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Sample records for jurkat cells common

  1. GABAA receptor plasticity in Jurkat T cells.

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    Dionisio, Leonardo; Arias, Verónica; Bouzat, Cecilia; Esandi, María del Carmen

    2013-12-01

    GABAA receptors (GABAAR) mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the human brain. Neurons modify subunit expression, cellular distribution and function of GABAAR in response to different stimuli, a process named plasticity. Human lymphocytes have a functional neuronal-like GABAergic system with GABAAR acting as inhibitors of proliferation. We here explore if receptor plasticity occurs in lymphocytes. To this end, we analyzed human T lymphocyte Jurkat cells exposed to different physiological stimuli shown to mediate plasticity in neurons: GABA, progesterone and insulin. The exposure to 100 μM GABA differently affected the expression of GABAAR subunits measured at both the mRNA and protein level, showing an increase of α1, β3, and γ2 subunits but no changes in δ subunit. Exposure of Jurkat cells to different stimuli produced different changes in subunit expression: 0.1 μM progesterone decreased δ and 0.5 μM insulin increased β3 subunits. To identify the mechanisms underlying plasticity, we evaluated the Akt pathway, which is involved in the phosphorylation of β subunits and receptor translocation to the membrane. A significant increase of phosphorylated Akt and on the expression of β3 subunit in membrane occurred in cells exposed 15 h to GABA. To determine if plastic changes are translated into functional changes, we performed whole cell recordings. After 15 h GABA-exposure, a significantly higher percentage of cells responded to GABA application when compared to 0 and 40 h exposure, thus indicating that the detected plastic changes may have a role in GABA-modulated lymphocyte function. Our results reveal that lymphocyte GABAAR are modified by different stimuli similarly and by similar mechanisms to those in neurons. This property is of significance for the development of future therapies involving pharmacological modulation of the immune response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Establishment of Jurkat tet-on cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Tet-control system is developed to tightly control target gene expression in mammalian cells by using the regulatory elements of tetracycline-repressor of the transposor Tn10 from E.Coli.We have transfected reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator gene (rtTA) into genome of Jurkat cells and established two Jurkat tet-on cell lines.Induction of luciferase reporter activity with doxycycline,a tetracycline derivative,is dose-dependent with a peak value of 32-fold increment.Establishment of Jurkat tet-on cell lines greatly facilitates quantitative studies on target gene functions in the cells.

  3. Characterization of Entamoeba histolytica-induced dephosphorylation in Jurkat cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J E Teixeira; B J Mann

    2002-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica killing of host cells is contact dependent and mediated by a Gal/GalNAc lectin. Upon contact with amoeba a rapid and extensive dephosphorylation of tyrosine phosphorylated host cell proteins is observed. This effect is mediated by the Gal/GalNAc lectin. However, it requires intact cells, as purified lectin failed to induce dephosphorylation in Jurkat cells. The nonpathogenic, but morphologically identical amoeba, Entamoeba moshkovskii also did not induce dephosphorylation in target cells. Treatment of Jurkat cells with phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitors has shown that a host phosphatase is responsible for dephosphorylation. However, it was found that the CD45 phosphotase was not necessary for dephosphorylation of host cell proteins.

  4. Effects of gravitational perturbation on the expression of genes regulating metabolism in Jurkat cells.

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    Singh, Kanika; Cubano, Luis; Lewis, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational pertubation altered gene expression and increased glucose consumption in spaceflown Jurkat cells. The purpose of this study was to determine if the acceleration experienced during launch was responsible for these changes. In ground-based studies, cells were subjected to typical launch centrifugal acceleration (3g of force for eight minutes) and centrifugal force of 90g for five minutes (commonly used to sediment cells) in a laboratory centrifuge. Controls consisted of static cultures. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. pH and glucose concentrations were evaluated to monitor metabolic changes. Comparison with controls indicated no significant change in pH or glucose use. Gene expression of Jurkat cells subjected to 3g or 90g of force was altered for only two genes out of seven tested. This research suggests that the changes observed in Jurkat cells flown on STS-95 were not a result of launch acceleration but to other conditions experienced during space flight.

  5. Cytoskeletal forces during signaling activation in Jurkat T-cells

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    Hui, King Lam; Balagopalan, Lakshmi; Samelson, Lawrence E.; Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2015-01-01

    T-cells are critical for the adaptive immune response in the body. The binding of the T-cell receptor (TCR) with antigen on the surface of antigen-presenting cells leads to cell spreading and signaling activation. The underlying mechanism of signaling activation is not completely understood. Although cytoskeletal forces have been implicated in this process, the contribution of different cytoskeletal components and their spatial organization are unknown. Here we use traction force microscopy to measure the forces exerted by Jurkat T-cells during TCR activation. Perturbation experiments reveal that these forces are largely due to actin assembly and dynamics, with myosin contractility contributing to the development of force but not its maintenance. We find that Jurkat T-cells are mechanosensitive, with cytoskeletal forces and signaling dynamics both sensitive to the stiffness of the substrate. Our results delineate the cytoskeletal contributions to interfacial forces exerted by T-cells during activation. PMID:25518938

  6. Jurkat/A4 cells with multidrug resistance exhibit reduced sensitivity to quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philchenkov, A; Zavelevich, M; Savinska, L; Blokhin, D

    2010-07-01

    While multidrug resistance of cancer cells is a well-known phenomenon, little is known on the cross resistance between cytotoxic chemotherapeutical agents and unrelated substances such as natural flavonoids. To compare the effects of cytotoxic drug, vepeside and natural flavonoid, quercetin in Jurkat cells and their multidrug-resistant subline Jurkat/A4, in particular to analyze the effector mechanisms of apoptosis and the profiles of several pro- and antiapoptotic proteins in these cells upon exposure to vepeside or quercetin. Apoptosis and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage were assessed by flow cytometry. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins was analyzed by Western blotting. Jurkat/A4 cells are less sensitive to antiproliferative effects of quercetin as compared with the parental Jurkat cell line. While vepeside as well as quercetin initially induces apoptosis in both cell lines, the following survival of the exposed cells is essentially different. In resistant Jurkat/A4 cells, vepeside or quercetin treatment activates significantly less caspase-9 and -3 as compared with that in the parental cells. The expression of Bad and BNip1 proteins in Jurkat/A4 cells is lower than in the parental cell line. At the same time, XIAP and CAS levels in Jurkat/A4 cells increase. Upon apoptosis induction, XIAP and CAS levels in Jurkat cells decrease, this effect being negligible in resistant cells. Multidrug-resistant Jurkat/A4 cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to cytotoxic effects of quercetin. The expression profile of Jurkat/A4 cells is characterized by the increased levels of XIAP and CAS representing the endogenous inhibitors of apoptosis.

  7. Effects of canola and corn oil mimetic on Jurkat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinsete Juliana A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Western diet is high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids. Canola oil contains a healthier omega 3 to omega 6 ratio than corn oil. Jurkat T leukemia cells were treated with free fatty acids mixtures in ratios mimicking that found in commercially available canola oil (7% α-linolenic, 30% linoleic, 54% oleic or corn oil (59% linoleic, 24% oleic to determine the cell survival or cell death and changes in expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors following oil treatment. Methods Fatty acid uptake was assessed by gas chromatography. Cell survival and cell death were evaluated by cell cycle analyses, propidium-iodide staining, trypan blue exclusion and phosphatidylserine externalization. mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors were assessed by RT-PCR. Results There was a significant difference in the lipid profiles of the cells after treatment. Differential action of the oils on inflammatory molecules, following treatment at non-cytotoxic levels, indicated that canola oil mimetic was anti-inflammatory whereas corn oil mimetic was pro-inflammatory. Significance These results indicate that use of canola oil in the diet instead of corn oil might be beneficial for diseases promoted by inflammation.

  8. [Effects of Sam68 gene silence on proliferation of acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Jurkat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Juan; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Hai-Rui; Wang, Jian; Lin, Ya-Ni; Pang, Tian-Xiang; Li, Qing-Hua

    2014-08-01

    This study was purpose to investigate the effect of Sam68 gene silence on proliferation of human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Jurkat. The sequence of shRNA targeting the site 531-552 of Sam68 mRNA was designed and chemically synthesized, then a single-vector lentiviral, Tet-inducible shRNA-Sam68 system (pLKO-Tet-On) was constructed; next the Jurkat cells were infected with lentivirus to create stable cell clones with regulatable Sam68 gene expression. The inhibitory efficiency of Sam68 gene was assayed by Real-time PCR and Western blot; the cell activity of Jurkat cells was detected with MTT assay; the change of colony forming potential of Jurkat cells was analyzed by colony forming test; the cell cycle distribution was tested by flow cytometry. The results indicated that the expression of Sam68 in experimental cells was statistically decreased as compared with that of the control cells; the cells activity and colony forming capacity of the Jurkat cells with Sam68 gene silence were significantly inhibited; with Sam68 gene silencing, the percentage of S phase cells was significantly increased, while the percentage of G2 phase cells was significantly decreased. It is concluded that the silencing Sam68 gene using shRNA interference can effectively inhibit the proliferation of human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Jurkat.

  9. Nitric oxide donor NOC-5 increases XIAP and Aven level in Jurkat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikova, Elena G; Tashireva, L A; Novitsky, V V; Ryazantseva, N V

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial permeabilisation after NO donor application did not activate caspase-9. We have studied the X-linked apoptosis inhibitor (XIAP) and Aven protein content in NO-treated Jurkat cells. The level of both proteins increased in NO-treated cells. Thus the increase in XIAP and Aven content could be the cause of the lack of caspase-9 activity after mitochondrial permeabilisation in NO-treated Jurkat cells.

  10. Probing mechanical properties of Jurkat cells under the effect of ART using oscillating optical tweezers.

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    Samaneh Khakshour

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoid leukemia is a common type of blood cancer and chemotherapy is the initial treatment of choice. Quantifying the effect of a chemotherapeutic drug at the cellular level plays an important role in the process of the treatment. In this study, an oscillating optical tweezer was employed to characterize the frequency-dependent mechanical properties of Jurkat cells exposed to the chemotherapeutic agent, artesunate (ART. A motion equation for a bead bound to a cell was applied to describe the mechanical characteristics of the cell cytoskeleton. By comparing between the modeling results and experimental results from the optical tweezer, the stiffness and viscosity of the Jurkat cells before and after the ART treatment were obtained. The results demonstrate a weak power-law dependency of cell stiffness with frequency. Furthermore, the stiffness and viscosity were increased after the treatment. Therefore, the cytoskeleton cell stiffness as the well as power-law coefficient can provide a useful insight into the chemo-mechanical relationship of drug treated cancer cells and may serve as another tool for evaluating therapeutic performance quantitatively.

  11. Andrographolide inhibits growth of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells by downregulation of PI3K/AKT and upregulation of p38 MAPK pathways.

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    Yang, Tingfang; Yao, Shuluan; Zhang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) as a prevalent hematologic malignancy is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide in children. Andrographolide (Andro), the major active component from Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to possess antitumor activities in several types of cancer cells. However, whether Andro would inhibit T-ALL cell growth remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of Andro on human T-ALL Jurkat cells and explored the mechanisms of cell death. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry, and the signaling transduction for Andro was analyzed by Western blotting. The results indicated 10 μg/mL Andro could significantly induce Jurkat cells' apoptosis, depending on the inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway. Moreover, Andro-induced apoptosis is enhanced by AKT-selective inhibitor LY294002. ERK- or JNK-selective inhibitors PD98059 and SP600125 had no effect on Andro-induced apoptosis. In addition, p38 inhibitor SB203580 could reverse Andro-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We also found that the protein expression of p-p53 and p-p38 were increased after Andro treatments. The result of an in vivo study also demonstrated Andro's dose-dependent inhibition in subcutaneous Jurkat xenografts. In conclusion, our findings explained a novel mechanism of drug action by Andro in Jurkat cells and suggested that Andro might be developed into a new candidate therapy for T-ALL patients in the coming days.

  12. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND CYTOTOXICITY EFFECTS OF SALVADORA PERSICA (MESWAK EXTRACTS ON JURKAT T-CELLS

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    Farimah Sardari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Salvadora persica (S. persica, Meswak, is an evergreen shrub to 6-7 m. It has many biological activities such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antifungal activities. This study evaluated in vitro cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of S. persica extracts on human oral Jurkat (T leukemia cells. Extracts from Meswak stick and leaves were tested in different concentrations for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities on human oral Jurkat T- cells. So treated cells viability with increasing concentrations of S. persica stick extract (0.008-0.2 μg/ml and leaves extract (0.016-0.5 μg/ml for 24, 48 or 72 hours was assessed by using the mitochondrial dependent reduction of yellow MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide to purple formazan. Also Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was performed on supernatants from treated Jurkat T-cells with phytohemagglutinin (PHA and both extracts to quantify IL-6, IL-8 pro-inflammatory cytokines. Statistically significant differences were indicated by p <0.05. Incubation of Jurkat cells with sterile distilled water, negative control, didn't show any mortality through the incubation period. Against PHA, positive control, both stick and leaves extracts of S. persica like resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of IL-6 and IL-8 secretion (p <0.01. Although both extracts significantly inhibited survival of Jurkat cells (p < 0.01 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, stick extract exerted more cytotoxic effects on Jurkat cells than leaves extract of S. persica (p <0.03. In conclusion, although with increasing concentrations of both extracts anti-inflammatory properties were boosted, S. persica extracts had dose-dependent cytotoxic effects on human oral Jurkat T-cells.

  13. Galectin-1 and Galectin-3 induce mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Jurkat cells

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    Vasil'eva, O. A.; Isaeva, A. V.; Prokhorenko, T. S.; Zima, A. P.; Novitsky, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Cellular malignant transformation is often accompanied by increased gene expression of low-molecular proteins of lectins family-galectins. But it is unknown how galectins promote tumor growth and malignization. Galectins-1 and galectin-3 are thought to be possible immunoregulators exerting their effects by regulating the balance of CD4+ lymphocytes. In addition it is known that tumor cells overexpressing galectins are capable of escaping immunological control, causing apoptosis of lymphocytes. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in the implementation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Jurkat cells. Methods: Jurkat cells were used as a model for the study of T-lymphocytes. Jurkat cells were activated with antibodies to CD3 and CD28 and cultured with recombinant galectin-1 and -3. Apoptosis of Jurkat cells and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane were assessed by flow cytometry. It was found that galectin-1 and galectin-3 have a dose-dependent pro-apoptotic effect on Jurkat cells in vitro and enlarge the number of cells with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential compared with intact cells.

  14. Andrographolide inhibits growth of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells by downregulation of PI3K/AKT and upregulation of p38 MAPK pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tingfang Yang,1 Shuluan Yao,2 Xianfeng Zhang,3 Yan Guo2 1Department of Pediatrics, Jining No 1 People’s Hospital, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jining Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Psychiatry, Jining Psychiatric Hospital, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL as a prevalent hematologic malignancy is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide in children. Andrographolide (Andro, the major active component from Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to possess antitumor activities in several types of cancer cells. However, whether Andro would inhibit T-ALL cell growth remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of Andro on human T-ALL Jurkat cells and explored the mechanisms of cell death. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry, and the signaling transduction for Andro was analyzed by Western blotting. The results indicated 10 µg/mL Andro could significantly induce Jurkat cells’ apoptosis, depending on the inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway. Moreover, Andro-induced apoptosis is enhanced by AKT-selective inhibitor LY294002. ERK- or JNK-selective inhibitors PD98059 and SP600125 had no effect on Andro-induced apoptosis. In addition, p38 inhibitor SB203580 could reverse Andro-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We also found that the protein expression of p-p53 and p-p38 were increased after Andro treatments. The result of an in vivo study also demonstrated Andro’s dose-dependent inhibition in subcutaneous Jurkat xenografts. In conclusion, our findings explained a novel mechanism of drug action by Andro in Jurkat cells and suggested that Andro might be developed into a new candidate therapy for T-ALL patients in the coming days. Keywords: andrographolide, PI3K, AKT, Burkitt lymphoma, Jurkat cell

  15. Cyclophosphamide Perturbs Cytosine Methylation in Jurkat-T Cells through LSD1-mediated Stabilization of DNMT1 Protein

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Jing; Yuan, Bifeng; Zhang, Fan; Xiong, Lei; Wu, Jiang; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Wang, Yinsheng

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant cytosine methylation is known to be associated with cancer development. Here we assessed how common cancer chemotherapeutic agents perturb cytosine methylation in Jurkat-T acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. We tested six anti-tumor agents and found that cyclophosphamide induced the most pronounced increase in global DNA cytosine methylation after a 24-hr treatment. Long-term treatment with cyclophosphamide led to a time-dependent increase in cytosine methylation level with up to 4 d...

  16. Cytotoxic effects of Fisturalin-3 and 11-Deoxyfisturalin-3 on Jurkat and U937 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijares, Michael Rodney; Ochoa, Mariana; Barroeta, Amairelys; Martinez, Gricelis Patricia; Suarez, Alirica Isabel; Compagnone, Reinaldo Santi; Chirinos, Perla; Avila, Ramona; De Sanctis, Juan Bautista

    2013-09-01

    Fisturalines are bromotyrosine compounds isolated from marine sponges. Previous studies have shown antineoplasic, antiviral and antibacterial effects in Vitro; however, the possible effects of these compounds in hematologic malignancies have not been assessed. In the present study, the antiproliferative and pro apoptotic effects of Fistularin-3 (F) and 11-Deoxyfistularin-3 (DF) were assessed using the MTT method and annexin V/propidium iodide by flow cytometry using the cell lines: Jurkat E6.1 and U937. In addition, the cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometry. Inhibition of the proliferative response was concentration and time dependent. The IC50 of F was 7.39 and 8.10 µM for Jurkat E6.1 and U937 respectively. At 24 and 48 h, in the U937 cell line, but not in the Jurkat cell line, both compounds induced up to 35% annexin V increase. Necrosis was not observed in any case. Compound F induced, in both cell lines, a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase and increase in the G0/G1 phase. In the Jurkat cell line only, there was an increase in the number of cells in the G2/M phase. Compound DF was not as effective as F. F is more active than DF in repressing the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. Both compounds are potentially useful in the development of new drugs to treat hematologic malignancies.

  17. Apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells and sCD95 levels in women's sera are related with the risk of developing cervical cancer

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    Bravo-Cuellar Alejandro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is clear evidence that apoptosis plays an important role in the development and progression of tumors. One of the best characterized apoptosis triggering systems is the CD95/Fas/APO-1 pathway; previous reports have demonstrated high levels of soluble CD95 (sCD95 in serum of patients with some types of cancer. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. As a first step in an attempt to design a minimally invasive test to predict the risk of developing cervical cancer in patients with precancerous lesions, we used a simple assay based on the capacity of human serum to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We evaluated the relationship between sCD95 levels and the ability to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells in cervical cancer patients and controls. Methods Jurkat cells were exposed to serum from 63 women (20 healthy volunteers, 21 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I [CIN 1] and 22 with cervical-uterine carcinoma. The apoptotic rate was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin-V-Fluos and Propidium Iodide as markers. Serum levels of sCD95 and soluble CD95 ligand (sCD95L were measured by ELISA kits. Results We found that serum from almost all healthy women induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, while only fifty percent of the sera from women with CIN 1 induced cell death in Jurkat cells. Interestingly, only one serum sample from a patient with cervical-uterine cancer was able to induce apoptosis, the rest of the sera protected Jurkat cells from this killing. We were able to demonstrate that elimination of Jurkat cells was mediated by the CD95/Fas/Apo-1 apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the serum levels of sCD95 measured by ELISA were significantly higher in women with cervical cancer. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between low levels of sCD95 in serum of normal women and higher apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells. We suggest that an analysis of

  18. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK induces apoptosis or necrosis, but has no major influence on the cell cycle of Jurkat cells

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    Piotr Pozarowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAK is a cationic detergent with a very slow turnover. Because of its strong antibacterial activities, BAK is widely used especially in dentistry and ophthalmology. It is the most commonly used preservative in topical ophthalmic medications. Due to chronicity and widespread use of such treatments, BAK’s side effects are of great importance. BAK toxicity for adherent cells, probably related to its pro-oxidative activities, is time- and dose-dependent. Although lymphocytes often infiltrate superficial eye tissues, the BAK influence on them is yet to be established. The aim of this study was to check BAK cytotoxicity on T lymphocytic Jurkat line cells and to verify the suggestion that BAK can induce G2M cell blocks. A dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect of BAK on lymphoid cells in relatively low concentrations was shown in this study. In lower concentrations, it shows a moderate apoptotic and minimal antiproliferative effect on Jurkat cells, while in higher concentrations it shows a rapid necrotic effect. No G2M cell blocks were observed. Our findings could suggest lymphoid dysfunction during intensive, prolonged topical BAK treatment, even at dosages relatively non-toxic to epithelial eye cells. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 225–230

  19. Influence of expressed TRAIL on biophysical properties of the human leukemic cell line Jurkat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai CHEN; Zong Yao WEN; Shu CHIEN; Dan LI; Yu Hui JIANG; Wei Juan YAO; Xin Juan WANG; Xiao Chao WEI; Jing GAO; Li De XIE; Zong Yi YAN

    2004-01-01

    The cDNA fragment of human TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) was cloned into RevTet-On, a Tetregulated and high-level gene expression system. The gene expression system was constructed in a human leukemic cell line: Jurkat. By using RevTet-On TRAIL gene expression system in Jurkat as a cell model, we studied the influence of TRAIL gene on the changes of cellular apoptosis before and after the TRAIL gene expression, which was induced by adding tetracycline derivative doxycycline (Dox). The results indicated that the cellular apoptosis ratio was largely dependent on the TRAIL gene expression level. Moreover, it was found that the apoptosis-inducing TRAIL could cause significant changes in the biophysical properties of Jurkat cells. The cell surface charge density decreased, the membrane fluidity declined, the elastic coefficients K1 increased, and the proportion of o-helix in membrane protein secondary structure decreased. Thus, the apoptosis-inducing TRAIL gene caused significant changes on the biomechanic properties of Jurkat cells.

  20. Active phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra) by T lymphocytes (Jurkat cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhu, Qi; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yang; Ma, Lei; Yang, Yining; Feng, Dongyun; Dai, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Kang, Tao; Chen, Ping; He, Ying; Liu, Tingting; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Wenjing; Zhi, Jin; Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Gang

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to co-culture Jurkat T lymphocytes with inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb H37Ra), explore whether T lymphocytes could phagocytose H37Ra cells, and determine the underlying mechanism. Jurkat T lymphocytes were co-cultured with H37Ra cells, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry techniques were used to identify phagocytosis and elucidate its mechanism. After Jurkat T lymphocytes phagocytosed H37Ra cells, the cell body became larger, with abundant cytoplasm, the portion of the nucleus closest to the bacterium deformed, long and short pseudopodia were extended, and the folds of the cell membrane formed depressions that created phagocytic vesicles surrounding the bacterium. The macropinocytosis inhibitor amiloride and the cytoskeletal inhibitor cytochalasin D were found to inhibit phagocytic efficacy; serum complements might enhance phagocytosis through opsonization. Jurkat T lymphocytes could actively phagocytose inactivated Mtb via the macropinocytotic mechanism. Actin remodeling played an important role in the macropinocytotic process. Serum complements may regulate phagocytosis.

  1. Effect of silencing HOXA5 gene expression using RNA interference on cell cycle and apoptosis in Jurkat cells.

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    Huang, Hui-Ping; Liu, Wen-Jun; Guo, Qu-Lian; Bai, Yong-Qi

    2016-03-01

    Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a common malignant tumor with a high morbidity rate among children, accounting for approximately 80% of leukemia cases. Although there have been improvements in the treatment of patients frequent relapse lead to a poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether HOXA5 may be used as a target for gene therapy in leukemia in order to provide a new treatment. Mononuclear cells were extracted from the bone marrow according to the clinical research aims. After testing for ALL in the acute stage, the relative mRNA and protein expression of HOXA5 was detected in the ALL remission groups (n=25 cases per group) and the control group [n=20 cases, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)]. Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) was used to investigate the effect of silencing HOXA5 after small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection to Jurkat cells. The HOXA5-specific siRNA was transfected to Jurkat cells using lipofectamine. The experiment was divided into the experimental group (liposomal transfection of HOXA5 targeting siRNA), the negative control group (liposomal transfection of cells with negative control siRNA) and the control group (plus an equal amount of cells and culture media only). Western blotting and quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF‑PCR) were used to detect the relative HOXA5 mRNA expression and protein distribution in each cell group. Cell distribution in the cell cycle and the rate of cells undergoing apoptosis were determined using flow cytometry. The expression of HOXA5 at the mRNA and protein levels in the acute phase of ALL was significantly higher than that in ALL in the remission and control groups. In cells transfected with HOXA5-specific siRNA, the expression of HOXA5 at the mRNA and protein levels decreased significantly (Pcells in the cell cycle was also altered. Specifically, more cells were present in the G0/G1 phase compared to the S phase (Pcells transfected with HOXA5

  2. Comparative proteomics of exosomes secreted by tumoral Jurkat T cells and normal human T cell blasts unravels a potential tumorigenic role for valosin-containing protein

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    Sanclemente, Manuel; Iturralde, María; Naval, Javier; Alava, María Angeles; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Thierse, Hermann-Josef; Anel, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We have previously characterized that FasL and Apo2L/TRAIL are stored in their bioactive form inside human T cell blasts in intraluminal vesicles present in multivesicular bodies. These vesicles are rapidly released to the supernatant in the form of exosomes upon re-activation of T cells. In this study we have compared for the first time proteomics of exosomes produced by normal human T cell blasts with those produced by tumoral Jurkat cells, with the objective of identify proteins associated with tumoral exosomes that could have a previously unrecognized role in malignancy. We have identified 359 and 418 proteins in exosomes from T cell blasts and Jurkat cells, respectively. Interestingly, only 145 (around a 40%) are common. The major proteins in both cases are actin and tubulin isoforms and the common interaction nodes correspond to these cytoskeleton and related proteins, as well as to ribosomal and mRNA granule proteins. We detected 14 membrane proteins that were especially enriched in exosomes from Jurkat cells as compared with T cell blasts. The most abundant of these proteins was valosin-containing protein (VCP), a membrane ATPase involved in ER homeostasis and ubiquitination. In this work, we also show that leukemic cells are more sensitive to cell death induced by the VCP inhibitor DBeQ than normal T cells. Furthermore, VCP inhibition prevents functional exosome secretion only in Jurkat cells, but not in T cell blasts. These results suggest VCP targeting as a new selective pathway to exploit in cancer treatment to prevent tumoral exosome secretion. PMID:27086912

  3. Polarization imaging and classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells using a flow cytometer.

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    Feng, Yuanming; Zhang, Ning; Jacobs, Kenneth M; Jiang, Wenhuan; Yang, Li V; Li, Zhigang; Zhang, Jun; Lu, Jun Q; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Label-free and rapid classification of cells can have awide range of applications in biology. We report a robust method of polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry (p-DIFC) for achieving this goal. Coherently scattered light signals are acquired from single cells excited by a polarized laser beam in the form of two cross-polarized diffraction images. Image texture and intensity parameters are extracted with a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm to obtain an optimized set of feature parameters as the morphological "fingerprints" for automated cell classification. We selected the Jurkat T cells and Ramos B cells to test the p-DIFC method's capacity for cell classification. After detailed statistical analysis, we found that the optimized feature vectors yield accuracies of classification between the Jurkat and Ramos ranging from 97.8% to 100% among different cell data sets. Confocal imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction were applied to gain insights on the ability of p-DIFC method for classifying the two cell lines of highly similar morphology. Based on these results we conclude that the p-DIFC method has the capacity to discriminate cells of high similarity in their morphology with "fingerprints" features extracted from the diffraction images, which may be attributed to subtle but statistically significant differences in the nucleus-to-cell volume ratio in the case of Jurkat and Ramos cells.

  4. Induction of Apoptosis by Recombinant Soluble Human TRAIL in Jurkat Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic potential of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the TNF superfamily, and to analyze TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Methods Expression of TRAIL receptors (DR4 and DR5) was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cytotoxic effects were determined by colony formation assay and a cell counting kit. The effects of recombinant TRAIL on apoptosis of Jurkat cells were determined by DNA fragmentation (DNA ladder) and PI staining. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were detected with JC-1 fluorescence. Results TRAIL inhibited the proliferation and induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (characteristic of apoptosis) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusion Recombinant soluble TRAIL can be used as a therapy for cancer.

  5. Reactive oxygen species-dependent necroptosis in Jurkat T cells induced by pathogenic free-living Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K-J; Jang, Y S; Lee, Y A; Kim, K A; Lee, S K; Shin, M H

    2011-07-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba, is the causative pathogen of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans and experimental mice. N. fowleri is capable of destroying tissues and host cells through lytic necrosis. However, the mechanism by which N. fowleri induces host cell death is unknown. Electron microscopy indicated that incubation of Jurkat T cells with N. fowleri trophozoites induced necrotic morphology of the Jurkat T cells. N. fowleri also induced cytoskeletal protein cleavage, extensive poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase hydrolysis and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Although no activation of caspase-3 was observed in Jurkat T cells co-incubated with amoebae, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were strongly generated by NADPH oxidase (NOX). Pretreating cells with necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 or NOX inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) strongly inhibited amoeba-induced ROS generation and Jurkat cell death, whereas pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk did not. N. fowleri-derived secretory products (NfSP) strongly induced intracellular ROS generation and cell death. Necroptotic effects of NfSP were effectively inhibited by pretreating NfSP with proteinase K. Moreover, NfSP-induced LDH release and intracellular ROS accumulation were inhibited by pretreating Jurkat T cells with DPI or necrostatin-1. These results suggest that N. fowleri induces ROS-dependent necroptosis in Jurkat T cells.

  6. The associated regulators and signal pathway in rILl-16/CD4 mediated growth regulation in Jurkat cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    IL-16 is a ligand and chemotactic factor for CD4+ T cells. IL-16 inhibits the CD3 mediated lymphocyteactivation and proliferation. The effects of IL-16 on the target cells are dependent on the cell type, thepresence of co-activators etc. To understand the regulation function and mechanism of IL-16 on targetcells, we used a 130 a.a. recombinant IL-16 to study its effects on the growth of Jurkat T leukemia cellsin vitro. We found that the rIL-16 stimulated the proliferation of Jurkat cells at low dose (10-9M), butinhibited the growth of the cells at higher concentration (10-5M). Results showed that 10-5 M of rIL-16treatment induced an enhanced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. The treatment blocked the expression of FasL, butup-regulated the c-myc and Bid expression in the cells. Pre-treatment of PKC inhibitor or MEK1 inhibitormarkedly increased or decreased the rIL-16 induced growth-inhibiting effects on Jurkat cells, respectively.The results suggested that the rIL-16 might be a regulator for the growth or apoptosis of Jurkat cells ata dose-dependent manner. The growth-inhibiting effects of rIL-16 might be Fas/FasL independent, but,associated with the activation of PKC, up-regulated expression of c-Myc and Bid, and the participation ofthe ERK signal pathway in Jurkat cells.

  7. Constituents of French Marigold (Tagetes patula L. Flowers Protect Jurkat T-Cells against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli Chkhikvishvili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of French marigold (Tagetes patula L. are widely used in folk medicine, in particular for treating inflammation-related disorders. However, cellular mechanisms of this activity demand further investigation. In the present work, we studied the potential of T. patula compounds to alleviate the oxidative stress in hydrogen peroxide-challenged human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cells. Crude extracts of marigold flowers and purified fractions containing flavonoids patuletin, quercetagetin, and quercetin and their derivatives, as well as the carotenoid lutein, were brought in contact with Jurkat cells challenged with 25 or 50 μM H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide caused oxidative stress in the cells, manifested as generation of superoxide and peroxyl radicals, reduced viability, arrested cell cycle, and enhanced apoptosis. The stress was alleviated by marigold ingredients that demonstrated high radical-scavenging capacity and enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes involved in neutralization of reactive oxygen species. Flavonoid fraction rich in quercetin and quercetagetin showed the highest cytoprotective activity, while patuletin in high dose exerted a cytotoxic effect associated with its anticancer potential. T. patula compounds enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant interleukin-10 (IL-10 in Jurkat cells. Both direct radical-scavenging capacity and stimulation of protective cellular mechanisms can underlay the anti-inflammatory properties of marigold flowers.

  8. n-Hexane toxicity in Jurkat T-cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Catherine; O'Donoghue, Maria Hutch; Heffron, James J A

    2008-03-01

    Here we assess the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the manifestation of n-hexane toxicity in Jurkat T-cells and the chemo-protective potential of the antioxidants epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and thymoquinone (TQ) against n-hexane toxicity in vitro. n-Hexane is an important industrial solvent and ambient air pollutant. Subchronic exposure to n-hexane results in a concentration-dependent increase in ROS formation with a corresponding decrease in Jurkat T-cell proliferation. Results from time-course studies indicate that ROS formation plays a causal role in n-hexane induced alterations in Jurkat T-cell proliferation and membrane integrity. Treatment of cells with EGCG, at a concentration reached in plasma, reduced the ROS formation caused by exposure to n-hexane and inhibited the decrease in cell proliferation. Similar effects were obtained with TQ. Both EGCG and TQ significantly reduced n-hexane-induced LDH leakage to control levels. The combined results show that oxidative stress plays a role in the development of n-hexane toxicity.

  9. Pro-apoptotic effect of Persea americana var. Hass (avocado) on Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Porras, Angelica R; Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Pereañez-Jimenez, Andres; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2013-11-05

    Abstract Context: Therapy for leukemia has a limited efficacy. There is a need to search for alternative anti-leukemia therapies. Persea americana Mill var. Hass (Lauraceae) is a tropical fruit (avocado) that might be used against cancer. Objective: To investigate whether P. americana induces death in Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Materials and methods: Four ethanol extracts (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg/mL) from avocado fruit (endocarp, whole seed, seed and leaves) were analyzed against Jurkat cells. Hydrogen peroxide generation by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate to the fluorescent compound 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, flow cytometry analysis of annexin-V/7-amino-actinomycin, mitochondrial membrane potential and immunocytochemistry detection of transcription factor p53, caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were evaluated. Results: Endocarp, seed, whole seed, and leaf (0.1 mg/mL) extracts induced significant apoptosis in Jurkat cells (p americana extracts function as a pro-apoptotic compound. Leukemic cells are eliminated through an oxidative stress mechanism. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the avocado and its therapeutic action on leukemia.

  10. RHAMNAZIN INHIBITS PROLIFERATION AND INDUCES APOPTOSIS OF HUMAN JURKAT LEUKEMIA CELLS IN VITRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philchenkov, A A; Zavelevych, M P

    2015-01-01

    Antiproliferative and apoptogenic effects of rhamnazin, a dimethoxylated derivative of quercetin, were studied in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells. The cytotoxicity and apoptogenic activity of rhamnazin in vitro are inferior to that of quercetin. The apoptogenic activity of rhamnazin is realized via mitochondrial pathway and associated with activation of caspase-9 and -3. The additive apoptogenic effect of rhamnazin and suboptimal doses of etoposide, a DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor, is demonstrated. Therefore, methylation of quercetin modifies its biological effects considerably.

  11. Detection of the apoptosis of Jurkat cell using an electrorotation chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Quan; Xing Wanli

    2006-01-01

    The apoptosis of cells is one of the fields that attract increasing attention in biology today.Usually,the cells are treated with chemicals when detecting apoptosis.It is highly desired to detect apoptosis in a real-time basis.Apoptosis of Jurkat cells was studied using a real-time electrorotation chip.This chip allows the detection of the cell membrane capacitance changes during the course of apoptosis and therefore facilitates the analysis of apoptosis in a real-time basis without involving any chemical treatment.

  12. Reduced scytonemin isolated from Nostoc commune induces autophagic cell death in human T-lymphoid cell line Jurkat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Tsuzuki, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Toshiomi; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2013-10-01

    Nostoc commune is a terrestrial benthic blue-green alga that often forms an extended mucilaginous layer on the soil, accumulates on stones and mud in aquatic environments. Reduced-scytonemin (R-scy), isolated from N. commune Vaucher, has been shown to suppress the human T-lymphoid Jurkat cell growth. To reveal the mechanisms underlying the R-scy-mediated inhibition of Jurkat cell growth, we examined cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) modification in these cells. We observed multiple vacuoles as well as the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II in R-scy-treated cells. These results suggest that the R-scy induced Jurkat cell growth inhibition is attributable to the induction of type II programmed cell death (PCD II; autophagic cell death or autophagy). We further examined the mechanisms underlying R-scy-induced PCDII. The cells treated with R-scy produced large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the elimination of R-scy-induced ROS by treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly opposed R-scy-induced PCDII. Based on these results, we conclude that ROS formation plays a critical role in R-scy-induced PCDII. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Different effects of two cyclic chalcone analogues on redox status of Jurkat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozmer, Zsuzsanna; Berki, Tímea; Maász, Gábor; Perjési, Pál

    2014-12-01

    Chalcones are intermediary compounds of the biosynthetic pathway of the naturally flavonoids. Previous studies have demonstrated that chalcones and their conformationally rigid cyclic analogues have tumour cell cytotoxic and chemopreventive effects. It has been shown that equitoxic doses of the two cyclic chalcone analogues (E)-2-(4'-methoxybenzylidene)-(2) and (E)-2-(4'-methylbenzylidene)-1-benzosuberone (3) have different effect on cell cycle progress of the investigated Jurkat cells. It was also found that the compounds affect the cellular thiol status of the treated cells and show intrinsic (non-enzyme-catalyzed) reactivity towards GSH under cell-free conditions. In order to gain new insights into the cytotoxic mechanism of the compounds, effects on the redox status and glutathione level of Jurkat cells were investigated. Detection of intracellular ROS level in Jurkat cells exposed to 2 and 3 was performed using the dichlorofluorescein-assay. Compound 2 did not influence ROS activity either on 1 or 4h exposure; in contrast, chalcone 3 showed to reduce ROS level at both timepoints. The two compounds had different effects on cellular glutathione status as well. Compound 2 significantly increased the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level showing an interference with the cellular antioxidant defence. On the contrary, chalcone 3 enhanced the reduced glutathione level, indicating enhanced cellular antioxidant activity. To investigate the chalcone-GSH conjugation reactions under cellular conditions, a combination of a RP-HPLC method with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was performed. Chalcone-GSH adducts could not be observed either in the cell supernatant or the cell sediment after deproteinization. The investigations provide further details of dual - cytotoxic and chemopreventive - effects of the cyclic chalcone analogues.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of the human T lymphocyte cell line Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON): New mechanistic insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katika, Madhumohan R. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Hendriksen, Peter J.M. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Shao, Jia [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University (Netherlands); National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Peijnenburg, Ad, E-mail: ad.peijnenburg@wur.nl [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands)

    2012-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) or vomitoxin is a commonly encountered type-B trichothecene mycotoxin, produced by Fusarium species predominantly found in cereals and grains. DON is known to exert toxic effects on the gastrointestinal, reproductive and neuroendocrine systems, and particularly on the immune system. Depending on dose and exposure time, it can either stimulate or suppress immune function. The main objective of this study was to obtain a deeper insight into DON-induced effects on lymphoid cells. For this, we exposed the human T-lymphocyte cell line Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to various concentrations of DON for various times and examined gene expression changes by DNA microarray analysis. Jurkat cells were exposed to 0.25 and 0.5 μM DON for 3, 6 and 24 h. Biological interpretation of the microarray data indicated that DON affects various processes in these cells: It upregulates genes involved in ribosome structure and function, RNA/protein synthesis and processing, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, calcium-mediated signaling, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, the NFAT and NF-κB/TNF-α pathways, T cell activation and apoptosis. The effects of DON on the expression of genes involved in ER stress, NFAT activation and apoptosis were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Other biochemical experiments confirmed that DON activates calcium-dependent proteins such as calcineurin and M-calpain that are known to be involved in T cell activation and apoptosis. Induction of T cell activation was also confirmed by demonstrating that DON activates NFATC1 and induces its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. For the gene expression profiling of PBMCs, cells were exposed to 2 and 4 μM DON for 6 and 24 h. Comparison of the Jurkat microarray data with those obtained with PBMCs showed that most of the processes affected by DON in the Jurkat cell line were also affected in the PBMCs. -- Highlights: ► The human T cell line Jurkat and human

  15. Amoebic PI3K and PKC is required for Jurkat T cell death induced by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Min, Arim; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2014-08-01

    The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amebiasis. During infection, adherence of E. histolytica through Gal/GalNAc lectin on the surface of the amoeba can induce caspase-3-dependent or -independent host cell death. Phosphorylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC) in E. histolytica play an important function in the adhesion, killing, or phagocytosis of target cells. In this study, we examined the role of amoebic PI3K and PKC in amoeba-induced apoptotic cell death in Jurkat T cells. When Jurkat T cells were incubated with E. histolytica trophozoites, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization and DNA fragmentation in Jurkat cells were markedly increased compared to those of cells incubated with medium alone. However, when amoebae were pretreated with a PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin before being incubated with E. histolytica, E. histolytica-induced PS externalization and DNA fragmentation in Jurkat cells were significantly reduced compared to results for amoebae pretreated with DMSO. In addition, pretreatment of amoebae with a PKC inhibitor, staurosporine strongly inhibited Jurkat T cell death. However, E. histolytica-induced cleavage of caspase-3, -6, and -7 were not inhibited by pretreatment of amoebae with wortmannin or staurosporin. In addition, we found that amoebic PI3K and PKC have an important role on amoeba adhesion to host compartment. These results suggest that amebic PI3K and PKC activation may play an important role in caspase-independent cell death in Entamoeba-induced apoptosis.

  16. Cell retention by encapsulation for the cultivation of Jurkat cells in fixed and fluidized bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, P; Werner, M; Jérôme, V; Hübner, H; Buchholz, R; Freitag, R

    2014-12-01

    Jurkat cells are accepted model cells for primary human T lymphocytes, for example, in medical research. Their growth to tissue-like cell densities (up to 100 × 10(6)  cells/mLcapsule ) in semi-permeable (molecular weight cut off cultivations, that is, under conditions where both encapsulated and non-encapsulated cells can be cultivated under otherwise identical conditions, showed that maximum specific growth rates were higher for the encapsulated than for the non-encapsulated cells. In the subsequent batch and repeated batch bioreactor experiments (only encapsulated cells), growth rates were similar, with the exception of the fixed bed batch reactor, where growth kinetics were significantly slower. Concomitantly, a significant fraction of the cells towards the bottom of the bed were no longer metabolically active, though apparently not dead. In the repeated batch fluidized bed reactor cellular division could be maintained for more than two weeks, albeit with a specific growth rate below the maximum one, leading to final cell densities of approximately 180 × 10(6)  cell/gcapsule . At the same time, the cell cycle distribution of the cells was shifted to the S and G2/M phases.

  17. Exosomes derived from renal cancer cells induce Jurkat T cell apoptosis in vitro%肾癌细胞来源的exosomes诱导Jurkat T细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 吴小候; 罗春丽; 王丹; 陈力学

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the underlying mechanism of exosomes derived from renal cancer cell lines 786-0 to mediate tumor immune escape in vitro. Methods CCK-8 assay was used to determine the effects of exosomes on proliferation in Jurkat T cells. Morphological changes were by wright-giemsa staining;flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining was used to detect the apoptosis; secretion functions of Jurkat T cell were detected by ELISA assay; effects of exosomes on apoptosis of Jurkat T cell were detected by soluble Fas block experiment; effects on the protein expression of FasL, caspase, Bax and Bcl-2 were assessed by Western blot analysis. Results Exosomes could inhibit Jurkat T cell proliferation, 10 μg/mL exosomes act on Jurkat T cell for 24 and 72 h, growth inhibition rate was (19. 64 ±0. 92)% and (36. 24 ± 1. 12)% ; while 400 μg/mL exosomes act on it for 24 h and 72 h, growth inhibition rate was (55.96 ± 1.35)% and (76.51 ± 1. 37)% respectively. Exosomes could induce Jurkat T cell apoptosis, 10 μg/mL exosomes act on Jurkat T cell for 8 h, apoptosis rate was (7. 31 ±1.32)% , extending this monitoring to 24 h, apoptosis rate was (20. 19 ± 1.47)% ; while 400μg/mL exosomes act on it for 8 and 24 h, apoptosis rate was (27. 28 ± 1. 29)% and (41.72 ±0.88)% respectively. Exosomes also suppressed IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 secretion obviously. FasL was highly expressed in exosomes, soluble Fas block could reverse Jurkat T cell apoptosis. In this course, caspase-3 , caspase-8, caspase-9 were activated, and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 increased. Conclusion Exosomes could inhibit the growth of Jurkat T cell and induce apoptosis. It could mediate tumor immune escape.%目的 体外研究肾癌786-0细胞来源的exosomes介导肿瘤免疫逃逸的机制.方法 采用CCK-8法检测肾癌786-0细胞来源的exosomes对Jurkat T细胞生长的影响,瑞氏-姬姆萨染色检测Jurkat T细胞形态变化,Annexin V-FITC/PI双染色流式细胞术检测Jurkat T细胞凋亡率,ELISA法检测Jurkat

  18. Effect of Cyclosporine A on the expression of GSTO2 metabolizing enzyme in Jurkat cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nioosha Nekooie-Marnany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine A (CsA, a cyclic polypeptide metabolite extracted from the fungus, is used clinically to combat organ graft rejection in transplant subjects. Previous studies have shown that CsA exposure enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and lipid peroxidation, which are directly involved in CsA toxicity. To protect cells and organs against ROS, the human body has evolved a highly antioxidant protection system to neutralize free radicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CsA on mRNA expression of anti-oxidant GSTO2. To do this, Jurkat cells were incubated for 24 h with different doses of CsA, ranging from 1-80 µg/ml, and the IC50 of CsA was calculated to be 40 µg/ml. Subsequently, Jurkat cells were treated with 3 µg/ml CsA for 24 h and the gene expression of GSTO2 was quantified by quantitative Real-time PCR. Results showed that the mean (SD expression of the GSTO2 gene in CsA treated cells was 1.10 (0.07 (when assuming an expression level in untreated cells of 1.0. However, statistical analyses showed that the alterations were not significant (t=2.29, df=2, P=0.149. These findings suggest that at this concentration of CsA, other antioxidant enzymes are up-regulated in Jurkat cell lines to detoxify free radicals induced by CsA.

  19. Effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) on the cell cycle of CHO and Jurkat cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlke, Megan A.; Navara, Christopher; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to nano-second pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) can cause poration of external and internal cell membranes, DNA damage, and disassociation of cytoskeletal components, all of which are capable of disrupting a cell's ability to replicate. Variations between cell lines in membrane and cytoskeletal structure as well as in survival of nsPEF exposure should correspond to unique line-dependent cell cycle effects. Additionally, phase of cell cycle during exposure may be linked to differential sensitivities to nsPEFs across cell lines, as DNA structure, membrane elasticity, and cytoskeletal structure change dramatically during the cell cycle. Populations of Jurkat and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were examined post-exposure (10 ns pulse trains at 150kV/cm) by analysis of DNA content via propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis at various time points (1, 6, and 12h post-exposure) to determine population distribution in cell cycle phases. Additionally, CHO and Jurkat cells were synchronized in G1/S and G2/M phases, pulsed, and analyzed to evaluate role of cell cycle phase in survival of nsPEFs. CHO populations recovered similarly to sham populations postnsPEF exposure and did not exhibit a phase-specific change in response. Jurkat cells exhibited considerable apoptosis/necrosis in response to nsPEF exposure and were unable to recover and proliferate in a manner similar to sham exposed cells. Additionally, Jurkat cells appear to be more sensitive to nsPEFs in G2/M phases than in G1/S phases. Recovery of CHO populations suggests that nsPEFs do not inhibit proliferation in CHO cells; however, inhibition of Jurkat cells post-nsPEF exposure coupled with preferential cell death in G2/M phases suggest that cell cycle phase during exposure may be an important factor in determining nsPEF toxicity in certain cell lines. Interestingly, CHO cells have a more robust and rigid cytoskeleton than Jurkat cells which is thought to contribute to their ability to

  20. Down-regulation of β-catenin Nuclear Localization by Aspirin Correlates with Growth Inhibition of Jurkat Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of aspirin on the growth rates, subcellar distribution of β-catenin protein, the expression of β-catenin/TCF signaling pathway target gene cyclinD1 mRNA,and cell cycle of Jurkat cell line (Human T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia). Our results showed that the treatment with aspirin inhibited the growth of Jurkat cell line. Jurkat cells treated with 3 mmol/L of aspirin could significantly decrease nuclear localization of β-catenin, and at 5 mmol/L of aspirin,the nuclear localization of β-catenin was undetectable. QRT-PCR showed that the target gene cyclinD1 mRNA expression was gradually decreased with the dosage of aspirin. Aspirin induced G0/G1cell cycle arrest in Jurkat cells. We are led to conclude that aspirin acts through β-catenin-independent mechanisms. The effects of aspirin include down-regulation of β-catenin nuclear localization and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, which might serve as a means of growth inhibition in aspirin-treated human Jurkat cell line.

  1. Fenugreek extract as an inducer of cellular death via autophagy in human T lymphoma Jurkat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Daghri Nasser M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drugs used both in classical chemotherapy and the more recent targeted therapy do not have cancer cell specificity and, hence, cause severe systemic side effects. Tumors also develop resistance to such drugs due to heterogeneity of cell types and clonal selection. Several traditional dietary ingredients from plants, on the other hand, have been shown to act on multiple targets/pathways, and may overcome drug resistance. The dietary agents are safe and readily available. However, application of plant components for cancer treatment/prevention requires better understanding of anticancer functions and elucidation of their mechanisms of action. The current study focuses on the anticancer properties of fenugreek, a herb with proven anti-diabetic, antitumor and immune-stimulating functions. Method Jurkat cells were incubated with 30 to 1500 μg/mL concentrations of 50% ethanolic extract of dry fenugreek seeds and were followed for changes in viability (trypan blue assay, morphology (microscopic examination and autophagic marker LC3 transcript level (RT-PCR. Results Incubation of Jurkat cells with fenugreek extract at concentrations ranging from 30 to 1500 μg/mL for up to 3 days resulted in cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Jurkat cell death was preceded by the appearance of multiple large vacuoles, which coincided with transcriptional up-regulation of LC3. GC-MS analysis of fenugreek extract indicated the presence of several compounds with anticancer properties, including gingerol (4.82%, cedrene (2.91%, zingerone (16.5%, vanillin (1.52% and eugenol (1.25%. Conclusions Distinct morphological changes involving appearance of large vacuoles, membrane disintegration and increased expression of LC3 transcripts indicated that fenugreek extract induced autophagy and autophagy-associated death of Jurkat cells. In addition to the already known apoptotic activation, induction of autophagy may be an additional mechanism

  2. Effect of polyamine analogues on hypusine content in JURKAT T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, R J; Weimar, W R; Müller, R; Zimmerman, C O; McCosar, B H; Yao, H; Smith, R E

    1998-09-24

    The availability of synthetic hypusine and deoxyhypusine has made it possible to develop analytical methods which allow for the measurement of these compounds in various tissues. The methods involve dansylation of extracts from the pellet remaining after perchloric acid precipitation of cell or tissue homogenates, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, the impact of four polyamine analogues, N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM), N1,N14-diethylhomospermine (DEHSPM), 1,6,12-triazadodecane [(4,5) triamine], and 1,7, 13-triazatridecane [(5,5) triamine], on hypusine levels in a human T-cell line (JURKAT) is evaluated. All four analogues are active in controlling cell growth and compete well with spermidine for the polyamine transport apparatus. After 144 h of exposure to JURKAT cells, DENSPM reduces putrescine to below detectable limits and spermidine to 10% of the level in control cells. The other three analogues diminish both putrescine and spermidine to below detectable limits. The effectiveness with which the compounds lower spermine levels is DENSPM > DEHSPM > (4,5) triamine > (5,5) triamine. The analogues decrease the activities of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase in a similar fashion. Of the four polyamines, DENSPM and DEHSPM are potent at lowering intracellular hypusine levels after 144 h: 59 +/- 9% and 73 +/- 12% of control levels, respectively. The other two analogues have marginal effects.

  3. Rhamnazin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human jurkat leukemia cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Philchenkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Antiproliferative and apoptogenic effects of rhamnazin, a dimethoxylated derivative of quercetin, were studied in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells. The cytotoxicity and apoptogenic activity of rhamnazin in vitro are inferior to that of quercetin. The apoptogenic activity of rhamnazin is realized via mitochondrial pathway and associated with activation of caspase-9 and -3. The additive apoptogenic effect of rhamnazin and suboptimal doses of etoposide, a DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor, is demonstrated. Therefore, methylation of quercetin modifies its biological effects considerably.

  4. Molecular regulation of MICA expression after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of Jurkat T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Andresen, Lars; Pedersen, Marianne T.

    pathways that lead to MICA expression after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of Jurkat T cells. Chelating Calcium with Bapta-AM or EGTA potently inhibited HDAC-inhibitor mediated MICA/B expression. It was further observed that ER Calcium stores were depleted after HDAC-inhibitor treatment. NF-kB activity can......, we made a promoter construct consisting of ~3kb of the proximal MICA promoter in front of GFP. Deletion analysis showed that a GC-box containing a putative Sp1 site from position -113 to -93 relative to the mRNA start site, was important for HDAC-inhibitor induced promoter activity. Sp1...

  5. MUC1 (CD227) interacts with lck tyrosine kinase in Jurkat lymphoma cells and normal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P; Tinder, T L; Basu, G D; Gendler, S J

    2005-01-01

    MUC1 (CD227) is a large transmembrane epithelial mucin glycoprotein, which is aberrantly overexpressed in most adenocarcinomas and is a target for immune therapy for epithelial tumors. Recently, MUC1 has been detected in a variety of hematopoietic cell malignancies including T and B cell lymphomas and myelomas; however, its function in these cells is not clearly defined. Using the Jurkat T cell lymphoma cell line and normal human T cells, we demonstrate that MUC1 is not only expressed in these cells but is also phosphorylated upon T cell receptor (TCR) ligation and associates with the Src-related T cell tyrosine kinase, p56lck. Upon TCR-mediated activation of Jurkat cells, MUC1 is found in the low-density membrane fractions, where linker of T cell activation is contained. Abrogation of MUC1 expression in Jurkat cells by MUC1-specific small interfering RNA resulted in defects in TCR-mediated downstream signaling events associated with T cell activation. These include reduction in Ca2+ influx and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, leading to a decrease in CD69 expression, proliferation, and interleukin-2 production. These results suggest a regulatory role of MUC1 in modulating proximal signal transduction events through its interaction with proteins of the activation complex.

  6. A comprehensive characterization of the impact of mycophenolic acid on the metabolism of Jurkat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ramos, Ana A; Marchetti-Laurent, Catherine; Poindessous, Virginie; Antonio, Samantha; Petitgas, Céline; Ceballos-Picot, Irène; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Bortoli, Sylvie; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Pallet, Nicolas

    2017-09-05

    Metabolic reprogramming is critical for T cell fate and polarization and is regulated by metabolic checkpoints, including Myc, HIF-1α, AMPK and mTORC1. Our objective was to determine the impact of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in comparison with rapamycin (Rapa), an inhibitor of mTORC1, on the metabolism of Jurkat T cells. We identified a drug-specific transcriptome signature consisting of the key enzymes and transporters involved in glycolysis, glutaminolysis or nucleotide synthesis. MPA produced an early and transient drop in the intracellular ATP content related to the inhibition of de novo synthesis of purines, leading to the activation of the energy sensor AMPK. MPA decreases glycolytic flux, consistent with a reduction in glucose uptake, but also in the oxidation of glutamine. Additionally, both drugs reduce aerobic glycolysis. The expression of HIF-1α and Myc, promoting the activation of glycolysis and glutaminolysis, was inhibited by MPA and Rapa. In conclusion, we report that MPA profoundly impacts the cellular metabolism of Jurkat T cells by generating an energetic distress, decreasing the glycolytic and glutaminolytic fluxes and by targeting HIF-1α and Myc. These findings open interesting perspectives for novel combinatorial therapeutic strategies targeting metabolic checkpoints to block the proliferation of T cells.

  7. ArtinM Mediates Murine T Cell Activation and Induces Cell Death in Jurkat Human Leukemic T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Brito, Patrícia Kellen Martins; Gonçalves, Thiago Eleutério; Vendruscolo, Patrícia Edivânia; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The recognition of cell surface glycans by lectins may be critical for the innate and adaptive immune responses. ArtinM, a d-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, activates antigen-presenting cells by recognizing TLR2 N-glycans and induces Th1 immunity. We recently demonstrated that ArtinM stimulated CD4+ T cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we further studied the effects of ArtinM on adaptive immune cells. We showed that ArtinM activates murine CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, augmenting their positivity for CD25, CD69, and CD95 and showed higher interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ production. The CD4+ T cells exhibited increased T-bet expression in response to ArtinM, and IL-2 production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells depended on the recognition of CD3εγ-chain glycans by ArtinM. The ArtinM effect on aberrantly-glycosylated neoplastic lymphocytes was studied in Jurkat T cells, in which ArtinM induced IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-1β production, but decreased cell viability and growth. A higher frequency of AnnexinV- and propidium iodide-stained cells demonstrated the induction of Jurkat T cells apoptosis by ArtinM, and this apoptotic response was reduced by caspases and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ArtinM effects on murine T cells corroborated with the immunomodulatory property of lectin, whereas the promotion of Jurkat T cells apoptosis may reflect a potential applicability of ArtinM in novel strategies for treating lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:28665310

  8. Caspase-resistant vimentin suppresses apoptosis after photodynamic treatment with a silicon phthalocyanine in Jurkat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichenko, I; Morishima, N; Separovic, D

    2001-06-01

    Oxidative stress, such as photodynamic therapy, is an apoptosis inducer. Apoptosis, as well as photosensitization, have been associated with disruption of the cytoskeletal network. The purpose of the present study was to assess the role of vimentin, a major cytoskeletal protein, in apoptosis after photodynamic treatment (PDT) with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 in human Jurkat T cells. Here we show for the first time that photosensitization with Pc 4 initiates vimentin cleavage and that this event precedes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation. Similar findings were obtained in the presence of C2-ceramide, an inducer of oxidative stress and apoptosis. In the presence of benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(O-methyl)-fluoromethylketone, a pan-caspase inhibitor, Pc 4-PDT-induced vimentin and PARP cleavage were abolished. In Jurkat cells transfected with a caspase-resistant vimentin apoptosis was partly suppressed and delayed post-Pc 4-PDT. We suggest that the full-length vimentin confers resistance to nuclear apoptosis after PDT with Pc 4.

  9. Antiproliferative effect of rapamycin on human T-cell leukemia cell line Jurkat by cell cycle arrest and telomerase inhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-min ZHAO; Qian ZHOU; Yun XU; Xiao-yu LAI; He HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To examine the ability of rapamycin to suppress growth and regulate telomerase activity in the human T-cell leukemia cell line Jurkat. Methods:Cell proliferation was assessed after exposure to rapamycin by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. The proteins important for cell cycle progres-sion and Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling cascade were assessed by Western blotting. Telomerase activity was quantified by telomeric repeat amplication protocol assay. The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA levels were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results:Rapamycin inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat, induced G1 phase arrest, unregulated the pro-tein level of p21 as well as p27, and downregulated cyclinD3, phospho-p70s6k, and phospho-s6, but had no effect on apoptosis. Treatment with rapamycin reduced telomerase activity, and reduced hTERT mRNA and protein expression. Conclusion:Rapamycin displayed a potent antileukemic effect in the human T-cell leukemia cell line by inhibition of cell proliferation through G1 cell cycle arrest and also through the suppression of telomerase activity, suggesting that rapamycin may have potential clinical implications in the treatment of some leukemias.

  10. Butterfat fatty acids differentially regulate growth and differentiation in Jurkat T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Paolo; Luongo, Diomira; Maurano, Francesco; Rossi, Mauro

    2005-10-01

    Synthetic Conjugated Linoleic Acid mixture (CLA; c9,t11; t10,c12-18:2) has been previously shown to inhibit growth, and enhance apoptosis and IL-2 mRNA synthesis in human lymphoblastic Jurkat T-cells. In this study, two different butterfat types were evaluated and compared for their effects on Jurkat cell viability, oxidative stress, pro-apoptotic activity, and cytokine synthesis: the conventionally produced butterfat (CBF), and organic butterfat (OBF) containing significantly higher amounts of c9,t11 (Rumenic Acid, RA), trans-vaccenic acid (VA; t11-18:1), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and lower levels of linoleic acid (LA). Results from cell treatment with both butterfat mixtures showed comparable oxidative stress (superoxide production, intracellular GSH depletion,and lipid peroxides yield), NADPH oxidase activation, cytotoxicity (LDH release), and IL-2 transcript level, whereas the effects of enhanced growth-inhibitory and pro-apoptotic activities were associated with OBF treatment. To then investigate each butterfat-induced effect caused by RA, VA, LA, and ALA, cells were exposed to synthetic FA concentrations similar to those from the different butterfats. Higher oxidative stress (superoxide production, intracellular GSH depletion) was induced by alpha-linolenic (ALA) and linoleic (LA) incubation (P<0.01) and superoxide production was suppressed by specific PKCalpha inhibitor (Gö 6976) and linked to increased toxicity and IL-2 synthesis inhibition. By contrast, cell treatment with RA increased apoptosis and IL-2 synthesis. These results suggest that a supply of ALA and LA is responsible for BF-induced oxidative stress via PKCalpha-NADPH oxidase pathway, and that enhanced antiproliferative effects in OBF treated cells is essentially determined by RA-induced pro-apoptotic activity. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Inhibition of TNF-alpha induced cell death in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and Jurkat cells by protocatechuic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou-Stache, J; Buettner, R; Artmann, G; Mittermayer, C; Bosserhoff, A K

    2002-11-01

    The Chinese herb radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (RSM) is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a treatment for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Several components of the plant extract from salvia mitorrhiza bunge have been determined previously, one of which is protocatechuic acid (PAC). It has been found, in the study, that PAC inhibited TNF-alpha-induced cell death of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Jurkat cells in a concentration of 100 microM when applied 2 h prior to TNF-alpha exposure. Molecular studies revealed that PAC activated NF-kappaB with a maximum effect after 30 min of treatment. Inhibition of NF-kappaB action by MG132 and NF-kappaB inhibitory peptide suppressed the cell-protective effect of PAC. Further, degradation of IkBalpha occurred in response to PAC treatment. The results provide evidence that activation of NF-kappaB plays an important role in mediating the cell-protecting effect of PAC on HUVECs and Jurkat cells. Further studies are required to test whether PAC, a component of radix salviae miltiorrhizae, could be useful in preventing in vivo cell death resulting from cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases.

  12. N-(1-Pyrenyl Maleimide Induces Bak Oligomerization and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Jurkat Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Rong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available N-(1-pyrenyl maleimide (NPM is a fluorescent reagent that is frequently used as a derivatization agent for the detection of thio-containing compounds. NPM has been shown to display a great differential cytotoxicity against hematopoietic cancer cells. In this study, the molecular mechanism by which NPM induces apoptosis was examined. Here, we show that treatment of Jurkat cells with NPM leads to Bak oligomerization, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, and release of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytosol. Induction of Bak oligomerization appears to play a critical role in NPM-induced apoptosis, as downregulation of Bak by shRNA significantly prevented NPM-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of caspase 8 by Z-IETD-FMK and/or depletion of Bid did not affect NPM-induced oligomerization of Bak. Taken together, these results suggest that NPM-induced apoptosis is mediated through a pathway that is independent of caspase-8 activation.

  13. Evaluation of the Genetic Response of U937 and Jurkat Cells to 10-Nanosecond Electrical Pulses (nsEP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb C Roth

    Full Text Available Nanosecond electrical pulse (nsEP exposure activates signaling pathways, produces oxidative stress, stimulates hormone secretion, causes cell swelling and induces apoptotic and necrotic death. The underlying biophysical connection(s between these diverse cellular reactions and nsEP has yet to be elucidated. Using global genetic analysis, we evaluated how two commonly studied cell types, U937 and Jurkat, respond to nsEP exposure. We hypothesized that by studying the genetic response of the cells following exposure, we would gain direct insight into the stresses experienced by the cell and in turn better understand the biophysical interaction taking place during the exposure. Using Ingenuity Systems software, we found genes associated with cell growth, movement and development to be significantly up-regulated in both cell types 4 h post exposure to nsEP. In agreement with our hypothesis, we also found that both cell lines exhibit significant biological changes consistent with mechanical stress induction. These results advance nsEP research by providing strong evidence that the interaction of nsEPs with cells involves mechanical stress.

