WorldWideScience

Sample records for jurisdiction liquefied natural

  1. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Wollan, J. [Cryenco, Inc. (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

  2. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

    1997-05-01

    Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

  3. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

  4. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  5. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.212 Synthetic and liquefied... liquefied natural gas and that are not “related jurisdictional natural gas facilities” as defined in § 153.2... natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157.212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  6. Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

  7. The Global Market for Liquefied Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    David Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) provides an economic means to transport natural gas over long distances, bringing production from remote gas reserves to market. A large expansion in global LNG trade is currently under way, and Australia is likely to emerge as the second largest supplier globally in coming years. This article describes the functioning of the global LNG market and outlines Australia's position within the market.

  8. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  9. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  10. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  11. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  12. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  13. Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J. J. (John J.); Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Backhaus, S. N. (Scott N.); Gardner, D. L. (David L.)

    2002-01-01

    Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances

  14. A Comparative Study of Liquefied Natural Gas: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Khan Memon; Saleem Qadir Tunio; Khalil Rehman Memon; Arshad Ahmed Lashari

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is the world’s fastest growing fuel and being produced by many countries of the world in the commercial quantities. Increasing natural gas price and new development in the technologies, liquefied natural gas industry is economically attractive in the major gas exporting countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is an important energy source and continued to contribute the growth of natural gas industry. The new advance LNG technology is used for natural gas transportation for long di...

  15. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamerson Pender... 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

  16. Risk management technique for liquefied natural gas facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    Checklists have been compiled for planning, design, construction, startup and debugging, and operation of liquefied natural gas facilities. Lists include references to pertinent safety regulations. Methods described are applicable to handling of other hazardous materials.

  17. 75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Maritime Administration TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas...) for the TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG... Natural Gas Pipeline, Williams Natural Gas Pipeline, Destin Natural Gas Pipeline, and Viosca...

  18. Liquefied natural gas production at Hammerfest: A transforming marine community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bets, van L.K.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Global energy demand and scarce petroleum resources require communities to adapt to a rapidly changing Arctic environment, but as well to a transforming socio-economic environment instigated by oil and gas development. This is illustrated by liquefied natural gas production by Statoil at Hammerfest,

  19. The liquefied natural gas infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koza, David Franz; Røpke, Stefan; Molas, Anna Boleda

    2017-01-01

    We consider a strategic infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem in the liquefied natural gas business. The goal is to minimize long-term on-shore infrastructure and tanker investment cost combined with interrelated expected cost for operating the tanker fleet. A non-linear arc-based model...

  20. 75 FR 72877 - Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... collections from operators of natural gas pipelines, hazardous liquid pipelines, and liquefied natural......

  1. 77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. This notice provides updates to the information... and liquefied natural gas (LNG) operators. New operators use the national registry to obtain...

  2. 78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, and Vacating Prior Authority During February 2013 FE Docket Nos. J.P. MORGAN COMMODITIES... and liquefied natural gas and vacating prior authority. These orders are summarized in the...

  3. Challenges of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers in 21" Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zanne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is relatively cheap, environmentally friendlyand energetically efficient fossil fuel that is gaining in attractivenessdaily as it can be used in many sectors. As not all consumerscan be reached by pipelines the technique of transp01tingnatural gas in the liquefied form has been developed at the beginningof 20th century but it was only in 1959 that the firstoverseas transport of liquefied natural gas ( LN G occurred. Inthe fifty years of operation LNG shipping has shown immaculatesafety records. LNG tankers can be described only in superlatives;they are without any doubt the most sophisticated and·expensive ships that sail around the globe, they demand specialattention when navigating to or out of harbours and need to bemanned with the most educated and experienced crew. LNGmarket is expanding and changing; demand is surpassing theproductivity, new importing and exporting countries appear,LNG fleet is growing in capacity and number at high pace, exploitationcontracts for the ships are being modified giving theopportunity for new companies to enter( . .. . The paper givesan overview on liquefied natural gas market and the historic developmentof LNG shipping. It focuses on the recent boom inLNG shipping and emphasises questions concerning the safety,crewing and exploitation of the LNG tankers in the future.

  4. World trade in liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P. J.; Daniels, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Descriptions of LNG projects make it evident that significant activity is continuing on the development of base-load LNG projects to serve all three major gas markets: Europe, Japan, and the United States. These activities have resulted in the development of an international LNG trade of approximately 48.2 billion m/sup 3//y. This represents nearly one-third of the current level of pipeline import/exports of natural gas. By 1982, when all of the projects considered to be firm or under construction are implemented, LNG trade will have grown to a level of 53.7 billion m/sup 3//y. With the implementation of the probable projects by the mid-1980's, this level could increase to more than 112.55 billion m/sup 3//y. Assuming that the 102.2 billion m/sup 3//y of pipeline import/export projects currently proposed and under construction are implemented in the same period, LNG's relatively more rapid growth will have increased to 48% of the amount of natural gas traded by pipeline.

  5. A Comparative Study of Liquefied Natural Gas: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan Memon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is the world’s fastest growing fuel and being produced by many countries of the world in the commercial quantities. Increasing natural gas price and new development in the technologies, liquefied natural gas industry is economically attractive in the major gas exporting countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG is an important energy source and continued to contribute the growth of natural gas industry. The new advance LNG technology is used for natural gas transportation for long distances. LNG can be transported by the large insulated cryogenic tankers at affordable cost. This study presents an overview of LNG liquidation facilities from natural gas as feed gas to LNG storage and transport. The main objective of the study is to highlight the current data for reviewers on LNG world market, mainly on LNG production, supply, demand, price and new development of LNG plants. The technology is growing gradually with increasing number of LNG consuming countries in overall the world. In the near future, LNG price may be affected by the advanced shale gas production in the United States of America and China. Australia becomes the world second largest exporter of LNG market after Qatar. Australia will increase LNG supply by 15 Bcf/day from 2014 and accounting for 25% of world LNG production by 2030. Global LNG production forecast will be reached 540 Bcm by 2020 and LNG trade will be reached 425 Mtpa by 2025. New countries are interested to enter in the LNG world market as importers and exporters.

  6. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Liberty Deepwater Port would receive and transfer natural gas from purpose-built LNG regasification... equipped to vaporize LNG cargo to natural gas through onboard closed loop vaporization systems and...

  7. 75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of... The Dow Chemical Company (Dow), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG... equivalent of 390 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot market basis. The LNG...

  8. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... receive and transfer natural gas from purpose-build LNG regasification vessels (LNGRVs) with a total cargo tank capacity of approximately 145,000 m\\3\\. The vessels would be equipped to vaporize LNG cargo...

  9. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During January 2012... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas.... DOMINION COVE POINT LNG, LP 11-98-LNG ENERGY PLUS NATURAL GAS LLC 11-155-NG BROOKFIELD ENERGY......

  10. 77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During April..., it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These... Capital International, LLC....... 12-33-NG Phillips 66 Company 12-34-NG Northwest Natural Gas Company......

  11. 78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013... authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized... of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Docket Room 3E-033,......

  12. 78 FR 35014 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2013... natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix and... INC 13-41-NG CASCADE NATURAL GAS CORPORATION 13-43-NG ENCANA MARKETING (USA) INC 13-44-NG......

  13. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas..., ULC 12-13-NG ENCANA NATURAL GAS INC 11-163-NG ALCOA INC 12-11-NG JPMORGAN LNG CO 12-15-LNG CNE......

  14. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra), requesting blanket authorization to export up to a total of 250 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of foreign sourced liquefied natural gas (LNG) for a two-year...

  15. Liquefied natural gas: a harbor plan; Plano diretor portuario para o gas natural liquefeito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Aluisio de Souza; Baitelo, Ricardo Lacerda [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Rego, Erik Eduardo [Excelencia Energetica Consultoria Empresarial Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present the structuring of a port directing plan for the liquefied natural gas. In this sense, an integrated approach between the applied logistic and the requested market conditions was used. For the large distances transportation of liquefied natural gas, the marine modal must attain technical requirements that are not usual in the port routine. Apart from the proper dimensioning of the naval fleet in order to maximize the transported load, providing the optimization of the economic distance, the entire port infra-structure is planned for the reception of liquefied natural gas, in order to attend the physical peculiarities as well as security aspects of extreme importance. The selection of the studied local was motivated by the fuel supply shortage suffered by the country, especially in the northeast region, which owns already installed thermal units in need of the fuel supply to be operated. (author)

  16. 78 FR 19696 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas and Vacating Prior Authority During December 2012 FE Docket Nos. DIAMOND CAPITAL INTERNATIONAL... during December 2012, it issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and......

  17. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed Natural Gas, Vacating Prior Authority and Denying Request for Rehearing During January 2013 ] FE Docket... January 2013, it issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied......

  18. 77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an amount up to the equivalent of 740... Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel from the Golden Pass LNG Terminal to Free Trade Agreement Nations,...

  19. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC)...

  20. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250 kW...

  1. 77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Deepwater...

  2. 77 FR 4028 - Orders Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas FE Docket Nos. Gas Natural Caxitlan, S. DE R.L 11-147-NG Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P 11-127-LNG Irving..., amending and vacating authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These......

  3. 78 FR 53739 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas and... export natural gas, to import and export liquefied natural gas and to vacate prior authority. These... ENERGY) 13-83-LNG STANDARD NATURAL GAS, INC.) 13-81-LNG CASTLETON COMMODITIES CANADA LP) 1...

  4. 78 FR 44940 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas During May 2013 FE DOCKET NOS. CASCADE NATURAL GAS CORPORATION........ 12-179-NG CASCADE NATURAL GAS... orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and to import and export liquefied......

  5. 78 FR 65304 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas During... issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas, and to import and export liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix and may be found on the FE Web site...

  6. 75 FR 62510 - Chevron U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... prohibited by U.S. law or policy. The application was filed under section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as... U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of..., 2010, by Chevron U.S.A. Inc. (Chevron), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their...

  8. 77 FR 63806 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... on August 31, 2012, by Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 4 million tons per annum (mtpa) of liquefied natural gas (LNG),...

  9. 78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To...) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Magnolia Liquefied Natural Gas Project (Magnolia LNG Project) involving construction and operation of facilities by Magnolia LNG, LLC (Magnolia) in...

  10. 33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural...

  11. Some insights in novel risk modeling of liquefied natural gas carrier maintenance operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaoha, T. C.; John, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This study discusses the analysis of various modeling approaches and maintenance techniques applicable to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier operations in the maritime environment. Various novel modeling techniques are discussed; including genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and evidential reasoning. We also identify the usefulness of these algorithms in the LNG carrier industry in the areas of risk assessment and maintenance modeling.

  12. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project: a tax overview; Projeto Gas Natural Liquefeito (GNL): uma abordagem tributaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Claudia W.M.; Faria, Viviana C.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the second semester of 2008, the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will be introduced in the Brazilian energy matrix, it will be done through an innovator project according technical and tax points of view. Mentioned the enormous effort of adapting the federal legislation approved for this new activity which begins in the country, uncharged both the admission of the vessel as the import of the commodity in the incidence of federal taxes. The market for LNG demand simplified customs procedures in order to benefit from the dynamism that this industry offers, and in addition, a tax burden that encourages the use of a competitive and compatible with the precepts of sustainable development of the country. (author)

  13. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): emerging control; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): controle de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2008-07-01

    The operation to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is innovative for the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO will operate two LNG flexible terminals. In accordance with the health, safety and environmental policy - training, education and awareness action plans were formulated by TRANSPETRO to assure the operational safety for the activity. Part of this action plan includes the training of LNG spill control and fire suppression. The training was carried out in 20 hours and divided into two parts: theoretical and practice. In the practice part, 3.000 gallons of LNG were unloaded and the students could verify the behaviour of the LNG and the effectiveness of the resources available for the emergency control. The knowledge was introduced in the company to create specific procedures, local emergency plans and develop internal instructors. (author)

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOACOUSTIC NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER-UPDATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. WOLLAN; G. SWIFT

    2001-05-01

    Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems are developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed.

  15. Impact of Coaching and Mentoring in the Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas Company Limited, Bonny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agwu Mba Okechukwu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the impact of coaching and mentoring in the Nigeria liquefied natural gas company limited, bonny. The research question addressed the extent at which improved employees job performance/reduced employees turnover  is influenced by the implementation of coaching and mentoring program in the Nigeria liquefied natural gas company limited, bonny. It views coaching and mentoring as learning relationships that improve employees’ job skills and develop their potentials for better performance. The core aspect of the study is the use of cross-sectional survey research design in generating the required primary data. The place of study is the bonny industrial area of the Nigeria liquefied natural gas company while the duration of study is between December 2013 and November 2014. A sample of 370(184 Direct staff, 150 Contract staff and 36 Seconded staff respondents determined at 5% level of significance for sample error, using Yamane’s formula, was selected from a population of 4,895 employees using stratified random sampling method for the purpose of questionnaire administration. The results indicated that implementation of coaching and mentoring  program in the Nigeria liquefied natural gas company limited bonny, to a large extent influenced improved employees’ performance(74.32% response rate and reduced employees turnover(67.57% response rate.It therefore recommends among others: sustenance of the current coaching and mentoring program, regular appraisal of employees job skill requirements, continuous staff development, regular improvement of employees’ condition of service and sustenance of current team building efforts/ incentive scheme. Keywords: Coaching and mentoring, employees’ performance, employees’ turnover,organizational performance, NLNG bonny. 

  16. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  17. Marine transportation of liquefied natural gas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curt, R.P.; Delaney, T.D.

    1973-01-01

    This report covers in some detail most of the major areas of consideration involved in the marine carriage of LNG. Some of the fields investigated and reviewed are the world's total energy picture and the particular requirements of natural gas in the United States in the near future. (GRA)

  18. Plant Design of Cluster LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas in Bukit Tua Well, Gresik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya A. Putri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas alam atau yang sering disebut sebagai gas bumiadalah bahan bakar fosil berbentuk gas yang terutama terdiridari metana (CH. Gas alam cair (Liquefied Natural Gas adalahgas alam yang telah diproses untuk menghilangkan pengotor danhidrokarbon berat kemudian gas alam dikondensasi menjadicairan pada tekanan atmosfer dengan mendinginkannya sekitar 160oPlant Design of Cluster LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas inBukit Tua Well, Gresik Pradnya A. Putri, Shinta S. Hajar, Gede Wibawa dan WinarsihJurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS 4C dengan tujuan untuk mempermudah pengangkutan karenavolume gas sebelum dan sesudah dicairkan adalah 600:1. Saat inigas alam diolah menjadi Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG danLiquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG, sedangkan sisa pencairan gasalam yang berupa condensate juga memiliki nilai ekonomis yangtinggi karena sifatnya yang mirip minyak mentah (crude oildengan kualitas yang terbaik. Gas alam tidak berwarna, tidakberbau, tidak korosif, tidak beracun, dan ramah lingkungan. Gasalam juga digunakan sebagai pembangkit listrik PLTG danPLTU. Berdasarkan data Neraca Gas Indonesia pada tahun 2010Indonesia mengalami defisit sebesar 18,57 MTPA (Million TonPer Annum. Pabrik Cluster LNG direncanakan dibangun padatahun 2015 dengan target siap beroperasi pada tahun 2018.Pabrik ini berlokasi di Gresik dengan bahan baku yang diperolehdari sumur Lapangan Bukit Tua, Gresik, Jawa Timur dengancadangan gas alam sebesar 52359,62 MMSCFD. Kapasitaspabrik ini adalah 20 MMSCFD. Pabrik ini akan memenuhikebutuhan konsumen skala kecil hingga menengah atas sepertihalnya pembangkit listrik untuk daerah Bali, Lombok dan JawaTimur. Rangkaian proses pabrik ini adalah unit Dehydration, unitAcid Gas Removal, unit Refrigeration dan unit Liquefaction.Analisa ekonomi dari pabrik ini adalah investasi sebesar 60MUSD, IRR sebesar 39,67%, POT selama 2,38 tahun, BEPsebesar 18% dan NPV 10 tahun sebesar 63,904 MUSD.

  19. Natural Gas and Indoor Air Pollution: A Comparison With Coal Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE ZHANG; BAO-SHENG CHEN; GUANG-QUAN LIU; JU-NING WANG; ZHEN-HUA ZHAO; LIAN-QING LIN

    2003-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the combustion products of coal gas, liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in relation to indoor air pollution. Methods Regular pollutants including B(a)P were monitored and 1-hydroxy pyrene were tested in urine of the enrolled subjects.Radon concentrations and their changes in four seasons were also monitored in the city natural gas from its source plant and transfer stations to final users. To analyze organic components of coal gas,liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas, a high-flow sampling device specially designed was used to collect their combustion products, and semi-volatile organic compounds contained in the particles were detected by gas chromatograph-mass spectrograph (GC/MS). Results Findings in the study showed that the regular indoor air pollutants particles and CO were all above the standard in winter when heating facilities were operated in the city, but they were lowest in kitchens using natural gas;furthermore, although NO2 and CO2 were slightly higher in natural gas, B(a)P concentration was lower in this group and 1-hydroxy pyrene was lowest in urine of the subjects exposed to natural gas.Organic compounds were more complicated in coal gas and liquefied petroleum gas than in natural gas. The concentration of radon in natural gas accounted for less than 1‰ of its effective dose contributing to indoor air pollution in Beijing households. Conclusion Compared to traditional fuels, gases are deemed as clean ones, and natural gas is shown to be cleaner than the other two gases.

  20. On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L

    2007-02-20

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k-epsilon model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric flows. Validation issues pertaining to the experimental data from the Burro, Coyote, and Falcon series of LNG dispersion experiments are also discussed. A description of the atmosphere is provided as well as discussion on the inclusion of the Coriolis force to model very large LNG spills.

  1. Analysis of temperature and pressure changes in liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.-S.; Wegrzyn, J.; Prasad, V.

    2004-10-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a transportation fuel for heavy vehicles such as trucks and transit buses, to lessen the dependency on oil and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The LNG stations are properly designed to prevent the venting of natural gas (NG) from LNG tanks, which can cause evaporative greenhouse gas emissions and result in fluctuations of fuel flow and changes of fuel composition. Boil-off is caused by the heat added into the LNG fuel during the storage and fueling. Heat can leak into the LNG fuel through the shell of tank during the storage and through hoses and dispensers during the fueling. Gas from tanks onboard vehicles, when returned to LNG tanks, can add additional heat into the LNG fuel. A thermodynamic and heat transfer model has been developed to analyze different mechanisms of heat leak into the LNG fuel. The evolving of properties and compositions of LNG fuel inside LNG tanks is simulated. The effect of a number of buses fueled each day on the possible total fuel loss rate has been analyzed. It is found that by increasing the number of buses, fueled each day, the total fuel loss rate can be reduced significantly. It is proposed that an electric generator be used to consume the boil-off gas or a liquefier be used to re-liquefy the boil-off gas to reduce the tank pressure and eliminate fuel losses. These approaches can prevent boil-off of natural gas emissions, and reduce the costs of LNG as transportation fuel.

  2. [Ecological/hygienic and toxicological evaluation of combustion products of aviation kerosene and liquefied natural gas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'ev, R V; Berezin, G I; Raznoschikov, V V

    2006-01-01

    Products of kerosene combustion in the present-day aeroengines contain more than 200 compounds of incomplete combustion, partial oxidation, and thermal decomposition of fuel and oil. Most of these are strong toxicants for humans. Increase of temperature in the turbine engine combustion chamber led to production of very toxic nitrogen oxides. In search for the ecologically safe and less toxic alternative attention of fuel engineers was drawn to liquefied natural gas which compares well and even excels kerosene in ecological, economic and many other respects.

  3. Size Distribution of Particles Emitted from Liquefied Natural Gas Fueled Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The results of measurements conducted to determine the number and mass concentration of particles emitted from the liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled spark ignition engines are presented. Particle size distributions were measured at different speeds, different loads and ESC cycles. The nanoparticles with diameter smaller than 39nm, measured by the electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI), are dominant in number concentration that is nearly 92.7% of the total number of the emitted particles at the peak point. As for the mass of emission particle, it is shown that the mass of the particles greater than 1.2μm is more than 65% that of the emitted particles.

  4. 76 FR 34212 - Lake Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... prohibited by United States law or policy. The Application was filed under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act... Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY...-contract authorization to export up to 15 million metric tons per annum (mmtpa) of domestic natural gas as...

  5. 78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... natural gas (non-FTA countries) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. FME requests... Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 30- Year Period...

  6. Mathematical Simulation of Convective Heat Transfer in the Low-Temperature Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shestakov Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of mathematical modeling of convective heat transfer in the low-temperature storage of liquefied natural gas. Regime of natural convection in an enclosure with different intensity of the heat flux at the external borders are investigated. Was examined two-dimensional nonstationary problem within the model of Navier-Stokes in dimensionless variables “vorticity - stream function - temperature”. Distributions of hydrodynamic parameters and temperatures that characterize the basic regularities of the processes are obtained. Circulating flows are determined and carried out the analysis of vortices formation mechanism and the temperature distribution in solution at conditions of natural convection when the Grashof number (Gr = 106. A significant influence of heat transfer rate on solutions boundary on flow structure and temperature field in LNG storage tanks.

  7. 78 FR 75339 - Barca LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From..., by Barca LNG LLC (Barca), requesting long-term, multi- contract authorization to export LNG produced...) of natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Barca seeks authorization to export the LNG for a...

  8. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  9. Brazilian liquefied natural gas terminals: from the conception to the operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Renata N.R. dos; Lemos, Marcelo C. de; Silva, Marcos Jose M. da; Borges, Jorge Luiz P.; Soares, Fabio L.; Grieco, Eduardo P.; Melchior, Jose Carlos [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    To guarantee more flexibility and safety in supplying natural gas to the Brazilian market, PETROBRAS designed and constructed two liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminals. These terminals are unprecedented in the world since they are the only ones to use vessels that have been adapted to store LNG and re gasify the product onboard and to adopt the model of transferring LNG from a supply ship to a regasification vessel via cryogenic arms. Due to these different characteristics, TRANSPETRO, the PETROBRAS subsidiary in charge of operating these terminals, had to prepare itself not only to deal with a new product but also to operate terminals that have no counterparts in the world. This article gives an overview of the LNG supply chain and of the new Brazilian LNG Terminals from their conception to the preparation process to operate them. (author)

  10. Semi-analytical models of hydroelastic sloshing impact in tanks of liquefied natural gas vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, I; Malenica, Š; Korobkin, A

    2011-07-28

    The present paper deals with the methods for the evaluation of the hydroelastic interactions that appear during the violent sloshing impacts inside the tanks of liquefied natural gas carriers. The complexity of both the fluid flow and the structural behaviour (containment system and ship structure) does not allow for a fully consistent direct approach according to the present state of the art. Several simplifications are thus necessary in order to isolate the most dominant physical aspects and to treat them properly. In this paper, choice was made of semi-analytical modelling for the hydrodynamic part and finite-element modelling for the structural part. Depending on the impact type, different hydrodynamic models are proposed, and the basic principles of hydroelastic coupling are clearly described and validated with respect to the accuracy and convergence of the numerical results.

  11. 77 FR 55197 - LNG Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LNG...) filed on July 16, 2012, by LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b/a Oregon LNG), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 9.6 million tons per annum (mtpa) of liquefied natural gas...

  12. 76 FR 76698 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application To Export Domestic Liquefied Natural Gas to Non-Free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-31518] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 11-128-LNG] Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP..., by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (DCP), requesting long- term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 7.82 million metric tons per year of domestically produced liquefied natural gas...

  13. 76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... November 30, 2010, by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA), requesting blanket authorization to export... and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000...

  14. Distribution and Chain Pattern of Liquefied Natural Gas Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The production and consumption of natural gas in China has been developing rapidly in recent years. It is expected that the annual growth rate of the demand for natural gas will reach 12% in the next 15 years, and the gas consumption in the primary energy will increase from 0.3% to 10% or more by 2020. However, since the supply of natural gas cannot satisfy the requirements, China has begun to build liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals in the coastal regions such as Guangdong and Fujian, and solve this problem by importing LNG from foreign countries. LNG needs to be transported by LNG ships from abroad. With the rapid growth of global gas production, the volume of LNG trade also increases, and the interregional production increased from 0.3% in 1970 to 26.2% in 2004. So, we need LNG ships more than before. This article puts forward the distribution of LNG ships and the speculation of the future of LNG transportation based on the studies on foreign LNG production, the LNG trade, the building of LNG ships, the LNG transportation, the chain model of LNG distribution, etc.

