT patient options with a target accrual rate of 10%.
Maninder Singh Setia
Full Text Available In a clinical trial, study participants are (usually divided into two groups. One group is then given the intervention and the other group is not given the intervention (or may be given some existing standard of care. We compare the outcomes in these groups and assess the role of intervention. Some of the trial designs are (1 parallel study design, (2 cross-over design, (3 factorial design, and (4 withdrawal group design. The trials can also be classified according to the stage of the trial (Phase I, II, III, and IV or the nature of the trial (efficacy vs. effectiveness trials, superiority vs. equivalence trials. Randomization is one of the procedures by which we allocate different interventions to the groups. It ensures that all the included participants have a specified probability of being allocated to either of the groups in the intervention study. If participants and the investigator know about the allocation of the intervention, then it is called an "open trial." However, many of the trials are not open - they are blinded. Blinding is useful to minimize bias in clinical trials. The researcher should familiarize themselves with the CONSORT statement and the appropriate Clinical Trials Registry of India.
Setia, Maninder Singh
In a clinical trial, study participants are (usually) divided into two groups. One group is then given the intervention and the other group is not given the intervention (or may be given some existing standard of care). We compare the outcomes in these groups and assess the role of intervention. Some of the trial designs are (1) parallel study design, (2) cross-over design, (3) factorial design, and (4) withdrawal group design. The trials can also be classified according to the stage of the trial (Phase I, II, III, and IV) or the nature of the trial (efficacy vs. effectiveness trials, superiority vs. equivalence trials). Randomization is one of the procedures by which we allocate different interventions to the groups. It ensures that all the included participants have a specified probability of being allocated to either of the groups in the intervention study. If participants and the investigator know about the allocation of the intervention, then it is called an "open trial." However, many of the trials are not open - they are blinded. Blinding is useful to minimize bias in clinical trials. The researcher should familiarize themselves with the CONSORT statement and the appropriate Clinical Trials Registry of India.
Followill, David S.; Urie, Marcia; Galvin, James M.; Ulin, Kenneth; Xiao, Ying; FitzGerald, Thomas J.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical cooperative groups have been instrumental over the past 50 years in developing clinical trials and evidence-based clinical trial processes for improvements in patient care. The cooperative groups are undergoing a transformation process to launch, conduct, and publish clinical trials more rapidly. Institutional participation in clinical trials can be made more efficient and include the expansion of relationships with international partners. This paper reviews the current processes that are in use in radiation therapy trials and the importance of maintaining effective credentialing strategies to assure the quality of the outcomes of clinical trials. The paper offers strategies to streamline and harmonize credentialing tools and processes moving forward as the NCI undergoes transformative change in the conduct of clinical trials.
Followill, David S. [Radiological Physics Center, Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Urie, Marcia [Quality Assurance Review Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lincoln, RI (United States); Galvin, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ulin, Kenneth [Quality Assurance Review Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lincoln, RI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA (United States); Xiao, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); FitzGerald, Thomas J., E-mail: email@example.com [Quality Assurance Review Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lincoln, RI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA (United States)
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical cooperative groups have been instrumental over the past 50 years in developing clinical trials and evidence-based clinical trial processes for improvements in patient care. The cooperative groups are undergoing a transformation process to launch, conduct, and publish clinical trials more rapidly. Institutional participation in clinical trials can be made more efficient and include the expansion of relationships with international partners. This paper reviews the current processes that are in use in radiation therapy trials and the importance of maintaining effective credentialing strategies to assure the quality of the outcomes of clinical trials. The paper offers strategies to streamline and harmonize credentialing tools and processes moving forward as the NCI undergoes transformative change in the conduct of clinical trials.
Kim, Jane S.; Knickelbein, Jared E.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Sen, H. Nida
The treatment of noninfectious uveitis continues to remain a challenge for many ophthalmologists. Historically, clinical trials in uveitis have been sparse, and thus, most treatment decisions have largely been based on clinical experience and consensus guidelines. The current treatment paradigm favors initiation then tapering of corticosteroids with addition of steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents for persistence or recurrence of disease. Unfortunately, in spite of a multitude of highly unfavorable systemic effects, corticosteroids are still regarded as the mainstay of treatment for many patients with chronic and refractory noninfectious uveitis. However, with the success of other conventional and biologic immunomodulatory agents in treating systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, interest in targeted treatment strategies for uveitis has been renewed. Multiple clinical trials on steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents, biologic agents, intraocular corticosteroid implants, and topical ophthalmic solutions have already been completed, and many more are ongoing. This review discusses the results and implications of these clinical trials investigating both alternative and novel treatment options for noninfectious uveitis. PMID:26035763
Charoen, Saovapong; Eemsiri, Jaruratana; Sajjabut, Surasak
Full text: The objectives of the experiment were to disseminate irradiated retail foods to the domestic publics and to test consumer acceptance on irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper. Market trials of irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper were carried out at 2 local markets and 4 in Bangkok and Nontaburi in 2005-2007. Before the start of the experiment, processing room, gamma irradiation room and labels of the products were approved by Food and Drug Administration, Thailand. 50 grams of irradiated products were packaged in plastic bags for the market trials. 688 and 738 bags of ground chilli and ground pepper were sold, respectively. Questionnaires distributed with the products were commented by 59 consumers and statistically analyzed by experimental data pass program. 88.1 and 91.4 percents of the consumers were satisfied with the quality and the price, respectively. 79.7% of the consumers chose to buy irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper because they believed that the quality of irradiated products were better than that of non-irradiated ones. 91.5% of the consumers would certainly buy irradiated chilli and pepper again. Through these market trials, it was found that all of the products were sold out and the majority of the consumers who returned the questionnaires was satisfied with the irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper and also had good attitude toward irradiated foods
Cassese, Mariarita; Zuber, Veronica
Women use more medicines than men because they fall ill more often and suffer more from chronic diseases, but also because women pay more attention to their health and have more consciousness and care about themselves. Although medicines can have different effects on women and men, women still represent a small percentage in the first phases of trials (22%) which are essential to verify drugs dosage, side effects, and safety. Even though women are more present in trials, studies results are not presented with a gender approach. This situation is due to educational, social, ethical and economical factors. The scientific research must increase feminine presence in clinical trials in order to be equal and correct, and all the key stakeholder should be involved in this process. We still have a long way to cover and it doesn't concern only women but also children and old people. The aim is to have a medicine not only illness-focused but patient-focused: a medicine able to take into consideration all the patient characteristics and so to produce a really personalized therapy. What above described is part of the reasons why in 2005 was founded the National Observatory for Women's Health (Osservatorio Nazionale sulla Salute della Donna, ONDa) which promotes a gender health awareness and culture in Italy, at all the levels of the civil and scientific society.