  14. Decreases in CD31 and CD47 levels on the cell surface during etoposide-induced Jurkat cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Yutaro; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Dote, Kanae; Higai, Koji; Matsumoto, Kojiro

    2011-01-01

    Engulfment of apoptotic cells is regulated by 'eat me' and 'don't eat me' signals on the cell surface. Alterations to the 'eat me' signals have been well described; however, very little is known about the 'don't eat me' signals on the cell surface during apoptosis. In the present study, apoptosis of Jurkat cells was induced by treatment with topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide, and then the CD31 and CD47 levels on the apoptotic cell surface and in microparticles were estimated by flow cytometry and immunoblotting methods in the presence of caspase, metalloproteinase, and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) inhibitors. The CD31 and CD47 levels on the cell surface of apoptotic Jurkat cells had decreased after treatment with etoposide. These decreases in CD31 and CD47 levels on the apoptotic cell surface were almost completely suppressed by the caspase 3 inhibitor, Ac-DEVD-CHO, and partially suppressed by caspase 8 (Ac-IETD-CHO) and caspase 9 (Ac-LEHE-CHO) inhibitors but not by the metalloproteinase inhibitors GM6001 and TAPI-0. Microparticle counts in culture supernatants were higher during etoposide-induced apoptosis. The ROCK1 inhibitor, Y27632, suppressed blebbing formation and microparticle release. Moreover, flow cytometry and immunoblotting revealed CD31 and CD47 in the microparticles. These results indicate that CD31 and CD47 were released by the apoptotic Jurkat cells into the culture supernatant in microparticles, but not in soluble forms, resulting in decreased levels on the apoptotic cell surface.

  15. 金雀异黄素诱导人白血病Jurkat E6-1细胞凋亡作用%Induction of apoptosis by genistein in human leukemia cell line Jurkat E6-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素芳; 何坚; 杨静静; 李万里

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect and its mechanism of genistein (Gen) on human leukemia cell line Jurkat E6-1. Methods Jurkat E6-1 cells were treated with different concentrations of Gen. Inhibitive effect of Gen on cell growth was determined with methy thiazoly tetazolium(MTT) test. DNA-ladder was used to measure the effect of Gen on apoptosis of Jurkat E6-1 cells. Alternative of bcl-2 and bax genes were detected with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Results At a concentration of higher than 0. 5 μmol / L,Gen could inhibit the growth of Jurkat E6-1 cells. After 24 hours, the inhibition ratio was 5.9% compared with that of the control group, with a significant difference (P < 0.01 ) in a time-does-dependent manner( P < 0. 01 ). After 72 hours, the inhibition ratio was 24.9%, with a significant difference compared to that of at 24 hours(P <0. 01 ). The expression rate of bcl-2 decreased after the treatment with the increasing concentration of Gen. However, the expression rate of bax increased after the treatment with the decreased concentrations of Gen. Conclusion Gen can significantly inhibit the growth of human leukemia line Jurkat E6-1. Its mechanism is up-regulation of the bax expression and down-regulation of the bcl-2 expression.%目的 探讨金雀异黄素(genistein,Gen)诱导人白血病Jurkat E6-1细胞凋亡机制.方法 以不同浓度Gem作用于Jurkat E6-1细胞,采用四甲基偶氮噻唑蓝(MTT)法检测Gen对Jurkat E6-1细胞增殖抑制作用;采用DNA-ladder检测Gen对细胞凋亡影响;采用实时定量PCR(RT-PCR)检测凋亡相关基因bax、bcl-2表达水平.结果与对照组比较,P>0.5 μmol/L浓度的Gen明显抑制Jurkat E6-1细胞增殖,培养24 h,10 μmoL/L Gen组抑制率为5.9%,与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),随Gen浓度增加和培养时间延长,抑制作用逐渐增强,72 h后,10μmol/L Gen组抑制率为24.9%;Gen使Jurkat E6-1细胞Bax表达上调,Bcl-2表达下调,

  16. Effects of in vitro Brevetoxin Exposure on Apoptosis and Cellular Metabolism in a Leukemic T Cell Line (Jurkat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Sleasman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms (HABs of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, produce red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Significant health effects associated with red tide toxin exposure have been reported in sea life and in humans, with brevetoxins documented within immune cells from many species. The objective of this research was to investigate potential immunotoxic effects of brevetoxins using a leukemic T cell line (Jurkat as an in vitro model system. Viability, cell proliferation, and apoptosis assays were conducted using brevetoxin congeners PbTx-2, PbTx-3, and PbTx-6. The effects of in vitro brevetoxin exposure on cell viability and cellular metabolism or proliferation were determined using trypan blue and MTT (1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-3,5- diphenylformazan, respectively. Using MTT, cellular metabolic activity was decreased in Jurkat cells exposed to 5 - 10 μg/ml PbTx-2 or PbTx-6. After 3 h, no significant effects on cell viability were observed with any toxin congener in concentrations up to 10 μg/ml. Viability decreased dramatically after 24 h in cells treated with PbTx-2 or -6. Apoptosis, as measured by caspase-3 activity, was significantly increased in cells exposed to PbTx-2 or PbTx-6. In summary, brevetoxin congeners varied in effects on Jurkat cells, with PbTx-2 and PbTx-6 eliciting greater cellular effects compared to PbTx-3.

  17. Ceramide inhibits PKCθ by regulating its phosphorylation and translocation to lipid rafts in Jurkat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage-Sleiman, Rouba; Hamze, Asmaa B; El-Hed, Aimée F; Attieh, Randa; Kozhaya, Lina; Kabbani, Sarah; Dbaibo, Ghassan

    2016-08-01

    Protein kinase C theta (PKCθ) is a novel, calcium-independent member of the PKC family of kinases that was identified as a central player in T cell signaling and proliferation. Upon T cell activation by antigen-presenting cells, PKCθ gets phosphorylated and activated prior to its translocation to the immunological synapse where it couples with downstream effectors. PKCθ may be regulated by ceramide, a crucial sphingolipid that is known to promote differentiation, growth arrest, and apoptosis. To further investigate the mechanism, we stimulated human Jurkat T cells with either PMA or anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies following induction of ceramide accumulation by adding exogenous ceramide, bacterial sphingomyelinase, or Fas ligation. Our results suggest that ceramide regulates the PKCθ pathway through preventing its critical threonine 538 (Thr538) phosphorylation and subsequent activation, thereby inhibiting the kinase's translocation to lipid rafts. Moreover, this inhibition is not likely to be a generic effect of ceramide on membrane reorganization. Other lipids, namely dihydroceramide, palmitate, and sphingosine, did not produce similar effects on PKCθ. Addition of the phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A reversed the inhibition exerted by ceramide, and this suggests involvement of a ceramide-activated protein phosphatase. Such previously undescribed mechanism of regulation of PKCθ raises the possibility that ceramide, or one of its derivatives, and may prove valuable in novel therapeutic approaches for disorders involving autoimmunity or excessive inflammation-where PKCθ plays a critical role.

  18. Inhibition of Kv1.3 Channels in Human Jurkat T Cells by Xanthohumol and Isoxanthohumol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorowska, Justyna; Teisseyre, Andrzej; Uryga, Anna; Michalak, Krystyna

    2015-08-01

    Using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we investigated influence of selected compounds from groups of prenylated chalcones and flavonoids: xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol on the activity of Kv1.3 channels in human leukemic Jurkat T cells. Obtained results provide evidence that both examined compounds were inhibitors of Kv1.3 channels in these cells. The inhibitory effects occurred in a concentration-dependent manner. The estimated value of the half-blocking concentration (EC50) was about 3 μM for xanthohumol and about 7.8 μM for isoxanthohumol. The inhibition of Kv1.3 channels by examined compounds was not complete. Upon an application of the compounds at the maximal concentrations equal to 30 μM, the activity of Kv1.3 channels was inhibited to about 0.13 of the control value. The inhibitory effect was reversible. The application of xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol did not change the currents' activation and inactivation rate. These results may confirm our earlier hypothesis that the presence of a prenyl group in a molecule is a factor that facilitates the inhibition of Kv1.3 channels by compounds from the groups of flavonoids and chalcones. The inhibition of Kv1.3 channels might be involved in antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of the compounds observed in cancer cell lines expressing these channels.

  19. A synthesized nostocionone derivative potentiates programmed cell death in human T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells through mitochondria via the release of endonuclease G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Muramatsu, Yuji; Masu, Masayo; Tsuge, Ayaka; Taniguchi, Masaki; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Nostocionone (Nost), a compound isolated from Nostoc commune, and its synthesized derivatives (NostDs) were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against human T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells. NostD3 [(1E,4E)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one] inhibited cell growth more potently than Nost. To elucidate the mechanisms of NostD3-induced cell death, we examined changes in cell morphology, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMT), and DNA fragmentation. From these results, the cytotoxic effects of NostD3 were found to be mainly due to Type I programmed cell death (PCDI; i.e., apoptosis). Using caspase inhibitors, we further found that NostD-3-induced PCDI occurred through a caspase-independent pathway. Moreover, NostD3 decreased MMT and modulated multiple signaling molecules (MAPKs, Akt, Bcl-2, Bax, and c-Myc) in Jurkat cells, thereby inducing the release of endonuclease G (Endo-G) from mitochondria. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells treated with NostD3 was elevated up to 1 h after the treatment. However, suppression of ROS by N-acetyl-l-cysteine restored Jurkat cell growth. Taken together, our data suggested that ROS production acted as a trigger in NostD3-induced PCDI in Jurkat cells through release of Endo-G from the mitochondria.

  20. Gene expression profile of Jurkat cells exposed to high power terahertz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundt, Jessica E.; Roth, Caleb C.; Rivest, Benjamin D.; Doroski, Michael L.; Payne, Jason; Ibey, Bennett L.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

    2011-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation sources are now being used in a host of military, defense, and medical applications. Widespread employment of these applications has prompted concerns regarding the health effects associated with THz radiation. In this study, we examined the gene expression profile of mammalian cells exposed to THz radiation. We hypothesized that if THz radiation couples directly to cellular constituents, then exposed cells may express a specific gene expression profile indicative of ensuing damage. To test this hypothesis, Jurkat cells were irradiated with a molecular gas THz laser (2.52 THz, 636 mWcm-2, durations: 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 minutes). Viability was assessed 24 h post-exposure using MTT assays, and gene expression profiles were evaluated 4 h post-exposure using mRNA microarrays. Comparable analyses were also performed for hyperthermic positive controls (44°C for 40 minutes). We found that cellular temperatures increased by ~6 °C during THz exposures. We also found that cell death increased with exposure duration, and the median lethal dose (LD50) was calculated to be ~44 minutes. The microarray data showed that THz radiation induced the transcriptional activation of genes associated with cellular proliferation, differentiation, transcriptional activation, chaperone protein stabilization, and apoptosis. For most genes, we found that the magnitude of differential expression was comparable for both the THz and thermal exposure groups; however, several genes were specifically activated by the THz exposure. These results suggest that THz radiation may elicit effects that are not exclusively due to the temperature rise created during THz exposures (i.e. thermal effects). In future work, we plan to verify the results of our microarray experiments using qPCR techniques.

  1. Evaluation of the Genetic Response of U937 and Jurkat Cells to 10-Nanosecond Electrical Pulses (nsEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-02

    77 (43%) genes changing due to nsEP exposure. For the Jurkat cells, the top canonical pathway was the “ Hepatic Fibrosis / Hepatic Stellate Cell...150kv nsEP vs. sham Hs.446125 male germ cell-associated kinase MAK 4.483 0.00081 Hs.155111 hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 HAVCR2 4.453 0.00479...Symbol Fold change 150kVnsEP vs. sham p-Value 150kv nsEP vs. sham Hs.25647 v-fos FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog FOS 7.269 0.00031 Hs

  2. T-cell activation. V. Anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibody-induced activation and clonal abortion in Jurkat T-leukaemic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, M H; Dissing, S; Tscherning, T;

    1993-01-01

    We have studied activation-induced changes in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i, interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion, and clonal abortion of the human leukaemic T-cell line Jurkat and three T-cell receptor (TcR)/CD3 receptor negative clones deficient for the TcR alpha, TcR beta and CD3 gamma chains respec...

  3. Combined treatment with fenretinide and indomethacin induces AIF-mediated, non-classical cell death in human acute T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojka-Osinska, Anna, E-mail: hojka@immuno.iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Immunobiology, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Ziolo, Ewa, E-mail: ziolo@immuno.iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Immunobiology, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Rapak, Andrzej, E-mail: rapak@immuno.iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Immunobiology, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combination of fenretinide and indomethacin induces a high level of cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptotic pathway is caspase-independent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Jurkat cells undergo AIF-mediated cell death. -- Abstract: Currently used cytotoxic drugs in cancer therapy have a similar mechanism of action and low specificity. Applied simultaneously, they show an additive effect with strong side effects. Clinical trials with the use of different agents in cancer therapy show that the use of these compounds alone is not very effective in fighting cancer. An alternative solution could be to apply a combination of these agents, because their combination has a synergistic effect on some cancer cells. Therefore, in our investigations we examined the effects of a synthetic retinoid-fenretinide when combined with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-indomethacin on the process of apoptosis in the acute human T-cell leukemia cell line Jurkat. We demonstrate that treatment with the combination of the tested compounds induces the death of cells, that is peculiar and combines features of apoptosis as well as non-apoptotic cell death. In detail we observed, cell membrane permeabilization, phosphatydylserine exposure, no oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, no caspase-3 activation, but apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation. Taken together these results indicate, that Jurkat cells after treatment with a combination of fenretinide and indomethacin undergo AIF-mediated programmed cell death.

  4. Bcl-2 over-expression and activation of protein kinase C suppress the Trail-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Trail,a tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand,is a novel potent endogenous activator of the cell death pathway through the activation of cell surface death receptors Trail-R1 and Trail-R2.Its role,like FasL in activation-induced cell death(AICD),has been demonstrated in immune system.However the mechanism of Trail induced apoptosis remains unclear.In this report,the recombinant Trail protein was expressed and purified.The apoptosis-inducing activity and the regulation mechanism of recombinant Trail on Jurkat T cells were explored in vitro.Trypan blue exclusion assay demonstrated that the recombinant Trail protein actively killed Jurkat T cells in a dose-dependent manner.Trail-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells were remarkably reduced by Bcl-2 over expression in Bcl-2 gene transfected cells.Treatment with PMA(phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate),a PKC activator,suppressed Trail-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells.The inhibition of apoptosis by PMA was abolished by pretreatment with Bis,a PKC inhibitor.Taken together,it was suggested that Bcl-2 over-expression and PMA activated PKC actively down-regulated the Trail-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat T cell.

  5. New and cost effective cell-based assay for Dialyzed Leukocyte Extract (DLE)-induced Jurkat cells proliferation under azathioprine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, F M; Tomkova, M; Petrovajova, D; Bubanova, M; Ragac, O; Hornakova, T

    2017-01-31

    The human Dialyzed Leukocyte Extract (DLE) is a heterogeneous mix of oligopeptides of assays exist: E-rosette test, induction of delayed type hypersensitivity in mice, leukocyte migration and IFN-γ secretion. The animal-origin materials and in vivo assays convey a considerable logistic, ethic and economic burden, meanwhile the available in vitro assays have been reported with limited reproducibility and sometimes contradictory results. Here we are reporting a new DLE biological activity cell-based assay. The A20 and Jurkat cell lines were treated with (+Aza) or without (-Aza) azathioprine, DLE (+DLE) or both (+Aza/+DLE). After 72h, the cell proliferation was analyzed by the MTT or BrdU incorporation assays. In +Aza/+DLE treated cells, we observed a significant higher proliferation, when compared with +Aza/-DLE. In the absence of Aza, cells did not present any proliferation difference between -DLE or +DLE treatments. Both assays, MTT and BrdU showed similar results, being the MTT test more cost effective and we select it for validation as DLE biological assay using Jurkat cells only. We tested three different lyophilized DLE batches and we found consistent results with acceptable assay reproducibility and linearity. The DLE capacity for rescuing Jurkat cell proliferation during +Aza treatment was consistent using different liquid and lyophilized DLE batches, presenting also consistent chromatographic profiles. Finally, DLE treatment in Jurkat cells did not result into significant IL-2 of IFN-γ secretion, and known lymphocyte proliferative drugs failed to rescue Jurkat cells viability in presence of +Aza, as +DLE treatment did in our MTT assay. In conclusion, our new cell-based MTT assay has excellent DLE biological activity consistency, robustness and is cost effective, presenting important advantages over previous DLE activity in vitro and in vivo assays.

  6. In vitro study of AFB1 and AFM1 effects on human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, D; Russo, R; Balestrieri, A; Marzocco, S; Bergamo, P; Severino, L

    2014-10-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus spp. that can occur as a natural contaminant in foods and feeds of vegetable origin. Post-ingestion, AFB(1) can be metabolized in the liver of mammals into hydroxylated aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) that is excreted with milk. Although several studies have been carried out to evaluate effects of AFB(1) on the immune system, studies regarding AFM(1) are moreover lacking. The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of AFB(1) and AFM(1) on immune function using a lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell line as an experimental model. Both AFB(1) and AFM(1) produced significant decreases in Jurkat cell proliferation, whereas only minor effects were noted on interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ cytokines mRNA expression in stimulated cells that had been pre-incubated with AFB(1) and AFM(1). Particularly, AFB(1), but not AFM(1), at the highest concentration (50 µM) induced a marked increase in IL-8 mRNA expression. The results of the current study suggested the existence of a concentration threshold for AFB(1) and AFM(1) needed to exert biological activity on cell viability and innate immunity.

  7. Caspase-6 Induces 7A6 Antigen Localization to Mitochondria During FAS-induced Apoptosis of Jurkat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suita, Hiroaki; Shinomiya, Takahisa; Nagahara, Yukitoshi

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondria are central to apoptosis. However, apoptosis progression involving mitochondria is not fully understood. A factor involved in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis is 7A6 antigen. 7A6 localizes to mitochondria from the cytosol during apoptosis, which seems to involve 'effector' caspases. In this study, we investigated the precise role of effector caspases in 7A6 localization to mitochondria during apoptosis. Human T-cell lymphoma Jurkat cells were treated with an antibody against FAS. 7A6 localization was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. Caspases activation was determined by western blot analysis. 7A6 localization to mitochondria during anti-FAS-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced by the caspase-6 inhibitor, N-acetyl-Val-Glu-Ile-Asp-aldehyde, but not by the caspase-3 inhibitor, N-acetyl-Asp-Asn-Leu-Asp-aldehyde, nor caspase-7/3 inhibitor, N-acetyl-Asp-Gln-Thr-Asp-aldehyde. Moreover, caspase-6 down-regulation suppressed 7A6 localization to mitochondria. Caspase-6 regulates 7A6 localization to mitochondria during anti-FAS-induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Arecoline inhibits interleukin-2 secretion in Jurkat cells by decreasing the expression of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and prostaglandin E2.

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    Hwang, G S; Hu, S; Lin, Y H; Chen, S T; Tang, T K; Wang, P S; Wang, S W

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of arecoline on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion, the expression of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs), prostaglandin E2(PGE2) protein, and IL-2 mRNA in human lymphocyte cells (Jurkat cell line). The IL-2 and PGE2 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expressions of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and α7-nAChRs were determined by Western blotting. The level of IL-2 mRNA was determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Arecoline, in a dose-dependent manner, significantly decreased IL-2 and PGE2 secretion by Jurkat cells incubated with 0 or 5 μg/ml 5 μg/ml PHA. PGE2 also significantly inhibited IL-2 secretion by Jurkat cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, reduced expression of PHA-induced ERK phosphorylation was observed in Jurkat cells treated with arecoline. PHA-enhanced IL-2 mRNA expression was also inhibited by arecoline. These results imply that arecoline inhibits the release of PGE2 and PHA-induced IL-2 secretion by Jurkat cells and that these effects seem to occur, at least in part, either through the attenuation of ERK in conjunction with a decrease of PHA-induced IL-2 mRNA expression. These results imply that arecoline inhibits the protein expression of α7-nAChRs , the release of PGE2 and PHA-induced IL-2 secretion by Jurkat cells.

  9. Effects of valproic acid and pioglitazone on cell cycle progression and proliferation of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazi, Marie Saghaeian; Mohammadi, Saeed; Yazdani, Yaghoub; Sedighi, Sima; Memarian, Ali; Aghaei, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematologic malignant tumor. Administration of chemical compounds influencing apoptosis and T cell development has been discussed as promising novel therapeutic strategies. Valproic acid (VPA) as a recently emerged anti-neoplastic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and pioglitazone (PGZ) as a high-affinity peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist have been shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in different studies. Here, we aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in anti-proliferative effects of these compounds on human Jurkat cells. Materials and Methods: Treated cells were evaluated for cell cycle progression and apoptosis using flowcytometry and MTT viability assay. Real-time RT-PCR was carried out to measure the alterations in key genes associated with cell death and cell cycle arrest. Results: Our findings illustrated that both VPA and PGZ can inhibit Jurkat E6.1 cells in vitro after 24 hr; however, PGZ 400 μM presents the most anti-proliferative effect. Interestingly, treated cells have been arrested in G2/M with deregulated cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A) phosphatase and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B or p27) expression. Expression of cyclin D1 gene was inhibited when DNA synthesis entry was declined. Cell cycle deregulation in PGZ and VPA-exposed cells generated an increase in the proportion of aneuploid cell population, which has not reported before. Conclusion: These findings define that anti-proliferative effects of PGZ and VPA on Jurkat cell line are mediated by cell cycle deregulation. Thus, we suggest PGZ and VPA may relieve potential therapeutic application against apoptosis-resistant malignancies. PMID:27635203

  10. Effects of valproic acid and pioglitazone on cell cycle progression and proliferation of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells

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    Marie Saghaeian Jazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL is an aggressive hematologic malignant tumor. Administration of chemical compounds influencing apoptosis and T cell development has been discussed as promising novel therapeutic strategies. Valproic acid (VPA as a recently emerged anti-neoplastic histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor and pioglitazone (PGZ as a high-affinity peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ agonist have been shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in different studies. Here, we aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in anti-proliferative effects of these compounds on human Jurkat cells. Materials and Methods: Treated cells were evaluated for cell cycle progression and apoptosis using flowcytometry and MTT viability assay. Real-time RT-PCR was carried out to measure the alterations in key genes associated with cell death and cell cycle arrest. Results: Our findings illustrated that both VPA and PGZ can inhibit Jurkat E6.1 cells in vitro after   24 hr; however, PGZ 400 μM presents the most anti-proliferative effect. Interestingly, treated cells have been arrested in G2/M with deregulated cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A phosphatase and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B or p27 expression. Expression of cyclin D1 gene was inhibited when DNA synthesis entry was declined. Cell cycle deregulation in PGZ and VPA-exposed cells generated an increase in the proportion of aneuploid cell population, which has not reported before. Conclusion: These findings define that anti-proliferative effects of PGZ and VPA on Jurkat cell line are mediated by cell cycle deregulation. Thus, we suggest PGZ and VPA may relieve potential therapeutic application against apoptosis-resistant malignancies.

  11. Coumestrol, Bisphenol-A, DDT, and TCDD Modulation of Interleukin-2 Expression in Activated CD+4 Jurkat T Cells

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    Robert W. McMurray

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous estrogens are known to modulate several components of immune response, including interleukin-2 (IL-2 production. IL-2 is a cytokine that plays an important role in adaptive immune responses. These responses may be modulated by xenoestrogens such as coumestrol, bisphenol A (BPA, DDT, and TCDD. In this research, we examined the effects and potential mechanisms of action of these estrogenic compounds on IL-2 production in activated CD4+ Jurkat T cells. IL-2 production was analyzed by ELISA and Western Blot. At the transcriptional level, protein expression was examined by RT-PCR. Coumestrol, DDT and TCDD (but not BPA significantly suppressed IL-2 production in activated CD4+ Jurkat T cells, at the transcriptional and translational levels. The transcriptional suppression of IL-2 was associated with decreased protein levels of NF-κβ, an important IL-2 positive transcription factor, without affecting the expression of Iκ−Βα protein expression, an important inhibitor of NF-κβ nuclear translocation. Although the direct mechanisms of xenoestrogens modulation of the immune system remain to be elucidated, coumestrol-, DDT- and TCDD-induced suppression of IL-2 may have ramifications for our understanding of the impact of xenoestrogens on health and disease.

  12. UVB-Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Jurkat Cells: A Coordinated Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-Flow Cytometry Study

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    Pozzi, Deleana; Gaudenzi, Silvia; Di Giambattista, Lucia; Silvestri, Ida; Morrone, Stefania; Castellano, Agostina Congiu

    2010-01-01

    We studied the induction of apoptosis in Jurkat cells by UVB radiation (wavelength 290-320 nm) at a dose of 310 mJ/cm^2. We combined Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with flow cytometry to determine whether the combination of both techniques could provide new and improved information about cell modifications. To do this, we looked for correspondences and correlations between spectroscopy and flow cytometry data and found three highly probable spectroscopic markers of apoptosis. The behavior of the wave number shift of both the Amide I beta-sheet component and the area of the 1083 cm^-1 band reproduced, with a high correlation, the behavior of the early apoptotic cell population, while the behavior of the Amide I area showed a high correlation with the early plus late apoptotic cell population.

  13. Anti-proliferative properties of commercial Pelargonium sidoides tincture, with cell-cycle G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in Jurkat leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Andreia; Bester, Megan; Soundy, Puffy; Apostolides, Zeno

    2016-09-01

    Context Pelargonium sidoides DC (Geraniaceae) is an important medicinal plant indigenous to South Africa and Lesotho. Previous studies have shown that root extracts are rich in polyphenolic compounds with antibacterial, antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. Little is known regarding the anticancer properties of Pelargonium sidoides extracts. Objective This study evaluates the anti-proliferative effects of a Pelargonium sidoides radix mother tincture (PST). Materials and methods The PST was characterized by LC-MS/MS. Anti-proliferative activity was evaluated in the pre-screen panel of the National Cancer Institute (NCI-H460, MCF-7 and SF-268) and the Jurkat leukaemia cell line at concentrations of 0-150 μg/mL. The effect on cell growth was determined with sulphorhodamine B and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays after 72 h. The effect on cell cycle and apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells was determined by flow cytometry with propidium iodide and Annexin V: fluorescein isothiocyanate staining. Results Dihydroxycoumarin sulphates, gallic acid as well as gallocatechin dimers and trimers were characterized in PST by mass spectrometry. Moderate anti-proliferative effects with GI50 values between 40 and 80 μg/mL were observed in the NCI-pre-screen panel. Strong activity observed with Jurkat cells with a GI50 value of 6.2 μg/mL, significantly better than positive control 5-fluorouracil (GI50 value of 9.7 μg/mL). The PST arrested Jurkat cells at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and increased the apoptotic cells from 9% to 21%, while the dead cells increased from 4% to 17%. Conclusion We present evidence that P. sidoides has cancer cell type-specific anti-proliferative effects and may be a source of novel anticancer molecules.

  14. High ACSL5 Transcript Levels Associate with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Apoptosis in Jurkat T Lymphocytes and Peripheral Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypical autoimmune disease in which increased apoptosis and decreased apoptotic cells removal has been described as most relevant in the pathogenesis. Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (ACSLs) have been involved in the immunological dysfunction of mouse models of lupus-like autoimmunity and apoptosis in different in vitro cell systems. The aim of this work was to assess among the ACSL isoforms the involvement of ACSL2, ACSL4 and ACSL5 in SLE pathogenesis. Findings With this end, we determined the ACSL2, ACSL4 and ACSL5 transcript levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 45 SLE patients and 49 healthy controls by quantitative real time-PCR (q-PCR). We found that patients with SLE had higher ACSL5 transcript levels than healthy controls [median (range), healthy controls = 16.5 (12.3–18.0) vs. SLE = 26.5 (17.8–41.7), P = 3.9×10 E-5] but no differences were found for ACSL2 and ACSL4. In in vitro experiments, ACSL5 mRNA expression was greatly increased when inducing apoptosis in Jurkat T cells and PBMCs by Phorbol-Myristate-Acetate plus Ionomycin (PMA+Io). On the other hand, short interference RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of ACSL5 decreased induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells up to the control levels as well as decreased mRNA expression of FAS, FASLG and TNF. Conclusions These findings indicate that ACSL5 may play a role in the apoptosis that takes place in SLE. Our results point to ACSL5 as a potential novel functional marker of pathogenesis and a possible therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:22163040

  15. High ACSL5 transcript levels associate with systemic lupus erythematosus and apoptosis in Jurkat T lymphocytes and peripheral blood cells.

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    Antonio Catalá-Rabasa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototypical autoimmune disease in which increased apoptosis and decreased apoptotic cells removal has been described as most relevant in the pathogenesis. Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (ACSLs have been involved in the immunological dysfunction of mouse models of lupus-like autoimmunity and apoptosis in different in vitro cell systems. The aim of this work was to assess among the ACSL isoforms the involvement of ACSL2, ACSL4 and ACSL5 in SLE pathogenesis. FINDINGS: With this end, we determined the ACSL2, ACSL4 and ACSL5 transcript levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 45 SLE patients and 49 healthy controls by quantitative real time-PCR (q-PCR. We found that patients with SLE had higher ACSL5 transcript levels than healthy controls [median (range, healthy controls = 16.5 (12.3-18.0 vs. SLE = 26.5 (17.8-41.7, P = 3.9×10 E-5] but no differences were found for ACSL2 and ACSL4. In in vitro experiments, ACSL5 mRNA expression was greatly increased when inducing apoptosis in Jurkat T cells and PBMCs by Phorbol-Myristate-Acetate plus Ionomycin (PMA+Io. On the other hand, short interference RNA (siRNA-mediated silencing of ACSL5 decreased induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells up to the control levels as well as decreased mRNA expression of FAS, FASLG and TNF. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that ACSL5 may play a role in the apoptosis that takes place in SLE. Our results point to ACSL5 as a potential novel functional marker of pathogenesis and a possible therapeutic target in SLE.

  16. Systems biology approach to transplant tolerance: proof of concept experiments using RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down hub genes in Jurkat and HeLa cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Wint Wah; Park, Ken; Wauson, Matthew; Gao, Qin; Finn, Patricia W; Perkins, David; Khanna, Ajai

    2012-07-01

    Systems biology is gaining importance in studying complex systems such as the functional interconnections of human genes [1]. To investigate the molecular interactions involved in T cell immune responses, we used databases of physical gene-gene interactions to constructed molecular interaction networks (interconnections) with R language algorithms. This helped to identify highly interconnected "hub" genes AT(1)P5C1, IL6ST, PRKCZ, MYC, FOS, JUN, and MAPK1. We hypothesized that suppression of these hub genes in the gene network would result in significant phenotypic effects on T cells and examined this in vitro. The molecular interaction networks were then analyzed and visualized with Cytoscape. Jurkat and HeLa cells were transfected with siRNA for the selected hub genes. Cell proliferation was measured using ATP luminescence and BrdU labeling, which were measured 36, 72, and 96 h after activation. Following T cell stimulation, we found a significant decrease in ATP production (P cells. However, HeLa cells showed a significant (P cell proliferation when the genes MAPK1, IL6ST, ATP5C1, JUN, and FOS were knocked down. In both Jurkat and HeLa cells, targeted gene knockdown using siRNA showed decreased cell proliferation and ATP production in both Jurkat and HeLa cells. However, Jurkat T cells and HELA cells use different hub genes to regulate activation responses. This experiment provides proof of principle of applying siRNA knockdown of T cell hub genes to evaluate their proliferative capacity and ATP production. This novel concept outlines a systems biology approach to identify hub genes for targeted therapeutics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Nanobody-based chimeric receptor gene integration in Jurkat cells mediated by PhiC31 integrase

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    Iri-Sofla, Farnoush Jafari [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh, E-mail: rahbarif@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadvand, Davoud [Center of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Rasaee, Mohammad J. [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-01

    The crucial role of T lymphocytes in anti-tumor immunity has led to the development of novel strategies that can target and activate T cells against tumor cells. Recombinant DNA technology has been used to generate non-MHC-restricted chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). Here, we constructed a panel of recombinant CAR that harbors the anti-MUC1 nanobody and the signaling and co-signaling moieties (CD3{zeta}/CD28) with different spacer regions derived from human IgG3 with one or two repeats of the hinge sequence or the hinge region of Fc{gamma}RII. The PhiC31 integrase system was employed to investigate if the recombination efficiency could be recruited for high and stable expression of T cell chimeric receptor genes. The effect of nuclear localization signal (NLS) and two different promoters (CMV and CAG) on efficacy of PhiC31 integrase in human T cell lines was evaluated. The presence of integrase in combination with NLS, mediated up to 7.6 and 8.5 fold increases in CAR expression in ZCHN-attB and ZCHHN-attB cassette integrated T cells, respectively. Our results showed that highly efficient and stable transduction of the Jurkat cell line by PhiC31 integrase is a feasible modality for generating anti-cancer chimeric T cells for use in cancer immunotherapy.

  18. Trichloroethylene and Its Oxidative Metabolites Enhance the Activated State and Th1 Cytokine Gene Expression in Jurkat Cells

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    Yao Pan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE is an occupational and ubiquitous environmental contaminant, and TCE exposure will increase the risk of autoimmune diseases and allergic diseases. T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of TCE-related immune disorders, but the effect of TCE and its oxidative metabolites, trichloroacetic acid (TCA and dichloroacetic acid (DCA, on the activation of human T cells is still unknown. In this study, Jurkat cells were pre-treated with TCE, TCA and DCA overnight and then stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin for another 4, 8 and 24 hours. IL-2 secretion was detected by ELISA; the expressions of CD25 and CD69 were tested by flow cytometry; and IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA expression levels were investigated by real-time PCR. The results showed that TCE and its oxidative metabolites, TCA and DCA, significantly enhanced IL-2 releasing and the expression of T cell activation markers, CD25 and CD69. Consistent with this result, these compounds markedly up-regulated the expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA. Collectively, these findings suggest that TCE and its metabolites, TCA and DCA, might enhance the activation of T cells and disrupt various activities of peripheral T cells.

  19. Trichloroethylene and Its Oxidative Metabolites Enhance the Activated State and Th1 Cytokine Gene Expression in Jurkat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yao; Wei, Xuetao; Hao, Weidong

    2015-08-28

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an occupational and ubiquitous environmental contaminant, and TCE exposure will increase the risk of autoimmune diseases and allergic diseases. T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of TCE-related immune disorders, but the effect of TCE and its oxidative metabolites, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCA), on the activation of human T cells is still unknown. In this study, Jurkat cells were pre-treated with TCE, TCA and DCA overnight and then stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin for another 4, 8 and 24 hours. IL-2 secretion was detected by ELISA; the expressions of CD25 and CD69 were tested by flow cytometry; and IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA expression levels were investigated by real-time PCR. The results showed that TCE and its oxidative metabolites, TCA and DCA, significantly enhanced IL-2 releasing and the expression of T cell activation markers, CD25 and CD69. Consistent with this result, these compounds markedly up-regulated the expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA. Collectively, these findings suggest that TCE and its metabolites, TCA and DCA, might enhance the activation of T cells and disrupt various activities of peripheral T cells.

  20. Pulse and Trapezoidal Voltage Clamp Applied To Jurkat Cells: A T- Lymphocyte Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    clamp. (Upward deflection represents depolarization). Low frequency oscillations are clearly visible. Such oscillations have been described by Maltsev ...1952. (8) Maltsev , V. A. Oscillating and triggering properties of T cell membrane potential. Imun. Lett. 26:277-282, 1990. 13 (9) Gallin, E. K

  1. Down-regulation of Bmi-1 by RNA interference in Jurkat cells%RNAi抑制Bmi-1基因表达对Jurkat细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangen Zheng; Qibin Jing; Yaqiong Zheng; Yinjuan Ding; Qianchuan Huang; Guoqiang Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of down-regulation Bmi-1 by RNA interference (RNAi) in T Lymphocytic leukemia Jurkat cells. Methods: Two complementary oligonucleotide strands were synthesized based on the siRNA sequence targeting Bmi-1 gene. After annealing, siRNA strands were recombined into the pRNATU6.2 vector, and then DNA sequencing was carried out following transformation and amplification. The recombinant was transfected into Jurkat cells with liposomes. Positive colonies were obtained through G418 selection. The mRNA and protein expressions of Bmi-1 were detected by RT-PCR and Western-blot, respectively. Effects of Bmi-1 silence on cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell aging of Jurkat cells were detected by MTT assay, flow cytometry, colony formation assay and SA-β-Gal staining, respectively. Results: The siRNA recombinant targeting Bmi-1 gene was successfully constructed. All three siRNA recombinants could significantly inhibit the expression of Bmi-1. The siRNA targeting 825nt-843nt (GACCAGACCACTACT GAAT) has the strongest inhibitory effect on Bmi-1 expression, with almost complete inhibition on Bmi-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Compared with the non-transfection group and the empty vector group, growth velocity and colony formation ability were significantly decreased, while the proportion of cells in G1 phase and the percentage of senile cells were significantly increased in highly transfected group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Down-regulation Bmi-1 by RNA interference (RNAi) could significantly inhibit the growth of Jurkat cells in vitro.

  2. DNA electrophoretic migration patterns change after exposure of Jurkat cells to a single intense nanosecond electric pulse.

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    Stefania Romeo

    Full Text Available Intense nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs interact with cellular membranes and intracellular structures. Investigating how cells respond to nanosecond pulses is essential for a development of biomedical applications of nsPEFs, including cancer therapy, and b better understanding of the mechanisms underlying such bioelectrical effects. In this work, we explored relatively mild exposure conditions to provide insight into weak, reversible effects, laying a foundation for a better understanding of the interaction mechanisms and kinetics underlying nsPEF bio-effects. In particular, we report changes in the nucleus of Jurkat cells (human lymphoblastoid T cells exposed to single pulses of 60 ns duration and 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 MV/m amplitudes, which do not affect cell growth and viability. A dose-dependent reduction in alkaline comet-assayed DNA migration is observed immediately after nsPEF exposure, accompanied by permeabilization of the plasma membrane (YO-PRO-1 uptake. Comet assay profiles return to normal within 60 minutes after pulse delivery at the highest pulse amplitude tested, indicating that our exposure protocol affects the nucleus, modifying DNA electrophoretic migration patterns.

  3. An agonistic monoclonal antibody against DR5 induces ROS production, sustained JNK activation and Endo G release in Jurkat leukemia cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caifeng Chen; Yanxin Liu; Dexian Zheng

    2009-01-01

    We have previously reported that AD5-10, a novel agonistic monoclonal antibody against DRS, possessed a strong cytotoxic activity in various tumor cells, via induction of caspase-dependent and-independent signaling pathways. The present study further demonstrates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in abundance in Jurkat leukemia cells upon ADS-10 stimulation and that ROS accumulation subsequently evoked sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and release of endonuclease G (Endo G) from mitochondria into the cytosol. The reducing agent, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), effectively inhibited the sustained activation of JNK, release of Endo G, and cell death in Jurkat cells treated by ADS-10. Moreover, a dominant-nega-tive form of JNK (but not of p38) enhanced NF-KB activation, suppressed caspase-8 recruitment in death-inducing signaling complexes (DISCs), and reduced adverse effects on mitochondria, thereby inhibiting AD5-10-induced cell death in Jurkat leukemia cells. These data provide novel information on the DRS-mediated cell death-signaling path-way and may shed new light on effective strategies for leukemia and solid tumor therapies.

  4. Detailed Analysis of Apoptosis and Delayed Luminescence of Human Leukemia Jurkat T Cells after Proton Irradiation and Treatments with Oxidant Agents and Flavonoids

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    Irina Baran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following previous work, we investigated in more detail the relationship between apoptosis and delayed luminescence (DL in human leukemia Jurkat T cells under a wide variety of treatments. We used menadione and hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress and two flavonoids, quercetin, and epigallocatechin gallate, applied alone or in combination with menadione or H2O2. 62 MeV proton beams were used to irradiate cells under a uniform dose of 2 or 10 Gy, respectively. We assessed apoptosis, cell cycle distributions, and DL. Menadione, H2O2 and quercetin were potent inducers of apoptosis and DL inhibitors. Quercetin decreased clonogenic survival and the NAD(PH level in a dose-dependent manner. Proton irradiation with 2 Gy but not 10 Gy increased the apoptotic rate. However, both doses induced a substantial G2/M arrest. Quercetin reduced apoptosis and prolonged the G2/M arrest induced by radiation. DL spectroscopy indicated that proton irradiation disrupted the electron flow within Complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thus explaining the massive necrosis induced by 10 Gy of protons and also suggested an equivalent action of menadione and quercetin at the level of the Fe/S center N2, which may be mediated by their binding to a common site within Complex I, probably the rotenone-binding site.

  5. Down-regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 by bortezomib sensitizes Jurkat leukemia T cells against glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tao

    Full Text Available 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 2 (11β-HSD2, a key regulator for pre-receptor metabolism of glucocorticoids (GCs by converting active GC, cortisol, to inactive cortisone, has been shown to be present in a variety of tumors. But its expression and roles have rarely been discussed in hematological malignancies. Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has been shown to not only possess antitumor effects but also potentiate the activity of other chemotherapeutics. In this study, we demonstrated that 11β-HSD2 was highly expressed in two GC-resistant T-cell leukemic cell lines Jurkat and Molt4. In contrast, no 11β-HSD2 expression was found in two GC-sensitive non-hodgkin lymphoma cell lines Daudi and Raji as well as normal peripheral blood T cells. Inhibition of 11β-HSD2 by 11β-HSD inhibitor 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid or 11β-HSD2 shRNA significantly increased cortisol-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Additionally, pretreatment of Jurkat cells with low-dose bortezomib resulted in increased cellular sensitivity to GC as shown by elevated induction of apoptosis, more cells arrested at G1 stage and up-regulation of GC-induced leucine zipper which is an important mediator of GC action. Furthermore, we clarified that bortezomib could dose-dependently inhibit 11β-HSD2 messenger RNA and protein levels as well as activity (cortisol-cortisone conversion through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Therefore, we suggest 11β-HSD2 is, at least partially if not all, responsible for impaired GC suppression in Jurkat cells and also indicate a novel mechanism by which proteasome inhibitor bortezomib may influence GC action.

  6. Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection Increases Apoptosis and HIV-1 Replication in HIV-1 Infected Jurkat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Jiying; Biswas, Santanu; Zhao, Jiangqin; Devadas, Krishnakumar; Ye, Zhiping; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-02-02

    Influenza virus infection has a significant impact on public health, since it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is not well-known whether influenza virus infection affects cell death and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication in HIV-1-infected patients. Using a lymphoma cell line, Jurkat, we examined the in vitro effects of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) infection on cell death and HIV-1 RNA production in infected cells. We found that pH1N1 infection increased apoptotic cell death through Fas and Bax-mediated pathways in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells. Infection with pH1N1 virus could promote HIV-1 RNA production by activating host transcription factors including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-ĸB), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways and T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-related pathways. The replication of HIV-1 latent infection could be reactivated by pH1N1 infection through TCR and apoptotic pathways. These data indicate that HIV-1 replication can be activated by pH1N1 virus in HIV-1-infected cells resulting in induction of cell death through apoptotic pathways.

  7. Kaempferol Activates G₂-Checkpoint of the Cell Cycle Resulting in G₂-Arrest and Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Acute Leukemia Jurkat T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Yun; Jang, Won Young; Lee, Ji Young; Jun, Do Youn; Ko, Jee Youn; Yun, Young Ho; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-02-01

    The effect of kaempferol (3,5,7,4-tetrahydroxyflavone), a flavonoid compound that was identified in barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea) grains, on G2-checkpoint and apoptotic pathways was investigated in human acute leukemia Jurkat T cell clones stably transfected with an empty vector (J/Neo) or a Bcl-xL expression vector (J/Bcl-xL). Exposure of J/Neo cells to kaempeferol caused cytotoxicity and activation of the ATM/ATR-Chk1/Chk2 pathway, activating the phosphorylation of p53 (Ser-15), inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc25C (Ser-216), and inactivation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), with resultant G2- arrest of the cell cycle. Under these conditions, apoptotic events, including upregulation of Bak and PUMA levels, Bak activation, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) loss, activation of caspase-9, -8, and -3, anti-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and accumulation of apoptotic sub-G1 cells, were induced without accompanying necrosis. However, these apoptotic events, except for upregulation of Bak and PUMA levels, were completely abrogated in J/Bcl-xL cells overexpressing Bcl-xL, suggesting that the G2-arrest and the Bcl-xL-sensitive mitochondrial apoptotic events were induced, in parallel, as downstream events of the DNA-damage-mediated G2-checkpoint activation. Together these results demonstrate that kaempferol-mediated antitumor activity toward Jurkat T cells was attributable to G2-checkpoint activation, which caused not only G2-arrest of the cell cycle but also activating phosphorylation of p53 (Ser-15) and subsequent induction of mitochondriadependent apoptotic events, including Bak and PUMA upregulation, Bak activation, Δpsim loss, and caspase cascade activation.

  8. Differential Response of Mono Mac 6, BEAS-2B, and Jurkat Cells to Indoor Dust

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herbert Riechelmann; Tom Deutschle; Ariane Grabow; Birger Heinzow; Werner Butte; Rudolf Reiter

    2007-01-01

    Background: Airway toxicity of indoor dust is not sufficiently understood. Objectives: Our goal in this study was to describe the effects of indoor dust on human monocyte, epithelial, and lymphocyte cell lines...

  9. Differential Response of Mono Mac 6, BEAS-2B, and Jurkat Cells to Indoor Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Riechelmann, Herbert; Deutschle, Tom; Grabow, Ariane; Heinzow, Birger; Butte, Werner; Reiter, Rudolf

    2007-01-01

    Background Airway toxicity of indoor dust is not sufficiently understood. Objectives Our goal in this study was to describe the effects of indoor dust on human monocyte, epithelial, and lymphocyte cell lines. We aimed to a) obtain a comprehensive and intelligible outline of the transcriptional response; b) correlate differential transcription with cellular protein secretion; c) identify cell line–specific features; and d) search for indoor dust–specific responses. Methods Settled dust was sam...

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid and other fatty acids induce a decrease in pHi in Jurkat T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Virginie; Hichami, Aziz; Moutairou, Kabirou; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induced rapid (t1/2=33 s) and dose-dependent decreases in pHi in BCECF-loaded human (Jurkat) T-cells. Addition of 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger, prolonged DHA-induced acidification as a function of time, indicating that the exchanger is implicated in pHi recovery. Other fatty acids like oleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, but not palmitic acid, also induced a fall in pHi in these cells. To assess the role of calcium in the DHA-induced acidification, we conducted experiments in Ca2+-free (0% Ca2+) and Ca2+-containing (100% Ca2+) buffer. We observed that there was no difference in the degree of DHA-induced transient acidification in both the experimental conditions, though pHi recovery was faster in 0% Ca2+ medium than that in 100% Ca2+ medium. In the presence of BAPTA, a calcium chelator, a rapid recovery of DHA-induced acidosis was observed. Furthermore, addition of CaCl2 into 0% Ca2+ medium curtailed DHA-evoked rapid pHi recovery. In 0% Ca2+ medium, containing BAPTA, DHA did not evoke increases in [Ca2+]i, though this fatty acid still induced a rapid acidification in these cells. These observations suggest that calcium is implicated in the long-lasting DHA-induced acidosis. DHA-induced rapid acidification may be due to its deprotonation in the plasma membrane (flip-flop model), as suggested by the following observations: (1) DHA with a –COOH group induced intracellular acidification, but this fatty acid with a –COOCH3 group failed to do so, and (2) DHA, but not propionic acid, -induced acidification was completely reversed by addition of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin in these cells. These results suggest that DHA induces acidosis via deprotonation and Ca2+ mobilization in human T-cells. PMID:14645139

  11. Integrated mRNA and micro RNA profiling reveals epigenetic mechanism of differential sensitivity of Jurkat T cells to AgNPs and Ag ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyun-Jeong; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Lee, Jeongsoo; Choi, Jinhee

    2014-08-17

    In our previous in vitro study of the toxicity on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), we observed a dramatically higher sensitivity of Jurkat T cells to AgNPs than to Ag ions, and DNA damage and apoptosis were found to be involved in that toxicity. In this study, to understand underlying mechanism of different sensitivity of Jurket T cells to AgNPs and Ag ions, mRNA microarray and micro RNA microarray were concomitantly conducted on AgNPs and Ag ions exposed Jurkat T cells. Surprisingly only a small number of genes were differentially expressed by exposure to each of the silver (15 altered mRNA by AgNPs exposure, whereas 4 altered mRNA by Ag ions exposure, as determined 1.5-fold change as the cut-off value). miRNA microarray revealed that the expression of 63 miRNAs was altered by AgNPs exposure, whereas that of 32 miRNAs was altered by Ag ions exposure. An integrated analysis of mRNA and miRNA expression revealed that the expression of hsa-miR-219-5p, was negatively correlated with the expression of metallothionein 1F (MT1F) and tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3), in cells exposed to AgNPs; whereas, the expression of hsa-miR-654-3p was negatively correlated with the expression of mRNA, endonuclease G-like 1 (EDGL1) in cells exposed to Ag ions. Network analysis were further conducted on mRNA-miRNA pairs, which revealed that miR-219-5p-MT1F and -TRIB3 pairs by AgNPs are being involved in various cellular processes, such as, oxidative stress, cell cycle and apoptosis, whereas, miR-654-3p and ENDOGL1 pair by Ag ions generated a much simpler network. The putative target genes of AgNPs-induced miR-504, miR-33 and miR-302 identified by Tarbase 6.0 are also found to be involved in DNA damage and apoptosis. These results collectively suggest that distinct epigenetic regulation may be an underlying mechanism of different sensitivity of Jurkat T cells to AgNPs and Ag ion. Further identification of putative target genes of DE miRNA by AgNPs and Ag ions may provide additional clues for the

  12. CD147 and CD98 complex-mediated homotypic aggregation attenuates the CypA-induced chemotactic effect on Jurkat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Zhang, Kui; Lv, Minghua; Miao, Jinlin; Chen, Zhinan; Zhu, Ping

    2015-02-01

    Homotypic cell aggregation plays important roles in physiological and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, immune responses, angiogenesis, tumor cell invasion and metastasis. CD147 has been implicated in most of these phenomena, and it was identified as a T cell activation-associated antigen due to its obvious up-regulation in activated T cells. However, the explicit function and mechanism of CD147 in T cells have not been fully elucidated. In this study, large and compact aggregates were observed in Jurkat T cells after treatment with the specific CD147 monoclonal antibody HAb18 or after the expression of CD147 was silenced by RNA interference, which indicated an inhibitory effect of CD147 in T cell homotypic aggregation. Knocking down CD147 expression resulted in a significant decrease in CD98, along with prominent cell aggregation, similar to that treated by CD98 and CD147 monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, decreased cell chemotactic activity was observed following CD147- and CD98-mediated cell aggregation, and increased aggregation was correlated with a decrease in the chemotactic ability of the Jurkat T cells, suggesting that CD147- and CD98-mediated homotypic cell aggregation plays a negative role in T cell chemotaxis. Our data also showed that p-ERK, p-ZAP70, p-CD3ζ and p-LCK were significantly decreased in the CD147- and CD98-knocked down Jurkat T cells, which suggested that decreased CD147- and/or CD98-induced homotypic T cell aggregation and aggregation-inhibited chemotaxis might be associated with these signaling pathways. A role for CD147 in cell aggregation and chemotaxis was further indicated in primary CD4(+) T cells. Similarly, low expression of CD147 in primary T cells induced prominent cell aggregation and this aggregation attenuated primary T cell chemotactic ability in response to CypA. Our results have demonstrated the correlation between homotypic cell aggregation and the chemotactic response of T cells to CypA, and these data

  13. Molecular regulation of MHC class I chain-related protein A expression after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of Jurkat T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars; Jensen, Helle; Pedersen, Marianne T

    2007-01-01

    /B expression. It was further observed that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were depleted after HDAC treatment. NF-kappaB activity can be induced by HDAC treatment. However, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 was not observed after HDAC treatment of Jurkat T cells and even though we could effectively...... inhibit p65 expression by siRNA, it did not modify MICA/B expression. To identify important elements in MICA regulation, we made a promoter construct consisting of approximately 3 kb of the proximal MICA promoter in front of GFP. Deletion analysis showed that a germinal center-box containing a putative Sp...

  14. The molecular mechanism of curcumol on inducing cell growth arrest and apoptosis in Jurkat cells, a model of CD4⁺ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Xiaoji; Wang, Zhizhong; Zhong, Bing; Fang, Yongfei

    2014-08-01

    CD4(+) T cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) express growth signaling pathway in association with deregulated growth and resistance to apoptosis. The janus kinase (Jak) 3 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway play a critical role in interleukin-2 (IL-2)-induced CD4(+) T cell proliferation. The present study aimed to explore the anti-cell proliferation mechanism of curcumol, a pure monomer extracted from Chinese medical plant Rhizoma curcumae. Cell proliferation was determined using WST-1 assay after curcumol treatment. The cell cycle distribution and Bcl-2 protein expression were assessed by flow cytometry. The cellular morphology of apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33258 staining. The expressions of phosphorylated-Jak3 (p-Jak3), p-STAT3, and p-STAT5a following IL-2 stimulation were determined by western blot analysis. The Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay was used to detect the DNA binding activities of transcription factors STAT3 and STAT5. The study results showed that curcumol could inhibit the IL-2-induced Jurkat cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in vitro. Curcumol could cause cell cycle arrest at the S phase, induce cell apoptosis, and inhibit the expression of Bcl-2 in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumol at 50μg/mL and Jak3 inhibitor ZM39923 could inhibit the phosphorylation of Jak3 and STAT5a. In conclusion, the underlying mechanism of curcumol on suppressing CD4(+) T cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis might partly be mediated by inhibition of Jak3-STAT5-related molecular activities and Bcl-2 expression, respectively; further studies are required in vivo to test the use of curcumol as a promising therapeutic option for RA.

  15. Induction of apoptosis by thymoquinone in lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells is mediated by a p73-dependent pathway which targets the epigenetic integrator UHRF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhosin, Mahmoud; Abusnina, Abdurazzag; Achour, Mayada; Sharif, Tanveer; Muller, Christian; Peluso, Jean; Chataigneau, Thierry; Lugnier, Claire; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B; Bronner, Christian; Fuhrmann, Guy

    2010-05-01

    The salvage anti-tumoral pathway which implicates the p53-related p73 gene is not yet fully characterized. We therefore attempted to identify the up- and down-stream events involved in the activation of the p73-dependent pro-apoptotic pathway, by focusing on the anti-apoptotic and epigenetic integrator UHRF1 which is essential for cell cycle progression. For this purpose, we analyzed the effects of a known anti-neoplastic drug, thymoquinone (TQ), on the p53-deficient acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Jurkat cell line. Our results showed that TQ inhibits the proliferation of Jurkat cells and induces G1 cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, TQ treatment triggers programmed cell death, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim). TQ-induced apoptosis, confirmed by the presence of hypodiploid G0/G1 cells, is associated with a rapid and sharp re-expression of p73 and dose-dependent changes of the levels of caspase-3 cleaved subunits. These modifications are accompanied by a dramatic down-regulation of UHRF1 and two of its main partners, namely DNMT1 and HDAC1, which are all involved in the epigenetic code regulation. Knockdown of p73 expression restores UHRF1 expression, reactivates cell cycle progression and inhibits TQ-induced apoptosis. Altogether our results showed that TQ mediates its growth inhibitory effects on ALL p53-mutated cells via the activation of a p73-dependent mitochondrial and cell cycle checkpoint signaling pathway which subsequently targets UHRF1.

  16. CD45 immunoaffinity depletion of vesicles from Jurkat T cells demonstrates that exosomes contain CD45: no evidence for a distinct exosome/HIV-1 budding pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott David E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of relatively high levels of cellular protein contamination in density-purified virion preparations is a confounding factor in biochemical analyses of HIV and SIV produced from hematopoietic cells. A major source of this contamination is from vesicles, either microvesicles or exosomes, that have similar physical properties as virions. Thus, these particles can not be removed by size or density fractionation. Although virions and vesicles have similar cellular protein compositions, CD45 is excluded from HIV-1 yet is present in vesicles produced from hematopoietic cells. By exploiting this finding, we have developed a CD45 immunoaffinity depletion procedure that removes vesicles from HIV-1 preparations. While this approach has been successfully applied to virion preparations from several different cell types, some groups have concluded that "exosomes" from certain T cell lines, specifically Jurkat, do not contain CD45. If this interpretation is correct, then these vesicles could not be removed by CD45 immunoaffinity depletion. Here we show that dense vesicles produced by Jurkat and SupT1/CCR5 cells contain CD45 and are efficiently removed from preparations by CD45-immunoaffinity depletion. Also, contaminating cellular proteins were removed from virion preparations produced by these lines. Previously, the absence of CD45 from both "exosomes" and virions has been used to support the so called Trojan exosome hypothesis, namely that HIV-1 is simply an exosome containing viral material. The presence of CD45 on vesicles, including exosomes, and its absence on virions argues against a specialized budding pathway that is shared by both exosomes and HIV-1.

  17. The oncogenic 70Z Cbl mutation blocks the phosphotyrosine binding domain-dependent negative regulation of ZAP-70 by c-Cbl in Jurkat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J E; Paik, P K; Samelson, L E

    1999-10-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement results in the activation of Src family (Lck and Fyn) and ZAP-70 protein tyrosine kinases, leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple cellular substrates including the complex adapter protein c-Cbl. Moreover, Cbl is tyrosine phosphorylated upon engagement of growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors, and immunoreceptors and functions as a negative regulator of tyrosine kinase signalling pathways. Cbl associates via its phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain to the ZAP-70 pY292 negative regulatory phosphotyrosine. We recently demonstrated that the oncogenic Cbl mutant, 70Z Cbl, requires its PTB domain to upregulate NFAT in unstimulated Jurkat T cells. Here, we demonstrate that kinase-dead but not wild-type forms of Fyn, Lck, and ZAP-70 block 70Z Cbl-mediated NFAT activation. Moreover, 70Z Cbl does not upregulate NFAT in the ZAP-70-deficient P116 Jurkat T-cell line. The requirement for Fyn, Lck, and ZAP-70 is not due to tyrosine phosphorylation of 70Z Cbl, as mutation of all tyrosines in, or deletion of, the C-terminal region of 70Z Cbl (amino acids 655 to 906) blocks 70Z Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation but enhances 70Z Cbl-mediated NFAT activation. Further, 70Z Cbl does not cooperate with ZAP-70 Y292F to upregulate NFAT, indicating that 70Z Cbl and ZAP-70 do not activate parallel signalling pathways. Finally, the upregulation of NFAT observed upon ZAP-70 overexpression is blocked by Cbl in a PTB domain-dependent manner. We conclude that oncogenic 70Z Cbl acts as a dominant negative to block the PTB domain-dependent negative regulatory role of endogenous Cbl on ZAP-70, leading to constitutive ZAP-70 signalling and activation of transcription factors.

  18. Fractionation of T cell subsets on Ig anti-Ig columns: isolation of helper T cells from nonresponder mice, demonstration of antigen-specific T suppressor cells, and selection of CD-3 negative variants of Jurkat T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, B; Geisler, C; Kuhlmann, J

    1989-01-01

    In the present experiments we have explored the possibilities of a modified immunoadsorbent technique to select for (1) mutagenized T cell receptor (Tcr) negative variants of Jurkat T lymphoma cells and (2) purified CD-4+ or CD-8+ T lymphocytes. The basic principle was to make large numbers...... of immunoglobulin (Ig) negative T cells Ig+ by T cell subset-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb), and to select such cells on Ig anti-Ig columns. Our results demonstrated that Thy-1+, Fc receptor positive, antigen-specific T cells regulate the immune response in mice nonresponders to pork insulin......." The most important finding is the demonstration of antigen-specific Thy-1+, CD-8+, and Fc receptor+ T suppressor cell that apparently react with antigen in a non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted manner....

  19. Evaluation of Synergetic Anticancer Activity of Berberine and Curcumin on Different Models of A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562 Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Balakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurvedic system of medicine is using Berberis aristata and Curcuma longa herbs to treat different diseases including cancer. The study was performed to evaluate the synergetic anticancer activity of Berberine and Curcumin by estimating the inhibition of the cell proliferation by cytotoxicity assay using MTT method on specified human cell lines (A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562. All the cells were harvested from the culture and seeded in the 96-well assay plates at seeding density of 2.0 × 104 cells/well and were incubated for 24 hours. Test items Berberine with Curcumin (1 : 1, Curcumin 95% pure, and Berberine 95% pure were exposed at the concentrations of 1.25, 0.001, and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively, and incubated for a period of 48 hours followed by dispensing MTT solution (5 mg/mL. The cells were incubated at 37 ± 1°C for 4 hours followed by addition of DMSO for dissolving the formazan crystals and absorbance was read at 570 nm. Separate wells were prepared for positive control, controls (only medium with cells, and blank (only medium. The results had proven the synergetic anticancer activity of Berberine with Curcumin inducing cell death greater percentage of >77% when compared to pure curcumin with <54% and pure Berberine with <45% on average on all cell line models.

  20. 甲基乙二醛对Jurkat细胞氧化应激及分泌细胞因子的影响%Effects of methylglyoxal on oxidative stress and cytokine profiles in cultured Jurkat cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游捷; 余洪根; 彭雪峰; 刘晓红; 刘礼斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of mthylglyoxal(MGO) on oxidative stress and cytokine profiles in cultured Jurkat cells for understanding more about the mechanism of diabetes accelerated athevosclerosis.Method:Jurkat cell which pre-stimulated by PHA were incubated with MGO for 24h.The cells survial rate was detected by MTT.ROS was quantitated by flow cytometry.Total and phosphory-lated p38 and JNK were assessed using Western blot.After incubation with MGO,the expression of TNFF-α and IFN-γ were tested by ELISA.Results:No changes in cells viability was observed when Jurkat cells were treated with 0-60 μmol/1Jurkat cells with MGO significantly induced ROS production.Co-incubation with NAC or AG decreased MGO-induced ROS production.Incubation of Jurkat cells with MGO results in significant increase in p38 and JNK phosphorylation.In addition MGO significantly increased the production of TNF-α and IFN-γ while p38,JNK inhibitor and NAC reversed the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines.Conclusion:These data demonstrate that MGO in-duced the release of TNF-α and IFN-γ in Jurkat cells viaoxidative stress,p38,JNK signaling pathway.%目的:探讨甲基乙二醛(MGO)对Jurkat细胞氧化应激及分泌细胞因子的影响.方法:不同浓度MGO作用PHA预刺激的Jurkat细胞,MTT检测细胞生长,流式细胞检测细胞内活性氧(ROS),Western blot检测p38 MAPK、JNK磷酸化水平,ELISA检测TNF-α、IFN-γ.结果:15~60 μmol/L MGO对Jurkat细胞生长无影响,但能使ROS呈浓度依赖性升高;N-乙酰-L-半胱氨酸(NAC)和氨基胍(AG)能明显抑制此作用.MGO作用30分钟,pp38/p38、pJNK/JNK明显升高.MGO诱导Jurkat细胞分泌TNF-α、IFN-γ;P38、JNK抑制剂及NAC能降低TNF-α、IFN-γ的分泌.结论:MGO能诱导Jurkat分泌TNF-α、IFN-γ;其机制可能通过氧化应激、P38、JNK信号通路.

  1. Novel HIV-1 knockdown targets identified by an enriched kinases/phosphatases shRNA library using a long-term iterative screen in Jurkat T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Rato

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is a complex retrovirus that uses host machinery to promote its replication. Understanding cellular proteins involved in the multistep process of HIV-1 infection may result in the discovery of more adapted and effective therapeutic targets. Kinases and phosphatases are a druggable class of proteins critically involved in regulation of signal pathways of eukaryotic cells. Here, we focused on the discovery of kinases and phosphatases that are essential for HIV-1 replication but dispensable for cell viability. We performed an iterative screen in Jurkat T-cells with a short-hairpin-RNA (shRNA library highly enriched for human kinases and phosphatases. We identified 14 new proteins essential for HIV-1 replication that do not affect cell viability. These proteins are described to be involved in MAPK, JNK and ERK pathways, vesicular traffic and DNA repair. Moreover, we show that the proteins under study are important in an early step of HIV-1 infection before viral integration, whereas some of them affect viral transcription/translation. This study brings new insights for the complex interplay of HIV-1/host cell and opens new possibilities for antiviral strategies.