  15. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-09-15

    With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  16. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center - Qatar, Texas A and M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Mannan, M. Sam, E-mail: mannan@tamu.edu [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Reveal the existence of blocking effect of high expansion foam on an LNG pool. • Study the blanketing effect of high expansion foam quantitatively. • Correlate heat flux for vaporization with foam breaking rate. • Propose the physical mechanism of blanketing effect. - Abstract: With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  17. Operation modes research of liquefied natural gas storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Korolev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG in the space-rocket equipment is motivated by some advantages. That is why a lot of tests and works are actively carried out now on rocket engines using liquefied natural gas.To provide the engine tests and subsequent rocket complex operation a creation of LNG storages is demanded as a part of ground processing equipment and support for their safe operation conditions.One of LNG danger factor is its low boiling temperature, and also changing the condition, density and LNG boiling temperature at storage due to evaporation of light component, namely methane. At refill of the storages having fuel remains with a new LNG portion these factors can lead to formation of the stratified macro-layers and cause a mode of the intensive mixing that is called "rollover", with almost instant evaporation of LNG big mass and sharp pressure boost, capable to result in the storage distraction with catastrophic effects.The work objectives are formulated such as a technique development for forecasting of the LNG parameters in operating storages including the rollover mode, a comparison of calculated results of the LNG parameters with the experimental data, and a definition of possible recommendations for safe operation of LNG storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment.The paper reviews 12 publications concerning the issues and proceeding processes at operation of LNG storages, including the rollover mode.To verify the reliability of process simulation results in the LNG, represented in models by the binary methane-ethane mixture the calculated values have been compared with the experimental data for a LNG storage mode in the reservoir of a ground test complex.The reliability of developed models of the heat-mass-exchange processes in stratified on density and temperature in LNG storage with emergence of conditions for the rollover mode has been verified by comparing the settlement characteristics to the published

  18. Economic and environmental assessment of liquefied natural gas as a supplemental aircraft fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mitch R.; Malina, Robert; Gilmore, Christopher K.; Gibbs, Jonathan M.; Trigg, Chris; Wolfe, Philip J.; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-04-01

    In 2013, natural gas is 70-80% cheaper than jet fuel on an energy basis. As an alternative aviation fuel, natural gas may reduce operating costs. In this paper, we assess the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a supplemental aircraft fuel in a military context, with detailed assessments of the Lockheed Martin C-130H and C-130J transport aircraft. We estimate the cost of retrofitting these aircraft to use LNG and the savings from reduced fuel expenses. We evaluate the societal impacts of LNG within a cost-benefit framework, taking into account resource consumption, human health impacts related to air quality, and climate damage. In order to compare alternative uses of natural gas in aviation, we include in our analysis Fischer-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas as a drop-in alternative. Uncertainty analysis is performed with Monte Carlo simulations. We find that aircraft operators can save up to 14% on fuel expenses (retrofit costs included) by employing LNG retrofits, with a 95% confidence interval of 2-23%. Society can also benefit by 12% (3-20%) from LNG use as a result of improved surface air quality, lower resource consumption, and net climate neutrality. These results are highly dependent on fuel prices, the quantity and cost of the LNG retrofits, and the frequency and length of missions. FT jet fuel is not cost-competitive with conventional fuel and results in increased fuel expenses by 17%. FT fuel provides marginal societal benefits relative to jet fuel.

  19. ANALISIS INVESTASI PROYEK PEMBANGUNAN TERMINAL LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG DI LABUAN MARINGGAI BERDASARKAN ANALISA BEBAN MODAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebinner Sinaga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya kebutuhan akan energi gas bumi tidak terlepas dari kondisi makro ekonomi di Indonesia. Dampak yang paling besar adalah dengan semakin berkembangnya sektor industri dalam negeri terutama di wilayah Jawa Barat dan Lampung, maka kebutuhan gas di wilayah ini meningkat untuk masa mendatang.Kondisi ini oleh PGN harus disikapi dengan serius dikarenakan kemampuan supply untuk gas saat ini tidak bisa untuk memenuhi kenaikan gas di masa mendatang yaitu sekitar 44% kenaikan kebutuhan gas. Saat ini PGN untuk wilayah Jawa Barat dan Lampung hanya mampu untuk mensupply sekitar 590 MMscfd, dengan target PGN untuk sepuluh tahun mendatang yaitu 1000 MMscfd, maka terjadi defisit supply gas sekitar 410 MMscfd. Dalam mencapai target supply gas yang telah ditetapkan yaitu 1000 Mmscfd dikarenakan terbatasnya pasokan gas dari sumber gas, maka PGN akan melakukan terobosan baru dengan keluar dari konsep supplay gas konvesional yakni dengan menggunakan gas alam cair atau Liquefied Natural Gas  (LNG. Dengan konsep ini, maka pasokan gas menjadi tidak terbatas, karena dapat didatangkan dari berbagai tempat ataupun dari negara lain. Dalam mendatangkan gas alam cair ini, dibutuhkan suatu stasiun penerima gas yang biasa disebut LNG Receiving yang penempatannya dengan berbagai pertimbangan dipilih di darat (onshore. Pembangunan terminal LNG ini sangat dibutuhkan untuk meningkatkan supply gas PGN. Pembangunan terminal LNG ini diperlukan satu arahan secara economical value. Dengan menggunakan metode Nilai Sekarang Bersih (NSB, Nilai Tahunan Bersih (NTB, dan Tingkat Pengembalian Internal (IRR maka proyek Pembangunan Terminal LNG ini layak untuk dilaksanakan.

  20. Cooperation among liquefied natural gas suppliers. Is rationalization the sole objective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massol, Olivier [Center for Economics and Management, IFP School, 228-232 av. Napoleon Bonaparte, F-92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Department of Economics, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Tchung-Ming, Stephane [Economic Studies Division, IFP, 1-4 av. de Bois-Preau, F-92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); CREDEN, Universite Montpellier I, Av. de la mer, BP 9606, F-34054, Montpellier (France)

    2010-07-15

    This paper examines the development of cooperative strategies between countries exporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). This economic study focuses specifically on an often-raised scenario: the emergence of a cooperative approach designed with the sole aim of logistic rationalization, and which would not have any effect on LNG prices. We first assess the annual gains that may result from this market-power-free cooperative approach using a simple static transportation model. The numerical results obtained suggest that, in the absence of a gain redistribution policy, this cooperative strategy will probably not be adopted because cooperation would not be a rational move for some exporters. The problem of gain sharing is then formulated using cooperative game theory concepts. Several gain-sharing methods have been studied, including the Shapley value and various nucleolus-inspired concepts. Our results suggest that the choice of a redistribution policy appears relatively restricted. Out of the methods studied, only one - per capita nucleolus - satisfies two key requirements. core belonging and monotonicity (in the aggregate). Lastly, we look at how cooperation may give rise to a coordination cost and try to determine the maximum amount of this cost. In view of the low level of this amount and the relative complexity of the sharing method implemented, we consider that the credibility of a logistic cooperation scenario exempt from market power should be reappraised. (author)

  1. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

    1996-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

  2. Calculation models for prediction of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ageing during ship transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miana, Mario; Hoyo, Rafael del; Rodrigalvarez, Vega; Valdes, Jose Ramon [Instituto Tecnologico de Aragon, Area de Investigacion, Desarrollo y Servicios Tecnologicos, Maria de Luna 7, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Llorens, Raul [ENAGAS SA, Direccion de Ingenieria y Tecnologia del Gas, Autovia A - 2, km. 306.4, 50012 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A group of European gas transportation companies within the European Gas Research Group launched in 2007 the 'MOLAS' Project to provide a software program for the analysis of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ageing process during ship transportation. This program contains two different modeling approaches: a physical algorithm and an 'intelligent' model. Both models are fed with the same input data, which is composed of the ship characteristics (BOR and capacity), voyage duration, LNG composition, temperature, pressure, and volume occupied by liquid phase at the port of origin, together with pressure at the port of destination. The results obtained are the LNG composition, temperature and liquid volume at the port of destination. Furthermore, the physical model obtains the evolution over time of such variables en route as it is based on unsteady mass balances over the system, while the i-model applies neural networks to obtain regression coefficients from historical data composed only of origin and destination measurements. This paper describes both models and validates them from previous published models and experimental data measured in ENAGAS LNG regasification plants. (author)

  3. Life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment of Nigerian liquefied natural gas addressing uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Amir; Freire, Fausto; Henggeler Antunes, Carlos

    2015-03-17

    Natural gas (NG) has been regarded as a bridge fuel toward renewable sources and is expected to play a greater role in future global energy mix; however, a high degree of uncertainty exists concerning upstream (well-to-tank, WtT) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of NG. In this study, a life-cycle (LC) model is built to assess uncertainty in WtT GHG emissions of liquefied NG (LNG) supplied to Europe by Nigeria. The 90% prediction interval of GHG intensity of Nigerian LNG was found to range between 14.9 and 19.3 g CO2 eq/MJ, with a mean value of 16.8 g CO2 eq/MJ. This intensity was estimated considering no venting practice in Nigerian fields. The mean estimation can shift up to 25 g CO2 eq when considering a scenario with a higher rate of venting emissions. A sensitivity analysis of the time horizon to calculate GHG intensity was also performed showing that higher GHG intensity and uncertainty are obtained for shorter time horizons, due to the higher impact factor of methane. The uncertainty calculated for Nigerian LNG, specifically regarding the gap of data for methane emissions, recommends initiatives to measure and report emissions and further LC studies to identify hotspots to reduce the GHG intensity of LNG chains.

  4. Experimental and numerical investigation of the roll motion behavior of a floating liquefied natural gas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, WenHua; Yang, JianMin; Hu, ZhiQiang; Xiao, LongFei; Peng, Tao

    2013-03-01

    The present paper does an experimental and numerical investigation of the hydrodynamic interaction and the response of a single point turret-moored Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) system, which is a new type of floating LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) platform that consists of a ship-type FPSO hull equipped with LNG storage tanks and liquefaction plants. In particular, this study focuses on the investigation of the roll response of FLNG hull in free-decay motions, white noise waves and also in irregular waves. Model tests of the FLNG system in 60%H filling condition excited by both white noise waves and irregular waves combined with steady wind and current have been carried out. Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) and time histories of the responses are obtained for sway, roll and yaw motions. Obvious Low Frequency (LF) components of the roll motions are observed, which may be out of expectation. To facilitate the physical understanding of this phenomenon, we filter the roll motions at the period of 30 s into two parts: the Wave Frequency (WF) motions and the Low Frequency (LF) motions respectively. The results indicate that the LF motions are closely related to the sway and yaw motions. Possible reasons for the presence of the LF motions of roll have been discussed in detail, through the comparison with the sway and yaw motions. As for the numerical part, the simulation of the modeled case is conducted with the help of the software SESAM®. A good agreement between experiments and calculations is reported within the scope of trends. However, the numerical simulations should be further improved for the prediction of the FLNG system in the heading sea.

  5. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  6. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  7. ENVIR IONMENTAL ISSUES OF COMPETITIVENESS OF RUSSIAN MULTINATIONAL OIL AND GAS CORPORATIONS IN LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Piskulova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to tough state environmental management requirements and ecological regulations, oil and gas multinational corporations (MNC make more and more attempts to mitigate negative environmental impacts resulting from their industrial activities, their competitiveness beingstrengthened therewith. The use of liquefied natural gas (LNG is associated with less environmental impact in comparison with oil and coal, particularly so far as the hotbed effect is concerned. In the field of innovative technological development, Russian MNC drag so far well behind most advanced western corporations who provide for less negative impact of their production activities upon environment.

  8. Investigation on the heat transfer characteristics during flow boiling of liquefied natural gas in a vertical micro-fin tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Shi, Yumei; Chen, Dongsheng

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the heat transfer characteristics of liquefied natural gas flow boiling in a vertical micro-fin tube. The effect of heat flux, mass flux and inlet pressure on the flow boiling heat transfer coefficients was analyzed. The Kim, Koyama, and two kinds of Wellsandt correlations with different Ftp coefficients were used to predict the flow boiling heat transfer coefficients. The predicted results showed that the Koyama correlation was the most accurate over the range of experimental conditions.

  9. Performance analysis of different organic Rankine cycle configurations on board liquefied natural gas-fuelled vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, Enrico; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Gas-fuelled shipping is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. Similarly, much effort is devoted to the study of waste heat recovery systems to be implemented on board ships. In this context, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology is considered one of the most promising...... solutions. The ORC favorably compares to the steam Rankine cycle because of its simple layout and high efficiency, achievable by selecting a working fluid with desirable properties. This paper aims at assessing the fuel savings attainable by implementing ORC units on board vessels powered by liquefied...

  10. Analysis of Influence of Heat Insulation on the Thermal Regime of Storage Tanks with Liquefied Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimov Vyacheslav I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Is numerically investigated the process of convective heat transfer in the reservoirs of liquefied natural gas (LNG. The regimes of natural convection in a closed rectangular region with different intensity of heat exchange at the external borders are investigated. Is solved the time-dependent system of energy and Navier-Stokes equations in the dimensionless variables “vorticity – the stream function”. Are obtained distributions of the hydrodynamic parameters and temperatures, that characterize basic regularities of the processes. The special features of the formation of circulation flows are isolated and the analysis of the temperature distribution in the solution region is carried out. Is shown the influence of geometric characteristics and intensity of heat exchange on the outer boundaries of reservoir on the temperature field in the LNG storage.

  11. Energy consumption, destruction of exergy and boil off during the process of liquefaction, transport and regasification of liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stradioto, Diogo Angelo; Schneider, Paulo Smith [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)], e-mail: pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    A supply chain of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is composed by several processes like extraction, purification, liquefaction, storage, transport, regasification and distribution. In all these stages, processes need of energy. The main objective of this work is to quantify the energy consumption, mass loss and exergy destruction occurred throughout the chain. Results show that the process of liquefaction is the largest consumer of energy. Storage and transport by ship are responsible for the bigger mass losses and regasification is the process of larger destruction of exergy. A case study is performed considering a stream of pure methane at the input of a liquefaction plant, and evaluates energy along the chain, ending up at the distribution of NG after its regasification. (author)

  12. LNG低温管道支架设计%Introduce the Designing for Liquefied Natural Gas Cryogenic Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方锦坤

    2012-01-01

    管道支架是用以保持管道稳固和保证管线安全运行的重要组成部分。文章介绍了LNG低温管道支架设计中支架保冷结构和管部设计的要求,以及一种常用的滑动支架结构详图。%Pipe support is a significant part for fixing the pipeline and ensuring the safely operation of pipeline.The paper introduced the requirement for the structure of heat proof and support design in Liquefied Natural Gas cryogenic support,as well as a detail structural drawing of slide support in common use.

  13. Application of RAM Analyses in Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal%RAM分析在LNG接收站中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静

    2011-01-01

    The reliability engineering and its application were summarized.The importance to modern companies and product were emphasized.The application of RAM in liquefied natural gas terminal was introduced, interrelated application case was provided, and improvement suggestions according to the analysis result were recommended.%概述了可靠性工程的发展和应用,阐明了可靠性对现代企业和产品的重要意义.介绍了RAM(可靠性、可用性、可维护性)分析在液化天然气接收站中的应用过程,并且提供了应用案例和改进建议.

  14. Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

    2004-12-01

    While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

  15. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  16. A Question of Jurisdiction: Art. 267 TFEU Preliminary References of a CFSP Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Can the Court of Justice of the European Union assert jurisdiction and provide a national court with an interpretation of Union law in a case referred to it from a national court under an Art. 267 TFEU preliminary reference, when the subject matter is in regard to the Common Foreign and Security...... Policy (CFSP)? This was one of a number of questions referred to the Court of Justice from the High Court of England and Wales in Rosneft (judgment of 28 March 2017, case C-72/15). In March 2017, the Court of Justice meeting in a Grand Chamber formation, answered this jurisdictional question...... of case law to clarify its jurisdiction in CFSP, it is ultimately a question of constitutional importance for the EU’s external relations....

  17. Thermodynamic design of a cascade refrigeration system of liquefied natural gas by applying mixed integer non-linear programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meysam Kamalinejad; Majid Amidpour; S.M. Mousavi Naeynian

    2015-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is the most economical way of transporting natural gas (NG) over long distances. Liq-uefaction of NG using vapor compression refrigeration system requires high operating and capital cost. Due to lack of systematic design methods for multistage refrigeration cycles, conventional approaches to determine op-timal cycle are largely trial-and-error. In this paper a novel mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) model is introduced to select optimal synthesis of refrigeration systems to reduce both operating and capital costs of an LNG plant. Better conceptual understanding of design improvement is illustrated on composite curve (CC) and exergetic grand composite curve (EGCC) of pinch analysis diagrams. In this method a superstruc-ture representation of complex refrigeration system is developed to select and optimize key decision variables in refrigeration cycles (i.e. partition temperature, compression configuration, refrigeration features, refrigerant flow rate and economic trade-off). Based on this method a program (LNG-Pro) is developed which integrates VBA, Refprop and Excel MINLP Solver to automate the methodology. Design procedure is applied on a sample LNG plant to illustrate advantages of using this method which shows a 3.3% reduction in total shaft work consumption.

  18. A Question of Jurisdiction: Art. 267 TFEU Preliminary References of a CFSP Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Can the Court of Justice of the European Union assert jurisdiction and provide a national court with an interpretation of Union law in a case referred to it from a national court under an Art. 267 TFEU preliminary reference, when the subject matter is in regard to the Common Foreign and Security...... in the affirmative. Given the significance of this judgment for the law of CFSP, and the Opinion of the Advocate General in 2016, this judgment was hotly anticipated given its implications for the “specific rules and procedures” that are applicable to the law of CFSP. As the Court of Justice continues in a line...... of case law to clarify its jurisdiction in CFSP, it is ultimately a question of constitutional importance for the EU’s external relations....

  19. Foam production as a side effect of an offshore liquefied natural gas terminal: how do plankton deal with it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Annalisa; Karuza, Ana; Celussi, Mauro; Fornasaro, Daniela; Beran, Alfred; Di Poi, Elena; Del Negro, Paola

    2015-06-01

    The future growing demand of fossil fuels likely will lead to an increased deployment of liquefied natural gas terminals. However, some concerns exist about their possible effects on the marine environment and biota. Such plants showed to cause the production of foam, as occurred at the still operative terminal of Porto Viro (northern Adriatic Sea). Here, we present results from two microcosm experiments focused on the effects of such foam on microbially mediated degradation processes and its consequent incorporation within the pelagic food web. Such material could be considered as a heterogeneous matrix of both living and non-living organic matter, which constitutes an important substrate for exoenzymes as suggested by the faster hydrolytic rates measured in the treatment microcosms. In the second experiment, a quite immediate and efficient carbon transfer to planktonic biomass through prokaryotic incorporation and consequent predation by heterotrophic flagellates was highlighted. Although no negative effect was evidenced on the overall microbes' growth and foam-derived C seemed to be easily reworked and transferred to higher trophic levels, an important reduction in biodiversity was evidenced for microalgae. Among them, mixotrophic organisms seemed to be favoured suggesting that the addition of foam could cause a modification of the microbial community structure.

  20. In-use NOx emissions from diesel and liquefied natural gas refuse trucks equipped with SCR and TWC respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Chandan; Ruehl, Chris; Collins, John Francis; Chernich, Don; Herner, Jorn

    2017-02-07

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the City of Sacramento undertook this study to characterize the in-use emissions from model year (MY) 2010 or newer diesel, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and hydraulic hybrid diesel engines during real-world refuse truck operation. Emissions from five trucks: two diesels equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), two LNG's equipped with three-way catalyst (TWC) and one hydraulic hybrid diesel equipped with SCR were measured using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) in the Sacramento area. Results showed that the brake-specific NOx emissions for the LNG trucks equipped with the TWC catalyst were lowest of all the technologies tested. Results also showed that the brake specific NOx emissions from the conventional diesel engines were significantly higher despite the exhaust temperature being high enough for proper SCR function. Like diesel engines, the brake specific NOx emissions from the hydraulic hybrid diesel also exceeded certification although this can be explained on the basis of the temperature profile. Future studies are warranted to establish whether the below average SCR performance observed in this study is a systemic issue or is it a problem specifically observed during this work.

  1. A Novel Boil-Off Gas Re-Liquefaction Using a Spray Recondenser for Liquefied Natural-Gas Bunkering Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiheon Ryu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the design of a novel boil-off gas (BOG re-liquefaction technology using a BOG recondenser system. The BOG recondenser system targets the liquefied natural gas (LNG bunkering operation, in which the BOG phase transition occurs in a pressure vessel instead of a heat exchanger. The BOG that is generated during LNG bunkering operation is characterized as an intermittent flow with various peak loads. The system was designed to temporarily store the transient BOG inflow, condense it with subcooled LNG and store the condensed liquid. The superiority of the system was verified by comparing it with the most extensively employed conventional re-liquefaction system in terms of consumption energy and via an exergy analysis. Static simulations were conducted for three compositions; the results indicated that the proposed system provided 0 to 6.9% higher efficiencies. The exergy analysis indicates that the useful work of the conventional system is 24.9%, and the useful work of the proposed system is 26.0%. Process dynamic simulations of six cases were also performed to verify the behaviour of the BOG recondenser system. The results show that the pressure of the holdup in the recondenser vessel increased during the BOG inflow mode and decreased during the initialization mode. The maximum pressure of one of the bunkering cases was 3.45 bar. The system encountered a challenge during repetitive operations due to overpressurizing of the BOG recondenser vessel.

  2. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): the natural gas becoming a world commodity and creating international price references; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): o gas natural se tornando uma commodity mundial e criando referencias de preco internacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demori, Marcio Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Comercializacao de Gas e GNL; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    The transportation of large quantities of natural gas through long distances has been done more frequently by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The increase of natural gas demand and the distance of major reserves, allied to technological improvements and cost reduction through LNG supply chain, have triggered the expressive increase of LNG world market This paper tries to evaluate the influence that LNG should cause on natural gas world market dynamic, analyzing the tendency of gas to become a world commodity, creating international price references, like oil and its derivates. For this, are shown data as natural gas world reserves, the participation of LNG in natural gas world market and their increase. Furthermore, will be analyzed the interaction between major natural gas reserves and their access to major markets, still considering scheduled LNG projects, the following impacts from their implementation and price arbitrage that should be provoked on natural gas markets. (author)

  3. Development of a cryogenic flexible pipe for the transfer of liquefied natural gas; Mise au point d'un flexible cryogenique pour le transfert du gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigaud, J.; Gerez, J.M.; Dieumegard, C. [Coflexip Stena Offshore, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    For historical reasons, the liquefaction of natural gas is performed with onshore equipments and LNG tanker-ships are loaded and unloaded using rigid articulated arms. When these operations are performed in harbors, the movement of the ship with respect to the pier are relatively limited. Today, several companies aim at liquefying natural gas using floating facilities. The loading of tanker-ships is performed offshore, and thus movements between the ship and the floating facility are enhanced. The use of a flexible pipe can be an interesting alternative solution to the articulated arm. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the LNG flexible technology developed by Coflexip Stena Offshore and the progress of the program of development of a cryogenic flexible: structure, fittings, safety (leaks detection), thermal calculations, optimization of the corrugated hose profile, pressure drops, fatigue tests and service life, materials development, prototype and real tests. (J.S.)

  4. Design on Gas Station of Liquefied Natural Gas Vehicle(LNGV)%液化天然气汽车加气站设计方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳朝辉; 李晓倩; 靳从娟

    2012-01-01

    液化天然气(LNG)是清洁能源,LNG用于液化天然气汽车(LNGV)是环境保护的需要,也是减少我国石油对外依存度的需要。介绍了LNG加气站的卸车流程、加气流程、调压流程、主要设备及管材、自控仪表等方面的工艺设计方案。%Liquefied natural gas(LNG), a kind of clean energy, is used in liquefied natural gas vehicle(LNGV), and plays roles of protecting environment and educing our dependence on foreign oil. To introduce the design scheme of LNGV in some aspects of LNG unloading process, gas flow process, pressure regulating process, the main equipments and pipe,automatic control instruments and so on.

  5. Deformation Control of Liquefied Natural Gas Storage Tank%液化天然气储罐制造中的变形控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾乃刚

    2012-01-01

    论述了液化天然气储罐制造中引起变形的因素,对预制阶段和焊接过程中的变形及防变形控制进行了简要介绍.%The factors that cause deformation in the liquefied natural gas storage tank manufacturing are discussed, deformation in prefabricated stage and welding process and anti-distortion control are introduced briefly.

  6. 75 FR 19954 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... authorization was amended to reflect a name change from Cheniere Marketing, Inc to Cheniere Marketing, LLC.\\1... of approval of this Amendment which opponents bear the burden of overcoming.\\4\\ CMI states further... respond to changes in domestic and global markets for natural gas and LNG. CMI states that the additional...