Full Text Available Women use more medicines than men because they fall ill more often and suffer more from chronic diseases, but also because women pay more attention to their health and have more consciousness and care about themselves. Although medicines can have different effects on women and men, women still represent a small percentage in the first phases of trials (22% which are essential to verify drugs dosage, side effects, and safety. Even though women are more present in trials, studies results are not presented with a gender approach. This situation is due to educational, social, ethical and economical factors. The scientific research must increase feminine presence in clinical trials in order to be equal and correct, and all the key stakeholder should be involved in this process. We still have a long way to cover and it doesn't concern only women but also children and old people. The aim is to have a medicine not only illness-focused but patient-focused: a medicine able to take into consideration all the patient characteristics and so to produce a really personalized therapy. What above described is part of the reasons why in 2005 was founded the National Observatory for Women's Health (Osservatorio Nazionale sulla Salute della Donna, ONDa which promotes a gender health awareness and culture in Italy, at all the levels of the civil and scientific society.
All participants must provide a valid consent to surgical clinical trials. A valid consent requires patient capacity, adequate disclosure of information, and voluntariness. Capacity is the ability to understand information relevant to making a decision and to appreciate the reasonably foreseeable consequences of a decision or lack of decision. To protect vulnerable persons, an incapable person should not be enrolled in most clinical trials. The only exception is if the study can only be conducted on incapable persons. If the willing research participant is incapable, consent must be obtained from others through a process called substitute (or proxy) consent. Disclosure refers to the provision of relevant information to the patient and its comprehension by the patient. Most surgical trials carry more than minimal risks, so the requirement for careful disclosure of these risks to potential participants is generally stringent. Voluntariness refers to the freedom of a person to make a treatment decision. In specific circumstances related to emergency research, the requirement for consent may be waived. Waiver can be justified only if the delay required to obtain consent would prevent the research from occurring and only after prior consultation with from the "community" of potential research participants.
Dear, R F; Barratt, A L; Askie, L M; Butow, P N; McGeechan, K; Crossing, S; Currow, D C; Tattersall, M H N
Cancer patients want access to reliable information about currently recruiting clinical trials. Oncologists and their patients were randomly assigned to access a consumer-friendly cancer clinical trials web site [Australian Cancer Trials (ACT), www.australiancancertrials.gov.au] or to usual care in a cluster randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome, measured from audio recordings of oncologist-patient consultations, was the proportion of patients with whom participation in any clinical trial was discussed. Analysis was by intention-to-treat accounting for clustering and stratification. Thirty medical oncologists and 493 patients were recruited. Overall, 46% of consultations in the intervention group compared with 34% in the control group contained a discussion about clinical trials (P=0.08). The mean consultation length in both groups was 29 min (P=0.69). The proportion consenting to a trial was 10% in both groups (P=0.65). Patients' knowledge about randomized trials was lower in the intervention than the control group (mean score 3.0 versus 3.3, P=0.03) but decisional conflict scores were similar (mean score 42 versus 43, P=0.83). Good communication between patients and physicians is essential. Within this context, a web site such as Australian Cancer Trials may be an important tool to encourage discussion about clinical trial participation.
Kamijo, Keita; Takeda, Yuji
The relationship of physical activity to trial-by-trial adjustments of response conflict was assessed using behavioral task performance, the N2 event-related brain potential component, and phase-locking values (PLVs) in a lower gamma band during a perceptual conflict task. Nineteen physically active and 19 inactive young adults (mean age = 21.3 years) performed a Navon task, using a global letter made up of local letters of either the same kind (congruent trials) or a different kind (incongruent trials). Findings revealed that active individuals exhibited smaller N2 amplitudes and greater PLVs on incongruent trials that were preceded by incongruent trials compared with those preceded by congruent trials. Such phenomena were not observed for inactive individuals. These results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with larger trial-by-trial adjustments of response conflict, which we attribute to upregulation of top-down cognitive control and reductions in response conflict.
Woodsong, Cynthia; MacQueen, Kathleen; Amico, K Rivet; Friedland, Barbara; Gafos, Mitzy; Mansoor, Leila; Tolley, Elizabether; McCormack, Sheena
After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1) Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2) Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3) Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4) Partner influence on use, (5) Retention and continuation and (6) Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs.
Full Text Available Jay JH Park,1 Kristian Thorlund,2,3 Edward J Mills2,3 1Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact (HEI, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Adaptive clinical trials are an innovative trial design aimed at reducing resources, decreasing time to completion and number of patients exposed to inferior interventions, and improving the likelihood of detecting treatment effects. The last decade has seen an increasing use of adaptive designs, particularly in drug development. They frequently differ importantly from conventional clinical trials as they allow modifications to key trial design components during the trial, as data is being collected, using preplanned decision rules. Adaptive designs have increased likelihood of complexity and also potential bias, so it is important to understand the common types of adaptive designs. Many clinicians and investigators may be unfamiliar with the design considerations for adaptive designs. Given their complexities, adaptive trials require an understanding of design features and sources of bias. Herein, we introduce some common adaptive design elements and biases and specifically address response adaptive randomization, sample size reassessment, Bayesian methods for adaptive trials, seamless trials, and adaptive enrichment using real examples. Keywords: adaptive designs, response adaptive randomization, sample size reassessment, Bayesian adaptive trials, seamless trials, adaptive enrichment
Clinical trials now increasingly impinge on society at large. First there is growing emphasis from health organizations on the need for unbiased evidence about the effectiveness of promoted remedies. Second, as most novel treatments accrue increased costs to society, these need to be evaluated in terms of value for money. Third, there has been confusion and concern about the resolution of conflicting evidence, especially the role of advertising and commercial pressures from a powerful pharmaceutical industry motivated by profit. Fourth, there is concern about research fraud and the ethics of clinical trials. Fifth, there is increasing suspicion of political advice, which sometimes has sought to reassure an anxious public on the basis of complex and possibly inadequate scientific information. Some of these issues are addressed by truly independent and properly constituted data and safety monitoring committees, which are of particular importance when academic investigators or universities have a large financial conflict of interest. This is now more problematic with the current encouragement of investigator-led spin-off companies. These issues are best resolved by independent financial support (from government or other institutions) rather than relying on the commercial sponsor.