  2. Galectin-8 Induces Apoptosis in Jurkat T Cells by Phosphatidic Acid-mediated ERK1/2 Activation Supported by Protein Kinase A Down-regulation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Andrés; Metz, Claudia; Vicuña, Lucas; Silva, Antonia; Pardo, Evelyn; Oyanadel, Claudia; Massardo, Loreto; González, Alfonso; Soza, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Galectins have been implicated in T cell homeostasis playing complementary pro-apoptotic roles. Here we show that galectin-8 (Gal-8) is a potent pro-apoptotic agent in Jurkat T cells inducing a complex phospholipase D/phosphatidic acid signaling pathway that has not been reported for any galectin before. Gal-8 increases phosphatidic signaling, which enhances the activity of both ERK1/2 and type 4 phosphodiesterases (PDE4), with a subsequent decrease in basal protein kinase A activity. Strikingly, rolipram inhibition of PDE4 decreases ERK1/2 activity. Thus Gal-8-induced PDE4 activation releases a negative influence of cAMP/protein kinase A on ERK1/2. The resulting strong ERK1/2 activation leads to expression of the death factor Fas ligand and caspase-mediated apoptosis. Several conditions that decrease ERK1/2 activity also decrease apoptosis, such as anti-Fas ligand blocking antibodies. In addition, experiments with freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, previously stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, show that Gal-8 is pro-apoptotic on activated T cells, most likely on a subpopulation of them. Anti-Gal-8 autoantibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus block the apoptotic effect of Gal-8. These results implicate Gal-8 as a novel T cell suppressive factor, which can be counterbalanced by function-blocking autoantibodies in autoimmunity. PMID:19276072

  3. Increase of RhoB in {gamma}-radiation-induced apoptosis is regulated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase in Jurkat T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun-Ho [Laboratory of Cytogenetics and Tissue Regeneration, KIRAMS, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Misun; Choi, Chung-Hae; Ahn, Jiwon; Kim, Bo-Kyung [Genome Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung-Bin [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang-Mo, E-mail: kangcm@kcch.re.kr [Laboratory of Cytogenetics and Tissue Regeneration, KIRAMS, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyung-Sook, E-mail: kschung@kribb.re.kr [Genome Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-08

    The Ras-related small GTP-binding protein RhoB is known to be a pro-apoptotic protein and immediate-early inducible by genotoxic stresses. In addition, JNK activation is known to function in {gamma}-radiation-induced apoptosis. However, it is unclear how JNK activation and {gamma}-radiation-dependent RhoB induction are related. Here we verified the relationship between JNK activation and RhoB induction. RhoB induction by {gamma}-radiation occurred at the transcriptional level and transcriptional activation of RhoB was concomitant with an increase in RhoB protein. {gamma}-Radiation-induced RhoB expression was markedly attenuated by pretreatment with a JNK-specific inhibitor, SP600125, but not by a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580. Inhibition of JNK caused a decrease in early apoptotic cell death that correlated with RhoB expression. However, PI3K inhibition had no significant effects, indicating that the AKT survival pathway was not involved. The siRNA knockdown of JNK resulted in a decrease in RhoB expression and the siRNA knockdown of RhoB restored cell growth even in the {gamma}-irradiated cells. These results suggest that RhoB regulation involves the JNK pathway and contributes to the early apoptotic response of Jurkat T cells to {gamma}-radiation.

  4. Transcriptional regulation of the human IL5 gene by ionizing radiation in Jurkat T cells: evidence for repression by an NF-AT-like element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu-Hesselmann, J; Messer, G; van Beuningen, D; Kind, P; Peter, R U

    1997-12-01

    Eosinophilia is often observed in patients with parasitic infections and atopic diseases like allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. Additionally, it is a typical feature of the inflammatory reaction after therapeutic and accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. This uniquely specific phenomenon regulated by the cytokine interleukin 5 (IL-5) suggests specific control for IL5 gene expression. In this study, we generated promoter-CAT constructs containing different human IL-5 promoter regions spanning from positions -507 to +43. Transfection experiments in Jurkat T cells revealed that the promoter sequence from -57 to +43 was required for constitutive and inducible IL-5 promoter activity. Low baseline CAT activity could be enhanced by treatment with phenylmercuric acetate (PMA) or the combination of PMA and calcium ionophore. The promoter region between positions -97 and +43 showed responsiveness to low-dose X rays. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that the region from -117 to -97 was responsive to irradiation. Transcription factors specifically bound to this sequence showed a dose-dependent response to single doses of X rays between 1 and 8 Gy. Competition analysis indicated that the protein-DNA complexes at this region were related to the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT). Further confirmation was obtained by the addition of specific antibodies into protein-DNA reactions. For the first time, we have demonstrated that specific DNA binding of NF-ATp at the promoter region from -117 to -97 is involved in transcriptional regulation of the human IL5 gene in response to ionizing radiation.

  5. Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Rockstroh, Maxie; Wagner, Juliane [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Baumann, Sven [Department of Metabolomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schorsch, Katrin [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Trump, Saskia; Lehmann, Irina [Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Bergen, Martin von [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Tomm, Janina M., E-mail: Janina.tomm@ufz.de [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 μM, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 μM B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. • Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 μM) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. • Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells.

  6. Effects of parathyroid hormone-related protein and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in Jurkat T-cells on tumor formation in vivo and expression of apoptosis regulatory genes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sherry T; Dirksen, Wessel P; Lanigan, Lisa G; Martin, Chelsea K; Thudi, Nanda K; Werbeck, Jillian L; Fernandez, Soledad A; Hildreth, Blake E; Rosol, Thomas J

    2012-04-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, but their effects on T-cells have not been well studied. Here we analyzed the functions of PTHrP and MIP-1α on T-cell growth and death both in vitro and in vivo by overexpressing either factor in human Jurkat T-cells. PTHrP or MIP-1α did not affect Jurkat cell growth in vitro, but PTHrP increased their sensitivity to apoptosis. Importantly, PTHrP and MIP-1α decreased both tumor incidence and growth in vivo. To investigate possible mechanisms, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assays were performed. Both PTHrP and MIP-1α increased the expression of several factors including signal transducer and activator of transcription 4, tumor necrosis factor α, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand and death-associated protein kinase 1, and decreased the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding 1, interferon γ and CD40 ligand in Jurkat cells. In addition, MIP-1α also increased the expression of transcription factor AP-2α and PTHrP increased expression of the vitamin D3 receptor. These data demonstrate that PTHrP and MIP-1α exert a profound antitumor effect presumably by increasing the sensitivity to apoptotic signals through modulation of transcription and apoptosis factors in T-cells.

  7. Prometaphase arrest-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim reduces the association of Bcl-2 with Bak or Bim, provoking Bak activation and mitochondrial apoptosis in nocodazole-treated Jurkat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cho Rong; Jun, Do Youn; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of Jurkat T cells with the microtubule-depolymerizing agent nocodazole (NOC) caused prometaphase arrest and apoptosis. NOC-induced mitochondrial apoptotic events including Bak activation, Δψm loss, cytochrome c release, and caspase cascade activation were blocked by Bcl-2 overexpression. However, mitotic arrest, Cdc25C activation, upregulation of cyclin B1 levels, Cdk1 activation, Bcl-2 phosphorylation at Thr-56 and Ser-70, and Bim phosphorylation were retained. The treatment of Jurkat T cells concomitantly with NOC and the G1/S-blocking agent hydroxyurea resulted in G1/S arrest and complete abrogation of all apoptotic events. The association of Bcl-2 with Bim or Bak declined after the prometaphase arrest-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim, whereas the association of Bcl-2 with Bax remained relatively constant. Although Bax was redistributed from the cytosol to the mitochondria, resulting in an increase in the mitochondrial level of Bax following NOC treatment, the subcellular localization of Bcl-2, Bim, Bak and apoptosis-inducing factor was confined to the mitochondrial fraction irrespective of NOC treatment. Experiments using selective caspase inhibitors showed that mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase-9 and -3 was crucial for NOC-induced apoptosis. NOC-induced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim, Δψm loss, and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic events were significantly suppressed by a Cdk1 inhibitor roscovitine, but not by the JNK inhibitor SP600125 or the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. These results show that the prometaphase arrest-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim, which was mediated by Cdk1, could reduce the association of Bcl-2 with Bak or Bim to allow Bak activation and mitochondrial apoptotic events in Jurkat T cells exposed to NOC.

  8. 夏枯草提取物对人T淋巴瘤Jurkat细胞增殖的影响及机制探讨%The effects and mechanism of action of Prunella vulgaris L extract on Jurkat human T lymphoma cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changying Chen; Gang Wu; Mingzhi Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of the Prunella vulgaris L extract on the Jurkat human T lymphoma cell line. Methods: Jurkat cells were cultivated with different concentrations of the extract from Prunella vulgaris L. The MTT assay and flow cytometry were employed to determine the cells' proliferation inhibition ratio and the apoptosis rates, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to observe cellular DNA fragmentation, and westem blotting was used to observe changes in Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression. Results: The Prunella vulgaris L extract remarkably inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells. This inhibition exhibited dose dependence, with an IC50 of 20.23 + 0.31 IJg/mL. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the apoptosis strap became wider and brighter, and flow cytometry showed that the apoptosis rate increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blotting showed that Bcl-2 protein was down-regulated and Bax protein was up-regulated during apoptosis. Conclusion: The extract from Prunella vulgaris L induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells by down-regulating Bcl-2 protein and up-regulating Bax protein. These actions inhibited the growth of Jurkat ceils.

  9. Study on Up-Regulated Expressions of Anti-HIV Genes by vMIP-Ⅰin Jurkat Cell%vMIP-Ⅰ激活Jurkat细胞抗-HIV基因表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小菲; 陈彬; 谭晓华; 罗燕; 杨磊

    2012-01-01

    本研究通过构建真核表达载体pEGFP-N3-vMIP-Ⅰ,电穿孔法将其转染至Jurkat细胞,荧光定量PCR检测vMIP-Ⅰ基因对Jurkat细胞内CCL5、APOBEC3G、APOBEC3F、等抗-HIV基因表达水平的影响,从而探讨vMIP-Ⅰ抗HIV感染的机制.结果显示:成功构建了pEGFP-N3-vMIP-Ⅰ载体,电穿孔转染效率达到40%左右,与转染空载体组相比,vMIP-Ⅰ转染组的Jurkat细胞内CCL5、A3G、A3F和MX1分别上调7.37倍、1.58倍、2.42倍和2.06倍.研究结果表明:vMIP-Ⅰ基因可激活Jurkat细胞内一些抗HIV相关基因的表达,这可能是vMIP-Ⅰ基因抗HIV感染的机制之一.%In this study, through the construction of eukaryotic expressive vector, the recombinant plasmids Pegfp-N3-Vmip- 玉 was transfected into Jurkat cells by electroporation. Then, by QRT-PCR technique, we detected the expression levels of anti-HIV genes: CCL5, APOBEC3F, MX1 in Jurkat cells which influenced by Vmip- 玉 gene and explored the mechanisms of Vmip- 玉 against HIV infection. The results he recombinant plasmids of Pegfp-N3-Vmip- 玉 was successfully constructed and electroporation transfection efficiency reached about 40%. In comparison with non-transfected gourp, the transfected Vmip- 玉 group can increase CCL5, A3G, A3F, and MX1 of Jurkat cells by 7.37, 1.58, 2.42 and 2.064 times seperately. The results suggest Vmip- 玉 can activate expressions of some relative anti-HIV genes in Jurkat cells, which probably is one of the mechanisms for anti-HIV infection.

  10. Study on Up-Regulated Expressions of Anti-HIV Genes by vMIP-Ⅰin Jurkat Cell%vMIP-Ⅰ激活Jurkat细胞抗-HIV基因表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小菲; 陈彬; 谭晓华; 罗燕; 杨磊

    2012-01-01

    In this study,through the construction of eukaryotic expressive vector,the recombinant plasmids pEGFP-N3-vMIP-Ⅰ was transfected into Jurkat cells by electroporation.Then,by QRT-PCR technique,we detected the expression levels of anti-HIV genes:CCL5,APOBEC3F,MX1 in Jurkat cells which influenced by vMIP-Ⅰ gene and explored the mechanisms of vMIP-Ⅰ against HIV infection.The results he recombinant plasmids of pEGFP-N3-vMIP-Ⅰ was successfully constructed and electroporation transfection efficiency reached about 40%.In comparison with non-transfected gourp,the transfected vMIP-Ⅰ group can increase CCL5,A3G,A3F,and MX1 of Jurkat cells by 7.37,1.58,2.42 and 2.064 times seperately.The results suggest vMIP-Ⅰ can activate expressions of some relative anti-HIV genes in Jurkat cells,which probably is one of the mechanisms for anti-HIV infection.%本研究通过构建真核表达载体pEGFP-N3-vMIP-Ⅰ,电穿孔法将其转染至Jurkat细胞,荧光定量PCR检测vMIP-Ⅰ基因对Jurkat细胞内CCL5、APOBEC3G、APOBEC3F、等抗-HIV基因表达水平的影响,从而探讨vMIP-Ⅰ抗HIV感染的机制。结果显示:成功构建了pEGFP-N3-vMIP-Ⅰ载体,电穿孔转染效率达到40%左右,与转染空载体组相比,vMIP-Ⅰ转染组的Jurkat细胞内CCL5、A3G、A3F和MX1分别上调7.37倍、1.58倍、2.42倍和2.06倍。研究结果表明:vMIP-Ⅰ基因可激活Jurkat细胞内一些抗HIV相关基因的表达,这可能是vMIP-Ⅰ基因抗HIV感染的机制之一。

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) Infection Using Co-Culture with Jurkat LTR-Luciferase or Jurkat LTR-GFP Reporter Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alais, Sandrine; Dutartre, Hélène; Mahieux, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    Unlike HIV-1, HTLV-1 viral transmission requires cell-to-cell contacts, while cell-free virions are poorly infectious and almost absent from body fluids. Though the virus uses three nonexclusive mechanisms to infect new target cells: (1) MTOC polarization followed by formation of a virological synapse and viral transfer into a synaptic cleft, (2) genesis of a viral biofilm and its transfer of embedded viruses, or (3) HTLV-1 transmission using conduits. The Tax transactivator and the p8 viral proteins are involved in virological synapse and nanotube formation respectively.HTLV-1 transcription from the viral promoter (i.e., LTR) requires the Tax protein that is absent from the viral particle and is expressed after productive infection. The present chapter focuses on a series of protocols used to quantify HTLV-1 de novo infection of target cells. These techniques do not discriminate between the different modes of transmission, but allow an accurate measure of productive infection. We used cell lines that are stably transfected with LTR-GFP or LTR-luciferase plasmids and quantified Green Fluorescent Protein expression or luciferase activity, since both of them reflect Tax expression.

  12. Growth inhibitory effects of oridonin alone or combined with DNR on jurkat cells%冬凌草甲素及联合柔红霉素对jurkat细胞增殖抑制作用的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓芬; 周丽

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the proliferation and apoptotic effects of oridonin alone or combined with DNR on jurkat cells. METHODS:CCK-8 was used to detect the proliferation inhibitory effects of oridonin alone or combined "with DNR on jurkat cells and to observe the apoptotic morphologic changes of jurkat cells treated with different concentrations of oridonin for 48 h. FCM was used to exam the apoptotic rate of jurkat cells. RESULTS: The proliferation inhibitory effects of different concentrations of oridonin on jurkat cells were in a dose and time dependent manner and the inhibitory rates of oridonin treated for 48 hour were (10. 80 ± 1. 58)%,(32. 32 ± 7. 83)%,(42. 27 ± 4. 43)%,(55. 07 ± 1.65)%, (70. 36 ± 4. 11)% respectively. The inhibitory effects markedly enhanced when combined with DNR (0.04 μg/mL);the morphologic changes such as cell body shrinkage, neuclear condensation, apoptotic bodies were observed by Giemsa stain with the condensation increasing; the apoptotic rate of different concentrations of oridonin on jurkat cells for 48 h were (7. 74 ± 0. 96) %, (13. 26 ± 1. 49)% , (17. 42± 1. 24) %, (25. 13 ± 2. 12) %, (29. 07 ± 0. 59) % respectively increased in a dose-dependent manner. When jurkat cells were incubated with oridonin (4 jug/mL) and DNR (0.04 μg/mL) in combination, the apoptotic rate was (51. 06 ± 2. 25)%, which was higher than that of oridonin (4 μg/mL)and DNR(0. 04 μg/mL) each alone and there was a significant difference (P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: Oridonin can inhibit jurkat cells proliferation and induce apoptosis in a does-dependent manner and the inhibitory effects markedly enhanced when combined with DNR, which has collaborative inhibition effect.%目的:探讨冬凌草甲素单用及联合柔红霉素对急性T淋巴细胞白血病jurkat细胞增殖抑制的影响.方法:采用CCK-8法检测单用冬凌草甲素、柔红霉素对jurkat细胞的抑制作用,及两种药物联合应用对jurkat细胞的抑制作用 ;采用Giemsa

  13. Highly Oxygenated Sesquiterpene Lactones from Cousinia aitchisonii and their Cytotoxic Properties: Rhaserolide Induces Apoptosis in Human T Lymphocyte (Jurkat) Cells via the Activation of c-Jun n-terminal Kinase Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranshahy, Milad; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Kasaian, Jamal; Ghandadi, Morteza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Chandran, Jima N; Schneider, Bernd; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-02-01

    Infrared-guided chromatographic fractionation of sesquiterpene lactones from the extracts of Cousinia aitchisonii and Cousinia concolor led to the isolation of five pure compounds. A new sesquiterpene lactone, namely, aitchisonolide, and two known sesquiterpene lactones (desoxyjanerin and rhaserolide) were isolated from C. aitchisonii and two known lignans (arctiin and arctigenin) from C. concolor. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry. The purified and characterized compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity assay. The sesquiterpene lactones desoxyjanerin and rhaserolide showed significant cytotoxic activities against five different cancer cell lines and the normal human embryonic kidney cell line. Rhaserolide was chosen to evaluate the possible mechanism of action. Western blot analysis revealed that rhaserolide could induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells via the activation of c-Jun n-terminal kinase phosphorylation.

  14. UVB对Jurkat细胞Gadd45a表达和DNA甲基化水平的影响%Effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on the expression of Gadd45a gene and DNA methylation level in Jurkat cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚萍; 赵明; 陆前进

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨中波紫外线(UVB)对Jurkat细胞Gadd45a表达和DNA甲基化水平的影响.方法 分别以UVB 1.0 J/cm2和1.5 J/cm2照射Jurkat细胞后,于6、12、24、48 h收集细胞,采用实时定量RT-PCR法检测Gadd45a mRNA水平和甲基化敏感基因CD11a、CD70 mRNA水平,同时检测Jurkat细胞基因组DNA总体甲基化水平的变化.结果 ①和照射前Jurkat细胞比较,UVB 1.0 J/cm2照射后6、12、24、48 h Jurkat细胞Gadd45a mRNA水平升高,以照射后6、12 h差异有统计学意义(P<0.01,P<0.05).UVB 1.0 J/cm2照射后,甲基化敏感基因CD11a、CD70 mRNA水平也升高,以照射后12 h差异有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).②以UVB 1.5 J/cm2照射Jurkat细胞,和照射前Jurkat细胞比较,照射后6、12、24、48 h,Jurkat细胞Gadd45a、CD11a、CD70 mRNA水平均显著升高(P<0.05或P<0.01).③和照射前Jurkat细胞比较,Jurkat细胞经UVB 1.0 J/cm2照射后6、12、24、48 h总体甲基化水平降低,照射后6、12 h甲基化水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01).Jurkat细胞经UVB 1.5 J/cm2照射后6、12、24、48 h的总体甲基化水平显著降低,差异均有统计学意义(P值分别<0.01、<0.01、<0.01、<0.05).④UVB照射后Jurkat细胞的Gadd45a mRNA和DNA总体甲基化水平呈显著负相关(r=-0.395,P<0.05).结论 UVB能诱导Jurkat细胞Gadd45a表达上凋,同时Jurkat细胞基因组DNA发生低甲基化.%Objective To explore the effects of UVB on the expression of Gadd45a gene and DNA methylation levels in Jurkat cells. Methods Jurkat cells were irradiated with UVB of 1.0 J/cm2 and 1.5 J/cm2 respectively, and collected at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after the irradiation. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of Gadd45a gene and methylation-sensitive genes CD11a and CD70. Global methylation level was also measured by MethylAmp global DNA methylation quantification kit. Results After irradiation with UVB at 1.0 J/cm2, the mRNA level of Gadd45a increased but

  15. The ruthenium complex cis-(dichloro)tetraammineruthenium(III) chloride presents selective cytotoxicity against murine B cell lymphoma (A-20), murine ascitic sarcoma 180 (S-180), human breast adenocarcinoma (SK-BR-3), and human T cell leukemia (Jurkat) tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula; Vilanova-Costa, Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago; Hamaguchi, Amélia; Pavanin, Luiz Alfredo; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Homsi-Brandenburgo, Maria Inês; Dos Santos, Wagner Batista; Soares, Andreimar Martins; Nomizo, Auro

    2010-06-01

    The aim of present study was to verify the in vitro antitumor activity of a ruthenium complex, cis-(dichloro)tetraammineruthenium(III) chloride (cis-[RuCl(2)(NH(3))(4)]Cl) toward different tumor cell lines. The antitumor studies showed that ruthenium(III) complex presents a relevant cytotoxic activity against murine B cell lymphoma (A-20), murine ascitic sarcoma 180 (S-180), human breast adenocarcinoma (SK-BR-3), and human T cell leukemia (Jurkat) cell lines and a very low cytotoxicity toward human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The ruthenium(III) complex decreased the fraction of tumor cells in G0/G1 and/or G2-M phases, indicating that this compound may act on resting/early entering G0/G1 cells and/or precycling G2-M cells. The cytotoxic activity of a high concentration (2 mg mL(-1)) of cis-[RuCl(2)(NH(3))(4)]Cl toward Jurkat cells correlated with an increased number of annexin V-positive cells and also the presence of DNA fragmentation, suggesting that this compound induces apoptosis in tumor cells. The development of new antineoplastic medications demands adequate knowledge in order to avoid inefficient or toxic treatments. Thus, a mechanistic understanding of how metal complexes achieve their activities is crucial to their clinical success and to the rational design of new compounds with improved potency.

  16. Resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and resveratrol-4’-O-glucuronide reduce DNA strand breakage but not apoptosis in Jurkat T cells treated with camptothecin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resveratrol has been reported to inhibit or induce DNA damage depending upon the type of cell and experimental conditions. Dietary resveratrol is present in the body mostly as metabolites and little is known about the activities of these metabolic products. We evaluated physiologically obtainable ...

  17. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat hg19 Input control Blood Jurkat SRX326895,SRX032295,SRX8355...RX206836,SRX1162906,SRX732512,SRX709027,SRX080335,SRX190051,SRX725580 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat hg19 All antigens Blood Jurkat SRX725577,SRX725585,SRX72558...9,SRX725580 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat.bed ...

  19. Antitumor activity of 6-(cyclohexylamino)-1, 3-dimethyl-5(2-pyridyl)furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione and Its Ti(IV), Zn(II), Fe(III), and Pd(II) complexes on K562 and Jurkat cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Fahmideh; Ghammamy, Shahriar; Mehrani, Khayroallah; Teimouri, Mohammad Bagher; Soleimani, Masoud; Kaviani, Saeid

    2008-01-01

    (6-(cyclohexylamino)-1,3-dimethyl-5(2-pyridyl)furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) abbreviated as CDP was synthesized and characterized. Ti(IV), Zn(II), Fe(III), and Pd(II) metal complexes of this ligand are prepared by the reaction of salts of Ti(IV), Zn(II), Fe(III), and Pd(II) with CDP in acetonitrile. Characterization of the ligand and its complexes was made by microanalyses, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and UV-Visible spectroscopy. All complexes were characterized by several techniques using elemental analysis (C, H, N), FT-IR, electronic spectra, and molar conductance measurements. The elemental analysis data suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:1 [M:L] ratio formation. The molar conductance measurements reveal the presence of 1:1 electrolytic nature complexes. These new complexes showed excellent antitumor activity against two kinds of cancer cells that are K562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia) cells and Jurkat (human T lymphocyte carcinoma) cells.

  20. Specific Inhibition of CD147 Gene Expression in Jurkat T Lymphocytes Decreased Colony Forming Capability%抑制CD147表达对Jurkat T淋巴细胞集落形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏冬; 张俊峰; 王汉伟; 郭竹英; 徐芒华; 高丰厚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of inhibiting CD147 gene expression by small interfering RNA(siRNA) in Jurkat T lymphocytes on the colony forming capability. Methods Specific siRNA targeting CD147 gene was transfected into Jurkat cells by LipofectimineTM 2000. The changes of CD147 mRNA level were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR,and total proteins level and cell surface protein were respectively detected by Western blot and flow cytometry at 48 h after transfection. By fluorescence inverted microscope,the changes of colony forming in Jurkat cells between the specificly inhibit ed CD147 group and the normal group were compared. Results Compared with control group,the CD147 mRNA and protein level in siRNA interference group were reduced by( 38.57 ± 1.55 ) % and (47.4 ± 1.47 ) % respectively ,and the mean fluorescence intensity of CD147 in Jurkat cells was descended by(50.5 ±4.7) %. Along with the inhibition of CD147, the colony forming of siRNA interference group obviously reduced(P <0.05 ). Conclusion siRNA can specifically inhibit the expression of CD147 in Jurkat cells,which can decrease the colony forming of the Jurkat cells, indicating that CD147 may potentially facilitate inflammatory cell adhesion and aggregation.%目的 研究小干扰RNA抑制CD147基因对Jurkat T淋巴细胞集落形成的影响.方法 将CD147特异的siRNA,经LipofectamineTM2000转染Jurkat细胞48 h后,用半定量RT-PCR检测CD147 mRNA水平的变化,Western blot和流式细胞术(FCM)分别检测总蛋白和细胞表面蛋白水平的变化.通过荧光倒置显微镜比较特异性抑制CDl47表达后Jurkat细胞集落形成的变化.结果 与对照组相比siRNA干扰组细胞CD147 mRNA和蛋白水平的表达均降低,抑制率分别为(38.57±1.55)%和(47.4±1.47)%,细胞表面CD147的平均荧光强度(MFI)下降(50.5±4.7)%(P<0.05).随着CD147被抑制,siRNA干扰组细胞集落形成明显少于对照组(P<0.05).结论

  1. Common stemness regulators of embryonic and cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiana; Hadjimichael; Konstantina; Chanoumidou; Natalia; Papadopoulou; Panagiota; Arampatzi; Joseph; Papamatheakis; Androniki; Kretsovali

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells(ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells is regulated by a well characterized gene transcription circuitry. The circuitry is assembled by ESC specific transcription factors, signal trans-ducing molecules and epigenetic regulators. Growing understanding of stem-like cells, albeit of more complex phenotypes, present in tumors(cancer stem cells), provides a common conceptual and research frame-work for basic and applied stem cell biology. In this review, we highlight current results on biomarkers, gene signatures, signaling pathways and epigenetic regulators that are common in embryonic and cancer stem cells. We discuss their role in determining the cell phenotype and finally, their potential use to design next generation biological and pharmaceutical approaches for regenerative medicine and cancer therapies.

  2. Senescing cells share common features with dedifferentiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damri, Meytal; Granot, Gila; Ben-Meir, Hagit; Avivi, Yigal; Plaschkes, Inbar; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Wolfson, Marina; Fraifeld, Vadim; Grafi, Gideon

    2009-12-01

    Dedifferentiation signifies the capacity of somatic cells to acquire stem cell-like properties. This process can be induced during normal development and as a response to various stimuli, such as pathogen infection and wounding. Dedifferentiation also characterizes the transition of differentiated leaf cells into protoplasts (plant cells devoid of cell walls), a transition accompanied by widespread chromatin decondensation. Transcriptome profiling of dedifferentiating protoplast cells revealed striking similarities with senescing cells; both display a large increase in the expression of genes of specific transcription factor (TF) families, including ANAC, WRKY, bZIP, and C2H2. Further analysis showed that leaves induced to senesce by exposure to dark display characteristic features of dedifferentiating cells, including chromatin decondensation, disruption of the nucleolus, and condensation of rRNA genes. Considering that premature senescence can be induced by various stress conditions both in plant and animal cells, our results suggest that the response of plant and also animal cells to certain stresses converges on cellular dedifferentiation whereby cells first acquire stem cell-like state prior to acquisition of a new cell fate (e.g., reentry into the cell cycle or death).

  3. Common Student Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Galvanic, Electrolytic, and Concentration Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates student (N=16) misconceptions concerning electrochemistry related to galvanic, electrolytic, and concentration cells. Findings indicate that most students demonstrating misconceptions were still able to calculate cell potentials correctly. Discusses common misconceptions and possible sources of these. Contains 33 references.…

  4. Common Student Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Galvanic, Electrolytic, and Concentration Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates student (N=16) misconceptions concerning electrochemistry related to galvanic, electrolytic, and concentration cells. Findings indicate that most students demonstrating misconceptions were still able to calculate cell potentials correctly. Discusses common misconceptions and possible sources of these. Contains 33 references.…

  5. Planar cell polarity signaling: a common mechanism for cellular polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Andreas; Mlodzik, Marek

    2006-09-01

    Epithelial cells frequently display--in addition to the common apical-basolateral polarity--a polarization within the plane of the epithelium. This is commonly referred to as planar cell polarity (PCP) or tissue polarity. Examples of vertebrate PCP include epithelial patterning in the skin and inner ear, and also the morphogenetic movements of mesenchymal cells during convergent extension at gastrulation. In Drosophila, all adult epithelial structures of the cuticle are polarized within the plane. This review presents recent results and new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment of PCP, and compares and contrasts the intriguing similarities between PCP signaling in Drosophila and vertebrates.

  6. 光敏剂间-四羟基苯二氢卟酚及其复合物对人T淋巴细胞白血病细胞的作用%Interaction and cytotoxicity of mTHPC and mTHPC complexes in Jurkat cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑顺贞; Karin L(o)w; Matthis Wacker; Arno Wiehe; Sylvia Wagner; Klaus Langer; Hagen von Briesen; 邹声泉

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察光敏剂间-四羟基苯二氢卟酚(mTHPC)及其复合物HSA-mTHPC对人T淋巴细胞白血病细胞(Jurkat)的作用,探讨人血白蛋白(HSA)纳米颗粒作为mTHPC载体的可行性.方法 利用流式细胞仪测定Jurkat细胞对mTHPC及HSA-mTHPC的摄取率,通过测定不同浓度mTHPC及HSA-mTHPC孵育Jurkat细胞后的存活率、细胞膜完整性和增殖率,评价两种药物的摄取率和细胞毒性.结果 浓度1.0 mg/L,孵育4、24 h Jurkat细胞的摄取率为:mTHPC单体:98.07%、99.07%;HSA-mTHPG中mTHPC:98.13%、99.19%;HSA单体:2.77%、4.84%.光照后Jurkat细胞活性和增殖率呈显著剂量、时间依赖的下降,mTHPC浓度为1.0 mg/L时,4、24、48 h存活率和增殖率分别为13.27%、5.46%、4.99%和2.68%、0.91%、0.62%,HSA-mTHPC对细胞生长和增殖的抑制与mTHPC单体比较未见下降(P>0.05).光照后LDH活性呈现显著剂量、时间依赖的上升,mTHPC浓度为1.0mg/L时,4、24、48 h LDH活性分别为:80.99%、99.38%、100.67%.结论 mTHPC是一种杀伤力强的光敏剂型,能有效进入肿瘤细胞,并导致细胞损害.HSA纳米颗粒不影响细胞对mTHPC的摄取,可以作为其载体.%Objective To investigate the interaction and cytotoxicity of the photosensitizer mTHPC [5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis (3-hydroxyphenyl) chlorine]and the complex human serum albumin (HSA)-mTHPC in Jurkat cells. Methods Jurkat cells were incubated with different concentrations of mTHPC and HSA-mTHPC for4, 24 and 48 h, followed by illumination with 652 nm for 10 min with 10 mW/cm2. The cellular interaction of free mTHPC and HSA-mTHPC was measured by using flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity was tested using standard toxicity assays (the WST-l-assay for the cell viability, the LDH-assay for the membrane integrity, and the BrdU-assay for the proliferation). Results After incubation with 1.0 mg/L mTHPC for 4 and 24 h, 98.07% and 99.07% of the cells were positive for the photosensitizer. The interaction of HSA without drug

  7. Abnormality of regulatory T cells in common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Gholamreza; Hafezi, Nasim; Mohammadi, Hamed; Yazdani, Reza; Alinia, Tina; Tavakol, Marzieh; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2017-05-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of primary antibody deficiencies (PAD) which is defined by recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia and defects in B-cell differentiation into plasma cells and memory B cells. T cell abnormalities have also been described in CVID patients. Several studies reported that Treg frequencies and their functional characteristics are disturbed and might account for the aberrant immune responses observed in CVID patients. The aim of this review is to describe phenotypic and functional characteristics of Treg cells, and to review the literature with respect to the reported Treg defects and its association with the clinical manifestation in CVID. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. From gametogenesis and stem cells to cancer: common metabolic themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sandro L; Rodrigues, Ana Sofia; Sousa, Maria Inês; Correia, Marcelo; Perestrelo, Tânia; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2014-01-01

    Both pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and cancer cells have been described as having similar metabolic pathways, most notably a penchant for favoring glycolysis even under aerobiosis, suggesting common themes that might be explored for both stem cell differentiation and anti-oncogenic purposes. A search of the scientific literature available in the PubMed/Medline was conducted for studies on metabolism and mitochondrial function related to gametogenesis, early development, stem cells and cancers in the reproductive system, notably breast, prostate, ovarian and testicular cancers. Both PSCs and some types of cancer cells, particularly reproductive cancers, were found to obtain energy mostly by glycolysis, often reducing mitochondrial activity and oxidative phosphorylation. This strategy links proliferating cells, allowing for the biosynthesis reactions necessary for cell division. Interventions that affect metabolic pathways, and force cells to change their preferences, can lead to shifts in cell status, increasing either pluripotency or differentiation of stem cells, and causing cancer cells to become more or less aggressive. Interestingly metabolic changes in many cases seemed to lead to cell transformation, not necessarily follow it, suggesting a direct role of metabolic choices in influencing the (epi)genetic program of different cell types. There are uncanny similarities between PSCs and cancer cells at the metabolic level. Furthermore, metabolism may also play a direct role in cell status and targeting metabolic pathways could therefore be a promising strategy for both the control of cancer cell proliferation and the regulation of stem cell physiology, in terms of manipulating stem cells toward relevant phenotypes that may be important for tissue engineering, or making cancer cells become less tumorigenic. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For

  9. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 Unclassified Blood Jurkat (...Clone E6-1) http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 Unclassified Blood Jurkat (...Clone E6-1) http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  11. File list: DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 DNase-seq Blood Jurkat (Clo...ne E6-1) http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Bld.10.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.10.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 Histone Blood Jurkat (Clone... E6-1) SRX024361,SRX024357,SRX216366 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.10.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  13. File list: DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 DNase-seq Blood Jurkat (Clo...ne E6-1) http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 TFs and others Blood Jurkat...07306,SRX107307,SRX128777,SRX128782 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 Unclassified Blood Jurkat (...Clone E6-1) http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 TFs and others Blood Jurkat...28784,SRX107307,SRX128780,SRX128781 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 DNase-seq Blood Jurkat (Clo...ne E6-1) http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  3. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 Unclassified Blood Jurkat (...Clone E6-1) http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 TFs and others Blood Jurkat...28777,SRX128782,SRX128784,SRX107307 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 DNase-seq Blood Jurkat (Clo...ne E6-1) http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  6. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 Histone Blood Jurkat (Clone... E6-1) SRX024361,SRX024357,SRX216366 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 Histone Blood Jurkat (Clone... E6-1) SRX024361,SRX216366,SRX024357 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  8. Anhydrobiosis and programmed cell death in plants: Commonalities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anhydrobiosis is an adaptive strategy of certain organisms or specialised propagules to survive in the absence of water while programmed cell death (PCD is a finely tuned cellular process of the selective elimination of targeted cell during developmental programme and perturbed biotic and abiotic conditions. Particularly during water stress both the strategies serve single purpose i.e., survival indicating PCD may also function as an adaptive process under certain conditions. During stress conditions PCD cause targeted cells death in order to keep the homeostatic balance required for the organism survival, whereas anhydrobiosis suspends cellular metabolic functions mimicking a state similar to death until reestablishment of the favourable conditions. Anhydrobiosis is commonly observed among organisms that have ability to revive their metabolism on rehydration after removal of all or almost all cellular water without damage. This feature is widely represented in terrestrial cyanobacteria and bryophytes where it is very common in both vegetative and reproductive stages of life-cycle. In the course of evolution, with the development of advanced vascular system in higher plants, anhydrobiosis was gradually lost from the vegetative phase of life-cycle. Though it is retained in resurrection plants that primarily belong to thallophytes and a small group of vascular angiosperm, it can be mostly found restricted in orthodox seeds of higher plants. On the contrary, PCD is a common process in all eukaryotes from unicellular to multicellular organisms including higher plants and mammals. In this review we discuss physiological and biochemical commonalities and differences between anhydrobiosis and PCD.

  9. Impacts of autophagy-inducing ingredient of areca nut on tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Yen

    Full Text Available Areca nut (AN is a popular carcinogen used by about 0.6-1.2 billion people worldwide. Although AN contains apoptosis-inducing ingredients, we previously demonstrated that both AN extract (ANE and its 30-100 kDa fraction (ANE 30-100K predominantly induce autophagic cell death in both normal and malignant cells. In this study, we further explored the action mechanism of ANE 30-100K-induced autophagy (AIA in Jurkat T lymphocytes and carcinoma cell lines including OECM-1 (mouth, CE81T/VGH (esophagus, SCC25 (tongue, and SCC-15 (tongue. The results showed that chemical- and small hairpin RNA (shRNA-mediated inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK resulted in the attenuation of AIA in Jurkat T but not in OECM-1 cells. Knockdown of Atg5 and Beclin 1 expressions ameliorated AIA in OECM-1/CE81T/VGH/Jurkat T and OECM-1/SCC25/SCC-15, respectively. Furthermore, ANE 30-100K could activate caspase-3 after inhibition of Beclin 1 expression in OECM-1/SCC25/SCC15 cells. Meanwhile, AMPK was demonstrated to be the upstream activator of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK in Jurkat T cells, and inhibition of MEK attenuated AIA in Jurkat T/OECM-1/CE81T/VGH cells. Finally, we also found that multiple myeloma RPMI8226, lymphoma U937, and SCC15 cells survived from long-term non-cytotoxic ANE 30-100K treatment exhibited stronger resistance against serum deprivation through upregulated autophagy. Collectively, our studies indicate that Beclin-1 and Atg5 but not AMPK are commonly required for AIA, and MEK/ERK pathway is involved in AIA. Meanwhile, it is also suggested that long-term AN usage might increase the resistance of survived tumor cells against serum-limited conditions.

  10. Differential induction of apoptosis by type A and B trichothecenes in Jurkat T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Thanakarn; Bosch, Remko R; Voorde, Sandra ten; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2006-09-01

    Several studies have shown that the mycotoxins T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) affect lymphocyte functioning. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory effects of these trichothecenes are not defined yet. In this study, the potency of the type A trichothecenes T-2 toxin and DAS, and the type B trichothecenes DON (and its metabolite de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol; DOM-1) and NIV to reduce mitochondrial activity and to induce apoptosis of Jurkat T cells (human T lymphocytes) were examined. T-2 toxin and DAS are much more cytotoxic at low concentrations than DON and NIV as shown by the AlamarBlue cytotoxicity assay. In addition, the mechanism whereby DON and NIV induced cytotoxicity is mainly via apoptosis as we observed phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, procaspase-3 degradation and Bcl-2 degradation. In contrast, type A trichothecenes reduce the mitochondrial activity at approximately 1000-fold lower concentrations than the type B trichothecenes, resulting in necrosis. These data suggest that the mechanisms resulting in cytotoxic effects are different for type A and type B trichothecenes.

  11. [Ribonuclease binase induces death in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnysheva, K M; Petrushanko, I Yu; Spirin, P V; Prassolov, V S; Makarov, A A; Mitkevich, V A

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial ribonuclease binase is a potential anticancer agent. In the present study, we have determined the toxic effect of binase towards cell lines of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat and CEMss. We have shown that binase induces apoptosis in these cells. At the same time, binase does not cause toxic effects in leukocytes of healthy donors, which suggests that binase activity towards leukemic cells is selective. We have found that the treatment of cancer cells with binase leads to a reduction in reactive oxygen species and transcription factor NFκB levels, and demonstrated that these effects are a common feature of the action of RNases on cancer cells.

  12. Cancer stem cell markers in common cancers - therapeutic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klonisch, Thomas; Wiechec, Emilia; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Rapid advance in the cancer stem cell field warrants optimism for the development of more reliable cancer therapies within the next 2-3 decades. Below, we characterize and compare the specific markers that are present on stem cells, cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSC) in selected tissues...

  13. Cancer stem cell markers in common cancers - therapeutic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klonisch, Thomas; Wiechec, Emilia; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Rapid advance in the cancer stem cell field warrants optimism for the development of more reliable cancer therapies within the next 2-3 decades. Below, we characterize and compare the specific markers that are present on stem cells, cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSC) in selected tissues...

  14. Role of Th17 cells in common liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Linlin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been found that T helper type 17 (Th17 cells are a new subset of CD4+ Th cells. Th17 cells play an important role in the onset and development of many liver diseases and have become the research focus in immunology. This paper summarizes the studies on the relationship between Th17 cells and various liver diseases in order to provide a new idea for the study and treatment of liver diseases.

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  3. Common mechanisms regulating cell cortex properties during cell division and cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubinet, Chantal; Tran, Phong T; Piel, Matthieu

    2012-11-01

    Single cell morphogenesis results from a balance of forces involving internal pressure (also called turgor pressure in plants and fungi) and the plastic and dynamic outer shell of the cell. Dominated by the cell wall in plants and fungi, mechanical properties of the outer shell of animal cells arise from the cell cortex, which is mostly composed of the plasma membrane (and membrane proteins) and the underlying meshwork of actin filaments and myosin motors (and associated proteins). In this review, following Bray and White [1988; Science 239:883-889], we draw a parallel between the regulation of the cell cortex during cell division and cell migration in animal cells. Starting from the similarities in shape changes and underlying mechanical properties, we further propose that the analogy between cell division and cell migration might run deeper, down to the basic molecular mechanisms driving cell cortex remodeling. We focus our attention on how an heterogeneous and dynamic cortex can be generated to allow cell shape changes while preserving cell integrity.

  4. Common Cell Shape Evolution of Two Nasopharyngeal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrier, Frédéric J; Biais, Nicolas; Morales, Pablo; Belkacem, Nouria; Guilhen, Cyril; Ranjeva, Sylvia; Sismeiro, Odile; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Rocha, Eduardo P; Werts, Catherine; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Boneca, Ivo G

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory infectious diseases are the third cause of worldwide death. The nasopharynx is the portal of entry and the ecological niche of many microorganisms, of which some are pathogenic to humans, such as Neisseria meningitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis. These microbes possess several surface structures that interact with the actors of the innate immune system. In our attempt to understand the past evolution of these bacteria and their adaption to the nasopharynx, we first studied differences in cell wall structure, one of the strongest immune-modulators. We were able to show that a modification of peptidoglycan (PG) composition (increased proportion of pentapeptides) and a cell shape change from rod to cocci had been selected for along the past evolution of N. meningitidis. Using genomic comparison across species, we correlated the emergence of the new cell shape (cocci) with the deletion, from the genome of N. meningitidis ancestor, of only one gene: yacF. Moreover, the reconstruction of this genetic deletion in a bacterium harboring the ancestral version of the locus together with the analysis of the PG structure, suggest that this gene is coordinating the transition from cell elongation to cell division. Accompanying the loss of yacF, the elongation machinery was also lost by several of the descendants leading to the change in the PG structure observed in N. meningitidis. Finally, the same evolution was observed for the ancestor of M. catarrhalis. This suggests a strong selection of these genetic events during the colonization of the nasopharynx. This selection may have been forced by the requirement of evolving permissive interaction with the immune system, the need to reduce the cellular surface exposed to immune attacks without reducing the intracellular storage capacity, or the necessity to better compete for adhesion to target cells.

  5. Diagnostic biopsy does not commonly induce intratumoral CD8 T cell infiltration in Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Koba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma is a polyomavirus-associated cancer that is strongly linked with T lymphocyte immune suppression in epidemiologic studies. CD8+ T cell infiltration into MCC tumors (intratumoral has recently been shown to be strongly predictive of improved survival. In contrast, the presence of CD8+ T cells at the border of the tumor (peritumoral had no independent prognostic value. Spontaneous regression has been reported for MCC approximately one thousand times more often than would be expected given the frequency of this cancer. Many of these events began shortly after biopsy, and in some cases lymphocytic infiltration was described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration in MCC tumors is commonly altered by biopsy.33 MCC patients who had microscopic confirmation of MCC on both an initial biopsy and a re-excision specimen were included in this study. Intratumoral and peritumoral CD8 lymphocyte infiltration was quantitated using immunohistochemistry and compared using the paired t-test in biopsy versus re-excision samples. There was a trend toward increased CD8 infiltration after biopsy in a peritumoral ('stalled' pattern (p = 0.08, however, biopsy was not associated with a significant increase in CD8 T cells in the clinically more important intratumoral location (p = 0.58. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The initial diagnostic biopsy for MCC does not commonly alter intratumoral CD8+ T cell infiltration, suggesting it does not directly induce immunologic recognition of this cancer. Because CD8 infiltration is typically stable after biopsy, this parameter may be useful to assess the efficacy of future immune therapies for this virus-associated, immunogenic, often-lethal cancer.

  6. Common variable immunodeficiency and inclusion body myositis: a distinct myopathy mediated by natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, M C; Illa, I

    1995-06-01

    Inclusion body myositis developed in two men, 36 and 48 years old with long-standing common variable immunodeficiency. Immunophenotypic analysis of the endomysial cells showed an increased number of natural killer (NK) cells (defined as CD57+, CD56+, CD3-, CD8-, CD68-) accounting for 8.5 to 9.5% of the total cells, compared with a mean of 1% in sporadic inclusion body myositis. The remaining cells were CD8+, macrophages, and CD4+ T cells. NK cells were positive for intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and invaded muscle fibers negative for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. In contrast to ubiquitous endomysial expression of MHC class I antigen in sporadic inclusion body myositis, the MHC class I in common variable immunodeficiency and inclusion body myositis was absent or weakly expressed in only some of the muscle fibers surrounded by CD8+ cells. Enteroviral or retroviral RNA sequences were not amplified. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin improved strength in 1 patient whose repeated muscle biopsy specimen showed normal NK cells. We conclude that inclusion body myositis can develop in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Common variable immunodeficiency with inclusion body myositis is an immune myopathy mediated by NK cells in a non-MHC class I-restricted cytotoxicity, and by CD8+ cells in an MHC class I-restricted process. This is the first description of an inflammatory myopathy in which NK cells participate in the myocytotoxic process.

  7. Laccase purified from Cerrena unicolor exerts antitumor activity against leukemic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATUSZEWSKA, ANNA; KARP, MARTA; JASZEK, MAGDALENA; JANUSZ, GRZEGORZ; OSIŃSKA-JAROSZUK, MONIKA; SULEJ, JUSTYNA; STEFANIUK, DAWID; TOMCZAK, WALDEMAR; GIANNOPOULOS, KRZYSZTOF

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most commonly observed adult hematological malignancy in Western countries. Despite the fact that recent improvements in CLL treatment have led to an increased percentage of complete remissions, CLL remains an incurable disease. Cerrena unicolor is a novel fungal source of highly active extracellular laccase (ex-LAC) that is currently used in industry. However, to the best of our knowledge, no reports regarding its anti-leukemic activity have been published thus far. In the present study, it was hypothesized that C. unicolor ex-LAC may possess cytotoxic activity against leukemic cell lines and CLL primary cells. C. unicolor ex-LAC was separated using anion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose-Sepharose and Sephadex G-50 columns. The cytotoxic effects of ex-LAC upon 24- and 48-h treatment on HL-60, Jurkat, RPMI 8226 and K562 cell lines, as well as CLL primary cells of nine patients with CLL, were evaluated using 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining of Jurkat cells treated with ex-LAC was used to investigate apoptosis via flow cytometry. Ex-LAC induced changes in Jurkat and RPMI 8226 cells, as visualized by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XTT assay revealed high cytotoxic rates following treatment with various concentrations of ex-LAC on all the cell lines and CLL primary cells analyzed, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.4 to 1.1 µg/ml. Fluorescence microscopy and SEM observations additionally revealed apoptotic changes in Jurkat and RPMI 8226 cells treated with ex-LAC, compared with control cells. These results were in agreement with the apoptosis analysis of Jurkat cells on flow cytometry. In conclusion, C. unicolor ex-LAC was able to significantly induce cell apoptosis, and may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of various hematological neoplasms. PMID

  8. Derivation of Neural Progenitors and Retinal Pigment Epithelium from Common Marmoset and Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laughing Bear Torrez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs derived from mammalian species are valuable tools for modeling human disease, including retinal degenerative eye diseases that result in visual loss. Restoration of vision has focused on transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE to the retina. Here we used transgenic common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus and human pluripotent stem cells carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP reporter as a model system for retinal differentiation. Using suspension and subsequent adherent differentiation cultures, we observed spontaneous in vitro differentiation that included NPCs and cells with pigment granules characteristic of differentiated RPE. Retinal cells derived from human and common marmoset pluripotent stem cells provide potentially unlimited cell sources for testing safety and immune compatibility following autologous or allogeneic transplantation using nonhuman primates in early translational applications.

  9. A comparative assessment of cytotoxicity of commonly used agricultural insecticides to human and insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xinming; Huang, Qingchun; Rao, Wenbing; Xiao, Ciying; Zhang, Tao; Mao, Zhifan; Wan, Ziyi

    2017-03-01

    The cytotoxic potential of 13 commonly used agricultural insecticides was examined using cell-based systems with three human HepG2, Hek293, HeLa cells and three insect Tn5B1-4, Sf-21, and Drosophila S2 cells. Data showed that (1) an enhancement of some insecticides (e.g. pyrethroids) on cells proliferation; (2) an inhibition of some insecticides on cells viability; (3) various levels of susceptibility of different cells to the same insecticide; and (4) the cell type dependent sensitivity to different insecticides. The degree of cytotoxicity of insecticides on human cells was significantly lower than that on insect cells (Pinsecticides against intact cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Akifumi; Sotomaru, Yusuke; Nobukiyo, Asako; Yamaoka, Emi; Hiyama, Eiso

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be useful for regenerative medicine because they can beharvested easily from the bone marrow of living donors and the cells can be differentiated into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. To apply MSCs for the medical treatment of human diseases as regenerative medicine, detailed experimental characterization of the cells is required. Recently, a New World primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), has been widely used as a new human disease model because of its ease of handling and breeding. Although common marmoset MSCs have been established and will be used in preclinical studies of regenerative medicine, the characteristics of these cells remain unclear. Aiming to characterize common marmoset MSCs further, we harvested common marmoset bone marrow-derived cells (cmBMDCs) from the femurs of newborn males. We revealed that the morphology of the cells was similar to common marmoset fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix components, such as gelatin and fibronectin, were effective for their proliferation and formation of colony-forming unit fibroblasts. Furthermore, we were able to differentiate cmBMDCs into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes in vitro, and they expressed the MSCmarkers CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105, but their expression decreased with increasing passage number. The data demonstrate that cmBMDCs exhibit characteristics of MSCs and thus it would be beneficial to use these cells in preclinical studies.

  11. Quantifying Epithelial Early Common Progenitors from Long-Term Primary or Cell Line Sphere Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Flora; Zhu, Helen He; Gao, Wei-Qiang; Delay, Emmanuel; Maguer-Satta, Véronique

    2015-11-04

    Here, a protocol to quantify epithelial early common progenitor/stem cells grown as spheres in non-adherent culture conditions is described. This protocol is based on the combination of two functional tests: the sphere assay to maintain and enrich early progenitor/stem cells, and the epithelial colony-forming cells (E-CFC) assay to identify and quantify further differentiated epithelial progenitors. Primary spheres mainly contain progenitors and rare stem/early common progenitor cells while secondary and tertiary spheres contain progenitor cells derived from the early common progenitor/stem cell population maintained through passages and partially differentiated. Spheres are enzymatically and mechanically dissociated; the derived cells are subsequently plated on irradiated NIH-3T3 fibroblasts for further processing, as in the E-CFC assay. The principle of this assay is to quantify the number of epithelial colonies generated by cells present in the different sequential spheres. This assay has therefore been named the early common progenitor-derived colonies assay (ECP-DC).

  12. Effects of common germ-line genetic variation in cell cycle genes on ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Hogdall, E.; Ramus, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Somatic alterations have been shown to correlate with ovarian cancer prognosis and survival, but less is known about the effects on survival of common inherited genetic variation. Of particular interest are genes involved in cell cycle pathways, which regulate cell division and could pla...

  13. Purification and characterization of fetal hematopoietic cells that express the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Rosenthal, P; Griffin, J D

    1983-01-01

    Fetal hematopoietic cells that express the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) were purified from both fetal liver and fetal bone marrow by immune rosetting with sheep erythrocytes coated with rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin and by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Dual...... antigen. Furthermore, using methanol-fixed cells, it could be shown that approximately 20% contained intracytoplasmic mu chains (cyto-mu) and that approximately 15% were positive for the terminal transferase enzyme (TdT) marker. The CALLA+ fetal cells thus closely resemble the childhood acute...... that these cells are relatively immature lymphoid cells, CALLA+ cells do not appear to contain either myeloid precursor cells (CFU-G/M) or the earliest lymphoid stem cells. Udgivelsesdato: 1983-Jan-1...

  14. Common themes and cell type specific variations of higher order chromatin arrangements in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremer Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarities as well as differences in higher order chromatin arrangements of human cell types were previously reported. For an evolutionary comparison, we now studied the arrangements of chromosome territories and centromere regions in six mouse cell types (lymphocytes, embryonic stem cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, myoblasts and myotubes with fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Both species evolved pronounced differences in karyotypes after their last common ancestors lived about 87 million years ago and thus seem particularly suited to elucidate common and cell type specific themes of higher order chromatin arrangements in mammals. Results All mouse cell types showed non-random correlations of radial chromosome territory positions with gene density as well as with chromosome size. The distribution of chromosome territories and pericentromeric heterochromatin changed during differentiation, leading to distinct cell type specific distribution patterns. We exclude a strict dependence of these differences on nuclear shape. Positional differences in mouse cell nuclei were less pronounced compared to human cell nuclei in agreement with smaller differences in chromosome size and gene density. Notably, the position of chromosome territories relative to each other was very variable. Conclusion Chromosome territory arrangements according to chromosome size and gene density provide common, evolutionary conserved themes in both, human and mouse cell types. Our findings are incompatible with a previously reported model of parental genome separation.

  15. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation.

  16. Purification and characterization of fetal hematopoietic cells that express the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Rosenthal, P; Griffin, J D

    1983-01-01

    Fetal hematopoietic cells that express the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) were purified from both fetal liver and fetal bone marrow by immune rosetting with sheep erythrocytes coated with rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin and by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Dual...... lymphoblastic leukemia cell with respect to surface marker phenotype. A population of CALLA- cells devoid of mature erythroid and myeloid surface markers was found to contain higher numbers of TdT+ cells but lower numbers of cyto-mu, B1, and Ia+ cells than the CALLA+ subset. In vitro analysis of normal...... antigen. Furthermore, using methanol-fixed cells, it could be shown that approximately 20% contained intracytoplasmic mu chains (cyto-mu) and that approximately 15% were positive for the terminal transferase enzyme (TdT) marker. The CALLA+ fetal cells thus closely resemble the childhood acute...

  17. Evaluation of dendritic cells loaded with apoptotic cancer cells or expressing tumour mRNA as potential cancer vaccines against leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sæbøe-Larssen Stein

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukemia is a clonal disorder characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of haematopoietic cells, and represents the most common form of cancer in children. Advances in therapy for childhood leukemia have relied increasingly on the use of high-dose chemotherapy often combined with stem-cell transplantation. Despite a high success rate and intensification of therapy, children still suffer from relapse and progressive disease resistant to further therapy. Thus, novel forms of therapy are required. Methods This study focuses on dendritic cell (DC vaccination of childhood leukemia and evaluates the in vitro efficacy of different strategies for antigen loading of professional antigen-presenting cells. We have compared DCs either loaded with apoptotic leukemia cells or transfected with mRNA from the same leukemia cell line, Jurkat E6, for their capacity to induce specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. Monocyte-derived DCs from healthy donors were loaded with tumor antigen, matured and co-cultured with autologous T cells. After one week, T-cell responses against antigen-loaded DCs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT assay. Results DCs loaded with apoptotic Jurkat E6 cells or transfected with Jurkat E6-cell mRNA were both able to elicit specific T-cell responses in vitro. IFNγ-secreting T cells were observed in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets. Conclusion The results indicate that loading of DCs with apoptotic leukemia cells or transfection with tumour mRNA represent promising strategies for development of cancer vaccines for treatment of childhood leukemia.

  18. The common peptides and the cytochemistry of their cells of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, A G

    1980-01-01

    Thirtyfive biologically active peptides are products of the 40 cells of the APUD series, which constitute the Diffuse Neuroendocrine System (DNES). Twentyone of these peptides are found not only in the cells and processes of the DNES but also in the cells and the processes of the nervous system. Hence the appellation common. To the seven original common cytochemical features of the APUD cells it is possible to add the positive results of 3 subsidiary staining techniques (Lead haematoxylin, Argyrophilia, Formaldehyde-Fluorescamine), a singly cytochemical method (Formaldehyde-ozone), and an immunocytochemical molecular marker method (neuron-specific enolase; NSE). Application of this last method demonstrates NSE in the APUD cells and confirms their origin from "neuroendocrine-programmed epiblast."

  19. Mast cells in common wolffish Anarhichas lupus L.: ontogeny, distribution and association with lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, Hege; Bjerkås, Inge; Vågnes, Øyvind B; Noga, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    The morphology, ontogeny and tissue distribution of mast cells were studied in common wolffish(Anarhichas lupus L.) at the larval, juvenile and adult life stages using light and electron-microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Fish were sampled at 1 day, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-hatching in addition to 6 and 9 months and 2 years and older. From 8 weeks post-hatching, mast cells in common wolffish mainly appeared as oval or rounded cells 8-15 mm in diameter with an eccentrically placed, ovoid nucleus and filled with cytoplasmic granules up to 1.2 mm in diameter. Granules were refractile and eosinophilic to slightly basophilic in H&E and stained bright red with Martius-scarlet-blue and purple with pinacyanol erythrosinate in formalin-fixed tissues. Mast cells stained positive for piscidin 4 and Fc ε RI by immunohistochemistry. From 1 day to 4 weeks post-hatching, immature mast cell containing only a few irregularly sized cytoplasmic granules were observed by light and electron-microscopy in loose connective tissue of cranial areas. From 1 day post-hatching, these cells stained positive for piscidin 4 and Fc ε RI by immunohistochemistry. From 12 weeks post-hatching, mast cells showed a primarily perivascular distribution and were particularly closely associated with lymphatic vessels and sinuses. Mast cells were mainly located at the peripheral border of the adventitia of arteries and veins, while they were in intimate contact with the endothelium of the lymphatic vessels. Numerous mast cells were observed in the intestine. A stratum compactum, as described in salmonids, was not observed in wolffish intestine,nor were mast cells confined to a separate layer, a stratum granulosum. Lymphatic vessels consisting of endothelium, intimal connective tissue and a poorly developed basal lamina were observed in the intestine. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare the structure and localization of intestinal mast cells of common wolffish and rainbow trout

  20. Density, proportion, and dendritic coverage of retinal ganglion cells of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed a quantitative analysis of M and P cell mosaics of the common-marmoset retina. Ganglion cells were labeled retrogradely from optic nerve deposits of Biocytin. The labeling was visualized using horseradish peroxidase (HRP histochemistry and 3-3'diaminobenzidine as chromogen. M and P cells were morphologically similar to those found in Old- and New-World primates. Measurements were performed on well-stained cells from 4 retinas of different animals. We analyzed separate mosaics for inner and outer M and P cells at increasing distances from the fovea (2.5-9 mm of eccentricity to estimate cell density, proportion, and dendritic coverage. M cell density decreased towards the retinal periphery in all quadrants. M cell density was higher in the nasal quadrant than in other retinal regions at similar eccentricities, reaching about 740 cells/mm² at 2.5 mm of temporal eccentricity, and representing 8-14% of all ganglion cells. P cell density increased from peripheral to more central regions, reaching about 5540 cells/mm² at 2.5 mm of temporal eccentricity. P cells represented a smaller proportion of all ganglion cells in the nasal quadrant than in other quadrants, and their numbers increased towards central retinal regions. The M cell coverage factor ranged from 5 to 12 and the P cell coverage factor ranged from 1 to 3 in the nasal quadrant and from 5 to 12 in the other quadrants. These results show that central and peripheral retinal regions differ in terms of cell class proportions and dendritic coverage, and their properties do not result from simply scaling down cell density. Therefore, differences in functional properties between central and peripheral vision should take these distinct regional retinal characteristics into account.

  1. Robust cell tracking in epithelial tissues through identification of maximum common subgraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursawe, Jochen; Bardenet, Rémi; Zartman, Jeremiah J; Baker, Ruth E; Fletcher, Alexander G

    2016-11-01

    Tracking of cells in live-imaging microscopy videos of epithelial sheets is a powerful tool for investigating fundamental processes in embryonic development. Characterizing cell growth, proliferation, intercalation and apoptosis in epithelia helps us to understand how morphogenetic processes such as tissue invagination and extension are locally regulated and controlled. Accurate cell tracking requires correctly resolving cells entering or leaving the field of view between frames, cell neighbour exchanges, cell removals and cell divisions. However, current tracking methods for epithelial sheets are not robust to large morphogenetic deformations and require significant manual interventions. Here, we present a novel algorithm for epithelial cell tracking, exploiting the graph-theoretic concept of a 'maximum common subgraph' to track cells between frames of a video. Our algorithm does not require the adjustment of tissue-specific parameters, and scales in sub-quadratic time with tissue size. It does not rely on precise positional information, permitting large cell movements between frames and enabling tracking in datasets acquired at low temporal resolution due to experimental constraints such as phototoxicity. To demonstrate the method, we perform tracking on the Drosophila embryonic epidermis and compare cell-cell rearrangements to previous studies in other tissues. Our implementation is open source and generally applicable to epithelial tissues.

  2. Modeling the impact of common noise inputs on the network activity of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidne, Michael; Ahmadian, Yashar; Shlens, Jonathon; Pillow, Jonathan W; Kulkarni, Jayant; Litke, Alan M; Chichilnisky, E J; Simoncelli, Eero; Paninski, Liam

    2012-08-01

    Synchronized spontaneous firing among retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), on timescales faster than visual responses, has been reported in many studies. Two candidate mechanisms of synchronized firing include direct coupling and shared noisy inputs. In neighboring parasol cells of primate retina, which exhibit rapid synchronized firing that has been studied extensively, recent experimental work indicates that direct electrical or synaptic coupling is weak, but shared synaptic input in the absence of modulated stimuli is strong. However, previous modeling efforts have not accounted for this aspect of firing in the parasol cell population. Here we develop a new model that incorporates the effects of common noise, and apply it to analyze the light responses and synchronized firing of a large, densely-sampled network of over 250 simultaneously recorded parasol cells. We use a generalized linear model in which the spike rate in each cell is determined by the linear combination of the spatio-temporally filtered visual input, the temporally filtered prior spikes of that cell, and unobserved sources representing common noise. The model accurately captures the statistical structure of the spike trains and the encoding of the visual stimulus, without the direct coupling assumption present in previous modeling work. Finally, we examined the problem of decoding the visual stimulus from the spike train given the estimated parameters. The common-noise model produces Bayesian decoding performance as accurate as that of a model with direct coupling, but with significantly more robustness to spike timing perturbations.