  7. National measures fostering alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas, liquefied oil gas vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    This document, issued by the French Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry, presents national measures fostering alternative vehicles, i.e., electric, natural gas and liquefied oil gas vehicles. Financial supports for studies aiming at optimizing the fleet and choosing the alternative vehicles as well as for purchasing vehicles both by counter procedure and for demonstration programmes are provided. Amount of subsidies, conditions of obtaining and categories of addressees are indicated. The document contains also two relating studies. The first one is titled 'the policy of developing alternative vehicles'. The following four items are addressed: - the present frame favouring the alternative vehicles; - the electric vehicles; - natural gas fuelled vehicles (GNV); - liquefied oil gas fuelled vehicles (GPLc). Although non-polluting the electric vehicles are not tempting because of their rather limited range (80 Km at a battery charging). So far only around 3,000 vehicles were sold. Fifty GNV buses were ordered by RATP and the figure raised at 70 in 1998 and 1999. The GPLc fleet amounts up to 70,000 vehicles and by the end of 2000 it is foreseen to reach the level of 300,000 vehicles. The second study addresses to the issue of natural gas for vehicles. It presents: - its advantages; - its peculiarities; - the action of public authorities; -the current state and trends of GNV vehicles. In a joint effort public authorities and partners of this option are aiming at a fleet of 2500 light service vehicles and 300 bus for urban transport by the end of 1999.

  8. World exclusive . . Snoehvit plays it cool[Liquefied natural gas technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, T.

    2002-04-01

    This article reports on the planned recovery of the natural gas reserves from three large offshore gas fields - known collectively as Snoehvit - in the Barents Sea. Details are given of the location of the fields, the aim of operator Statoil and its co-venturers to transport the natural gas through a multiphase pipeline to a LNG plant on an island near Hammerfest, and the strong support of the Norwegian government. Statoil's strategy of phased development of the Askeladd, Albatross and Snoehvit fields starting with the Snoehvit field is discussed along with pipelines, the LNG plant, the drilling of the production wells, and pipeline design. The carbon dioxide injection pipeline, control systems, onshore technology, and environmental and economic issues are considered.

  9. Jurisdiction Size and Local Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritslew, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Optimal jurisdiction size is a cornerstone of government design. A strong tradition in political thought argues that democracy thrives in smaller jurisdictions, but existing studies of the effects of jurisdiction size, mostly cross-sectional in nature, yield ambiguous results due to sorting effects...... and problems of endogeneity. We focus on internal political efficacy, a psychological condition that many see as necessary for high-quality participatory democracy. We identify a quasiexperiment, a large-scale municipal reform in Denmark, which allows us to estimate a causal effect of jurisdiction size......-in-difference and matching estimators, that jurisdiction size has a causal and sizeable detrimental effect on citizens' internal political efficacy....

  10. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. liquefied natural gas exports: implications for end uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Leslie S; Samaras, Constantine; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2015-03-03

    This study analyzes how incremental U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports affect global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We find that exported U.S. LNG has mean precombustion emissions of 37 g CO2-equiv/MJ when regasified in Europe and Asia. Shipping emissions of LNG exported from U.S. ports to Asian and European markets account for only 3.5-5.5% of precombustion life cycle emissions, hence shipping distance is not a major driver of GHGs. A scenario-based analysis addressing how potential end uses (electricity and industrial heating) and displacement of existing fuels (coal and Russian natural gas) affect GHG emissions shows the mean emissions for electricity generation using U.S. exported LNG were 655 g CO2-equiv/kWh (with a 90% confidence interval of 562-770), an 11% increase over U.S. natural gas electricity generation. Mean emissions from industrial heating were 104 g CO2-equiv/MJ (90% CI: 87-123). By displacing coal, LNG saves 550 g CO2-equiv per kWh of electricity and 20 g per MJ of heat. LNG saves GHGs under upstream fugitive emissions rates up to 9% and 5% for electricity and heating, respectively. GHG reductions were found if Russian pipeline natural gas was displaced for electricity and heating use regardless of GWP, as long as U.S. fugitive emission rates remain below the estimated 5-7% rate of Russian gas. However, from a country specific carbon accounting perspective, there is an imbalance in accrued social costs and benefits. Assuming a mean social cost of carbon of $49/metric ton, mean global savings from U.S. LNG displacement of coal for electricity generation are $1.50 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) of gaseous natural gas exported as LNG ($.028/kWh). Conversely, the U.S. carbon cost of exporting the LNG is $1.80/Mcf ($.013/kWh), or $0.50-$5.50/Mcf across the range of potential discount rates. This spatial shift in embodied carbon emissions is important to consider in national interest estimates for LNG exports.

  11. An assessment of air emissions from liquefied natural gas ships using different power systems and different fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afon, Yinka; Ervin, David

    2008-03-01

    The shipping industry has been an unrecognized source of criteria pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds, coarse particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has traditionally been transported via steam turbine (ST) ships. Recently, LNG shippers have begun using dual-fuel diesel engines (DFDEs) to propel and offload their cargoes. Both the conventional ST boilers and DFDE are capable of burning a range of fuels, from heavy fuel oil to boil-off-gas (BOG) from the LNG load. In this paper a method for estimating the emissions from ST boilers and DFDEs during LNG offloading operations at berth is presented, along with typical emissions from LNG ships during offloading operations under different scenarios ranging from worst-case fuel oil combustion to the use of shore power. The impact on air quality in nonattainment areas where LNG ships call is discussed. Current and future air pollution control regulations for ocean-going vessels (OGVs) such as LNG ships are also discussed. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare emissions of criteria pollutants from conventional ST and DFDE ships using different fuels. The results of this study suggest that newer DFDE ships have lower SO2 and PM2.5/PM10 emissions, conventional ST ships have lower NOx, volatile organic compound, and CO emissions; and DFDE ships utilizing shore power at berth produce no localized emissions because they draw their required power from the local electric grid.

  12. Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Samad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Natural Gas (LNG processing facilities typically are located on ocean shores for easy transport of LNG by marine vessels. These plants use large quantities of water for various process streams. The combined wastewater effluents from the LNG plants are discharged to the coastal and marine environments typically through submarine outfalls. Proper disposal of effluents from an LNG plant is essential to retain local and regional environmental values and to ensure regulatory and permit compliance for industrial effluents. Typical outfall designs involve multi-port diffuser systems where the design forms a part of the overall environmental impact assessment for the plant. The design approach needs to ensure that both near-field plume dispersion and far-field effluent circulation meets the specified mixing zone criteria. This paper describes typical wastewater process streams from an LNG plant and presents a diffuser system design case study (for an undisclosed project location in a meso-tidal coast to meet the effluent mixing zone criteria. The outfall is located in a coastal and marine ecosystem where the large tidal range and persistent surface wind govern conditions for the diffuser design. Physical environmental attributes and permit compliance criteria are discussed in a generic format. The paper describes the design approach, conceptualization of numerical model schemes for near- and far-field effluent mixing zones, and the selected diffuser design.

  13. Cost Effective pada Sistem Regasifikasi Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dananto Adi Nugroho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan  untuk  melakukan evaluasi dan  mendapatkan data desain dan  biaya  efektif  terhadap tiga teknologi  regasifikasi LNG  yaitu  Open Rack Vaporizer (ORV  dengan  menggunakan  air  laut  sebagai  sumber  panas,  Direct  Natural  Draft, Ambient  Air  Vaporizer  (DND-AAV  dan  Direct  Forced  Draft  Ambient  Air  Vaporizer, (DFD-AAV  yang  menggunakan  udara  ambien  sebagai  sumber  panas. Ketiga proses ini dijalankan dengan kapasitas sama. Metode dalam penelitian ini dilakukan dengan bantuan program simulasi menggunakan program HYSYS 7.3 untuk mendapatkan kondisi operasi untuk tiap teknologi regasifikasi. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa sistem regasifikasi menggunakan ORV dengan medium air laut memiliki IRR yang paling tinggi dibanding kedua sistem regasifikasi lainnya.

  14. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals

  15. The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities; Les tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux de transport et des installations de gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

  16. Substitution of petroleum liquefied gas for natural gas in a metallurgical industry: a case study; Substituicao de gas liquefeito de petroleo por gas natural em uma siderurgica: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Isac Quintao; Miranda, Luciano Lellis; Fullin Junior, Benjamin; Rodrigues, Henrique de Castro; Manella, Roberto [Aperam South America, Timoteo, MG (Brazil). Utilidades e Eficiencia Energetica; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2011-12-21

    Minas Gerais is a State where there is no production of natural gas. Aiming to increase the consumption of natural gas in Minas Gerais, PETROBRAS increase the network of gas natural distribution in the State of Minas Gerais and the State concessionaire (GASMIG) installed the Project of Natural Gas Valley. The case study is associated to an enterprise that firmed contract for supplying of natural gas. The fuel to be substituted is the Liquefied Petroleum Gas and the results of the substitution were shown. The advantages of the substitution were related to costs, and environmental aspects with the reduction of CO{sub 2} production. The natural gas contains a lower content of impurities and is operated with higher safety than the petroleum liquefied gas. (author)

  17. 18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  18. Brazil's insertion in the international LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) route; A insercao do Brasil na rota internacional de GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueng, Stephan de Carvalho; Bastos, Filipe Sant' Ana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the late 1990's, PETROBRAS began considering diversifying its energy sources. This included the possibility of importing LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), making it one additional source for gas supply in Brazil. There is a belief that the imported LNG is the cheapest, quickest and most efficient option in terms of infrastructure compared to other transportation, such as pipelines. This will permit an increase in gas supply, given the growing demand for this energy source in the domestic market. The current international LNG trading market is adjusting itself to the world integration, where short-term (spot) agreements prevail. These agreements have many advantages, such as: lowering fixed trading costs; the possibility to diversify suppliers; minimizing gas supply risk; and facilitating import market supply adjustment. In Brazil, the main objective to import LNG is to supply natural gas (NG) to thermal plants, supplementing the hydroelectric - gas integration of the electric system. For the accomplishment of this project, it is forecasted the construction of LNG offloading terminals, together with the construction of gas distribution networks. Therefore, LNG transportation will guarantee security in supply, permit the diversification of the NG supply source and enable the increased use of NG in the Brazilian energy grid. (author)

  19. Studi Awal Desain LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Plant Dari Coal Bed Methane (CBM Dengan Kapasitas Feed 40 MMSCFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini telah dilakukan perancangan Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG Plant dari CBM degan kapasitas feed 40 MMSCFD dan waktu operasi 24 jam/hari dan 330 hari/tahun. Perancangan LNG plant dari CBM ini bertujuan untuk membantu usaha Negara dalam melakukan diversifikasi energi untuk mengatasi krisis energi. Salah satu contoh diversifikasi energi adalah mengganti bahan bakar pembangkit listrik High Speed Diesel (HSD menjadi LNG yang harganya relative lebih murah. Penelitian ini didasarkan pada simulasi dengan Aspen HYSYS, dimana terdapat batasan penelitian yakni gas alam yang dicairkan dengan cara didinginkan pada temperatur sekitar -161.3oC dan pada tekanan 1.06 bar. Tujuan pabrik LNG ini adalah Provinsi Bali hal ini dikarenakan elektrifikasi daerah tersebut cukup rendah. Dengan konsumsi minyak HSD yang tinggi tetapi elektrifikasi yang rendah maka diperlukan sumber energi alternatif untuk meningkatkan daya yang dihasilkan dan area distribusi sehingga tingkat elektrifikasi akan menjadi lebih tinggi. Pabrik LNG ini didirikan di Muara Enim, Sumatera Selatan pada tahun 2016. Penentuan lokasi pabrik berorientasi pada ketersediaan sumber bahan baku CBM. Menurut data DITJEN MIGAS Muara enim memiliki potensi CBM sebesar 0.5 TCF. Potensi sebesar ini dapat digunakan selama 60 tahun dengan kapasitas feed LNG plant sebesar 40 MMSCFD Proses pembuatan LNG dari gas alam ini menggunakan Proses On-Shore LNG menggunakan beberapa rangkaian proses yaitu : Unit Penghilang CO2 dan H2S : menggunakan Amine Cycle, Unit Dehidrasi : menggunakan molecular sieve, Unit Refrigeran dan Pencairan : menggunakan MCR Coldbox Sumber dana investasi berasal dari modal sendiri sebesar 20 % biaya investasi dan pinjaman jangka pendek sebesar 80 % biaya investasi dengan bunga sebesar 12 % per tahun. Dari analisa perhitungan ekonomi didapat hasil-hasil sebagai berikut : Investasi : 163,557 MUSD, Internal Rate of Return : 25.66 %, POT : 3.26 tahun, BEP : 58.86 %, NPV 10 year   :120

  20. Development Status of Large-scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Tanks%大型液化天然气储罐的发展状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月; 王为民; 李明鑫; 郝晶; 曹彦青

    2013-01-01

    随着液化天然气的需求量日益增加,它的储存运输问题也得到了越来越大的重视。液化天然气储罐是储存液化天然气的一种重要设备。主要简介了液化天然气的优点,液化天然气储罐的分类,国内外现状,以及建造时可能遇到的问题,并简单总结了液化天然气储罐的发展趋势。%With the increasing of LNG demand,its storage and transportation problem has got more and more attention. The liquid natural gas storage tank is a kind of important equipment to store liquefied natural gas. In this article, advantages of liquefied natural gas were introduced as well as classification of LNG storage tanks. The common problems during building the liquid natural gas storage tank were discussed, and the development trend of LNG storage tanks was put forward.

  1. The Analysis on Global Liquefied Natural Gas Supply and Demand Situation%全球液化天然气供需形势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈成

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the global LNG supply and demand situation and trend of development, and predicts that the trading price of liquefied natural gas will subsequently be higher along with the higher demand in the future 10 years.%文章主要介绍了全球液化天然气供需现状和发展趋势,提出未来10年内该产业将处于供应紧张状态,液化天然气交易价格也将随之走高。

  2. Clean sailing. LNG terminals. Maritime infrastructure for liquefied natural gas; Sauber auf See. LNG-Terminals. Maritime Infrastruktur fuer fluessiges Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-09-01

    Ports act as essential hubs in the global economy. But the rise in maritime traffic is taking a toll on the quality of air in ports and out at sea. From 2015 onwards, threshold governing harmful emissions are being tightened in a bid to clear the air. All of which is driving interest in more environmentally sound fuels. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is the perfect fit, more than complying with the upcoming regulations. To enable its widespread adoption, Linde is working full steam ahead to create a network of LNG terminals in Europe. (orig.)

  3. Energy and Exergy Analyses of a Combined Power Cycle Using the Organic Rankine Cycle and the Cold Energy of Liquefied Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this work, energy and exergy analyses are carried out for a combined cycle consisting of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and a liquefied natural gas (LNG) Rankine cycle for the recovery of low-grade heat sources and LNG cold energy. The effects of the turbine inlet pressure and the working fluid on the system performance are theoretically investigated. A modified temperature-enthalpy diagram is proposed, which can be useful to see the characteristics of the combined cycle, as well as the te...

  4. Liquefied natural gas; Gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total has interests in five of the world's largest liquefaction plants, which together account for roughly 40% of global LNG production capacity. This presentation illustrates the activities of the Group in the LNG sector. It discusses the advantages of the LNG as a clean energy, the LNG market, the liquefaction process and plants, the LNG trading marketing and shipping, the re-gasification and TOTAL promoting innovation. (A.L.B.)

  5. Two-phase flows during a discharge of liquefied gases, initially at saturation. Effect of the nature of the fluid; Ecoulements diphasiques lors de la vidange de gaz liquefies initialement a saturation. Influence de la nature du fluide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alix, P.

    1997-10-03

    In the case of a confinement loss (breakage of a connection piece) on a pressurized liquefied gas tank, a critical two-phase (liquid-vapour) flow is generated. This thesis is aimed at the validation of models describing these flows with various fluids (water, R 11, methanol, ethyl acetate, pure butane, commercial butane), using a pilot experimental plant. Results show that reduced upstream pressure is the main parameter, thus indicating that a model can be validated using minimal fluids. The homogenous models DEM and HRM appear to be more precise

  6. A methodology for risk analysis based on hybrid Bayesian networks: application to the regasification system of liquefied natural gas onboard a floating storage and regasification unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Schleder, Adriana Miralles; Droguett, Enrique López

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an iterative six-step risk analysis methodology based on hybrid Bayesian networks (BNs). In typical risk analysis, systems are usually modeled as discrete and Boolean variables with constant failure rates via fault trees. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not possible to perform an efficient analysis using only discrete and Boolean variables. The approach put forward by the proposed methodology makes use of BNs and incorporates recent developments that facilitate the use of continuous variables whose values may have any probability distributions. Thus, this approach makes the methodology particularly useful in cases where the available data for quantification of hazardous events probabilities are scarce or nonexistent, there is dependence among events, or when nonbinary events are involved. The methodology is applied to the risk analysis of a regasification system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on board an FSRU (floating, storage, and regasification unit). LNG is becoming an important energy source option and the world's capacity to produce LNG is surging. Large reserves of natural gas exist worldwide, particularly in areas where the resources exceed the demand. Thus, this natural gas is liquefied for shipping and the storage and regasification process usually occurs at onshore plants. However, a new option for LNG storage and regasification has been proposed: the FSRU. As very few FSRUs have been put into operation, relevant failure data on FSRU systems are scarce. The results show the usefulness of the proposed methodology for cases where the risk analysis must be performed under considerable uncertainty.

  7. 我国液化天然气接收站防爆设计%China's liquefied natural gas receiving station explosion proof design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱向东

    2015-01-01

    天然气所具有易燃、易爆特点,使得液化天然气(LNG)接收站工程设计中要始终把防爆安全问题放在首要位置来考虑.文章依据LNG接收站爆炸事故特征,通过对于接收站中不同程度危险区域的划分,研究了液化天然气接收站防爆设计.%Natural gas is flammable, explosive has characteristics, which makes the liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving station project design should always put the explosion-proof safety problems in the first place to consider. According to the characteristics of explosion accident of LNG receiving station, through the division of the different degree for hazardous area in a receiving station, studies the liquefied natural gas receiving station explosion proof design.

  8. 大型液化天然气储气罐沉降分析%SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS ON LARGE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS STORAGE TANK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺超; 杨建江

    2012-01-01

    随着我国天然气利用的不断增长,对大型液化天然气储气罐的研究显得越来越重要.本文介绍了Randolph和Worth提出的单桩及群桩基础沉降公式并结合Ansys有限元分析软件对高承台大型液化天然气储气罐进行沉降分析.Ansys模型分析得出的沉降结果与已有工程经验有很好的吻合.%With the growing use of natural gas, the study of large-scale liquefied natural gas storage tank is becoming increasingly important. This paper introduces the formula of single pile and group pile foundation settlement proposed by Randolph and Worth, and also analysis the settlement of the high cap foundation of the large-scale liquefied natural gas storage tank with Ansys finite element analysis software. The sedimentation results educed from Ansys model analysis are in good agreement with the existing engineering experience.

  9. Comments on Potential Geologic and Seismic Hazards Affecting Proposed Liquefied Natural Gas Site in Santa Monica Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Lee, Homa J.; Parsons, Tom E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Boore, David M.; Conrad, James E.; Edwards, Brian D.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Hough, Susan E.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Luco, Nicolas; McCrory, Patricia A.; McGann, Mary; Nathenson, Manuel; Nolan, Michael; Petersen, Mark D.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Powell, Charles L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Tinsley, John C.; Wills, Chris J.; Wong, Florence L.; Xu, Jingping

    2008-01-01

    In a letter to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dated March 25, 2008, Representative Jane Harman (California 36th district) requested advice on geologic hazards that should be considered in the review of a proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility off the California coast in Santa Monica Bay. In 2004, the USGS responded to a similar request from Representative Lois Capps, regarding two proposed LNG facilities offshore Ventura County, Calif., with a report summarizing potential geologic and seismic hazards (Ross and others, 2004). The proposed LNG Deepwater Port (DWP) facility includes single point moorings (SPMs) and 35 miles of underwater pipelines. The DWP submersible buoys, manifolds, and risers would be situated on the floor of the southern Santa Monica Basin, in 3,000 feet of water, about 23 miles offshore of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Twin 24-inch diameter pipelines would extend northeastward from the buoys across the basin floor, up the basin slope and across the continental shelf, skirting north around the Santa Monica submarine canyon. Figure 1 provides locations of the project and geologic features. Acronyms are defined in table 1. This facility is being proposed in a region of known geologic hazards that arise from both the potential for strong earthquakes and geologic processes related to sediment transport and accumulation in the offshore environment. The probability of a damaging earthquake (considered here as magnitude 6.5 or greater) in the next 30 years within about 30 miles (50 km) of the proposed pipeline ranges from 16% at the pipeline's offshore end to 48% where it nears land (Petersen, 2008). Earthquakes of this magnitude are capable of producing strong shaking, surface fault offsets, liquefaction phenomena, landslides, underwater turbidity currents and debris flow avalanches, and tsunamis. As part of the DWP license application for the Woodside Natural Gas proposal in Santa Monica Bay (known as the OceanWay Secure Energy Project), Fugro

  10. Analysis of the Safety Technology of Liquefied Natural Gas Storage and Transportation%解析液化天然气储存运输的安全技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑妃志

    2015-01-01

    在液化天然气储存运输过程中,应用安全技术十分必要——只有充分应用安全技术,才能保证液化天然气储存运输的安全性,降低液化天然气的储存运输风险。但在当前的液化天然气储存运输中,还存在关于安全技术的应用问题。主要分析了液化天然气储存运输中安全技术的应用,并针对其中的问题提出了相应的解决方法。%In liquefied natural gas storage transport process and application of security technology is necessary——only make full use of the security technology, in order to ensure the safety of the transportation of liquefied natural gas storage, reduce the liquefied natural gas storage and transportation risk. But in the current liquefied natural gas storage transportation, there is also the application of safety technology. This paper mainly analyzes the application of safety technology in storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas, and puts forward the corresponding solution to the problem.

  11. Talking about the advantages and prospects of liquefied natural gas (LNG)%浅谈液化天然气(LNG)的优势及发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董相军; 苏芮锋

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly from the definition and characteristics of liquefied natural gas to make simple introduction, elaborated natural gas liquefaction process, analyzes the advantages of liquefied natural gas and liquefied natural gas in the strategy of sustainable development the necessity of development and future prospects.%本文主要从液化天然气的定义特点对其做简单介绍,阐述了天然气的液化处理流程,分析了液化天然气的突出优势及液化天然气在可持续发展战略中发展的必要性和未来的发展前景。

  12. Technology and System Maintenance of Liquefied Natural Gas Vehicle%液化天然气汽车(LNGV)技术及系统维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨尚宾

    2009-01-01

    液化天然气作为车用燃料,具有环保、能量密度大、充装速度快及安全的特点.本文针对液化天然气的的特点,对液化天然气汽车供气工艺及系统组成进行详细介绍.并结合北京50辆LNG公交车在实际应用中存在的问题,对系统维护中影响车辆安全和经济性能的储罐真空度的现场维护问题进行了阐述.%Liquefied Natural Gas used as Vehicle Fuel has the advantages of environment-protecting, high energy density, high-speed filling and safety. Based on the characteristics of the liquefied natural gas, gas supply technology and system composition were discussed in detail. The effects of vacuum tank on the vehicle safety and economic performance in the system maintenance were also described by the problems in practical application of the 50 LNG buses in Beijing.

  13. Special Administrative Jurisdictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Negruț

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of Romania revised in 2003 establishes the free and voluntary nature of the special administrative jurisdictions, a fact which allows the party concerned to address either the administrative-judicial body or directly the court. If they opted for the administrative-judicial way, it must be followed to the end, then, under the terms established by the law, the party may address the court, under the right of access to justice provided by article 21 of the constitution. The administrative jurisdiction is an activity of solving an administrative litigation by specific procedural rules of judicial procedure, based on the principle of the independence, of insuring the right to defense and the administrative-jurisdictional independence activity, which results in a jurisdictional administrative act. In order to achieve the objectives of the paper, namely to highlight the essential elements of the resolution of litigation according to special administrative jurisdictions, we have achieved an analysis of the legislative acts referring to this activity, of the doctrine and jurisprudence. After examination and empirical research, the paper summarizes and specifies the general conclusions on the role and importance of special administrative courts.

  14. Liquefied natural gas projects in Altamira: impacts on the prices of the natural gas; Proyectos de gas natural licuado en Altamira: impactos sobre los precios del gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Cordova, Hugo; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The possible incorporation of new points of supply of natural gas to the Sistema National de Gasoductos (SNG) through the import of Liquified Natural Gas or (GNL) could cause an important modification in the national balance of supply-demand of the fuel and in its price, if large volumes are received. An analysis is presented of the possible impact that would have in the natural gas national market and in its prices the import of GNL made by the region of Altamira, Tamaulipas. [Spanish] La posible incorporacion de nuevos puntos de oferta de gas natural al Sistema Nacional de Gasoductos (SNG) a traves de la importacion de Gas Natural Licuado (GNL), podria provocar una modificacion importante en el balance oferta-demanda nacional del combustible y en su precio, si se reciben fuertes volumenes. Se presenta un analisis del posible impacto que tendria en el mercado nacional del gas natural y en sus precios la importacion de GNL realizada por la region de Altamira, Tamaulipas.