Schoenfeld, Philip; Shad, Javaid; Ormseth, Eric; Coyle, Walter; Cash, Brooks; Butler, James; Schindler, William; Kikendall, Walter J; Furlong, Christopher; Sobin, Leslie H; Hobbs, Christine M; Cruess, David; Rex, Douglas
Diminutive adenomas (1-9 mm in diameter) are frequently found during colon cancer screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS). This trial assessed the predictive value of these diminutive adenomas for advanced adenomas in the proximal colon. In a multicenter, prospective cohort trial, we matched 200 patients with normal FS and 200 patients with diminutive adenomas on FS for age and gender. All patients underwent colonoscopy. The presence of advanced adenomas (adenoma >or= 10 mm in diameter, villous adenoma, adenoma with high grade dysplasia, and colon cancer) and adenomas (any size) was recorded. Before colonoscopy, patients completed questionnaires about risk factors for adenomas. The prevalence of advanced adenomas in the proximal colon was similar in patients with diminutive adenomas and patients with normal FS (6% vs. 5.5%, respectively) (relative risk, 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-2.6). Diminutive adenomas on FS did not accurately predict advanced adenomas in the proximal colon: sensitivity, 52% (95% CI, 32%-72%); specificity, 50% (95% CI, 49%-51%); positive predictive value, 6% (95% CI, 4%-8%); and negative predictive value, 95% (95% CI, 92%-97%). Male gender (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.01-2.61) was associated with an increased risk of proximal colon adenomas. Diminutive adenomas on sigmoidoscopy may not accurately predict advanced adenomas in the proximal colon.
Whicher, Danielle M; Miller, Jennifer E; Dunham, Kelly M; Joffe, Steven
To successfully implement a pragmatic clinical trial, investigators need access to numerous resources, including financial support, institutional infrastructure (e.g. clinics, facilities, staff), eligible patients, and patient data. Gatekeepers are people or entities who have the ability to allow or deny access to the resources required to support the conduct of clinical research. Based on this definition, gatekeepers relevant to the US clinical research enterprise include research sponsors, regulatory agencies, payers, health system and other organizational leadership, research team leadership, human research protections programs, advocacy and community groups, and clinicians. This article provides a framework to help guide gatekeepers' decision-making related to the use of resources for pragmatic clinical trials. Relevant ethical considerations for gatekeepers include (1) concern for the interests of individuals, groups, and communities affected by the gatekeepers' decisions, including protection from harm and maximization of benefits; (2) advancement of organizational mission and values; and (3) stewardship of financial, human, and other organizational resources. Separate from these ethical considerations, gatekeepers' actions will be guided by relevant federal, state, and local regulations. This framework also suggests that to further enhance the legitimacy of their decision-making, gatekeepers should adopt transparent processes that engage relevant stakeholders when feasible and appropriate. We apply this framework to the set of gatekeepers responsible for making decisions about resources necessary for pragmatic clinical trials in the United States, describing the relevance of the criteria in different situations and pointing out where conflicts among the criteria and relevant regulations may affect decision-making. Recognition of the complex set of considerations that should inform decision-making will guide gatekeepers in making justifiable choices regarding
Renfro, Lindsay A.; Shi, Qian; Xue, Yuan; Li, Junlong; Shang, Hongwei; Sargent, Daniel J.
Evaluation of candidate surrogate endpoints using individual patient data from multiple clinical trials is considered the gold standard approach to validate surrogates at both patient and trial levels. However, this approach assumes the availability of patient-level data from a relatively large collection of similar trials, which may not be possible to achieve for a given disease application. One common solution to the problem of too few similar trials involves performing trial-level surrogacy analyses on trial sub-units (e.g., centers within trials), thereby artificially increasing the trial-level sample size for feasibility of the multi-trial analysis. To date, the practical impact of treating trial sub-units (centers) identically to trials in multi-trial surrogacy analyses remains unexplored, and conditions under which this ad hoc solution may in fact be reasonable have not been identified. We perform a simulation study to identify such conditions, and demonstrate practical implications using a multi-trial dataset of patients with early stage colon cancer. PMID:25061255
Fitzgerald, G K; Hinman, R S; Zeni, J; Risberg, M A; Snyder-Mackler, L; Bennell, K L
A Task Force of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) has previously published a set of guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials in osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. Limited material available on clinical trials of rehabilitation in people with OA has prompted OARSI to establish a separate Task Force to elaborate guidelines encompassing special issues relating to rehabilitation of OA. The Task Force identified three main categories of rehabilitation clinical trials. The categories included non-operative rehabilitation trials, post-operative rehabilitation trials, and trials examining the effectiveness of devices (e.g., assistive devices, bracing, physical agents, electrical stimulation, etc.) that are used in rehabilitation of people with OA. In addition, the Task Force identified two main categories of outcomes in rehabilitation clinical trials, which include outcomes related to symptoms and function, and outcomes related to disease modification. The guidelines for rehabilitation clinical trials provided in this report encompass these main categories. The report provides guidelines for conducting and reporting on randomized clinical trials. The topics include considerations for entering patients into trials, issues related to conducting trials, considerations for selecting outcome measures, and recommendations for statistical analyses and reporting of results. The focus of the report is on rehabilitation trials for hip, knee and hand OA, however, we believe the content is broad enough that it could be applied to rehabilitation trials for other regions as well. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joseph S Ross
Full Text Available ClinicalTrials.gov is a publicly accessible, Internet-based registry of clinical trials managed by the US National Library of Medicine that has the potential to address selective trial publication. Our objectives were to examine completeness of registration within ClinicalTrials.gov and to determine the extent and correlates of selective publication.We examined reporting of registration information among a cross-section of trials that had been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov after December 31, 1999 and updated as having been completed by June 8, 2007, excluding phase I trials. We then determined publication status among a random 10% subsample by searching MEDLINE using a systematic protocol, after excluding trials completed after December 31, 2005 to allow at least 2 y for publication following completion. Among the full sample of completed trials (n = 7,515, nearly 100% reported all data elements mandated by ClinicalTrials.gov, such as intervention and sponsorship. Optional data element reporting varied, with 53% reporting trial end date, 66% reporting primary outcome, and 87% reporting trial start date. Among the 10% subsample, less than half (311 of 677, 46% of trials were published, among which 96 (31% provided a citation within ClinicalTrials.gov of a publication describing trial results. Trials primarily sponsored by industry (40%, 144 of 357 were less likely to be published when compared with nonindustry/nongovernment sponsored trials (56%, 110 of 198; p<0.001, but there was no significant difference when compared with government sponsored trials (47%, 57 of 122; p = 0.22. Among trials that reported an end date, 75 of 123 (61% completed prior to 2004, 50 of 96 (52% completed during 2004, and 62 of 149 (42% completed during 2005 were published (p = 0.006.Reporting of optional data elements varied and publication rates among completed trials registered within ClinicalTrials.gov were low. Without greater attention to reporting of all data