  3. Common histological patterns in glomerular epithelial cells in secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppe, C.; Grone, H.J.; Ostendorf, T.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Boor, P.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are involved in the development of sclerotic lesions in primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here, the role of PECs was explored in the more common secondary FSGS lesions in 68 patient biopsies, diagnosed with 11 different frequently or rarely encou

  4. Colonization of collagen scaffolds by adipocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells of the common marmoset monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernemann, Inga, E-mail: bernemann@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Mueller, Thomas; Blasczyk, Rainer [Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Glasmacher, Birgit; Hofmann, Nicola [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Marmoset bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiate in suspension into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. {yields} Marmoset MSCs integrate in collagen type I scaffolds and differentiate excellently into adipogenic cells. {yields} Common marmoset monkey is a suitable model for soft tissue engineering in human regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: In regenerative medicine, human cell replacement therapy offers great potential, especially by cell types differentiated from immunologically and ethically unproblematic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In terms of an appropriate carrier material, collagen scaffolds with homogeneous pore size of 65 {mu}m were optimal for cell seeding and cultivating. However, before clinical application and transplantation of MSC-derived cells in scaffolds, the safety and efficiency, but also possible interference in differentiation due to the material must be preclinically tested. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is a preferable non-human primate animal model for this aim due to its genetic and physiological similarities to the human. Marmoset bone marrow-derived MSCs were successfully isolated, cultured and differentiated in suspension into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages by defined factors. The differentiation capability could be determined by FACS. Specific marker genes for all three cell types could be detected by RT-PCR. Furthermore, MSCs seeded on collagen I scaffolds differentiated in adipogenic lineage showed after 28 days of differentiation high cell viability and homogenous distribution on the material which was validated by calcein AM and EthD staining. As proof of adipogenic cells, the intracellular lipid vesicles in the cells were stained with Oil Red O. The generation of fat vacuoles was visibly extensive distinguishable and furthermore determined on the molecular level by expression of specific marker genes. The results of the study proved both the differential

  5. Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell-specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine.

  6. Role of Common-Gamma Chain Cytokines in NK Cell Development and Function: Perspectives for Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Meazza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells are components of the innate immunity system and play an important role as a first-line defense mechanism against viral infections and in tumor immune surveillance. Their development and their functional activities are controlled by several factors among which cytokines sharing the usage of the common cytokine-receptor gamma chain play a pivotal role. In particular, IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 are the members of this family predominantly involved in NK cell biology. In this paper, we will address their role in NK cell ontogeny, regulation of functional activities, development of specialized cell subsets, and acquisition of memory-like functions. Finally, the potential application of these cytokines as recombinant molecules to NK cell-based immunotherapy approaches will be discussed.

  7. The development of innate lymphoid cells requires TOX-dependent generation of a common innate lymphoid cell progenitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehus, Corey R; Aliahmad, Parinaz; de la Torre, Brian; Iliev, Iliyan D; Spurka, Lindsay; Funari, Vincent A; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Diverse innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subtypes have been defined on the basis of effector function and transcription factor expression. ILCs derive from common lymphoid progenitors, although the transcriptional pathways that lead to ILC-lineage specification remain poorly characterized. Here we found that the transcriptional regulator TOX was required for the in vivo differentiation of common lymphoid progenitors into ILC lineage-restricted cells. In vitro modeling demonstrated that TOX deficiency resulted in early defects in the survival or proliferation of progenitor cells, as well as ILC differentiation at a later stage. In addition, comparative transcriptome analysis of bone marrow progenitors revealed that TOX-deficient cells failed to upregulate many genes of the ILC program, including genes that are targets of Notch, which indicated that TOX is a key determinant of early specification to the ILC lineage.

  8. Invasion of Eukaryotic Cells by Legionella Pneumophila: A Common Strategy for all Hosts?

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    Paul S Hoffman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an environmental micro-organism capable of producing an acute lobar pneumonia, commonly referred to as Legionnaires’ disease, in susceptible humans. Legionellae are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, where they survive in biofilms or intracellularly in various protozoans. Susceptible humans become infected by breathing aerosols laden with the bacteria. The target cell for human infection is the alveolar macrophage, in which the bacteria abrogate phagolysosomal fusion. The remarkable ability of L pneumophila to infect a wide range of eukaryotic cells suggests a common strategy that exploits very fundamental cellular processes. The bacteria enter host cells via coiling phagocytosis and quickly subvert organelle trafficking events, leading to formation of a replicative phagosome in which the bacteria multiply. Vegetative growth continues for 8 to 10 h, after which the bacteria develop into a short, highly motile form called the ‘mature form’. The mature form exhibits a thickening of the cell wall, stains red with the Gimenez stain, and is between 10 and 100 times more infectious than agar-grown bacteria. Following host cell lysis, the released bacteria infect other host cells, in which the mature form differentiates into a Gimenez-negative vegetative form, and the cycle begins anew. Virulence of L pneumophila is considered to be multifactorial, and there is growing evidence for both stage specific and sequential gene expression. Thus, L pneumophila may be a good model system for dissecting events associated with the host-parasite interactions.

  9. Identification of the Common Origins of Osteoclasts, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells in Human Hematopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Xiao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoclasts (OCs originate from the myeloid cell lineage, but the successive steps in their lineage commitment are ill-defined, especially in humans. To clarify OC origin, we sorted cell populations from pediatric bone marrow (BM by flow cytometry and assessed their differentiation potential in vitro. Within the CD11b−CD34+c-KIT+ BM cell population, OC-differentiation potential was restricted to FLT3+ cells and enriched in an IL3 receptor (Rαhigh subset that constituted less than 0.5% of total BM. These IL3Rαhigh cells also generated macrophages (MΦs and dendritic cells (DCs but lacked granulocyte (GR-differentiation potential, as demonstrated at the clonal level. The IL3Rαlow subset was re-defined as common progenitor of GR, MΦ, OC, and DC (GMODP and gave rise to the IL3Rαhigh subset that was identified as common progenitor of MΦ, OC, and DC (MODP. Unbiased transcriptome analysis of CD11b−CD34+c-KIT+FLT3+ IL3Rαlow and IL3Rαhigh subsets corroborated our definitions of the GMODP and MODP and their developmental relationship.

  10. Identification of the Common Origins of Osteoclasts, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells in Human Hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanling; Zijl, Sebastiaan; Wang, Liqin; de Groot, Daniel C; van Tol, Maarten J; Lankester, Arjan C; Borst, Jannie

    2015-06-01

    Osteoclasts (OCs) originate from the myeloid cell lineage, but the successive steps in their lineage commitment are ill-defined, especially in humans. To clarify OC origin, we sorted cell populations from pediatric bone marrow (BM) by flow cytometry and assessed their differentiation potential in vitro. Within the CD11b(-)CD34(+)c-KIT(+) BM cell population, OC-differentiation potential was restricted to FLT3(+) cells and enriched in an IL3 receptor (R)α(high) subset that constituted less than 0.5% of total BM. These IL3Rα(high) cells also generated macrophages (MΦs) and dendritic cells (DCs) but lacked granulocyte (GR)-differentiation potential, as demonstrated at the clonal level. The IL3Rα(low) subset was re-defined as common progenitor of GR, MΦ, OC, and DC (GMODP) and gave rise to the IL3Rα(high) subset that was identified as common progenitor of MΦ, OC, and DC (MODP). Unbiased transcriptome analysis of CD11b(-)CD34(+)c-KIT(+)FLT3(+) IL3Rα(low) and IL3Rα(high) subsets corroborated our definitions of the GMODP and MODP and their developmental relationship.

  11. NFIL3 Orchestrates the Emergence of Common Helper Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are a family of effectors that originate from a common innate lymphoid cell progenitor. However, the transcriptional program that sets the identity of the ILC lineage remains elusive. Here, we show that NFIL3 is a critical regulator of the common helper-like innate lymphoid cell progenitor (CHILP. Cell-intrinsic Nfil3 ablation led to variably impaired development of fetal and adult ILC subsets. Conditional gene targeting demonstrated that NFIL3 exerted its function prior to ILC subset commitment. Accordingly, NFIL3 ablation resulted in loss of ID2+ CHILP and PLZF+ ILC progenitors. Nfil3 expression in lymphoid progenitors was under the control of the mesenchyme-derived hematopoietin IL-7, and NFIL3 exerted its function via direct Id2 regulation in the CHILP. Moreover, ectopic Id2 expression in Nfil3-null precursors rescued defective ILC lineage development in vivo. Our data establish NFIL3 as a key regulator of common helper-like ILC progenitors as they emerge during early lymphopoiesis.

  12. Comparison of Cantharidin Toxicity in Breast Cancer Cells to Two Common Chemotherapeutics

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    Katie M. Kern

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a larger study synthesizing a more directed form of chemotherapy, we have begun to assess the efficacy of different potential toxins that could be delivered locally rather than systemically. In doing so, we hope to reduce the systemic side effects commonly observed, while maintaining a high level of toxicity and eliminating the need for metabolic alterations. In a search for this more efficient method for killing cancerous cells, we have begun studying cantharidin, a toxin used in traditional Chinese medicine, as a potential chemotherapeutic. Using an MTT cell viability assay, the toxicity of cantharidin was compared to both cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel in three different breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3. Increasing the concentration of chemotherapy drugs did decrease cell viability in all cell lines when cantharidin and cyclophosphamide were applied; however differences for paclitaxel were cell-specific. Additionally, cantharidin exhibited the highest decrease in cell viability regardless of cell type, indicating it may be a much more potent and less specific chemotherapeutic. These results will help us move forward in developing a potentially more potent treatment for breast cancer that might eliminate the need for subtype-specific treatments.

  13. Impaired Akt phosphorylation in B-cells of patients with common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Reza; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Esmaeili, Mohammad; Abolhassani, Hassan; Vaeli, Shahram; Rezaei, Abbas; Sharifi, Zohre; Azizi, Gholamreza; Rezaei, Nima; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2017-02-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections. We evaluated whether defective PI3K/Akt/FoxO pathway could influence B-cell fate. Determination of B-cell subsets in CVD patients and healthy donors (HDs) were performed using flow cytometry. We evaluated mRNA and protein expression of PI3K, Akt and FoxO using real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) expression in B-cells has been measured by flowcytometry. We identified a significant reduction in the percentage of marginal zone like B-cells, memory B-cells (total, switched and unswitched) and plasmablasts in patients, as these decreased B-cell subsets had a significant negative correlation with increased apoptosis in patients. Surprisingly, we identified decreased pAkt expression in B-cells of patients than HDs. We described for the first time impaired pAkt expression in B-cells of CVID patients that had a significant correlation with antibody response to the vaccine and worse clinical complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative DNA methylation analysis to decipher common and cell type-specific patterns among multiple cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofei; Shao, Xiaojian; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Shihua

    2016-11-01

    DNA methylation has been proved to play important roles in cell development and complex diseases through comparative studies of DNA methylation profiles across different tissues and samples. Current studies indicate that the regulation of DNA methylation to gene expression depends on the genomic locations of CpGs. Common DNA methylation patterns shared across different cell types and tissues are abundant, and they are likely involved in the basic functions of cell development, such as housekeeping functions. By way of contrast, cell type-specific DNA methylation patterns show distinct functional relevance with cell type specificity. Additionally, abnormal DNA methylation patterns are extensively involved in tumour development. Pan-cancer methylation patterns reveal common mechanisms and new similarities of different cancers, while cancer-specific patterns are relating to tumour heterogeneity and patient survival. Moreover, DNA methylation patterns in specific cancer are relevant with diverse regulatory elements such as enhancers and long non-coding RNAs. In this review, we survey the recent advances on DNA methylation patterns in normal or tumour states to illustrate their potential roles in cell development and cell canceration. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. EGFR mutation -- a commonly neglected mutation in squamous cell lung carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajeev Saini; Ullas Batra; Akhil Jain; Chaturbhuj Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Advances in molecular biology have unveiled various targetable mutations with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) being most common. EGFR testing is recommended for all locally advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma lungs but recommendation in squamous histology is uncertain. However, just on the basis of histology, EGFR testing should not be withheld in patients diagnosed as squamous cell cancer on small biopsy, in females, never smokers and Asians. We report two cases with squamous cell lung cancer diagnosed on small biopsy, in non smoker females with EGFR mutations emphasizing the importance of testing in such population.

  16. Role of Common-Gamma Chain Cytokines in NK Cell Development and Function: Perspectives for Immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaella Meazza; Bruno Azzarone; Anna Maria Orengo; Silvano Ferrini

    2011-01-01

    NK cells are components of the innate immunity system and play an important role as a first-line defense mechanism against viral infections and in tumor immune surveillance. Their development and their functional activities are controlled by several factors among which cytokines sharing the usage of the common cytokine-receptor gamma chain play a pivotal role. In particular, IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 are the members of this family predominantly involved in NK cell biology. In this paper, w...

  17. Identifying the common interaction networks of amoeboid motility and cancer cell metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. Zeitoun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently analyzed genome of Naegleria gruberi, a free-living amoeboflagellate of the Heterolobosea clade, revealed a remarkably complex ancestral eukaryote with a rich repertoire of cytoskeletal-, motility- and signaling-genes. This protist, which diverged from other eukaryotic lineages over a billion years ago, possesses the ability for both amoeboid and flagellar motility. In a phylogenomic comparison of two free living eukaryotes with large proteomic datasets of three metastatic tumour entities (malignant melanoma, breast- and prostate-carcinoma, we find common proteins with potential importance for cell motility and cancer cell metastasis. To identify the underlying signaling modules, we constructed for each tumour type a protein-protein interaction network including these common proteins. The connectivity within this interactome revealed specific interactions and pathways which constitute prospective points of intervention for novel anti-metastatic tumour therapies.

  18. The Enemy Within: Innate Surveillance-mediated Cell Death, the common mechanism of neurodegenerative disease

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    Robert Ian Richards

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases comprise an array of progressive neurological disorders all characterized by the selective death of neurons in the central nervous system. Although rare (familial and common (sporadic forms can occur for the same disease, it is unclear whether this reflects several distinct pathogenic pathways or the convergence of different causes into a common form of nerve cell death. Remarkably, neurodegenerative diseases are increasingly found to be accompanied by activation of the innate immune surveillance system normally associated with pathogen recognition and response. Innate surveillance is the cell’s quality control system for the purpose of detecting such danger signals and responding in an appropriate manner. Innate surveillance is an ‘intelligent system’, in that the manner of response is relevant to the magnitude and duration of the threat. If possible, the threat is dealt with within the cell in which it is detected, by degrading the danger signal(s and restoring homeostasis. If this is not successful then an inflammatory response is instigated that is aimed at restricting the spread of the threat by elevating degradative pathways, sensitizing neighboring cells, and recruiting specialized cell types to the site. If the danger signal persists, then the ultimate response can include not only the programmed cell death of the original cell, but the contents of this dead cell can also bring about the death of adjacent sensitized cells. These responses are clearly aimed at destroying the ability of the detected pathogen to propagate and spread. Innate surveillance comprises intracellular, extracellular, non-cell autonomous and systemic processes. Recent studies have revealed how multiple steps in these processes involve proteins that, through their mutation, have been linked to many familial forms of neurodegenerative disease. This suggests that individuals harboring these mutations may have an amplified response to

  19. Common molecular pathways involved in human CD133+/CD34+ progenitor cell expansion and cancer

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    Vêncio Ricardo Z

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the molecular mechanism underlying expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is critical to extend current therapeutic applications and to understand how its deregulation relates to leukemia. The characterization of genes commonly relevant to stem/progenitor cell expansion and tumor development should facilitate the identification of novel therapeutic targets in cancer. Methods CD34+/CD133+ progenitor cells were purified from human umbilical cord blood and expanded in vitro. Correlated molecular changes were analyzed by gene expression profiling using microarrays covering up to 55,000 transcripts. Genes regulated during progenitor cell expansion were identified and functionally classified. Aberrant expression of such genes in cancer was indicated by in silico SAGE. Differential expression of selected genes was assessed by real-time PCR in hematopoietic cells from chronic myeloid leukemia patients and healthy individuals. Results Several genes and signaling pathways not previously associated with ex vivo expansion of CD133+/CD34+ cells were identified, most of which associated with cancer. Regulation of MEK/ERK and Hedgehog signaling genes in addition to numerous proto-oncogenes was detected during conditions of enhanced progenitor cell expansion. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed down-regulation of several newly described cancer-associated genes in CD133+/CD34+ cells, including DOCK4 and SPARCL1 tumor suppressors, and parallel results were verified when comparing their expression in cells from chronic myeloid leukemia patients Conclusion Our findings reveal potential molecular targets for oncogenic transformation in CD133+/CD34+ cells and strengthen the link between deregulation of stem/progenitor cell expansion and the malignant process.

  20. EBV infection is common in gingival epithelial cells of the periodontium and worsens during chronic periodontitis.

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    Séverine Vincent-Bugnas

    Full Text Available An amplifying role for oral epithelial cells (ECs in Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV infection has been postulated to explain oral viral shedding. However, while lytic or latent EBV infections of oro/nasopharyngeal ECs are commonly detected under pathological conditions, detection of EBV-infected ECs in healthy conditions is very rare. In this study, a simple non-surgical tissue sampling procedure was used to investigate EBV infection in the periodontal epithelium that surrounds and attaches teeth to the gingiva. Surprisingly, we observed that the gingival ECs of the periodontium (pECs are commonly infected with EBV and may serve as an important oral reservoir of latently EBV-infected cells. We also found that the basal level of epithelial EBV-infection is significantly increased in chronic periodontitis, a common inflammatory disease that undermines the integrity of tooth-supporting tissues. Moreover, the level of EBV infection was found to correlate with disease severity. In inflamed tissues, EBV-infected pECs appear to be prone to apoptosis and to produce larger amounts of CCL20, a pivotal inflammatory chemokine that controls tissue infiltration by immune cells. Our discovery that the periodontal epithelium is a major site of latent EBV infection sheds a new light on EBV persistence in healthy carriers and on the role of this ubiquitous virus in periodontitis. Moreover, the identification of this easily accessible site of latent infection may encourage new approaches to investigate and monitor other EBV-associated disorders.

  1. Shutdown of HIV-1 Transcription in T Cells by Nullbasic, a Mutant Tat Protein

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    Hongping Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nullbasic is a derivative of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat protein that strongly inhibits HIV-1 replication in lymphocytes. Here we show that lentiviral vectors that constitutively express a Nullbasic-ZsGreen1 (NB-ZSG1 fusion protein by the eEF1α promoter led to robust long-term inhibition of HIV-1 replication in Jurkat cells. Although Jurkat-NB-ZSG1 cells were infected by HIV-1, no virus production could be detected and addition of phorbol ester 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and JQ1 had no effect, while suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA modestly stimulated virus production but at levels 300-fold lower than those seen in HIV-1-infected Jurkat-ZSG1 cells. Virus replication was not recovered by coculture of HIV-1-infected Jurkat-NB-ZSG1 cells with uninfected Jurkat cells. Latently infected Jurkat latent 6.3 and ACH2 cells treated with latency-reversing agents produced measurable viral capsid (CA, but little or none was made when they expressed NB-ZSG1. When Jurkat cells chronically infected with HIV-1 were transduced with lentiviral virus-like particles conveying NB-ZSG1, a >3-log reduction in CA production was observed. Addition of PMA increased virus CA production but at levels 500-fold lower than those seen in nontransduced Jurkat cells. Transcriptome sequencing analysis confirmed that HIV-1 mRNA was strongly inhibited by NB-ZSG1 but indicated that full-length viral mRNA was made. Analysis of HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells expressing NB-ZSG1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that recruitment of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII and histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation were inhibited. The reduction of HIV-1 promoter-associated RNAPII and epigenetic changes in viral nucleosomes indicate that Nullbasic can inhibit HIV-1 replication by enforcing viral silencing in cells.

  2. Molecular signatures to define spermatogenic cells in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zachary Yu-Ching; Imamura, Masanori; Sano, Chiaki; Nakajima, Ryusuke; Suzuki, Tomoko; Yamadera, Rie; Takehara, Yuji; Okano, Hirotaka James; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2012-05-01

    Germ cell development is a fundamental process required to produce offspring. The developmental program of spermatogenesis has been assumed to be similar among mammals. However, recent studies have revealed differences in the molecular properties of primate germ cells compared with the well-characterized mouse germ cells. This may prevent simple application of rodent insights into higher primates. Therefore, thorough investigation of primate germ cells is necessary, as this may lead to the development of more appropriate animal models. The aim of this study is to define molecular signatures of spermatogenic cells in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. Interestingly, NANOG, PRDM1, DPPA3 (STELLA), IFITM3, and ZP1 transcripts, but no POU5F1 (OCT4), were detected in adult marmoset testis. Conversely, mouse testis expressed Pou5f1 but not Nanog, Prdm1, Dppa3, Ifitm3, and Zp1. Other previously described mouse germ cell markers were conserved in marmoset and mouse testes. Intriguingly, marmoset spermatogenic cells underwent dynamic protein expression in a developmental stage-specific manner; DDX4 (VASA) protein was present in gonocytes, diminished in spermatogonial cells, and reexpressed in spermatocytes. To investigate epigenetic differences between adult marmoset and mice, DNA methylation analyses identified unique epigenetic profiles to marmoset and mice. Marmoset NANOG and POU5F1 promoters in spermatogenic cells exhibited a methylation status opposite to that in mice, while the DDX4 and LEFTY1 loci, as well as imprinted genes, displayed an evolutionarily conserved methylation pattern. Marmosets have great advantages as models for human reproductive biology and are also valuable as experimental nonhuman primates; thus, the current study provides an important platform for primate reproductive biology, including possible applications to humans.

  3. Commonly consumed and specialty dietary mushrooms reduce cellular proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith R; Brophy, Sara K

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, over one million women will be newly diagnosed with breast cancer in the next year. Moreover, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the USA. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that consumption of dietary mushrooms can protect against breast cancer. In this study, we tested and compared the ability of five commonly consumed or specialty mushrooms to modulate cell number balance in the cancer process using MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Hot water extracts (80°C for 2 h) of maitake (MT, Grifola frondosa), crimini (CRIM, Agaricus bisporus), portabella (PORT, Agaricus bisporus), oyster (OYS, Pleurotus ostreatus) and white button (WB, Agaricus bisporus) mushrooms or water alone (5% v/v) were incubated for 24 h with MCF-7 cells. Cellular proliferation determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was significantly (P mushrooms, with MT and OYS being the most effective. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction, an often used mitochondrion-dependent marker of proliferation, was unchanged although decreased (P > 0.05) by 15% with OYS extract. Lactate dehydrogenase release, as a marker of necrosis, was significantly increased after incubation with MT but not with other test mushrooms. Furthermore, MT extract significantly increased apoptosis, or programmed cell death, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl end labeling method, whereas other test mushrooms displayed trends of ∼15%. The total numbers of cells per flask, determined by hemacytometry, were not different from control cultures. Overall, all test mushrooms significantly suppressed cellular proliferation, with MT further significantly inducing apoptosis and cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. This suggests that both common and specialty mushrooms may be chemoprotective against breast cancer.

  4. [Sickle cell anemia causes varied symptoms and high morbidity. Serious prognosis in the most common genetic disease in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellander, Christian; Sennström, Maria K B; Stiller, Viveka; Ågren, Anna

    2015-03-03

    Sickle cell anemia is a life-threatening disease, and the most common genetic disease in the world. The prevalence of sickle cell anemia in Sweden is unknown. Sickle cell anemia is an important disease, because of its variable complications, in many medical and surgical specialties. The overview highlights common medical problems encountered in sickle cell anemia presented through a case report of a pregnant woman.

  5. Common and unique elements of the ABA-regulated transcriptome of Arabidopsis guard cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhixin

    2011-05-01

    their downstream targets, the type 2C protein phosphatases. Our data also provide evidence for cross-talk at the transcriptional level between ABA and another hormonal inhibitor of stomatal opening, methyl jasmonate. Conclusions Our results engender new insights into the basic cell biology of guard cells, reveal common and unique elements of ABA-regulation of gene expression in guard cells, and set the stage for targeted biotechnological manipulations to improve plant water use efficiency.

  6. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Claycombe, Kate J; Reindl, Katie M

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk, while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer-preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and butyrate (two major metabolites in colon lumen), we examined the effects of physiologically relevant doses of butyrate (0.5-2 mmol/l) and DCA (0.05-0.3 mmol/l) on colon cell proliferation. We hypothesize that butyrate and DCA each modulates the cell cycle and apoptosis via common and distinct cellular signaling targets. In this study, we demonstrated that both butyrate and DCA inhibited cell proliferation by up to 89% and 92% and increased cell apoptosis rate by up to 3.1- and 4.5-fold, respectively. Cell cycle analyses revealed that butyrate led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction, but DCA induced an increase in only G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction when compared with the untreated cells. The examination of early cellular signaling revealed that DCA but not butyrate increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, genomic DNA breakage, the activation of ERK1/2, caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, DCA decreased activated Rb protein level, and butyrate but not DCA increased p21 expression. Collectively, although both butyrate and DCA inhibit colonic cell proliferation, butyrate increases tumor suppressor gene expression, whereas DCA decreases tumor suppressor activation in cell cycle and apoptosis pathways.

  7. Effect of vibrational stress and spaceflight on regulation of heat shock proteins hsp70 and hsp27 in human lymphocytes (Jurkat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubano, L. A.; Lewis, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Heat shock protein levels are increased in cells as a result of exposure to stress. To determine whether heat shock protein regulation could be used to evaluate stress in cells during spaceflight, the response of Jurkat cells to spaceflight and simulated space shuttle launch vibration was investigated by evaluating hsp70 and hsp27 gene expression. Gene expression was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using mRNA extracted from vibrated, nonvibrated, space-flown, and ground control cells. Results indicate that mechanical stresses of vibration and low gravity do not up-regulate the mRNA for hsp70, although the gene encoding hsp27 is up-regulated by spaceflight but not by vibration. In ground controls, the mRNA for hsp70 and hsp27 increased with time in culture. We conclude that hsp70 gene expression is a useful indicator of stress related to culture density but is not an indicator of the stresses of launch vibration or microgravity. Up-regulation of hsp27 gene expression in microgravity is a new finding.

  8. High resolution microfluidic single cell transcriptional profiling reveals clinically relevant subtypes among human stem cell populations commonly utilized in cell-based therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Rennert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapies can promote neural repair and regeneration, yet controversy regarding optimal cell source and mechanism of action has slowed clinical translation, potentially due to undefined cellular heterogeneity. Single cell resolution is needed to identify clinically relevant subpopulations with the highest therapeutic relevance. We combine single cell microfluidic analysis with advanced computational modeling to study for the first time two common sources for cell-based therapies, human NSCs and MSCs. This methodology has the potential to logically inform cell source decisions for any clinical application.

  9. COPD and squamous cell lung cancer: aberrant inflammation and immunity is the common link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovski, Steven; Vlahos, Ross; Anthony, Desiree; McQualter, Jonathan; Anderson, Gary; Irving, Louis; Steinfort, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Cigarette smoking has reached epidemic proportions within many regions of the world and remains the highest risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Squamous cell lung cancer is commonly detected in heavy smokers, where the risk of developing lung cancer is not solely defined by tobacco consumption. Although therapies that target common driver mutations in adenocarcinomas are showing some promise, they are proving ineffective in smoking-related squamous cell lung cancer. Since COPD is characterized by an excessive inflammatory and oxidative stress response, this review details how aberrant innate, adaptive and systemic inflammatory processes can contribute to lung cancer susceptibility in COPD. Activated leukocytes release increasing levels of proteases and free radicals as COPD progresses and tertiary lymphoid aggregates accumulate with increasing severity. Reactive oxygen species promote formation of reactive carbonyls that are not only tumourigenic through initiating DNA damage, but can directly alter the function of regulatory proteins involved in host immunity and tumour suppressor functions. Systemic inflammation is also markedly increased during infective exacerbations in COPD and the interplay between tumour-promoting serum amyloid A (SAA) and IL-17A is discussed. SAA is also an endogenous allosteric modifier of FPR2 expressed on immune and epithelial cells, and the therapeutic potential of targeting this receptor is proposed as a novel strategy for COPD-lung cancer overlap.

  10. A Review on Defects of Dendritic Cells in Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Laleh; Tavakolinia, Naeimeh; Kiaee, Fatemeh; Rezaei, Nima; Mohsenzadegan, Monireh; Azizi, Gholamreza; Yazdani, Reza; Shariat, Mansoureh; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most important primary disorder that is associated with clinical complications including recurrent infections, malignancy and autoimmune diseases. The genetic cause of CVID is mostly unknown and only a few genetic causes are identified. The various options are proposed for determining the etiology of CVID patients, such as T- and B-cell defects, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) impairments, altered cytokine production as well as blemished dendritic cells (DCs). The patients with CVID show a reduction in number and frequency of DCs in blood, an altered expression of cell surface molecules, and defective activation through toll-like receptors (TLRs). Also loss of IFNα has a critical role in B-cell impairments of CVID patients. The aim of this review is to collect under one umbrella, all the recent knowledge about DCs defects of CVID patients. This review covers basic information about physiology of DCs followed by reports of DCs situation in CVID. According to the results of researches assessing DCs frequency and function in CVID, the roll of DCs in the pathogenesis of CVID cannot be ruled out. The article is expected to encourage the researchers to do comprehensive researches about complex connections between DCs and other immune cells in CVID. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. The Allelic Landscape of Human Blood Cell Trait Variation and Links to Common Complex Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, William J; Elding, Heather; Jiang, Tao; Allen, Dave; Ruklisa, Dace; Mann, Alice L; Mead, Daniel; Bouman, Heleen; Riveros-Mckay, Fernando; Kostadima, Myrto A; Lambourne, John J; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Downes, Kate; Kundu, Kousik; Bomba, Lorenzo; Berentsen, Kim; Bradley, John R; Daugherty, Louise C; Delaneau, Olivier; Freson, Kathleen; Garner, Stephen F; Grassi, Luigi; Guerrero, Jose; Haimel, Matthias; Janssen-Megens, Eva M; Kaan, Anita; Kamat, Mihir; Kim, Bowon; Mandoli, Amit; Marchini, Jonathan; Martens, Joost H A; Meacham, Stuart; Megy, Karyn; O'Connell, Jared; Petersen, Romina; Sharifi, Nilofar; Sheard, Simon M; Staley, James R; Tuna, Salih; van der Ent, Martijn; Walter, Klaudia; Wang, Shuang-Yin; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wilder, Steven P; Iotchkova, Valentina; Moore, Carmel; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Kuijpers, Taco W; Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, Enrique; Juan, David; Rico, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso; Chen, Lu; Ge, Bing; Vasquez, Louella; Kwan, Tony; Garrido-Martín, Diego; Watt, Stephen; Yang, Ying; Guigo, Roderic; Beck, Stephan; Paul, Dirk S; Pastinen, Tomi; Bujold, David; Bourque, Guillaume; Frontini, Mattia; Danesh, John; Roberts, David J; Ouwehand, Willem H; Butterworth, Adam S; Soranzo, Nicole

    2016-11-17

    Many common variants have been associated with hematological traits, but identification of causal genes and pathways has proven challenging. We performed a genome-wide association analysis in the UK Biobank and INTERVAL studies, testing 29.5 million genetic variants for association with 36 red cell, white cell, and platelet properties in 173,480 European-ancestry participants. This effort yielded hundreds of low frequency (<5%) and rare (<1%) variants with a strong impact on blood cell phenotypes. Our data highlight general properties of the allelic architecture of complex traits, including the proportion of the heritable component of each blood trait explained by the polygenic signal across different genome regulatory domains. Finally, through Mendelian randomization, we provide evidence of shared genetic pathways linking blood cell indices with complex pathologies, including autoimmune diseases, schizophrenia, and coronary heart disease and evidence suggesting previously reported population associations between blood cell indices and cardiovascular disease may be non-causal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Common pediatric cerebellar tumors: correlation between cell densities and apparent diffusion coefficient metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Korgün; Mathis, Derek; Gimi, Barjor; Gargan, Lynn; Weprin, Bradley; Bowers, Daniel C; Margraf, Linda

    2013-08-01

    To test whether there is correlation between cell densities and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) metrics of common pediatric cerebellar tumors. This study was reviewed for issues of patient safety and confidentiality and was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and was compliant with HIPAA. The need for informed consent was waived. Ninety-five patients who had preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and surgical pathologic findings available between January 2003 and June 2011 were included. There were 37 pilocytic astrocytomas, 34 medulloblastomas (23 classic, eight desmoplastic-nodular, two large cell, one anaplastic), 17 ependymomas (13 World Health Organization [WHO] grade II, four WHO grade III), and seven atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors. ADCs of solid tumor components and normal cerebellum were measured. Tumor-to-normal brain ADC ratios (hereafter, ADC ratio) were calculated. The medulloblastomas and ependymomas were subcategorized according to the latest WHO classification, and tumor cellularity was calculated. Correlation was sought between cell densities and mean tumor ADCs, minimum tumor ADCs, and ADC ratio. When all tumors were considered together, negative correlation was found between cellularity and mean tumor ADCs (ρ = -0.737, P correlation between cellularity and ADC ratio. Negative correlation was found between cellularity and minimum tumor ADC in atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ρ = -0.786, P correlation was found between cellularity and mean tumor ADC and ADC ratio. There was no correlation between the ADC metrics and cellularity of the pilocytic astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, and ependymomas. Negative correlation was found between cellularity and ADC metrics of common pediatric cerebellar tumors. Although ADC metrics are useful in the preoperative diagnosis of common pediatric cerebellar tumors and this utility is generally attributed to differences in cellularity of tumors

  13. Dopaminergic cell death induced by MPP(+), oxidant and specific neurotoxicants shares the common molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, H S; Gibson, G E; DeGiorgio, L A; Zhang, H; Kidd, V J; Son, J H

    2001-02-01

    Recent etiological study in twins (Tanner et al. 1999) strongly suggests that environmental factors play an important role in typical, non-familial Parkinson's disease (PD), beginning after age 50. Epidemiological risk factor analyses of typical PD cases have identified several neurotoxicants, including MPP(+) (the active metabolite of MPTP), paraquat, dieldrin, manganese and salsolinol. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these neurotoxic agents might induce cell death in our nigral dopaminergic cell line, SN4741 (Son et al. 1999) through a common molecular mechanism. Our initial experiments revealed that treatment with both MPP(+) and the other PD-related neurotoxicants induced apoptotic cell death in SN4741 cells, following initial increases of H(2)O(2)-related ROS activity and subsequent activation of JNK1/2 MAP kinases. Moreover, we have demonstrated that during dopaminergic cell death cascades, MPP(+), the neurotoxicants and an oxidant, H(2)O(2) equally induce the ROS-dependent events. Remarkably, the oxidant treatment alone induced similar sequential molecular events: ROS increase, activation of JNK MAP kinases, activation of the PITSLRE kinase, p110, by both Caspase-1 and Caspase-3-like activities and apoptotic cell death. Pharmacological intervention using the combination of the antioxidant Trolox and a pan-caspase inhibitor Boc-(Asp)-fmk (BAF) exerted significant neuroprotection against ROS-induced dopaminergic cell death. Finally, the high throughput cDNA microarray screening using the current model identified downstream response genes, such as heme oxygenase-1, a constituent of Lewy bodies, that can be the useful biomarkers to monitor the pathological conditions of dopaminergic neurons under neurotoxic insult.

  14. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    González-Segura, Lilian; Cárdenas-Reygadas, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH) in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH) and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the com...

  15. Dose-Dependent Thresholds of 10-ns Electric Pulse Induced Plasma Membrane Disruption and Cytotoxicity in Multiple Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    J/g for HeLa cells . PS externalized at doses equal or lower than that required for death in all cell lines ranging from 51 J/g in Jurkat cells to 199... HeLa cells was exposed to 10-ns EP at a dose of 280 J/g. Death was observed in the Jurkat cell and not in the HeLa population providing evidence that

  16. Cell cytotoxicity and mycotoxin and secondary metabolite production by common penicillia on cheese agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gareis, M.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    Known or potential new fungal starter culture species such as Penicillium camemberti, P. roqueforti, P. nalgiovense, P. caseifulvum, and P. solitum have been cultivated on a cheese agar medium together with the common cheese contaminants P. commune, P. crustosum, P. discolor, P. atramentosum, and P....... nordicum. Secondary metabolites were extracted and analyzed by HPLC-DAD and tested for cytotoxicity by using the MTT-cell culture assay. Metabolites such as cyclopiazonic acid, roquefortine C, and penitrem A, previously reported from cheese, were detected together with sclerotigenin, solistatin, meleagrin......, oxaline, compactins, diaportins, chaetoglobosins, rugulovasines, verrucolones, anacines, verrucines, cyclopeptines, viridicatins, and viridic acid, all metabolites not previously reported from cheese. The two P. nalgiovense extracts were the most toxic in the MTT-cell culture test. These extracts...

  17. Cells of a common developmental origin regulate REM/non-REM sleep and wakefulness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yu; Kashiwagi, Mitsuaki; Yasuda, Kosuke; Ando, Reiko; Kanuka, Mika; Sakai, Kazuya; Itohara, Shigeyoshi

    2015-11-20

    Mammalian sleep comprises rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. To functionally isolate from the complex mixture of neurons populating the brainstem pons those involved in switching between REM and NREM sleep, we chemogenetically manipulated neurons of a specific embryonic cell lineage in mice. We identified excitatory glutamatergic neurons that inhibit REM sleep and promote NREM sleep. These neurons shared a common developmental origin with neurons promoting wakefulness; both derived from a pool of proneural hindbrain cells expressing Atoh1 at embryonic day 10.5. We also identified inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing neurons that act downstream to inhibit REM sleep. Artificial reduction or prolongation of REM sleep in turn affected slow-wave activity during subsequent NREM sleep, implicating REM sleep in the regulation of NREM sleep.

  18. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

  19. Partitioning Heritability of Regulatory and Cell-Type-Specific Variants across 11 Common Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Alexander; Lee, S. Hong; Trynka, Gosia; Finucane, Hilary; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J.; Xu, Han; Zang, Chongzhi; Ripke, Stephan; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Stahl, Eli; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T.R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Børglum, Anders D.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C.K.; Chen, Ronald Y.L.; Chen, Eric Y.H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F.C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodrguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; Grove, Jakob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kähler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lnnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Mller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O’Callaghan, Eadbhard; O’Dushlaine, Colm; O’Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; Van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietilinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Sderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory and coding variants are known to be enriched with associations identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex disease, but their contributions to trait heritability are currently unknown. We applied variance-component methods to imputed genotype data for 11 common diseases to partition the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs (hg2) across functional categories (while accounting for shared variance due to linkage disequilibrium). Extensive simulations showed that in contrast to current estimates from GWAS summary statistics, the variance-component approach partitions heritability accurately under a wide range of complex-disease architectures. Across the 11 diseases DNaseI hypersensitivity sites (DHSs) from 217 cell types spanned 16% of imputed SNPs (and 24% of genotyped SNPs) but explained an average of 79% (SE = 8%) of hg2 from imputed SNPs (5.1× enrichment; p = 3.7 × 10−17) and 38% (SE = 4%) of hg2 from genotyped SNPs (1.6× enrichment, p = 1.0 × 10−4). Further enrichment was observed at enhancer DHSs and cell-type-specific DHSs. In contrast, coding variants, which span 1% of the genome, explained <10% of hg2 despite having the highest enrichment. We replicated these findings but found no significant contribution from rare coding variants in independent schizophrenia cohorts genotyped on GWAS and exome chips. Our results highlight the value of analyzing components of heritability to unravel the functional architecture of common disease. PMID:25439723

  20. Review of renal cell carcinoma and its common subtypes in radiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gavin Low; Guan Huang; Winnie Fu; Zaahir Moloo; Safwat Girgis

    2016-01-01

    Representing 2%-3% of adult cancers, renal cell carcinoma(RCC) accounts for 90% of renal malignancies and is the most lethal neoplasm of the urologic system. Over the last 65 years, the incidence of RCC has increased at a rate of 2% per year. The increased incidence is at least partly due to improved tumor detection secondary to greater availability of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging modalities over the last few decades. Most RCCs are asymptomatic at discovery and are detected as unexpected findings on imaging performed for unrelated clinical indications. The 2004 World Health Organization Classification of adult renal tumors stratifies RCC into several distinct histologic subtypes of which clear cell, papillary and chromophobe tumors account for 70%, 10%-15%, and 5%, respectively. Knowledge of the RCC subtype is important because the various subtypes are associated with different biologic behavior, prognosis and treatment options. Furthermore, the common RCC subtypes can often be discriminated non-invasively based on gross morphologic imaging appearances, signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, and the degree of tumor enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging examinations. In this article, we review the incidence and survival data, risk factors, clinical and biochemical findings, imaging findings, staging, differential diagnosis, management options and posttreatment follow-up of RCC, with attention focused on the common subtypes.

  1. Expansion of inflammatory innate lymphoid cells in patients with common variable immune deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cols, Montserrat; Rahman, Adeeb; Maglione, Paul J.; Garcia-Carmona, Yolanda; Simchoni, Noa; Ko, Huai-Bin M.; Radigan, Lin; Cerutti, Andrea; Blankenship, Derek; Pascual, Virginia; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an antibody deficiency treated with immunoglobulin; however, patients can have noninfectious inflammatory conditions that lead to heightened morbidity and mortality. Objectives Modular analyses of RNA transcripts in whole blood previously identified an upregulation of many interferon-responsive genes. In this study we sought the cell populations leading to this signature. Methods Lymphoid cells were measured in peripheral blood of 55 patients with CVID (31 with and 24 without inflammatory/autoimmune complications) by using mass cytometry and flow cytometry. Surface markers, cytokines, and transcriptional characteristics of sorted innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were defined by using quantitative PCR. Gastrointestinal and lung biopsy specimens of subjects with inflammatory disease were stained to seek ILCs in tissues. Results The linage-negative, CD127+, CD161+ lymphoid population containing T-box transcription factor, retinoic acid–related orphan receptor (ROR) γt, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-22, all hallmarks of type 3 innate lymphoid cells, were expanded in the blood of patients with CVID with inflammatory conditions (mean, 3.7% of PBMCs). ILCs contained detectable amounts of the transcription factors inhibitor of DNA binding 2, T-box transcription factor, and RORγt and increased mRNA transcripts for IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and IL-26, demonstrating inflammatory potential. In gastrointestinal and lung biopsy tissues of patients with CVID, numerous IFN-γ+RORγt+CD3− cells were identified, suggesting a role in these mucosal inflammatory states. Conclusions An expansion of this highly inflammatory ILC population is a characteristic of patients with CVID with inflammatory disease; ILCs and the interferon signature are markers for the uncontrolled inflammatory state in these patients. PMID:26542033

  2. Common elements in interleukin 4 and insulin signaling pathways in factor-dependent hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L M; Keegan, A D; Li, W; Lienhard, G E; Pacini, S; Gutkind, J S; Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F; Aaronson, S A

    1993-05-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) efficiently induced DNA synthesis in the IL-3-dependent murine myeloid cell lines FDC-P1 and FDC-P2. Although these factors could not individually sustain long-term growth of these lines, a combination of IL-4 with either insulin or IGF-I did support continuous growth. The principal tyrosine-phosphorylated substrate observed in FDC cells stimulated with IL-4, previously designated 4PS, was of the same size (170 kDa) as the major substrate phosphorylated in response to insulin or IGF-I. These substrates had phosphopeptides of the same size when analyzed by digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, and each tightly associated with the 85-kDa component of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase after factor stimulation. IRS-1, the principal substrate phosphorylated in response to insulin or IGF-I stimulation in nonhematopoietic cells, is similar in size to 4PS. However, anti-IRS-1 antibodies failed to efficiently precipitate 4PS, and some phosphopeptides generated by V8 protease digestion of IRS-1 were distinct in size from the phosphopeptides of 4PS. Nevertheless, IL-4, insulin, and IGF-I were capable of stimulating tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in FDC cells that expressed this substrate as a result of transfection. These findings indicate that (i) IL-4, insulin, and IGF-I use signal transduction pathways in FDC lines that have at least one major feature in common, the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS, and (ii) insulin and IGF-I stimulation of hematopoietic cell lines leads to the phosphorylation of a substrate that may be related to but is not identical to IRS-1.

  3. Genetic evidence that Drosophila frizzled controls planar cell polarity and Armadillo signaling by a common mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povelones, Michael; Howes, Rob; Fish, Matt; Nusse, Roel

    2005-12-01

    The frizzled (fz) gene in Drosophila controls two distinct signaling pathways: it directs the planar cell polarization (PCP) of epithelia and it regulates cell fate decisions through Armadillo (Arm) by acting as a receptor for the Wnt protein Wingless (Wg). With the exception of dishevelled (dsh), the genes functioning in these two pathways are distinct. We have taken a genetic approach, based on a series of new and existing fz alleles, for identifying individual amino acids required for PCP or Arm signaling. For each allele, we have attempted to quantify the strength of signaling by phenotypic measurements. For PCP signaling, the defect was measured by counting the number of cells secreting multiple hairs in the wing. We then examined each allele for its ability to participate in Arm signaling by the rescue of fz mutant embryos with maternally provided fz function. For both PCP and Arm signaling we observed a broad range of phenotypes, but for every allele there is a strong correlation between its phenotypic strength in each pathway. Therefore, even though the PCP and Arm signaling pathways are genetically distinct, the set of signaling-defective fz alleles affected both pathways to a similar extent. This suggests that fz controls these two different signaling activities by a common mechanism. In addition, this screen yielded a set of missense mutations that identify amino acids specifically required for fz signaling function.

  4. Creating "living" polymer surfaces to pattern biomolecules and cells on common plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Glidle, Andrew; Yuan, Xiaofei; Hu, Zhixiong; Pulleine, Ellie; Cooper, Jon; Yang, Wantai; Yin, Huabing

    2013-05-13

    Creating patterns of biomolecules and cells has been applied widely in many fields associated with the life sciences, including diagnostics. In these applications it has become increasingly apparent that the spatiotemporal arrangement of biological molecules in vitro is important for the investigation of the cellular functions found in vivo. However, the cell patterning techniques often used are limited to creating 2D functional surfaces on glass and silicon. In addition, in general, these procedures are not easy to implement in conventional biological laboratories. Here, we show the formation of a living poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) layer that can be patterned with visible light on plastic surfaces. This new and simple method can be expanded to pattern multiple types of biomolecule on either a previously formed PEG layer or a plastic substrate. Using common plastic wares (i.e., polyethylene films and polystyrene cell culture Petri-dishes), we demonstrate that these PEG-modified surfaces have a high resistance to protein adsorption and cell adhesion, while at the same time, being capable of undergoing further molecular grafting with bioactive motifs. With a photomask and a fluid delivery system, we illustrate a flexible way to immobilize biological functions with a high degree of 2D and 3D spatial control. We anticipate that our method can be easily implemented in a typical life science laboratory (without the need for specialized lithography equipment) offering the prospect of imparting desirable properties to plastic products, for example, the creation of functional microenvironments in biological studies or reducing biological adhesion to surfaces.

  5. Partitioning Heritability of Regulatory and Cell-Type-Specific Variants across 11 Common Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gusev, Alexander; Lee, S Hong; Trynka, Gosia

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory and coding variants are known to be enriched with associations identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex disease, but their contributions to trait heritability are currently unknown. We applied variance-component methods to imputed genotype data for 11 common...... diseases to partition the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs (hg(2)) across functional categories (while accounting for shared variance due to linkage disequilibrium). Extensive simulations showed that in contrast to current estimates from GWAS summary statistics, the variance-component approach...... partitions heritability accurately under a wide range of complex-disease architectures. Across the 11 diseases DNaseI hypersensitivity sites (DHSs) from 217 cell types spanned 16% of imputed SNPs (and 24% of genotyped SNPs) but explained an average of 79% (SE = 8%) of hg(2) from imputed SNPs (5.1× enrichment...

  6. Granular cell tumor of the common bile duct: A Japanese case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junko Saito; Michiko Kitagawa; Hiroshi Kusanagi; Nobuyasu Kano; Eiji Ishii; SO Nakaji; Nobuto Hirata

    2012-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the biliary system is rare.It is reported that it occurs more commonly in young black women.We report here our seldom experience of a Japanese case in whom icterus was found as a first symptom just after a caesarean operation.A 36-year-old Japanese woman developed icterus after delivery by the Caesarean operation.A surgical operation was performed without can deny that there was a tumor-related change in a bile duct as a result of examination for various images.As a result of pathological evaluation,GCT was diagnosed.By the preoperative organization biomicroscopy result,it was not able to be attachd a right diagnosis.It was thought that this tumor,although rare,should be considered as one of the causes of biliary stenosis in the younger population.

  7. Mitochondria, the Cell Cycle, and the Origin of Sex via a Syncytial Eukaryote Common Ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sriram G; Martin, William F

    2016-07-02

    Theories for the origin of sex traditionally start with an asexual mitosing cell and add recombination, thereby deriving meiosis from mitosis. Though sex was clearly present in the eukaryote common ancestor, the order of events linking the origin of sex and the origin of mitosis is unknown. Here, we present an evolutionary inference for the origin of sex starting with a bacterial ancestor of mitochondria in the cytosol of its archaeal host. We posit that symbiotic association led to the origin of mitochondria and gene transfer to host's genome, generating a nucleus and a dedicated translational compartment, the eukaryotic cytosol, in which-by virtue of mitochondria-metabolic energy was not limiting. Spontaneous protein aggregation (monomer polymerization) and Adenosine Tri-phosphate (ATP)-dependent macromolecular movement in the cytosol thereby became selectable, giving rise to continuous microtubule-dependent chromosome separation (reduction division). We propose that eukaryotic chromosome division arose in a filamentous, syncytial, multinucleated ancestor, in which nuclei with insufficient chromosome numbers could complement each other through mRNA in the cytosol and generate new chromosome combinations through karyogamy. A syncytial (or coenocytic, a synonym) eukaryote ancestor, or Coeca, would account for the observation that the process of eukaryotic chromosome separation is more conserved than the process of eukaryotic cell division. The first progeny of such a syncytial ancestor were likely equivalent to meiospores, released into the environment by the host's vesicle secretion machinery. The natural ability of archaea (the host) to fuse and recombine brought forth reciprocal recombination among fusing (syngamy and karyogamy) progeny-sex-in an ancestrally meiotic cell cycle, from which the simpler haploid and diploid mitotic cell cycles arose. The origin of eukaryotes was the origin of vertical lineage inheritance, and sex was required to keep vertically

  8. IGF1 is a common target gene of Ewing's sarcoma fusion proteins in mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Cironi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein is associated with 85-90% of Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT, the remaining 10-15% of cases expressing chimeric genes encoding EWS or FUS fused to one of several ets transcription factor family members, including ERG-1, FEV, ETV1 and ETV6. ESFT are dependent on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 for growth and survival and recent evidence suggests that mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells constitute a candidate ESFT origin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the functional relatedness between ESFT-associated fusion proteins, we compared mouse progenitor cell (MPC permissiveness for EWS-FLI-1, EWS-ERG and FUS-ERG expression and assessed the corresponding expression profile changes. Whereas all MPC isolates tested could stably express EWS-FLI-1, only some sustained stable EWS-ERG expression and none could express FUS-ERG for more than 3-5 days. Only 14% and 4% of the total number of genes that were respectively induced and repressed in MPCs by the three fusion proteins were shared. However, all three fusion proteins, but neither FLI-1 nor ERG-1 alone, activated the IGF1 promoter and induced IGF1 expression. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Whereas expression of different ESFT-associated fusion proteins may require distinct cellular microenvironments and induce transcriptome changes of limited similarity, IGF1 induction may provide one common mechanism for their implication in ESFT pathogenesis.

  9. Analysis of essential pathways for self-renewal in common marmoset embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu Nii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common marmoset (CM is widely recognized as a useful non-human primate for disease modeling and preclinical studies. Thus, embryonic stem cells (ESCs derived from CM have potential as an appropriate cell source to test human regenerative medicine using human ESCs. CM ESCs have been established by us and other groups, and can be cultured in vitro. However, the growth factors and downstream pathways for self-renewal of CM ESCs are largely unknown. In this study, we found that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF rather than leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF promoted CM ESC self-renewal via the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-protein kinase B (AKT pathway on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF feeders. Moreover, bFGF and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ signaling pathways cooperatively maintained the undifferentiated state of CM ESCs under feeder-free condition. Our findings may improve the culture techniques of CM ESCs and facilitate their use as a preclinical experimental resource for human regenerative medicine.

  10. Identification of trans-sialidases as a common mediator of endothelial cell activation by African trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Ammar

    Full Text Available Understanding African Trypanosomiasis (AT host-pathogen interaction is the key to an "anti-disease vaccine", a novel strategy to control AT. Here we provide a better insight into this poorly described interaction by characterizing the activation of a panel of endothelial cells by bloodstream forms of four African trypanosome species, known to interact with host endothelium. T. congolense, T. vivax, and T. b. gambiense activated the endothelial NF-κB pathway, but interestingly, not T. b. brucei. The parasitic TS (trans-sialidases mediated this NF-κB activation, remarkably via their lectin-like domain and induced production of pro-inflammatory molecules not only in vitro but also in vivo, suggesting a considerable impact on pathogenesis. For the first time, TS activity was identified in T. b. gambiense BSF which distinguishes it from the subspecies T. b. brucei. The corresponding TS were characterized and shown to activate endothelial cells, suggesting that TS represent a common mediator of endothelium activation among trypanosome species with divergent physiopathologies.

  11. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian González-Segura

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the common carp. Eight injections of reserpine alone, at doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/ml/kg of body weight and at intervals of 48 hours, caused an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells. The dose 0.5 mg/ml/kg, presented an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 382% and 123%, respectively, above the control group. The dose 1.0 mg/ml/kg, showed an enhanced number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 704% and 152%, respectively. With the dose 1.5 mg/ml/kg increase in number (171% and volume (106% of gonadotrophic cells was lower. The gonads of the experimental groups had an abundance of advanced states of spermatogenesis. Our results show that eight intraperitoneal injections of reserpine were responsible for an increase in gonadodrophic cell, number and volumeLa secreción de gonadotropinas (GtHs en pez dorado y carpas, es estimulada por la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas (GnRH e inhibida por la dopamina. Trabajos previos con antidopaminérgicos demostraron ser efectivos para estimular la espermiación y ovulación, en varias especies de teleósteos. La reserpina, una sustancia que desaparece catecolaminas, se ha probado con éxito para estimular la espermiación en la carpa común. En este trabajo, reportamos los efectos de la reserpina en el número y volúmen de células gonadotropas en la carpa común. Se aplicaron ocho inyecciones de reserpina a dosis de 0.5, 1.0, y 1.5 mg/ml/kg de peso corporal, a intervalos de 48 horas

  12. In vitro cytotoxicity of selected chemicals commonly produced during fire combustion using human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, F; Hayes, A J; Green, A R; Markovic, B

    2005-08-01

    Fire combustion products contain a broad range of chemicals, which have a multitude of possible toxic interactions in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of selected substances commonly produced during fire combustion. A range of human cell lines and cultures including: skin fibroblasts, HepG2 (liver derived), and A549 (lung derived cells) were used to represent different human target organs. The colorimetric MTS assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) was used to detect the cytotoxic effects of selected substances including: acetic acid, ammonia, formaldehyde, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, potassium cyanide, sodium fluoride, sodium nitrite, sodium sulphide, and sulphurous acid. In this study, the NOAEC (No Observable Adverse Effect Concentration), IC(10) (10% inhibitory concentration), IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration), and TLC (Total Lethal Concentration) values were determined. The ratio between in vitro IC50 to in vivo human toxicity data (Lowest Lethal Dose-LDLo and Lowest Lethal Concentration--LCLo) was also established. Results indicated a strong relationship between IC50 values on the cell types used: fibroblast and A549 (R2: 0.92), A549 and HepG2 (R2: 0.72), fibroblast and HepG2 (R2: 0.69). Good correlation was obtained between the IC50 against LDLo and LCLo when an appropriate adjustment factor was implemented. Results of this study indicated that in vitro methods could be a potential technique for assessing the toxicity of fire combustion products.

  13. Functionally important amino acids in the TCR revealed by immunoselection of membrane TCR-negative T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Arnaud, J; Gouaillard, C

    1994-01-01

    A spontaneous TCR cell surface variant (3P11) of the Jurkat T cell line is described and characterized. 3P11 was selected by incubation of Jurkat cells with anti-TCR mAb followed by passage through Ig anti-Ig columns and cloning. 3P11 contained mRNA for both Ti alpha and Ti beta and CD3 gamma, de...

  14. Functionally important amino acids in the TCR revealed by immunoselection of membrane TCR-negative T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Arnaud, J; Gouaillard, C;

    1994-01-01

    A spontaneous TCR cell surface variant (3P11) of the Jurkat T cell line is described and characterized. 3P11 was selected by incubation of Jurkat cells with anti-TCR mAb followed by passage through Ig anti-Ig columns and cloning. 3P11 contained mRNA for both Ti alpha and Ti beta and CD3 gamma, de...

  15. Common glycoproteins expressing polylactosamine-type glycans on matched patient primary and metastatic melanoma cells show different glycan profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Mitsui, Yosuke; Kakoi, Naotaka; Yamada, Keita; Hayakawa, Takao; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2014-02-07

    Recently, we reported comparative analysis of glycoproteins which express cancer-specific N-glycans on various cancer cells and identified 24 glycoproteins having polylactosamine (polyLacNAc)-type N-glycans that are abundantly present in malignant cells [ Mitsui et al., J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2012 , 70 , 718 - 726 ]. In the present study, we applied the technique to comparative studies on common glycoproteins present in the matched patient primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. Metastatic melanoma cells (WM266-4) contained a large amount of polyLacNAc-type N-glycans in comparison with primary melanoma cells (WM115). To identify the glycoproteins expressing these N-glycans, glycopeptides having polyLacNAc-type N-glycans were captured by a Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA)-immobilized agarose column. The captured glycopeptides were analyzed by LC/MS after removing N-glycans, and some glycoproteins such as basigin, lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1), and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) were identified in both WM115 and WM266-4 cells. The expression level of polyLacNAc of CSPG4 in WM266-4 cells was significantly higher than that in WM115 cells. In addition, sulfation patterns of chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains in CSPG4 showed dramatic changes between these cell lines. These data show that characteristic glycans attached to common proteins observed in different stages of cancer cells will be useful markers for determining degree of malignancies of tumor cells.

  16. Immunolocation of mitochondria-rich cells in epidermis of the common toad, Bufo bufo L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Ingrid B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Adult toads, skin, flask-shaped cells, cytoskeleton, keratin expression, immunohistochemistry, differentiation.......Adult toads, skin, flask-shaped cells, cytoskeleton, keratin expression, immunohistochemistry, differentiation....

  17. The Stem Cell Commons: an exemplar for data integration in the biomedical domain driven by the ISA framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Sui, Shannan; Merrill, Emily; Gehlenborg, Nils; Haseley, Psalm; Sytchev, Ilya; Park, Richard; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Corlosquet, Stephane; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Maguire, Eamonn; Hofmann, Oliver; Park, Peter; Das, Sudeshna; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Hide, Winston

    2013-01-01

    Comparisons of stem cell experiments at both molecular and semantic levels remain challenging due to inconsistencies in results, data formats, and descriptions among biomedical research discoveries. The Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) has created the Stem Cell Commons (stemcellcommons.org), an open, community-based approach to data sharing. Experimental information is integrated using the Investigation-Study-Assay tabular format (ISA-Tab) used by over 30 organizations (ISA Commons, isacommons.org). The early adoption of this format permitted the novel integration of three independent systems to facilitate stem cell data storage, exchange and analysis: the Blood Genomics Repository, the Stem Cell Discovery Engine, and the new Refinery platform that links the Galaxy analytical engine to data repositories.

  18. Microfluidic device to study cell transmigration under physiological shear stress conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Kiilerich-Pedersen, Katrine; Moresco, Jacob Lange

    2011-01-01

    the membrane under flow conditions. The 3D environment of migrating cells is imitated by injecting cell adhesion proteins to coat the membrane in the device. We tested the developed device with Jurkat cells migration towards medium supplemented with serum, and with chemokine induced lymphocytes migration......The development of new drug therapies relies on studies of cell transmigration in in vitro systems. Migration has traditionally been studied using two methods, the Boyden chamber and a shear flow chamber assay. Though, commonly applied in cell transmigration studies, they are far from imitating...... a natural migration process. Here we describe a novel in vitro cell transmigration microfluidic assay, which mimicks physiological shear flow conditions in blood vessels. The device was designed to incorporate the principles of both the Boyden chamber and the shear flow chamber assay, i.e. migration through...

  19. Virion Structure of Black Queen Cell Virus, a Common Honeybee Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurny, Radovan; Přidal, Antonín; Pálková, Lenka; Kiem, Hoa Khanh Tran; de Miranda, Joachim R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viral diseases are a major threat to honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations worldwide and therefore an important factor in reliable crop pollination and food security. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) is the etiological agent of a fatal disease of honeybee queen larvae and pupae. The virus belongs to the genus Triatovirus from the family Dicistroviridae, which is part of the order Picornavirales. Here we present a crystal structure of BQCV determined to a resolution of 3.4 Å. The virion is formed by 60 copies of each of the major capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3; however, there is no density corresponding to a 75-residue-long minor capsid protein VP4 encoded by the BQCV genome. We show that the VP4 subunits are present in the crystallized virions that are infectious. This aspect of the BQCV virion is similar to that of the previously characterized triatoma virus and supports the recent establishment of the separate genus Triatovirus within the family Dicistroviridae. The C terminus of VP1 and CD loops of capsid proteins VP1 and VP3 of BQCV form 34-Å-tall finger-like protrusions at the virion surface. The protrusions are larger than those of related dicistroviruses. IMPORTANCE The western honeybee is the most important pollinator of all, and it is required to sustain the agricultural production and biodiversity of wild flowering plants. However, honeybee populations worldwide are suffering from virus infections that cause colony losses. One of the most common, and least known, honeybee pathogens is black queen cell virus (BQCV), which at high titers causes queen larvae and pupae to turn black and die. Here we present the three-dimensional virion structure of BQCV, determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of BQCV reveals large protrusions on the virion surface. Capsid protein VP1 of BQCV does not contain a hydrophobic pocket. Therefore, the BQCV virion structure provides evidence that capsid-binding antiviral compounds that can prevent the

  20. Common Effects on Follicular Thyroid Cancer Cells Exerted by Simulated Microgravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejgaard, Benjamin; Grimm, Daniela; Corydon, Thomas Juhl

    2015-01-01

    investigated. After a three-day (3d) or seven-day (7d) culture grown in s-μg, we found both cell types growing three-dimensionally within multicellular spheroids (MCS) and also cells remaining adherent (AD) to the culture flask, while 1g- control cultures only formed adherent monolayers RO82-W-1 cells released...

  1. Identification of a common Wnt-associated genetic signature across multiple cell types in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, James D; Austin, Eric D; Gaskill, Christa; Marriott, Shennea; Baskir, Rubin; Bilousova, Ganna; Jean, Jyh-Chang; Hemnes, Anna R; Menon, Swapna; Bloodworth, Nathaniel C; Fessel, Joshua P; Kropski, Johnathan A; Irwin, David; Ware, Lorraine B; Wheeler, Lisa; Hong, Charles C; Meyrick, Barbara; Loyd, James E; Bowman, Aaron B; Ess, Kevin C; Klemm, Dwight J; Young, Pampee P; Merryman, W David; Kotton, Darrell; Majka, Susan M

    2014-09-01

    Understanding differences in gene expression that increase risk for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is essential to understanding the molecular basis for disease. Previous studies on patient samples were limited by end-stage disease effects or by use of nonadherent cells, which are not ideal to model vascular cells in vivo. These studies addressed the hypothesis that pathological processes associated with PAH may be identified via a genetic signature common across multiple cell types. Expression array experiments were initially conducted to analyze cell types at different stages of vascular differentiation (mesenchymal stromal and endothelial) derived from PAH patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Molecular pathways that were altered in the PAH cell lines were then compared with those in fibroblasts from 21 patients, including those with idiopathic and heritable PAH. Wnt was identified as a target pathway and was validated in vitro using primary patient mesenchymal and endothelial cells. Taken together, our data suggest that the molecular lesions that cause PAH are present in all cell types evaluated, regardless of origin, and that stimulation of the Wnt signaling pathway was a common molecular defect in both heritable and idiopathic PAH.