  15. 液化气船事故频发的根源和对策%Roots and counter measure of frequent accidents on vessels for liquefied natural gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连俊鸿

    2001-01-01

    近年来,国内液化气船恶性事故接连不断,已严重危害液化气海上运输事业的健康发展。而要遏止这种趋势,必须准确分析事故频发的根源,并采取有力措施。%There are frequent vicious accidents on vessels for liquefiednatural gas,which harm the healthy development of sea-transportation for liquefied natural gas.To keep away from such a tendency,the roots and counter measure for these accidents must be precisely analysed.

  16. 液化天然气集装箱牵引车的可行性%Feasibility of liquefied natural gas container tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑芳

    2011-01-01

    @@ 高速发展的汽车工业在给人类带来经济繁荣的同时,也给城市带来大气污染和能源紧张等诸多问题.近年来,各国政府积极寻求解决问题的办法,纷纷开始调整汽车燃料结构.燃气汽车由于具有排放性能好、运行成本低、技术成熟、安全可靠等优点,被公认为当前最理想的可替代燃料汽车,其中,液化天然气(Liquefied Natural Gas,LNG)在集装箱牵引车等重型汽车领域的应用备受关注.

  17. LNG(Liquefied Natural Gas)Development and Automation System%LNG(液化天然气)发展及其自动化系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强

    2016-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas,analyzes the production process and the principle of liquefied natural gas,and from the three bus control systems,security systems,and explosion-proof intelligent temperature control system,we discussed the LNG automation system,with a view to promote the development of liquefied natural gas automation system,improve the utilization of liquefied natural gas to provide reference.%阐述了液化天然气的特点,分析了液化天然气的工艺流程及生产原理,并从总线控制系统、安全防爆系统和智能温控系统三个方面,探讨了液化天然气的自动化系统,以期为推动液化天然气自动化系统的发展,提高液化天然气的利用率提供借鉴。

  18. 78 FR 44937 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... export liquefied natural gas (LNG) produced from domestic sources in an amount up to 104,250,000 million... Granting Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel Pursuant to the Long-Term Contract...

  19. Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaciak, Mariusz

    2013-06-01

    The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na świecie powoduje, że produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje się coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem związanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze około 111K pod ciśnieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezbędny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciekłej w gazową dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umożliwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do różnych zastosowań, między innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znaną techniką analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na określenie dystrybucji, źródła i wielkości nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a więc ustalić wytyczne dotyczące efektywnego zużycia energii. Ponieważ zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego są energochłonne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezbędny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

  20. A 1 kW-class multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler system operating at liquefied natural gas temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. M.; Hu, J. Y.; Wu, Z. H.; Luo, E. C.; Xu, J. Y.; Bi, T. J.

    2015-07-01

    This article introduces a multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler capable of reaching cooling capacity about 1 kW at liquefied natural gas temperature range without any moving mechanical parts. The cooling system consists of an acoustically resonant double-acing traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engine and three identical pulse tube coolers. Unlike other traditional traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engines, the acoustically resonant double-acting thermoacoustic heat engine is a closed-loop configuration consists of three identical thermoacoustic conversion units. Each pulse tube cooler is bypass driven by one thermoacoustic heat engine unit. The device is acoustically completely symmetric and therefore "self-matching" for efficient traveling-wave thermoacoustic conversion. In the experiments, with 7 MPa helium gas as working gas, when the heating temperature reaches 918 K, total cooling capacity of 0.88 kW at 110 K is obtained with a resonant frequency of about 55 Hz. When the heating temperature is 903 K, a maximum total cooling capacity at 130 K of 1.20 kW is achieved, with a thermal-to-cold exergy efficiency of 8%. Compared to previously developed heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocoolers, this device has higher thermal efficiency and higher power density. It shows a good prospect of application in the field of natural gas liquefaction and recondensation.

  1. Energy and Exergy Analyses of a Combined Power Cycle Using the Organic Rankine Cycle and the Cold Energy of Liquefied Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Yong Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, energy and exergy analyses are carried out for a combined cycle consisting of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC and a liquefied natural gas (LNG Rankine cycle for the recovery of low-grade heat sources and LNG cold energy. The effects of the turbine inlet pressure and the working fluid on the system performance are theoretically investigated. A modified temperature-enthalpy diagram is proposed, which can be useful to see the characteristics of the combined cycle, as well as the temperature distributions in the heat exchangers. Results show that the thermal efficiency increases with an increasing turbine inlet pressure and critical temperature of the working fluid. However, the exergy efficiency has a peak value with respect to the turbine inlet pressure, and the maximum exergy efficiency and the corresponding optimum turbine inlet pressure are significantly influenced by the selection of the working fluid. The exergy destruction at the condenser is generally the greatest among the exergy destruction components of the system.

  2. A study of the anticipated impacts on Canada from the development of liquefied natural gas terminals on Passamaquoddy Bay : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    This study provided a qualitative assessment of the potential impacts and risks associated with the development of liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals on the United States side of Pasamaquoddy Bay. The report included an assessment of environmental impacts, marine and navigational safety impacts, and socio-economic impacts as a result of the terminal. The report also investigated the potential impacts on coastal ecosystems and wetlands, as well as potential impacts on land-based flora and fauna. Impacts from marine traffic through Canadian waters were considered. Three worst-case risk scenarios were used as the basis for determining potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Potential effects and policy considerations associated with the construction of LNG terminals in the region were discussed. The study considered 3 project areas: the Quoddy Bay LNG project; the Downeast LNG project; and the Calais LNG project. The consequences of vapour clouds and pool fires were considered, as well as the overall hazards associated with a large LNG spill. Evaluation scenarios were considered for leaks and minor releases. Transportation and navigational issues included ship specifications, traffic movements and route analyses. Issues related to whales and hatcheries were considered. Emergency preparedness and response plans were included. An assessment of cumulative risks in the region was also provided. 182 refs., 65 tabs., 23 figs.

  3. Promote the use of liquefied natural gas vehicles%液化天然气车辆的推广应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢汉成; 张宏

    2013-01-01

    According to the Ministry "Building a low-carbon transport system guidance" and "Building a low-carbon transport system pilot program"proposed to accelerate the application of alternative energy main-tenance requirements, the Soviet Union Auto Group through repeated research and certification, to promote the use liquefied natural gas vehicles (referred to LNG vehicles), and achieved good economic and social benefits.%文章根据交通部《建设低碳交通运输体系指导意见》和《建设低碳交通运输体系试点工作方案》提出的加快替代能源的维护应用的要求,苏汽集团经过反复调研和认证,推广使用了液化天然气车辆(简称LNG车辆),并取得了较好的经济效益和社会效益。

  4. Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

  5. Application of Liquefied Natural Gas in Stainless Steel Cold Rolling Engineering%液化天燃气(LNG)在不锈钢冷轧工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉玲

    2008-01-01

    阐述了液化天燃气LNG(Liquefied Natural Gas)的特性,提出了LNG气化站在建设布局、工艺流程、设备配置与安装、操作管理等方面的特殊要求,介绍了LNG在酒钢不锈钢冷轧工程中的应用情况.

  6. 汽车用液化天然气钢瓶绝热性能在线检测技术研究%Research on Thermal Insulation Performance of Liquefied Nature Gas Cylinders for Automotive Through Online Inspection Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿伟健; 肖超波

    2015-01-01

    为开展汽车用液化天然气钢瓶绝热性能的在线检验,研究了汽车用液化天然气钢瓶初始充满率与静态升压值和静态蒸发率的相互关系。结果表明,其静态蒸发率与静态升压值呈正比,静态蒸发率越大,静态升压值越大。初始充满率在70%~90%内,静态升压值的变化能够较准确、快速、直观地反映钢瓶的绝热性能,可作为评价液化天然气钢瓶绝热性能在线测试的一种方法。%The relationship of the initial filling rate,the static pressure value,the static rate of evaporation are researched,in order to provide the theoretical basis for the online inspection of liquefied nature gas cylinders.The results showed that,static rate of evaporation of liquefied nat-ural gas cylinder and static boost value is proportional to the static rate of evaporation,static e-vaporation rate is greater,the greater the value of static pressure rise.When the initial rate of e-vaporation of liquefied nature gas cylinders is 70% ~90%,static boost can accurately,quickly and intuitively reflect the performance of heat insulation cylinder,can be used as a method to e-valuate the insulation performance of liquefied natural gas cylinder for online testing.

  7. 77 FR 72840 - CE FLNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... the proposed Project. CE FLNG anticipates that sources of natural gas will include Texas and Louisiana... billion deficit, $265 billion (over half) resulted from a negative balance in the trade of petroleum.... exported only $70 billion in petroleum products while importing over $335 billion. \\6\\ See, e.g., Conoco...

  8. 78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Eos LNG... Eos LNG LLC (Eos), requesting long-term, multi- contract authorization to export LNG produced from... natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Eos seeks authorization to export the LNG for a 25-year term...

  9. 78 FR 4401 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ...) TRADING LTD......... 12-104-NG PEMEX GAS Y PETROQUIMICA BASICA 12-110-NG NORTH WESTERN CORPORATION d/b/a.../ (Canada) Trading export natural gas Ltd. from/to Canada. 3154 10/04/12 12-110-NG Pemex Gas y Order...

  10. Liquefied gaseous fuels safety and environmental control assessment program: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Progress is reported in research on the safety and environmental aspects of four principal liquefied gaseous material systems: liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hydrogen, and ammonia. Each section of the report has been abstracted and indexed individually. (JGB)

  11. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Research and Application on Using Natural Gas Instead of Liquefied Petroleum Gas in Braze Welding%用天然气代替液化石油气钎焊研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓映波; 梁绍吉; 陈国强; 潘耀权

    2015-01-01

    According to the energy structure situation of flame machining in China, this paper puts forward the corre-sponding technique transformation for the brazing equipment using liquefied petroleum gas. It realizes using the natural gas instead of liquefied petroleum gas. The practice shows this technique has the characteristics of low cost and conve-nient operation. The personal safety and brazing quality is as good as using the liquefied petroleum gas, and the price is lower than it.%本文针对我国火焰加工的能源结构状况,提出对液化石油气钎焊设备进行相应的技术改造, 实现用天然气代替液化石油气.实践表明, 天然气代替液化石油气,其技术改造成本低,简便易行,工人作业的安全性和钎焊质量与液化石油气相当,但价格远低于液化石油气.

  13. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    Bibliography, assembled from computer search of NASA Aerospace Safety Data Bank, including title of report, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and key words or subject terms. Publication is indexed by key subjects and by authors. Items are relevant to design engineers and safety specialists.

  14. Handbook of liquefied natural gas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mokhatab, Saeid; Mak, John Y; Valappil, Jaleel; Wood, David A

    2014-01-01

    ... in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may...

  15. Design and performance of low temperature heat exchanger in small-scale liquefied natural gas unit%小型天然气液化中低温换热装置设计及性能探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆哲

    2015-01-01

    低温换热装置是天然气液化的关键部件,影响着整个小型天然气液化装置的性能。本文针对其设计及性能展开讨论分析。%Low temperature heat exchanger as the key equipment in a natural gas liquefier,influences the performance of the whole unit. The design and performance of it are presented in this paper.

  16. Process Study and Design of Liquefied Natural Gas Open Rack Vaporizer%液化天然气开架式气化器工艺研究和设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张尚文

    2012-01-01

    The configuration, working principle, study of liquefied natural gas composition and physical properties, design of star-finned high efficiency heat transferring tubes, heat transferring analysis and calculation are shown, that can be referenced by design and production in practice.%介绍了液化天然气开架式气化器的结构、工作原理、LNG组分及物性、星型翅片换热管设计、传热分析和计算,可供实际设计、生产参考.

  17. Welding Technology Analysis of Liquefied Natural Gas Storage Tanks with 9Ni Steel%液化天然气储罐用9Ni钢焊接及其低温韧性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓明

    2011-01-01

    介绍了建造大型液化天然气储罐用9Ni钢的焊接性能、焊接技术及其低温性能,分析了该钢低温韧性的影响因素,并给出了薄板的低温韧性评价指标.%Some affects of 9Ni steel's welding technology on low-temperature was analyzed,which was main material of liquefied natural gas large-scale tanks. The reasonable evaluation index welding low-temperature flexibility was given.

  18. Active Gas Regenerative Liquefier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We offer a novel liquefier that has the potential to simultaneously increase thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduce complexity. The ?active gas...

  19. Preconditions for the development of land-based infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av landbaserad infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Paradis, Hanna; Haraldsson, Kristina; Beijer, Ronja; Stensson, Peter (AaF Industry AB(Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The conversion potential to replace oil in the energy intensive industries and diesel in heavy transport is estimated in the study to 6.8 TWh and 10 TWh per year, respectively. Several alternative fuels compete for this conversion potential. What fuels will take market share depends on several factors such as price, availability of fuel, availability of process technology and vehicles, technology development and possible future technological advances. For liquid methane to compete a new infrastructure is required that in a cost effective manner makes it possible to distribute the liquid methane to the regions where the need is the greatest. With today's distribution system, including truck delivery from import terminals in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad, virtually the entire southern Sweden is within reach of LNG deliveries. The study points out three nodes, Gaevle, Sundsvall and Luleaa, which is suitable for distribution of liquid methane to the central and northern Sweden. The three hubs are suitable for freight transfer to trucks as well as rail and shipping. A strategic nationwide network of refueling stations is also proposed, with a total of 18 new stations, in addition to the filling stations in southern and central Sweden that are already planned or in operation. Both the availability and use of liquid methane in Sweden today is limited. Liquid natural gas, LNG (liquefied natural gas), is primarily used as a backup to biogas plants, in a few industries and as supply for a few filling stations for compressed gas. The availability of LNG and also liquid biogas (LBG liquefied biogas), will increase in coming years. In 2011, two new LNG import terminals are put into operation in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad in Norway and two additional import terminals are planned in Gothenburg and Lysekil. Furthermore, two production plants for liquid biogas production have started, and four additional plants are planned, which together will produce around 0.5 TWh LBG annually

  20. Preconditions for the development of land-based infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av landbaserad infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Paradis, Hanna; Haraldsson, Kristina; Beijer, Ronja; Stensson, Peter (AaF Industry AB(Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The conversion potential to replace oil in the energy intensive industries and diesel in heavy transport is estimated in the study to 6.8 TWh and 10 TWh per year, respectively. Several alternative fuels compete for this conversion potential. What fuels will take market share depends on several factors such as price, availability of fuel, availability of process technology and vehicles, technology development and possible future technological advances. For liquid methane to compete a new infrastructure is required that in a cost effective manner makes it possible to distribute the liquid methane to the regions where the need is the greatest. With today's distribution system, including truck delivery from import terminals in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad, virtually the entire southern Sweden is within reach of LNG deliveries. The study points out three nodes, Gaevle, Sundsvall and Luleaa, which is suitable for distribution of liquid methane to the central and northern Sweden. The three hubs are suitable for freight transfer to trucks as well as rail and shipping. A strategic nationwide network of refueling stations is also proposed, with a total of 18 new stations, in addition to the filling stations in southern and central Sweden that are already planned or in operation. Both the availability and use of liquid methane in Sweden today is limited. Liquid natural gas, LNG (liquefied natural gas), is primarily used as a backup to biogas plants, in a few industries and as supply for a few filling stations for compressed gas. The availability of LNG and also liquid biogas (LBG liquefied biogas), will increase in coming years. In 2011, two new LNG import terminals are put into operation in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad in Norway and two additional import terminals are planned in Gothenburg and Lysekil. Furthermore, two production plants for liquid biogas production have started, and four additional plants are planned, which together will produce around 0.5 TWh LBG annually

  1. Support to the electric power, natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles; Les aides aux vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNV) ou au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This document brings together the different financial incentives proposed to the acquisition and utilization of electric power, natural gas or LPG vehicles. The financial assistance of the ADEME, the fiscal incentives and other proposals are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  2. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  3. 回收合成氨尾气副产液化天然气工艺技术%Process Technology of Producing Byproduct Liquefied Natural Gas from Recovery of Ammonia Tail Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉

    2015-01-01

    A description is given of the selection of process schemes liquefying and separating methane from ammonia vent gas and purge gas from ammonia tank to produce liquefied natural gas, and the economic benefit of the project is analyzed.After constructed and put into operation of the project,the annual sales revenue is 21.456 million yuan,and the annual new profit is 4.972 million yuan,which has significance to the transformation of traditional ammonia industry chain.%介绍了氨合成放空气和氨罐弛放气中甲烷液化分离制液化天然气的工艺方案选择,分析了该项目的经济效益。该项目建成投产后,年销售收入2145.60万元,每年可新增利润497.20万元,对改造传统的合成氨产业链具有重要意义。

  4. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, John A. [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Oseen-Send, Kathryn [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ferguson, Luke [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Pouresfandiary, Jamshid [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cousins, Anand [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ralph, Heather [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hampto, Tom [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-12

    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  5. Study on liquefying natural gas using differential pressure of gas-distributing station%利用分输站的压差液化天然气研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国光; 高俊; 季夏夏; 魏向东

    2014-01-01

    基于天然气长输管线分输站蕴含着巨大的可利用的压力能,提出利用分输站压差液化天然气的工艺。液化工艺中,管输天然气净化采用M DEA (35%)+DEA (5%)的混合胺液脱碳脱硫,4 A分子筛脱水;液化采用透平膨胀机制冷。同时,研究了分输站压差、分输量对天然气液化率的影响。该工艺适用于长输管线压降大、分输规模较大的分输站。%T here is huge available pressure energy in the gas‐distributing station of the long‐distance pipeline of natural gas ,so the process of using differential pressure of gas‐distributing station to liquefy natural gas were put forward .In the liquefaction technology ,mixed amine solu‐tion of MDEA (35 wt% )+DEA (5 wt% ) was used to remove CO2 and H2S ,4A molecular sieve was used to remove water ,and turbine expander was used to liquefy natural gas .At the same time ,the impacts of differential pressure and distribution throughput on liquefaction rate were analyzed .T he results show that the process is suitable for the gas‐distributing station of high pressure drop and large distribution throughput .

  6. 低温位废热回收与液化天然气冷能利用的集成研究%Integration of Low-level Waste Heat Recovery and Liquefied Nature Gas Cold Energy Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白菲菲; 张早校

    2008-01-01

    Two novel thermal cycles based on Brayton cycle and Rankine cycle are proposed, respectively, which integrate the recovery of low-level waste heat and Liquefied Nature Gas (LNG) cold energy utilization for power generation. Cascade utilization of energy is realized in the two thermal cycles, where low-level waste heat,low-temperature exergy and pressure exergy of LNG are utilized efficiently through the system synthesis. The simulations are carried out using the commercial Aspen Plus 10.2, and the results are analyzed. Compared with the conventional Brayton cycle and Rankine cycle, the two novel cycles bring 60.94% and 60% in exergy efficiency,respectively and 53.08% and 52.31% in thermal efficiency, respectively.

  7. 基于Modelica的生物质燃气内燃机性能模拟研究%Simulation of internal combustion engine fueled by natural gas/liquefied petroleum gas-biogas blends with Modelica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭甲生; 秦朝葵; GERHARD Schmitz

    2011-01-01

    Since the physical and chemical characteristics of biogas, some problems such as slow combustion speed, uncompleted burned fuel and high exhaust temperature will occur in its applications in engine. The biogas engine model library was built with the object-oriented language Modelica, the performance of a four-stroke spark-ignition gas engine operating with natural gas/liquefied petroleum gas-biogas blends were investigated. Natural gas (33 %, 67 % and 100%) and liquefied petroleum gas (5%, 10% and 15%) were added to the biogas and were simulated as the fuel of SI engine. The effects of natural gas/liquefied petroleum gas-biogas blends on the performance of spark-ignition engine used for electricity production were numerical investigated, the results were validated through the experiments on a gasoline modified gas engine. The results suggest that: There is an improvement in brake thermal efficiency and brake powers with the addition of natural gas/liquefied petroleum gas in biogas. The feature of reusable and object-orien-ted of Modelica will enhance the modeling and simulation of biogas engine performance greatly not only in accuracy but simulation efficiency, this would be efficient for the design and the optimum work of the biogas fuelled engine.%针对由沼气成分及其理化特性导致的内燃机燃用沼气时会发生燃烧速度慢、后燃严重、排气温度高等问题,将生物质燃气内燃机作为研究对象,基于可重用性及面向对象的Modelica语言建立内燃机模型库,将生物质燃气为燃料对四缸四冲程火花点火内燃机性能进行分析.通过仿真研究不同比例天然气(体积分数分别为33%,67%及100%)和LPG(体积分数分别为5%,10%及15%)对内燃机性能的影响,并在一台原汽油机改装的生物质燃气内燃机进行实验验证.结果表明:随着天然气/LPG的加入,内燃机的热效率及功率有所提高,且随着生物质燃气中天然气/LPG体积分数的增加,内

  8. Design for Combined Cooling, Heating and Power System Based on Liquefied Natural Gas%以液化天然气为一次能源的分布式供能系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雪松

    2010-01-01

    介绍了以液化天然气(liquefied natural gas, LNG)为一次能源的分布式冷、热、电联产系统(combined cooling,heating and power, CCHP)的优点、分布式供能系统容量确定的关键因素、系统的拟定原则、主要设备的选定方法及余热利用模式的选择,为以LNG为一次能源的分布式供能系统的前期规划和总体设计提供参考.

  9. Determination of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas, coal gas and liquefied petroleum gas by paper tape method%纸带法测定天然气、煤气和液化石油气中的硫化氢

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘为; 陈梓; 李玉书

    2011-01-01

    本文描述用GD-101硫化氢自动分析仪测定天然气、煤气和液化石油气中的硫化氢.纸带法操作简单、方法自动、可取代碘量法、层析法和比色法,具有推广价值.%The basic principle of paper tape method is described, and the hydrogen sulfide in natural gas, coal gas and liquefied petroleum gas was determined with a GD-101 hydrogen sulfide antomatic analyzer based on paper tape method. The method is simple and automatic and can substitute for iodimetric, chromato-graphic and colorimetric methods.

  10. 液化天然气(LNG)作为飞机燃料的可行性及经济性分析%Analysis of the Feasibility and Economy for Liquefied Natural Gas as Aircraft Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余慧玲; 曹春泉

    2015-01-01

    航空活动产生的二氧化碳等温室气体每年都在增长,欧洲甚至要求对飞往欧洲的民用航班征收碳排放税,而且欧美的航空排放适航标准对航空的气体排放要求也越来越高。为适应全球化的竞争,从二氧化碳排放要求角度,综合国外对新型航空燃料的探讨,介绍并探讨液化天然气( Liquefied Natural Gas,简称LNG)作为航空燃料的经济可行性和可能存在的问题,为国内航空燃料的发展引入一个新的思路。%Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from aviation activities grow every year. The European even asks for the civilian flights carbon tax from civilian flights, and the requirements of European airworthiness stand-ards for aviation emissions are increasing higher and higher. In order to meet global competition, this article intro-duces and discusses the economic feasibility and possible problems of liquefied natural gas( LNG) as aviation fuel from the requirements of carbon dioxide emission, integrated to explore new aviation fuels abroad. A new idea is in-troduced for the development of the domestic aviation fuel.

  11. THE LACK OF FUNCTIONAL JURISDICTION OF THE DIVISION FOR ADMINISTRATIVE AND TAX DISPUTES IN SETTLING THE APPEAL PETITION WITHIN THE APPEAL AGAINST ENFORCEMENT IN TAX MATTERS ARGUMENTS REGARDING THE CIVIL NATURE OF THE DISPUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Costin GRIMBERG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian legislation sets out the practical and theoretical manner of establishing the legal nature of disputes in the light of the applicable legal dispositions, establishing a specific statutory system for challenging enforcement proceedings. The characterization of a dispute as civil or commercial in character should be done based on the legal standards applicable to the legal relationships existing between the parties. As regards the challenge against tax enforcement, establishing the legal nature of the dispute under judgment and establishing the functional jurisdiction of the court that is asked to judge on the substance of the challenge against tax enforcement, as well as of the court invested to settle the appeal has generated over time a number of controversies and opposite solutions. There were and still are some discussions and confusions regarding the functional jurisdiction of the enforcement courts having jurisdiction to judge on the substance of the challenge against tax enforcement, lodged on the basis of a writ of execution issued under some administrative tax acts.

  12. 77 FR 33446 - Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic and Canadian Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25..., multi-contract authorization to export as liquefied natural gas (LNG) both natural gas...

  13. Administrative jurisdiction of customs of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    DOROSH M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The author describes the customs authorities as subjects of administrative jurisdiction, serving a variety of executive power. The customs authorities of Ukraine in nature play an important role in the law enforcement activities of the state. There is a constant struggle against customs violations.

  14. 77 FR 66454 - Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... on August 31, 2012, by Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC (GLLC), requesting long-term, multi... liquefied natural gas (LNG), the equivalent of approximately 547.5 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural...