inherited orphan retinal degenerative diseases and dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through the conduct of clinical trials and other...design and conduct of effective and efficient clinical trials for inherited orphan retinal degenerative diseases and dry AMD; • Limited number and...linica l trial in the NEER network for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, and the ProgSTAR studies for Stargardt disease ) . As new interventions b
Brueton, Valerie C; Tierney, Jayne; Stenning, Sally; Harding, Seeromanie; Meredith, Sarah; Nazareth, Irwin; Rait, Greta
Background Loss to follow-up from randomised trials can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results. Many strategies are used to reduce loss to follow-up and improve retention but few have been formally evaluated. Objectives To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention on the proportion of participants retained in randomised trials and to investigate if the effect varied by trial strategy and trial setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, DARE, CINAHL, Campbell Collaboration's Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Trials Register, and ERIC. We handsearched conference proceedings and publication reference lists for eligible retention trials. We also surveyed all UK Clinical Trials Units to identify further studies. Selection criteria We included eligible retention trials of randomised or quasi-randomised evaluations of strategies to increase retention that were embedded in 'host' randomised trials from all disease areas and healthcare settings. We excluded studies aiming to increase treatment compliance. Data collection and analysis We contacted authors to supplement or confirm data that we had extracted. For retention trials, we recorded data on the method of randomisation, type of strategy evaluated, comparator, primary outcome, planned sample size, numbers randomised and numbers retained. We used risk ratios (RR) to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of strategies to improve retention. We assessed heterogeneity between trials using the Chi2 and I2 statistics. For main trials that hosted retention trials, we extracted data on disease area, intervention, population, healthcare setting, sequence generation and allocation concealment. Main results We identified 38 eligible retention trials. Included trials evaluated six broad types of strategies to improve retention. These
Dyrholm, Mads; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup
In this paper we take a step towards single-trial behavioral modeling within a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). In selective attention tasks, such as the Partial Report paradigm, the subject is asked to ignore distractors and only report stimuli that belong to the target class. Nothing about...... Report trial. This result retrodicts a latent attentional state of the subject using the observed response from that particular trial and thus differs from other predictions made with TVA which are based on expected values of observed variables. We show an example of the result in single-trial analysis...
Power Analysis of Trials with Multilevel Data covers using power and sample size calculations to design trials that involve nested data structures. The book gives a thorough overview of power analysis that details terminology and notation, outlines key concepts of statistical power and power analysis, and explains why they are necessary in trial design. It guides you in performing power calculations with hierarchical data, which enables more effective trial design.The authors are leading experts in the field who recognize that power analysis has attracted attention from applied statisticians i
Haberlin, M.M.; Hardy, A.R.
The design and manufacture of a mock-up of a crate handling and size reduction (CHSR) facility, an experimental programme on the evaluation of a commercial air-transporter, and the selection, manufacture and commissioning trials of an integrated conveyor system for transporting crated waste into and within the mock-up facility, are considered. The mock-up facility was used for the test programme on the air-transporter and conveyor system. The air-transporter was considered suitable for transporting waste on the metal floor in the main dismantling area of the CHSR facility because it can tolerate asymmetric loading, the exhaust air flow liberated from the air-pads is low and it has excellent manoeuvrability. Commissioning trials were carried out on a commercial conveyor system consisting of unpowered rollers in the reception area, a powered slatted conveyor in the air-lock and an unpowered roller table placed on the air-transporter in the working area. It was demonstrated that a large asymmetrically loaded wooden crate can be transported into and within the facility by this method. Further design and experimental work necessary before the system can be used for remote operation is discussed. (author)
Steinberg, Holger; Carius, Dirk; Himmerich, Hubertus
Richard Arwed Pfeifer (1877-1957) was one of the initiators and foster fathers of the renowned child-psychiatric and special needs education workgroup at Leipzig University under Paul Schröder (1873-1941) in the 1920s and 1930s. This paper is an account of their dispute concerning the interrelations between child and adolescent psychiatry and special needs education, as well as their disagreement about whether adolescent psychopaths should be admitted to specialized child psychiatric wards or elsewhere. Moreover, Pfeifer questioned the practical relevance of the separation of constitutional and environmentally-based psychopathy and fought eugenic research, which he found incompatible with the ethics of his profession as a remedial teacher and child psychiatrist.
Katherine C Horn
Full Text Available Biotic interactions are often important in the establishment and spread of invasive species. In particular, competition between introduced and native species can strongly influence the distribution and spread of exotic species and in some cases competition among introduced species can be important. The Caribbean crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva, was recently introduced to the Gulf Coast of Texas, and appears to be spreading inland. It has been hypothesized that competition with the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, may be an important factor in the spread of crazy ants. We investigated the potential of interspecific competition among these two introduced ants by measuring interspecific aggression between Caribbean crazy ant workers and workers of Solenopsis invicta. Specifically, we examined the effect of body size and diet on individual-level aggressive interactions among crazy ant workers and fire ants. We found that differences in diet did not alter interactions between crazy ant workers from different nests, but carbohydrate level did play an important role in antagonistic interactions with fire ants: crazy ants on low sugar diets were more aggressive and less likely to be killed in aggressive encounters with fire ants. We found that large fire ants engaged in fewer fights with crazy ants than small fire ants, but fire ant size affected neither fire ant nor crazy ant mortality. Overall, crazy ants experienced higher mortality than fire ants after aggressive encounters. Our findings suggest that fire ant workers might outcompete crazy ant workers on an individual level, providing some biotic resistance to crazy ant range expansion. However, this resistance may be overcome by crazy ants that have a restricted sugar intake, which may occur when crazy ants are excluded from resources by fire ants.