  2. Multicenter experience in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for serious complications of common variable immunodeficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehr, Claudia; Gennery, Andrew R.; Lindemans, Caroline; Schulz, Ansgar; Hoenig, Manfred; Marks, Reinhard; Recher, Mike; Gruhn, Bernd; Holbro, Andreas; Heijnen, Ingmar; Meyer, Deborah; Grigoleit, Goetz; Einsele, Hermann; Baumann, Ulrich; Witte, Thorsten; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Goldacker, Sigune; Regairaz, Lorena; Aksoylar, Serap; Ardeniz, Omur; Zecca, Marco; Zdziarski, Przemyslaw; Meyts, Isabelle; Matthes-Martin, Susanne; Imai, Kohsuke; Kamae, Chikako; Fielding, Adele; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Slatter, Mary A.; Gungor, Tayfun; Arkwright, Peter D.; van Montfrans, JM; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Grimbacher, Bodo; Cant, Andrew; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Finke, Juergen; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Warnatz, Klaus; Rizzi, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is usually well controlled with immunoglobulin substitution and immunomodulatory drugs. A subgroup of patients has a complicated disease course with high mortality. For these patients, investigation of more invasive, potentially curative treatments

  3. Single-cell whole genome sequencing reveals no evidence for common aneuploidy in normal and Alzheimer's disease neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Hilda; Spierings, Diana C J; Taudt, Aaron S; Bakker, Bjorn; Porubský, David; Falconer, Ester; Novoa, Carolina; Halsema, Nancy; Kazemier, Hinke G; Hoekstra-Wakker, Karina; Guryev, Victor; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; Foijer, Floris; Tatché, Maria Colomé; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease of the brain and the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Aneuploidy, a state in which cells have an abnormal number of chromosomes, has been proposed to play a role in neurodegeneration in AD patients. Several studies using

  4. Single-cell whole genome sequencing reveals no evidence for common aneuploidy in normal and Alzheimer's disease neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Hilda; Spierings, Diana C J; Taudt, Aaron S; Bakker, Bjorn; Porubský, David; Falconer, Ester; Novoa, Carolina; Halsema, Nancy; Kazemier, Hinke G; Hoekstra-Wakker, Karina; Guryev, Victor; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; Foijer, Floris; Tatché, Maria Colomé; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease of the brain and the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Aneuploidy, a state in which cells have an abnormal number of chromosomes, has been proposed to play a role in neurodegeneration in AD patients. Several studies using

  5. Common mechanisms linking connexin43 to neural progenitor cell migration and glioma invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Christian C; Aftab, Qurratulain; Sin, Wun Chey

    2016-02-01

    Cell migration is critical for cell differentiation, tissue formation and organ development. Several mechanisms come to play in the process of cell migration, orchestrating changes in cell polarity, adhesion, process extension and motility. Recent findings have shown that gap junctions, and specifically connexin43 (Cx43), can play a significant role in these processes, impacting adhesion and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Thus Cx43 within a cell regulates its motility and migration via intracellular signaling. Furthermore, Cx43 in the host cells can impact the degree of cellular migration through that tissue. Similarities in these connexin-based processes account for both neural progenitor migration in the developing brain, and for glioma cell invasion in the mature brain. In both cases, Cx43 in the tissue ("soil") in which cells ("seeds") exist facilitates their migration and, for glioma cells, tissue invasion. Cx43 mediates these effects through channel- and non-channel-dependent mechanisms which have similarities in both paradigms of cell migration. This provides insight into developmental processes and pathological situations, as well as possible therapeutic approaches regarding specific functional domains of gap junction proteins.

  6. Follicular T Cells from smB(-) Common Variable Immunodeficiency Patients Are Skewed Toward a Th1 Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunill, Vanesa; Clemente, Antonio; Lanio, Nallibe; Barceló, Carla; Andreu, Valero; Pons, Jaume; Ferrer, Joana M

    2017-01-01

    Germinal center follicular T helper (GCTfh) cells are essential players in the differentiation of B cells. Circulating follicular T helper (cTfh) cells share phenotypic and functional properties with GCTfh cells. Distinct subpopulations of cTfh with different helper capabilities toward B cells can be identified: cTfh1 (CXCR3(+)CCR6(-)), cTfh2 (CXCR3(-)CCR6(-)), and cTfh17 (CXCR3(-)CCR6(+)). Alterations in cTfh function and/or distribution have been associated with autoimmunity, infectious diseases, and more recently, with several monogenic immunodeficiencies. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) disease is the commonest symptomatic primary immunodeficiency with a genetic cause identified in only 2-10% of patients. Although a heterogeneous disease, most patients show a characteristic defective B cell differentiation into memory B cells or antibody-secreting cells. We investigated if alterations in CVID cTfh cells frequency or distribution into cTfh1, cTfh2, and cTfh17 subpopulations and regulatory follicular T (Tfr) cells could be related to defects in CVID B cells. We found increased percentages of cTfh exhibiting higher programmed death-1 expression and altered subpopulations distribution in smB(-) CVID patients. In contrast to smB(+) patients and controls, cTfh from smB(-) CVID patients show increased cTfh1 and decreased cTfh17 subpopulation percentages and increased CXCR3(+)CCR6(+) cTfh, a population analogous to the recently described pathogenic Th17.1. Moreover, Tfr cells are remarkably decreased only in smB(-) CVID patients. In conclusion, increased cTfh17.1 and cTfh1/cTfh17 ratio in CVID patients could influence B cell fate in smB(-) CVID patients, with a more compromised B cell compartment, and the decrease in Tfr cells may lead to high risk of autoimmune conditions in CVID patients.

  7. Single-Cell Analysis of Growth in Budding Yeast and Bacteria Reveals a Common Size Regulation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, Ilya; Robert, Lydia; Amir, Ariel

    2016-02-08

    To maintain a constant cell size, dividing cells have to coordinate cell-cycle events with cell growth. This coordination has long been supposed to rely on the existence of size thresholds determining cell-cycle progression [1]. In budding yeast, size is controlled at the G1/S transition [2]. In agreement with this hypothesis, the size at birth influences the time spent in G1: smaller cells have a longer G1 period [3]. Nevertheless, even though cells born smaller have a longer G1, the compensation is imperfect and they still bud at smaller cell sizes. In bacteria, several recent studies have shown that the incremental model of size control, in which size is controlled by addition of a constant volume (in contrast to a size threshold), is able to quantitatively explain the experimental data on four different bacterial species [4-7]. Here, we report on experimental results for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, finding, surprisingly, that cell size control in this organism is very well described by the incremental model, suggesting a common strategy for cell size control with bacteria. Additionally, we argue that for S. cerevisiae the "volume increment" is not added from birth to division, but rather between two budding events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line shares morphological and functional characteristics with macrophages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyts, F.A.A.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Flik, G.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    1997-01-01

    A carp leucocyte cell line (CLC), originating from peripheral blood, was characterised to assess its suitability for studies into carp macrophage functions. The cells reacted with a monoclonal antibody raised against carp head kidney macrophages. Other macrophage characteristics observed were: bindi

  9. Cell type-specific and common characteristics of exosomes derived from mouse cell lines: Yield, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenviriyakul, Chonlada; Takahashi, Yuki; Morishita, Masaki; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Nishikawa, Makiya; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted from cells and are expected to be used as drug delivery systems. Important characteristics of exosomes, such as yield, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetics, may be different among different cell types. However, there is limited information about the effect of cell type on these characteristics. In the present study, we evaluated these characteristics of exosomes derived from five different types of mouse cell lines: B16BL6 murine melanoma cells, C2C12 murine myoblast cells, NIH3T3 murine fibroblasts cells, MAEC murine aortic endothelial cells, and RAW264.7 murine macrophage-like cells. Exosomes were collected using a differential ultracentrifugation method. The exosomes collected from all the cell types were negatively charged globular vesicles with a diameter of approximately 100nm. C2C12 and RAW264.7 cells produced more exosomes than the other types of cells. The exosomes were labeled with a fusion protein of Gaussia luciferase and lactadherin to evaluate their pharmacokinetics. After intravenous injection into mice, all the exosomes rapidly disappeared from the systemic circulation and mainly distributed to the liver. In conclusion, the exosome yield was significantly different among the cell types, and all the exosomes evaluated in this study showed comparable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties.

  10. Germ cell dynamics in the testis of the postnatal common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, S; Ehmcke, J; Wistuba, J; Eildermann, K; Behr, R; Schlatt, S; Gromoll, J

    2010-11-01

    The seminiferous epithelium in the nonhuman primate Callithrix jacchus is similarly organized to man. This monkey has therefore been used as a preclinical model for spermatogenesis and testicular stem cell physiology. However, little is known about the developmental dynamics of germ cells in the postnatal primate testis. In this study, we analyzed testes of newborn, 8-week-old, and adult marmosets employing immunohistochemistry using pluripotent stem cell and germ cell markers DDX4 (VASA), POU5F1 (OCT3/4), and TFAP2C (AP-2γ). Stereological and morphometric techniques were applied for quantitative analysis of germ cell populations and testicular histological changes. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) of testicular mRNA was applied using 16 marker genes establishing the corresponding profiles during postnatal testicular development. Testis size increased during the first 8 weeks of life with the main driver being longitudinal outgrowth of seminiferous cords. The number of DDX4-positive cells per testis doubled between birth and 8 weeks of age whereas TFAP2C- and POU5F1-positive cells remained unchanged. This increase in DDX4-expressing cells indicates dynamic growth of the differentiated A-spermatogonial population. The presence of cells expressing POU5F1 and TFAP2C after 8 weeks reveals the persistence of less differentiated germ cells. The mRNA and protein profiles determined by qRT-PCR and western blot in newborn, 8-week-old, and adult marmosets corroborated the immunohistochemical findings. In conclusion, we demonstrated the presence of distinct spermatogonial subpopulations in the primate testis exhibiting different dynamics during early testicular development. Our study demonstrates the suitability of the marmoset testis as a model for human testicular development.

  11. FGF4 independent derivation of trophoblast stem cells from the common vole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Grigor'eva

    Full Text Available The derivation of stable multipotent trophoblast stem (TS cell lines from preimplantation, and early postimplantation mouse embryos has been reported previously. FGF4, and its receptor FGFR2, have been identified as embryonic signaling factors responsible for the maintenance of the undifferentiated state of multipotent TS cells. Here we report the derivation of stable TS-like cell lines from the vole M. rossiaemeridionalis, in the absence of FGF4 and heparin. Vole TS-like cells are similar to murine TS cells with respect to their morphology, transcription factor gene expression and differentiation in vitro into derivatives of the trophectoderm lineage, and with respect to their ability to invade and erode host tissues, forming haemorrhagic tumours after subcutaneous injection into nude mice. Moreover, vole TS-like cells carry an inactive paternal X chromosome, indicating that they have undergone imprinted X inactivation, which is characteristic of the trophoblast lineage. Our results indicate that an alternative signaling pathway may be responsible for the establishment and stable proliferation of vole TS-like cells.

  12. Mechanism of Prostaglandin (PG)E2-Induced Prolactin Expression in Human T Cells: Cooperation of Two PGE2 Receptor Subtypes, E-Prostanoid (EP) 3 and EP4, Via Calcium- and Cyclic Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate-Mediated Signaling Pathways

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerlo, Sarah; Verdood, Peggy; Gellersen, Birgit; Hooghe-Peters, Elisabeth L; Kooijman, Ron

    2004-01-01

    ...; and Endokrinologikum Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany We previously reported that prolactin gene expression in the T-leukemic cell line Jurkat is stimulated by PGE 2 and that cAMP acts synergistically with Ca 2...

  13. Comparative study on antiproliferation properties and cellular antioxidant activities of commonly consumed food legumes against nine human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2012-10-01

    The aims of this work were to compare health promoting effects of commonly consumed food legumes in terms of cancer cell proliferation inhibitory effects and cellular antioxidant activities (CAA). The CAA was evaluated by fluorescence microplate reader based on in vitro animal cell cultivation. Antiproliferative properties were assayed by MTT method using in vitro cell culture system. Phytochemicals (including total phenolic, procyanidin, saponin and phytic acid) and chemical antioxidant activities (including DPPH free radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PRSC)) were also determined for comparison purposes. The results showed that different types of legumes possessed considerable variations in their phytochemicals, as well as chemical and cellular antioxidant activities. Adzuki bean exhibited the strongest antiproliferative properties in a dose-dependent manner against all digestive system cancer cell lines (CAL27, AGS, HepG2, SW480 and Caco-2), ovary cancer cell SK-OV-3 and breast cancer cell MCF-7 among all legumes tested. Black soybean exhibited the highest saponin, phytic acid content, PRSC values, and the strongest CAA values. These results indicate that commonly consumed food legumes may serve as an excellent dietary source of natural antioxidants for health promotion and cancer prevention.

  14. Commonly used bowel preparations have significant and different effects upon cell proliferation in the colon: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Stuart A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Markers of crypt cell proliferation are frequently employed in studies of the impact of genetic and exogenous factors on human colonic physiology. Human studies often rely on the assessment of tissue acquired at endoscopy. Modulation of cell proliferation by bowel preparation with oral laxatives may confound the findings of such studies, but there is little data on the impact of commonly used bowel preparations on markers of cell proliferation. Methods Crypt length, crypt cellularity and crypt cell proliferation were assessed in biopsies acquired after preparation with either Klean-Prep or Picolax. Crypt cell proliferation was assessed by whole-mount mitotic figure count, and by two different immunohistochemical (IHC labelling methods (Ki-67 and pHH3. Subsequent biopsies were obtained from the same patients without bowel preparation and similarly assessed. Parameters were compared between groups using analysis of variance and paired t-tests. Results There were significant differences in labelling indices (LI between biopsies taken after Klean-prep and those taken after Picolax preparation, for both Ki67 (p = 0.019 and pHH3 (p = 0.017. A similar trend was seen for whole-mount mitotic figure counts. Suppression or elevation of proliferation parameters by bowel preparation may mask any effect due to an intervention or disease. Conclusion Commonly used bowel preparations may have significant and different effects on crypt cell proliferation. This should be taken into account when designing studies and when considering the findings of existing studies.

  15. Modulation of Dendritic Cell Responses by Parasites: A Common Strategy to Survive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Terrazas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in our planet and the immune responses triggered by these organisms are critical to determine their outcome. Dendritic cells are key elements for the development of immunity against parasites; they control the responses required to eliminate these pathogens while maintaining host homeostasis. However, there is evidence showing that parasites can influence and regulate dendritic cell function in order to promote a more permissive environment for their survival. In this review we will focus on the strategies protozoan and helminth parasites have developed to interfere with dendritic cell activities as well as in the possible mechanisms involved.

  16. Cell cytotoxicity and mycotoxin and secondary metabolite production by common penicillia on cheese agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gareis, M.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    Known or potential new fungal starter culture species such as Penicillium camemberti, P. roqueforti, P. nalgiovense, P. caseifulvum, and P. solitum have been cultivated on a cheese agar medium together with the common cheese contaminants P. commune, P. crustosum, P. discolor, P. atramentosum, and...

  17. Single-cell sequencing analysis characterizes common and cell-lineage-specific mutations in a muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Xu, Xun; Song, Luting

    2012-01-01

    sequencing of 66 individual tumor cells from a muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Analyses of the somatic mutant allele frequency spectrum and clonal structure revealed that the tumor cells were derived from a single ancestral cell, but that subsequent evolution occurred, leading...... to two distinct tumor cell subpopulations. By analyzing recurrently mutant genes in an additional cohort of 99 TCC tumors, we identified genes that might play roles in the maintenance of the ancestral clone and in the muscle-invasive capability of subclones of this bladder cancer, respectively...

  18. Cell-metal interactions: A comparison of natural uranium to other common metals in renal cells and bone osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milgram, S. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Carriere, M. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thiebault, C. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Berger, P. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Khodja, H. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gouget, B. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]. E-mail: barbara.gouget@cea.fr

    2007-07-15

    Uranium acute intoxication has been documented to induce nephrotoxicity. Kidneys are the main target organs after short term exposures to high concentrations of the toxic, while chronic exposures lead to its accumulation in the skeleton. In this paper, chemical toxicity of uranium is investigated for rat osteoblastic bone cells and compared to results previously obtained on renal cells. We show that bone cells are less sensitive to uranium than renal cells. The influence of the chemical form on U cytotoxicity is demonstrated. For both cell types, a comparison of uranium toxicity with other metals or metalloids toxicities (Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd) permits classification of Cd, Zn, Se{sup IV} and Cu as the most toxic and Ni, Se{sup VI}, Mn and U as the least toxic. Chemical toxicity of natural uranium proves to be far less than that of cadmium. To try to explain the differences in sensitivities observed between metals and different cell types, cellular accumulations in cell monolayers are quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), function of time or function of dose: lethal doses which simulate acute intoxications and sub-lethal doses which are more realistic with regard to environmentally metals concentrations. In addition to being more resistant, bone cells accumulated much more uranium than did renal cells. Moreover, for both cell models, Mn, U-citrate and U-bicarbonate are strongly accumulated whereas Cu, Zn and Ni are weakly accumulated. On the other hand, a strong difference in Cd behaviour between the two cell types is shown: whereas Cd is very weakly accumulated in bone cells, it is very strongly accumulated in renal cells. Finally, elemental distribution of the toxics is determined on a cellular scale using nuclear microprobe analysis. For both renal and osteoblastic cells, uranium was accumulated in as intracellular precipitates similar to those observed previously by SEM/EDS.

  19. Comparison of various classifications for patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) using measurement of B-cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R; Seify, R; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, M; Abolhassani, H; Eskandari, N; Golsaz-Shirazi, F; Ansaripour, B; Salehi, E; Azizi, G; Rezaei, N; Aghamohammadi, A

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disease, characterised by hypogammaglobulinaemia leading to recurrent infections and various complications. The aim of this study was to classify CVID patients based on four known classifications (Paris, Freiburg, EUROclass, and B-cell patterns) by measurement of B-cell subsets and to assess the relation of each classification with clinical manifestations. We measured all B-cell subsets as both absolute count and percentage in 30 CVID patients and 30 healthy individuals using four-colour flow cytometry. Moreover, we evaluated antibody responses to pneumococcal vaccine in patients. A significant reduction in percentage of terminal B-cell subsets (total, marginal zone-like, switched memory, IgM-only memory, total memory B-cells and plasmablast) and absolute count of all B-cell subsets along with a strong increase in CD21(low) B-cells has been observed in patients. Patients with splenomegaly and hepatomegaly clustered in group Ia, smB+21(low) and group 1 based on known classifications, and significantly tended to have a decreased transitional and marginal zone-like B-cells count, as well as an increase in CD21(low) B-cell counts. Patients with lymphadenopathy, bronchiectasis and allergy had a significant decrease in absolute count of total memory, switched memory and total B-cells, respectively. Classification of patients could provide useful information to guide clinicians in long-term follow-up of CVID patients. Our data demonstrate that it may be more accurate to use absolute counts of B-cell subpopulations in CVID patients because absolute counts of B-cell subsets are more associated with clinical manifestations compared with their percentage and also four known classifications. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Multipotent stromal cells derived from common marmoset Callithrix jacchus within alginate 3D environment: Effect of cryopreservation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Hofmann, Nicola; Lauterboeck, Lothar; Pogozhykh, Denys; Mueller, Thomas; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2015-08-01

    Multipotent stromal cells derived from the common marmoset monkey Callithrix jacchus (cjMSCs) possess high phylogenetic similarity to humans, with a great potential for preclinical studies in the field of regenerative medicine. Safe and effective long-term storage of cells is of great significance to clinical and research applications. Encapsulation of such cell types within alginate beads that can mimic an extra-cellular matrix and provide a supportive environment for cells during cryopreservation, has several advantages over freezing of cells in suspension. In this study we have analysed the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO, 2.5-10%, v/v) and pre-freeze loading time of alginate encapsulated cjMSCs in Me2SO (0-45 min) on the viability and metabolic activity of the cells after freezing using a slow cooling rate (-1°C/min). It was found that these parameters affect the stability and homogeneity of alginate beads after thawing. Moreover, the cjMSCs can be frozen in alginate beads with lower Me2SO concentration of 7.5% after 30 min of loading, while retaining high cryopreservation outcome. We demonstrated the maximum viability, membrane integrity and metabolic activity of the cells under optimized, less cytotoxic conditions. The results of this study are another step forward towards the application of cryopreservation for the long-term storage and subsequent applications of transplants in cell-based therapies.

  1. Evidence against a stem cell origin of new hepatocytes in a common mouse model of chronic liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Johanna R; Malato, Yann; Gormond, Coralie; Willenbring, Holger

    2014-08-21

    Hepatocytes provide most liver functions, but they can also proliferate and regenerate the liver after injury. However, under some liver injury conditions, particularly chronic liver injury where hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, liver stem cells (LSCs) are thought to replenish lost hepatocytes. Conflicting results have been reported about the identity of LSCs and their contribution to liver regeneration. To address this uncertainty, we followed candidate LSC populations by genetic fate tracing in adult mice with chronic liver injury due to a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet. In contrast to previous studies, we failed to detect hepatocytes derived from biliary epithelial cells or mesenchymal liver cells beyond a negligible frequency. In fact, we failed to detect hepatocytes that were not derived from pre-existing hepatocytes. In conclusion, our findings argue against LSCs, or other nonhepatocyte cell types, providing a backup system for hepatocyte regeneration in this common mouse model of chronic liver injury.

  2. Evidence against a Stem Cell Origin of New Hepatocytes in a Common Mouse Model of Chronic Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna R. Schaub

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocytes provide most liver functions, but they can also proliferate and regenerate the liver after injury. However, under some liver injury conditions, particularly chronic liver injury where hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, liver stem cells (LSCs are thought to replenish lost hepatocytes. Conflicting results have been reported about the identity of LSCs and their contribution to liver regeneration. To address this uncertainty, we followed candidate LSC populations by genetic fate tracing in adult mice with chronic liver injury due to a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet. In contrast to previous studies, we failed to detect hepatocytes derived from biliary epithelial cells or mesenchymal liver cells beyond a negligible frequency. In fact, we failed to detect hepatocytes that were not derived from pre-existing hepatocytes. In conclusion, our findings argue against LSCs, or other nonhepatocyte cell types, providing a backup system for hepatocyte regeneration in this common mouse model of chronic liver injury.

  3. Human embryonic stem cells and metastatic colorectal cancer cells shared the common endogenous human microRNA-26b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Lei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Feng; Moyer, Mary Pat; Yang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Peng, Jia-Yuan; Chen, Hong-Qi; Zhou, Yu-Kun; Liu, Wei-Jie; Qin, Huan-Long

    2011-09-01

    The increase in proliferation and the lack of differentiation of cancer cells resemble what occur in the embryonic stem cells during physiological process of embryogenesis. There are also striking similarities in the behaviour between the invasive placental cells and invasive cancer cells. In the present study, microarrays were used to analyse the global expression of microRNAs in a human embryonic stem cell line (i.e. HUES-17) and four colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines (i.e. LoVo, SW480, HT29 and Caco-2) with different metastatic potentialities. Only the expression of miR-26b was significant decreased in HUES-17s and LoVo cells, compared with other three cell lines (P cell growth and the induction of apoptosis in LoVo cells in vitro, and the inhibition of tumour growth in vivo. Moreover, the potential targets of miR-26b was predicted by using bioinformatics, and then the predicted target genes were further validated by comparing gene expression profiles between LoVo and NCM460 cell lines. Four genes (TAF12, PTP4A1, CHFR and ALS2CR2) with intersection were found to be the targets of miR-26b. MetaCore network analysis further showed that the regulatory pathways of miR-26b were significantly associated with the invasiveness and metastasis of CRC cells. These data suggest that miR-26b might serve as a novel prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target for CRC.

  4. Monocytic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells and fetal liver share common differentiation pathways and homeostatic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchenko, Olena; Di Stefano, Antonio; Geoerger, Birgit; Hamidi, Sofiane; Opolon, Paule; Robert, Thomas; Routhier, Mélanie; El-Benna, Jamel; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Boukour, Siham; Lescure, Bernadette; Solary, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Norol, Françoise

    2011-03-17

    The early emergence of macrophages and their large pattern of tissue distribution during development suggest that they may play a critical role in the initial steps of embryogenesis. In the present study, we show that monocytic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and from fetal liver follow a differentiation pathway different to that of adult cells, leading to specific functions. Embryonic and fetal monocytic cells differentiated from a CD14(low)CD16(-) precursor to form CD14(high)CD16(+) cells without producing the CD14(high)CD16(-) cell population that predominates in adult peripheral blood. Both demonstrated an enhanced expression of genes encoding tissue-degrading enzymes, chemokines, and scavenger receptors, as was previously reported for M2 macrophages. Compared with adult blood monocytes, embryonic and fetal monocytic cells secreted high amounts of proteins acting on tissue remodeling and angiogenesis, and most of them expressed the Tie2 receptor. Furthermore, they promoted vascular remodeling in xenotransplanted human tumors. These findings suggest that the regulation of human fetal and embryonic monocytic cell differentiation leads to the generation of cells endowed mainly with anti-inflammatory and remodeling functions. Trophic and immunosuppressive functions of M2-polarized macrophages link fetus and tumor development, and hESCs offer a valuable experimental model for in vitro studies of mechanisms sustaining these processes.

  5. Investigations into the Mechanisms of Cell Death: The Common Link between Anticancer Nanotherapeutics and Nanotoxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Shalini

    Nanotoxicology and anticancer nanotherapeutics are essentially two sides of the same coin. The nanotoxicology discipline deals with the nanoparticle (NP)-induced toxicity and mechanisms of cell death in healthy cells, whereas anticancer agents delivered via nano-based approaches aim to induce cell death in abnormally proliferating cancer cells. The objectives of the studies presented herein were two-fold; to (a) systematically study the physico-chemical properties and cell death mechanisms of model NPs and (b) utilize the knowledge gained from cell death-nanotoxicity studies in developing a potentially novel anticancer nanotherapeutic agent. For the first objective, the effect of a distinguishing characteristic, i.e., surface carbon coating on the matched pairs of carbon-coated and non-coated copper and nickel NPs (Cu, C-Cu, Ni and C-Ni) on the physico-chemical properties and toxicity in A549 alveolar epithelial cells were evaluated. The effect of carbon coating on particle size, zeta potential, oxidation state, cellular uptake, release of soluble metal and concentration dependent toxicity of Cu and Ni NPs was systematically evaluated. A significant effect of carbon coating was observed on the physico-chemical properties, interaction with cellular membranes, and overall toxicity of the NPs. C-Cu NPs, compared to Cu NPs, showed four-fold lower release of soluble copper, ten-fold higher cellular uptake and protection against surface oxidation. In toxicity assays, C-Cu NPs induced higher mitochondrial damage than Cu NPs whereas Cu NPs were associated with a significant damage to plasma membrane integrity. Nickel and carbon coated nickel NPs were less toxic compared to Cu and C-Cu NPs. Thus, by studying the effect of carbon coating, correlations between physico-chemical properties and toxicity of NPs were established. The second objective was focused on utilizing nano-based approaches for the intracellular delivery of an anticancer agent, Cytochrome c (Cyt c), to

  6. Assessment of thymic output in common variable immunodeficiency patients by evaluation of T cell receptor excision circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUAZZI, V; AIUTI, F; MEZZAROMA, I; MAZZETTA, F; ANDOLFI, G; Mortellaro, A; Pierdominici, M; FANTINI, R; MARZIALI, M; AIUTI, A

    2002-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by repeated infections and hypogammaglobulinaemia. Additionally, T-cell abnormalities including lymphopenia, decreased proliferation to mitogens and antigens, and the reduced production and expression of cytokines, have also been observed. In this study we have investigated the expression of naive, memory and activation markers in T-cell subpopulations in 17 CVID patients in comparison to age-matched normal controls. The numbers of CD4+ T cells, including CD45RA+CD62L+ and, to a lesser extent, CD45RA−CD62L+/RA+CD62L− were significantly reduced in patients, whereas CD8+ T cells were within normal range. In contrast, HLA-DR+ cells were increased both in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. To assess the thymic output, we analysed the presence of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by quantitative PCR. TRECs were decreased significantly in patients and the rate of TREC loss was higher with increasing age. TRECs correlated with naive CD4+ T cells, whereas there was an inverse relationship between TRECs and CD8+HLA−DR+ and CD8+CD45RA−CD62L+/RA+CD62L− T cells. Our results suggest the presence of a defect in the naive T cell compartment with origin at the thymic level in CVID, and indicate that TREC may be a useful marker to monitor thymic function in this primary immunodeficiency. PMID:12165093

  7. Sulforaphane plays common and different roles in tumorigenic and nontumorigenic colon cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring member of the isothiocyanate family of chemopreventive agents and the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis is a key mechanism by which SFN exerts its colon cancer prevention. However, little is known about the differential effects of SFN on colon c...

  8. Common Effects on Follicular Thyroid Cancer Cells Exerted by Simulated Microgravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejgaard, Benjamin; Grimm, Daniela; Corydon, Thomas Juhl

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on gravity-sensitive proteins of two human follicular cancer cell lines (ML-1; RO82-W-1), which were exposed to simulated microgravity (s-μg) on two different machines. Changes in protein cytoskeletal structure, growth patterns and protein expression in response to s-μg were...

  9. Polar delivery in plants; commonalities and differences to animal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Urszula; Fendrych, Matyaš; Friml, Jiři

    2014-04-16

    Although plant and animal cells use a similar core mechanism to deliver proteins to the plasma membrane, their different lifestyle, body organization and specific cell structures resulted in the acquisition of regulatory mechanisms that vary in the two kingdoms. In particular, cell polarity regulators do not seem to be conserved, because genes encoding key components are absent in plant genomes. In plants, the broad knowledge on polarity derives from the study of auxin transporters, the PIN-FORMED proteins, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In animals, much information is provided from the study of polarity in epithelial cells that exhibit basolateral and luminal apical polarities, separated by tight junctions. In this review, we summarize the similarities and differences of the polarization mechanisms between plants and animals and survey the main genetic approaches that have been used to characterize new genes involved in polarity establishment in plants, including the frequently used forward and reverse genetics screens as well as a novel chemical genetics approach that is expected to overcome the limitation of classical genetics methods.

  10. Detection of estrogen receptor endocrine disruptor potency of commonly used organochlorine pesticides using the LUMI-CELL ER bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J.D.; Chu, A.C.; Clark, G.C. [Xenobiotic Detection Systems, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Chu, M.D. [Alta Analytical Perspectives, Wilmington, NC (United States); Denison, M.S. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In order to detect the endocrine disrupting potency of organochlorine pesticides and other compounds, BG-1 (human ovarian carcinoma) cells containing a stably transfected estrogenresponsive luciferase reporter gene plasmid (BG1Luc4E2), was used. This cell line, termed the LUMI-CELL trademark ER estrogenic cell bioassay system, responds in a time-, dose dependent- and chemical-specific manner with the induction of luciferase gene expression in response to exposure to estrogen (but not other steroid hormones) and estrogenic chemicals in a high-throughput screening (HTPS) format6. Here we describe studies in which the LUMI-CELL trademark ER estrogenic cell bioassay system was used for high throughput screening (HTPS) analysis of the estrogenic disrupting potency of several commonly used pesticides and organochlorines: p,p'DDT; p,p'-DDE; DDD; {alpha}a-chlordane; {psi}-chlordane; Kepone; Methoxychlor; Vinclozolin; Fenarimol; 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid; and Dieldrin. Our results demonstrate the utility of XDS's LUMI-CELL trademark ER bioassay HTPS system for screening chemicals for estrogenic activity.

  11. Molecular crowding defines a common origin for the Warburg effect in proliferating cells and the lactate threshold in muscle physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Vazquez

    Full Text Available Aerobic glycolysis is a seemingly wasteful mode of ATP production that is seen both in rapidly proliferating mammalian cells and highly active contracting muscles, but whether there is a common origin for its presence in these widely different systems is unknown. To study this issue, here we develop a model of human central metabolism that incorporates a solvent capacity constraint of metabolic enzymes and mitochondria, accounting for their occupied volume densities, while assuming glucose and/or fatty acid utilization. The model demonstrates that activation of aerobic glycolysis is favored above a threshold metabolic rate in both rapidly proliferating cells and heavily contracting muscles, because it provides higher ATP yield per volume density than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In the case of muscle physiology, the model also predicts that before the lactate switch, fatty acid oxidation increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases to zero with concomitant increase in glucose utilization, in agreement with the empirical evidence. These results are further corroborated by a larger scale model, including biosynthesis of major cell biomass components. The larger scale model also predicts that in proliferating cells the lactate switch is accompanied by activation of glutaminolysis, another distinctive feature of the Warburg effect. In conclusion, intracellular molecular crowding is a fundamental constraint for cell metabolism in both rapidly proliferating- and non-proliferating cells with high metabolic demand. Addition of this constraint to metabolic flux balance models can explain several observations of mammalian cell metabolism under steady state conditions.

  12. Soluble common gamma chain exacerbates COPD progress through the regulation of inflammatory T cell response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Byunghyuk Lee,1 Eunhee Ko,1 Jiyeon Lee,2 Yuna Jo,1 Hyunju Hwang,1 Tae Sik Goh,1,3 Myungsoo Joo,2 Changwan Hong1 1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, 2Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Cigarette smoking (CS is a major cause of considerable morbidity and mortality by inducing lung cancer and COPD. COPD, a smoking-related disorder, is closely related to the alteration of immune system and inflammatory processes that are specifically mediated by T cells. Soluble common gamma chain (sγc has recently been identified as a critical regulator of the development and differentiation of T cells. We examined the effects of sγc in a cigarette smoke extract (CSE mouse model. The sγc level in CSE mice serum is significantly downregulated, and the cellularity of lymph node (LN is systemically reduced in the CSE group. Overexpression of sγc enhances the cellularity and IFNγ production of CD8 T cells in LN and also enhances Th1 and Th17 differentiation of CD4 T cells in the respiratory tract. Mechanistically, the downregulation of sγc expression mediated by CSE is required to prevent excessive inflammatory T cell responses. Therefore, our data suggest that sγc may be one of the target molecules for the control of immunopathogenic progresses in COPD. Keywords: COPD, T cell, soluble common gamma chain, cytokine

  13. Cholesterol homeostasis in two commonly used human prostate cancer cell-lines, LNCaP and PC-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Robert Krycer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been renewed interest in the link between cholesterol and prostate cancer. It has been previously reported that in vitro, prostate cancer cells lack sterol-mediated feedback regulation of the major transcription factor in cholesterol homeostasis, sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2. This could explain the accumulation of cholesterol observed in clinical prostate cancers. Consequently, perturbed feedback regulation to increased sterol levels has become a pervasive concept in the prostate cancer setting. Here, we aimed to explore this in greater depth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After altering the cellular cholesterol status in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cells, we examined SREBP-2 processing, downstream effects on promoter activity and expression of SREBP-2 target genes, and functional activity (low-density lipoprotein uptake, cholesterol synthesis. In doing so, we observed that LNCaP and PC-3 cells were sensitive to increased sterol levels. In contrast, lowering cholesterol levels via statin treatment generated a greater response in LNCaP cells than PC-3 cells. This highlighted an important difference between these cell-lines: basal SREBP-2 activity appeared to be higher in PC-3 cells, reducing sensitivity to decreased cholesterol levels. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, prostate cancer cells are sensitive to changing sterol levels in vitro, but the extent of this regulation differs between prostate cancer cell-lines. These results shed new light on the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in two commonly used prostate cancer cell-lines, and emphasize the importance of establishing whether or not cholesterol homeostasis is perturbed in prostate cancer in vivo.

  14. Follicular T Cells from smB− Common Variable Immunodeficiency Patients Are Skewed Toward a Th1 Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunill, Vanesa; Clemente, Antonio; Lanio, Nallibe; Barceló, Carla; Andreu, Valero; Pons, Jaume; Ferrer, Joana M.

    2017-01-01

    Germinal center follicular T helper (GCTfh) cells are essential players in the differentiation of B cells. Circulating follicular T helper (cTfh) cells share phenotypic and functional properties with GCTfh cells. Distinct subpopulations of cTfh with different helper capabilities toward B cells can be identified: cTfh1 (CXCR3+CCR6−), cTfh2 (CXCR3−CCR6−), and cTfh17 (CXCR3−CCR6+). Alterations in cTfh function and/or distribution have been associated with autoimmunity, infectious diseases, and more recently, with several monogenic immunodeficiencies. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) disease is the commonest symptomatic primary immunodeficiency with a genetic cause identified in only 2–10% of patients. Although a heterogeneous disease, most patients show a characteristic defective B cell differentiation into memory B cells or antibody-secreting cells. We investigated if alterations in CVID cTfh cells frequency or distribution into cTfh1, cTfh2, and cTfh17 subpopulations and regulatory follicular T (Tfr) cells could be related to defects in CVID B cells. We found increased percentages of cTfh exhibiting higher programmed death-1 expression and altered subpopulations distribution in smB− CVID patients. In contrast to smB+ patients and controls, cTfh from smB− CVID patients show increased cTfh1 and decreased cTfh17 subpopulation percentages and increased CXCR3+CCR6+ cTfh, a population analogous to the recently described pathogenic Th17.1. Moreover, Tfr cells are remarkably decreased only in smB− CVID patients. In conclusion, increased cTfh17.1 and cTfh1/cTfh17 ratio in CVID patients could influence B cell fate in smB− CVID patients, with a more compromised B cell compartment, and the decrease in Tfr cells may lead to high risk of autoimmune conditions in CVID patients. PMID:28289412

  15. IRF4 Is a Critical Gene in Retinoic Acid-Mediated Plasma Cell Formation and Is Deregulated in Common Variable Immunodeficiency-Derived B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrevær, Randi L; Moskaug, Jan Ø; Paur, Ingvild; Bøhn, Siv K; Jørgensen, Silje F; Blomhoff, Rune; Aukrust, Pål; Fevang, Børre; Blomhoff, Heidi K

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, we aimed at identifying the mechanisms whereby the vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA) promotes the formation of plasma cells upon stimulation of B cells via the innate immunity receptors TLR9 and RP105. Most often, differentiation of B cells involves the sequential events of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutations characteristic of germinal center reactions, followed by plasma cell formation. By studying the regulatory networks known to drive these reactions, we revealed that RA enhances the expression of the plasma cell-generating transcription factors IFN regulatory factor (IRF)4 and Blimp1, and paradoxically also activation-induced deaminase (AID) involved in somatic hypermutations/class switch recombination, in primary human B cells. IRF4 was identified as a particularly important protein involved in the RA-mediated production of IgG in TLR9/RP105-stimulated B cells. Based on kinetic studies, we present a model suggesting that the initial induction of IRF4 by RA favors AID expression. According to this model, the higher level of IRF4 that eventually arises results in sustained elevated levels of Blimp1. Regarded as a master regulator of plasma cell development, Blimp1 will in turn suppress AID expression and drive the formation of IgG-secreting plasma cells. Notably, we demonstrated IRF4 to be deregulated in B cells from common variable immunodeficiency patients, contributing to the observed aberrant expression of AID in these patients. Taken together, the present study both provides new insight into the mechanisms whereby RA induces differentiation of B cells and identifies IRF4 as a key to understand the defective functions of B cells in common variable immunodeficiency patients.

  16. PRDM1/BLIMP1 is commonly inactivated in anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Michela; Rinaldi, Andrea; Kwee, Ivo; Bonetti, Paola; Todaro, Maria; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Piva, Roberto; Rancoita, Paola M V; Matolcsy, András; Timar, Botond; Tousseyn, Thomas; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Socorro Maria; Piris, Miguel A; Beà, Sílvia; Campo, Elias; Bhagat, Govind; Swerdlow, Steven H; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Young, Ken H; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Dummer, Reinhard; Pileri, Stefano; Zucca, Emanuele; Inghirami, Giorgio; Bertoni, Francesco

    2013-10-10

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a mature T-cell lymphoma that can present as a systemic or primary cutaneous disease. Systemic ALCL represents 2% to 5% of adult lymphoma but up to 30% of all pediatric cases. Two subtypes of systemic ALCL are currently recognized on the basis of the presence of a translocation involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase ALK gene. Despite considerable progress, several questions remain open regarding the pathogenesis of both ALCL subtypes. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis and to assess the relationship between the ALK(+) and ALK(-) ALCL subtypes, we performed a genome-wide DNA profiling using high-density, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays on a series of 64 cases and 7 cell lines. The commonest lesions were losses at 17p13 and at 6q21, encompassing the TP53 and PRDM1 genes, respectively. The latter gene, coding for BLIMP1, was inactivated by multiple mechanisms, more frequently, but not exclusively, in ALK(-)ALCL. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that that PRDM1 is a tumor suppressor gene in ALCL models, likely acting as an antiapoptotic agent. Losses of TP53 and/or PRDM1 were present in 52% of ALK(-)ALCL, and in 29% of all ALCL cases with a clinical implication.

  17. The common mouse protozoa Tritrichomonas muris alters mucosal T cell homeostasis and colitis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Nichole K; Lemire, Paul; Cruz Tleugabulova, Mayra; Prescott, David; Mortha, Arthur; Streutker, Catherine J; Girardin, Stephen E; Philpott, Dana J; Mallevaey, Thierry

    2016-12-12

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract hosts a diverse community of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Through coevolution, mammals and these microbes have developed a symbiosis that is sustained through the host's continuous sensing of microbial factors and the generation of a tolerant or pro-inflammatory response. While analyzing T cell-driven colitis in nonlittermate mouse strains, we serendipitously identified that a nongenetic transmissible factor dramatically increased disease susceptibility. We identified the protozoan Tritrichomonas muris as the disease-exacerbating element. Furthermore, experimental colonization with T. muris induced an elevated Th1 response in the cecum of naive wild-type mice and accelerated colitis in Rag1(-/-) mice after T cell transfer. Overall, we describe a novel cross-kingdom interaction within the murine gut that alters immune cell homeostasis and disease susceptibility. This example of unpredicted microbial priming of the immune response highlights the importance of studying trans-kingdom interactions and serves as a stark reminder of the importance of using littermate controls in all mouse research. © 2016 Escalante et al.

  18. Relationship between pollination and cell wall properties in common fig fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Mehdi; Ginies, Christian; Gaaliche, Badii; Renard, Catherine M G C; Mars, Messaoud

    2014-02-01

    Most botanical types in fig Ficus carica require pollination to fulfil their development and ensure quality onset of the fruit. Cell wall behaviour and composition was followed in fig fruit in response to pollination during maturity. Figs, when ripe, soften drastically and lose of their firmness and cell wall cohesion. Pollination increased peel thickness, flesh thickness, fresh weight and dry matter content of the fruit. Alcohol insoluble solids (AIS), more concentrated in the flesh tissue, were not influenced by the lack of pollination. Concentrations in uronic acids were higher in the AIS of the peel than that of the flesh and differences were significant between pollinated and non-pollinated fruits. Pectin polymers in figs were high methylated (DM>50). The methylation degree (DM) increased more with pollination affecting textural properties of the fig receptacle. The major neutral sugars from the AIS were glucose (Glc) from cellulose followed by arabinose (Ara). No significant changes in neutral sugars content could be allocated to pollination. Pollination is essential in fruit enlargement and softening. Minor changes were determined in the cell wall composition of the fruit at maturity. Fertile seeds resulting from pollination may possibly take place in hormonal activity stimulating many related enzymes of the wall matrix depolymerisation in particular polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin methylesterase (PME). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parenchymatous cell division characterizes the fungal cortex of some common foliose lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, William B; de Los Ríos, Asunción

    2017-02-01

    Lichen-forming fungi produce diverse vegetative tissues, some closely resembling those of plants. Yet it has been repeatedly affirmed that none is a true parenchyma, in which cellular compartments are subdivided from all adjacent neighbors by cross walls adjoining older cross walls. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we tested this assumption by examining patterns of septum formation in the parenchyma-like cortex of three lichens of different phylogenetic affinities: Sticta canariensis, Leptogium cyanescens, and Endocarpon pusillum. In the cortex of all three lichens, new septa adjoined perpendicularly or obliquely to previous septa. Septal walls possessed an electron-transparent core (median) layer covered on both sides by layers of intermediate electron density. At septal junctures, the core layer of the newer septum was not continuous with that of the older septum. Amorphous, electron-dense material often became deposited in the core region of older septal walls, and the septum gradually delaminated along its median into what could then be recognized as the distinct walls of neighboring cells. However, cells maintained continuity at pores, where adjacent remnants of the electron-transparent core layer suggested septal partition rather than secondary establishment of a lateral wall connection via anastomosis. Although fungal tissues first arise by the coalescence of filaments early in lichen ontogeny, the mature cortical tissues of some lichens are comparable to true parenchyma in the unrestricted orientation of their septal cross walls and the resulting ontogenetic relationship among neighboring cell compartments. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  20. Commonly used prophylactic vaccines as an alternative for synthetically produced TLR ligands to mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreibelt, Gerty; Benitez-Ribas, Daniel; Schuurhuis, Danita; Lambeck, Annechien J A; van Hout-Kuijer, Maaike; Schaft, Niels; Punt, Cornelis J A; Figdor, Carl G; Adema, Gosse J; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2010-07-29

    Currently dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines are explored in clinical trials, predominantly in cancer patients. Murine studies showed that only maturation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands generates mature DCs that produce interleukin-12 and promote optimal T-cell help. Unfortunately, the limited availability of clinical-grade TLR ligands significantly hampers the translation of these findings into DC-based vaccines. Therefore, we explored 15 commonly used preventive vaccines as a possible source of TLR ligands. We have identified a cocktail of the vaccines BCG-SSI, Influvac, and Typhim that contains TLR ligands and is capable of optimally maturing DCs. These DCs (vaccine DCs) showed high expression of CD80, CD86, and CD83 and secreted interleukin-12. Although vaccine DCs exhibited an impaired migratory capacity, this could be restored by addition of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2); vaccine PGE(2) DCs). Vaccine PGE(2) DCs are potent inducers of T-cell proliferation and induce Th1 polarization. In addition, vaccine PGE(2) DCs are potent inducers of tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) effector T cells. Finally, vaccine PGE(2)-induced DC maturation is compatible with different antigen-loading strategies, including RNA electroporation. These data thus identify a new clinical application for a mixture of commonly used preventive vaccines in the generation of Th1-inducing clinical-grade mature DCs.

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Bilateral Common Carotid Arteries Occlusion Model of Cerebral Ischemia in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Pourheydar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy is the most advanced treatment of the cerebral ischemia, nowadays. Herein, we discuss the neuroprotective effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs on rat hippocampal cells following intravenous injection of these cells in an ischemia-reperfusion model. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control, sham (surgery without blockage of common carotid arteries, ischemia (common carotid arteries were blocked for 30 min prior to reperfusion, vehicle (7 days after ischemia PBS was injected via the tail vein, and treatment (injections of BMSC into the tail veins 7 days after ischemia. We performed neuromuscular and vestibulomotor function tests to assess behavioral function and, finally, brains were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E, anti-Brdu immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL staining. The ischemia group had severe apoptosis. The group treated with BMSCs had a lower mortality rate and also had significant improvement in functional recovery (P<0.001. Ischemia-reperfusion for 30 min causes damage and extensive neuronal death in the hippocampus, especially in CA1 and CA3 regions, leading to several functional and neurological deficits. In conclusion, intravenous injection of BMSCs can significantly decrease the number of apoptotic neurons and significantly improve functional recovery, which may be a beneficial treatment method for ischemic injuries.

  2. Genome-wide assessment of the association of rare and common copy number variations to testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edsgard, Stefan Daniel; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Weinhold, Nils;

    2013-01-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is one of the most heritable forms of cancer. Previous genome-wide association studies have focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms, largely ignoring the influence of copy number variants (CNVs). Here we present a genome-wide study of CNV on a cohort of 212...... cases and 437 controls from Denmark, which was genotyped at ∼1.8 million markers, half of which were non-polymorphic copy number markers. No association of common variants were found, whereas analysis of rare variants (present in less than 1% of the samples) initially indicated a single gene...... of rare CNVs related to cell migration (false-discovery rate = 0.021, 1.8% of cases and 1.1% of controls). Dysregulation during migration of primordial germ cells has previously been suspected to be a part of TGCC development and this set of multiple rare variants may thereby have a minor contribution...

  3. Localization to the Nucleolus Is a Common Feature of Coronavirus Nucleoproteins, and the Protein May Disrupt Host Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Torsten; Chen, Hongying; Hodgson, Teri; Britton, Paul; Brooks, Gavin; Hiscox, Julian A.

    2001-01-01

    The subcellular localization of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) (group I and group II coronaviruses, respectively) nucleoproteins (N proteins) were examined by confocal microscopy. The proteins were shown to localize either to the cytoplasm alone or to the cytoplasm and a structure in the nucleus. This feature was confirmed to be the nucleolus by using specific antibodies to nucleolin, a major component of the nucleolus, and by confocal microscopy to image sections through a cell expressing N protein. These findings are consistent with our previous report for infectious bronchitis virus (group III coronavirus) (J. A. Hiscox et al., J. Virol. 75:506–512, 2001), indicating that nucleolar localization of the N protein is a common feature of the coronavirus family and is possibly of functional significance. Nucleolar localization signals were identified in the domain III region of the N protein from all three coronavirus groups, and this suggested that transport of N protein to the nucleus might be an active process. In addition, our results suggest that the N protein might function to disrupt cell division. Thus, we observed that approximately 30% of cells transfected with the N protein appeared to be undergoing cell division. The most likely explanation for this is that the N protein induced a cell cycle delay or arrest, most likely in the G2/M phase. In a fraction of transfected cells expressing coronavirus N proteins, we observed multinucleate cells and dividing cells with nucleoli (which are only present during interphase). These findings are consistent with the possible inhibition of cytokinesis in these cells. PMID:11533198

  4. Targeting Inhibition of Fibroblast Activation Protein-α and Prolyl Oligopeptidase Activities on Cells Common to Metastatic Tumor Microenvironments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Christiansen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast activation protein (FAP, a membrane prolyl-specific proteinase with both dipeptidase and endopeptidase activities, is overexpressed by reactive stromal fibroblasts during epithelial-derived cancer growth. FAP digests extracellular matrix as tissue is remodeled during cancer expansion and may also promote an immunotolerant tumor microenvironment. Recent studies suggest that nonspecific FAP inhibitors suppress human cancer xenografts in mouse models. Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, another prolyl-specific serine proteinase, is also elevated in many cancers and may have a regulatory role in angiogenesis promotion. FAP and POP cell-associated activities may be targets for diagnosis and treatment of various cancers, but their accessibilities to highly effective specific inhibitors have not been shown for cells important to cancer growth. Despite their frequent simultaneous expression in many cancers and their overlapping activities toward commonly used substrates, precise, separate measurement of FAP or POP activity has largely been ignored. To distinguish each of the two activities, we synthesized highly specific substrates and inhibitors for FAP or POP based on amino acid sequences surrounding the scissile bonds of their respective putative substrates. We found varying amounts of FAP and POP protein and activities on activated fibroblasts, mesenchymal cells, normal breast cells, and one breast cancer cell line, with some cells exhibiting more POP than FAP activity. Replicating endothelial cells (ECs expressed POP but not FAP until tubulogenesis began. Targeting FAP-positive cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts for inactivation or destruction, and inhibiting POP-producing EC may abrogate stromal invasion and angiogenesis simultaneously and thereby diminish cancer growth.

  5. Integrated Cellular and Plasma Proteomics of Contrasting B-cell Cancers Reveals Common, Unique and Systemic Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Harvey E; Carter, Matthew J; Cox, Kerry L; Dunscombe, Melanie; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Townsend, Paul A; Garbis, Spiros D; Cragg, Mark S

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 800,000 leukemia and lymphoma cases are diagnosed worldwide each year. Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are examples of contrasting B-cell cancers; BL is a highly aggressive lymphoid tumor, frequently affecting children, whereas CLL typically presents as an indolent, slow-progressing leukemia affecting the elderly. The B-cell-specific overexpression of the myc and TCL1 oncogenes in mice induce spontaneous malignancies modeling BL and CLL, respectively. Quantitative mass spectrometry proteomics and isobaric labeling were employed to examine the biology underpinning contrasting Eμ-myc and Eμ-TCL1 B-cell tumors. Additionally, the plasma proteome was evaluated using subproteome enrichment to interrogate biomarker emergence and the systemic effects of tumor burden. Over 10,000 proteins were identified (qIL5) receptor. IL5 treatment promoted Eμ-TCL1 tumor proliferation, suggesting an amplification of IL5-induced AKT signaling by TCL1. Tumor plasma contained a substantial tumor lysis signature, most prominent in Eμ-myc plasma, whereas Eμ-TCL1 plasma contained signatures of immune-response, inflammation and microenvironment interactions, with putative biomarkers in early-stage cancer. These findings provide a detailed characterization of contrasting B-cell tumor models, identifying common and specific tumor mechanisms. Integrated plasma proteomics allowed the dissection of a systemic response and a tumor lysis signature present in early- and late-stage cancers, respectively. Overall, this study suggests common B-cell cancer signatures exist and illustrates the potential of the further evaluation of B-cell cancer subtypes by integrative proteomics.

  6. Tetrandrine, a Compound Common in Chinese Traditional Medicine, Preferentially Kills Breast Cancer Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) In Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Lacerda, Lara; Li, Jessica; Woodward, Wendy A., E-mail: wwoodward@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2011-05-04

    Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in Stephania tetrandra, a Chinese medicine commonly used as an anti-inflammatory. It has extensive pharmacological activity, including positive ion channel blockade and inhibition of multiple drug resistance proteins. These activities are very similar to that of salinomycin, a known drug targeting breast cancer initiation cells (TICs). Herein, we tested tetrandrine targeting of breast cancer TICs. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line and SUM-159, a non-inflammatory metaplastic breast cancer cell line were used in these studies. In proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium (MTS), we found that the IC{sub 50} for inhibition of proliferation is 15.3 ± 4.1 μM for SUM-149 and 24.3 ± 2.1 μM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine also inhibited mammosphere formation, a surrogate for breast cancer TICs growth in vitro with IC{sub 50} around 1 μM for SUM-149 and around 2 μM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine has similar effects on the mammosphere formation from cells isolated from fresh patient sample. Moreover, tetrandrine decreases the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) positive population in SUM-159 by 45% ± 5.45% P = 0.005. In summary, tetrandrine demonstrates significant efficacy against in vitro surrogates for inflammatory and aggressive breast cancer TICs.

  7. Tetrandrine, a Compound Common in Chinese Traditional Medicine, Preferentially Kills Breast Cancer Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in Stephania tetrandra, a Chinese medicine commonly used as an anti-inflammatory. It has extensive pharmacological activity, including positive ion channel blockade and inhibition of multiple drug resistance proteins. These activities are very similar to that of salinomycin, a known drug targeting breast cancer initiation cells (TICs. Herein, we tested tetrandrine targeting of breast cancer TICs. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line and SUM-159, a non-inflammatory metaplastic breast cancer cell line were used in these studies. In proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTS, we found that the IC50 for inhibition of proliferation is 15.3 ± 4.1 µM for SUM-149 and 24.3 ± 2.1 µM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine also inhibited mammosphere formation, a surrogate for breast cancer TICs growth in vitro with IC50 around 1 µM for SUM-149 and around 2 µM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine has similar effects on the mammosphere formation from cells isolated from fresh patient sample. Moreover, tetrandrine decreases the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH positive population in SUM-159 by 45% ± 5.45% P = 0.005. In summary, tetrandrine demonstrates significant efficacy against in vitro surrogates for inflammatory and aggressive breast cancer TICs.

  8. Basal Cell Carcinoma is as Common as the Sum of all Other Cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Ann-Sofie; Nissen, Christoffer V; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    Reliable estimates of disease incidence are fundamental to planning future healthcare services. However, in many countries registration of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is often non-existent. This study examines how many BCC treatments were carried out in Denmark in 2013. The Danish Cancer Registry...... records are inadequate in relation to BCC registration, as BCCs treated are 3 times the number of individuals in the Danish Cancer Registry, and there are nearly as many BCCs as the sum of all other cancers. The increasing BCC incidence will result in difficulties in ensuring treatment capacity....

  9. Nuclear envelope dynamics during plant cell division suggest common mechanisms between kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumann, Katja; Evans, David E

    2011-05-01

    Behaviour of the NE (nuclear envelope) during open mitosis has been explored extensively in metazoans, but lack of native markers has limited similar investigations in plants. In the present study, carried out using living synchronized tobacco BY-2 suspension cultures, the non-functional NE marker LBR (lamin B receptor)-GFP (green fluorescent protein) and two native, functional NE proteins, AtSUN1 [Arapidopsis thaliana SUN (Sad1/UNC84) 1] and AtSUN2, we provide evidence that the ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-retention theory for NE membranes is applicable in plants. We also observe two apparently unique plant features: location of the NE-membrane components in close proximity to chromatin throughout division, and spatially distinct reformation of the NE commencing at the chromatin surface facing the spindle poles and concluding at the surface facing the cell plate. Mobility of the proteins was investigated in the interphase NE, during NE breakdown and reformation, in the spindle membranes and the cell plate. A role for AtSUN2 in nuclear envelope breakdown is suggested.

  10. Ischemia-induced glomerular parietal epithelial cells hyperplasia: Commonly misdiagnosed cellular crescent in renal biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yeting; Wang, Xinrui; Xie, Feilai; Zheng, Zhiyong

    2017-08-01

    Ischemic pseudo-cellular crescent (IPCC) that is induced by ischemia and composed of hyperplastic glomerular parietal epithelial cells resembles cellular crescent. In this study, we aimed to assess the clinical and pathological features of IPCC in renal biopsy to avoid over-diagnosis and to determine the diagnostic basis. 4 IPCC cases diagnosed over a 4-year period (2012-2015) were evaluated for the study. Meanwhile, 5 cases of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis and 5 cases of lupus nephritis (LN) were selected as control. Appropriate clinical data, morphology, and immunohistochemical features of all cases were retrieved. Results showed that the basement membrane of glomerulus with IPCC appeared as a concentric twisted ball, and glomerular cells of the lesion were reduced even entirely absent, and the adjacent afferent arterioles showed sclerosis or luminal stenosis. Furthermore, immune globulin deposition, vasculitis, and fibrinous exudate have not been observed in IPCC. While the cellular crescents showed diverse characteristics in both morphology and immunostaining in the control group. Therefore, these results indicated that IPCC is a sort of ischemic reactive hyperplasia and associated with sclerosis, stenosis, or obstruction of adjacent afferent arterioles, which is clearly different from cellular crescents result from glomerulonephritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Retinoids and glucocorticoids target common genes in hippocampal HT22 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossaud, Julie; Roumes, Hélène; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Pallet, Véronique; Redonnet, Anabelle; Corcuff, Jean-Benoît

    2013-05-01

    Vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) plays a major role in the aging adult brain plasticity. Conversely, chronic excess of glucocorticoids (GC) elicits some deleterious effects in the hippocampus. We questioned here the involvement of RA and GC in the expression of target proteins in hippocampal neurons. We investigated proteins involved either in the signaling pathways [RA receptor β (RARβ) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)] or in neuron differentiation and plasticity [tissue transglutaminase 2 (tTG) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] in a hippocampal cell line, HT22. We applied RA and/or dexamethasone (Dex) as activators of the pathways and investigated mRNA and protein expression of their receptors and of tTG and BDNF as well as tTG activity and BDNF secretion. Our results confirm the involvement of RA- and GC-dependent pathways and their interaction in our neuronal cell model. First, both pathways regulate the transcription and expression of own and reciprocal receptors: RA and Dex increased RARβ and decreased GR expressions. Second, Dex reduces the expression of tTG when associated with RA despite stimulating its expression when used alone. Importantly, when they are combined, RA counteracts the deleterious effect of glucocorticoids on BDNF regulation and thus may improve neuronal plasticity under stress conditions. In conclusion, GC and RA both interact through regulations of the two receptors, RARβ and GR. Furthermore, they both act, synergistically or oppositely, on other target proteins critical for neuronal plasticity, tTG and BDNF.

  12. Compact, common path quantitative phase microscopic techniques for imaging cell dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Anand; P Vora; S Mahajan; V Trivedi; V Chhaniwal; A Singh; R Leitgeb; B Javidi

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy using visible electromagnetic radiation can be used to investigate living cells in various environments. But bright field microscopy only provides two-dimensional (2D) intensity distribution at a single object plane. One of the ways to retrieve object height/thickness information is to employ quantitative phase microscopic (QPM) techniques. Interferometric QPM techniques are widely used for this. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is one of the stateof-the-art methods for quantitative three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Usually it is implemented in two-beam geometry, which is prone to mechanical vibrations. But to study dynamics of objects like red blood cells, one needs temporal stability much better than the fluctuations of the object, which the two-beam geometry fails to deliver. One way to overcome this hurdle is to use selfreferencing techniques, in which a portion of the object beam will act as the reference beam. Here the development of self-referencing QPM techniques is described along with the results.

  13. A full scale comparative study of methods for generation of functional Dendritic cells for use as cancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvalheim Gunnar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells with the ability to induce primary T-cell responses and are commonly produced by culturing monocytes in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF for 5–7 days (Standard DC. Recently, Dauer and co-workers presented a modified protocol for differentiation of human monocytes into mature DCs within 48 hours (Fast DC. Here we report a functional comparison of the two strategies for generation of DCs from human monocytes with adaptions for large-scale clinical use. Methods The Elutra Cell Selection System was used to isolate monocytes after collection of leukapheresis product. The enriched monocytes were cultured in gas permeable Teflon bags with IL-4 and GM-CSF for 24 hours (Fast DC or 5 days (Standard DC to obtain immature DCs. The cells were then transfected with mRNA from the leukemia cell line Jurkat E6 by electroporation and incubated for additional 24 h or 2 days in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE2 to obtain mature DCs. Results Mature Fast DC and Standard DC displayed comparable levels of many markers expressed on DC, including HLA-DR, CD83, CD86, CD208 and CCR7. However, compared to Standard DC, mature Fast DC was CD14high CD209low. Fast DC and Standard DC transfected with Jurkat E6-cell mRNA were equally able to elicit T cell specifically recognizing transfected DCs in vitro. IFNγ-secreting T cells were observed in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets. Conclusion Our results indicate that mature Fast DC are functional antigen presenting cells (APCs capable of inducing primary T-cell responses, and suggest that these cells may be valuable for generation of anti-tumor vaccines.

  14. Identification and cloning of a prethymic precursor T lymphocyte from a population of common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA)-positive fetal bone marrow cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Hokland, M; Daley, J

    1987-01-01

    We have cloned common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (CALLA)-positive cells from human fetal bone marrow containing less than 1 in 10,000 E-RFC in round-bottomed microtiter wells (one cell per well) using the autocloning unit of an EPICS-V cell sorter. Expansion of such cells (with IL-2 and heavily...