  15. Liquefied natural gas as an instrument of enhancing natural gas markets in Northeastern Brazil; Gas natural liquefeito: o indutor da massificacao do uso do gas natural no nordeste brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, Emilio Jose Rocha; Nobre Junior, Ernesto Ferreira; Arruda, Joao Bosco Furtado [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Programa de Mestrado em Engenharia de Transportes]. E-mails: emilio@det.ufc.br; nobre@nupeltd.ufc.br; barruda@nupeltd.ufc.br; Praca, Eduardo Rocha [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa, Transporte, Logistica e Desenvolvimento]. E-mail: edpraca@nupeltd.ufc.br

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian Government, through the Program of massification of the use of the natural gas (NG), it tries to motivate the increase of the participation of this fuel in the national energy head office, stimulating his/her use in the most several sections. In the specific case of the Northeast, where thankfully problems of offer of this energy one exist, the discussion fits if the current proposal of the construction of costly gas pipelines should be implemented or she should use alternative forms to supply the demand for NG of the area (virtual gas pipelines: LNG or CNG). These technologies can induce the use in mass of NG, allowing not only the use of this energy nobleman for great consumers, as well as for the small ones, stimulating the increase of the energy efficiency. This article has as objective to do a reflection on the Northeastern market of NG and the forms of provisioning, using LNG, of areas now no assisted by the mesh of gas pipelines and that you/they are potential consuming. Before that solution alternatives will be discussed for a crucial subject in the expansion of the market of NG: the need of the construction of gas pipelines to supply markets no formed. Corroborating, like this, with the Plan of massification of the use of NG, generating alternative subsidies for the projects of expansion of markets of the energy. (author)

  16. Administration and Jurisdictional Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hernando Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To what extent does studying jurisdictional politics need the knowledge of different administrative theories in general and the science of public administration in particular? This small text proposes such reflection and comes to the conclusion that it is impossible to propose a new approximation to this topic without considering the administrative theory, for that the specialists and thinkers will get more with the contact of this discipline from what it is called a multidisciplinary approach.

  17. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Over Nickel-Phosphorus-Alumina Xerogel Catalyst Prepared by a Carbon-Templating Epoxide-Driven Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Yongju; Park, Seungwon; Han, Seung Ju; Yoo, Jaekyeong; Choi, Jung Ho; Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Jinwon; Song, In Kyu

    2016-05-01

    A nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was prepared by a carbon-templating epoxide-driven sol-gel method (denoted as CNPA catalyst), and it was applied to the hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). For comparison, a nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was also prepared by a similar method in the absence of carbon template (denoted as NPA catalyst). The effect of carbon template addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the catalysts in the steam reforming of LNG was investigated. Both CNPA and NPA catalysts showed excellent textural properties with well-developed mesoporous structure. However, CNPA catalyst retained a more reducible nickel aluminate phase than NPA catalyst. XRD analysis of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts revealed that nickel sintering on the CNPA catalyst was suppressed compared to that on the NPA catalyst. From H2-TPD and CH4-TPD measurements of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts, it was also revealed that CNPA catalyst with large amount of hydrogen uptake and strong hydrogen-binding sites showed larger amount of methane adsorption than NPA catalyst. In the hydrogen production by steam reforming of LNG, CNPA catalyst with large methane adsorption capacity showed a better catalytic activity than NPA catalyst.

  18. 从液化天然气中制取高纯度甲烷的工艺%Process for Preparing Highly Purified Methane from Liquefied Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛

    2016-01-01

    高纯甲烷在工业、科研等部门有着广泛的用途,介绍了一种从液化天然气中分离高纯甲烷的方法,详细地介绍了整个装置的工艺流程,该分离装置能耗低,产品纯度高,运行稳定。其生产的高纯甲烷纯度为99.999%,已经达到了国内外同类产品的水平。%Highly purified methane has wide application in industrial and scientific researches. This pa-per introduced a process to prepare highly purified methane from liquefied natural gas. It also introduced in great details the whole preparation equipment, which is of low energy consumption, highly purified products, and stable operation. The purity of methane produced by this equipment was 99.999%, which has already reached the same level of the other products at home and abroad.

  19. Cybercrime, digital forensics and jurisdiction

    CERN Document Server

    Chawki, Mohamed; Khan, Mohammad Ayoub; Tyagi, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of law is to prevent the society from harm by declaring what conduct is criminal, and prescribing the punishment to be imposed for such conduct. The pervasiveness of the internet and its anonymous nature make cyberspace a lawless frontier where anarchy prevails. Historically, economic value has been assigned to visible and tangible assets. With the increasing appreciation that intangible data disseminated through an intangible medium can possess economic value, cybercrime is also being recognized as an economic asset. The Cybercrime, Digital Forensics  and Jurisdiction disseminate knowledge for everyone involved with understanding and preventing cybercrime - business entities, private citizens, and government agencies. The book is firmly rooted in the law demonstrating that a viable strategy to confront cybercrime must be international in scope.

  20. 75 FR 13755 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... application filed on March 4, 2010, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting an amendment to its blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) granted by DOE/FE on May 28,...

  1. Use of the available energy in the re-gasification process of liquefied natural gas by coupling combined heat and power cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgarbi, P.V.; Schmeda Lopez, D.R.; Indrusiak, M.L.S.; Schneider, P. Smith [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: guetuso@gmail.com, diego.schmeda@ufrgs.br, sperbindrusiak@via-rs.net, pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2009-07-01

    This work evaluates the possibilities of taking advantage of the heat transferred in the re-gasification process of liquid natural gas (LNG). It is proposed the coupling of a Brayton-Rankine combined heat and power plant (CHP) to a LNG re-gasification plant in order to use the heat involved in this process as cold source for the CHP plant. For comparison, the same CHP is simulated exchanging heat with a reference environment. An analysis is performed assuming that the amount of natural gas fed to the Brayton sub-cycle combustion chamber is equal for both cases. The CHP coupled to the re-gasification plant present a net power generation of 22.7 MW and the efficiency is 45.5%. It represents a gain of 2.98 MW in the power generation and 15% in the cycle efficiency, when compared to the reference cycle. The exergetic efficiency with this proposal is 49.3%, which is 9% higher than the reference cycle. (author)

  2. Technology of Gasification of Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkonog, V. G.; Bayanov, I. M.; Tonkonog, M. I.; Mubarakshin, B. R.

    2016-07-01

    A flow diagram of gasification of a cryogenic liquid, which is based on the utilization of the liquid's internal energy to obtain a vapor phase, has been presented. The limiting steam fractions of the two-phase flow in a gasifier have been evaluated as applied to the problems of gasification of methane. Consideration has been given to the conditions of phase separation in the field of mass forces. A numerical scheme of solution of a system of gasdynamic equations for the two-phase flow in a cylindrical coordinate system in a three-dimensional formulation has been implemented. The results of numerical modeling of the conditions of precipitation of particles with a diameter of 2 to 10 μm from a swirling dispersed flow have been presented; the role of the particle size in the dynamics of the process of phase separation has been established.

  3. Regasification of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rum Pandu Nuswantara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available LNG (Liquified Narural Gas adalah gas alam yang telah diproses untuk menghilangkan ketidakmurnian dan hidrokarbon berat dan kemudian dikondensasi menjadi cairan pada tekan atmosfer dengan mendinginkannya sekitar -160° Celcius. LNG ditransportasi menggunakan kendaraan yang dirancang khusus dan ditaruh dalam tangki yang juga dirancang khusus. LNG memiliki isi sekitar 1/600 dari gas alam pada suhu dan tekanan standar, membuatnya lebih hemat untuk ditransportasi jarak jauh di mana jalur pipa tidak ada. Ketika memindahkan gas alam dengan jalur pipa tidak memungkinkan atau tidak ekonomis, dia dapat ditransportasi oleh suatu kapal pengangkut untuk LNG. Gas alam dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar untuk pembangkit listrik PLTG dan PLTU. Dari data ESDM cadangan gas alam tersebut dapat dikatakan bahwa potensi gas alam Indonesia sangatlah besar, karena pada data tahun 2012 ditjen migas tersebut, cadangan gas alam yang masih tersimpan dan tersebar di Indonesia masih sangat besar, dengan potensial sebesar 47.35 TSCF (Trillion Square Cubic Feet. Potensi tersebut adalah total dari seluruh potensi yang tersebar di Indonesia sebesar 150.70 TSCF. Pabrik Terminal Regasifikasi LNG direncanakan dibangun pada tahun 2014 dengan target siap beroperasi pada tahun 2016. Pabrik ini berlokasi di Celukan Bawang Bali dengan terdapat 3 PLTG yang membutuhkan distribusi LNG yaitu PLTG Gilimanuk, Pemaron, dan Pesanggaran. Kapasitas pabrik ini adalah 100 MMSCFD. Pabrik ini akan memenuhi kebutuhan pembangkit listrik untuk daerah Bali. Rangkaian proses pabrik ini adalah unit Regasification. Analisa ekonomi dari pabrik ini adalah investasi sebesar 371,66 MUSD, IRR sebesar 38,6%, POT selama 2,71 tahun, BEP sebesar 49,6% dan NPV 10 tahun sebesar 1011,82 MUSD.

  4. Safety in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhrow, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Bergbau/Tiefbau; Niemann-Delius, C.; Okafor, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde 3

    2005-07-01

    Germany needs an LNG receiving terminal to import LNG and supplement expected future gas supply shortages. Enormous economic benefits also abound if Germany is to install an LNG receiving terminal. Jobs will be created for several hundred people. New tax revenues will be generated for state and local governments and this will further enhance the economic competitiveness of Germany. Additionally, it will provide Germany with a reliable source of clean-burning energy. Any proposed LNG receiving terminal should incorporate safety right from the start. These safety requirements will: ensure that certain public land uses, people, and structures outside the LNG facility boundaries are protected in the event of LNG fire, prevent vapour clouds associated with an LNG spill from reaching a property line that can be built upon, prevent severe burns resulting from thermal radiation, specify requirements for design, construction and use of LNG facilities and other equipments, and promote safe, secure and reliable LNG operations. The German future LNG business will not be complete without the evolution of both local and international standards that can apply to LNG operations. Currently existing European standards also appear inadequate. With an OHSAS 18001 management system integrated with other existing standards we can better control our LNG occupational health and safety risks, and improve performance in the process. Additionally, an OHSAS 18001 System will help future German LNG contractors and operators safeguard their most important assets - their employees. (orig.)

  5. OPTIMIZATION ANALYSIS OF THE PROCEDURE OF LIQUEFYING NATURAL GAS BY PROPANE-PRECOOLED MIXED REFRIGERANT CYCLE%带丙烷预冷的混合制冷剂循环液化天然气流程的优化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石玉美; 杨敏之; 鲁雪生; 汪荣顺

    2001-01-01

    The procedure of liquefying natural gas by propane-precooledmixed refrigerant cycle(MRC) is of the advantages as high effectiveness and relative simplification. Propane precool cycle is to precool natural gas and mixed refrigerants first, then the natural gas is further cooled and then liquefied by mixed refrigerant cycle. In the paper, through optimizing by taking the minimum power consumption of the compressor in propane precool cycle and its minimum total power consumption as the aim functions, the optimal process parameters and corresponding process performance parameters are obtained for the procedure of liquefying natural gas by propane-precooled mixed refrigerant cycle.%带丙烷预冷的混合制冷剂循环(MRC)液化天然气流程具有高效及流程相对简单的优点,丙烷预冷循环首先预冷天然气和混合制冷剂,然后由混合制冷剂循环进一步冷却天然气使其液化。本文对这种带丙烷预冷的混合制冷剂循环液化天然气流程分别以丙烷预冷循环中压缩机耗功最小、总耗功最小为目标函数进行优化,得到了最优流程参数及相应的流程性能参数。

  6. Household energy consumption: the future is in our hands. ITER, an experimental fusion reactor. Do CO{sub 2}-free energies exist? Liquefied natural gas, king of the gas market; Consommation d'energie domestique: prenons l'avenir entre nos mains. ITER, un reacteur experimental de fusion. Existe-t-il des energies sans CO{sub 2}? Le gaz naturel liquefie, force motrice du marche du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-07-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter features 4 main articles dealing with: 1 - Household energy consumption - the future is in our hands: With energy resources growing scarcer and more expensive, everyone has a duty to conserve energy. Because combating global warming also means adopting simple habits and using the right equipment - with help from our governments to lead us to change. A practical look at what we can do. 2 - ITER, an experimental fusion reactor: The entire international community is trying to reproduce here on Earth the fusion of hydrogen atoms occurring naturally in the Sun, lured by the promise of a virtually inexhaustible source of energy. More on ITER from the project's Director General. 3 - Do CO{sub 2}-free energies exist?: As nations struggle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the question is moot. Environmental engineer Jean-Marc Jancovici gives us his point of view. 4 - Liquefied natural gas, king of the gas market: LNG's many advantages are enticing industry to develop supply routes and infrastructure to meet strong demand. But the race for LNG is not without its limits.

  7. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  8. Factors Affecting the Resinification of Liquefied Phenolated Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiu-hui; Zhao Guang-jie1; Hu Shi-yu

    2005-01-01

    Wood of Chinese fir and poplar were liquefied in phenol at 150℃ and atmospheric pressure. The liquefied wood were reacted with formaldehyde to synthesize the liquefied wood-based resin. The factors affecting the resinification and the properties of new resin were investigated. The results show that the formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and sodium hydroxide/liquefied wood molar ratio have important influence on the resin characteristics. With the increase of formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratio, the yield of resin increases, and the free phenol content of resins decreases, showing that the resinification of liquefied wood is more complete at higher formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratios. The reaction temperature on the viscosity of the liquefied resin has considerable effect; the viscosity of resin increased with increasing reaction temperature,and the amount of liquefied poplar resin increased more quickly than that of liquefied Chinese fir resin. The resinification time also has obvious influence on the viscosity of resin; the viscosity of liquefied poplar resin is more sensitive to resinification time compared with that of liquefied Chinese fir. The amount of sodium hydroxide can improve the water miscibility of liquefied wood resin.The optimum sodium hydroxide/liquefied wood molar ratio for preparation of liquefied wood-based resins exceeds 0.4.

  9. Realisation of power systems and European nature conservation. The actual jurisdiction of the Federal Administrative Court; Realisierung von Energieanlagen und europaeischer Naturschutz. Die aktuelle Rechtsprechung des Bundesverwaltungsgerichts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, Christoph [avocado rechtsanwaelte, Koeln (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    For a long time, the right of nature conservation and landscape conservation showed a shadowy existence in the approval of projects. Some actual decisions of the Supreme Court show that in the last years the nature conservation law developed to a central area of conflict in the licensing procedure. The contribution under consideration reports on the legal material using three selected problem areas from the law on the protection of area and law on the protection of species. On the one hand, the Federal Administrative Court (Leipzig, Federal Republic of Germany) always upgrades the requirements. However, on the other hand the Federal Administrative Court attaches great importance to practicability. The Federal Administrative Court often points to a way, how projects can be realized with a careful nature conservation related attendance also at difficult environmental conditions.

  10. 78 FR 44934 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... natural gas (non-FTA countries) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. SPL requests... for trade in natural gas (non-FTA countries) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy... Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

  11. A Novel Process for Natural Gas Liquids Recovery from Oil Field Associated Gas with Liquefied Natural Gas Cryogenic Energy Utilization%一种新的利用LNG冷能的回收油田伴生气凝液的工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边海军; 徐文东; 李秀喜; 钱宇

    2011-01-01

    A novel process to recovery natural gas liquids from oil field associated gas with liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic energy utilization is proposed. Compared to the current electric refrigeration process, the proposed process uses the cryogenic energy of LNG and saves 62.6% of electricity. The proposed process recovers ethane, liquid petroleum gas (propane and butane) and heavier hydrocarbons, with total recovery rate of natural gas liquids up to 96.8%. In this paper, exergy analysis and the energy utilization diagram method (EUD) are used to assess the new process and identify the key operation units with large exergy loss. The results show that exergy efficiency of the new process is 44.3%. Compared to the electric refrigeration process, exergy efficiency of the new process is improved by 16%. The proposed process has been applied and implemented in a conceptual design scheme of the cryogenic energy utilization for a 300 million tons/yr LNG receiving terminal in a northern Chinese harbor.

  12. 4 CFR 28.2 - Jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO CLAIMS CONCERNING EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES AT THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Purpose, General Definitions, and Jurisdiction § 28.2 Jurisdiction. (a) The Board has jurisdiction to hear and decide the... in which the General Counsel seeks discipline for a GAO employee who has allegedly committed a...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications in the following table: Table 1 of § 1065...

  14. 基于混合冷剂外冷的分输站压差液化天然气研究%Research of utilizing gas pressure energy of gas-distributing station to liquefy natural gas based on the cold energy of MRC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国光; 高俊; 魏向东; 李晋

    2015-01-01

    为了提高利用分输站压差制冷液化天然气工艺的液化率,该工艺增加了混合冷剂外冷,其液化流程可分为膨胀前预冷液化天然气流程和膨胀后外冷液化天然气流程。对两种工艺流程建立最大年均利润总额目标函数,并对其自由度敏感性进行分析。通过实例分析计算得出,分输站利用压差液化天然气工艺采用膨胀前预冷比膨胀后外冷经济效益更高。%In order to improve the liquefied rate of utilizing gas pressure energy of gas-distributing station to liquefy natural gas,the mixed refrigerant cycle(MRC)was increased in the process.The natural gas liquefaction processes include pre-cooling of LNG before expander and external cooling af-ter expander.The objective function of the max annual average total profit is established to analyze the effect of degrees sensitivity on the max annual average total profit of two liquefaction processes. The results of analysis and calculation indicate that MRC before the expander process can realize high-er economic benefit than MRC after the expander.

  15. Jurisdiction Over Cybertorts in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses EU jurisdiction rules for civil and commercial tort cases involving the use of the Internet (cybertorts). Since cybertorts have multiplied globally, determination of the appropriate forum in which to recover damages is of paramount importance. Brussels I Regulation (Recast......) contains rules on general jurisdiction, which have largely been unproblematic and rules on special jurisdiction, which have been subject to intense interpretation in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). The CJEU case law on special jurisdiction in cybertorts is divided into two groups: cases...

  16. Dynamic Instability of Pile-Supported Structures in Liquefiable Soils during Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adhikari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles are long slender columns installed deep into the ground to support heavy structures such as oil platforms, bridges, and tall buildings where the ground is not strong enough to support the structure on its own. In seismic prone zones, in the areas of soft soils (loose to medium dense soil which liquefies like a quick sand piles are routinely used to support structures (buildings/ bridges. The pile and the building vibrate, and often collapse, in liquefiable soils during major earthquakes. In this paper an experimental and analytical approach is taken to characterize this vibration. The emphasis has been given to the dynamic instability of piled foundations in liquefied soil. The first natural frequency of a piled-structure vibrating in liquefiable soil is obtained from centrifuge tests. The experimental system is modelled using a fixed-free Euler-Bernoulli beam resting against an elastic support with axial load and tip mass with rotary inertia. Natural frequencies obtained from the analytical method are compared with experimental results. It was observed that the effective natural frequency of the system can reduce significantly during an earthquake.

  17. 75 FR 18607 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... stations, underground natural gas storage, liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage, LNG import and export... Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change kg kilograms LDCs local natural gas distribution companies LNG liquefied natural gas LPG liquefied petroleum gas MRR mandatory GHG reporting rule MMTCO 2 e million......

  18. 8 CFR 1208.2 - Jurisdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Affairs shall also have initial jurisdiction over credible fear determinations under § 1208.30 and reasonable fear determinations under § 1208.31. (b) Jurisdiction of Immigration Court in general. Immigration... Form I-221, Order to Show Cause; Form I-122, Notice to Applicant for Admission Detained for a Hearing...

  19. 8 CFR 208.2 - Jurisdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... jurisdiction over credible fear determinations under § 208.30 and reasonable fear determinations under § 208.31... jurisdiction over asylum applications filed by an alien who has been served a Form I-221, Order to Show Cause... reasonable fear determinations referred to the Immigration Court under § 208.31, and credible fear...

  20. 10 CFR 52.9 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 52.9 Section 52.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.9 Jurisdictional limits. No permit, license, standard design approval, or standard...

  1. 27 CFR 11.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 11.4 Section 11.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Scope of Regulations § 11.4 Jurisdictional limits....

  2. 27 CFR 10.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 10.4 Section 10.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Scope of Regulations § 10.4 Jurisdictional limits....

  3. 27 CFR 8.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 8.4 Section 8.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Scope of Regulations § 8.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a)...

  4. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a) General....

  5. 28 JURISDICTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Page | 29. EBOIBI: Jurisdiction of The International Criminal Court: Analysis, Loopholes and Challenges ... as it may be affected by the effects or passage of time. The right to ... force, the Court may exercise its jurisdiction only with ..... Statute that core criminal cases will be decided by a political body, the Security Council.

  6. A helium liquefier using three 4 k pulse tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Oviedo, Abner

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a helium liquefier which can be used for recondensing/reliquefying helium vapor in a helium cryostat or liquefying helium gas in a storage dewar. The helium liquefier employs three 4 K pulse tube cryocoolers, Cryomech model PT415. Each PT415 has remote motor/rotary valve assembly to minimize vibration, providing ≥ 1.5W at 4.2K. The liquefier can liquefy room temperature helium gas with a liquefaction rate of 62 Liter/day. When installing it in the cryostat, it can recondense and reliquefy helium vapor with a rate of 78 L/day. The liquefier will be installed in a gravitational wave detector in Brazil to recondense/reliquefy the helium boil off from the cryostat.

  7. Installation of a liquefied natural gas terminal and associated infrastructure (Rabaska) east of Levis : public perception in neighbouring areas; Projet d'implantation d'un terminal methanier et d'infrastructures connexes (Rabaska) a l'Est de la Ville de Levis : perceptions de la population des territoires limitrophes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzile, D.; Lainesse, P.; Arbour, S.; Veilleux, S. [Agence de la sante et des services sociaux de Chaudiere-Appalaches, Sainte-Marie, PQ (Canada); Comeau, M.; Levacque, R.; Auger, P. [Agence de la sante et des services sociaux de la Capitale-Nationale, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Lacroix, P. [Centre de sante et de services sociaux du Grand Littoral, Saint-Romuald, PQ (Canada); Brisson, G. [Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2007-01-15

    The proposed Rabaska project involves the installation of a liquefied natural gas terminal and related infrastructure near Levis, Quebec. Residents in neighbouring areas have expressed concern regarding the project in terms of its impact on the market value of real-estate, the dangerous nature of the terminal, and audio and visual disturbances. In order to evaluate the perceived social impacts of the project, a questionnaire was developed with the collaboration of 7 professionals from the Quebec Ministry of Public Health. The survey consisted of 19 questions that were based on already published material on community health and the results of an existing study on the quality of life in Alma, Quebec. A telephone survey was conducted in November 2006, during which time 406 citizens from neighbouring areas were contacted. The objective was to gain a better understanding of public perceptions regarding the proposed project. The results showed that 62 per cent of the respondents support the project, while 38 per cent are against the project. In terms of security and environmental issues, at least one third of the respondents thought that additional security measures were necessary for the acceptability of the project and at least one quarter supposed the project would never be acceptable. It was concluded that more in-depth surveys are needed in order to fully comprehend the public opinion of residents most affected by the proposed project. 8 refs., 2 appendices.

  8. HOME Participating Jurisdictions Vacant Units Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report is an MS Excel spreadsheet broken up by state, similar to the HOME Participating Jurisdiction's Open Activities Reports. The purpose of the HOME...

  9. 38 CFR 1.956 - Jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Referrals to Gao, Department of Justice, Or Irs § 1.956 Jurisdiction. (a) The regional office Committees are... transactions of the Veterans Health Administration (§ 17.103(c) of this chapter). (iv) Fiscal officers at...

  10. HOME Participating Jurisdictions Open Activities Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report is an MS Excel spreadsheet broken up by state. Participating Jurisdictions can use this report to view open activities in IDIS including activities with...

  11. A Liquefier for Mars Surface Propellant Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Lou J.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.; Kittel, P.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's planned Mars exploration missions will require that cryogenic propellants be manufactured on the surface. The present scenario calls for oxygen and methane gases to he produced using the carbon dioxide atmosphere plus seed hydrogen brought from Earth. Gases will require liquefaction for both storage on the Martian surface and for use in the ascent vehicle. The planned liquefaction rates range from 12.6 g/hr of oxygen for the 2003 robotic mission to 2500 g/hr for the later human missions. This paper presents the results of a nitrogen liquefaction demonstration using a commercially available cryocooler. The experiment was set up to liquefy nitrogen gas instead of oxygen to limit laboratory safety concerns. A nitrogen gas condensor, attached to the cooler's cold tip, was sized to liquefy up to 42 gN2/hr at the intended storage pressure (0.2 MPa). The experiment was conducted inside an atmospheric, air-filled, refrigerated chamber simulating the average Martian daytime temperature (240 K). In this demonstration a liquefaction rate of 9.1 gN2/hr was realized, which is equivalent to 13 gO2/hr.