This detailed account of the controversy surrounding the publication of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity explores the ferocious popular and academic opposition which at one time encircled one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the twentieth century. Based on extensive archival research, this fascinating discourse includes a compelling and entertaining examination of the contemporary literature created by Einstein's detractors. Exploring the arguments and strategies, social contexts, and motivations of Einstein's detractors, and providing unique insights into the dynamics of scientific controversies, this book is ideal for anyone interested in the history and philosophy of physics, popular science, and the public understanding of science.
Schorer, Jörg; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Fischer, Lennart; Baker, Joseph
The importance of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport has been repeatedly demonstrated. In this study we examined the role of different sources of visual information (i.e., foveal versus peripheral) in anticipating volleyball attack positions. Expert (n = 11), advanced (n = 13) and novice (n = 16) players completed an anticipation task that involved predicting the location of volleyball attacks. Video clips of volleyball attacks (n = 72) were spatially and temporally occluded to provide varying amounts of information to the participant. In addition, participants viewed the attacks under three visual conditions: full vision, foveal vision only, and peripheral vision only. Analysis of variance revealed significant between group differences in prediction accuracy with higher skilled players performing better than lower skilled players. Additionally, we found significant differences between temporal and spatial occlusion conditions. Both of those factors interacted separately, but not combined with expertise. Importantly, for experts the sum of both fields of vision was superior to either source in isolation. Our results suggest different sources of visual information work collectively to facilitate expert anticipation in time-constrained sports and reinforce the complexity of expert perception.
The author describes the pros and cons of nuclear energy in a way which is intelligible to all. He sees its limits and dangers primarily in the surpassing of a reasonable measure, seen under the aspect of space and time. It is a matter of how nuclear energy is being used and developed. You must not lose sight of the fact that nuclear energy has the character of a transitional solution. Due to the fact that there are promising approaches - to be found especially in the energy sector - to longterm solutions utilizing inexhaustable or renewable primary energy sources, it has to be avoided that a gigantic nuclear energy system creates an irreversible situation. The discussion must not focus on nuclear energy allone, but has to compare the risks involved in this technology with other risks posed by our technological world. (HSCH) [de
Görgüt, Ilyas; Tutkun, Erkut
Competitions between countries occur in every field, from science to industry. This competition is inevitable in the field of sports, which is the greatest feature of publicity in countries, one of the tools of getting political advantage and the greatest focus of global capital. This competition, which is seen in the fields of sport, sometimes…
The scientific activity of this Russian psychiatrist is depicted in a short biography. His ambivalent attitude to Freud's dream theory is emphasized. At the end of his medical career he became full professor of psychiatry at Khabarovsk.
Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Boeing, Alexandra; Calder, Andrew J.
Despite the discovery of body-selective neural areas in occipitotemporal cortex, little is known about how bodies are visually coded. We used perceptual adaptation to determine how body identity is coded. Brief exposure to a body (e.g., anti-Rose) biased perception toward an identity with opposite properties (Rose). Moreover, the size of this…
are lack of time for the intervention, change history in the organization, and that the intervention goals are not linked to the company’s KPIs (Ipsen et al., 2014). Some of the promoting factors will inevitably be inhibiting when they are absent, but we do not know how lack of management support manifest...
This article addressed the debate regarding the United States' proposal to construct liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities on a pristine bay between New Brunswick and Maine. Two LNG projects are currently being promoted for Passamaquoddy Bay, and 2 more proposals are expected to be announced in the near future. However, the proponents have not yet submitted any formal applications to the Canadian government. A federal cabinet minister from New Brunswick has joined the growing opposition to the proposed project, claiming that the location on the Maine side of Passamaquoddy Bay, a large inlet off the Bay of Fundy, poses too many risks to the habitat of several endangered or at-risk species, including the North Atlantic Right Whale. The proposed sites in Maine are directly across a narrow bay where tourism and fishing are prime industries in New Brunswick. The cabinet minister claims that with over 2,000 miles of coastline on the eastern seaboard, another location can be found for the LNG facilities that would not present navigational difficulties. The Canadian federal government has the jurisdiction to stop the project by not allowing the supertankers to cross Canadian waters to enter the Bay. The waters are known for their treacherous navigation. The premier of New Brunswick has also stepped in to ensure that the governor of Maine is made aware of Canada's opposition to the project. Officials with Downeast LNG and Quoddy Bay LLC claim there would not be any safety or environmental risks associated with the LNG project.
Full Text Available Performing deceptive actions is a wide-spread phenomenon in sports and it is of considerable practical relevance to know whether or not a fake or a disguised action decreases the opponents’ performance. Therefore, research on deceptive actions for various sport disciplines (e.g., cricket, rugby, martial arts, soccer, and basketball has been conducted. This research is scattered, both across time and scientific disciplines. Here, we aim to systematically review the empirical work on deceptive actions in interactive sports and want to give an overview about several issues investigated in the last decades. Three main topics of the detected literature were discussed here: (1 the role of expertise for the recognition of deceptive actions, (2 the cognitive mechanisms underlying the processing of deceptive actions, and (3 the pros and cons of in situ research designs. None of these themes seems to be settled and therefore, they should be considered in future research agendas.
Avhandling (doktorgrad) – Norges idrettshøgskole, 2010. Match performance analysis is widely used as a method for studying technical, tactical and physical aspects of player and team performance in a soccer match. Therefore, ensuring the validity and reliability of the collected data is important for match performance analysis to meet its intents and purposes effectively. However, most studies on soccer match performance use unidimensional frequency data based on analyses done ...