  15. Addiction to protein kinase CK2: a common denominator of diverse cancer cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzene, Maria; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2010-03-01

    At variance with most oncogenic protein kinases whose malignancy is generally due to genetic alterations conferring constitutive activity, CK2 is a highly pleiotropic Ser/Thr protein kinase naturally endowed with constitutive activity and lacking gain-of-function mutants. Nonetheless CK2 is abnormally elevated in a wide variety of tumors and there is strong evidence that it operates as a cancer driver by creating a cellular environment favorable to neoplasia: notably, CK2 plays a global role as an anti-apoptotic and pro-survival agent, it enhances the multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype, it assists the chaperone machinery which protects the "onco-kinome" and it promotes neo-angiogenesis. Based on this scenario we propose that the implication of CK2 in neoplasia is an example of "non oncogene addiction", i.e. over reliance of the perturbed cellular signaling network on high CK2 level for its own maintenance. Consistent with this, an ample spectrum of diverse types of cancer cells have been already shown to rely on high CK2 level for their survival, as judged from their response to specific CK2 inhibitors and silencing of endogenous CK2 catalytic subunits. Remarkably, among these are cells whose cancer phenotype arises from the genetic alteration of onco-kinases (e.g. Abl and Alk) different from CK2 and insensitive to the CK2 inhibitors used in those experiments. Based on these premises, CK2 could represent a "multi-purpose" target for the treatment of different kinds of tumors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A lincRNA connected to cell mortality and epigenetically-silenced in most common human cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, Lukas; Garbe, James C; Stampfer, Martha R; Futscher, Bernard W

    2015-01-01

    Immortality is an essential characteristic of human carcinoma cells. We recently developed an efficient, reproducible method that immortalizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in the absence of gross genomic changes by targeting 2 critical senescence barriers. Consistent transcriptomic changes associated with immortality were identified using microarray analysis of isogenic normal finite pre-stasis, abnormal finite post-stasis, and immortal HMECs from 4 individuals. A total of 277 genes consistently changed in cells that transitioned from post-stasis to immortal. Gene ontology analysis of affected genes revealed biological processes significantly altered in the immortalization process. These immortalization-associated changes showed striking similarity to the gene expression changes seen in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) clinical breast cancer data. The most dramatic change in gene expression seen during the immortalization step was the downregulation of an unnamed, incompletely annotated transcript that we called MORT, for mortality, since its expression was closely associated with the mortal, finite lifespan phenotype. We show here that MORT (ZNF667-AS1) is expressed in all normal finite lifespan human cells examined to date and is lost in immortalized HMEC. MORT gene silencing at the mortal/immortal boundary was due to DNA hypermethylation of its CpG island promoter. This epigenetic silencing is also seen in human breast cancer cell lines and in a majority of human breast tumor tissues. The functional importance of DNA hypermethylation in MORT gene silencing is supported by the ability of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine to reactivate MORT expression. Analysis of TCGA data revealed deregulation of MORT expression due to DNA hypermethylation in 15 out of the 17 most common human cancers. The epigenetic silencing of MORT in a large majority of the common human cancers suggests a potential fundamental role in cellular immortalization during human carcinogenesis. PMID

  17. pRb inactivation in mammary cells reveals common mechanisms for tumor initiation and progression in divergent epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Simin

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma 1 (pRb and the related pocket proteins, retinoblastoma-like 1 (p107 and retinoblastoma-like 2 (p130 (pRb(f, collectively, play a pivotal role in regulating eukaryotic cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and terminal differentiation. While aberrations in the pRb-signaling pathway are common in human cancers, the consequence of pRb(f loss in the mammary gland has not been directly assayed in vivo. We reported previously that inactivating these critical cell cycle regulators in divergent cell types, either brain epithelium or astrocytes, abrogates the cell cycle restriction point, leading to increased cell proliferation and apoptosis, and predisposing to cancer. Here we report that mouse mammary epithelium is similar in its requirements for pRb(f function; Rb(f inactivation by T(121, a fragment of SV40 T antigen that binds to and inactivates pRb(f proteins, increases proliferation and apoptosis. Mammary adenocarcinomas form within 16 mo. Most apoptosis is regulated by p53, which has no impact on proliferation, and heterozygosity for a p53 null allele significantly shortens tumor latency. Most tumors in p53 heterozygous mice undergo loss of the wild-type p53 allele. We show that the mechanism of p53 loss of heterozygosity is not simply the consequence of Chromosome 11 aneuploidy and further that chromosomal instability subsequent to p53 loss is minimal. The mechanisms for pRb and p53 tumor suppression in the epithelia of two distinct tissues, mammary gland and brain, are indistinguishable. Further, this study has produced a highly penetrant breast cancer model based on aberrations commonly observed in the human disease.

  18. Escherichia coli common pilus (ECP) targets arabinosyl residues in plant cell walls to mediate adhesion to fresh produce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossez, Yannick; Holmes, Ashleigh; Lodberg-Pedersen, Henriette; Birse, Louise; Marshall, Jacqueline; Willats, William G T; Toth, Ian K; Holden, Nicola J

    2014-12-05

    Outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli are often associated with fresh produce. However, the molecular basis to adherence is unknown beyond ionic lipid-flagellum interactions in plant cell membranes. We demonstrate that arabinans present in different constituents of plant cell walls are targeted for adherence by E. coli common pilus (ECP; or meningitis-associated and temperature-regulated (Mat) fimbriae) for E. coli serotypes O157:H7 and O18:K1:H7. l-Arabinose is a common constituent of plant cell wall that is rarely found in other organisms, whereas ECP is widespread in E. coli and other environmental enteric species. ECP bound to oligosaccharides of at least arabinotriose or longer in a glycan array, plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides, and plant glycoproteins. Recognition overlapped with the antibody LM13, which binds arabinanase-sensitive pectic epitopes, and showed a preferential affinity for (1→5)-α-linked l-arabinosyl residues and longer chains of arabinan as demonstrated with the use of arabinan-degrading enzymes. Functional adherence in planta was mediated by the adhesin EcpD in combination with the structural subunit, EcpA, and expression was demonstrated with an ecpR-GFP fusion and ECP antibodies. Spinach was found to be enriched for ECP/LM13 targets compared with lettuce. Specific recognition of arabinosyl residues may help explain the persistence of E. coli in the wider environment and association of verotoxigenic E. coli with some fresh produce plants by exploitation of a glycan found only in plant, not animal, cells.

  19. Cutting edge: A common polymorphism impairs cell surface trafficking and functional responses of TLR1 but protects against leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M; Lyle, Elizabeth A; Omueti, Katherine O; Stepensky, Vitaly A; Yegin, Olcay; Alpsoy, Erkan; Hamann, Lutz; Schumann, Ralf R; Tapping, Richard I

    2007-06-15

    TLRs constitute an essential family of pattern recognition molecules that, through direct recognition of conserved microbial components, initiate inflammatory responses following infection. In this role, TLR1 enables host responses to a variety of bacteria, including pathogenic species of mycobacteria. In this study, we report that I602S, a common single nucleotide polymorphism within TLR1, is associated with aberrant trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface and diminished responses of blood monocytes to bacterial agonists. When expressed in heterologous systems, the TLR1 602S variant, but not the TLR1 602I variant, exhibits the expected deficiencies in trafficking and responsiveness. Among white Europeans, the 602S allele represents the most common single nucleotide polymorphism affecting TLR function identified to date. Surprisingly, the 602S allele is associated with a decreased incidence of leprosy, suggesting that Mycobacterium leprae subverts the TLR system as a mechanism of immune evasion.

  20. Fermented nondigestible fraction from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 modulates HT-29 cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Bravo, R K; Guevara-Gonzalez, R; Ramos-Gomez, M; Garcia-Gasca, T; Campos-Vega, R; Oomah, B D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a fermented nondigestible fraction (FNDF) of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell survival. Negro 8025 was chosen for in vitro fermentation based on comparison of chemical composition with 2 other cultivars: Azufrado Higuera and Pinto Durango. Negro 8025 had 58% total dietary fiber, 27% resistant starch, and 20 mg of (+)-catechin equivalents per gram of sample. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production and pH of the medium were measured after fermentation as indicators of colon protection through induced arrest on cell culture and apoptosis. Butyrate and pH of FNDF of Negro 8025 were higher than the control fermented raffinose extract. The FNDF inhibited HT-29 cell survival in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) was 13.63% FNDF (equivalent to 7.36, 0.33, and 3.31 mmol of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, respectively). DNA fragmentation, an apoptosis indicator, was detected by the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method in cells treated with the LC(50)-FNDF and a synthetic mixture of SCFAs mimicking LC(50)-FNDF. Our results suggest that common bean is a reliable source of fermentable substrates in colon, producing compounds with potential chemoprotective effect on HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, so it may present an effective alternative to mitigate colon cancer development.

  1. Feasibility and Limits of Magnetically Labeling Primary Cultured Rat T Cells with Ferumoxides Coupled with Commonly Used Transfection Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Berger

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Visualization and quantification of inflammatory processes is of high importance for early diagnosis of a multitude of diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI using iron oxide (FeO nanoparticles as contrast agents allows the study of macrophage infiltration during inflammation in a variety of tissues. Macrophages are effectors of the immune response, their appearance being orchestrated by activated T lymphocytes. Therefore, tracking of labeled T lymphocytes, which initiate the immune process, should enable earlier detection of tissue inflammation. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of specifically labeling harvested T cells by using dextran-coated FeO nanoparticles and commonly available transfection agents (TAs. Physicochemical properties of the newly formed FeO/TA vesicles were determined as well as their cell toxicity and their T cell activation potential. The labeling efficiency of each FeO/TA combination was evaluated by measuring the transverse MRI relaxation rate R2 by X-ray spectroscopy and magnetic selection. Toxicity and labeling efficacy differed significantly among TAs. The best results were achieved by using polyamine TAs and in particular by using poly-l-lysine at a concentration of 1.5 µg/mL administered in combination with 22.5 µg iron/mL. By using this protocol, up to 60% of harvested T cells could be labeled. Microscopic investigation revealed FeO/TA nanoparticles not only localized within the cytoplasma of the cells but also sticking to the outer membrane surface.

  2. ABCB1 (MDR1) induction defines a common resistance mechanism in paclitaxel- and olaparib-resistant ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Aparajitha; Sawers, Lynne; Gannon, Anne-Louise; Chakravarty, Probir; Scott, Alison L; Bray, Susan E; Ferguson, Michelle J; Smith, Gillian

    2016-08-09

    Clinical response to chemotherapy for ovarian cancer is frequently compromised by the development of drug-resistant disease. The underlying molecular mechanisms and implications for prescription of routinely prescribed chemotherapy drugs are poorly understood. We created novel A2780-derived ovarian cancer cell lines resistant to paclitaxel and olaparib following continuous incremental drug selection. MTT assays were used to assess chemosensitivity to paclitaxel and olaparib in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells±the ABCB1 inhibitors verapamil and elacridar and cross-resistance to cisplatin, carboplatin, doxorubicin, rucaparib, veliparib and AZD2461. ABCB1 expression was assessed by qRT-PCR, copy number, western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis and ABCB1 activity assessed by the Vybrant and P-glycoprotein-Glo assays. Paclitaxel-resistant cells were cross-resistant to olaparib, doxorubicin and rucaparib but not to veliparib or AZD2461. Resistance correlated with increased ABCB1 expression and was reversible following treatment with the ABCB1 inhibitors verapamil and elacridar. Active efflux of paclitaxel, olaparib, doxorubicin and rucaparib was confirmed in drug-resistant cells and in ABCB1-expressing bacterial membranes. We describe a common ABCB1-mediated mechanism of paclitaxel and olaparib resistance in ovarian cancer cells. Optimal choice of PARP inhibitor may therefore limit the progression of drug-resistant disease, while routine prescription of first-line paclitaxel may significantly limit subsequent chemotherapy options in ovarian cancer patients.

  3. Spray-on-skin cells in burns: a common practice with no agreed protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouni, Ammar; Papini, Remo; Lewis, Darren

    2013-11-01

    Cultured epithelial autograft (CEA) has been used for skin coverage after burn wound excision since 1981. It is used in burn units and centres throughout the U.K.; however, there appears to be no agreed standards of practice. We aimed to investigate the experience and current practice with its usage in the management of acute burn injury. An online survey was sent to twenty-five burns consultants in the U.K., who are members of the British Burn Association. We received 14 responses. Rarely have the responders agreed to the same practice in most of the questions. Different choices were given by responders with regards the indications for cell culture, techniques used, primary and secondary dressings used, first wound review timing, and measures used to evaluate outcomes. In the current economic environment, the NHS needs to rationalize services on the basis of cost effectiveness. CEA is an expensive procedure that requires an adequately sterile laboratory, special equipments and highly experienced dedicated staff. When dealing with expensive management options, it is important to have an agreed protocol that can form the standard that can be referred to when auditing practices and results to improve burn management and patients' care. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How common is the lipid body-containing interstitial cell in the mammalian lung?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahedl, Daniel; Wirkes, André; Tschanz, Stefan A; Ochs, Matthias; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary lipofibroblasts are thought to be involved in lung development, regeneration, vitamin A storage, and surfactant synthesis. Most of the evidence for these important functions relies on mouse or rat studies. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the presence of lipofibroblasts in a variety of early postnatal and adult mammalian species (including humans) to evaluate the ability to generalize functions of this cell type for other species. For this purpose, lung samples from 14 adult mammalian species as well as from postnatal mice, rats, and humans were investigated using light and electron microscopic stereology to obtain the volume fraction and the total volume of lipid bodies. In adult animals, lipid bodies were observed only, but not in all rodents. In all other species, no lipofibroblasts were observed. In rodents, lipid body volume scaled with body mass with an exponent b = 0.73 in the power law equation. Lipid bodies were not observed in postnatal human lungs but showed a characteristic postnatal increase in mice and rats and persisted at a lower level in the adult animals. Among 14 mammalian species, lipofibroblasts were only observed in rodents. The great increase in lipid body volume during early postnatal development of the mouse lung confirms the special role of lipofibroblasts during rodent lung development. It is evident that the cellular functions of pulmonary lipofibroblasts cannot be transferred easily from rodents to other species, in particular humans.

  5. Targeting Common but Complex Proteoglycans on Breast Cancer Cells and Stem Cells Using Evolutionary Refined Malaria Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    decidualized human endometrial stromal cells leads to significant changes in cytokine and angiogenic factor expression pat - terns. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 8...Rawat, M., Vaidehi, N., Goddard, W.A., 3rd, Nishi, A., and Hsieh-Wilson, L.C. (2006). Sulfation pat - terns of glycosaminoglycans encode molecular...Stephenson- Brown , A.L. Acton, J.A. Preece, J.S. Fossey, P.M. Mendes, Selective gly- coprotein detection through covalent templating and allosteric click

  6. Common and Distinctive Functions of the Hippo Effectors Taz and Yap in Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Congshan; De Mello, Vanessa; Mohamed, Abdalla; Ortuste Quiroga, Huascar P; Garcia-Munoz, Amaya; Al Bloshi, Abdullah; Tremblay, Annie M; von Kriegsheim, Alexander; Collie-Duguid, Elaina; Vargesson, Neil; Matallanas, David; Wackerhage, Henning; Zammit, Peter S

    2017-08-01

    Hippo pathway downstream effectors Yap and Taz play key roles in cell proliferation and regeneration, regulating gene expression especially via Tead transcription factors. To investigate their role in skeletal muscle stem cells, we analyzed Taz in vivo and ex vivo in comparison with Yap. Small interfering RNA knockdown or retroviral-mediated expression of wild-type human or constitutively active TAZ mutants in satellite cells showed that TAZ promoted proliferation, a function shared with YAP. However, at later stages of myogenesis, TAZ also enhanced myogenic differentiation of myoblasts, whereas YAP inhibits such differentiation. Functionally, while muscle growth was mildly affected in Taz (gene Wwtr1(-/-) ) knockout mice, there were no overt effects on regeneration. Conversely, conditional knockout of Yap in satellite cells of Pax7(Cre-ERT2/+) : Yap(fl) °(x/fl) °(x) :Rosa26(Lacz) mice produced a regeneration deficit. To identify potential mechanisms, microarray analysis showed many common TAZ/YAP target genes, but TAZ also regulates some genes independently of YAP, including myogenic genes such as Pax7, Myf5, and Myod1 (ArrayExpress-E-MTAB-5395). Proteomic analysis revealed many novel binding partners of TAZ/YAP in myogenic cells, but TAZ also interacts with proteins distinct from YAP that are often involved in myogenesis and aspects of cytoskeleton organization (ProteomeXchange-PXD005751). Neither TAZ nor YAP bind members of the Wnt destruction complex but both regulated expression of Wnt and Wnt-cross talking genes with known roles in myogenesis. Finally, TAZ operates through Tead4 to enhance myogenic differentiation. In summary, Taz and Yap have overlapping functions in promoting myoblast proliferation but Taz then switches to enhance myogenic differentiation. Stem Cells 2017;35:1958-1972. © 2017 The Authors. The Authors Stem Cells published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  7. Common questions regarding clinical use of axitinib in advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Diane L; Arruda, Lillian S; MacLean, Elizabeth; Pithavala, Yazdi K; Morgado, James E

    2014-07-01

    An overview of the responses to some of the most frequently asked questions regarding axitinib administration and dosage modifications used in clinical practice are presented. Axitinib was approved for second-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma by the Food and Drug Administration on January 27, 2012. Inquiries received over the first six months after the approval date were reviewed. A large number of questions were related to administration of axitinib in different patient populations or in patients with various comorbidities, such as its (1) use in patients unable to swallow oral medication or administration of axitinib via a nasogastric tube, (2) use in patients with renal or hepatic impairment, (3) central nervous system penetration and use in patients with brain metastases, (4) drug interactions, particularly with anticoagulants, and (5) dosage modifications. Responses to these inquiries were provided based on the published literature or from data on file from the manufacturer. The dosage of axitinib can be adjusted for use in patients with hepatic impairment or in patients who cannot otherwise tolerate the usual regimen. Patients taking concomitant warfarin can also take axitinib, and patients who cannot swallow oral medications can receive a liquid formulation of the drug, though its efficacy and comparability to the tablet formulation has not been tested. Based on the published literature and company data on file, the axitinib dosage may be modified to accommodate patients with renal or hepatic impairment, who cannot swallow oral medication, are receiving concomitant warfarin, or who cannot otherwise tolerate the standard dosage regimen. For patients who cannot swallow, an oral suspension can be prepared because crushing axitinib is not recommended. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Common variants modify the age of onset for basal cell carcinomas in Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Binnaz; Byers, Helen J; Smith, Miriam J; Lear, John; Oudit, Deemesh; Bholah, Zaynab; Roberts, Stephen A; Newman, William G; Evans, D Gareth

    2015-05-01

    Gorlin syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by multiple early-onset basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and jaw keratocysts. Through association studies in cohorts of sporadic BCC, nine genetic variants have previously been identified to increase the risk of BCC. The nine SNPs were genotyped by Taqman allelic discrimination in 125 individuals with Gorlin syndrome. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional-Hazard regression analysis were applied to determine the association between genotypes and age of first BCC in individuals with Gorlin syndrome. The p.(Arg151Cys) variant in MC1R (rs1805007) was associated with an earlier median age of onset of BCC of 27 years (95% CI: 20-34) compared with 34 years (95% CI: 30-40) for wild-type individuals (hazard ratio (HR)=1.64, 95% CI: 1.04-2.58, P=0.034). The risk allele of the variant at the chromosome 5p15 locus encompassing TERT-CLPTM1L (rs401681) was also associated with an earlier median onset of BCC, 31 years (95% CI: 28-37) compared with 41 years (95% CI: 32-48, HR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.08-1.93, P=0.014). In individuals with a risk allele at either rs1805007 or rs401681 the median time to BCC was 31 years of age (95% CI: 28-34) compared with 44 years of age (95% CI: 38-53) in wild-type individuals (HR=2.48, 95% CI: 1.47-4.17, P=0.0002). Our findings may have implications for future personalized risk estimates and BCC screening strategies in individuals with Gorlin syndrome.

  9. Strategies for B-cell receptor repertoire analysis in Primary Immunodeficiencies:From severe combined immunodeficiency to common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eIJspeert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The antigen receptor repertoires of B and T cells form the basis of the adaptive immune response. The repertoires should be sufficiently diverse to recognize all possible pathogens. However, careful selection is needed to prevent responses to self or harmless antigens. Limited antigen receptor repertoire diversity leads to immunodeficiency, whereas unselected or misdirected repertoires can result in autoimmunity. The antigen receptor repertoire harbors information about abnormalities in many immunological disorders. Recent developments in next generation sequencing allow the analysis of the antigen receptor repertoire in much greater detail than ever before. Analyzing the antigen receptor repertoire in patients with mutations in genes responsible for the generation of the antigen receptor repertoire will give new insights into repertoire formation and selection. In this perspective we describe strategies and considerations for analysis of the naive and antigen selected B-cell repertoires in primary immunodeficiency (PID patients with a focus on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID.

  10. Strategies for B-Cell Receptor Repertoire Analysis in Primary Immunodeficiencies: From Severe Combined Immunodeficiency to Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJspeert, Hanna; Wentink, Marjolein; van Zessen, David; Driessen, Gertjan J.; Dalm, Virgil A. S. H.; van Hagen, Martin P.; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Simons, Erik J.; van Dongen, Jacques J. M.; Stubbs, Andrew P.; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    The antigen receptor repertoires of B- and T-cells form the basis of the adaptive immune response. The repertoires should be sufficiently diverse to recognize all possible pathogens. However, careful selection is needed to prevent responses to self or harmless antigens. Limited antigen receptor repertoire diversity leads to immunodeficiency, whereas unselected or misdirected repertoires can result in autoimmunity. The antigen receptor repertoire harbors information about abnormalities in many immunological disorders. Recent developments in next generation sequencing allow the analysis of the antigen receptor repertoire in much greater detail than ever before. Analyzing the antigen receptor repertoire in patients with mutations in genes responsible for the generation of the antigen receptor repertoire will give new insights into repertoire formation and selection. In this perspective, we describe strategies and considerations for analysis of the naive and antigen-selected B-cell repertoires in primary immunodeficiency patients with a focus on severe combined immunodeficiency and common variable immunodeficiency. PMID:25904919

  11. Expression of recombination-activating genes and T cell receptor gene recombination in the human T cell leukemia cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Hong-yun; MA Li; MENG Min-jie; YAO Xin-sheng; LIN Ying; WU Zhen-qiang; HE Xiao-wei; WANG Ju-fang; WANG Xiao-ning

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that mature T cells can change their specificity through reexpression of recombination-activating genes (RAG) and RAG-mediated V(D)J recombination. This process is named receptor revision and has been observed in mature peripheral T cells from transgenic mice and human donors. However, whether the receptor revision in mature T cells is a random or orientated process remains poorly understood. Here we used the Jurkat human T cell line, which represents a mature stage of T cell development, as a model to investigate the regulation of T cell receptor (TCR) gene recombination.Methods TCR Dβ-Jβ signal joint T cell receptor excision DNA circles (sjTRECs) were determined by nested and seminested PCR. Double-strand DNA breaks at recombination signal sequences (RSSs) in the TCRVβ chain locus were detected by ligation-mediated-PCR. Further analysis of the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) size of the TCRVβ chain was examined by the TCR GeneScan technique.Results RAG1, RAG2, and three crucial components of the nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) pathway were readily detected in Jurkat. Characteristics of junctional diversity of Dβ2-Jβ2 signal joints and ds RSS breaks associated with the Dβ25' and Dβ 23' sites were detected in DNA from Jurkat cells. CDR3 size and the gene sequences of the TCRVβ chain did not change during cell proliferation.Conclusions RAG1 and RAG2 and ongoing TCR gene recombination are coexpressed in Jurkat cells, but the ongoing recombination process may not play a role in modification of the TCR repertoire. However, the results suggest that Jurkat could be used as a model for studying the regulation of RAGs and V(D)J recombination and as a "special" model of the coexistence of TCR gene rearrangements and "negative" receptor revision.

  12. Neuronal Cell Fate Specification by the Convergence of Different Spatiotemporal Cues on a Common Terminal Selector Cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Gabilondo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Specification of the myriad of unique neuronal subtypes found in the nervous system depends upon spatiotemporal cues and terminal selector gene cascades, often acting in sequential combinatorial codes to determine final cell fate. However, a specific neuronal cell subtype can often be generated in different parts of the nervous system and at different stages, indicating that different spatiotemporal cues can converge on the same terminal selectors to thereby generate a similar cell fate. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying such convergence are poorly understood. The Nplp1 neuropeptide neurons in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord can be subdivided into the thoracic-ventral Tv1 neurons and the dorsal-medial dAp neurons. The activation of Nplp1 in Tv1 and dAp neurons depends upon the same terminal selector cascade: col>ap/eya>dimm>Nplp1. However, Tv1 and dAp neurons are generated by different neural progenitors (neuroblasts with different spatiotemporal appearance. Here, we find that the same terminal selector cascade is triggered by Kr/pdm>grn in dAp neurons, but by Antp/hth/exd/lbe/cas in Tv1 neurons. Hence, two different spatiotemporal combinations can funnel into a common downstream terminal selector cascade to determine a highly related cell fate.

  13. A single cell complementation class is common to several cases of cytochrome c oxidase-defective Leigh's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaro, M; Tiranti, V; Sandonà, D; Lamantea, E; Uziel, G; Bisson, R; Zeviani, M

    1997-02-01

    A generalized defect of complex IV (cytochrome C oxidase, COX) is frequently found in subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy (Leigh's syndrome), the most common mitochondrial disorder in infancy. We previously demonstrated the nuclear origin of the COX defect in one case, by fusing nuclear DNA-less cytoplasts derived from normal fibroblasts with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-less transformant fibroblasts derived from a patient with COX-defective [COX(-)] Leigh's syndrome. The resulting cybrid line showed a specific and serve COX(-) phenotype. Conversely, in the present study, we demonstrated that a COX(+) phenotype could be restored in hybrids obtained by fusing COX(-) transformant fibroblasts of seven additional Leigh's syndrome patients with mtDNA-less, COX(-) tumor-derived rho degree cells. Both these results are explained by the presence of a mutation in a nuclear gene. In a second set of experiments, in order to demonstrate whether COX(-) Leigh's syndrome is due to a defect in the same gene, or in different genes, we tested several hybrids derived by fusing our original COX(-) cell line with each of the remaining seven cell lines. COX activity was evaluated in situ by histochemical techniques and in cell extracts by a spectrophotometric assay. No COX complementers were found among the resulting hybrid lines. This result demonstrates that all our cases were genetically homogeneous, and suggests that a major nuclear disease locus is associated with several, perhaps most, of the cases of infantile COX(-) Leigh's syndrome. This information should make it easier to identify the gene responsible.

  14. Empirical evidence of cold stress induced cell mediated and humoral immune response in common myna ( Sturnus tristis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Mansur A.; Zaib, Anila; Anjum, Muhammad S.; Qayyum, Mazhar

    2015-11-01

    Common myna ( Sturnus tristis) is a bird indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that has invaded many parts of the world. At the onset of our investigation, we hypothesized that the immunological profile of myna makes it resistant to harsh/new environmental conditions. In order to test this hypothesis, a number of 40 mynas were caught and divided into two groups, i.e., 7 and 25 °C for 14 days. To determine the effect of cold stress, cell mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed. The macrophage engulfment percentage was significantly ( P blood cells (SRBC). Macrophage engulfment/cell and nitric oxide production behaved in a similar manner. However, splenic cells plaque formation, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and serum IgM or IgG production remained non-significant. There was a significant increase of IgG antibody production after a second immunization by SRBC. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been reported in the progression of this bird's invasion in frosty areas of the world. The results revealed a strengthened humoral immune response of myna and made this bird suitable for invasion in the areas of harsh conditions.

  15. Effects of the physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, commonly used as sun protection agents, on microvascular endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Claudia; Torrano, Adriano A.; Herrmann, Rudolf; Malissek, Marcelina; Bräuchle, Christoph; Reller, Armin; Treuel, Lennart; Hilger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Until now, the potential effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on endothelial cells are not well understood, despite their already wide usage. Therefore, the present work characterizes six TiO2 nanoparticle samples in the size range of 19 × 17 to 87 × 13 nm, which are commonly present in sun protection agents with respect to their physicochemical properties (size, shape, ζ-potential, agglomeration, sedimentation, surface coating, and surface area), their interactions with serum proteins and biological impact on human microvascular endothelial cells (relative cellular dehydrogenase activity, adenosine triphosphate content, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release). We observed no association of nanoparticle morphology with the agglomeration and sedimentation behavior and no variations of the ζ-potential (-14 to -19 mV) in dependence on the surface coating. In general, the impact on endothelial cells was low and only detectable at concentrations of 100 μg/ml. Particles containing a rutile core and having rod-like shape had a stronger effect on cell metabolism than those with anatase core and elliptical shape (relative cellular dehydrogenase activity after 72 h: 60 vs. 90 %). Besides the morphology, the nanoparticle shell constitution was found to influence the metabolic activity of the cells. Upon cellular uptake, the nanoparticles were localized perinuclearly. Considering that in the in vivo situation endothelial cells would come in contact with considerably lower nanoparticle amounts than the lowest-observable adverse effects level (100 μg/ml), TiO2 nanoparticles can be considered as rather harmless to humans under the investigated conditions.

  16. Impact of commonly used transplant immunosuppressive drugs on human NK cell function is dependent upon stimulation condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislin C Meehan

    -transplantation. These results provide mechanistic insights into pathways of NK cell activation and show commonly administered transplant immunosuppression agents and clinical rejection/infection events have differential effects on NK cell function that may impact the immune response following lung transplantation.

  17. Adaptation of a Commonly Used, Chemically Defined Medium for Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liberski, A. R.; Al-Noubi, M. N.; Rahman, Z. H.

    2013-01-01

    developed by Ludwig et al. and commercially available as mTeSR1 [mTeSR1 is a trade mark of WiCell (Madison, WI) licensed to STEMCELL Technologies (Vancouver, Canada)]. This medium, together with adjustments to the culturing protocol, facilitates reproducible labeling that is easily scalable to the protein......Metabolic labeling with stable isotopes is a prominent technique for comparative quantitative proteomics, and stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is the most commonly used approach. SILAC is, however, traditionally limited to simple tissue culture regimens and only...... rarely employed in the context of complex culturing conditions as those required for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Classic hESC culture is based on the use of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as a feeder layer, and as a result, possible xenogeneic contamination, contribution of unlabeled amino...

  18. Successful elimination of non-neural cells and unachievable elimination of glial cells by means of commonly used cell culture manipulations during differentiation of GFAP and SOX2 positive neural progenitors (NHA to neuronal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krynska Barbara

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although extensive research has been performed to control differentiation of neural stem cells – still, the response of those cells to diverse cell culture conditions often appears to be random and difficult to predict. To this end, we strived to obtain stabilized protocol of NHA cells differentiation – allowing for an increase in percentage yield of neuronal cells. Results Uncommitted GFAP and SOX2 positive neural progenitors – so-called, Normal Human Astrocytes (NHA were differentiated in different environmental conditions to: only neural cells consisted of neuronal [MAP2+, GFAP-] and glial [GFAP+, MAP2-] population, non-neural cells [CD44+, VIMENTIN+, FIBRONECTIN+, MAP2-, GFAP-, S100β-, SOX2-], or mixture of neural and non-neural cells. In spite of successfully increasing the percentage yield of glial and neuronal vs. non-neural cells by means of environmental changes, we were not able to increase significantly the percentage of neuronal (GABA-ergic and catecholaminergic over glial cells under several different cell culture testing conditions. Supplementing serum-free medium with several growth factors (SHH, bFGF, GDNF did not radically change the ratio between neuronal and glial cells – i.e., 1,1:1 in medium without growth factors and 1,4:1 in medium with GDNF, respectively. Conclusion We suggest that biotechnologists attempting to enrich in vitro neural cell cultures in one type of cells – such as that required for transplantology purposes, should consider the strong limiting influence of intrinsic factors upon extracellular factors commonly tested in cell culture conditions.

  19. Impaired selective cytokine production by CD4(+) T cells in Common Variable Immunodeficiency associated with the absence of memory B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrón-Ruiz, Laura; López-Herrera, Gabriela; Vargas-Hernández, Alexander; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; López-Macías, Constantino; Isibasi, Armando; Segura-Méndez, Nora Hilda; Bonifaz, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by B cell dysfunction and decreased serum immunoglobulin. CVID patients are classified by the absence or presence of memory B cells. In addition, T cell defects have been demonstrated in only a proportion of CVID patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function of CD4(+) T cells from CVID patients and its association with memory B cells. Patients were classified according to their Freiburg groups: group Ia and Ib, with decreased switched memory B cells (<0.4 of PBL), and group II, with normal B cell subsets. Their T cell function was evaluated after stimulation. We observed normal and even increased CD4(+) T cell proliferation in group Ia (p=0.0277). The proliferation positively correlated with the clinical severity score (r=0.4796). We observed lower levels of IL-17A and IL-10 in group Ia (p=0.0177, 0.0109) and Ib (p=0.0009, 0.0084) patients. Group Ib patients also had low levels of IL-13 and IL-9 (p=0.0169, 0.010). Group II patients had similar cytokine production to that of the controls. BAFFR expression was reduced in groups Ia (p=0.0001) and Ib (p=0.0002) and showed an inverse correlation with the severity score (p=0.0262; r=0.5371). ICOS expression was reduced in group Ia (p=0.0364), and PD-1 was increased in group Ib (p=0.0432) patients. This study shows a selective impairment in cytokine production in group Ia patients, which was more extensive than in group Ib patients. The impairment was associated with BAFFR expression in B cells, with ICOS and PD-1 in T cells and, remarkably, with the absence of memory B cells and with the disease severity. Our results suggest that the evaluation of cytokine expression by T cells in combination with the study of B cell memory could be important for understand the pathogenesis of CVID patients.

  20. T cell activation. II. Activation of human T lymphoma cells by cross-linking of their MHC class I antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, S; Geisler, C; Rubin, B;

    1990-01-01

    The present work demonstrates that antibody-induced cross-linking of MHC class I antigens on Jurkat T lymphoma cells leads to a rise in intracellular calcium (Cai2+) and, in the presence of phorbol ester (PMA), to IL-2 production and IL-2 receptor expression. The rise in Cai2+ exhibited a profile...... very different from that obtained after anti-CD3 antibody-induced activation suggesting that activation signals are transduced differently after binding of anti-CD3 antibody and class I cross-linking, respectively. However, when Cai2+ was examined in individual Jurkat cells by means of a digital image...

  1. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Common warts By Mayo Clinic Staff Common warts are small, grainy skin growths that occur most often on your fingers or hands. Rough to the touch, common warts also often feature a pattern of tiny ...

  2. Clinical Analysis of Icotinib on Beneficiary of 
Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with EGFR Common Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen JIANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Targeted therapy has become an indispensable therapy method in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC treatment. Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI can significantly prolong the survival of patients harboring EGFR gene mutation. Icotinb is China's first EGFR-TKI with independent intellectual property rights. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics about the beneficiary of advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR Common mutation who were treated with Icotinib. Retrospectively collect the data about beneficiary [progression-free survival (PFS≥6 months] and analysis of the related risk factors for prognosis. Methods From September 1, 2011 to September 30, 2015, 231 cases of advanced NSCLC beneficiary with EGFR common mutation were enrolled for treatment with icotinib in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital. Results The one year benefit rate was 67.9% in the group treated with Icotinib as first line, and in the groupas second line or above was 53.6%, which is statisticallysignificant. The two years benefit rate was 18.7% and 9.3%, respectively. The median PFS of first line group and the second line or above was 16.7 and 12.4 months, respectively. The presence of brain metastasis (P=0.010, Prior chemotherapy (P=0.001, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG score (P=0.001 were the main factors influencing the prognosis. The most common adverse were skin rashes (51 cases, 22.1% and diarrhea (27 cases, 11.7%. Conclusion Icotinib offers long-term clinical benefit and good tolerance for advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR gene mutation. Its advantage groups in addition to the patients with brain metastases and better ECOG score, the curative effect of patients with the first-line treatment is superior to second or further line.

  3. Long-term follow-up on affinity maturation and memory B-cell generation in patients with common variable immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie Diederich; Permin, H; Katzenstein, T L

    2013-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) comprises a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency disorders. Immunophenotyping of memory B cells at the time of diagnosis is increasingly used for the classification of patients into subgroups with different clinical prognoses. The EUROclass...

  4. A simple and rapid quantitative method of detection of the common achondroplasia mutation: Analysis in mismatch repair deficient cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewal Raji

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Achondroplasia is the most common form of dwarfism and has an incidence of approximately 1/7,500. In more than 97% of cases, it is caused by a recurrent point mutation, a G to A substitution at nucleotide position 1138 (G1138A of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene. Although this is an autosomal dominant condition, more than 90% of all mutations occur sporadically making this one of the most mutagenic sites in the human genome. The reasons for the high spontaneous G1138A mutation rate are not known. This investigation was performed by developing a simple and rapid semi-quantitative allele specific PCR based assay capable of reliably detecting more than 25 mutant G1138A copies in a pool of 300,000 wild type molecules. Using this assay, the G1138A mutation frequency was measured in cell lines deficient in mismatch repair (LoVo, SW48 and comparing it with controls. No differences were found in the frequency of this point mutation between the mismatch repair deficient and wild type cell lines.

  5. A type I IFN–Flt3 ligand axis augments plasmacytoid dendritic cell development from common lymphoid progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ling; Chen, Ting-Ting; Pai, Li-Mei; Wesoly, Joanna; Bluyssen, Hans A.R.

    2013-01-01

    During infections and inflammation, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the most potent type I interferon (IFN-I)–producing cells. However, the developmental origin of pDCs and the signals dictating pDC generation remain incompletely understood. Here, we report a synergistic role for IFN-I and Flt3 ligand (FL) in pDC development from common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). Both conventional DCs (cDCs) and pDCs were generated from CLPs in response to FL, whereas pDC generation required higher concentrations of FL and concurrent IFN-I signaling. An absence of IFN-I receptor, impairment of IFN-I signaling, or neutralization of IFN-I significantly impeded pDC development from CLPs. Furthermore, FL induced IFN-I expression in CLPs, which in turn induced Flt3 up-regulation that facilitated survival and proliferation of CLPs, as well as their differentiation into pDCs. Collectively, these results define a critical role for the FL/IFN-I/Flt3 axis in pDC differentiation from CLPs. PMID:24145513

  6. Reduction of antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of common beans and soybeans upon thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, of two types of common beans (pinto and black beans) and two types of soybeans (yellow and black) were investigated. All thermal-processing methods caused significant (pphytic acid content (PAC) values in all bean types (except for TPC values in pressure-steamed yellow soybeans) as compared to those of the raw beans. All types of uncooked raw beans exhibited cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in dose-dependent manners. Black soybeans exhibited the greatest CAA, followed by black beans, pinto beans and yellow soybeans. The CAA of cooked beans were generally diminished or eliminated by thermal processing. The hydrophilic extracts from raw pinto beans, black beans and black soybeans exhibited antiproliferation capacities against human gastric (AGS) and colorectal (SW480) cancer cells in dose-dependent manners. The raw yellow soybeans exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferation activities against the SW480 cells. Most of the cooked beans lost their antiproliferation capacities as observed in the raw beans. These results indicate that different processing methods may have various effects on phytochemical profiles and bioactivities. Overall, thermal processing caused a significant reduction of the health-promotion effects of beans.

  7. A common promoter hypomethylation signature in invasive breast, liver and prostate cancer cell lines reveals novel targets involved in cancer invasiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Cheishvili, David; Stefanska, Barbara; Yi, Cao; Li, Chen Chen; Yu, Patricia; Arakelian, Ani; Tanvir, Imrana; Khan, Haseeb Ahmed; Rabbani, Shafaat; Szyf, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Cancer invasion and metastasis is the most morbid aspect of cancer and is governed by different cellular mechanisms than those driving the deregulated growth of tumors. We addressed here the question of whether a common DNA methylation signature of invasion exists in cancer cells from different origins that differentiates invasive from non-invasive cells. We identified a common DNA methylation signature consisting of hyper- and hypomethylation and determined the overlap of differences in DNA ...

  8. An intrinsic DFF40/CAD endonuclease deficiency impairs oligonucleosomal DNA hydrolysis during caspase-dependent cell death: a common trait in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Osuna, María; Martínez-Escardó, Laura; Granados-Colomina, Carla; Martínez-Soler, Fina; Pascual-Guiral, Sònia; Iglesias-Guimarais, Victoria; Velasco, Roser; Plans, Gerard; Vidal, Noemi; Tortosa, Avelina; Barcia, Carlos; Bruna, Jordi; Yuste, Victor J

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) or grade IV astrocytoma is one of the most devastating human cancers. The loss of DFF40/CAD, the key endonuclease that triggers oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation during apoptosis, has been linked to genomic instability and cell survival after radiation. Despite the near inevitability of GBM tumor recurrence after treatment, the relationship between DFF40/CAD and GBM remains unexplored. We studied the apoptotic behavior of human GBM-derived cells after apoptotic insult. We analyzed caspase activation and the protein levels and subcellular localization of DFF40/CAD apoptotic endonuclease. DFF40/CAD was also evaluated in histological sections from astrocytic tumors and nontumoral human brain. We showed that GBM cells undergo incomplete apoptosis without generating oligonucleosomal DNA degradation despite the correct activation of executioner caspases. The major defect of GBM cells relied on the improper accumulation of DFF40/CAD at the nucleoplasmic subcellular compartment. Supporting this finding, DFF40/CAD overexpression allowed GBM cells to display oligonucleosomal DNA degradation after apoptotic challenge. Moreover, the analysis of histological slices from astrocytic tumors showed that DFF40/CAD immunoreactivity in tumoral GFAP-positive cells was markedly reduced when compared with nontumoral samples. Our data highlight the low expression levels of DFF40/CAD and the absence of DNA laddering as common molecular traits in GBM. These findings could be of major importance for understanding the malignant behavior of remaining tumor cells after radiochemotherapy. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Domain Cell Theory supports the independent evolution of the Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea and the Nuclear Compartment Commonality hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, James T

    2017-06-01

    In 2015, the Royal Society of London held a meeting to discuss the various hypotheses regarding the origin of the Eukarya. Although not all participants supported a hypothesis, the proposals that did fit into two broad categories: one group favoured 'Prokaryotes First' hypotheses and another addressed 'Eukaryotes First' hypotheses. Those who proposed Prokaryotes First hypotheses advocated either a fusion event between a bacterium and an archaeon that produced the first eukaryote or the direct evolution of the Eukarya from the Archaea. The Eukaryotes First proponents posit that the eukaryotes evolved initially and then, by reductive evolution, produced the Bacteria and Archaea. No mention was made of another previously published hypothesis termed the Nuclear Compartment Commonality (NuCom) hypothesis, which proposed the evolution of the Eukarya and Bacteria from nucleated ancestors (Staley 2013 Astrobiol Outreach1, 105 (doi:10.4172/2332-2519.1000105)). Evidence from two studies indicates that the nucleated Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydia superphylum members are the most ancient Bacteria known (Brochier & Philippe 2002 Nature417, 244 (doi:10.1038/417244a); Jun et al. 2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA107, 133-138 (doi:10.1073/pnas.0913033107)). This review summarizes the evidence for the NuCom hypothesis and discusses how simple the NuCom hypothesis is in explaining eukaryote evolution relative to the other hypotheses. The philosophical importance of simplicity and its relationship to truth in hypotheses such as NuCom and Domain Cell Theory is presented. Domain Cell Theory is also proposed herein, which contends that each of the three cellular lineages of life, the Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya domains, evolved independently, in support of the NuCom hypothesis. All other proposed hypotheses violate Domain Cell Theory because they posit the evolution of different cellular descendants from ancestral cellular types. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Bcl-2 blocks 2-methoxyestradiol induced leukemia cell apoptosis by a p27Kip1-dependent G1/S cell cycle arrest in conjunction with NF-?B activation

    OpenAIRE

    Batsi, Christina; Markopoulou, Soultana; Kontargiris, Evangelos; Charalambous, Christiana; Thomas, Christoforos; Christoforidis, Savvas; Kanavaros, Panagiotis; Constantinou, Andreas I.; MARCU, KENNETH B.; Kolettas, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    Abstract 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) induces leukemia cells to undergo apoptosis in association with Bcl-2 inactivation but the mechanisms whereby Bcl-2 contributes to protection against programmed cell death in this context remain unclear. Here we showed that 2-ME2 inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat leukemia cells by markedly suppressing the levels of cyclins D3 and E, E2F1 and p21Cip1/Waf1 and up-regulating p16INK4A. Further, 2-ME2 induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells in associati...

  11. The cathepsin B inhibitor, z-FA-CMK is toxic and readily induced cell death in human T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liow, K.Y.; Chow, S.C., E-mail: chow.sek.chuen@monash.edu

    2013-11-01

    The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethylketone (z-FA-CMK) was found to be toxic and readily induced cell death in the human T cell line, Jurkat, whereas two other analogs benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethylketone (z-FA-FMK) and benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethylketone (z-FA-DMK) were not toxic. The toxicity of z-FA-CMK requires not only the CMK group, but also the presence of alanine in the P1 position and the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal. Dose–response studies showed that lower concentrations of z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells whereas higher concentrations induced necrosis. In z-FA-CMK-induced apoptosis, both initiator caspases (-8 and -9) and effector caspases (-3, -6 and -7) were processed to their respective subunits in Jurkat T cells. However, only the pro-form of the initiator caspases were reduced in z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and no respective subunits were apparent. The caspase inihibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-valine-alanine-aspartic acid-(O-methyl)-fluoromehylketone (z-VAD-FMK) inhibits apoptosis and caspase processing in Jurkat T cells treated with low concentration of z-FA-CMK but has no effect on z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and the loss of initiator caspases. This suggests that the loss of initiator caspases in Jurkat T cells during z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis is not a caspase-dependent process. Taken together, we have demonstrated that z-FA-CMK is toxic to Jurkat T cells and induces apoptosis at low concentrations, while at higher concentrations the cells die of necrosis. - Highlights: • z-FA-CMK is toxic and induce cell death in the human T cells. • z-FA-CMK toxicity requires the CMK group, alanine and the benzyloxycarbonyl group. • z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis at low concentration and necrosis at high concentration.

  12. Effect of Laser Annealing of Common Solid Pressure Media on Pressure Gradients in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uts, I.; Glazyrin, K.; Lee, K. K.

    2012-12-01

    Advances in experimental techniques allow for the studying of geophysics and planetary science related materials under high pressure and high temperature conditions. With the intrinsic limits of the multianvil apparatus, compression in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) has become the preferred method for creating the extreme conditions of planetary interiors. High pressures up to 1 Mbar can be routinely obtained in laboratories with the use of DACs. Additionally, as in situ laser heating is becoming progressively more affordable for DACs, it is becoming more common to find laser heating setups in many large scale facilities. After the sample material, the pressure medium is the second most important ingredient for a successful high pressure DAC experiment. Not every pressure medium is equally suitable for every experiment. For example, solid pressure media are more persistent than gaseous pressure media if high temperature heating is required. The melting point of the former is much higher, and melting of pressure media may induce undesirable sample shift in the pressure chamber. However, the most important characteristic of a pressure medium is its ability to maintain hydrostaticity in the DAC. The media, particularly solid pressure media, become less effective with increasing pressure. One of the most popular ways of alleviating pressure gradients is through laser annealing of the sample. We explore the effectiveness of this technique in relation to common pressure media, namely, alkali metal halides NaCl, CsCl, KCl, LiF, and oxide MgO. The samples were laser annealed at temperatures above 2000 K. Pressure gradients were determined through the analysis of diamond Raman and ruby fluorescence peaks before and after annealing the sample with a near-infrared laser. We find that the effect of annealing varies for different materials. For some (NaCl and KCl), it reduces pressure gradients considerably, but for the others (MgO), the effect of annealing is less profound.

  13. Autophagy is associated with cucurbitacin D-induced apoptosis in human T cell leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tsukasa; Song, Yuan; He, Cuiying; Wang, Duo; Morita, Kentaro; Tsukada, Junichi; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Yoshida, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that the inflammasome inhibitor cucurbitacin D (CuD) induces apoptosis in human leukemia cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the effects of co-treatment with an additional Bcl-xL inhibitor, Z36. Treatment with Z36 induced cell death in leukemia cell lines, with MT-4 cells exhibiting the lowest sensitivity to Z36. Co-treatment of cells with Z36 and CuD resulted in a greater degree of cell death for Hut78 and Jurkat cells than treatment with CuD alone. In contrast, co-treatment of MT-4 cells with Z36 and CuD had a suppressive effect on cell death. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) suppressed the growth of leukemia cell lines HuT78, Jurkat, MT-1, and MT-4. CuD-induced cell death was enhanced by 3-MA in Jurkat cells, but inhibited in MT-4 cells. Western blotting results revealed cleavage of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP), supporting CuD-induced cell death; 3-MA enhanced CuD-Z36-induced PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results indicate that autophagy negatively regulates chemical-induced cell death of leukemia cells, and that controlling autophagy could be beneficial in the development of more effective chemotherapies against leukemia.

  14. Common Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen Common Terms Below is a list of diabetes-related ... a skin condition characterized by darkened skin patches; common in people whose body is not responding correctly ...

  15. Effects of varying the ratio of cooked to uncooked potato on the microbial fuel cell treatment of common potato waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haixia; Li, Fusheng

    2016-11-01

    The effect of varying the ratio of cooked to uncooked potato in the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC) treating common potato waste was investigated. Four MFCs were fed with a ratio of cooked (boiled) to uncooked (i.e. waste) potato of 0, 48.7, 67.3 and 85.6%. Respectively, the columbic efficiency was estimated as 53.5, 70.5, 92.7 and 71.1%, indicating significantly enhanced electricity generation and waste degradation at an initial feedstock mixing ratio of 2/3 cooked to 1/3 uncooked potato. The hydrolysis rate parameter (estimated using a first-order sequential hydrolysis and degradation model) increased from 0.061 to 0.191day(-1) as cooked potato was added which increased electricity generation efficiency from 24.6 to 278.9mA/m(2)/d and shortened the startup time for maximum current density from 25 to 5days. The potato slurries' chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased by 86.6, 83.9, 84.1 and 86.3%, respectively, indicating no relationship exists between the fraction of boiled potato and the amount of COD reduction.

  16. Sarcopenia, obesity, and natural killer cell immune senescence in aging: altered cytokine levels as a common mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Charles T; Quinn, LeBris S

    2012-08-01

    Human aging is characterized by both physical and physiological frailty. A key feature of frailty, sarcopenia is the age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and endurance that characterize even the healthy elderly. Increases in adiposity, particularly in visceral adipose tissue, are almost universal in aging individuals and can contribute to sarcopenia and insulin resistance by increasing levels of inflammatory cytokines known collectively as adipokines. Aging also is associated with declines in adaptive and innate immunity, known as immune senescence, which are risk factors for cancer and all-cause mortality. The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle tissue and declines in aging rodent models. IL-15 inhibits fat deposition and insulin resistance, is anabolic for skeletal muscle in certain situations, and is required for the development and survival of natural killer (NK) lymphocytes. We review the effect that adipokines and myokines have on NK cells, with special emphasis on IL-15. We posit that increased adipokine and decreased IL-15 levels during aging constitute a common mechanism for sarcopenia, obesity, and immune senescence.

  17. Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest ...

  18. Identification and cloning of a prethymic precursor T lymphocyte from a population of common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA)-positive fetal bone marrow cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Hokland, M; Daley, J

    1987-01-01

    We have cloned common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (CALLA)-positive cells from human fetal bone marrow containing less than 1 in 10,000 E-RFC in round-bottomed microtiter wells (one cell per well) using the autocloning unit of an EPICS-V cell sorter. Expansion of such cells (with IL-2 and heavily...... irradiated autologous thymocytes as feeder cells) resulted in growth in 6-14% of the wells (mean, 11%) with cells with mature T lymphocyte phenotype. Two-color fluorescence analysis of outgrowing cultures furthermore ascertained that these cells had differentiated through a phase of simultaneous expression...... of T4 and T8 antigens and at the same time expression of the thymocyte-associated T6 antigens. Thus, given the fact that 10-20% of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALLs) are CALLA+, we have been able to identify a human prethymic T lymphocyte population that might be the normal counterpart...

  19. Mechanisms of Dihydroartemisinin and Dihydroartemisinin/Holotransferrin Cytotoxicity in T-Cell Lymphoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyan Wang

    Full Text Available The validated therapeutic effects of dihydroartemisinin (DHA in solid tumors have encouraged us to explore its potential in treating T-cell lymphoma. We found that Jurkat cells (a T-cell lyphoma cell line were sensitive to DHA treatment with a IC50 of dihydroartemisinin. The cytotoxic effect of DHA in Jurkat cells showed a dose- and time- dependent manner. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of DHA was further enhanced by holotransferrin (HTF due to the high expression of transferrin receptors in T-cell lymphoma. Mechanistically, DHA significantly increased the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which led to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The DHA treatment also inhibited the expression of protumorgenic factors including VEGF and telomerase catalytic subunit. Our results have proved the therapeutic effect of DHA in T-cell lymphoma. Especially in combination with HTF, DHA may provide a novel efficient approach in combating the deadly disease.

  20. Leaf and Root Extracts from Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae Promote Apoptotic Death of Leukemic Cells via Activation of Intracellular Calcium and Caspase-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline F. Campos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical studies are seeking new alternatives to prevent or treat cancer, including different types of leukemias. Campomanesia adamantium, commonly known as guavira or guabiroba, exhibits pharmacological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Considering the anticancer potential of this plant species, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antileukemic activity and the chemical composition of aqueous extracts from the leaves (AECL and roots (AECR of C. adamantium and their possible mechanisms of action. The extracts were analyzed by LC-DAD-MS, and their constituents were identified based on the UV, MS, and MS/MS data. The AECL and AECR showed different chemical compositions, which were identified as main compounds glycosylated flavonols from AECL and ellagic acid and their derivatives from AECR. The cytotoxicity promoted by these extracts were evaluated using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Jurkat leukemic cell line. The cell death profile was evaluated using annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide labeling. Changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential, the activity of caspases, and intracellular calcium levels were assessed. The cell cycle profile was evaluated using propidium iodide. Both extracts caused concentration-dependent cytotoxicity only in Jurkat cells via late apoptosis. This activity was associated with loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspases-9 and -3, changes in intracellular calcium levels, and cell cycle arrest in S-phase. Therefore, the antileukemic activity of the AECL and AECR is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular messengers, which activate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Hence, aqueous extracts of the leaves and roots of C. adamantium show therapeutic potential for use in the prevention and treatment of diseases associated the proliferation of tumor cell.

  1. Lower Respiratory Tract Diseases Caused by Common Respiratory Viruses among Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients: A Single Center Experience in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyung-Wook; Choi, Su-Mi; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Choi, Jae-Ki; Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe the incidence, clinical courses, and risk factors for mortality of lower respiratory tract diseases (LRDs) caused by common respiratory viruses (CRVs) in stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1038 patients who received SCT between January 2007 and August 2011 at a single center in Korea. Results Seventy-one CRV-LRDs were identified in 67 (6.5%) patients. The human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) was the most common causative pathogen of CRV-LRDs at 100 days [cumulative incidence estimate, 23.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.3–43.7] and 1 year (cumulative incidence estimate, 69.2%; 95% CI, 45.9–92.5) following SCT. The 30-day overall mortality rates due to influenza-LRDs, respiratory syncytial virus-LRDs, HPIV-LRDs, and human rhinovirus-LRDs were 35.7, 25.8, 31.6, and 42.8%, respectively. Co-pathogens in respiratory specimens were detected in 23 (33.8%) patients. The overall mortality at day 30 after CRV-LRD diagnosis was 32.8% (22/67). High-dose steroid usage (p=0.025), a severe state of immunodeficiency (p=0.033), and lymphopenia (p=0.006) were significantly associated with death within 30 days following CRV-LRD diagnosis in a univariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high-dose steroid usage [odds ratio (OR), 4.05; 95% CI, 1.12–14.61; p=0.033] and lymphopenia (OR, 6.57; 95% CI, 1.80–24.03; p=0.004) were independent risk factors for mortality within 30 days of CRV-LRDs. Conclusion CRV-LRDs among SCT recipients showed substantially high morbidity and mortality rates. Therefore, the implement of an active diagnostic approaches for CRV infections is required for SCT recipients with respiratory symptoms, especially those receiving high-dose steroids or with lymphopenia. PMID:28120567

  2. Human hematopoietic cells express two forms of the cytokine receptor common γ—chain(γc)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYUFANG; MARYHILL; 等

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the γ-chain of the IL-2 receptor is shared by the receptors for IL-4,IL-7,IL-9,IL-13,and IL-15,and it is therefore also referred to as the common γ-chain (γc).Mutations of γc result in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome in humans,indicating that γc is essential for normal development and function of the immune system.We demonstrate that human hematopoietic cells express two γc transcripts differing in their carboxyl terminal coding region.One transcript is the previously reported sequence (γc-long), whereas the newly identified sequence exhibits a deletion of 72 nucleotides close to the 3'-end of the open reading frame (γc-short).This alteration predicts a loss of 24 amino acids including a conserved tyrosine residue which is shared by several members of the cytokine receptor family.The presencfe of these two distinct forms of γc transcripts was demonstrated by sequencing of reversely transcribed and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplified mRNA,restriction diestion of the RT-PCR products,RNAse protection,and Northern blotting from human cell lines and human peripheral blood lymphocytes.Furthermore,the two variants were present in peripheral blood lymphocytes from both female and male donors,which rules out allelic variants since γc is a single copy gene located on the X chromosome.A truncation mutant at a site near the observed changes in γc-short has been reported by others to alter biochemical events activated by cytokines.This combined with the loss of a potential SH2 “docking” site in γc-short suggests that γ-long and γc-short may link to different signaling pathways and may play an important role in detenmining the cellular response to IL-2,IL-4,IL-7,IL-9,IL-13,IL-15.

  3. Pancreatic islet-cell viability, functionality and oxidative status remain unaffected at pharmacological concentrations of commonly used antibiotics in vitro

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogita Shewade; Suraj Tirth; R R Bhonde

    2001-09-01

    Environmental factors such as diet, physical activity, drugs, pollution and life style play an important role in the progression and/or precipitation of diseases like diabetes, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disorders. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics to combat infectious diseases is one of the commonest forms of misuse of drugs. Antibiotics seem to have a correlation with diabetes and pancreatic function. There are controversial reports about the effect of antibiotics on the pancreatic islets; some suggesting their harmless action, some depicting a beneficial role and others indicating deleterious effect. Moreover, use of antibiotics is mandatory during islet isolation and cultivation to reduce incidences of microbial contamination. It is likely that antibiotic treatment may adversely affect islet viability and its functioning leading to failure of islet transplantation. The present in vitro study was undertaken to examine the effect of commonly used antibiotics such as gentamycin, penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, neomycin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol on islet viability, its functioning and induction of oxidative stress if any. The viability and insulin production data showed that none of the antibiotics used in the present study affect the viability and the functioning of the islets at their pharmacological concentrations. Free radical levels measured in terms of melonyldialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) reveal that except for a marginal increase in lipid peroxidation with tetracycline and slight increase in NO levels with streptomycin, none of these antibiotics affect the oxidative status of the cells. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase remain unaffected after this treatment. Our results reveal the innocuous nature of the antibiotics used at pharmacological concentrations, suggesting their safety whenever prescribed to combat infections and also during islet isolation procedures.

  4. Sulforaphene and sulforaphane in commonly consumed cruciferous plants contributed to antiproliferation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piman Pocasap; Natthida Weerapreeyakul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze two isothiocyanates(sulforaphene and sulforaphane) and their antiproliferative effect of 11 indigenous cruciferous vegetables.Methods: Phytoconstituents identification was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer techniques. The antiproliferation was evaluated in colon cancer cell line HCT116 by MTT assay.Results: Isothiocyanate identification by high performance liquid chromatography showed that broccoli, cabbage, "Khi-Hood"(Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef) and Chinese radish contained isothiocyanates sulforaphane. Sulforaphene and sulforaphane in broccoli, cabbage and "Khi-Hood" were characterized by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis. Antiproliferation screening by MTT assay found that the potent plants which possessed IC50 below 50 mg/m L were cabbage and "Khi-Hood", while the others had low antiproliferation with IC50 higher than 50 mg/m L. Difference in antiproliferation was probably due to difference existed phytochemical constituents in each plant. "Khi-Hood" possessed the highest antiproliferation against HCT116 with the lowest IC50at(9.42 ± 0.46) mg/m L. The IC50 of chemotherapeutic drug(mitomycin C)was(19.12 ± 1.00) mg/m L, while both melphalan and 5-fluorouracil possessed the IC50 value higher than 50 mg/m L.Conclusions: Commonly consumed cruciferous vegetables exerted varied antiproliferation and isothiocyanate contents. High isothiocyanate content in "Khi-Hood" was contributed to high antiproliferation. Among 11 plants studied, "Khi-Hood" could be an alternative chemopreventive diet.

  5. Prognostic Significance of Decreased Expression of Six Large Common Fragile Site Genes in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Gao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common fragile sites (CFSs are large regions with profound genomic instability that often span extremely large genes a number of which have been found to be important tumor suppressors. RNA sequencing previously revealed that there was a group of six large CFS genes which frequently had decreased expression in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction experiments validated that these six large CFS genes (PARK2, DLG2, NBEA, CTNNA3, DMD, and FHIT had decreased expression in most of the tumor samples. In this study, we investigated whether the decreased expression of these genes has any clinical significance in OPSCCs. We analyzed the six CFS large genes in 45 OPSCC patients and found that 27 (60% of the OPSCC tumors had decreased expression of these six genes. When we correlated the expression of these six genes to each patient’s clinical records, for 11 patients who had tumor recurrence, 10 of them had decreased expression of almost all 6 genes. When we divided the patients into two groups, one group with decreased expression of the six genes and the other group with either slight changes or increased expression of the six genes, we found that there is significant difference in the incidence of tumor recurrence between these two groups by Kaplan-Meier plot analysis (P < .05. Our results demonstrated that those OPSCC tumors with decreased expression of this select group of six large CFS genes were much more likely to be associated with tumor recurrence and these genes are potential prognostic markers for predicting tumor recurrence in OPSCC.

  6. Genomic profiling identifies common HPV-associated chromosomal alterations in squamous cell carcinomas of cervix and head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leemans C René

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that a persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV is causally involved in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix (CxSCCs and a subset of SCCs of the head and neck (HNSCCs. The latter differ from hrHPV-negative HNSCCs at the clinical and molecular level. Methods To determine whether hrHPV-associated SCCs arising from different organs have specific chromosomal alterations in common, we compared genome-wide chromosomal profiles of 10 CxSCCs (all hrHPV-positive with 12 hrHPV-positive HNSCCs and 30 hrHPV-negative HNSCCs. Potential organ-specific alterations and alterations shared by SCCs in general were investigated as well. Results Unsupervised hierarchical clustering resulted in one mainly hrHPV-positive and one mainly hrHPV-negative cluster. Interestingly, loss at 13q and gain at 20q were frequent in HPV-positive carcinomas of both origins, but uncommon in hrHPV-negative HNSCCs, indicating that these alterations are associated with hrHPV-mediated carcinogenesis. Within the group of hrHPV-positive carcinomas, HNSCCs more frequently showed gains of multiple regions at 8q whereas CxSCCs more often showed loss at 17p. Finally, gains at 3q24-29 and losses at 11q22.3-25 were frequent (>50% in all sample groups. Conclusion In this study hrHPV-specific, organ-specific, and pan-SCC chromosomal alterations were identified. The existence of hrHPV-specific alterations in SCCs of different anatomical origin, suggests that these alterations are crucial for hrHPV-mediated carcinogenesis.

  7. TFDP3 confers chemoresistance in minimal residual disease within childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ming; Yin, Kailin; Dong, Yujun; Wang, Pingzhang; Xue, Yun; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Yuqi; Wang, Yuedan

    2017-01-01

    Acquired drug resistance in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) remains a significant clinical problem. In this study, a novel gene therapy target for childhood T-ALL to overcome chemoresistance was discovered: TFDP3 increased in the minimal residual disease (MRD) positive childhood T-ALL patients. Then, we established a preclinical model of resistance to induction therapy to examine the functional relevance of TFDP3 to chemoresistance in MRD derived from Jurkat/E6-1. Jurkat xenografts in NOD/SCID mice were exposed to a four drug combination (VXLD) of vincristine (VCR), dexamethasone (DEX), L-asparaginase (L-asp) and daunorubicin (DNR). During the 4-week VXLD treatment, the level of TFDP3 increased 4-fold. High expression of TFDP3 was identified in the re-emerging lines (Jurkat/MRD) with increased chemoresistance, which is correlated with partially promoter demethylation of TFDP3. Downregulation of TFDP3 by RNA interference reversed chemoresistance in Jurkat/MRD accompanied by reinstated E2F1 activity that coincided with increased levels of p53, p73, and associated proapoptotic target genes. Importantly, TFDP3 silencing in vivo induced apparent benefit to overcome chemoresistance in combination with VXLD treatment. Collectively, TFDP3 confers chemoresistance in MRD within childhood T-ALL, indicating that TFDP3 is a potential gene therapy target for residual cancer. PMID:27902457

  8. Impact of common metallurgical impurities on ms-Si solar cell efficiency. P-type versus n-type doped ingots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerligs, L.J.; Manshanden, P. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Solheim, I.; Ovrelid, E.J.; Waernes, A.N. [Sintef materials technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-09-15

    Silicon solar cells based on n-type silicon wafers are less sensitive to carrier lifetime degradation due to several common metal impurities than p-base cells. The theoretical and experimental indications for this have recently received considerable attention. This paper compares p-type and n-type cells purposely contaminated with relatively high levels of impurities, processed by industrial techniques. The impurities considered are Al, Ti, and Fe, which are the dominant impurities in metallurgical silicon and natural quartz. The work also preliminary addresses the question whether the optimal wafer resistivity is the same for n-type as for p-type base mc-Si cells.