  12. Defending the jurisdiction of the clinical ethicist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John H

    2014-01-01

    In this essay I suggest that the bioethics profession's jurisdiction over healthcare ethics consultation is in need of reinforcement. I argue that as the profession becomes more successful, competitors will challenge the profession to justify its ethical claims and ask whose ethics the profession represents. This challenge will come more quickly as the profession tries to influence the ethics of healthcare organizations. I propose a method of bolstering jurisdiction that will make the profession less vulnerable to challenge in the future.

  13. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance work...

  14. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

  15. Report of working committee 3 ''liquefied gases''; Rapport du comite de travail 3 ''gaz liquefies''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudino, M.

    2000-07-01

    Working Committee 3's report concerns the evolution of the liquefied gas industry: both liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Given the current state of the LNG market the Committee decided to concentrate on this area in particular. A number of aspects have been identified which the Committee has been looking at, while others have been given to Study Groups set up specifically for the purpose. The first aspects regard: - the development of LNG and LPG, new installations, future chains and relevant statistical data; - the role of LNG and LPG in starting up a gas industry; - operating and technological improvements in the LNG industry; - energy savings, cold utilization and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. The Study Groups which were set up dealt with the following subjects: Technological and Economical Developments for cost Reduction of LNG/LPG Facilities. Small Scale LNG Projects and Modular Systems. LNG/LPG Peak Shaving and Satellite Plants. LNG versus Pipeline Infrastructure. (author)

  16. Fiscal 1998 research report on the development trends of natural gas conversion technologies into liquefied fuel in Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia ni okeru tennen gas no ekitai nenryoka gijutsu no kaihatsu doko nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Russia having natural gas resources largest in the world is actively promoting the basic research on liquefaction technology of natural gas such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic catalyst, and its research potential is extremely high. This 3-year research project surveys the R and D trends of catalyst technology for liquefaction of natural gas, and fabricates the prototype FT synthetic catalyst based on the idea of Russian researchers to evaluate its feasibility experimentally. This report summarizes the following to clarify the research background: (1) The technology system for liquefaction of natural gas, and its future R and D trend, (2) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in the world, (3) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in Russia, (4) The research system of catalyses in Russia, (5) The activities of Russian catalysis research institutes, (6) The fuel liquefaction technologies of Russian major research institutes, and (7) The proposals from Russian research institutes. (NEDO)

  17. The relevance of universal jurisdiction in the complementarity regime

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarme, Sigbjørn

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relevance universal jurisdiction can have in the ICC complementarity regime. It argues that universal jurisdiction is an underdeveloped principle for exercising jurisdiction, and that the shortcomings of the principle therefore provide it to be exercised with restraint. However, this study also argues that there is a place for universal jurisdiction in those situations where the jurisdiction of the ICC leaves an impunity gap.

  18. Multi-objective Optimization on Helium Liquefier Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. R.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Meng, Y. R.; Liu, L. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Research on optimization of helium liquefier is limited at home and abroad, and most of the optimization is single-objective based on Collins cycle. In this paper, a multi-objective optimization is conducted using genetic algorithm (GA) on the 40 L/h helium liquefier developed by Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry of the Chinese Academy of Science (TIPC, CAS), steady solutions are obtained in the end. In addition, the exergy loss of the optimized system is studied in the case of with and without liquid nitrogen pre-cooling. The results have guiding significance for the future design of large helium liquefier.

  19. Conflicts of Jurisdiction in Criminal Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Silviu Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will consider the practical settlement of conflicts of jurisdiction both in relation to the forum for prosecution and transfer of proceedings. The corollary of free movement of people is free movement of judgments, sentences and related powers of investigation and prosecution. Cross border crime requires to be addressed by equipping law enforcement and prosecution authorities with mechanisms to ensure the public interest in the investigation and prosecution of crime is met. The starting point for any consideration is the place where the criminal conduct took place. Sometimes the crime is such that criminal jurisdiction will be fixed - such as theft of property, crimes of violence - where others have an impact or criminal conduct in more than one jurisdiction - drug importation, major transnational drug dealing, human trafficking, terrorism.

  20. 46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58.16-7... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using liquefied petroleum gas on vessels of 100 gross tons or more that...

  1. 液化天然气(LNG)卫星站设备选型分析%Analysis on Type Selection of Equipments for Satellite Stations of Liquefied Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏圣钧

    2015-01-01

    The main role of LNG satellite station is storage, gasification and liquefaction of natural gas, and transports natural gas to downstream users. In this paper, the composition and working principle of the main system in LNG satellite station were introduced; type selection of LNG tanker, LNG storage tanks, air temperature vaporizer and the water bath heater was analyzed. At last, the rationality of type selection was verified by an example.%LNG 卫星站主要作用为储存、气化液化天然气,并将气化后的气态天然气输送给下游用户。简单介绍了 LNG 卫星站主要系统组成及其工作原理,对卫星站主要设备 LNG 槽车、LNG 储罐、空温气化器和水浴加热器进行了选型分析,最后通过实例进行验证选型。

  2. MILITARY JURISDICTION: FUNCTIONAL WARRANTY OR IMPUNITY CONDITION?

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas poveda, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    The legal institution of military jurisdiction has been constantly questioned by considering that it has been used to abuse and it has worked as a source of impunity in front of serious human rights violations. Before the discredit of Military Justice, the military jurisdiction has been traditionally restricted, but recently it suffered an amendment that has motivated critics from many sectors, reform which established new Military Justice bodies with functions that overlap their powers toget...

  3. Slavery Prosecutions in International Criminal Jurisdictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van der Wilt

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how the findings of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) in respect of enslavement as a form of system criminality can be translated for a proper assessment of slavery outside (armed) conflict. The author has found that, while ICTs are jurisdictionally limited to addressing

  4. 22 CFR 120.4 - Commodity jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commodity jurisdiction. 120.4 Section 120.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS... and media. The fit of the item is its ability to physically interface or interconnect with or...

  5. The Role of Offshore Jurisdictions in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will examine the interaction between offshore jurisdictions and Russia, with particular emphasis on the role played by the British Virgin Islands in structuring offshore transactions. This paper will look at popular narratives about offshore jurisdictions, including traditional arguments about round-tripping and corruption, before examining the legal rationale for the use of offshore structures in Russia. It will be argued that the use of offshore jurisdictions arose as a response to deficiencies in the Russian legal system, particularly in terms of Russian law as it relates to property rights, and the related problem of enforcing such rights. In contrast to these perceived deficiencies in the Russian legal framework, offshore jurisdictions provided a stable and modern legal environment, the use of which allowed Russian investors to gain access to Western common law principles of corporate governance, property rights and shareholder rights.

  6. 25 CFR 11.905 - Jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following proceedings: (a) Proceedings in which a minor who resides in a community for which the court is established is alleged to be a juvenile offender, unless the children's court transfers jurisdiction to the Court of Indian Offenses pursuant to § 11.907 of this part. (b) Proceedings in which a minor who resides...

  7. Port State Jurisdiction: Challenges and Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryngaert, C.M.J.; Ringbom, H.

    2016-01-01

    Confronted with the failures of flag states to adequately regulate their vessels, and/or to enforce applicable law, port states may assume a subsidiary regulatory and enforcement role. Exercising port state jurisdiction (PSJ) over foreign-flagged vessels, these port states may give effect to general

  8. Competing jurisdictions : settling land claims in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Sandra; Spierenburg, M.; Wels, H.

    2005-01-01

    The papers included in this volume were earlier presented at a conference on the settlement of land claims in Africa, which was held in Amsterdam in September 2003. The papers are written primarily from an anthropological perspective. Contributions: Introduction: competing jurisdictions: settling la

  9. 18 CFR 270.401 - Jurisdictional agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional agency. 270.401 Section 270.401 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Boston Boulevard, Springfield, VA 22153. (24) (i) Texas, east of the 100th Meridian—Field Office Manager...

  10. Competing jurisdictions : settling land claims in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Spierenburg, M.; Wels, H.

    2005-01-01

    The papers included in this volume were earlier presented at a conference on the settlement of land claims in Africa, which was held in Amsterdam in September 2003. The papers are written primarily from an anthropological perspective. Contributions: Introduction: competing jurisdictions: settling

  11. 36 CFR 14.34 - Change in jurisdiction over lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Change in jurisdiction over lands. 14.34 Section 14.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.34 Change in jurisdiction over lands. A change in jurisdiction...

  12. 40 CFR 304.20 - Jurisdiction of Arbitrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdiction of Arbitrator. 304.20... CLAIMS Jurisdiction of Arbitrator, Referral of Claims, and Appointment of Arbitrator § 304.20 Jurisdiction of Arbitrator. (a) In accordance with the procedures established by this part, the Arbitrator...

  13. 20 CFR 221.3 - Social Security Administration jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security Administration jurisdiction... RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.3 Social Security Administration jurisdiction. The Board... Security Administration considers in determining benefits payable) to the Social Security...

  14. 25 CFR 11.800 - Jurisdiction of appellate division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdiction of appellate division. 11.800 Section 11.800... LAW AND ORDER CODE Appellate Proceedings § 11.800 Jurisdiction of appellate division. The jurisdiction of the appellate division shall extend to all appeals from final orders and judgments of the...

  15. 40 CFR 1508.15 - Jurisdiction by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdiction by law. 1508.15 Section 1508.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.15 Jurisdiction by law. Jurisdiction by law means agency authority to approve, veto, or finance all or part of...

  16. Improving outcome of in vitro sperm activation using non–liquefied versus liquefied semen of oligoasthenozoospermic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fakhrildin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of in vitro sperm activation (ISA using non-liquefied versus liquefied asthenozoospermic semen samples for improvement of sperm parameters. Materials and Methods: Fifty six oligoasthenozoospermic (OA patients (age range: 22-44 years; mean: 32.089 years were enrolled in this study. OA patients were classified according to type of infertility. Also, duration of infertility was recorded. Fifty six semen samples were collected, and seminal fluid analyses were done involving macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed according to WHO methodology. Direct swim–up technique was used to separate the motile spermatozoa from seminal plasma. Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEME enriched with 5% Human serum albumin (HSA was used. One mL of either non–liquefied or liquefied semen was layered beneath 1 mL of MEME enriched with 5% HSA, and placed for incubation in an air incubator at 37 oC for 30 minutes. Then, one drop (10 μL from upper layer of culture medium was taken using automatic pipette to be examined under high power field (40 X for assessment of sperm parameters.Results: According to type of infertility, infertile patients were classified into patients with either primary infertility (no. 46; 82.15 % or secondary infertility (no. 10; 17.85 %. In contrast to other parameters, significant (P<0.05 reductions were noticed in the percentages of sperm motility and progressive sperm motility for OA patients with primary infertility as compared to OA patients with secondary infertility. All sperm parameters were significantly (P<0.001 enhanced after in vitro activation of liquefied and non-liquefied semen samples when compared to pre-activation. In the present study, best results were achieved for non-liquefied semen samples as compared to liquefied semen samples.Conclusion: It was concluded that the outcome of ISA was enhanced in regard to sperm parameters when using non-liquefied semen of OA patients

  17. Liquefied after cataract and its surgical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Bhattacharjee, Pankaj; Das, Dipankar; Gogoi, Krishna; Arati, Diyali

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To describe liquefied after cataract (LAC) and its surgical management following an uneventful phacoemulsification with posterior chamber in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis (CCC). Design: Interventional case series. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients with LAC, following uneventful phacoemulsification with CCC and in-the-bag IOL implantation were enrolled. After the basic slit lamp examination, each case was investigated with Scheimpflug photography and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Each case was treated with capsular lavage. Biochemical composition of the milky fluid was evaluated and ring of anterior capsular opacity (ACO) was examined under electron microscope. Results: All 11 cases presented with blurring of vision after 6-8 years of cataract surgery with IOL implantation. All cases had IOL microvacuoles, 360° anterior capsule, and anterior IOL surface touch along with ACO, ring of Soemmering, and posterior capsule distension filled with opalescent milky fluid with whitish floppy or crystalline deposits. Biochemically, the milky fluid contained protein (800 mg/dl), albumin (100 mg/dl), sugar (105 mg/dl), and calcium (0.13%) and was bacteriologically sterile. Histologically, the dissected ACO showed fibrous tissue. All cases were successfully treated with capsular lavage with good visual recovery and with no complication. There was no recurrence of LAC during 2 years postoperative follow-up in any of the cases. Conclusions: LAC is a late complication of standard cataract surgery. It may be a spectrum of capsular bag distension syndrome (CBDS) without shallow anterior chamber and secondary glaucoma. Capsular bag lavage is a simple and effective treatment for LAC and a safe alternative to neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) capsulotomy. PMID:24881605

  18. Hazards Associated with the Importation of Liquefied Natural Gas,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    sky above the local apparent horizon which is covered by clouds. - - Si o l O - p4 - - A - Extremel y unstable b - B - Moderately unstable • - C...197 1 LNG Code ,” Pipeline and Cac .J oiü ’n~ii , Vol. 198 , August 1971 , p. 39. Starl ing , K. E . , et al., “Thermodynamic Property Predi ctions

  19. New Aspects Regarding the Labour Jurisdiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Radu POPESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The existence of two degrees of jurisdiction, the use of a single way of attack, the recourse, and the suppressing of the attack path of the appeal in the matter of labour conflicts, does not constitute unconstitutional dispositions. They have as finality only the assurance of the rapidity in solving such conflicts, without breaching the constitutional disposition according to which no law can restrict access to justice. I've tried to find the new regulation in this domain very important for those who practice labour law. In the Romanian legislation, the enforcement of the court decisions in the matter of labour conflicts is viewed by the lawmaker with great care, in certain cases the non-execution of a court decision being considered a felony. We think this article is a small step in the disclosure of the problem raised by the labour jurisdiction.

  20. 28 CFR 55.4 - Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.4 Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions. (a) The minority language provisions of the Voting Rights Act were added by the Voting Rights Act Amendments of 1975. (1) The requirements of section 4(f)(4) take effect...

  1. Doctors’ Orders: Specialists’ Day to Day Work and their jurisdictional Claims in Dutch Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Kruijthof

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study analyses the nature and organisation of specialists' day to day work in general hospitals in the Netherlands and the claims for jurisdiction specialists make in their work. It is of interest because it presents a picture of specialist work from within. Most studies abou

  2. Cross-jurisdictional management of a trophy-hunted species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochard, Jacob; Finnoff, David

    2017-02-08

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) are managed for competing uses in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Tourism benefits Yellowstone National Park (YNP) visitors while trophy hunting benefits hunters outside of the park. We investigate the policy scope of gray wolf management across jurisdictional boundaries by incorporating three foundations of the behavioral ecology of wolves: refuge-seeking behavior, optimal foraging group size and territoriality. Tradeoffs between and within consumptive and non-consumptive human benefits and wolf population fitness and life history indicators are quantified as a set of elasticities, providing clear implications to resource managers. Our approach highlights that hunting intensity affects the provision of consumptive and non-consumptive human benefits across jurisdictional boundaries and ought to be managed accordingly. We also show that population levels are an incomplete indicator of species fitness, which may depend on how hunting policies impact underlying group ecology. Our findings suggest traditional optimization approaches to wildlife management may lead to suboptimal policy recommendations when the boundaries on the natural system are oversimplified. Highlighting the human element of wildlife management, we show that understanding tourist and hunter responses to wildlife population abundances is critical to balancing provision of consumptive and non-consumptive human uses.

  3. Natural Gas Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Correa; Nelson Osorio

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  4. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  5. 49 CFR 173.313 - UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.313 UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases. The UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable gas...

  7. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... are also included); and (3) Sales for use in the production of a specific product in which the gas is an essential ingredient or principal raw material, such as sales of liquefied-petroleum-gas for...

  8. Local Identity in Times of Jurisdictional Consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling; Kjær, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Reforming the public sector has become increasingly popular. Some of the reforms have been jurisdictional consolidations of subnational authorities such as regions and municipalities. One question which remains unanswered is whether such consolidations affect citizens’ local identity? We take...... a first step towards providing an answer by examining whether citizens’ affective attachment to their municipality – and other administrative and geographical areas – declined or flourished in connection with a large-scale municipal reform implemented in Denmark in 2007. Empirically, we make use...

  9. The Expansion of Swiss Criminal Jurisdiction in Light of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Petrig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, a global trend of extending the reach of domestic penal power can be observed, namely driven by the changing face of crime as it becomes increasingly transnational in nature. It is demonstrated in this article that the Swiss legislature has clearly followed this global trend of broadening the extraterritorial reach of domestic criminal law, most notably since the 1980s. It has acted with particular resolve in the last decade, adding jurisdictional bases to the Swiss Criminal Code by virtue of which Swiss criminal law can be applied to many instances of conduct taking place abroad. Certain offences – specified crimes against minors and female genital mutilation – have even been subjected to an absolute and unrestricted universality principle. The Swiss legislature is not indifferent to the problems that such an expansive approach to jurisdiction may create, notably in terms of conflicts of jurisdiction. Yet, the rules it adopted to temper the effects of applying Swiss criminal law to extraterritorial conduct only partially remedy the situation. This development in Swiss law begs the question whether such an expansive approach towards jurisdiction is permissible – or even encouraged or requested by international law. Hence, this article explores to what extent international law informs the reach of domestic penal power and concludes that international law is Janus-faced with regard to the question of the geographical scope of domestic criminal law. While some of its rules push for long-arm jurisdiction, others put limits on the domestic legislature’s endeavour to expand the reach of its domestic criminal law. In light of this, the idea of adopting, on an international level, general principles governing the definition of the scope of domestic prescriptive and adjudicative jurisdiction for transnational cases is tempting, albeit difficult to realize.

  10. The Expansion of Swiss Criminal Jurisdiction in Light of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Petrig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, a global trend of extending the reach of domestic penal power can be observed, namely driven by the changing face of crime as it becomes increasingly transnational in nature. It is demonstrated in this article that the Swiss legislature has clearly followed this global trend of broadening the extraterritorial reach of domestic criminal law, most notably since the 1980s. It has acted with particular resolve in the last decade, adding jurisdictional bases to the Swiss Criminal Code by virtue of which Swiss criminal law can be applied to many instances of conduct taking place abroad. Certain offences – specified crimes against minors and female genital mutilation – have even been subjected to an absolute and unrestricted universality principle. The Swiss legislature is not indifferent to the problems that such an expansive approach to jurisdiction may create, notably in terms of conflicts of jurisdiction. Yet, the rules it adopted to temper the effects of applying Swiss criminal law to extraterritorial conduct only partially remedy the situation. This development in Swiss law begs the question whether such an expansive approach towards jurisdiction is permissible – or even encouraged or requested by international law. Hence, this article explores to what extent international law informs the reach of domestic penal power and concludes that international law is Janus-faced with regard to the question of the geographical scope of domestic criminal law. While some of its rules push for long-arm jurisdiction, others put limits on the domestic legislature’s endeavour to expand the reach of its domestic criminal law. In light of this, the idea of adopting, on an international level, general principles governing the definition of the scope of domestic prescriptive and adjudicative jurisdiction for transnational cases is tempting, albeit difficult to realize.

  11. Transient Analysis of Monopile Foundations Partially Embedded in Liquefied Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Bayat, Mehdi; Meysam, Saadati

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors present a coupled fluid-structures-seabed interaction analysis of a monopile type of wind turbine foundations in liquefiable soils. A two dimensional analysis is performed with a nonlinear stiffness degradation model incorporated in the finite difference program Fast La...

  12. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Field Office Jurisdiction/Divisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset represents the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations) national field office jurisdiction/divisional boundary locations. The field offices are centrally...

  13. Public health notices filed at Quebec's Environmental Public Hearing Board (BAPE) in relation to the implementation of a liquefied natural gas terminal and associated infrastructure in Levis; Avis de sante publique depose a la Commission du bureau d'audiences publiques sur l'environnement (BAPE) relativement au Projet d'implantation d'un terminal methanier et de ses infrastructures connexes a Levis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbour, S.; Lainesse, P. [Agence de la sante et des services sociaux de Chaudiere-Appalaches, Sainte-Marie, PQ (Canada); Lacroix, P. [Centre de sante et de services sociaux du Grand Littoral, Saint-Romuald, PQ (Canada); Auger, P.L.; Comeau, M.; Levaque, R.; Sebez, S. [Agence de la sante et des services sociaux de la Capitale-Nationale, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2007-01-25

    The public health directors for the Chaudieres-Appalaches and the National Capital regions expressed their opinions regarding the Rabaska liquefied natural gas project and its associated infrastructure. Their opinions were based on on a detailed examination of documents produced for the project; questions and information from initial public hearings; a survey of the population conducted in November 2006; and, previously published literature on issues related to a similar project. This document described the ethical rules that were taken into consideration regarding the management of public safety risks. The health directors placed emphasis on the justification for the project and the site chosen. They expressed that a potential risk to the security, health and well being of the population was still present. Noise pollution, air quality, and potable water quality were all subject to scrutiny. The directors would not give a favourable response regarding the project unless all issues were taken into consideration. The purpose of this document was to help close the gap regarding opposing opinions within the population on this subject. 76 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig., 8 appendices.

  14. Enhancing Disease Surveillance Event Communication Among Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Nathaniel R; Loschen, Wayne A; Jorgensen, Joel; Suereth, Joshua; Coberly, Jacqueline S; Holtry, Rekha S; Sikes, Marvin L; Babin, Steven M; Lewis, Sheryl L Happel

    2009-01-01

    Automated disease surveillance systems are becoming widely used by the public health community. However, communication among non-collocated and widely dispersed users still needs improvement. A web-based software tool for enhancing user communications was completely integrated into an existing automated disease surveillance system and was tested during two simulated exercises and operational use involving multiple jurisdictions. Evaluation of this tool was conducted by user meetings, anonymous surveys, and web logs. Public health officials found this tool to be useful, and the tool has been modified further to incorporate features suggested by user responses. Features of the automated disease surveillance system, such as alerts and time series plots, can be specifically referenced by user comments. The user may also indicate the alert response being considered by adding a color indicator to their comment. The web-based event communication tool described in this article provides a common ground for collaboration and communication among public health officials at different locations.

  15. 39 CFR 955.1 - Jurisdiction, procedure, service of documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdiction, procedure, service of documents. 955.1 Section 955.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.1 Jurisdiction, procedure, service of documents. (a...

  16. 36 CFR 293.10 - Jurisdiction over wildlife and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdiction over wildlife... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.10 Jurisdiction over wildlife and fish. Nothing in the... States with respect to wildlife and fish in the National Forests....

  17. 43 CFR 24.3 - General jurisdictional principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General jurisdictional principles. 24.3 Section 24.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.3 General jurisdictional principles. (a)...

  18. 28 CFR 0.56 - Exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction. 0.56 Section 0.56 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.56 Exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction. The Assistant Attorney General...

  19. 47 CFR 32.1500 - Other jurisdictional assets-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other jurisdictional assets-net. 32.1500....1500 Other jurisdictional assets—net. This account shall include the cumulative impact on assets of... account shall be recorded net of any applicable income tax effects and shall be supported by...

  20. Lateral response of pile foundations in liquefiable soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asskar Janalizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquefaction has been a main cause of damage to civil engineering structures in seismically active areas. The effects of damage of liquefaction on deep foundations are very destructive. Seismic behavior of pile foundations is widely discussed by many researchers for safer and more economic design purposes. This paper presents a pseudo-static method for analysis of piles in liquefiable soil under seismic loads. A free-field site response analysis using three-dimensional (3D numerical modeling was performed to determine kinematic loads from lateral ground displacements and inertial loads from vibration of the superstructure. The effects of various parameters, such as soil layering, kinematic and inertial forces, boundary condition of pile head and ground slope, on pile response were studied. By comparing the numerical results with the centrifuge test results, it can be concluded that the use of the p-y curves with various degradation factors in liquefiable sand gives reasonable results.

  1. A Case Study: Foundation Design in Liquefiable Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Ayadat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquefaction is a phenomenon which occurs under seismic solicitation. The passage of a seismic wave (i.e. strong shaking leads, in certain geological formations, to the loss of shearing resistance in saturated sandy materials. This is caused mainly by the increase of the pore water pressure generated by the cyclical deformations. The instantaneous deconsolidation of the soil is reflected by the destruction of the soil mass; making the constructions on such soils unstable. In this geotechnical investigation a case study of foundation design on liquefiable site is described. The geotechnical investigation, carried out at Kent (Ontario, consisted of the construction of a new electrical station on a liquefiable site

  2. Residual oil aerosol measurements on refrigerators and liquefiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflueckhahn, D.; Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-01

    The purity of the process gas is essential for the reliability of refrigerators and liquefiers. Filtration and adsorption of impurities like water, nitrogen, and oil result in a major effort, cost, and maintenance in the helium process. Expensive impurity monitors for moisture, nitrogen, and hydrocarbon contents are required to identify filter failures and leakage immediately during the operation. While water and nitrogen contaminants can be detected reliably, the measurement of oil aerosols at the ppb-level is challenging. We present a novel diagnostic oil aerosol measurement system able to measure particles in the sub-μm range. This unit enabled us to evaluate and improve the oil separation system on a LINDE TCF 50 helium liquefier.