In mammalian auditory cortex, sound source position is represented by a population of broadly tuned neurons whose firing is modulated by sounds located at all positions surrounding the animal. Peaks of their tuning curves are concentrated at lateral position, while their slopes are steepest at the interaural midline, allowing for the maximum localization accuracy in that area. These experimental observations contradict initial assumptions that the auditory space is represented as a topographic cortical map. It has been suggested that a “panoramic” code has evolved to match specific demands of the sound localization task. This work provides evidence suggesting that properties of spatial auditory neurons identified experimentally follow from a general design principle- learning a sparse, efficient representation of natural stimuli. Natural binaural sounds were recorded and served as input to a hierarchical sparse-coding model. In the first layer, left and right ear sounds were separately encoded by a population of complex-valued basis functions which separated phase and amplitude. Both parameters are known to carry information relevant for spatial hearing. Monaural input converged in the second layer, which learned a joint representation of amplitude and interaural phase difference. Spatial selectivity of each second-layer unit was measured by exposing the model to natural sound sources recorded at different positions. Obtained tuning curves match well tuning characteristics of neurons in the mammalian auditory cortex. This study connects neuronal coding of the auditory space with natural stimulus statistics and generates new experimental predictions. Moreover, results presented here suggest that cortical regions with seemingly different functions may implement the same computational strategy-efficient coding. PMID:25996373
With its decision of April 30, 1980 - BVerwG 7 C 88.79-, the Federal Administrative Court has dismissed an appeal against the decision of the Bavarian Administrative Court, in which the plaintiff's action had been dismissed. The cost of the appeal suit will be paid by the plaintiff. The value in litigation was set at DM 20,000 for the appeal proceedings. The grounds for the decision are given in full wording. (orig./HP) [de
Ramsden, Samuel D.; Anderson, Leslie; Mussi, Martina; Kamermans, Maarten; Hawryshyn, Craig W.
A number of teleost fishes have photoreceptor mechanisms to detect linearly polarized light. We studied the neuronal mechanism underlying this ability. It was found that a polarized signal could be detected in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) both in the electroretinogram (ERG) and in the
Full Text Available of interactions. We propose using a Bayesian framework to address this problem. Bayesian policy reuse (BPR) has been empirically shown to be efficient at correctly detecting the best policy to use from a library in sequential decision tasks. In this paper we...
Amato, Alessandro; Cocco, Massimo; Cultrera, Giovanna; Galadini, Fabrizio; Margheriti, Lucia; Nostro, Concetta; Pantosti, Daniela
The first step of the trial in L'Aquila (Italy) ended with a conviction of a group of seven experts to 6 years of jail and several million euros refund for the families of the people who died during the Mw 6.3 earthquake on April 6, 2009. This verdict has a tremendous impact on the scientific community as well as on the way in which scientists deliver their expert opinions to decision makers and society. In this presentation, we describe the role of scientists in charge of releasing authoritative information concerning earthquakes and seismic hazard and the conditions that led to the verdict, in order to discuss whether this trial represented a prosecution to science, and if errors were made in communicating the risk. Documents, articles and comments about the trial are collected in the web site http://processoaquila.wordpress.com/. We will first summarize what was the knowledge about the seismic hazard of the region and the vulnerability of L'Aquila before the meeting of the National Commission for Forecasting and Predicting Great Risks (CGR) held 6 days before the main shock. The basic point of the accusation is that the CGR suggested that no strong earthquake would have occurred (which of course was never mentioned by any seismologist participating to the meeting). This message would have convinced the victims to stay at home, instead of moving out after the M3.9 and M3.5 earthquakes few hours before the mainshock. We will describe how the available scientific information was passed to the national and local authorities, and in general how the Italian scientific Institution in charge of seismic monitoring and research (INGV), the Civil Protection Department (DPC) and the CGR should interact according to the law. As far as the communication and outreach to the public, the scientific Institutions as INGV have the duty to communicate scientific information. Instead, the risk management and the definition of actions for risk reduction is in charge of Civil
Shepshelovich, D; Goldvaser, H; Wang, L; Abdul Razak, A R; Bedard, P L
Background Data on completeness of reporting of phase I cancer clinical trials in publications are lacking. Methods The ClinicalTrials.gov database was searched for completed adult phase I cancer trials with reported results. PubMed was searched for matching primary publications published prior to November 1, 2016. Reporting in primary publications was compared with the ClinicalTrials.gov database using a 28-point score (2=complete; 1=partial; 0=no reporting) for 14 items related to study design, outcome measures and safety profile. Inconsistencies between primary publications and ClinicalTrials.gov were recorded. Linear regression was used to identify factors associated with incomplete reporting. Results After a review of 583 trials in ClinicalTrials.gov , 163 matching primary publications were identified. Publications reported outcomes that did not appear in ClinicalTrials.gov in 25% of trials. Outcomes were upgraded, downgraded or omitted in publications in 47% of trials. The overall median reporting score was 23/28 (interquartile range 21-25). Incompletely reported items in >25% publications were: inclusion criteria (29%), primary outcome definition (26%), secondary outcome definitions (53%), adverse events (71%), serious adverse events (80%) and dates of study start and database lock (91%). Higher reporting scores were associated with phase I (vs phase I/II) trials (ppublication in journals with lower impact factor (p=0.004). Conclusions Reported results in primary publications for early phase cancer trials are frequently inconsistent or incomplete compared with ClinicalTrials.gov entries. ClinicalTrials.gov may provide more comprehensive data from new cancer drug trials.
Full Text Available The right to a fair trial has grown in importance over the past few decades as criminal procedures and human rights law have aligned themselves more and more closely. A core aspect of our current European understanding of a ‘fair criminal trial’ is the so-called ‘equality of arms’, which requires that each party be given a reasonable opportunity to present his case under conditions that do not place him at a substantial disadvantage vis-à-vis his opponent. In cases which affect more than one jurisdiction – either because an alleged crime causes damage in different countries, evidence is located abroad or for some other reason – the accused and his defence lawyer may be left without any such a guarantee in the legal ‘black hole’ between the protections that are normally offered by each of the jurisdictions involved, albeit separately.The situation is not one of a dramatic alteration of legal frameworks; instead, it is the small encroachments caused by transnational cooperation that matter and which can be summed up on the basis that domestic and foreign prosecution authorities have, effectively, closed the circuit between them. These authorities are now embedded in formal networks which would have, for instance, the possibility to forum shop (i.e. to choose the ‘best place’ to prosecute. The emerging EU legal framework that has been built on mutual recognition and installing new central agencies has added to the problems faced by the defence. Moreover, the existing legal regimes designed to protect do not grant ‘equality of arms’ in the space between jurisdictions: national law usually provides few answers and international law, including the likes of the ECHR or the EU Charter on Fundamental Rights, do not offer many solutions, either.This article therefore argues that an aspiring ‘right to a fair trial’ or, rather, an entitlement to equality of arms as a general principle of transnational criminal justice that would
Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John
Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…
Baigent, Colin; Herrington, William G; Coresh, Josef
Despite the high costs of treatment of people with kidney disease and associated comorbid conditions, the amount of reliable information available to guide the care of such patients is very limited. Some treatments have been assessed in randomized trials, but most such trials have been too small ...
Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T
Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....
Curran, Walter J.
Objective: To review the background, rationale and available results for recently completed randomized comparative clinical trials of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), including inter group trials in which the RTOG has been the managing group or a major participant. When available, laboratory studies will be correlated with clinical results
Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded
Teenagers' innate interest with the justice system is one of the reasons that so many high school literary classics teem with criminals, controversial issues, and trials. Novels such as "To Kill a Mockingbird," "A Separate Peace," "The Crucible," and "Twelve Angry Men" feature high-impact trials. In the author's desire to tap into this interest,…
Sambo, N.; Sgambelluri, A.; Secondini, M.
A modeling tool is presented for pre-FEC BER estimation of PM-QPSK alien wavelength signals. A field trial is demonstrated and used as validation of the tool's correctness. A very close correspondence between the performance of the field trial and the one predicted by the modeling tool has been...
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram
, in particular with respect to collaboration with the trial sponsor and to analytic pitfalls. The advantages of creating screening databases in conjunction with a given clinical trial are described; and finally, the potential for posttrial database studies to become a platform for training young scientists...
abstractThe trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it
Full Text Available The trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it maintained at the same time ideological boundaries.
Mathieu, Erin; Barratt, Alexandra; Carter, Stacy M; Jamtvedt, Gro
Use of the Internet to conduct randomised controlled trials is increasing, and provides potential to increase equity of access to medical research, increase the generalisability of trial results and decrease the costs involved in conducting large scale trials. Several studies have compared response rates, completeness of data, and reliability of surveys using the Internet and traditional methods, but very little is known about participants' attitudes towards Internet-based randomised trials or their experience of participating in an Internet-based trial. To obtain insights into the experiences and perspectives of participants in an Internet-based randomised controlled trial, their attitudes to the use of the Internet to conduct medical research, and their intentions regarding future participation in Internet research. All English speaking participants in a recently completed Internet randomised controlled trial were invited to participate in an online survey. 1246 invitations were emailed. 416 participants completed the survey between May and October 2009 (33% response rate). Reasons given for participating in the Internet RCT fell into 4 main areas: personal interest in the research question and outcome, ease of participation, an appreciation of the importance of research and altruistic reasons. Participants' comments and reflections on their experience of participating in a fully online trial were positive and less than half of participants would have participated in the trial had it been conducted using other means of data collection. However participants identified trade-offs between the benefits and downsides of participating in Internet-based trials. The main trade-off was between flexibility and convenience - a perceived benefit - and a lack connectedness and understanding - a perceived disadvantage. The other tradeoffs were in the areas of: ease or difficulty in use of the Internet; security, privacy and confidentiality issues; perceived benefits and
Beatrice de Graaf
Full Text Available On 30 March 2011, ICCT organised an Expert Meeting entitled “Terrorism Trials as Theatre: A Performative Perspective”. The Expert Meeting applied a performative perspective to three well known and recent trials in different parts of the world: the trials against the Dutch Hofstad Group, the Mumbai 2008 Terrorist Attack Trial and the Guantanamo Military Tribunals. As such, the Expert Meeting did not concentrate solely on the immediate judicial performance of the magistrates and/or the defence; instead, the trials were put in their wider sociological context, adopting notions of social drama and communication sciences. This Expert Meeting Paper is a further adaptation of the Discussion Paper that was used as basis for debate during the Meeting.
Treweek, Shaun; Pitkethly, Marie; Cook, Jonathan; Fraser, Cynthia; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Frank; Jackson, Catherine; Taskila, Tyna K; Gardner, Heidi
Recruiting participants to trials can be extremely difficult. Identifying strategies that improve trial recruitment would benefit both trialists and health research. To quantify the effects of strategies for improving recruitment of participants to randomised trials. A secondary objective is to assess the evidence for the effect of the research setting (e.g. primary care versus secondary care) on recruitment. We searched the Cochrane Methodology Review Group Specialised Register (CMR) in the Cochrane Library (July 2012, searched 11 February 2015); MEDLINE and MEDLINE In Process (OVID) (1946 to 10 February 2015); Embase (OVID) (1996 to 2015 Week 06); Science Citation Index & Social Science Citation Index (ISI) (2009 to 11 February 2015) and ERIC (EBSCO) (2009 to 11 February 2015). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of methods to increase recruitment to randomised trials. This includes non-healthcare studies and studies recruiting to hypothetical trials. We excluded studies aiming to increase response rates to questionnaires or trial retention and those evaluating incentives and disincentives for clinicians to recruit participants. We extracted data on: the method evaluated; country in which the study was carried out; nature of the population; nature of the study setting; nature of the study to be recruited into; randomisation or quasi-randomisation method; and numbers and proportions in each intervention group. We used a risk difference to estimate the absolute improvement and the 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the effect in individual trials. We assessed heterogeneity between trial results. We used GRADE to judge the certainty we had in the evidence coming from each comparison. We identified 68 eligible trials (24 new to this update) with more than 74,000 participants. There were 63 studies involving interventions aimed directly at trial participants, while five evaluated interventions aimed at people recruiting participants. All studies were in
Entwistle Vikki A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. Results The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in – hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. Conclusion The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.
Francis, David; Roberts, Ian; Elbourne, Diana R; Shakur, Haleema; Knight, Rosemary C; Garcia, Jo; Snowdon, Claire; Entwistle, Vikki A; McDonald, Alison M; Grant, Adrian M; Campbell, Marion K
Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in - hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.
Okonta, Patrick I
The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.