  9. Charged MVB protein 5 is involved in T-cell receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Sae Mi; Min, Yoon; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-29

    Charged multivesicular body protein 5 (CHMP5) has a key role in multivesicular body biogenesis and a critical role in the downregulation of signaling pathways through receptor degradation. However, the role of CHMP5 in T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling has not been previously investigated. In this study, we utilized a short hairpin RNA-based RNA interference approach to investigate the functional role of CHMP5. Upon TCR stimulation, CHMP5-knockdown (CHMP5(KD)) Jurkat T cells exhibited activation of TCR downstream signaling molecules, such as PKCθ and IKKαβ, and resulted in the activation of nuclear factor-κB and the marked upregulation of TCR-induced gene expression. Moreover, we found that activator protein-1 and nuclear factor of activated T-cells transcriptional factors were markedly activated in CHMP5(KD) Jurkat cells in response to TCR stimulation, which led to a significant increase in interleukin-2 secretion. Biochemical studies revealed that CHMP5 endogenously forms high-molecular-weight complexes, including TCR molecules, and specifically interacts with TCRβ. Interestingly, flow cytometry analysis also revealed that CHMP5(KD) Jurkat T cells exhibit upregulation of TCR expression on the cell surface compared with control Jurkat T cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that CHMP5 might be involved in the homeostatic regulation of TCR on the cell surface, presumably through TCR recycling or degradation. Thus CHMP5 is implicated in TCR-mediated signaling.

  10. Student Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  11. Evaluating Effects of Cell Sorting on Cellular Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    During the past year the Flow Cytometry Research Group has continued on its goal to establish best practice guidelines for cell sorting conditions that minimize cell stress, perturbation, or injury to the sorted cells. Towards this goal the group has followed up on an observation from our initial study that showed poor cell recovery when a clonal population of cells (Jurkat) was sorted aggressively under intentionally adverse sorting conditions (excessive pressure as well as undersized sortin...

  12. Double expression of CD34 and CD117 on bone marrow progenitors is a hallmark of the development of functional mast cell of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunomura, Satoshi; Shimada, Shin; Kametani, Yoshie; Yamada, Yuko; Yoshioka, Mino; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Manabu; Itoh, Toshio; Kono, Azumi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tani, Kenzaburo; Ando, Kiyoshi; Yagita, Hideo; Ra, Chisei; Habu, Sonoko; Satake, Masanobu; Sasaki, Erika

    2012-09-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are developed from hematopoietic progenitor cells and play an important role in inflammation. Study of the kinetics of development and accumulation of primate MC in vivo is crucial for the control of human inflammatory diseases, as evolution of the immune system is quite rapid and inflammation including MC response is considered to be different between mouse and human. In the present study, we examined the development of MC from hematopoietic progenitors of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset), an experimental animal of nonhuman primates. Bone marrow cells were fractionated for the expression of CD34 and CD117 by cell sorting. MCs were developed in vitro or by transplanting the cells to NOD/SCID/IL-2γc knockout (NOG) mice. In vitro culture of CD34(+)CD117(+) (double positive, DP) cells with stem cell factor could generate high-affinity Fc epsilon receptor (FcεR)-expressing CD117(+) cells with typical granules. The developed MC released β-hexosaminidase and produced leukotriene C(4) after the stimulation of FcεRI. Transplantation of DP cells gave rise to a marked expansion of CD34(-)CD45(+)CD117(+)FcεR(+) cells in NOG mice. They expressed transcripts encoding chymase 1 and tryptase β. Differentiation of CD34(-)CD117(+) cells to MCs was relatively limited compared with the DP cells, similarly to human MCs. These results suggest that this marmoset system provides a good model for human MC development.

  13. T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Spectrum of disease nd the role of imaging in the management of common subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Sun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Krajewski, Katherine M.; Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; Shinagare, Atul B. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2017-01-15

    T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are biologically diverse, uncommon malignancies characterized by a spectrum of imaging findings according to subtype. The purpose of this review is to describe the common subtypes of T-cell NHL, highlight important differences between cutaneous, various peripheral and precursor subtypes, and summarize imaging features and the role of imaging in the management of this diverse set of diseases.

  14. Functional Characterization of an scFv-Fc Antibody that Immunotherapeutically Targets the Common Cancer Cell Surface Proteoglycan CSPG4

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xinhui; Katayama, Akihiro; Wang, Yangyang; YU Ling; Favoino, Elvira; Sakakura, Koichi; Favole, Alessandra; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Silver, Susan; Watkins, Simon C.; Kageshita, Toshiro; Ferrone, Soldano

    2011-01-01

    Cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is an attractive target for antibody-based cancer immunotherapy because of its role in tumor cell biology, its high expression on malignant cells including cancer-initiating cells, and its restricted distribution in normal tissues. The clinical use of CSPG4 has been hampered by the lack of a CSPG4-specific chimeric, humanized, or fully human monoclonal antibody. To overcome this limitation, we generated a CSPG4-specific fully human singl...

  15. Response of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura to zinc stress: Zn accumulation, metallothionein and cell ultrastructure of the midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Agro-Environments in Tropics, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); State Key Laboratory of Biological Control and Institute of Entomology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Guren [State Key Laboratory of Biological Control and Institute of Entomology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Jianwu, E-mail: wangjw@scau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-Environments in Tropics, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2012-11-01

    By exposing the common cutworm Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae to a range of Zinc (Zn) stress, we investigated the effects of dietary Zn on Zn accumulation, metallothionein (MT), and on the ultrastructure of the midgut. The techniques we used were inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), real-time PCR combined with cadmium-hemoglobin total saturation, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the Zn accumulations in the midgut of the larvae and the Zn concentrations in the diet. Furthermore, both MT content and MT gene expression in the midgut were significantly induced in the 50-500 mg Zn/kg treatments, and were significantly positively correlated with the Zn accumulations in the midgut. When S. litura larvae were fed with the diet treated with 500 mg Zn/kg, Zn accumulation and MT content in the midgut was 4450.85 mg Zn/kg and 372.77 mg/kg, respectively, thereafter there was a little increase; the level of MT gene expression was maximal, thereafter there was a sharp decrease. TEM showed that numerous electron-dense granules (EDGs) and vacuoles appeared in the cytoplasm of the midgut cells, their number and size being closely correlated with the Zn accumulations in the midgut. Moreover, the nuclei were strongly influenced by Zn stress, evidenced by chromatin condensation and irregular nuclear membranes. Therefore, after being exposed to Zn in the threshold (500 mg Zn/kg) range, S. litura larvae could accumulate Zn in the midgut, which led to the induction of MT and changes in cell ultrastructure (mainly the presence of EDGs). The induction of MT and precipitation of Zn in EDGs may be the effective detoxification mechanisms by which the herbivorous insect S. litura defends itself against heavy metals. -- Graphical abstract: When the herbivorous insect Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae were fed on the artificial diet with different concentrations of Zn, amounts of

  16. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  17. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  18. HEK293T Cells Are Heterozygous for CCR5 Delta 32 Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chunxia; Jia, Xiaopeng; Lu, Lingling; Ma, Ping; Wei, Min

    2016-01-01

    C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a receptor for chemokines and a co-receptor for HIV-1 entry into the target CD4+ cells. CCR5 delta 32 deletion is a loss-of-function mutation, resistant to HIV-1 infection. We tried to induce the CCR5 delta 32 mutation harnessing the genome editing technique, CRISPR-Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, CRISPR and CRISPR associated protein 9, Cas9) in the commonly used cell line human embryonic kidney HEK 293T cells. Surprisingly, we found that HEK293T cells are heterozygous for CCR5 delta 32 mutation, in contrast to the wild type CCR5 cells, human acute T cell leukemia cell line Jurkat and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 cells. This finding indicates that at least one human cell line is heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 mutation. We also found that in PCR amplification, wild type CCR5 DNA and mutant delta 32 DNA can form mismatched heteroduplex and move slowly in gel electrophoresis.

  19. HEK293T Cells Are Heterozygous for CCR5 Delta 32 Mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia Qi

    Full Text Available C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 is a receptor for chemokines and a co-receptor for HIV-1 entry into the target CD4+ cells. CCR5 delta 32 deletion is a loss-of-function mutation, resistant to HIV-1 infection. We tried to induce the CCR5 delta 32 mutation harnessing the genome editing technique, CRISPR-Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, CRISPR and CRISPR associated protein 9, Cas9 in the commonly used cell line human embryonic kidney HEK 293T cells. Surprisingly, we found that HEK293T cells are heterozygous for CCR5 delta 32 mutation, in contrast to the wild type CCR5 cells, human acute T cell leukemia cell line Jurkat and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 cells. This finding indicates that at least one human cell line is heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 mutation. We also found that in PCR amplification, wild type CCR5 DNA and mutant delta 32 DNA can form mismatched heteroduplex and move slowly in gel electrophoresis.

  20. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  1. Sulforaphene and sulforaphane in commonly consumed cruciferous plants contributed to antiproliferation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piman Pocasap

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Commonly consumed cruciferous vegetables exerted varied antiproliferation and isothiocyanate contents. High isothiocyanate content in “Khi-Hood” was contributed to high antiproliferation. Among 11 plants studied, “Khi-Hood” could be an alternative chemopreventive diet.

  2. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  3. Satellite NG2 progenitor cells share common glutamatergic inputs with associated interneurons in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Jean-Marie; Kunze, Albrecht; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Gallo, Vittorio

    2008-07-23

    Several studies have provided evidence that NG2-expressing (NG2(+)) progenitor cells are anatomically associated to neurons in gray matter areas. By analyzing the spatial distribution of NG2(+) cells in the hilus of the mouse dentate gyrus, we demonstrate that NG2(+) cells are indeed closely associated to interneurons. To define whether this anatomical proximity reflected a specific physiological interaction, we performed patch-clamp recordings on hilar NG2(+) cells and interneurons between 3 and 21 postnatal days. We first observed that hilar NG2(+) cells exhibit spontaneous glutamatergic EPSCs (sEPSCs) whose frequency and amplitude increase during the first 3 postnatal weeks. At the same time, the rise time and decay time of sEPSCs significantly decreased, suggesting that glutamatergic synapses in NG2(+) cells undergo a maturation process that is reminiscent of what has been reported in neurons during the same time period. We also observed that hilar interneurons and associated NG2(+) cells are similarly integrated into the local network, receiving excitatory inputs from both granule cells and CA3 pyramidal neurons. By performing pair recordings, we found that bursts of activity induced by GABAergic antagonists were strongly synchronized between both cell types and that the amplitude of these bursts was positively correlated. Finally, by applying carbachol to increase EPSC activity, we observed that closely apposed cells were more likely to exhibit synchronized EPSCs than cells separated by >200 microm. The finding that NG2(+) cells are sensing patterns of activity arising in closely associated neurons suggests that NG2(+) cell function is finely regulated by the local network.

  4. In vivo manipulation of γ9(+ T cells in the common marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus with phosphoantigen and effect on the progression of respiratory melioidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Laws

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a dangerous human pathogen. Phosphoantigens specifically the target primate specific γ9(+δ2(+ T cells subset and some have been developed as potential immunotherapeutics. Previously, we demonstrated that, when stimulated with the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP, γ9(+δ2(+ T cells aid in the killing of intracellular B. pseudomallei bacteria. Moreover, we found that common marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus γ9(+ T cells increase in frequency and respond to the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP and/or B. pseudomallei, in combination with IL-2, in a similar manner to human γ9(+δ2(+ T cells. Here we evaluate the efficacy of the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP, in combination with IL-2, as a therapy against B. pseudomallei infection, in vivo. We found that the previous studies predicted the in vivo responsiveness of γ9(+ T cells to the CHDMAPP+IL-2 treatment and significant expansion of the numbers of peripheral and splenic γ9(+ T cells were observed. This effect was similar to those reported in other primate species treated with phosphoantigen. Furthermore, splenocytes were retrieved 7 days post onset of treatment, restimulated with CHDMAPP or heat-killed B. pseudomallei and the cultured γ9(+ T cells demonstrated no reduction in IFN-γ response when CHDMAPP+IL-2 animals were compared to IL-2 only treated animals. Using an established model of B. pseudomallei infection in the marmoset, we assessed the potential for using phosphoantigen as a novel immunotherapy. The CHDMAPP treatment regime had no effect on the progression of respiratory melioidosis and this was despite the presence of elevated numbers of γ9(+ T cells in the spleen, liver and lung and an increased proportion of IFN-γ(+ cells in response to infection. We therefore report that the common marmoset has proven a good model for studying the effect in vivo of γ9(+ T cell stimulation; however, γ9(+ T cells have little or no effect on the progression of lethal, respiratory B

  5. In vivo manipulation of γ9(+) T cells in the common marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus) with phosphoantigen and effect on the progression of respiratory melioidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Thomas R; Nelson, Michelle; Bonnafous, Cecile; Sicard, Helene; Taylor, Christopher; Salguero, Francisco Javier; Atkins, Timothy P; Oyston, Petra C F; Rowland, Caroline A

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a dangerous human pathogen. Phosphoantigens specifically the target primate specific γ9(+)δ2(+) T cells subset and some have been developed as potential immunotherapeutics. Previously, we demonstrated that, when stimulated with the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP, γ9(+)δ2(+) T cells aid in the killing of intracellular B. pseudomallei bacteria. Moreover, we found that common marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus) γ9(+) T cells increase in frequency and respond to the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP and/or B. pseudomallei, in combination with IL-2, in a similar manner to human γ9(+)δ2(+) T cells. Here we evaluate the efficacy of the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP, in combination with IL-2, as a therapy against B. pseudomallei infection, in vivo. We found that the previous studies predicted the in vivo responsiveness of γ9(+) T cells to the CHDMAPP+IL-2 treatment and significant expansion of the numbers of peripheral and splenic γ9(+) T cells were observed. This effect was similar to those reported in other primate species treated with phosphoantigen. Furthermore, splenocytes were retrieved 7 days post onset of treatment, restimulated with CHDMAPP or heat-killed B. pseudomallei and the cultured γ9(+) T cells demonstrated no reduction in IFN-γ response when CHDMAPP+IL-2 animals were compared to IL-2 only treated animals. Using an established model of B. pseudomallei infection in the marmoset, we assessed the potential for using phosphoantigen as a novel immunotherapy. The CHDMAPP treatment regime had no effect on the progression of respiratory melioidosis and this was despite the presence of elevated numbers of γ9(+) T cells in the spleen, liver and lung and an increased proportion of IFN-γ(+) cells in response to infection. We therefore report that the common marmoset has proven a good model for studying the effect in vivo of γ9(+) T cell stimulation; however, γ9(+) T cells have little or no effect on the progression of lethal, respiratory B. pseudomallei

  6. An assessment of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) γ9(+) T cells and their response to phosphoantigen in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline A; Laws, Thomas R; Oyston, Petra C F

    2012-12-01

    γ9δ2 T cells are a primate-specific γδ T cell subtype that expand and become activated during infection, responding directly to phosphoantigens which are by-products of essential metabolic pathways in both bacteria and mammals. Analogues of natural phosphoantigens have been developed as potential immunotherapeutics for treatment of tumours and infectious diseases. Several non-human primate models have been used in preclinical studies, however, little is known about marmoset γ9δ2 T cell responses. We identified γ9(+) T cells in various tissues in the marmoset and determined that these cells respond to phosphoantigen in a similar manner to human γ9δ2 T cells in vitro. Both human γ9δ2 T cells and marmoset γ9(+) T cells were able to reduce growth of the intracellular bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei in vitro following expansion with phosphoantigen. This suggests that the marmoset is an appropriate model for examining the immunotherapeutic potential of compounds which target γ9δ2 T cells.

  7. Instituting Commoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . STEALTH.unlimited

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the origins of the notion of management, this paper explores how commons governance is constituted by the earlier influential research of Elinor Ostrom, and pursues this with reference to scholars such as Saki Bailey, who emphasises that the choice of regulatory frame is ultimately a political one. We then argue that commons have to be ‘instituted’ in an open manner in order to remain accessible. This demands a set of scripts, rules or agreements that keep the process of commoning in place, and, simultaneously, keep commoning in a constant process of reproduction. We examine this tension and look at the shift in understanding about what ‘institutions of the commons’ have entailed in practice over the course of the last century and a half. Finally, we return to the political dimension to touch upon the question of whether, with the disappearance of the welfare state, a coherent concept of society can emerge from the current upsurge of commons initiatives.

  8. Histologic localization of PLAG1 (pleomorphic adenoma gene 1) in pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland: cytogenetic evidence of common origin of phenotypically diverse cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiec-Rychter, M; Van Valckenborgh, I; Van den Broeck, C; Hagemeijer, A; Van de Ven, W J; Kas, K; Van Damme, B; Voz, M L

    2001-09-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1), a zinc finger transcription factor gene, is consistently rearranged and overexpressed in human pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands with 8q12 translocations. In this report, we describe the immunohistochemical localization of PLAG1 protein in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary gland and corresponding normal tissue, in relation to cytokeratin, vimentin, and BCL-2 expression. Normal salivary gland tissue was not immunoreactive for PLAG1. In primary pleomorphic adenomas, cells strongly immunoreactive for PLAG1 were detected in the outer layer of tubulo-ductal structures, which are thought to be the origin of cells with bi-directional, epithelial, and mesenchymal phenotypes. In contrast, epithelial cells with abundant cytokeratin in the inner tubulo-ductal structures only sporadically expressed PLAG1. BCL-2 immunoreactivity was found mainly in the cells surrounding the tubulo-ductal structures and in the solid undifferentiated cellular masses, within the areas that had moderate PLAG1 immunoreactivity. The variability of PLAG1 expression in neoplastic cells seemed to reflect the morphologic heterogeneity that correlated with the stage of differentiation of the tumor cells. Immunohistochemical/cytogenetic evaluation of two pleomorphic adenomas with t(3;8)(p21;q12) or t(5;8)(p13;q12) translocations demonstrated the clonal nature of immunophenotypically diverse cells. This finding confirms the theory that pleomorphic adenoma cells share a common single-cell origin, most likely from the epithelial progenitor basal duct cells.

  9. Expression of recombination-activating genes and T cell receptor gene recombination in the human T cell leukemia cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hong-yun; Ma, Li; Meng, Min-jie; Yao, Xin-sheng; Lin, Ying; Wu, Zhen-qiang; He, Xiao-wei; Wang, Ju-fang; Wang, Xiao-ning

    2007-03-05

    Recent studies have suggested that mature T cells can change their specificity through reexpression of recombination-activating genes (RAG) and RAG-mediated V(D)J recombination. This process is named receptor revision and has been observed in mature peripheral T cells from transgenic mice and human donors. However, whether thebreceptor revision in mature T cells is a random or orientated process remains poorly understood. Here we used the Jurkathuman T cell line, which represents a mature stage of T cell development, as a model to investigate the regulation of Tcell receptor (TCR) gene recombination. TCR Dbeta-Jbeta signal joint T cell receptor excision DNA circles (sjTRECs) were determined by nested and seminested PCR. Double-strand DNA breaks at recombination signal sequences (RSSs) in the TCRVbeta chain locus were detected by ligation-mediated-PCR. Further analysis of the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) size of the TCRVbeta chain was examined by the TCR GeneScan technique. RAG1, RAG2, and three crucial components of the nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) pathway were readily detected in Jurkat. Characteristics of junctional diversity of Dbeta2-Jbeta2 signal joints and ds RSS breaks associated with the Dbeta2 5' and Dbeta 2 3' sites were detected in DNA from Jurkat cells. CDR3 size and the gene sequences of the TCRVbeta chain did not change during cell proliferation. RAG1 and RAG2 and ongoing TCR gene recombination are coexpressed in Jurkat cells, but the ongoing recombination process may not play a role in modification of the TCR repertoire.However, the results suggest that Jurkat could be used as a model for studying the regulation of RAGs and V(D)J recombination and as a "special" model of the coexistence of TCR gene rearrangements and "negative" receptor revision.

  10. Commonly used prophylactic vaccines as an alternative for synthetically produced TLR ligands to mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreibelt, G.; Benitez-Ribas, D.; Schuurhuis, D.; Lambeck, A.J.A.; Hout-Kuijer, M.A. van; Schaft, N.; Punt, C.J.A.; Figdor, C.G.; Adema, G.J.; Vries, I.J.M. de

    2010-01-01

    Currently dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines are explored in clinical trials, predominantly in cancer patients. Murine studies showed that only maturation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands generates mature DCs that produce interleukin-12 and promote optimal T-cell help. Unfortunately, the limite

  11. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  12. Science commons

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  13. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  14. NKG2D functions as an activating receptor on natural killer cells in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masamichi; Kudo, Yohei; Kawano, Mitsuko; Nakayama, Masafumi; Nakamura, Kyohei; Kameda, Mai; Ebara, Masamune; Sato, Takeki; Nakamura, Marina; Omine, Kaito; Kametani, Yoshie; Suzuki, Ryuji; Ogasawara, Kouetsu

    2014-11-01

    The natural killer group 2 membrane D (NKG2D) receptor is an NK-activating receptor that plays an important role in host defense against tumors and viral infections. Although the marmoset is an important and reliable animal model, especially for the study of human-specific viral infections, functional characterization of NKG2D on marmoset NK cells has not previously been conducted. In the present study, we investigated a subpopulation of marmoset NK cells that express NKG2D and exhibit cytolytic potential. On the basis of their CD16 and CD56 expression patterns, marmoset NK cells can be classified into three subpopulations: CD16(+) CD56(-), CD16(-) CD56(+) and CD16(-) CD56(-) cells. NKG2D expression on marmoset CD16(+) CD56(-) and CD16(-) CD56(+) splenocytes was confirmed using an NKG2D ligand composed of an MHC class I chain-related molecule A (MICA)-Fc fusion protein. When marmoset splenocytes were cultured with IL-2 for 4 days, NKG2D expression was retained on CD16(+) CD56(-) and CD16(-) CD56(+). In addition, CD16(+) CD56(+) cells within the marmoset NK population appeared which expressed NKG2D after IL-2 stimulation. IL-2-activated marmoset NK cells showed strong cytolytic activity against K562 target cells and target cells stably expressing MICA. Further, the cytolytic activity of marmoset splenocytes was significantly reduced after addition of MICA-Fc fusion protein. Thus, NKG2D functions as an activating receptor on marmoset NK cells that possesses cytotoxic potential, and phenotypic profiles of marmoset NK cell subpopulations are similar to those seen in humans.

  15. Ex vivo expansion of tumor-reactive T cells by means of bryostatin 1/ionomycin and the common gamma chain cytokines formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmieciak, Maciej; Toor, Amir; Graham, Laura; Bear, Harry D; Manjili, Masoud H

    2011-01-14

    It was reported that breast cancer patients have pre-existing immune responses against their tumors(1,2). However, such immune responses fail to provide complete protection against the development or recurrence of breast cancer. To overcome this problem by increasing the frequency of tumor-reactive T cells, adoptive immunotherapy has been employed. A variety of protocols have been used for the expansion of tumor-specific T cells. These protocols, however, are restricted to the use of tumor antigens ex vivo for the activation of antigen-specific T cells. Very recently, common gamma chain cytokines such as IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 have been used alone or in combination for the enhancement of anti-tumor immune responses(3). However, it is not clear what formulation would work best for the expansion of tumor-reactive T cells. Here we present a protocol for the selective activation and expansion of tumor-reactive T cells from the FVBN202 transgenic mouse model of HER-2/neu positive breast carcinoma for use in adoptive T cell therapy of breast cancer. The protocol includes activation of T cells with bryostatin-1/ionomycin (B/I) and IL-2 in the absence of tumor antigens for 16 hours. B/I activation mimics intracellular signals that result in T cell activation by increasing protein kinase C activity and intracellular calcium, respectively(4). This protocol specifically activates tumor-specific T cells while killing irrelevant T cells. The B/I-activated T cells are cultured with IL-7 and IL-15 for 24 hours and then pulsed with IL-2. After 24 hours, T cells are washed, split, and cultured with IL-7+IL-15 for additional 4 days. Tumor-specificity and anti-tumor efficacy of the ex vivo expanded T cells is determined.

  16. Effects on Genome Constitution and Novel Cell Wall Formation Caused by the Addition of 5RS Rye Chromosome to Common Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Cheng; Minoru Murata; Sodmergen; Xiao-Mei Li; Hai Nian; Jian-Min Wan

    2008-01-01

    The cytological instability of common wheat-rye addition lines was investigated in the present study. The chromosome numbers of almost all addition lines were considerably stable, but those of CS + 5R were very variable. The rye chromosome added in this line was found to be much shorter than expected. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 5S rDNA and the centromere-specific probes clearly revealed that the short rye chromosome contains only a short arm of chromosome 5R (5RS). In this line, chromosome numbers of both 5RS and common wheat were changeable. The chromosome numbers ranged from 2n = 36 to 2n = 44 in the cells carrying two 5RS, and ranged from 2n = 31 to 2n = 44 in one 5RS cells. In addition to the chromosome instability, the multicells wrapped in a sac-like structure were frequently observed in the root meristematic tissues of CS + 5RS after the enzyme treatment for chromosome preparation. Genomic in situ hybridization with rye DNA as a probe showed that all cells in sacs investigated were at the interphase stage and contained one or two 5RS chromosomes. An electron microscopic analysis revealed that the cells of CS + 5RS, particularly in sacs, have abnormal (irregular and curved) cell walls. These results indicate that 5RS has (a) specific factor(s) influencing the cell wall development as well as the genome stability.

  17. Detection of cells captured with antigens on shear horizontal surface-acoustic-wave sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hsu-Chao; Chang, Hwan-You; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2013-02-01

    Techniques to separate cells are widely applied in immunology. The technique to separate a specific antigen on a microfluidic platform involves the use of a shear horizontal surface-acoustic-wave (SH-SAW) sensor. With specific antibodies conjugated onto the surface of the SH-SAW sensors, this technique can serve to identify specific cells in bodily fluids. Jurkat cells, used as a target in this work, provide a model of cells in small abundance (1:1000) for isolation and purification with the ultimate goal of targeting even more dilute cells. T cells were separated from a mixed-cell medium on a chip (Jurkat cells/K562 cells, 1/1000). A novel microchamber was developed to capture cells during the purification, which required a large biosample. Cell detection was demonstrated through the performance of genetic identification on the chip.

  18. Imaging findings of common benign renal tumors in the era of small renal masses: Differential diagnosis from small renal cell carcinoma: Current status and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sung Min; Cho, Jeong Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The prevalence of small renal masses (SRM) has risen, paralleling the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. A large proportion of these SRMs are not malignant, and do not require invasive treatment such as nephrectomy. Therefore, differentation between early renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign SRM is critical to achieve proper management. This article reviews the radiological features of benign SRMs, with focus on two of the most common benign entities, angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma, in terms of their common imaging findings and differential features from RCC. Furthermore, the role of percutaneous biopsy is discussed as imaging is yet imperfect, therefore necessitating biopsy in certain circumstances to confirm the benignity of SRMs.

  19. Common Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Ph+ Following Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a Multi-Malformed Child with INV (9 (p12;q13 (mat:Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelić,Jasminka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH and another malignancy in the same patient is infrequent but has been recognized. The genetic changes that could be responsible for LCH and/or concomitant leukemia development are obscure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of constitutional maternally derived inv (9 (p12;q13 in an LCH patient, and also of the development of common ALL Ph after LCH diagnosis and therapy. The potential significance of these findings [inv (9LCHALL Ph] and their mutual relationship are unknown. Therefore, cooperative studies of large numbers of patients are needed to identify the common risk factors, if any.

  20. Effects of microRNA-21 on the biological functions of T-cell acute lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cunzhen; Zhang, Xudong; Li, Xin; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ling; Sun, Zhenchang; Fu, Xiaorui; Wu, Jingjing; Chang, Yu; Li, Wencai; Chen, Qingjiang; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that microRNA-21 (miR-21) is an oncogene and is significantly upregulated in tumor tissue. However, its association with T-cell acute lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (T-ALL) remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of miR-21 on T-ALL cells by constructing Jurkat cells infected with recombinant adenovirus adv-miR-21 or adv-anti-miR-21. In addition, the target gene of miR-21 was identified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results demonstrated that miR-21 expression in Jurkat cells was markedly upregulated. Furthermore, upregulating miR-21 expression in Jurkat cells promoted cell proliferation and invasion and decreased the apoptosis rate. By contrast, knockdown of miR-21 in Jurkat cells suppressed proliferation and invasion and increased the apoptosis rate. Furthermore, the results indicated that signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 was targeted by miR-21, and that miR-21 inhibited STAT3 expression at the protein level rather than at the messenger RNA level. In conclusion, targeting the inhibition of miR-21 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with T-ALL. PMID:27895788

  1. The effect of overexpression of PGC-1α on the mtDNA4834 common deletion in a rat cochlear marginal cell senescence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Yan; Sun, Jin-Li; Hu, Yu-Juan; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Hu, Yuan; Li, Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhong, Yi; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Hong-Lian; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2013-02-01

    Aging is a natural process usually defined as a progressive loss of function with an accumulation of senescent cells. The clinical manifestations of this process include age-related hearing loss (AHL)/presbycusis. Several investigations indicated the association between a mitochondrial common deletion (CD) (mtDNA 4977-bp deletion in humans, corresponding to 4834-bp deletion in rats) and presbycusis. Previous researches have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism. However, the expression of PGC-1α in the inner ear and the possible effect of PGC-1α on presbycusis are not clear. Our data demonstrated the distribution of PGC-1α and its downstream transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in marginal cells (MCs) for the first time. To explore the role of PGC-1α in cellular senescence, we established a model of marginal cell senescence harboring the mtDNA4834 common deletion induced by d-galactose. We also found that PGC-1α and its downstream transcription factors compensatorily increased in our cell senescence model. Furthermore, the overexpression of PGC-1α induced by transfection largely increased the expression levels of NRF-1 and TFAM and significantly decreased the expression level of NF-κB in the cell senescence model. And the levels of CD, senescent cells and apoptotic cells in the cell model decreased after PGC-1α overexpression. These results suggested that PGC-1α might protect MCs in this cell model from senescence through a nuclear-mitochondrial interaction and against apoptosis. Our study may shed light on the pathogenesis of presbycusis and provide a new therapeutic target for presbycusis.

  2. Functional characterization of an scFv-Fc antibody that immunotherapeutically targets the common cancer cell surface proteoglycan CSPG4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Katayama, Akihiro; Wang, Yangyang; Yu, Ling; Favoino, Elvira; Sakakura, Koichi; Favole, Alessandra; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Silver, Susan; Watkins, Simon C; Kageshita, Toshiro; Ferrone, Soldano

    2011-12-15

    Cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is an attractive target for antibody-based cancer immunotherapy because of its role in tumor cell biology, its high expression on malignant cells including cancer-initiating cells, and its restricted distribution in normal tissues. The clinical use of CSPG4 has been hampered by the lack of a CSPG4-specific chimeric, humanized, or fully human monoclonal antibody. To overcome this limitation, we generated a CSPG4-specific fully human single-chain antibody termed scFv-FcC21 and characterized its specificity and antitumor activity. Viable CSPG4(+) melanoma cells were used in a screen of a human scFv phage display library that included CDR3 engineered to optimize antibody binding sites. The scFv antibody isolated was then recombinantly engineered with a human immunoglobulin G1 Fc region to construct the fully human antibody scFv-FcC21, which recognized tumors of neuroectodermal origin, various types of carcinomas, mesotheliomas, and sarcomas as well as myeloid leukemias. scFv-FcC21 inhibited in vitro growth and migration of tumor cells and in vivo growth of human tumor xenografts. These effects were mediated by inhibition of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and focal adhesion kinase signaling pathways that are critical for tumor cell growth and migration, respectively. Our findings define the CSPG4-specific fully human scFv-FcC21 antibody as a candidate therapeutic agent to target the many types of tumors that express CSPG4.

  3. Quantitative expression profiling guided by common retroviral insertion sites reveals novel and cell type–specific cancer genes in leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageau, Martin; Miller, Michelle; Lemieux, Sébastien; Lessard, Julie; Hébert, Josée; Sauvageau, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Proviral insertional mutagenesis is a powerful tool for the discovery of cancer-associated genes. The ability of integrated proviruses to affect gene expression over long distances combined with the lack of methods to determine the expression levels of large numbers of genes in a systematic and truly quantitative manner have limited the identification of cancer genes by proviral insertional mutagenesis. Here, we have characterized a new model of proviral insertional mutagenesis-induced lymphoid tumors derived from Eed Polycomb group gene mutant mice and quantitatively determined the expression levels of all genes within 100 kb of 20 different retroviral common insertion sites (CISs) identified in these tumors. Using high-throughput quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR), we document an average of 13 CIS-associated genes deregulated per tumor, half of which are leukemia subtype–specific, while the others are coordinately deregulated in the majority of tumors analyzed. Interestingly, we find that genes located distantly from common proviral integration sites are as frequently deregulated as proximal genes, with multiple genes affected per integration. Our studies reveal an unsuspected conservation in the group of genes deregulated among phenotypically similar subtypes of lymphoid leukemias, and suggest that identification of common molecular determinants of this disease is within reach. PMID:17906077

  4. Some commonly used brominated flame retardants cause Ca2+-ATPase inhibition, beta-amyloid peptide release and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz Al-Mousa

    Full Text Available Brominated flame retardants (BFRs are chemicals commonly used to reduce the flammability of consumer products and are considered pollutants since they have become widely dispersed throughout the environment and have also been shown to bio-accumulate within animals and man. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of some of the most commonly used groups of BFRs on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The results showed that of the BFRs tested, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA and decabromodiphenyl ether (DBPE, all are cytotoxic at low micromolar concentrations (LC(50 being 2.7 ± 0.7 µM, 15 ± 4 µM and 28 ± 7 µM, respectively. They induced cell death, at least in part, by apoptosis through activation of caspases. They also increased intracellular [Ca(2+] levels and reactive-oxygen-species within these neuronal cells. Furthermore, these BFRs also caused rapid depolarization of the mitochondria and cytochrome c release in these neuronal cells. Elevated intracellular [Ca(2+] levels appear to occur through a mechanism involving microsomal Ca(2+-ATPase inhibition and this maybe responsible for Ca(2+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, µM levels of these BFRs caused β-amyloid peptide (Aβ-42 processing and release from these cells with a few hours of exposure. These results therefore shows that these pollutants are both neurotoxic and amyloidogenic in-vitro.

  5. Cell electroporation with a three-dimensional microelectrode array on a printed circuit board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youchun; Su, Shisheng; Zhou, Changcheng; Lu, Ying; Xing, Wanli

    2015-04-01

    Electroporation is a commonly used approach to rapidly introduce exogenous molecules into cells without permanent damage. Compared to classical electroporation protocols, microchip-based electroporation approaches have the advantages of high transfection efficiency and low consumption, but they also commonly rely on costly and tedious microfabrication technology. Hence, it is desirable to develop a novel, more affordable, and effective approach to facilitate cell electroporation. In this study, we utilized a standard printed circuit board (PCB) technology to fabricate a chip with an interdigitated array of electrodes for electroporation of suspended cells. The electrodes (thickness ~35 μm) fabricated by PCB technology are much thicker than the two-dimensional (2D) planar electrodes (thickness electroporation. HeLa, MCF7, COS7, Jurkat, and 3T3-L1 cells were efficiently transfected with the pEGFP-N1 plasmid using individually optimal electroporation parameters. This work provides a novel method for convenient and rapid cell transfection and thus holds promise for use as a low-cost disposable device in biomedical research.

  6. Molecular Cloning of Ghrelin and Characteristics of Ghrelin-Producing Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemi, Shota; Sakata, Ichiro; Apu, Auvijit Saha; Tsukahara, Shinji; Yahashi, Satowa; Katsuura, Goro; Iwashige, Fumihiro; Akune, Atsushi; Inui, Akio; Sakai, Takafumi

    2016-10-01

    Ghrelin was first isolated from human and rat as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In the present study, we determined the ghrelin cDNA sequence of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small-bodied New World monkey, and investigated the distribution of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract and localization profiles with somatostatin-producing cells. The marmoset ghrelin cDNA coding region was 354 base pairs, and showed high homology to that in human, rhesus monkey, and mouse. Marmoset ghrelin consists of 28 amino acids, and the N-terminal region is highly conserved as found in other mammalian species. Marmoset preproghrelin and mature ghrelin have 86.3% and 92.9% homology, respectively, to their human counterparts. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that marmoset ghrelin mRNA is highly expressed in the stomach, but it is not detected in other tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, a large number of ghrelin mRNA-expressing cells and ghrelin-immunopositive cells were detected in the mucosal layer of the stomach, but not in the myenteric plexus. Moreover, all the ghrelin cells examined in the stomach were observed to be closed-type. Double staining showed that somatostatin-immunopositive cells were not co-localized with ghrelin-producing cells; however, a subset of somatostatin-immunopositive cells is directly adjacent to ghrelin-immunopositive cells. These findings suggest that the distribution of ghrelin cells in marmoset differs from that in rodents, and thus the marmoset may be a more useful model for the translational study of ghrelin in primates. In conclusion, we have clarified the expression and cell distribution of ghrelin in marmoset, which may represent a useful model in translational study.

  7. Innate Response to Human Cancer Cells with or without IL-2 Receptor Common γ-Chain Function in NOD Background Mice Lacking Adaptive Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishime, Chiyoko; Kawai, Kenji; Yamamoto, Takehiro; Katano, Ikumi; Monnai, Makoto; Goda, Nobuhito; Mizushima, Tomoko; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masato; Murata, Mitsuru; Suematsu, Makoto; Wakui, Masatoshi

    2015-08-15

    Immunodeficient hosts exhibit high acceptance of xenogeneic or neoplastic cells mainly due to lack of adaptive immunity, although it still remains to be elucidated how innate response affects the engraftment. IL-2R common γ-chain (IL-2Rγc) signaling is required for development of NK cells and a subset of dendritic cells producing IFN-γ. To better understand innate response in the absence of adaptive immunity, we examined amounts of metastatic foci in the livers after intrasplenic transfer of human colon cancer HCT116 cells into NOD/SCID versus NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγc (null) (NOG) hosts. The intravital microscopic imaging of livers in the hosts depleted of NK cells and/or macrophages revealed that IL-2Rγc function critically contributes to elimination of cancer cells without the need for NK cells and macrophages. In the absence of IL-2Rγc, macrophages play a role in the defense against tumors despite the NOD Sirpa allele, which allows human CD47 to bind to the encoded signal regulatory protein α to inhibit macrophage phagocytosis of human cells. Analogous experiments using human pancreas cancer MIA PaCa-2 cells provided findings roughly similar to those from the experiments using HCT116 cells except for lack of suppression of metastases by macrophages in NOG hosts. Administration of mouse IFN-γ to NOG hosts appeared to partially compensate lack of IL-2Rγc-dependent elimination of transferred HCT116 cells. These results provide insights into the nature of innate response in the absence of adaptive immunity, aiding in developing tumor xenograft models in experimental oncology.

  8. Rag expression identifies B and T cell lymphopoietic tissues during the development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Huising, M.O.; Meulen, van der T.; Oosterhoud, van C.N.; Alvarez Sánchez, N.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Stroband, H.W.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The generation of lymphoid cells during carp development was studied by analyzing expression of the recombination activating genes (rag) using in situ hybridization and real time quantitative PCR. These data were combined with immunohistochemistry using the mAb's WCL9 (cortical thymocytes) and WCI12

  9. Rag expression identifies B and T cell lymphopoietic tissues during the development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Huising, M.O.; Meulen, van der T.; Oosterhoud, van C.N.; Alvarez Sánchez, N.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Stroband, H.W.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The generation of lymphoid cells during carp development was studied by analyzing expression of the recombination activating genes (rag) using in situ hybridization and real time quantitative PCR. These data were combined with immunohistochemistry using the mAb's WCL9 (cortical thymocytes) and WCI12

  10. Transcriptional Profiling Reveals a Common Metabolic Program in High-Risk Human Neuroblastoma and Mouse Neuroblastoma Sphere-Forming Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengling; Xia, Yingfeng; Ding, Jane; Ye, Bingwei; Zhao, Erhu; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Alptekin, Ahmet; Yan, Chunhong; Dong, Zheng; Huang, Shuang; Yang, Liqun; Cui, Hongjuan; Zha, Yunhong; Ding, Han-Fei

    2016-10-04

    High-risk neuroblastoma remains one of the deadliest childhood cancers. Identification of metabolic pathways that drive or maintain high-risk neuroblastoma may open new avenues of therapeutic interventions. Here, we report the isolation and propagation of neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells with self-renewal and differentiation potential from tumors of the TH-MYCN mouse, an animal model of high-risk neuroblastoma with MYCN amplification. Transcriptional profiling reveals that mouse neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells acquire a metabolic program characterized by transcriptional activation of the cholesterol and serine-glycine synthesis pathways, primarily as a result of increased expression of sterol regulatory element binding factors and Atf4, respectively. This metabolic reprogramming is recapitulated in high-risk human neuroblastomas and is prognostic for poor clinical outcome. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the metabolic program markedly decreases the growth and tumorigenicity of both mouse neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells and human neuroblastoma cell lines. These findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for targeting the metabolic program of high-risk neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Chondrogenic Induction Potential for Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells between Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma and Common Chondrogenic Induction Agents: A Preliminary Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-zheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interests in platelet-rich plasma (PRP and their application in stem cell therapy have contributed to a better understanding of the basic biology of the prochondrogenesis effect on bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs. We aimed at comparing the effect of autologous PRP with common chondrogenic induction agents (CCIAs on the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Rabbit BMSCs were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry and differentiated towards adipocytes and osteoblasts. The chondrogenic response of BMSCs to autologous PRP and CCIAs which included transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, dexamethasone (DEX, and vitamin C (Vc was examined by cell pellet culture. The isolated BMSCs after two passages highly expressed CD29 and CD44 but minimally expressed CD45. The osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials of the isolated BMSCs were also confirmed. Compared with common CCIAs, autologous PRP significantly upregulated the chondrogenic related gene expression, including Col-2, AGC, and Sox-9. Osteogenic related gene expression, including Col-1 and OCN, was not of statistical significance between these two groups. Thus, our data shows that, compared with common chondrogenic induction agents, autologous PRP can be more effective in promoting the chondrogenesis of BMSCs.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin induces apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells : role of endogenous tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the mitochondrial death pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haslinger, Bettina; Strangfeld, Katrin; Peters, Georg; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Sinha, Bhanu

    2003-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections can result in septic and toxic shock with depletion of immune cells and massive cytokine production. Recently, we showed that, in S. aureus-infected Jurkat T cells, alpha-toxin is the major mediator of caspase activation and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the mecha

  13. Observing Fluorescent Probes in Living Cells using a Low-Cost LED Flashlight Retrofitted to a Common Vintage Light Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Babbitt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While the application of molecular biological techniques based upon fluorescent probes has rapidly expanded over recent decades, the equipment cost of fluorescent microscopy has largely prevented its adoption in the college and high school classroom. We offer a simple solution to this problem by describing in detail how to build with simple tools, a fluorescent microscope using a common brand of colored LED flashlights and second-hand components of vintage Nikon microscopes. This extremely low cost solution is qualitatively compared to an expensive modern Zeiss system.

  14. Methylselenol, a selenium metabolite, plays common and different roles in cancerous colon HCT116 cell and noncancerous NCM460 colon cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Briske-Anderson, Mary; Wu, Min; Moyer, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    Methylselenol is hypothesized to be a critical selenium metabolite for anticancer action, and differential chemopreventive effects of methylselenol on cancerous and noncancerous cells may play an important role. In this study, the submicromolar concentrations of methylselenol were generated by incubating methionase with seleno-L methionine, and colon-cancer-derived HCT-116 cells and noncancerous colon NCM460 cells were exposed to methylselenol. Methylselenol exposure inhibited cell growth and led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in S-phase and an induction of apoptosis in HCT116, but to a much lesser extent in NCM460 colon cells. Similarly, the examination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc) signaling status revealed that methylselenol inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and the expression of c-Myc in HCT116 cells, but also to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. The other finding is that methylselenol inhibits sarcoma kinase phosphorylation in HCT116 cells. In contrast, methylselenol upregulated the phosphorylation of sarcoma and focal adhesion kinase survival signals in the noncancerous NCM460 cells. Collectively, methylselenol's stronger potential of inhibiting cell proliferation/survival signals in the cancerous HCT116 cells when compared with that in noncancerous NCM460 cells may partly explain the potential of methylselenol's anticancer action.

  15. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervia, Davide, E-mail: d.cervia@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Perrotta, Cristiana [Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Picchietti, Simona [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Alimenti, Claudio [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Vallesi, Adriana [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy)

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ► Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ► Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ► Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ► The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  16. Role of cytokines in promoting immune escape of FasL-expressing human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Xu; Bao-Cun Sun; Qiang Li; Xi-Shan Hao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential role of cytokines in promoting Fas ligand (FasL)-expressing colon cancer cells.METHODS: Immunohistochemical SABC method was used to observe the expression of Fas receptor and ligand in SW620 colon cancer cell line and Jurkat T cells in order to provide the morphological evidence for the functions of Fas receptor and ligand. To examine the cytotoxicity of effector cells, CytoTox96(R) non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay was adopted to measure the lactate dehydrogenase-releasing value after SW620 cells were co-cultured with Jurkat T lymphocytes.RESULTS: The FasL of colon cancer SW620 cells was positive. The positive substances were distributed in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. The Fas receptor of colon cancer SW620 cells was negative. The Fas receptor and ligand of Jurkat T lymphocytes tumed out to be positive. The positive substances were distributed in the cell membrane.After phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated Jurkat T lymphocytes were co-cultured with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-plus-ionomycin-stimulated (for 48 h) SW620ceils or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-stimulated (for 48 h) SW620 cells or unstimulated SW620 cells for 4 h,the cytotoxicity of SW620 cells to PHA-stimulated Jurkat cells at effector-to-target ratios of 10:1, 5:1, 2.5:1, and 1.25:1was 74.6%, 40.8%, 32.4%, and 10.9% (F= 8.19, P<0.05);or 54.9%, 35.3%, 22.0%, and 10.3% (F= 11.12, P<0.05);or 14.9%, 10.5%, 6.9%, and 5.8% (F= 3.45, P<0.05).After PHA-stimulated Jurkat T lymphocytes were co-cultured with unstimulated SW620 cells for 8 h, the cytotoxicity of SW620 cells to PHA-stimulated Jurkat cells at effector-totarget ratios of 5:1, 2.5:1, and 1.25:1 from the experiment was 83.9%, 74.1%, and 28.5% (F= 137.04, P<0.05)respectively. Non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay showed that the apoptotic rate of Jurkat cells remarkably increased with the increase of planting concentration of SW620 cells and co-culture time after the SW620 cells were co

  17. Molecular analysis of ex-vivo CD133+ GBM cells revealed a common invasive and angiogenic profile but different proliferative signatures among high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Juan L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumours, and in this group glioblastomas (GBMs are the higher-grade gliomas with fast progression and unfortunate prognosis. Two major aspects of glioma biology that contributes to its awful prognosis are the formation of new blood vessels through the process of angiogenesis and the invasion of glioma cells. Despite of advances, two-year survival for GBM patients with optimal therapy is less than 30%. Even in those patients with low-grade gliomas, that imply a moderately good prognosis, treatment is almost never curative. Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a small fraction of glioma cells with characteristics of neural stem cells which are able to grow in vitro forming neurospheres and that can be isolated in vivo using surface markers such as CD133. The aim of this study was to define the molecular signature of GBM cells expressing CD133 in comparison with non expressing CD133 cells. This molecular classification could lead to the finding of new potential therapeutic targets for the rationale treatment of high grade GBM. Methods Eight fresh, primary and non cultured GBMs were used in order to study the gene expression signatures from its CD133 positive and negative populations isolated by FACS-sorting. Dataset was generated with Affymetrix U133 Plus 2 arrays and analysed using the software of the Affymetrix Expression Console. In addition, genomic analysis of these tumours was carried out by CGH arrays, FISH studies and MLPA; Results Gene expression analysis of CD133+ vs. CD133- cell population from each tumour showed that CD133+ cells presented common characteristics in all glioblastoma samples (up-regulation of genes involved in angiogenesis, permeability and down-regulation of genes implicated in cell assembly, neural cell organization and neurological disorders. Furthermore, unsupervised clustering of gene expression led us to distinguish between two groups

  18. Single-Cell Analysis Reveals that Insulation Maintains Signaling Specificity between Two Yeast MAPK Pathways with Common Components

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Jesse C.; Klimenko, Evguenia S.; Thorner, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells use multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades to evoke appropriate responses to external stimuli. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MAPK Fus3 is activated by pheromone-binding G protein-coupled receptors to promote mating, whereas the MAPK Hog1 is activated by hyperosmotic stress to elicit the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) response. Although these MAPK pathways share several upstream components, exposure to either pheromone or osmolyte alone triggers only the ...

  19. A new method for quantitative analysis of the T cell receptor V region repertoires in healthy common marmosets by microplate hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaura, Kazutaka; Fujii, Yoshiki; Matsutani, Takaji; Shirai, Kenji; Suzuki, Satsuki; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Shimada, Shin; Kametani, Yoshie; Shiina, Takashi; Takabayashi, Shuji; Katoh, Hideki; Ogasawara, Kouetsu; Kurane, Ichiro; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2012-10-31

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is one of the smallest primates and is increasingly used for an experimental nonhuman primate model in many research fields. Analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires is a powerful tool to investigate T cell immunity in terms of antigen specificity and variability of TCR expression. However, monoclonal antibodies specific for many TCR Vα or Vβ chains have not been created. We have recently identified a large number of TCRα chain variable (TRAV) and TCRβ chain variable (TRBV) sequences from a cDNA library of common marmosets. The purpose of this study is to develop a new method for analysis of TCR repertoires in the common marmoset using this sequence information. This method is based on a microplate hybridization technique using 32 TRAV-specific and 32 TRBV-specific oligoprobes following an adaptor-ligation PCR. This enables the easy quantitation of the respective TRAV and TRBV expression levels. No cross-hybridization among specific-oligoprobes and very low variances in repeated measures of the same samples was found, demonstrating high specificity and reproducibility. Furthermore, this method was validated by an antihuman Vβ23 antibody which specifically bound to marmoset Vβ23. Using this method, we analyzed TCR repertoires from various tissue samples (PBMCs, spleen, lymph node and thymus) and isolated T cell subpopulations (CD4+CD8+, CD4+CD8− and CD4−CD8+) from the thymus of 10 common marmosets. Neither tissue-specific nor T cell subpopulation-specific differences was found in TRAV and TRBV repertoires. These results suggest that, unlike mice, TCR repertoires in the common marmoset are not affected by endogenous superantigens and are conserved among individuals, among tissues, and among T cell subpopulations. Thus, TCR repertoire analysis with high specificity and reproducibility is a very useful technique, with the potential to replace flow cytometric analysis using a panel of TRV-specific antibodies, many

  20. Mast cell degranulator compound 48-80 promotes atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein E knockout mice with perivascular common carotid collar placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ya-ling; YANG Yong-zong; WANG Shuang; HUANG Tao; TANG Chao-ke; XU Zeng-xiang; SUN Yu-hui

    2009-01-01

    Background Study of the relationship between mast cells and atherosclerosis is mostly dependent on pathological observation and cytology experiments. To investigate the effects of mast cells degranulation on plaque and their possible mechanisms we used apolipoprotein E knockout mice which had been placed perivascular common carotid collar with mast cells degranulator compound 48-80.Methods Forty apolipoprotein E knockout mice were fed a western-type diet and operated on with placement of perivascular right common carotid collar. Four weeks after surgery, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with compound 48-80 (0.5 mg/kg) or D-Hanks every other day for 4 times. The serum lipids and activity of tryptase were measured. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Corresponding sections were stained with toluidine blue and immunohistochemically with antibodies against macrophage-specific antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, interleukin-1β and van Willebrand factor. Simultaneously, basic fibroblast growth factor was detected by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence.Results No pathological change was observed in common carotid non-collar placement but atherogenesis in common carotid collar placement of both groups. There was a significant increase in plaque area ((5.85±0.75)×104 vs (0.86±0.28)×104 μm2, P<0.05), the degree of lumen stenosis ((81±15)% vs (41±12)%, P <0.05), the activity of tryptase in serum ((0.57±0.13) U/L vs (0.36±0.10) U/L, P <0.05), and the percentage of degranulated mast cells ((80.6±17.8)% vs (13.5±4.1)%, P <0.05). The expressions of macrophage-specific antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, interleukin-1β, basic fibroblast growth factor and the density of neovessel in plaque were more in the compound 48-80 group than in the control group.Conclusions Perivascular common carotid collar placement can promote atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Compound 48-80 increases plaque area and the degree

  1. Accuracy of classifying poorly differentiated non-small cell lung carcinoma biopsies with commonly used lung carcinoma markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachara-Szczakowski, Susanna; Verdun, Tyler; Churg, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining is an important adjunct to the classification of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Several studies have used tissue microarrays derived from resection specimens to evaluate the accuracy of IHC staining for classifying NSCLC, but few have used actual biopsies of poorly differentiated carcinomas, and the question of how often biopsy IHC in such tumors leads to the correct classification has received little attention. We identified 40 cases of NSCLC that, on biopsy, could not be subclassified by morphology and that had subsequent resection specimens. TTF-1, napsin, p63/p40, and CK5 or a subset thereof were used for IHC classification. Of the 40 cases classified by IHC on biopsy, 33 (82%) had no change in diagnosis after resection. Of the remaining 7 cases, 3 were classified as NSCLC--not otherwise specified on biopsy and subclassified as either adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on the surgical specimen. One adenocarcinoma biopsy was reclassified as pleomorphic carcinoma. Two SCCs were changed to adenosquamous carcinoma, and 1 SCC was changed to large cell lung carcinoma. Only 1 antibody pair (2%) was discordant between biopsy, and almost all reclassifications were done based on morphologic features rather than change in IHC pattern. We conclude that IHC staining allows accurate subclassification of poorly differentiated NSCLCs on small lung biopsies in most cases, but there is still a substantial "miss" rate (here, 18%). Surgical resection specimens allow further subclassification, mainly due to architectural features not present in the biopsies.

  2. Single-cell analysis reveals that insulation maintains signaling specificity between two yeast MAPK pathways with common components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jesse C; Klimenko, Evguenia S; Thorner, Jeremy

    2010-10-19

    Eukaryotic cells use multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades to evoke appropriate responses to external stimuli. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MAPK Fus3 is activated by pheromone-binding heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors to promote mating, whereas the MAPK Hog1 is activated by hyperosmotic stress to elicit the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) response. Although these MAPK pathways share several upstream components, exposure to either pheromone or osmolyte alone triggers only the appropriate response. We used fluorescence localization- and transcription-specific reporters to assess activation of these pathways in individual cells on the minute and hour time scale, respectively. Dual activation of these two MAPK pathways occurred over a broad range of stimulant concentrations and temporal regimes in wild-type cells subjected to costimulation. Thus, signaling specificity is achieved through an "insulation" mechanism, not a "cross-inhibition" mechanism. Furthermore, we showed that there was a critical period during which Hog1 activity had to occur for proper insulation of the HOG pathway.

  3. Restricted use of fetal VH3 immunoglobulin genes by unselected B cells in the adult. Predominance of 56p1-like VH genes in common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J; Berberian, L; King, L; Sanz, I; Govan, H L

    1992-05-01

    The large VH3 family of human immunoglobulin genes is commonly used throughout B cell ontogeny. However, B cells of the fetus and certain autoantibody-producing clones are restricted to a recurrent subset of VH3 genes, and VH3 B cells are deficient in certain immunodeficiency diseases. In this study, we have sequenced a set of rearranged VH3 genes generated by genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from normal adults and those with common variable immunodeficiency (CVI). In both groups, all cones were readily identifiable with the fetal VH3 subset, and were further distinguished by limited DH motifs and exclusive use of JH4. In CVI, the residual population of VH3 B cells were notable for predominant use of 56p1-like VH genes. All clones displayed sequence divergence (including somatic mutation) with evidence of strong selection against complementarity-determining region (CDR) coding change. A survey of other V gene families indicates that human V gene diversity may be restricted in general by germline mechanisms. These findings suggest that the expressed antibody repertoire in the human adult may be much smaller than anticipated, and selected by processes in part distinct from the paradigm of maximal antigen-binding diversity.

  4. Common fragile site profiling in epithelial and erythroid cells reveals that most recurrent cancer deletions lie in fragile sites hosting large genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tallec, Benoît; Millot, Gaël Armel; Blin, Marion Esther; Brison, Olivier; Dutrillaux, Bernard; Debatisse, Michelle

    2013-08-15

    Cancer genomes exhibit numerous deletions, some of which inactivate tumor suppressor genes and/or correspond to unstable genomic regions, notably common fragile sites (CFSs). However, 70%-80% of recurrent deletions cataloged in tumors remain unexplained. Recent findings that CFS setting is cell-type dependent prompted us to reevaluate the contribution of CFS to cancer deletions. By combining extensive CFS molecular mapping and a comprehensive analysis of CFS features, we show that the pool of CFSs for all human cell types consists of chromosome regions with genes over 300 kb long, and different subsets of these loci are committed to fragility in different cell types. Interestingly, we find that transcription of large genes does not dictate CFS fragility. We further demonstrate that, like CFSs, cancer deletions are significantly enriched in genes over 300 kb long. We now provide evidence that over 50% of recurrent cancer deletions originate from CFSs associated with large genes.

  5. The DNA damage response: a common pathway in the regulation of NKG2D and DNAM-1 ligand expression in normal, infected and cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCerboni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available NKG2D and DNAM-1 are two activating receptors, present on the surface of NK cells and other cells of the immune system. Their ligands – MICA, MICB, ULBP1-6 for NKG2D, PVR/CD155 and Nectin-2/CD112 for DNAM-1 - can be constitutively expressed at low levels in some normal cells, but they are more often defined as stress-induced, since different stimuli can positively regulate their expression. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the up-regulation of NKG2D and DNAM-1 ligands under different physiological and pathological stress conditions, including mitosis, viral infections, and cancer. We will focus on the DNA damage response, as recent advances in the field have uncovered its important role as a common signaling pathway in the regulation of both NKG2D and DNAM-1 ligand expression in response to very diverse conditions and stimuli.

  6. Intra- and inter-clade cross-reactivity by HIV-1 Gag specific T-cells reveals exclusive and commonly targeted regions: implications for current vaccine trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lycias Zembe

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of HIV-1 across the globe is a major challenge for developing an HIV vaccine. To facilitate immunogen design, it is important to characterize clusters of commonly targeted T-cell epitopes across different HIV clades. To address this, we examined 39 HIV-1 clade C infected individuals for IFN-γ Gag-specific T-cell responses using five sets of overlapping peptides, two sets matching clade C vaccine candidates derived from strains from South Africa and China, and three peptide sets corresponding to consensus clades A, B, and D sequences. The magnitude and breadth of T-cell responses against the two clade C peptide sets did not differ, however clade C peptides were preferentially recognized compared to the other peptide sets. A total of 84 peptides were recognized, of which 19 were exclusively from clade C, 8 exclusively from clade B, one peptide each from A and D and 17 were commonly recognized by clade A, B, C and D. The entropy of the exclusively recognized peptides was significantly higher than that of commonly recognized peptides (p = 0.0128 and the median peptide processing scores were significantly higher for the peptide variants recognized versus those not recognized (p = 0.0001. Consistent with these results, the predicted Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I IC(50 values were significantly lower for the recognized peptide variants compared to those not recognized in the ELISPOT assay (p<0.0001, suggesting that peptide variation between clades, resulting in lack of cross-clade recognition, has been shaped by host immune selection pressure. Overall, our study shows that clade C infected individuals recognize clade C peptides with greater frequency and higher magnitude than other clades, and that a selection of highly conserved epitope regions within Gag are commonly recognized and give rise to cross-clade reactivities.

  7. Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hwey Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24 h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ERα protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ERα protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies.

  8. REARRANGEMENT AND EXPRESSION OF T CELL RECEPTOR β GENE IN HUMAN HEMOPOIETIC CELL LINES AND PRIMARY CELLS FROM ACUTE LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇一华; 陈诗书

    1992-01-01

    Using Southern blot, Northern blot and Quick blot methods, we examined the rearrangement and expression of TCR βgene in four early differentiation stage cell lines from human hemopoietic system, namely HL-60, Jurkat, Daudi and Raji cells as well as lymphocytes from 17 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients. The results showed. Ⅰ) Rearrangement of TCR βgene was seen in Jurkat cells. A germline pattern was observed in HL-60, Daudi and Raji cells. 2) Eight of 9 patients with T-ALL had cells with rearranged TCR βgene. But two of 3 patients with B-ALL and three of 5 patients with nonT, nonB-ALL also had cells with rearranged TCR βgene. 3) A 1.3 kb full-length transcript and a 1.0 kb truncated transcript were detected in Jurkat cells by probing with 32P-TCR βcDNA. But some leukemic B cells also expressed an incompleted transcript. 4) TCR βmRNA was detected in six of 8 patients with T-ALL, four of 5 patients with nonT, nonB-ALL and one of 3 patients with B-ALL. But the level of expression was quite differ ent. The dual-rearrangement and the abnormal expression may give us a new clue for researching leukemogenesis.

  9. Ceramide mediates caspase-independent programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thon, Lutz; Möhlig, Heike; Mathieu, Sabine; Lange, Arne; Bulanova, Elena; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Schütze, Stefan; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia; Adam, Dieter

    2005-12-01

    Although numerous studies have implicated the sphingolipid ceramide in the induction of cell death, a causative function of ceramide in caspase-dependent apoptosis remains a highly debated issue. Here, we show that ceramide is a key mediator of a distinct route to programmed cell death (PCD), i.e., caspase-independent PCD. Under conditions where apoptosis is either not initiated or actively inhibited, TNF induces caspase-independent PCD in L929 fibrosarcoma cells, NIH3T3 fibroblasts, human leukemic Jurkat T cells, and lung fibroblasts by increasing intracellular ceramide levels prior to the onset of cell death. Survival is significantly enhanced when ceramide accumulation is prevented, as demonstrated in fibroblasts genetically deficient for acid sphingomyelinase, in L929 cells overexpressing acid ceramidase, by pharmacological intervention, or by RNA interference. Jurkat cells deficient for receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) do not accumulate ceramide and therefore are fully resistant to caspase-independent PCD whereas Jurkat cells overexpressing the mitochondrial protein Bcl-2 are partially protected, implicating RIP1 and mitochondria as components of the ceramide death pathway. Our data point to a role of caspases (but not cathepsins) in suppressing the ceramide death pathway under physiological conditions. Moreover, clonogenic survival of tumor cells is clearly reduced by induction of the ceramide death pathway, promising additional options for the development of novel tumor therapies.

  10. Cell migration towards CXCL12 in leukemic cells compared to breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Shirley C; Goh, Poh Hui; Kudatsih, Jossie; Ncube, Sithembile; Gurung, Renu; Maxwell, Will; Mueller, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Chemotaxis or directed cell migration is mediated by signalling events initiated by binding of chemokines to their cognate receptors and the activation of a complex signalling cascade. The molecular signalling pathways involved in cell migration are important to understand cancer cell metastasis. Therefore, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of CXCL12 induced cell migration and the importance of different signalling cascades that become activated by CXCR4 in leukemic cells versus breast cancer cells. We identified Src kinase as being essential for cell migration in both cancer types, with strong involvement of the Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway. We did not detect any involvement of Ras or JAK2/STAT3 in CXCL12 induced migration in Jurkat cells. Preventing PKC activation with inhibitors does not affect migration in Jurkat cells at all, unlike in the adherent breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells. However, in both cell lines, knock down of PKCα prevents migration towards CXCL12, whereas the expression of PKCζ is less crucial for migration. PI3K activation is essential in both cell types, however LY294002 usage in MCF-7 cells does not block migration significantly. These results highlight the importance of verifying specific signalling pathways in different cell settings and with different approaches.