  3. Capacity enhancement of indigenous expansion engine based helium liquefier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doohan, R. S.; Kush, P. K.; Maheshwari, G.

    2017-02-01

    Development of technology and understanding for large capacity helium refrigeration and liquefaction at helium temperature is indispensable for coming-up projects. A new version of helium liquefier designed and built to provide approximately 35 liters of liquid helium per hour. The refrigeration capacity of this reciprocating type expansion engine machine has been increased from its predecessor version with continuous improvement and deficiency debugging. The helium liquefier has been built using components by local industries including cryogenic Aluminum plate fin heat exchangers. Two compressors with nearly identical capacity have been deployed for the operation of system. Together they consume about 110 kW of electric power. The system employs liquid Nitrogen precooling to enhance liquid Helium yield. This paper describes details of the cryogenic expander design improvements, reconfiguration of heat exchangers, performance simulation and their experimental validation.

  4. Synthesis and Properties of Polyurethane Resins from Liquefied Benzylated Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ping WEI; Fa CHENG; Hou Ping LI; Jiu Gao YU

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, polyurethane resins were synthesized from liquefied benzylated wood and TDI (toluene diisocyanate)-TMP (trihydromethylene propane) prepolymer. And the relation between microphase structure and properties of PU samples were also studied. The results indicated that coatings obtained had good mechanical and thermal properties. The amount of the curing agent has great effect on the degree of phase segregation. In addition, with increased the curing agent amount, the thermal stabilities were also improved.

  5. Attacking or Defending? Jurisdiction of the Court of Justice in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2016-01-01

    ’s jurisdiction, it is inevitable that the Court would be placed in a position where it is to rule on its limited remit, and the extent of this perceived boundary within the current Treaties. External relations are an important part of the Court’s work, and cases arise from both preliminary references and direct...... the Court has both simultaneously confronted and safeguarded the legal nature of CFSP through an ‘attack’ and ‘defend’ model. To begin with, a brief overview is provided of the unique legal nature of CFSP that is central to understanding the Court’s jurisdictional dynamics in this field, given CFSP’s unique...... when the two interact with one another. By proposing an ‘attacking’ and ‘defending’ paradigm using cases from recent years, the Court’s inherent jurisdictional dilemma in CFSP will be exposed....

  6. Process Control Migration of 50 LPH Helium Liquefier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, U.; Mandal, A.; Das, A.; Behera, M.; Pal, Sandip

    2017-02-01

    Two helium liquefier/refrigerators are operational at VECC while one is dedicated for the Superconducting Cyclotron. The first helium liquefier of 50 LPH capacity from Air Liquide has already completed fifteen years of operation without any major trouble. This liquefier is being controlled by Eurotherm PC3000 make PLC. This PLC has become obsolete since last seven years or so. Though we can still manage to run the PLC system with existing spares, risk of discontinuation of the operation is always there due to unavailability of spare. In order to eliminate the risk, an equivalent PLC control system based on Siemens S7-300 was thought of. For smooth migration, total programming was done keeping the same field input and output interface, nomenclature and graphset. New program is a mix of S7-300 Graph, STL and LAD languages. One to one program verification of the entire process graph was done manually. The total program was run in simulation mode. Matlab mathematical model was also used for plant control simulations. EPICS based SCADA was used for process monitoring. As of now the entire hardware and software is ready for direct replacement with minimum required set up time.

  7. Liquefied Bleed for Stability and Efficiency of High Speed Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J. David; Davis, David; Barsi, Stephen J.; Deans, Matthew C.; Weir, Lois J.; Sanders, Bobby W.

    2014-01-01

    A mission analysis code was developed to perform a trade study on the effectiveness of liquefying bleed for the inlet of the first stage of a TSTO vehicle. By liquefying bleed, the vehicle weight (TOGW) could be reduced by 7 to 23%. Numerous simplifying assumptions were made and lessons were learned. Increased accuracy in future analyses can be achieved by: Including a higher fidelity model to capture the effect of rescaling (variable vehicle TOGW). Refining specific thrust and impulse models ( T m a and Isp) to preserve fuel-to-air ratio. Implementing LH2 for T m a and Isp. Correlating baseline design to other mission analyses and correcting vehicle design elements. Implementing angle-of-attack effects on inlet characteristics. Refining aerodynamic performance (to improve L/D ratio at higher Mach numbers). Examining the benefit with partial cooling or densification of the bleed air stream. Incorporating higher fidelity weight estimates for the liquefied bleed system (heat exchange and liquid storage versus bleed duct weights) could be added when more fully developed. Adding trim drag or 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory analysis for higher fidelity. Investigating vehicle optimization for each of the bleed configurations.

  8. Preparation of liquefied wood-based resins and their application in molding material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiu-hui; Zhao Guang-jie; Yu Li-li; Jie Shu-jun

    2007-01-01

    To investigate value in use of liquefied wood-based resin applications in molding material, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and poplar (Populus tomentosa) wood meal were liquefied in phenol. The reactant was co-condensed with formaldehyde to obtain liquefied wood-based resin. For this paper, we investigated the characterization of the resin and its application in molding material. The result shows that the basic properties of liquefied wood-based resin were satisfactory; the bonding strength of plywood prepared with liquefied Chinese fir and liquefied poplar resin can reach 1.54 and 1.00 MPa, respectively. The compression strengths of the molding material prepared with two kinds of liquefied wood resin were 73.01 and 73.58 MPa, almost the same as that of PF resin molding material. The limiting volume swelling of molding material made with liquefied Chinese resin and liquefied poplar resin were 8.5% and 8.3%, thickness swelling rates of water absorption were 3.3% and 4.2%, and the maximum weight ratios of water absorption were 25.9% and 26.2%, respectively. The soil burial test result shows that the weight loss rate of the molding materials made with liquefied Chinese resin and liquefied poplar resin were 8.3% and 9.1% and that of the PF resin molding material was 7.9%. After the soil internment test, the reduction ratio of compression strength of the two kinds of molding material achieved 16.9%and 17.7%, while that of the PF resin molding material was 15.4%. The test results of wood fungi inoculation on the three surfaces of the molding material indicate the breeding rate of molding material prepared with liquefied Chinese resin and liquefied poplar resin were at level 4 and that of PF resin molding material was at level 1 of the ISO standard.

  9. 78 FR 36014 - Deepwater Port License Application: Liberty Natural Gas, LLC, Port Ambrose Deepwater Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... an application for the licensing of a liquefied natural gas deepwater port and that the application..., and operate a liquefied natural gas (LNG) deepwater port, known as Port Ambrose, located in the New... Maritime Administration Deepwater Port License Application: Liberty Natural Gas, LLC, Port...

  10. The Problem of Universal Jurisdiction in Curbing International Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanov RAHIM TASHAKKUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There is generally no agreed doctrinal definition of universal jurisdiction in customary and conventional international law. However, this does not preclude any definition, which embodies the essence of the concept as the ability to exercise jurisdiction irrespective of territoriality or nationality. Therefore, the concept of universal jurisdiction applies to a situation where " entitles a State to exercise its jurisdictio territory, has been perpetrated by a non the acts." "Universal jurisdiction" refers to the competence of a national court to try a p suspected of a serious international crime torture-even if neither the suspect nor the victim are nationals of the country where the court is located ("the forum state", and the crime took pla legal principle which has evolved in order to overcome jurisdictional gaps in the international legal order. It is intended to ensure that those responsible for international crimes crimes against humanity, grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, and torture justice. Universal jurisdiction is primarily enacted when States with a more traditional jurisdictional nexus to the crime (related, inter alia, to the pla prove unable or unwilling to genuinely investigate and prosecute: when their legal system is inadequate, or when it is used to shield the accused from justice.

  11. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tastandieva G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of “cooling down” liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

  12. Solid-state titania-based gas sensor for liquefied petroleum gas detection at room temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Yadav; Anuradha Yadav; Tripti Shukla; Satyendra Singh

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing of titanium dioxide (Qualigens, India). Scanning electron micrographs and X-ray diffraction studies of samples were done. SEM shows that the material is porous and has grapes-like morphology before exposure to the LPG. XRD patterns reveal the crystalline nature of the material. The crystallites sizes of the TiO2 were found in the range of 30–75 nm. Variations in resistance with exposure of LPG to the sensing element were observed. The average sensitivity for different volume percentages of gas was estimated. The maximum value of average sensitivity was 1.7 for higher vol.% of LPG. Percentage sensor response (%SR) as a function of time was calculated and its maximum value was 45%. Response time of the sensor was 70 s. The sensor was quite sensitive to LPG and results were found reproducible.

  13. EPA Region 1 Coast Guard Jurisdictional Boundary - Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Jurisdictional boundary between EPA and Coast Guard for EPA Region I. Created from 1:100000 USGS DLGs with greater detail drawn from 1:24000 commercial street data...

  14. E Kayitana THE UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION OF SOUTH AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Also see Werle International Criminal Law 74: "Crimes .... empowers South African courts with universal jurisdiction over international crimes. Rome Statute ..... However, a survey of the literature and the decisions of national courts reveals that.

  15. EPA Region 1 Coast Guard Jurisdictional Boundary - Arcs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Jurisdictional boundary between EPA and Coast Guard for EPA Region I. Created from 1:100000 USGS DLGs with greater detail drawn from 1:24000 commercial street data...

  16. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Brownfields Grant Jurisdictions, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Brownfields Grant Jurisdictions as part of the CIMC web service. The data represent polygonal boundaries that show different types...

  17. US EPA Region 9 and US Coast Guard Jurisdictional Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This line feature represents the jurisdictional boundary along the California coastline that defines EPA (Inland Zone) and Coast Guard (Coastal Zone) emergency...

  18. Jurisdiction in international law : United States and European perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ryngaert, Cedric

    2007-01-01

    This study starts with a quote by Professor Meessen: “The function of scholars of international law offers less opportunity for creative thinking [compared to scholars of conflict of laws]: they may compile and analyze state practice, but they cannot replace it with their own concepts.”[1] This study, which primarily looks at the phenomenon of jurisdiction through a (public) international law lens, rejects that limiting claim. While the current state of the international law of jurisdiction ...

  19. Responding to Public Health Emergencies on Tribal Lands: Jurisdictional Challenges and Practical Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Justin B

    2015-01-01

    Response to public health emergencies on tribal lands poses a unique challenge for state and tribal public health officials. The complexity and intensely situation-specific nature of federal Indian jurisprudence leaves considerable question as to which government entity, state or tribal, has jurisdiction on tribal lands to undertake basic emergency measures such as closure of public spaces, quarantine, compulsory medical examination, and investigation. That jurisdictional uncertainty, coupled with cultural differences and an often troubled history of tribal-state relations, threatens to significantly impede response to infectious disease outbreaks or other public health emergencies on tribal lands. Given that tribal communities may be disproportionately impacted by public health emergencies, it is critical that tribal, state, and local governments engage with each other in coordinated planning for public health threats. This Article is offered as a catalyst for such planning efforts. The Article identifies some of the most pressing jurisdictional issues that may confront governments responding to a public health emergency on tribal lands, with the aim of highlighting the nature of the problem and the need for action. The Article goes on to examine the most promising means of addressing jurisdictional uncertainty: intergovernmental agreements. Already utilized in many areas of shared interest between tribe and state, intergovernmental agreements offer neighboring state, local, and tribal governments a vehicle for delineating roles and authorities in an emergency, and may lay the groundwork for sharing resources. The Article surveys various representative tribal public health intergovernmental agreements, and concludes with suggestions for tribes and state or local governments looking to craft their own agreements.

  20. Temperature distribution and control in liquefied petroleum gas fluidized beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Ping Wu; Yanping Zhang; Jing Yang; Lige Tong

    2004-01-01

    Temperature distribution and control have been investigated in a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fluidized bed with hollow corundum spheres (A12O3) of 0.867-1.212 mm in diameter at moderately high temperatures (800-1100℃). Experiments were carried out for the air consumption coefficient α in the range of 0.3 to 1.0 and the fluidization number N in the range of 1.3 to 3.0. Particle properties, initial bed height, α and N all affect temperature distribution in the bed. Bed temperature can be adjusted about 200℃ by combined the adjusting of α and N.

  1. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    OpenAIRE

    Tastandieva G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the...

  2. Numerical simulation of the performance and economical study of three cookers: solar, hybrid (solar and natural gas) and a LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gases) cooker for one typical year in Fortaleza-Brazil; Simulacao numerica da performance e estudo da viabilidade economica de tres tipos de fogoes: solar, hibrido (solar e gas natural) e a GLP (Gas Liquefeito do Petroleo) para um ano em Fortaleza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria Eugenia Vieira da; Santana, Lana Ludmila Pinheiro [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar e Gas Natural (LESGN); Schwarzer, Klemens [Universidade de Ciencias Aplicadas de Aachen (Germany). Solar Institute Juelich; Miller, Francisco Mateus [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Baratelli Junior, Fernando [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Gas e Energia

    2004-07-01

    Alternative energy sources can represent viable economical solutions for the energy supply problems and also minimize damages to the environment. This research paper presents an economical and technical study of three different types of cookers: a solar cooker, a hybrid cooker and a conventional LPG cooker, through simulation for one typical year in Fortaleza. The solar cooker used in the experiments is composed of two pots, an oven, a tank of storage and 2m{sup 2} of solar collector area. The hybrid cooker has the same structure of the solar one with an additional natural gas burner, and the LPG stove can be easily found in the market. To find the value of the necessary energy to make food in a solar cooker, the amount of solar radiation was measured, as well as the sensible and latent efficiencies of the used stove. In the hybrid, it was considered that the natural gas is used only in the periods of the day when the amount of solar energy is not enough to heat the system up to the desired temperature. The results show an economical and technical comparison of the three different types of cookers. (author)

  3. 30 CFR 75.1106-2 - Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 75.1106-2 Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-2 Section 75.1106-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  4. 78 FR 26056 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Nederland, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Nederland... proposed expansion of its Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) facility in Nederland, Texas, and increased LHG... solicit public comments on the proposed increase in LHG marine traffic in Nederland, Texas....

  5. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  6. Development and implementation of coral reef biocriteria in U.S. jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Patricia; Fisher, William S; Bell, Heidi; Davis, Wayne; Chan, Valerie; LoBue, Charles; Wiltse, Wendy

    2009-03-01

    Coral reefs worldwide are declining at an alarming rate and are under continuous threat from both natural and anthropogenic environmental stressors. Warmer sea temperatures attributed to global climate change and numerous human activities at local scales place these valuable ecosystems at risk. Reefs provide numerous services, including shoreline protection, fishing, tourism and biological diversity, which are lost through physical damage, overfishing, and pollution. Pollution can be controlled under provisions of the Clean Water Act, but these options have not been fully employed to protect coral reefs. No U.S. jurisdiction has implemented coral reef biocriteria, which are narrative or quantitative water quality standards based on the condition of a biological resource or assemblage. The President's Ocean Action Plan directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop biological assessment methods and biological criteria for evaluating and maintaining the health of coral reef ecosystems. EPA has formed the Coral Reef Biocriteria Working Group (CRBWG) to foster development of coral reef biocriteria through focused research, evaluation and communication among Agency partners and U.S. jurisdictions. Ongoing CRBWG activities include development and evaluation of a rapid bioassessment protocol for application in biocriteria programs; development of a survey design and monitoring strategy for the U.S. Virgin Islands; comprehensive reviews of biocriteria approaches proposed by states and territories; and assembly of data from a variety of monitoring programs for additional metrics. Guidance documents are being prepared to assist U.S. jurisdictions in reaching protective and defensible biocriteria.

  7. THE USE OF OFFSHORE JURISDICTIONS IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL FITTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA RADU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential legal and financial Structures, sometimes complex, had until recently been small and medium entrepreneurs away from the use of offshore jurisdictions, but the constraints of increasingly heavy taxation of excessive in certain States, you push even those with limited resources to use in these jurisdictions to protect revenue. The purpose of this research is to analyze the offshore jurisdictions in order to determine the possibilities of useof their disadvantages in order to improve measures to combat tax evasion, as well as for the use of their advantages in order to reduce illegal migration and regular employment of capital through the analysis of specific cases of the use of offshore jurisdictions – Case Frabklin Jurado, The Bank of Commerce and Credit InternationalAmerican Express Bank International. Scientific novelty and originality of the investigation consists of:-the identification on the basis of international practice, some offshore jurisdictions specific items in order to reflect their fiscal policies (trade and investment, etc.-analysis of cases of the use of offshore jurisdictions in international financial fittings (such as the Bank of Credit and Commerce International; Franklin Jurado; American Express Bank International,-identification of the impact paradisurilor tax and offshore financial centres of the world economy– revealing secret financial transactions carried out within the framework of ofssore, research instruments jurisdictions and management techniques of cadrulacestor tax jurisdictions.It is interesting to be seen through the prism of analysis of economic-fiscal financiare if a competition is beneficial or not for the welfare of States and to what extent this competition will have a say in future developments and tax paradisurilor finanaciare offshore centres. In conclusion, I appreciate that in order to survive successfully in the global economy of the future, offshoreJurisdictions should promote a

  8. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  9. Law and politics of universal jurisdiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Panakova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Universal jurisdiction is where international law and international politics walk together on a thin line between their respective worlds. Yet, while much has been written about legal aspects 
          
  10. Cover stones on liquefiable soil bed under waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Hatipoglu, Figen; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    of stone layers (including the effect of an intermediate filter layer) were investigated. Pore pressure was measured across the soil depth. The experiments show that the soil liquefaction depended mainly on two parameters: the packing density of stones, and the number of stone layers. When the liquefaction...... occurs, stones sink in the soil. Mechanisms of liquefaction and sinking are described, and practical guidelines are recommended.......The paper describes the results of an experimental study on the behavior of cover stones on a liquefiable soil bed exposed to a progressive wave. The soil was silt with d50=0.098mm. Stones, the size of 4cm, were used as cover material. The effect of packing density of stones, and that of number...

  11. UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION AND THE PRINCIPLE OF NE BIS IN IDEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA AGHENITEI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Universal jurisdiction was defined as “the assertion of jurisdiction to prescribe in the absence of any other accepted jurisdictional nexus at the time of the relevant conduct.” Professor Randall, in his seminal work on universal jurisdiction, opined that the theory of universality “provides every state with jurisdiction over a limitedcategory of offenses generally recognized as of universal concern, regardless of the situs of the offence and the nationalities of the offender and the offended. ”Universal jurisdiction is considered a tool for promoting greater justice, but the rights of the accused must be protected. One of the most important guarantees is the principle of ne bis in idem, which protected persons against multiple prosecutions for the same crime. The main legal consequence of the application of ne bis in idem in most systems is the prohibition and inadmissibility of subsequent prosecutions on the same facts blocking effect.The national ne bis in idem principle is established asan individual right in international human rights legal instruments, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 19 December 1966, in Article 14(7. At the regional level, Article 8(4 of the American Convention of Human Rights (1969 and Article 4 (I of the Seventh Protocol of the European Convention of Human Rights merit mention. In Europe, the ne bis in idem principle is enshrined in Article 54 of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985, which prohibits the initiation of a second trial for the same offence when final judgment has been imposed upon a person by a court of a contracting party.

  12. Location, Location: Jurisdiction & Conflicts in Transborder Contract Litigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    In transborder contract litigation place-based factors are often decisive, both as regards jurisdiction to adjudicate as well as the rules which determine the applicable substantive law. Relevant locations include the place where the contract was made, where the parties reside, transact business...... or own property, the place of delivery, payment or other performance etc. Using concrete case-based examples, Professor Lookofsky explains how rules of jurisdiction and contract conflicts in Europe are tied to rigidly defined, single-place-based factors. In the United States, by contrast...

  13. Laptop-assisted Helium Liquefier: software for tailored monitoring and control

    CERN Document Server

    Marceddu, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Computer running human machine interfaces are fast supplanting conventional hardware dedicated to monitoring and supervising tasks. This kind of approach was successfully employed to develop a new monitoring and control software, running on a conventional laptop computer, for a small size helium liquefier. This software was realized with a SCADA development package and hallowed to manage all the liquefier functionalities. Being conceived as an open structure suitable for further upgrades, this liquefier HMI can be tailored on demand to satisfy specific needs of the end-user, even if not provided by the original manufacturer project.

  14. Delays in Medical Malpractice Litigation in Civil Law Jurisdictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Garoupaa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Medical malpractice law and tort reform are contentious issues. In this paper, we focus on Italy as an example of a civil law jurisdiction. Italian medical malpractice law is essentially judge-made law. However, its effectiveness is likely to be curtailed by excessive delays in litigation. Several...

  15. Multilateral versus unilateral exercises of universal criminal jurisdiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2010-01-01

    This Article draws a distinction between two types of exercise of universal criminal jurisdiction with a view to demonstrating that one of them is deeply detrimental to domestic IHL enforcement mechanisms, and especially zeroes in on contemporary unilateral exercises of universal criminal jurisdicti

  16. Stability of submerged rock berms exposed to motion of liquefied soil in waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Dixen, Figen Hatipoglu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the results of an experimental study on the behaviour of a submerged rock berm in liquefied backfill soil. The soil is liquefied by waves, and the rock berm is subject to the orbital motion of the liquefied soil. The soil used in the experiments was silt with d50=0.075mm....... Various berm materials were used, stones of size 0.74–2.5cm, plastic balls of size 3.6cm, brass of size 2.5cm and steel of size 1.0cm. The experiments show that rock berms that are stable under very large waves can be unstable when they are exposed to the motion of liquefied soil. The limited data...

  17. Thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues using thermogravimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yuzhu Chen; Feng Li

    2017-01-01

    The thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues with respect to liquefaction condition and pyrolysis conversion were investigated using a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer at the heating rates of 5, 20, 50

  18. Study of a multi-strategy controller on a helium liquefier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L. L.; Meng, Y. R.; Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Tang, J. C.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Helium liquefier is widely used in the fields of superconducting, nuclear fusion energy and high-energy physics. However, the present PID controlling system of the liquefier is not able to keep the compressor suction pressure, outlet pressure and turbine inlet pressure all in the expected range at the same time. Thus, a multi-strategy controller for a helium liquefier is proposed in this paper. A dynamic simulation model of this liquefier is also developed and shown. To study the control effect, an operation process including cool-down, steady-state and pulse of heat is described. The simulation result of this process is presented and compared with the result of the present PID controlling system.

  19. 77 FR 47676 - Comment Request: Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research Jurisdictional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... Comment Request: Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research Jurisdictional Survey AGENCY... Research Jurisdictional Survey Evaluation for the National Science Foundation. OMB Number: 3145-NEW. Type... strengthen science and engineering research potential and education at all levels throughout the...

  20. Who ‘marries' whom? The influence of societal connectedness, economic and political homogeneity, and population size on jurisdictional consolidations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2011-01-01

    For decades, political scientists have been asking how political jurisdictions are formed and reshaped. Nevertheless, studies of local government jurisdictional formation are few and often plagued with endogeneity since the formation of jurisdictions cannot be separated from sorting effects...