Lin, Ja-An; He, Pei
Recently, new clinical trial designs involving biomarkers have been studied and proposed in cancer clinical research, in the hope of incorporating the rapid growing basic research into clinical practices. Journal articles related to various biomarkers and their role in cancer clinical trial, articles and books about statistical issues in trial design, and regulatory website, documents, and guidance for submission of targeted cancer therapies. The drug development process involves four phases. The confirmatory Phase III is essential in regulatory approval of a special treatment. Regulatory agency has restrictions on confirmatory trials 'using adaptive designs'. No rule of thumb to pick the most appropriate design for biomarker-related trials. Statistical issues to solve in new designs. Regulatory acceptance of the 'newly proposed trial designs'. Biomarker-related trial designs that can resolve the statistical issues and satisfy the regulatory requirement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cook, Jonathan A; Ramsay, Craig R; Norrie, John
Good recruitment is integral to the conduct of a high-quality randomised controlled trial. It has been suggested that recruitment is particularly difficult for evaluations of surgical interventions, a field in which there is a dearth of evidence from randomised comparisons. While there is anecdotal speculation to support the inference that recruitment to surgical trials is more challenging than for medical trials we are unaware of any formal assessment of this. In this paper, we compare recruitment to surgical and medical trials using a cohort of publicly funded trials. Overall recruitment to trials was assessed using of a cohort of publicly funded trials (n=114). Comparisons were made by using the Recruitment Index, a simple measure of recruitment activity for multicentre randomised controlled trials. Recruitment at the centre level was also investigated through three example surgical trials. The Recruitment Index was found to be higher, though not statistically significantly, in the surgical group (n=18, median=38.0 IQR (10.7, 77.4)) versus (n=81, median=34.8 IQR (11.7, 98.0)) days per recruit for the medical group (median difference 1.7 (-19.2, 25.1); p=0.828). For the trials where the comparison was between a surgical and a medical intervention, the Recruitment Index was substantially higher (n=6, 68.3 (23.5, 294.8)) versus (n=93, 34.6 (11.7, 90.0); median difference 25.9 (-35.5, 221.8); p=0.291) for the other trials. There was no clear evidence that surgical trials differ from medical trials in terms of recruitment activity. There was, however, support for the inference that medical versus surgical trials are more difficult to recruit to. Formal exploration of the recruitment data through a modelling approach may go some way to tease out where important differences exist.
preferred standard of care. However, current pain management guidelines are based on minimal data on repeated use of either intervention. Therefore, regardless of the outcomes of this study, results will have important implications for guidelines and practices related to management of procedural pain in preterm infants. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01561547. PMID:24284002
Dal-Ré, Rafael; Moher, David; Gluud, Christian
Rafael Dal-Ré and colleagues argue that the recruitment targets and performance of all site investigators in multi-centre clinical trials should be disclosed in trial registration sites before a trial starts, and when it ends.......Rafael Dal-Ré and colleagues argue that the recruitment targets and performance of all site investigators in multi-centre clinical trials should be disclosed in trial registration sites before a trial starts, and when it ends....
Cummings, J; Aisen, P; Barton, R; Bork, J; Doody, R; Dwyer, J; Egan, J C; Feldman, H; Lappin, D; Truyen, L; Salloway, S; Sperling, R; Vradenburg, G
Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug development is costly, time-consuming, and inefficient. Trial site functions, trial design, and patient recruitment for trials all require improvement. The Global Alzheimer Platform (GAP) was initiated in response to these challenges. Four GAP work streams evolved in the US to address different trial challenges: 1) registry-to-cohort web-based recruitment; 2) clinical trial site activation and site network construction (GAP-NET); 3) adaptive proof-of-concept clinical trial design; and 4) finance and fund raising. GAP-NET proposes to establish a standardized network of continuously funded trial sites that are highly qualified to perform trials (with established clinical, biomarker, imaging capability; certified raters; sophisticated management system. GAP-NET will conduct trials for academic and biopharma industry partners using standardized instrument versions and administration. Collaboration with the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) European Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease (EPAD) program, the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) and other similar international initiatives will allow conduct of global trials. GAP-NET aims to increase trial efficiency and quality, decrease trial redundancy, accelerate cohort development and trial recruitment, and decrease trial costs. The value proposition for sites includes stable funding and uniform training and trial execution; the value to trial sponsors is decreased trial costs, reduced time to execute trials, and enhanced data quality. The value for patients and society is the more rapid availability of new treatments for AD.
van Gijn, J
From the age of Enlightenment onwards, philosophical thinking has become increasingly influenced by empiricism: observations lead to theories, but experiments are needed to put the reasoning to the test. However, it was not until the middle of the 20th century that well-designed experiments were at last introduced in medical treatment, in the form of randomised controlled clinical trials. This design is now standard in medicine, but in everyday practice a multitude of management decisions must still be taken without good evidence. There are several reasons for this: there may not be a trial at all or only a single trial; trial results may be equivocal; patients may be different from those enrolled in trials; new procedures require practice, or a trial may not be feasible. 'Logical reasoning', with all its fallacies, is still required - not only to fill the gaps in empirical knowledge but also to interpret existing evidence and to plan new trials. In fact, the generation of new knowledge is a continuous, cyclical process in which newly gained insights in pathophysiology give rise to new therapeutic experiments, the results of which generate fresh hypotheses, and so on. Compassion, curiosity and doubt are the essential forces that keep the cycle moving. Conversely, the progress is slowed down by present-day legalism, which distorts investigator accountability and patient autonomy. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Smaïl-Faugeron, V; Fron-Chabouis, H; Durieux, P
Prospective registration of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) represents the best solution to reporting bias. The extent to which oral health journals have endorsed and complied with RCT registration is unknown. We identified journals publishing RCTs in dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine in the Journal Citation Reports. We classified journals into 3 groups: journals requiring or recommending trial registration, journals referring indirectly to registration, and journals providing no reference to registration. For the 5 journals with the highest 2012 impact factors in each group, we assessed whether RCTs with results published in 2013 had been registered. Of 78 journals examined, 32 (41%) required or recommended trial registration, 19 (24%) referred indirectly to registration, and 27 (35%) provided no reference to registration. We identified 317 RCTs with results published in the 15 selected journals in 2013. Overall, 73 (23%) were registered in a trial registry. Among those, 91% were registered retrospectively and 32% did not report trial registration in the published article. The proportion of trials registered was not significantly associated with editorial policies: 29% with results in journals that required or recommended registration, 15% in those that referred indirectly to registration, and 21% in those providing no reference to registration (P = 0.05). Less than one-quarter of RCTs with results published in a sample of oral health journals were registered with a public registry. Improvements are needed with respect to how journals inform and require their authors to register their trials. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.