  11. Common increase of GATA-3 level in PC-12 cells by three teratogens causing autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Ujjwal K; Clausen, Pete

    2009-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disease of neuro-developmental origin of uncertain etiology. The current understanding is that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of ASD. Exposure to valproate, thalidomide and alcohol during gestation are amongst the environmental triggers that are associated with the development of ASD. These teratogens may disturb the ontogeny of the brain by altering the expression pattern of genes that regulate the normal development of the brain. In this study, a neuron-like PC-12 cell model was used to examine the effects of these compounds on the binding potential of 50 different transcription factors to understand the molecular mechanism/s that may be involved in the teratogenesis caused by these agents. Cells in culture were treated with low or high concentrations of teratogens within a range that are reported in the blood of individuals. A pronounced increase in GATA transcription factor binding was observed for all three teratogens. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that GATA-3 level in the nuclear fractions was enhanced by each of the three teratogens. Results suggest that altered gene expression pattern due to heightened GATA-3 activities in the fetral brains following exposure to these teratogens may contribute to the development of ASD.

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma is as Common as the Sum of all Other Cancers: Implications for Treatment Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Ann-Sofie; Nissen, Christoffer V; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-05-01

    Reliable estimates of disease incidence are fundamental to planning future healthcare services. However, in many countries registration of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is often non-existent. This study examines how many BCC treatments were carried out in Denmark in 2013. The Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Pathology Registry were used to examine how many BCC treatments were registered, and a test sample was taken from Bispebjerg Hospital to examine the number treated but not registered. The study showed that 21.7% of BCC treatments were performed solely on a clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, some records are inadequate in relation to BCC registration, as BCCs treated are 3 times the number of individuals in the Danish Cancer Registry, and there are nearly as many BCCs as the sum of all other cancers. The increasing BCC incidence will result in difficulties in ensuring treatment capacity.

  13. A cell shrinkage artefact in growth plate chondrocytes with common fixative solutions: importance of fixative osmolarity for maintaining morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MY Loqman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable increase in chondrocyte volume is a major determinant in the longitudinal growth of mammalian bones. To permit a detailed morphological study of hypertrophic chondrocytes using standard histological techniques, the preservation of normal chondrocyte morphology is essential. We noticed that during fixation of growth plates with conventional fixative solutions, there was a marked morphological (shrinkage artifact, and we postulated that this arose from the hyper-osmotic nature of these solutions. To test this, we fixed proximal tibia growth plates of 7-day-old rat bones in either (a paraformaldehyde (PFA; 4%, (b glutaraldehyde (GA; 2% with PFA (2% with ruthenium hexamine trichloride (RHT; 0.7%, (c GA (2% with RHT (0.7%, or (d GA (1.3% with RHT (0.5% and osmolarity adjusted to a ‘physiological’ level of ~280mOsm. Using conventional histological methods, confocal microscopy, and image analysis on fluorescently-labelled fixed and living chondrocytes, we then quantified the extent of cell shrinkage and volume change. Our data showed that the high osmolarity of conventional fixatives caused a shrinkage artefact to chondrocytes. This was particularly evident when whole bones were fixed, but could be markedly reduced if bones were sagittally bisected prior to fixation. The shrinkage artefact could be avoided by adjusting the osmolarity of the fixatives to the osmotic pressure of normal extracellular fluids (~280mOsm. These results emphasize the importance of fixative osmolarity, in order to accurately preserve the normal volume/morphology of cells within tissues.

  14. Emodin inhibits the growth of hepatoma cells: finding the common anti-cancer pathway using Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chin-Mu; Hsu, Yu-An; Tsai, Yuhsin; Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Huang, Su-Hua; Wan, Lei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2010-02-19

    Emodin--a major component of Rheum palmatum L.-exerts antiproliferative effects in cancer cells that are regulated by different signaling pathways. Hepatocellular carcinoma has high-incidence rates and is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of emodin on human hepatocarcinoma cell viability and investigate its mechanisms of action in Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells. To define the molecular changes associated with this process, expression profiles were compared in emodin-treated hepatoma cells by cDNA microarray hybridization, quantitative RT-PCRs, and Western blot analysis. G2/M phase arrest was observed in all 3 cell lines. Cell cycle regulatory gene analysis showed increased protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, Chk2, Cdk2, and P27 in hepatoma cells after time courses of emodin treatment, and Western blot analysis showed decreased protein levels of Cdc25c and P21. Microarray expression profile data and quantitative PCR revealed that 15 representative genes were associated with emodin treatment response in hepatoma cell lines. The RNA expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GDF15, SERPINE1, SOS1, RASD1, and MRAS were upregulated and those of NR1H4, PALMD, and TXNIP were downregulated in all three hepatoma cells. Moreover, at 6h after emodin treatment, the levels of GDF15, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYR61 were upregulated. Here, we show that emodin treatment caused G2/M arrest in liver cancer cells and increased the expression levels of various genes both in mRNA and protein level. It is likely that these genes act as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

  15. Chromatin dynamics in Pollen Mother Cells underpin a common scenario at the somatic-to-reproductive fate transition of both the male and female lineages in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing eShe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike animals, where the germline is established early during embryogenesis, plants set aside their reproductive lineage late in development in dedicated floral organs. The specification of pollen mother cells (PMCs committed to meiosis takes place in the sporogenous tissue in anther locules and marks the somatic-to-reproductive cell fate transition towards the male reproductive lineage. Here we show that Arabidopsis PMCs differentiation is accompanied by large-scale changes in chromatin organization. This is characterized by significant increase in nuclear volume, chromatin decondensation, reduction in heterochromatin, eviction of linker histones and the H2AZ histone variant. These structural alterations are accompanied by dramatic, quantitative changes in histone modifications levels compared to that of surrounding somatic cells that do not share a sporogenic fate. All these changes are highly reminiscent of those we have formerly described in female megaspore mother cells (MMCs. This indicates that chromatin reprogramming is a common underlying scenario in the somatic-to-reproductive cell fate transition in both male and female lineages.

  16. Chromatin dynamics in pollen mother cells underpin a common scenario at the somatic-to-reproductive fate transition of both the male and female lineages in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Wenjing; Baroux, Célia

    2015-01-01

    Unlike animals, where the germline is established early during embryogenesis, plants set aside their reproductive lineage late in development in dedicated floral organs. The specification of pollen mother cells (PMC) committed to meiosis takes place in the sporogenous tissue in anther locules and marks the somatic-to-reproductive cell fate transition toward the male reproductive lineage. Here we show that Arabidopsis PMC differentiation is accompanied by large-scale changes in chromatin organization. This is characterized by significant increase in nuclear volume, chromatin decondensation, reduction in heterochromatin, eviction of linker histones and the H2AZ histone variant. These structural alterations are accompanied by dramatic, quantitative changes in histone modifications levels compared to that of surrounding somatic cells that do not share a sporogenic fate. All these changes are highly reminiscent of those we have formerly described in female megaspore mother cells (MMC). This indicates that chromatin reprogramming is a common underlying scenario in the somatic-to-reproductive cell fate transition in both male and female lineages.

  17. 13-methyltetradecanoic acid exhibits anti-tumor activity on T-cell lymphomas in vitro and in vivo by down-regulating p-AKT and activating caspase-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Cai

    Full Text Available 13-Methyltetradecanoic acid (13-MTD, a saturated branched-chain fatty acid purified from soy fermentation products, induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. We investigated the inhibitory effects and mechanism of action of 13-MTD on T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (T-NHL cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Growth inhibition in response to 13-MTD was evaluated by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay in three T-NHL cell lines (Jurkat, Hut78, EL4 cells. Flow cytometry analyses were used to monitor the cell cycle and apoptosis. Proteins involved in 13-MTD-induced apoptosis were examined in Jurkat cells by western blotting. We found that 13-MTD inhibited proliferation and induced the apoptosis of T-NHL cell lines. 13-MTD treatment also induced a concentration-dependent arrest of Jurkat cells in the G1-phase. During 13-MTD-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, a caspase enzymolysis product were detected after incubation for 2 h, and increased after extending the incubation time. However, there was no change in the expression of Bcl-2 or c-myc proteins. The appearance of apoptotic Jurkat cells was accompanied by the inhibition of AKT and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB phosphorylation. In addition, 13-MTD could also effectively inhibit the growth of T-NHL tumors in vivo in a xenograft model. The tumor inhibition rate in the experimental group was 40%. These data indicate that 13-MTD inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of AKT phosphorylation followed by caspase activation, which may provide a new approach for treating T-cell lymphomas.

  18. Modeling of C/EBPalpha mutant acute myeloid leukemia reveals a common expression signature of committed myeloid leukemia-initiating cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstetter, Peggy; Schuster, Mikkel B; Bereshchenko, Oksana

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the CEBPA gene are present in 7%-10% of human patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, no genetic models exist that demonstrate their etiological relevance. To mimic the most common mutations affecting CEBPA-that is, those leading to loss of the 42 kDa C/EBPalpha isoform (p...... penetrance. p42-deficient leukemia could be transferred by a Mac1+c-Kit+ population that gave rise only to myeloid cells in recipient mice. Expression profiling of this population against normal Mac1+c-Kit+ progenitors revealed a signature shared with MLL-AF9-transformed AML....

  19. ALDH1-positive cancer stem cells predict engraftment of primary breast tumors and are governed by a common stem cell program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Ginestier, Christophe; Bertucci, François; Cabaud, Olivier; Wicinski, Julien; Finetti, Pascal; Josselin, Emmanuelle; Adelaide, José; Nguyen, Tien-Tuan; Monville, Florence; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Thomassin-Piana, Jeanne; Pinna, Guillaume; Jalaguier, Aurélie; Lambaudie, Eric; Houvenaeghel, Gilles; Xerri, Luc; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Chaffanet, Max; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel

    2013-12-15

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) have been widely studied, but their clinical relevance has yet to be established in breast cancer. Here, we report the establishment of primary breast tumor-derived xenografts (PDX) that encompass the main diversity of human breast cancer and retain the major clinicopathologic features of primary tumors. Successful engraftment was correlated with the presence of ALDH1-positive CSCs, which predicted prognosis in patients. The xenografts we developed showed a hierarchical cell organization of breast cancer with the ALDH1-positive CSCs constituting the tumorigenic cell population. Analysis of gene expression from functionally validated CSCs yielded a breast CSC signature and identified a core transcriptional program of 19 genes shared with murine embryonic, hematopoietic, and neural stem cells. This generalized stem cell program allowed the identification of potential CSC regulators, which were related mainly to metabolic processes. Using an siRNA genetic screen designed to target the 19 genes, we validated the functional role of this stem cell program in the regulation of breast CSC biology. Our work offers a proof of the functional importance of CSCs in breast cancer, and it establishes the reliability of PDXs for use in developing personalized CSC therapies for patients with breast cancer.

  20. Deoxycholic acid and selenium metabolite methylselenol exert common and distinct effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and MAP kinase pathway in HCT116 human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Botnen, James H; Briske-Anderson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The cell growth inhibition induced by bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) may cause compensatory hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells and consequently increase colon cancer risk. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence for the efficacy of certain forms of selenium (Se) as anticancer nutrients. Methylselenol has been hypothesized to be a critical Se metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that both DCA (75-300 micromol/l) and submicromolar methylselenol inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation by up to 64% and 63%, respectively. In addition, DCA and methylselenol each increased colon cancer cell apoptosis rate by up to twofold. Cell cycle analyses revealed that DCA induced an increase in only the G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in G2 and S-phase; in contrast, methylselenol led to an increase in the G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop only in the S-phase. Although both DCA and methylselenol significantly promoted apoptosis and inhibited cell growth, examination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation showed that DCA, but not methylselenol, induced SAPK/JNK1/2, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 activation. Thus, our data provide, for the first time, the molecular basis for opposite effects of methylselenol and DCA on colon tumorigenesis.

  1. Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 as the common target on cancer cells and macrophages to abolish angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, metastasis, and stem-like cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Mousumi; Xin, Xiping; Liu, Ling; Girish, Gannareddy V; Lala, Peeyush K

    2014-09-01

    We previously established that COX-2 overexpression promotes breast cancer progression and metastasis. As long-term use of COX-2 inhibitors (COX-2i) can promote thrombo-embolic events, we tested an alternative target, prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 subtype (EP4), downstream of COX-2. Here we used the highly metastatic syngeneic murine C3L5 breast cancer model to test the role of EP4-expressing macrophages in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C/D production, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis in situ, the role of EP4 in stem-like cell (SLC) functions of tumor cells, and therapeutic effects of an EP4 antagonist RQ-15986 (EP4A). C3L5 cells expressed all EP receptors, produced VEGF-C/D, and showed high clonogenic tumorsphere forming ability in vitro, functions inhibited with COX-2i or EP4A. Treating murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line with COX-2i celecoxib and EP4A significantly reduced VEGF-A/C/D production in vitro, measured with quantitative PCR and Western blots. Orthotopic implants of C3L5 cells in C3H/HeJ mice showed rapid tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis (CD31/LYVE-1 and CD31/PROX1 immunostaining), and metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. Tumors revealed high incidence of EP4-expressing, VEGF-C/D producing macrophages identified with dual immunostaining of F4/80 and EP4 or VEGF-C/D. Celecoxib or EP4A therapy at non-toxic doses abrogated tumor growth, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. Residual tumors in treated mice revealed markedly reduced VEGF-A/C/D and phosphorylated Akt/ERK proteins, VEGF-C/D positive macrophage infiltration, and proliferative/apoptotic cell ratios. Knocking down COX-2 or EP4 in C3L5 cells or treating cells in vitro with celecoxib or EP4A and treating tumor-bearing mice in vivo with the same drug reduced SLC properties of tumor cells including preferential co-expression of COX-2 and SLC markers ALDH1A, CD44, OCT-3/4, β-catenin, and SOX-2. Thus, EP4 is an excellent therapeutic target to block

  2. Analysis of BMP4 and BMP7 signaling in breast cancer cells unveils time-dependent transcription patterns and highlights a common synexpression group of genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Martinez Alejandra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth factors. They are known for their roles in regulation of osteogenesis and developmental processes and, in recent years, evidence has accumulated of their crucial functions in tumor biology. BMP4 and BMP7, in particular, have been implicated in breast cancer. However, little is known about BMP target genes in the context of tumor. We explored the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 treatment on global gene transcription in seven breast cancer cell lines during a 6-point time series, using a whole-genome oligo microarray. Data analysis included hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes, gene ontology enrichment analyses and model based clustering of temporal data. Results Both ligands had a strong effect on gene expression, although the response to BMP4 treatment was more pronounced. The cellular functions most strongly affected by BMP signaling were regulation of transcription and development. The observed transcriptional response, as well as its functional outcome, followed a temporal sequence, with regulation of gene expression and signal transduction leading to changes in metabolism and cell proliferation. Hierarchical clustering revealed distinct differences in the response of individual cell lines to BMPs, but also highlighted a synexpression group of genes for both ligands. Interestingly, the majority of the genes within these synexpression groups were shared by the two ligands, probably representing the core molecular responses common to BMP4 and BMP7 signaling pathways. Conclusions All in all, we show that BMP signaling has a remarkable effect on gene transcription in breast cancer cells and that the functions affected follow a logical temporal pattern. Our results also uncover components of the common cellular transcriptional response to BMP4 and BMP7. Most importantly, this study provides a list of potential novel BMP target

  3. A vaccine encoding conserved promiscuous HIV CD4 epitopes induces broad T cell responses in mice transgenic to multiple common HLA class II molecules.

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    Susan Pereira Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Current HIV vaccine approaches are focused on immunogens encoding whole HIV antigenic proteins that mainly elicit cytotoxic CD8+ responses. Mounting evidence points toward a critical role for CD4+ T cells in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication, probably due to cognate help. Vaccine-induced CD4+ T cell responses might, therefore, have a protective effect in HIV replication. In addition, successful vaccines may have to elicit responses to multiple epitopes in a high proportion of vaccinees, to match the highly variable circulating strains of HIV. Using rational vaccine design, we developed a DNA vaccine encoding 18 algorithm-selected conserved, "promiscuous" (multiple HLA-DR-binding B-subtype HIV CD4 epitopes - previously found to be frequently recognized by HIV-infected patients. We assessed the ability of the vaccine to induce broad T cell responses in the context of multiple HLA class II molecules using different strains of HLA class II- transgenic mice (-DR2, -DR4, -DQ6 and -DQ8. Mice displayed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses of significant breadth and magnitude, and 16 out of the 18 encoded epitopes were recognized. By virtue of inducing broad responses against conserved CD4+ T cell epitopes that can be recognized in the context of widely diverse, common HLA class II alleles, this vaccine concept may cope both with HIV genetic variability and increased population coverage. The vaccine may thus be a source of cognate help for HIV-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by conventional immunogens, in a wide proportion of vaccinees.

  4. Caveolin-1 (P132L), a common breast cancer mutation, confers mammary cell invasiveness and defines a novel stem cell/metastasis-associated gene signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuccelli, Gloria; Casimiro, Mathew C; Sotgia, Federica; Wang, Chenguang; Liu, Manran; Katiyar, Sanjay; Zhou, Jie; Dew, Elliott; Capozza, Franco; Daumer, Kristin M; Minetti, Carlo; Milliman, Janet N; Alpy, Fabien; Rio, Marie-Christine; Tomasetto, Catherine; Mercier, Isabelle; Flomenberg, Neal; Frank, Philippe G; Pestell, Richard G; Lisanti, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Here we used the Met-1 cell line in an orthotopic transplantation model in FVB/N mice to dissect the role of the Cav-1(P132L) mutation in human breast cancer. Identical experiments were performed in parallel with wild-type Cav-1. Cav-1(P132L) up-regulated the expression of estrogen receptor-alpha as predicted, because only estrogen receptor-alpha-positive patients have been shown to harbor Cav-1(P132L) mutations. In the context of primary tumor formation, Cav-1(P132L) behaved as a loss-of-function mutation, lacking any tumor suppressor activity. In contrast, Cav-1(P132L) caused significant increases in cell migration, invasion, and experimental metastasis, consistent with a gain-of-function mutation. To identify possible molecular mechanism(s) underlying this invasive gain-of-function activity, we performed unbiased gene expression profiling. From this analysis, we show that the Cav-1(P132L) expression signature contains numerous genes that have been previously associated with cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. These include i) secreted growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins (Cyr61, Plf, Pthlh, Serpinb5, Tnc, and Wnt10a), ii) proteases that generate EGF and HGF (Adamts1 and St14), and iii) tyrosine kinase substrates and integrin signaling/adapter proteins (Akap13, Cdcp1, Ddef1, Eps15, Foxf1a, Gab2, Hs2st1, and Itgb4). Several of the P132L-specific genes are also highly expressed in stem/progenitor cells or are associated with myoepithelial cells, suggestive of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These results directly support clinical data showing that patients harboring Cav-1 mutations are more likely to undergo recurrence and metastasis.

  5. Sulforaphane induces DNA single strand breaks in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sestili, Piero, E-mail: piero.sestili@uniurb.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Paolillo, Marco [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Lenzi, Monia [Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Colombo, Evelin; Vallorani, Luciana; Casadei, Lucia; Martinelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Fimognari, Carmela [Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-07-07

    Sulforaphane (SFR), an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables, possesses growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing activities in cancer cell lines. Recently, SFR has been shown to promote the mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human cancer cell lines. The present study was undertaken to see whether SFR-derived ROS might cause DNA damage in cultured human cells, namely T limphoblastoid Jurkat and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). 1-3 h treatments with 10-30 {mu}M SFR elicited intracellular ROS formation (as assayed with dihydrorhodamine, DHR, oxidation) as well as DNA breakage (as assessed with fast halo assay, FHA). These effects lacked cell-type specificity, since could be observed in both Jurkat and HUVEC. Differential-pH FHA analysis of damaged DNA showed that SFR causes frank DNA single strand breaks (SSBs); no DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were found within the considered treatment times (up to 3 h). SFR-derived ROS were formed at the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) level: indeed rotenone or myxothiazol (MRC Complex I and III inhibitors, respectively) abrogated ROS formation. Furthermore ROS were not formed in Jurkat cells pharmacologically depleted of respiring mitochondria (MRC-/Jurkat). Formation of ROS was causally linked to the induction of SSBs: indeed all the experimental conditions capable of preventing ROS formation also prevented the damage of nuclear DNA from SFR-intoxicated cells. As to the toxicological relevance of SSBs, we found that their prevention slightly but significantly attenuated SFR cytotoxicity, suggesting that high-dose SFR toxicity is the result of a complex series of events among which GSH depletion seems to play a pivotal role. In conclusion, the present study identifies a novel mechanism contributing to SFR toxicity which - since DNA damage is a prominent mechanism underlying the cytotoxic activity of established antineoplastic agents - might help to exploit the therapeutic value

  6. The common equine class I molecule Eqca-1*00101 (ELA-A3.1) is characterized by narrow peptide binding and T cell epitope repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Tobias; Moore, Carrie; Sidney, John; Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca; Harman, Rebecca M; Oseroff, Carla; Wriston, Amanda; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Peters, Bjoern; Antczak, Douglas F; Sette, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe a detailed quantitative peptide-binding motif for the common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) class I allele Eqca-1*00101, present in roughly 25 % of Thoroughbred horses. We determined a preliminary binding motif by sequencing endogenously bound ligands. Subsequently, a positional scanning combinatorial library (PSCL) was used to further characterize binding specificity and derive a quantitative motif involving aspartic acid in position 2 and hydrophobic residues at the C-terminus. Using this motif, we selected and tested 9- and 10-mer peptides derived from the equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) proteome for their capacity to bind Eqca-1*00101. PSCL predictions were very efficient, with an receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve performance of 0.877, and 87 peptides derived from 40 different EHV-1 proteins were identified with affinities of 500 nM or higher. Quantitative analysis revealed that Eqca-1*00101 has a narrow peptide-binding repertoire, in comparison to those of most human, non-human primate, and mouse class I alleles. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six EHV-1-infected, or vaccinated but uninfected, Eqca-1*00101-positive horses were used in IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. When we screened the 87 Eqca-1*00101-binding peptides for T cell reactivity, only one Eqca-1*00101 epitope, derived from the intermediate-early protein ICP4, was identified. Thus, despite its common occurrence in several horse breeds, Eqca-1*00101 is associated with a narrow binding repertoire and a similarly narrow T cell response to an important equine viral pathogen. Intriguingly, these features are shared with other human and macaque major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules with a similar specificity for D in position 2 or 3 in their main anchor motif.

  7. Pre-evaluated safe human iPSC-derived neural stem cells promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury in common marmoset without tumorigenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiomi Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Murine and human iPSC-NS/PCs (induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells promote functional recovery following transplantation into the injured spinal cord in rodents. However, for clinical applicability, it is critical to obtain proof of the concept regarding the efficacy of grafted human iPSC-NS/PCs (hiPSC-NS/PCs for the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI in a non-human primate model. This study used a pre-evaluated "safe" hiPSC-NS/PC clone and an adult common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus model of contusive SCI. SCI was induced at the fifth cervical level (C5, followed by transplantation of hiPSC-NS/PCs at 9 days after injury. Behavioral analyses were performed from the time of the initial injury until 12 weeks after SCI. Grafted hiPSC-NS/PCs survived and differentiated into all three neural lineages. Furthermore, transplantation of hiPSC-NS/PCs enhanced axonal sparing/regrowth and angiogenesis, and prevented the demyelination after SCI compared with that in vehicle control animals. Notably, no tumor formation occurred for at least 12 weeks after transplantation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression levels of human neurotrophic factors were significantly higher in cultured hiPSC-NS/PCs than in human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs. Finally, behavioral tests showed that hiPSC-NS/PCs promoted functional recovery after SCI in the common marmoset. Taken together, these results indicate that pre-evaluated safe hiPSC-NS/PCs are a potential source of cells for the treatment of SCI in the clinic.

  8. Low toxic and high soluble camptothecin derivative 2–47 effectively induces apoptosis of tumor cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yao; Zhao, Hong-Ye; Jiang, Du; Wang, Lu-Yao; Xiang, Cen; Wen, Shao-Peng [Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Sino-French Joint Laboratory of Food Nutrition, Safety and Medicinal Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Fan, Zhen-Chuan [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin, 300457 (China); Obesita & Algaegen LLC, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Zhang, Yong-Min [Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire UMR CNRS 8232, 4 place Jussieu, 75005, Paris (France); Guo, Na [Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Sino-French Joint Laboratory of Food Nutrition, Safety and Medicinal Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Teng, Yu-Ou, E-mail: tyo201485@tust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Sino-French Joint Laboratory of Food Nutrition, Safety and Medicinal Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Yu, Peng, E-mail: yupeng@tust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Sino-French Joint Laboratory of Food Nutrition, Safety and Medicinal Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2016-04-08

    The cytotoxic activity of camptothecin derivatives is so high that these compounds need to be further modified before their successful application as anti-cancer agents clinically. In this study, we reported the synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel camptothecin derivative called compound 2–47. The changes in structure did not reduce its activity to inhibit DNA topoisomerase I. Compound 2–47 induced apoptosis of many tumor cells including leukemia cells K562, Jurkat, HL-60, breast cancer cell BT-549, colon cancer cell HT-29 and liver cancer cell HepG2 with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) of 2- to 3-fold lower than HCPT as a control. In particular, 2–47 inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells with an IC{sub 50} of as low as 40 nM. By making use of Jurkat cell as a model, following treatment of Jurkat cells, compound 2–47 activated caspase-3 and PARP, resulting in a decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These data showed that compound 2–47 induces Jurkat cell death through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, compound 2–47 showed a decreased cytotoxic activity against normal cells and an improved solubility in low-polar solvent. For example, compound 2–47 solutes in CHCl{sub 3} 130-fold higher than HCPT. Taken together, our data demonstrated that camptothecin derivative 2–47 notably inhibits the tumor cell proliferation through mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in vitro. - Highlights: • Compound 2–47 showed a wide inhibitory effect on the tested tumor cell lines with an IC{sub 50} of 3 times lower than that of HCPT in general. • Compound 2–47 inhibited the proliferation of the human leukemia cell Jurkat at an IC{sub 50} of as low as 40 nM. • As compared to HCPT, compound 2–47 showed much reduced cytotoxicity on normal human cells. • As compared to others, compound 2–47 showed a hundreds-fold higher solubility in non-polar organic solution.

  9. Downregulation of Mcl-1 through inhibition of translation contributes to benzyl isothiocyanate-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T; Li, G; Cao, B; Liu, L; Cheng, Q; Kong, H; Shan, C; Huang, X; Chen, J; Gao, N

    2013-02-28

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one of the compounds of ITCs' family that has attracted a great deal of interest because of its ability to exhibit anticancer activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of BITC on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human leukemia cell lines, primary leukemia cells, and nude mice Jurkat xenograft. Exposure of Jurkat cells to BITC resulted in dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptosis, caspase activation, cytochrome c release, nuclear apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) accumulation, Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax) translocation, and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) downregulation. Treatment with these cells also resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. The G2/M-arrested cells are more sensitive to undergoing Mcl-1 downregulation and apoptosis mediated by BITC. BITC downregulates Mcl-1 expression through inhibition of translation, rather than through a transcriptional, post-translational, or caspase-dependent mechanism. Dephosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G could contribute to the inhibition of Mcl-1 translation mediated by BITC. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Mcl-1 substantially attenuates BITC-mediated lethality in these cells, whereas knockdown of Mcl-1 through small interfering RNA significantly enhances BITC-mediated lethality. Finally, administration of BITC markedly inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in Jurkat xenograft model in association with the downregulation of Mcl-1. Taken together, these findings represent a novel mechanism by which agents targeting Mcl-1 potentiate BITC lethality in transformed and primary human leukemia cells and inhibitory activity of tumor growth of Jurkat xenograft model.

  10. A CRISPR-Based Toolbox for Studying T Cell Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shen; Weiss, Arthur; Wang, Haopeng

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful technology to perform genome editing in a variety of cell types. To facilitate the application of Cas9 in mapping T cell signaling pathways, we generated a toolbox for large-scale genetic screens in human Jurkat T cells. The toolbox has three different Jurkat cell lines expressing distinct Cas9 variants, including wild-type Cas9, dCas9-KRAB, and sunCas9. We demonstrated that the toolbox allows us to rapidly disrupt endogenous gene expression at the DNA level and to efficiently repress or activate gene expression at the transcriptional level. The toolbox, in combination with multiple currently existing genome-wide sgRNA libraries, will be useful to systematically investigate T cell signal transduction using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function genetic screens. PMID:27057542

  11. Characterization of Adapter Protein NRBP as a Negative Regulator of T Cell Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LIN Zhi-xin; WU Jun

    2008-01-01

    Adapter proteins can regulate the gene transcriptions in disparate signaling pathway by interacting with multiple signaling molecules, including T cell activation signaling. Nuclear receptor binding protein (NRBP), a novel adapter protein, represents a small family of evolutionarily conserved proteins with homologs in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), Drosophila melanogaster (D.melanogaster), mouse and human. Here, we demonstrated that overexpression of NRBP in Jurkat TAg cells specifically impairs T cell receptor (TCR) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin-mediated signaling leading to nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promoter activation. Furthermore, the N-terminal of NRBP is necessary for its regulation of NFAT activation. Finally, we showed that NRBP has minimal effect on both TCR- and PMA-induced CD69 up-regulation in Jurkat TAg cells, which suggests that NRBP may function downstream of protein kinase C (PKC)/Ras pathway.

  12. A CRISPR-Based Toolbox for Studying T Cell Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful technology to perform genome editing in a variety of cell types. To facilitate the application of Cas9 in mapping T cell signaling pathways, we generated a toolbox for large-scale genetic screens in human Jurkat T cells. The toolbox has three different Jurkat cell lines expressing distinct Cas9 variants, including wild-type Cas9, dCas9-KRAB, and sunCas9. We demonstrated that the toolbox allows us to rapidly disrupt endogenous gene expression at the DNA level and to efficiently repress or activate gene expression at the transcriptional level. The toolbox, in combination with multiple currently existing genome-wide sgRNA libraries, will be useful to systematically investigate T cell signal transduction using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function genetic screens.

  13. Gene expression profiles of mouse aorta and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells differ widely, yet show common responses to dioxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Alvaro; Sartor, Maureen A; Huang, Ming-Ya; Kerzee, J Kevin; Wei, Yu-Dan; Tomlinson, Craig R; Baxter, C Stuart; Medvedovic, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxicants may play a role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. Many environmental agents, such as dioxin, are risk factors for atherosclerosis because they may exacerbate an underlying disease by altering gene expression patterns. Expression profiling of vascular tissues allows the simultaneous analysis of thousands of genes and may provide predictive information particularly useful in early disease stages. Often, however, in vivo experiments are unfeasible for material or ethical reasons, and data from cultured cells must be used instead, even though it may not be known whether cultured cells and live tissues share common global responses to the same toxicant. In a search for genes responsive to dioxin exposure, we used oligonucleotide microarrays with DNA sequences from 13,433 genes to compare global gene expression profiles of C57BL/6 mice aortas with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) of the same mice. Aorta segments and vSMCs differed in the expression of more than 4500 genes, many showing expression differences greater than 1000-fold. Integration of microarray data into Gene Ontology Project annotations showed that many of the genes differentially expressed belonged to the same biological process or metabolic pathway. Notwithstanding these results, a subset of 35 genes responded in the same fashion to dioxin exposure in both systems. Genes in this subset encoded phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes, signal transduction kinases and phosphatases, and proteins involved in DNA repair and the cell cycle. We conclude that vSMCS may be useful aorta surrogates to study early gene expression responses to dioxin exposure, provided that analyses focus on this subset of genes.

  14. Revelation of fibroblast protein commonalities and differences and their possible roles in wound healing and tumourigenesis using co-culture models of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarkovska, Karla; Dvorankova, Barbora; Halada, Petr; Kodet, Ondrej; Szabo, Pavol; Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Motlik, Jan; Kovarova, Hana; Smetana, Karel

    2014-07-01

    The in vitro co-culture models of communication between normal fibroblasts and epithelial cells, such as keratinocytes or squamous cell carcinoma cells of FaDu line representing wound healing or cancer development, were established by non-direct contact between the cells and utilised in this study to examine epithelia-induced changes in overall fibroblast proteome patterns. We were able to select the proteins co-regulated in both models in order to evaluate possible molecular commonalities between wound healing and tumour development. Amongst the most pronounced were the proteins implemented in contractile activity and formation of actin cytoskeleton such as caldesmon, calponin-2, myosin regulatory light-chain 12A and cofilin-1, which were expressed independently of the presence of α-smooth muscle actin. Additionally, proteins altered differently highlighted functional and cellular phenotypes during transition of fibroblasts towards myofibroblasts or cancer-associated fibroblasts. Results showed coordinated regulation of cytoskeleton proteins selective for wound healing which were lost in tumourigenesis model. Vimentin bridged this group of proteins with other regulated proteins in human fibroblasts involved in protein or RNA processing and metabolic regulation. The findings provide strong support for crucial role of stromal microenvironment in wound healing and tumourigenesis. In particular, epithelia-induced protein changes in fibroblasts offer new potential targets which may lead to novel tailored cancer therapeutic strategies. © 2014 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparison of two rapid assays for Clostridium difficile Common antigen and a C difficile toxin A/B assay with the cell culture neutralization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E; Alcabasa, Romina C; Lema, Clara A; Carroll, Karen C

    2010-01-01

    We compared 3 rapid assays for Clostridium difficile with a cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Of 600 stool samples, 46 were positive for toxigenic C difficile. Both rapid common antigen assays were highly sensitive (91.3%-100%) and, therefore, were appropriate screening tests. The rapid toxin assay had poor sensitivity (61%) but excellent specificity (99.3%). Testing stools for glutamate dehydrogenase (step 1) and those positive with a rapid toxin assay (step 2) would correctly classify 81% of submitted specimens within 2 hours, including during periods of limited staffing (evenings, nights, and weekends). CCNA could then be used as a third step to test rapid toxin-negative samples, thereby providing a final result for the remaining 19% of samples by 48 to 72 hours. The use of rapid assays as outlined could enhance timely diagnosis of C difficile.

  16. PEDOT:PSS Films with Metallic Conductivity through a Treatment with Common Organic Solutions of Organic Salts and Their Application as a Transparent Electrode of Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhimeng; Xia, Yijie; Du, Donghe; Ouyang, Jianyong

    2016-05-11

    A transparent electrode is an indispensable component of optoelectronic devices, and there as been a search for substitutes of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode. Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) is a conducting polymer that is very promising as the next generation of materials for the transparent electrode if it can obtain conductivity as high as that of ITO. Here, we report the treatment of PSS with organic solutions to significantly enhance its conductivity. Common organic solvents like dimethylformamide and γ-butyrolactone and common organic salts like methylammonium iodide and methylammonium bromide are used for the organic solutions. The conductivity of pristine PSS films is only ∼0.2 S/cm, and it can be increased to higher than 2100 S/cm. The conductivity enhancement is much more significant than control treatments of PSS films with neat organic solvents or aqueous solutions of the organic salts. The mechanism for the conductivity enhancement is the synergetic effects of both the organic salts and organic solvents on the microstructure and composition of PSS. They induce the segregation of some PSSH chains from PSS. Highly conductive PSS films were studied as the transparent electrode of polymer solar cells. The photovoltaic efficiency is comparable to that with an ITO transparent electrode.

  17. Side population cells of common tumor%常见恶性肿瘤侧群细胞的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱超; 钱军

    2014-01-01

    侧群细胞(SP)是指利用荧光染料Hoechst33342外排特性而筛选出来的细胞群体.SP具有肿瘤干细胞特性,在肿瘤的发生、发展中发挥极其重要的作用.目前国内外对于各类常见恶性肿瘤SP都进行了较为广泛的研究.对SP的研究可为肿瘤的诊断和治疗提供新的思路和方法.%Side population cells (SPs) are selected by the efflux features of fluorescent dye Hoechst33342.SPs have the characteristics of cancer stem cells,and play an extremely important role in the occurrence and development of tumors.At present,the SPs in common types of malignant tumor have been studied extensively at home and abroad.The study of SPs may shed some light on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  18. Cloning and subcellular location of an arabidopsis receptor-like protein that shares common features with protein-sorting receptors of eukaryotic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.U.; Bar-Peled, M.; Raikhel, N.V. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Many receptors involved in clathrin-mediated protein transport through the endocytic and secretary pathways of yeast and animal cells share common features. They are all type I integral membrane proteins containing cysteine-rich lumenal domains and cytoplasmic tails with tyrosine-containing sorting signals. The cysteine-rich domains are thought to be involved in ligand binding, whereas the cytoplasmic tyrosine motifs interact with clathrin-associated adaptor proteins during protein sorting along these pathways. in addition, tyrosine-containing signals are required for the retention and recycling of some of these membrane proteins to the trans-Golgi network. Here we report the characterization of an approximately 80-kD epidermal growth factor receptor-like type I integral membrane protein containing all of these functional motifs from Arabidopsis thaliana (called AtELP for A. thaliana Epidermal growth factor receptor-Like Protein). Biochemical analysis indicates that AtELP is a membrane protein found at high levels in the roots of both monocots and dicots. Subcellular fractionation studies indicate that the AtELP protein is present in two membrane fractions corresponding to a novel, undefined compartment and a fraction enriched in vesicles containing clathrin and its associated adaptor proteins. AtELP may therefore serve as a marker for compartments involved in intracellular protein trafficking in the plant cell. 87 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Evolution and tinkering: what do a protein kinase, a transcriptional regulator and chromosome segregation/cell division proteins have in common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Abderahmane; Shi, Lei; Kalantari, Aida; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we focus on functional interactions among multi-domain proteins which share a common evolutionary origin. The examples we develop are four Bacillus subtilis proteins, which all possess an ATP-binding Walker motif: the bacterial tyrosine kinase (BY-kinase) PtkA, the chromosome segregation protein Soj (ParA), the cell division protein MinD and a transcription regulator SalA. These proteins have arisen via duplication of the ancestral ATP-binding domain, which has undergone fusions with other functional domains in the process of divergent evolution. We point out that these four proteins, despite having very different physiological roles, engage in an unusually high number of binary functional interactions. Namely, MinD attracts Soj and PtkA to the cell pole, and in addition, activates the kinase function of PtkA. SalA also activates the kinase function of PtkA, and it gets phosphorylated by PtkA as well. The consequence of this phosphorylation is the activation of SalA as a transcriptional repressor. We hypothesize that these functional interactions remain preserved during divergent evolution and represent a constraint on the process of evolutionary "tinkering", brought about by fusions of different functional domains.

  20. Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of a selected lectin-free common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in two cell-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, Stefania; Gabriele, Morena; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Longo, Vincenzo; Pucci, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Legumes and particularly beans are a key food of Mediterranean diet representing an important source of proteins, fiber, some minerals and vitamins and bioactive compounds. We evaluated the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic effects of a new fermented powder of a selected lectin-free and phaseolamin-enriched variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), named Lady Joy. Lady Joy lysate (Lys LJ) was studied in human erythrocytes and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. The antioxidant and anti-hemolytic properties of Lys LJ, studied in an ex vivo erythrocytes system using the cellular antioxidant assay (CAA-RBC) and the hemolysis test, evidenced a dose-dependent antioxidant activity as well as a significant hemolysis inhibition. Besides, results evidenced that Lys LJ treatment significantly decreased the intracellular ROS concentration and mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in S. cerevisiae D7 strain. In conclusion, Lys LJ showed both an antimutagenic effect in yeast and a strong scavenging activity in yeast and human cells.

  1. Lack of Fas/CD95 surface expression in highly proliferative leukemic cell lines correlates with loss of CtBP/BARS and redirection of the protein toward giant lysosomal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monleón, Inmaculada; Iturralde, María; Martínez-Lorenzo, María José; Monteagudo, Luis; Lasierra, Pilar; Larrad, Luis; Piñeiro, Andrés; Naval, Javier; Alava, María Angeles; Anel, Alberto

    2002-07-01

    Fas/CD95 is a type-I membrane glycoprotein, which inducesapoptotic cell death when ligated by its physiological ligand. We generated previously hyperproliferative sublines derived from the human T-cell leukemia Jurkat, Jurkat-ws and Jurkat-hp, which lost Fas/CD95 surface expression. We have now observed that the total amount of Fas protein is similar in the sublines and in the parental cells, indicating that in the sublines Fas remains in an intracellular compartment. We have found that the protein is directed toward lysosomes in the sublines, where it is degraded. This defect in the secretory pathway correlates with loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids from cellular lipids, and with the lack of expression of endophilin-I and CtBP/BARS, enzymes that regulate vesicle fission by catalyzing the acylation of arachidonate into lysophosphatidic acid. In addition, great multillamer bodies, which contained acid phosphatase activity, absent in the parental Jurkat cells, were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the sublines.

  2. Positive Regulation of Interleukin-2 Expression by a Pseudokinase, Tribbles 1, in Activated T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Chiharu; Itoh, Yuka; Inoue, Yasumichi; Hayashi, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Tribbles 1 (TRB1), a member of the Tribbles family, is a pseudokinase that is conserved among species and implicated in various human diseases including leukemia, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic disorders. However, the role of TRB1 in the immune response is not understood. To evaluate this role, we examined regulation of TRB1 expression and the function of TRB1 in interleukin-2 (IL-2) induction in Jurkat cells, a human acute T cell leukemia cell line. We found that TRB1 was strongly induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin in these cells. IL-2 expression was induced in Jurkat cells activated by PMA and ionomycin; however, knockdown of TRB1 resulted in decreased induction of IL-2. TRB1 null Jurkat cells established using the CRISPR/Cas9 system also showed reduction of IL-2 expression on PMA/ionomycin stimulation. TRB1 knockdown also markedly inhibited IL-2 promoter activation. To determine the mechanism of the stimulatory effect on IL-2 induction, we focused on histone deacetylases (HDACs), and found that HDAC1 preferentially interacts with TRB1. TRB1 suppressed the interaction of HDAC1 with nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 (NFAT2), which is a crucial transcription factor for IL-2 induction. These results indicate that TRB1 is a positive regulator of IL-2 induction in activated T cells.

  3. Syndecan-1 and FGF-2, but not FGF receptor-1, share a common transport route and co-localize with heparanase in the nuclei of mesenchymal tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zong

    Full Text Available Syndecan-1 forms complexes with growth factors and their cognate receptors in the cell membrane. We have previously reported a tubulin-mediated translocation of syndecan-1 to the nucleus. The transport route and functional significance of nuclear syndecan-1 is still incompletely understood. Here we investigate the sub-cellular distribution of syndecan-1, FGF-2, FGFR-1 and heparanase in malignant mesenchymal tumor cells, and explore the possibility of their coordinated translocation to the nucleus. To elucidate a structural requirement for this nuclear transport, we have transfected cells with a syndecan-1/EGFP construct or with a short truncated version containing only the tubulin binding RMKKK sequence. The sub-cellular distribution of the EGFP fusion proteins was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Our data indicate that syndecan-1, FGF-2 and heparanase co-localize in the nucleus, whereas FGFR-1 is enriched mainly in the perinuclear area. Overexpression of syndecan-1 results in increased nuclear accumulation of FGF-2, demonstrating the functional importance of syndecan-1 for this nuclear transport. Interestingly, exogenously added FGF-2 does not follow the route taken by endogenous FGF-2. Furthermore, we prove that the RMKKK sequence of syndecan-1 is necessary and sufficient for nuclear translocation, acting as a nuclear localization signal, and the Arginine residue is vital for this localization. We conclude that syndecan-1 and FGF-2, but not FGFR-1 share a common transport route and co-localize with heparanase in the nucleus, and this transport is mediated by the RMKKK motif in syndecan-1. Our study opens a new perspective in the proteoglycan field and provides more evidence of nuclear interactions of syndecan-1.

  4. The genome of the amoeba symbiont "Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus" reveals common mechanisms for host cell interaction among amoeba-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Tischler, Patrick; Arnold, Roland; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Wagner, Michael; Rattei, Thomas; Horn, Matthias

    2010-02-01

    Protozoa play host for many intracellular bacteria and are important for the adaptation of pathogenic bacteria to eukaryotic cells. We analyzed the genome sequence of "Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus," an obligate intracellular amoeba symbiont belonging to the Bacteroidetes. The genome has a size of 1.89 Mbp, encodes 1,557 proteins, and shows massive proliferation of IS elements (24% of all genes), although the genome seems to be evolutionarily relatively stable. The genome does not encode pathways for de novo biosynthesis of cofactors, nucleotides, and almost all amino acids. "Ca. Amoebophilus asiaticus" encodes a variety of proteins with predicted importance for host cell interaction; in particular, an arsenal of proteins with eukaryotic domains, including ankyrin-, TPR/SEL1-, and leucine-rich repeats, which is hitherto unmatched among prokaryotes, is remarkable. Unexpectedly, 26 proteins that can interfere with the host ubiquitin system were identified in the genome. These proteins include F- and U-box domain proteins and two ubiquitin-specific proteases of the CA clan C19 family, representing the first prokaryotic members of this protein family. Consequently, interference with the host ubiquitin system is an important host cell interaction mechanism of "Ca. Amoebophilus asiaticus". More generally, we show that the eukaryotic domains identified in "Ca. Amoebophilus asiaticus" are also significantly enriched in the genomes of other amoeba-associated bacteria (including chlamydiae, Legionella pneumophila, Rickettsia bellii, Francisella tularensis, and Mycobacterium avium). This indicates that phylogenetically and ecologically diverse bacteria which thrive inside amoebae exploit common mechanisms for interaction with their hosts, and it provides further evidence for the role of amoebae as training grounds for bacterial pathogens of humans.

  5. Apoptosis-like cell death induced by nematocyst venom from Chrysaora helvola Brandt jellyfish and an in vitro evaluation of commonly used antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaosheng; Xia, Xianghua; Lai, Zefeng; Zhong, Taozheng; Li, Gang; Fan, Lanlan; Shu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    The present work investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of nematocyst venom (NV) from Chrysaora helvola Brandt (C. helvola) jellyfish against human MCF-7 and CNE-2 tumor cell lines. Potent cytotoxicity was quantified using the MTT assay (LC50=12.07±3.13 and 1.6±0.22μg/mL (n=4), respectively). Apoptosis-like cell death was further confirmed using the LDH release assay and Annexin V/PI double staining-based flow cytometry analysis. However, only activation of caspase-4 was observed. It is possible that some caspase-independent pathways were activated by the NV treatment. Since no reference or antivenom is available, the effects of several commonly used antidotes on the cytotoxicity of NV were examined on more sensitive CNE-2 cells to determine the appropriate emergency measures for envenomation by C. helvola. The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor para-bromophenacyl bromide (pBPB) showed no protective effect, while Mg(2+) potentiated cytotoxicity. Voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers (verapamil, nifedipine and felodipine) and Na-Ca(2+) exchanger inhibitor KB-R7943 also showed no effect. Assays using Ca(2+)-free culture media or the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA also could not inhibit the cytotoxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that PLA2 and Ca(2+) are not directly involved in the cytotoxicity of NV from C. helvola. Our work also suggests caution regarding the choice for first aid for envenomation by C. helvola jellyfish.

  6. GM-CSF/IL-3/IL-5 receptor common β chain (CD131 expression as a biomarker of antigen-stimulated CD8+ T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maric Dragan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon Ag-activation cytotoxic T cells (CTLs produce IFN-γ GM-CSF and TNF-α, which deliver simultaneously pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory signals to the surrounding microenvironment. Whether this secretion affects in an autocrine loop the CTLs themselves is unknown. Methods Here, we compared the transcriptional profile of Ag-activated, Flu-specific CTL stimulated with the FLU M1:58-66 peptide to that of convivial CTLs expanded in vitro in the same culture. PBMCs from 6 HLA-A*0201 expressing donors were expanded for 7 days in culture following Flu M1:58-66 stimulation in the presence of 300 IU/ml of interleukin-2 and than sorted by high speed sorting to high purity CD8+ expressing T cells gated according to FluM1:58-66 tetrameric human leukocyte antigen complexes expression. Results Ag-activated CTLs displayed higher levels of IFN-γ, GM-CSF (CSF2 and GM-CSF/IL-3/IL-5 receptor common β- chain (CD131 but lacked completely expression of IFN-γ receptor-II and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. This observation suggested that Ag-activated CTLs in preparation for the release of IFN-γ and GM-CSF shield themselves from the potentially apoptotic effects of the former entrusting their survival to GM-SCF. In vitro phenotyping confirmed the selective surface expression of CD131 by Ag-activated CTLs and their increased proliferation upon exogenous administration of GM-CSF. Conclusion The selective responsiveness of Ag-activated CTLs to GM-CSF may provide an alternative explanation to the usefulness of this chemokine as an adjuvant for T cell aimed vaccines. Moreover, the selective expression of CD131 by Ag-activated CTLs proposes CD131 as a novel biomarker of Ag-dependent CTL activation.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of novel ethyl 4-[4-(4-substitutedpiperidin-1-yl)]benzyl-phenylpyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline-carboxylate derivatives in myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplat, Vanessa; Vincenzi, Marian; Lucas, Romain; Moreau, Stéphane; Savrimoutou, Solène; Pinaud, Noël; Lesbordes, Jordi; Peyrilles, Elodie; Marchivie, Mathieu; Routier, Sylvain; Sonnet, Pascal; Rossi, Filomena; Ronga, Luisa; Guillon, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Leukemia is the most common blood cancer, and its development starts at diverse points, leading to distinct subtypes that respond differently to therapy. This heterogeneity is rarely taken into account in therapies, so it is still essential to look for new specific drugs for leukemia subtypes or even for therapy-resistant cases. Among heterocyclic compounds that attracted a lot of attention because of its wide spread biological activities, the pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline heterocyclic framework has been identified as interesting scaffolds for antiproliferative activity against various human cancer cell lines. In the present study, novel ethyl 4-[4-(4-substitutedpiperidin-1-yl)]benzyl-phenylpyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline-carboxylate derivatives 1a-l have been designed and synthesized. Their cytotoxicities were evaluated against five different leukemia cell lines, including Jurkat and U266 (lymphoid cell lines), and K562, U937, HL60 (myeloid cell lines), as well as normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs). Then, apoptosis study was performed with the more interesting compounds. The new pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline series showed promising cytotoxic potential against all leukemia cell lines tested, and some compounds showed better results than the reference compound A6730. Some compounds, such as 1a, 1e, 1g and 1h are promising because of their high activity against leukemia and their low activity against normal hematopoietic cells. Structure-activity relationships of these new synthetic compounds 1a-l are here also discussed.

  8. Zerumbone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in a human lymphoblastic leukemia cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman HS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heshu Sulaiman Rahman,1–3 Abdullah Rasedee,1,2 Ahmad Bustamam Abdul,2,4 Nazariah Allaudin Zeenathul,1,2 Hemn Hassan Othman,1,3 Swee Keong Yeap,2 Chee Wun How,2 Wan Abd Ghani Wan Nor Hafiza4,51Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimanyah, Sulaimanyah City, Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq; 4Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 5College of Medical Laboratory Technology, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: This investigation evaluated the antileukemia properties of a zerumbone (ZER-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC prepared by hot high-pressure homogenization techniques in an acute human lymphoblastic leukemia (Jurkat cell line in vitro. The apoptogenic effect of the ZER-NLC on Jurkat cells was determined by fluorescent and electron microscopy, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate, Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, cell cycle analysis, and caspase activity. An MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that ZER-NLC did not have adverse effects on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. ZER-NLC arrested the Jurkat cells at G2/M phase with inactivation of cyclin B1 protein. The study also showed that the antiproliferative effect of ZER-NLC on Jurkat cells is through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol, and subsequent cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP. These findings show that the ZER-NLC is a potentially useful treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in humans.Keywords: zerumbone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, mitochondrial pathway

  9. Eurycomanone and Eurycomanol from Eurycoma longifolia Jack as Regulators of Signaling Pathways Involved in Proliferation, Cell Death and Inflammation

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    Shéhérazade Hajjouli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Eurycomanone and eurycomanol are two quassinoids from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. The aim of this study was to assess the bioactivity of these compounds in Jurkat and K562 human leukemia cell models compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. Both eurycomanone and eurycomanol inhibited Jurkat and K562 cell viability and proliferation without affecting healthy cells. Interestingly, eurycomanone inhibited NF-κB signaling through inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and upstream mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, but not eurycomanol. In conclusion, both quassinoids present differential toxicity towards leukemia cells, and the presence of the α,β-unsaturated ketone in eurycomanone could be prerequisite for the NF-κB inhibition.

  10. Common polymorphisms in MTNR1B, G6PC2 and GCK are associated with increased fasting plasma glucose and impaired beta-cell function in Chinese subjects.

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    Claudia Ha Ting Tam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B, islet-specific glucose 6 phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (G6PC2, glucokinase (GCK and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR as candidate genes for type 2 diabetes (T2D acting through elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG. We examined the associations of the reported common variants of these genes with T2D and glucose homeostasis in three independent Chinese cohorts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, MTNR1B rs10830963, G6PC2 rs16856187 and rs478333, GCK rs1799884 and GCKR rs780094, were genotyped in 1644 controls (583 adults and 1061 adolescents and 1342 T2D patients. The G-allele of MTNR1B rs10830963 and the C-alleles of both G6PC2 rs16856187 and rs478333 were associated with higher FPG (0.0034cell function (HOMA-B (P=0.0015. Together with GCKR rs780094, the risk alleles of these SNPs exhibited dosage effect in their associations with increased FPG (P=2.9x10(-9 and reduced HOMA-B (P=1.1x10(-3. Meta-analyses strongly supported additive effects of MTNR1B rs10830963 and G6PC2 rs16856187 on FPG. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Common variants of MTNR1B, G6PC2 and GCK are associated with elevated FPG and impaired insulin secretion, both individually and jointly, suggesting that these risk alleles may precipitate or perpetuate hyperglycemia in predisposed individuals.

  11. Suppression subtractive hybridization library construction and identification of epidermal bladder cell related genes in the common ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

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    Siranet Roeurn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., a halophytic species, displays modified trichomes, epidermal bladder cells (EBC, on the surfaces of its aerial organs. EBCs serve to sequester excessive salt from underlying metabolically active tissues. To elucidate the molecular determinants governing EBC development in the common ice plant, we constructed a cDNA-based suppression subtractive hybridization library and identified genes differentially expressed between the wild-type and the EBC-less mutant. After hybridization, 38 clones were obtained. Among them, 24 clones had homology with plant genes of known functions, whose roles might not be directly related to EBC-morphology, while 14 clones were homologous to genes of unknown functions. After confirmation by northern blot analysis, 12 out of 14 clones of unknown functions were chosen for semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis, and the results revealed that three clones designated as MW3, MW21, and MW31 preferentially expressed in the EBC-less mutant, whereas the other two designated as WM10 and WM28 preferentially expressed in the wild type. Among these genes, the expression of a putative jasmonate-induced gene, designated as WM28 was completely suppressed in the EBC-mutant. In addition, the deletion of C-box cis-acting element was found in the promoter region of WM28 in the EBC-less mutant. Overexpression of WM28 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased trichome number due to the upregulation of key trichome-related genes GLABRA1 (GL1, and GLABRA3 (GL3. These results demonstrate that WM28 can be an important factor responsible for EBC formation, and also suggest the similarity of developmental mechanism between trichome in Arabidopsis and EBC in common ice plant.

  12. Methylation of Gene CHFR Promoter in Acute Leukemia Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Hui; LIU Wengli; ZHOU Jianfeng; XU Huizhen

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order to explore whether gene CHFR was inactivated by methylation in leukemia cells, the expression of CHFR was examined before and after treatment with demethylation agent in Molt-4, Jurkat and U937 leukemia cell lines by means of RT-PCR. The methylation of promoter in Molt-4, Jurkat and U937 cells as well as 41 acute leukemia patients was analyzed by MS-PCR. The results showed that methylation of CHFR promoter was inactivated and could be reversed by treatment with a demethylating agent in Molt-4, Jurkat and U937. CHFR promoter methylation was detected in 39 % of acute leukemia patients. There was no difference in incidence of CHFR promoter methylation between acute myelocytic leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia. In conclusion, CHFR is frequently inactivated in acute leukemia and is a good candidate for the leukemia supper gene. By affecting mitotic checkpoint function, CHFR inactivation likely plays a key role in tumorigenesis in acute leukemia. Moreover, the methylation of gene CHFR appears to be a good index with which to predict the sensitivity of acute leukemia to microtubule inhibitors.

  13. Human mesenchymal stem cells promote survival of T cells in a quiescent state.

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    Benvenuto, Federica; Ferrari, Stefania; Gerdoni, Ezio; Gualandi, Francesca; Frassoni, Francesco; Pistoia, Vito; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Uccelli, Antonio

    2007-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are part of the bone marrow that provides signals supporting survival and growth of bystander hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). MSC modulate also the immune response, as they inhibit proliferation of lymphocytes. In order to investigate whether MSC can support survival of T cells, we investigated MSC capacity of rescuing T lymphocytes from cell death induced by different mechanisms. We observed that MSC prolong survival of unstimulated T cells and apoptosis-prone thymocytes cultured under starving conditions. MSC rescued T cells from activation induced cell death (AICD) by downregulation of Fas receptor and Fas ligand on T cell surface and inhibition of endogenous proteases involved in cell death. MSC dampened also Fas receptor mediated apoptosis of CD95 expressing Jurkat leukemic T cells. In contrast, rescue from AICD was not associated with a significant change of Bcl-2, an inhibitor of apoptosis induced by cell stress. Accordingly, MSC exhibited a minimal capacity of rescuing Jurkat cells from chemically induced apoptosis, a process disrupting the mitochondrial membrane potential regulated by Bcl-2. These results suggest that MSC interfere with the Fas receptor regulated process of programmed cell death. Overall, MSC can inhibit proliferation of activated T cells while supporting their survival in a quiescent state, providing a model of their activity inside the HSC niche. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  14. A study on p53 gene alterations in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and their correlation to common dietary risk factors among population of the Kashmir valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imtiyaz Murtaza; Dhuha Mushtaq; Mushtaq A Margoob; Amit Dutt; Nisar Ahmad Wani; Ishfaq Ahmad; Mohan Lal Bhat

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To systematically examine the extent of correlation of risk factors, such as age, consumed dietary habit and familial predisposition with somatic Tp53 molecular lesion causal to elevate carcinogenesis severity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) among the Kashmiri population of Northern India.METHODS: All cases (n = 51) and controls (n = 150) were permanent residents of the Kashmir valley. Genetic alterations were determined in exons 5-8 of Tp53 tumor suppressor gene among 45 ESCC cases histologically confirmed by PCR-SSCP analysis. Data for individual cancer cases (n = 45) and inpatient controls (n = 150) with non-cancer disease included information on family history of cancer, thirty prevailing common dietary risk factors along with patient's age group. Correlation of genetic lesion in p53 exons to animistic data from these parameters was generated by Chi-square test to all 45 histologically confirmed ESCC cases along with healthy controls.RESULTS: Thirty-five of 45 (77.8%) histologically characterized tumor samples had analogous somatic mutation as opposed to 1 of 45 normal sample obtained from adjacent region from the same patient showed germline mutation. The SSCP analysis demonstrated that most common p53 gene alterations were found in exon 6 (77.7%), that did not correlate with the age of the individual and clinicopathological parameters but showed significant concordance (P < 0.05) with familial history of cancer (CD = 58), suggesting germline predisposition at an unknown locus, and dietary habit of consuming locally grown Brassica vegetable "Hakh" (CD = 19.5),red chillies (CD = 20.2), hot salty soda tea (CD = 2.37) and local baked bread (CD = 1.1).CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that somatic chromosomal mutations, especially in exon 6 of Tp53 gene, among esophageal cancer patients of an ethnically homogenous population of Kashmir valley are closely related to continued exposure to various common dietary risk factors, especially hot salty tea

  15. Stromal cells from human long-term marrow cultures, but not cultured marrow fibroblasts, phagocytose horse serum constituents: studies with a monoclonal antibody that reacts with a species-specific epitope common to multiple horse serum proteins.

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    Charbord, P; Tippens, D; Wight, T S; Gown, A M; Singer, J W

    1987-01-01

    This report describes an IgG1 mouse monoclonal antibody derived after immunization of mice with washed stromal cells from human, long-term bone marrow cultures. The antigen recognized by the antibody (BMS-1) is a carbohydrate-containing prosthetic group that is common to and specific for multiple horse serum proteins. These proteins are avidly ingested by stromal cells and concentrated in endocytic vesicles. Cultured smooth muscle cells took up the horse proteins in a similar manner to marrow stromal cells while cultured marrow fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and hepatoma cells did not. These data indicate that marrow stromal cells specifically accumulate horse serum proteins which might partially explain the horse serum requirement for long-term marrow culture maintenance. The data also suggest further similarities between marrow stromal and smooth muscle cells and additional differences between marrow fibroblasts and marrow stromal cells.

  16. Polarized expression of the membrane ASP protein derived from HIV-1 antisense transcription in T cells

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    Gay Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retroviral gene expression generally depends on a full-length transcript that initiates in the 5' LTR, which is either left unspliced or alternatively spliced. We and others have demonstrated the existence of antisense transcription initiating in the 3' LTR in human lymphotropic retroviruses, including HTLV-1, HTLV-2, and HIV-1. Such transcripts have been postulated to encode antisense proteins important for the establishment of viral infections. The antisense strand of the HIV-1 proviral DNA contains an ORF termed asp, coding for a highly hydrophobic protein. However, although anti-ASP antibodies have been described to be present in HIV-1-infected patients, its in vivo expression requires further support. The objective of this present study was to clearly demonstrate that ASP is effectively expressed in infected T cells and to provide a better characterization of its subcellular localization. Results We first investigated the subcellular localization of ASP by transfecting Jurkat T cells with vectors expressing ASP tagged with the Flag epitope to its N-terminus. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that ASP localized to the plasma membrane in transfected Jurkat T cells, but with different staining patterns. In addition to an entire distribution to the plasma membrane, ASP showed an asymmetric localization and could also be detected in membrane connections between two cells. We then infected Jurkat T cells with NL4.3 virus coding for ASP tagged with the Flag epitope at its C-terminal end. By this approach, we were capable of showing that ASP is effectively expressed from the HIV-1 3' LTR in infected T cells, with an asymmetric localization of the viral protein at the plasma membrane. Conclusion These results demonstrate for the first time that ASP can be detected when expressed from full-length HIV-1 proviral DNA and that its localization is consistent with Jurkat T cells overexpressing ASP.

  17. Polarized expression of the membrane ASP protein derived from HIV-1 antisense transcription in T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Isabelle; Laverdure, Sylvain; Torresilla, Cynthia; Landry, Sébastien; Borel, Sophie; Vargas, Amandine; Arpin-André, Charlotte; Gay, Bernard; Briant, Laurence; Gross, Antoine; Barbeau, Benoît; Mesnard, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-19

    Retroviral gene expression generally depends on a full-length transcript that initiates in the 5' LTR, which is either left unspliced or alternatively spliced. We and others have demonstrated the existence of antisense transcription initiating in the 3' LTR in human lymphotropic retroviruses, including HTLV-1, HTLV-2, and HIV-1. Such transcripts have been postulated to encode antisense proteins important for the establishment of viral infections. The antisense strand of the HIV-1 proviral DNA contains an ORF termed asp, coding for a highly hydrophobic protein. However, although anti-ASP antibodies have been described to be present in HIV-1-infected patients, its in vivo expression requires further support. The objective of this present study was to clearly demonstrate that ASP is effectively expressed in infected T cells and to provide a better characterization of its subcellular localization. We first investigated the subcellular localization of ASP by transfecting Jurkat T cells with vectors expressing ASP tagged with the Flag epitope to its N-terminus. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that ASP localized to the plasma membrane in transfected Jurkat T cells, but with different staining patterns. In addition to an entire distribution to the plasma membrane, ASP showed an asymmetric localization and could also be detected in membrane connections between two cells. We then infected Jurkat T cells with NL4.3 virus coding for ASP tagged with the Flag epitope at its C-terminal end. By this approach, we were capable of showing that ASP is effectively expressed from the HIV-1 3' LTR in infected T cells, with an asymmetric localization of the viral protein at the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate for the first time that ASP can be detected when expressed from full-length HIV-1 proviral DNA and that its localization is consistent with Jurkat T cells overexpressing ASP.

  18. Acute cholecystitis is a common complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and is associated with the use of total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J; Sehgal, Alison R; Gill, Saar; Frey, Noelle V; Hexner, Elizabeth O; Loren, Alison W; Mangan, James K; Porter, David L; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Reshef, Ran; Luger, Selina M

    2015-04-01

    The incidence and risk factors for acute cholecystitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are not well defined. Of 644 consecutive adult transplants performed at our institution between 2001 and 2011, acute cholecystitis occurred in the first year of transplant in 32 patients (5.0%). We conducted 2 retrospective case-control studies of this population to determine risk factors for cholecystitis after HSCT and to evaluate the performance of different methods of imaging to diagnosis cholecystitis in patients undergoing HSCT compared with