  1. Two Heat-Transfer Improvements for Gas Liquefiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jerry L.

    2005-01-01

    Two improvements in heat-transfer design have been investigated with a view toward increasing the efficiency of refrigerators used to liquefy gases. The improvements could contribute to the development of relatively inexpensive, portable oxygen liquefiers for medical use. A description of the heat-transfer problem in a pulse-tube refrigerator is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the first improvement. In a pulse-tube refrigerator in particular, one of in-line configuration heat must be rejected from two locations: an aftercooler (where most of the heat is rejected) and a warm heat exchanger (where a small fraction of the total input power must be rejected as heat). Rejection of heat from the warm heat exchanger can be problematic because this heat exchanger is usually inside a vacuum vessel. When an acoustic-inertance tube is used to provide a phase shift needed in the pulse-tube cooling cycle, another problem arises: Inasmuch as the acoustic power in the acoustic-inertance tube is dissipated over the entire length of the tube, the gas in the tube must be warmer than the warm heat exchanger in order to reject heat at the warm heat exchanger. This is disadvantageous because the increase in viscosity with temperature causes an undesired increase in dissipation of acoustic energy and an undesired decrease in the achievable phase shift. Consequently, the overall performance of the pulse-tube refrigerator decreases with increasing temperature in the acoustic-inertance tube. In the first improvement, the acoustic-inertance tube is made to serve as the warm heat exchanger and to operate in an approximately isothermal condition at a lower temperature, thereby increasing the achievable phase shift and the overall performance of the refrigerator. This is accomplished by placing the acoustic-inertance tube inside another tube and pumping a cooling fluid (e.g., water) in the annular space between the tubes. Another benefit of this improvement is added flexibility of

  2. VAPOR MIXER FOR GELATINIZATION OF STARCH IN LIQUEFYING STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ananskikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch hydrolysis is main technological process in production of starch sweeteners. Acid hydrolysis of starch using hydrochloric acid is carried out very fast but it does not allow to carry out full hydrolysis and to produce products with given carbohydrate composition. Bioconversion of starch allows to eliminate these limitations. At production of starch sweeteners from starch using enzymes starch hydrolysis is carried out in two stages At first starch – starch liquefaction the rapid increase of viscosity takes place which requires intensive mixing. Liquefying station consists of jet-cooker, holder, pressure regulator and evaporator. Jet-cooker of starch is its main part, starch is quickly turns into soluble (gelatinized state and it is partially liquefied by injection of starch suspension by flow of water vapor under pressure not less than 0,8 MPa. Heat and hydraulic calculation were carried out in order to determine constructive sizes of mixer for cooking of starch. The main hydraulic definable parameters are pressure drop in mixer, vapor pressure at mixer inlet, daily capacity of station by glucose syrup M, product consumption (starch suspension, diameter of inlet section of vapor nozzle. The goal of calculation was to determine vapor consumption M1, diameter d2 of outlet section of confuser injector, length l2 of gelatinization section. For heat calculation there was used Shukhov’s formula along with heat balance equation for gelatinization process. The numerical solution obtained with adopted assumptions given in applied mathematical package MATHCAD, for M = 50 t/day gives required daily vapor consumption M1 = 14,446 т. At hydraulic calculation of pressure drop in mixer there was used Bernoulli’s theorem. Solving obtained equations using MATHCAD found diameter of outlet section of consufer d2 = 0,023 м, vapor pressure inside of mixer p2 = 3,966·105 Па, l2 = 0,128 м. Developed method of calculation is used to determine

  3. 78 FR 19353 - Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction; Notice of Public Meeting ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY... biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. DATES: The public meeting will be held on April 23, 2013... negotiations on marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction, such as the meeting of the UN BBNJ working...

  4. 17 CFR 250.8 - Exemption of subsidiaries subject to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission. 250.8 Section 250.8 Commodity and Securities... to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission. Any subsidiary company of a registered holding company, which subsidiary is subject to the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission but is...

  5. Modeling and Diagnostic Software for Liquefying-Fuel Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott; Iverson, David; Ou, Jeremy; Sanderfer, Dwight; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a study of five modeling and diagnostic computer programs considered for use in an integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) system during testing of liquefying-fuel hybrid rocket engines in the Hybrid Combustion Facility (HCF) at NASA Ames Research Center. Three of the programs -- TEAMS, L2, and RODON -- are model-based reasoning (or diagnostic) programs. The other two programs -- ICS and IMS -- do not attempt to isolate the causes of failures but can be used for detecting faults. In the study, qualitative models (in TEAMS and L2) and quantitative models (in RODON) having varying scope and completeness were created. Each of the models captured the structure and behavior of the HCF as a physical system. It was noted that in the cases of the qualitative models, the temporal aspects of the behavior of the HCF and the abstraction of sensor data are handled outside of the models, and it is necessary to develop additional code for this purpose. A need for additional code was also noted in the case of the quantitative model, though the amount of development effort needed was found to be less than that for the qualitative models.

  6. Evaluation of burn injuries related to liquefied petroleum gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2014-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a fuel that is widely used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. LPG is also commonly used in restaurants, industries, and cars; however, the home continues to be the main site for accidents. In Turkey, the increased usage of LPG as a cooking or heating fuel has resulted in many burn injuries from LPG mishaps. Between January 2000 and June 2011, 56 LPG-burned patients were compared with 112 flame-burned patients. There were no significant differences with respect to the mean age, sex, hospitalization time, and mortality in both groups. In the LPG-caused burn cases, 41 burns (73.2%) occurred at home, seven (12.5) were work-related mishaps, and eight (14.3) were associated with car accidents. The majority of the LPG burns (82%, 46 patients) resulted from a gas leak, and 18% of them were related to the failure to close LPG tubes in the patients' kitchens (10 patients). Burns to the face and neck (82 vs 67%, P = .039) and upper (62 vs 23%, P = .000) and lower (70 vs 45%, P = .002) extremities were significantly higher in LPG-caused burn cases than flame-burned cases. General awareness regarding the risk of LPG and first aid for burns appears to be lacking. The LPG delivery system should be standardized throughout countries that widely use LPG.

  7. A novel dataset on horizontal property rights in 126 jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dari-Mattiacci, Giuseppe; Guerriero, Carmine

    2017-04-01

    The law and the economy are deeply influenced by horizontal property rights, which are the rules regulating legal direct and indirect takings between private parties. To foster research on the determinants and impact of these institutions, we illustrate here a novel data set partially employed in (Dari-Mattiacci, Giuseppe, Carmine Guerriero, 2015; Dari-Mattiacci, Giuseppe, Carmine Guerriero, Zhenxing Huang, 2016) [3], [4], and (Guerriero Carmine, 2016) [6] and describing the acquisition of ownership through adverse possession of personal and real property and the use of government takings to transfer real property from a private party to another private party in 126 jurisdictions. These data are based on the laws and judicial decisions prevailing in each jurisdiction between 1981 and 2011.

  8. Jurisdictional Competition Between Private and Public Sector Auditors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    . In Denmark, the competitive relation has led to a jurisdictional dispute between public and private sector auditors in which the former have developed a special qualification for public sector auditors. The paper analyses the development of this qualification using Abbott's (1988) theory of the system...... of professions, thus focusing on how the involved groups have attempted to build networks of support for their competing jurisdictional claims of expertise. The case contributes to knowledge about the potential for development of a distinct public sector auditor identity. The case suggests that to develop...... such an identity and gain professional recognition, public sector auditors need to convince parliaments, standard-setting bodies and universities that a public sector auditing qualification serves as a solution to some of their problems, too....

  9. Fighting Harmful Tax Competition Generated by Offshore Jurisdictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Drosu Saguna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful tax competition is not just tax system, but can also undermine the interests of local communities and the environment. Tax havens are a huge drain of resources from other countries (basic non tax haven to offshore areas. To operate, tax havens are supported economically, politically, and socially by high tax states. Also, by encouraging savings, it boosts investment and capital formation. Because they are low tax jurisdictions, they exert a higher tax on tax rates worldwide.

  10. Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction: Current Debate and Indonesia's Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulardi Nurbintoro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The drafters of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS have left behind a lacunae in terms of the regulations concerning Biodiversity in the Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ. As living organisms are found in the deep seabed in areas beyond national jurisdiction, as well as the utilization of marine genetic resources beyond national jurisdiction for commercial purposes, States are currently deliberating on the proper regime in dealing with the management and exploitation of the biodiversity. Some States argue that Part XI UNCLOS applies hence BBNJ is also part of the Common Heritage of Mankind. On the other hand, some States believe that Part VII UNCLOS applies which will allow individual States to exploit the resources in accordance with the principle of the freedom of the high seas. Since 2004, the UN General Assembly has established a Working Group to discuss the issue. Indonesia as a Party to UNCLOS which in general advocates the importance of the rule of law in the oceans has the interest that the discussion in the UN will allow developing countries, including Indonesia, to enjoy the result of the exploration and exploitation of non-mineral resources at the bottom of the ocean.

  11. Federal antitrust jurisdiction in peer review cases: the Pinhas decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, R C

    1991-11-01

    In Summit Health Ltd. v. Pinhas, the United States Supreme Court by a narrow majority found that the exclusion of an ophthalmologist from a hospital in Los Angeles had a sufficient effect on interstate commerce to establish federal jurisdiction under the Sherman Act. In resolving a split among the federal circuit courts of appeal, the Court applied the broad jurisdictional test from McLain v. Real Estate Board of New Orleans, Inc. to peer review proceedings. Despite many ambiguities in the majority opinion by Justice Stevens and a scathing dissent by Justice Scalia, the effect of Pinhas will be to increase the suits in federal court on antitrust grounds brought by aggrieved medical staff members and applicants denied appointments or privileges, and to decrease, if not eliminate, the likelihood of preliminary dismissal on jurisdictional grounds. This, in turn, should serve to emphasize the importance of complying with the Health Care Quality Improvement Act in order to obtain immunity from damages under federal antitrust and state laws.

  12. Extraction of PCBs and water from river sediment using liquefied dimethyl ether as an extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Takaoka, Masaki; Kitade, Sin-ichiro; Takeda, Nobuo; Kanda, Hideki; Makino, Hisao; Matsumoto, Tadao; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and water could be simultaneously removed from river sediment by solvent extraction using liquefied dimethyl ether (DME) as the extractant. DME exists in a gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure and can dissolve organic substances and some amount of water; therefore, liquefied DME under moderate pressure (0.6-0.8 MPa) at room temperature can be effectively used to extract PCBs and water from contaminated sediment, and it can be recovered from the extract and reused easily. First, we evaluated the PCB and water extraction characteristics of DME from contaminated sediment. We found that 99% of PCBs and 97% of water were simultaneously extracted from the sediment using liquefied DME at an extraction time of 4320 s and a liquefied DME/sediment ratio of 60 mL g(-1). The extraction rate of PCBs and water was expressed in terms of a pseudo-first-order reaction rate. Second, we estimated the amount of DME that was recovered after extraction. We found that 91-92% of DME could be recovered. In other words, approximately 5-10% of DME was lost during extraction and recovery. It is necessary to optimize this process in order to recover DME efficiently. The extraction efficiency of the recovered DME is similar to that of the pure DME. From the results, we conclude that solvent extraction using liquefied DME is suitable for extracting PCBs and water from contaminated sediment. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novolak PF resins prepared from phenol liquefied Cryptomeria japonica and used in manufacturing moldings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Jau; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2008-10-01

    The wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) was liquefied in phenol with H2SO4 and HCl as catalysts. The liquefied wood was reacted with formalin to prepare the novolak PF resin. The results showed that the reaction of liquefied Japanese cedar with formalin was an exothermic reaction, and formed a solid-like resin without extra heating. Two novolak PF resins were prepared from the liquefied wood which were identified as SF and CF that using the liquefied wood with H2SO4 and HCl as catalyst respectively. The novolak PF powder displayed thermo-melting characteristic. The resins of SF and CF had weight average molecular weight of 3638 and 3941 respectively and melting temperature of 149.4 degrees C and 127.5 degrees C respectively. Both of the novolak resins could be used to make moldings with good performance by mixing the novolak resin with wood powder, hardener and zinc stearate at the weight ratio of 60:30:10:1 and hot-pressed under 200 degrees C for 10min.

  14. Effect of thickness of liquefiable foundation on the seismic performance of earth dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, Tensay; Wu, Wei

    2010-05-01

    Earthquake induced liquefaction continues to be a major threat to many civil engineering structures on the earth. Among these structures are earthfill dams. There are two major causes for the seismically inadequacy of a statically stable earthfill dams around the world. These are the liquefaction of the foundation layer and shell of the dams. In order to gain a better understanding of the seismic performance of earthfill dams on liquefiable foundation layer, a numerical model of an earthfill dam with mixed clay core founded on a liquefiable foundation subjected to earthquake is being studied. The properties and thickness of the liquefiable layer are varied to determine the related effects on the overlying earthfill dam. In order to explore the effect of the varying depth and thickness of liquefiable layer on the seismic response of earthfill dams, the total foundation thickness is divided into three equal layers so that the properties of each layer can be varied and studied. A finite difference numerical code, FLAC3D is used during the study. Results and discussions related to the significance of the depth and thickness of liquefiable layer in the foundation and resulting damage to the earthfill dam and hence the seismic performance of earthfill dam are presented. Keywords: Earthquake, liquefaction, earthfill dams, seismic performance, varying depth.

  15. Learning Equipment for the Flammability Limits of Liquefied Petroleum Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriratchanee Sirisawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This article was developing learning equipment for flammability limit behavior which designed for study the relation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG and combustion. The equipment can be use as an instructional media for obviously experiment of combustion. Approach: The test chamber was designed by using the stainless as a structure. The mirror with safety film was used for safety purpose to the tester. The mirror was the additional equipment for the ignition vision. The size of test chamber was 40×25×20 cm. The top of chamber can be opened when the ignition was occurred to reduce the inner pressure that can break the mirror or can be a cause of damage to other parts. The 2 of stainless plates with the size of 15×40 cm. were used and the hinges were attached at the upper edges of the chamber from both sides. The metal was closely attached at the chamber edge to reduce the leak of fuel to outer environment. The bottom structure of the chamber installs the control mainboard of electronics system and motor. The control of heat gain system inside the heat chamber. Results: The test chamber is designed to demonstrate the ignition. So, the size has to be suitably designed and large enough for convenience in monitoring. It can be seen that when the test is conducted in a real system, the result is extremely differed from the theory. The reason is the experimentation by the theory using the cup burner or a cylindrical glass cup. This cup has an outside diameter of 28 mm. and around the cup tunnel has an inside diameter of 8.5 or 9.5 cm with 53.5 cm. of height. The ratios of both testing equipments are extremely differed, so there is an opportunity that the accuracy is highly shifted. Conclusion: The test chamber shows that the flammability limit of LPG vary with temperature and can be compare with burgess-wheeler law. This law mentioned “LFL and UFL is relative with the chemical in Paraffin Hydrocarbon (Alkane Group in

  16. Changes in suicide and divorce in new casino jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mark W; Stitt, B Grant; Giacopassi, David

    2004-01-01

    Using county-level data, this study examines the impact that the introduction of casino gambling has on suicide and divorce. Eight communities that adopted casino gambling between 1991 and 1994 are compared with a matched set of control counties, jurisdictions that are economically and demographically similar to the casino counties. Suicide rates are not statistically different between casino and control communities. Divorce rates are lower in three casinos counties, higher in one, and not statistically different in four. Overall, the results suggest no widespread, statistically significant increase in either suicide or divorce. Possible explanations for the results are provided.

  17. [Regionalization in health: an instrument for jurisdictional planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Guerrero, X R; Perham-Zellmer, K A; Vázquez-Calderón, R H; Díaz-Gois, A; García-Martínez, F E; Gómez-Solís, R A; Montijo-Quevedo, R E; Aguirre-Garza, J S; Izquierdo-Avalos, M G; Hernández-Tezoquipa, I

    1992-01-01

    This study carried out the regionalization of Sanitary Jurisdiction No. III seated in Cuautla, Morelos, consisting of 16 of a total of 33 municipalities in the state of Morelos. This regionalization was carried out through the delination of areas sharing similar socioeconomical and demographic characteristics (SED). Subsequently, the major health hazards and the intraregional distribution of human health resources (physicians and nurses) and infrastructure services (institutional health centers) were identified for each region. The aim of this work was to devise an instrument for a better understanding of and approach to health problems at a juridictional level and to pave the way for health planning that would be congruent with regional characteristics and needs. Health sector efforts would be directed towards the promotion of preventive health care with greater efficiency and equity. In order to regionalize the jurisdiction, 17 SED indicators were studied in each of the 16 municipalities. Analysis was performed using the Principal Components Method (MCP) and an epidemiologic score. As a result, the sanitary jurisdiction was divided into three regions: Region I, with the best SED conditions, Region II, with moderate SED conditions and Region III with the lowest SED conditions. The results of this study show that there is an inverse relationship between the intraregional distribution of health resources with respect to the delineated regions and the health resources with respect to the delineated regions and the health needs and problems found in each one. Region III showed the worst SED conditions and the highest incidence of disease. It proved to be the region which had the greatest lack of material and human health resources, the latter having the lowest technical training level in all of the jurisdiction. In contrast. Region I had the best SED conditions and the lowest incidence of disease. It also had the highest number of material and human health resources

  18. Removal of organic contaminants from water or wastewater with liquefied gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study utilized liquefied gases (LG) as extractant to remove various organic contaminants including halogenated hydrocarbons and phenols as well as aromatic compounds from aqueousmatrices. Orthogonal experiments were performed to optimize theoperating conditions such as temperature, co-solvents and so on.Under favorable conditions, high removal efficiencies can bereadily achieved for a great number of representative model organiccontaminants, the removal efficiencies for most of the hydrophobiccontaminants were greater than 90% in a single extraction stage.Tentative effort was also done for the removal of extractedcontaminants from recycled liquefied gases.

  19. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF BURIED BEND WITH THRUST RESTRAINT IN LIQUEFYING GROUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Toshinori; Sawada, Yutaka; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Ling, Hoe I.

    In this study, a shaking table test was carried out in order to discuss the dynamic behavior for the bend of pressure pipeline with a concrete block and thrust restraints using geogrids or gravels in liquefying ground. As a result, it was revealed that the concrete block was largely moved and the relative displacement between the bend and the adjacent pipe became large. On the other hand, it was proved that geogrids and gravels were very effective for the lateral resistance in liquefying ground. In addition, the relative displacement was small because of the same difference between the bend and the adjacent pipe.

  20. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  1. Order defining the jurisdiction of the forestry guard, 30 December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Order defines the jurisdiction of the Haitian forestry guard in order better to protect the State's hydrographic basins and national forest resources. It provides that the forestry guard is to have the following functions: 1) to oversee in general the application of forestry legislation; 2) to stop all forms of agricultural or forestry exploitation that harm state lands; 3) to confiscate all illicitly exploited forestry resources; 4) to inspect regularly the parts of the forest or parks assigned to its care; and 5) to control the circulation of wood and wood products, documents, and freight. In collaboration with other interested state agencies, the forestry guard is also to prevent forest fires and promote the natural and man-made generation of the forest.

  2. 49 CFR 173.302b - Additional requirements for shipment of non-liquefied (permanent) compressed gases in UN pressure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-liquefied (permanent) compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles. 173.302b Section 173.302b Transportation... (permanent) compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles. (a) General. A cylinder filled with a non-liquefied gas must be offered for transportation in UN pressure receptacles subject to the requirements in...

  3. Dilute alkali and hydrogen peroxide treatment of microwave liquefied rape straw residue for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Feng Li; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yongze Jiang; Yuzhu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of rape straw in methanol was conducted to collect the liquefied residues for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs).The liquefied residue with content of 23.44% from 180∘C/7.5 min was used to fibrillate CNCs with dilute alkali (2% NaOH) and hydrogen peroxide (5% H2O2...

  4. John Calvin and the Reformed tradition on the jurisdiction of the church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Coertzen

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available John Calvin’s view on the power of jurisdiction in the church, as he writes about it in the Institutes, is expounded in this article. Firstly, attention is given to the spiritual authority of the church, followed by an exposition of the power of the church to exercise jurisdiction. Lastly the current situation in Reformed circles on the jurisdiction of the church is discussed.

  5. Assembly of cell-laden hydrogel fiber into non-liquefied and liquefied 3D spiral constructs by perfusion-based layer-by-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Praveen; Oliveira, Sara M; Borges, João; Mano, João F

    2015-01-06

    In this work, three-dimensional (3D) self-sustaining, spiral-shaped constructs were produced through a combination of ionotropic gelation, to form cell-encapsulated alginate fibers, and a perfusion-based layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. Single fibers were assembled over cylindrical molds by reeling to form spiral shapes, both having different geometries and sizes. An uninterrupted nanometric multilayer coating produced by a perfusion-based LbL technique, using alginate and chitosan, generated stable 3D spiral-shaped macrostructures by gripping and affixing the threads together without using any crosslinking/binding agent. The chelation process altered the internal microenvironment of the 3D construct from the solid to the liquefied state while preserving the external geometry. L929 cell viability by MTS and dsDNA quantification favor liquefied 3D constructs more than non-liquefied ones. The proposed technique setup helps us to generate complex polyelectrolyte-based 3D constructs for tissue engineering applications and organ printing.

  6. Federal/State Jurisdictional Split: Implications for Emerging Electricity Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Jeffery S. [Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Kelly, Suedeen G. [Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Nordhaus, Robert R. [Van Ness Feldman, LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Douglas W. [Van Ness Feldman, LLP, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The first Administration-wide Quadrennial Energy Review (QER), released in April 2015, found that the “interacting and overlapping” division of authority between “federal, regional and state institutions and regulatory structures” for the electricity sector could “impede development of the grid of the future [and] . . . the development of markets that efficiently integrate” new and emerging technologies.1 While “technology is indifferent to state-Federal boundaries and jurisdictions,” the QER explained, “technology users cannot be.”2 The report concluded that “[b]oth Federal and state governments need to play constructive and collaborative roles in the future to ensure that consumers and industry are able to maximize the value of new technologies.”3 The QER recommended that the Department of Energy (“DOE”) facilitate such collaboration by playing a “convening role” to bring together state and federal regulators and other stakeholders to consider these issues.4 This paper provides background and analysis on these jurisdictional issues and the impact they may have on adoption of emerging energy technologies and coordination of markets for those technologies, in support of future dialogs on these subjects. In particular, this paper reviews the structure of the Federal Power Act (“FPA”),5 and compares the division of authority between the federal and state governments adopted there with other federal energy and energy-related statutes.

  7. Telehomecare technology across sectors: claims of jurisdiction and emerging controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe Dinesen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and identify inter-organisational and inter-professional controversies that emerge when telehomecare technology is implemented across healthcare sectors. Theory: A combined inter-organisational and inter-professional perspective constitutes the conceptual framework for this study. Methods: The case study approach was applied as the overall methodology of the study. A triangulation of data collection techniques was used in order to provide multiple sources of evidence for exploring and identifying controversies (documents, participant observation, qualitative interviews, focus group interviews. Findings: During the design and implementation phases of a telehomecare system, several types of controversies emerged as part of the inter-organisational and inter-professional agenda. These controversies involved competing claims of jurisdiction, controversies over knowledge technologies, or differences in network visions and network architecture. Discussion and conclusions: The identification of such controversies and differences in the design and implementation process of the concept of home hospitalisation for heart patients by means of telehomecare technology can contribute to the uncovering of new knowledge. These issues should be taken into account when initiating a telehomecare project and implementing telehomecare technology. Technology in a network and across inter-professional relations poses a challenge to this new field. There is a particular need to precisely define the claims of jurisdiction, and the accompanying controversies that can arise related to knowledge technologies, network visions and network architecture.

  8. Electronic prescriptions and disruptions to the jurisdiction of community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Aude; Sicotte, Claude; Lamothe, Lise; Winslade, Nancy; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2011-07-01

    The practice of community pharmacists is being challenged by the appearance of electronic prescription (e-Rx) technology. This article examines the disruptions caused by e-Rx technology to the jurisdiction of community pharmacists based on a model developed from work by Abbott (1988). The main disruptions to professional activities were investigated by qualitative methods in a series of interviews with pharmacists and physicians separated in two groups: practitioners who tested a typical e-Rx technology and stakeholders involved in the implementation of this large-scale e-Rx project in Quebec, Canada. The findings suggest that the technology may disrupt the jurisdiction of community pharmacists, mainly by changing the distribution of information among physicians and community pharmacists. More specifically, the technology represents both a threat to community pharmacists - by supporting the dominant position held by physicians if it gives them access to information held exclusively by pharmacists - and an opportunity - by redistributing information to the pharmacists' benefit, allowing them to improve the quality of their inferences about medication. However, it would appear that the opportunities offered by the technology generate concerns and tensions, both between physicians and pharmacists and between the pharmacists themselves. This phenomenon may well work against the implementation and use of available tools.

  9. Liquefaction of corn stover and preparation of polyester from the liquefied polyol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Liu, Yuhuan; Pan, Xuejun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Chengmei; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated a novel process to prepare polyester from corn stover through liquefaction and crosslinking processes. First, corn stover was liquefied in organic solvents (90 wt% ethylene glycol and 10 wt% ethylene carbonate) with catalysts at moderate temperature under atmospheric pressure. The effect of liquefaction temperature, biomass content, and type of catalyst, such as H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, and ZnCl2, was evaluated. Higher liquefaction yield was achieved in 2 wt% sulfuric acid, 1/4 (w/w) stover to liquefying reagent ratio; 160 degrees C temperature, in 2 h. The liquefied corn stover was rich in polyols, which can be directly used as feedstock for making polymers without further separation or purification. Second, polyester was made from the liquefied corn stover by crosslinking with multifunctional carboxylic acids and/or cyclic acid anhydrides. The tensile strength of polyester is about 5 MPa and the elongation is around 35%. The polyester is stable in cold water and organic solvents and readily biodegradable as indicated by 82% weight loss when buried in damp soil for 10 mo. The results indicate that this novel polyester could be used for the biodegradable garden mulch film production.

  10. Bond quality of phenol-based adhesives containing liquefied creosote-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Feng Fu; Hui Pan

    2009-01-01

    Liquefaction of spent creosote-treated wood was studied to determine the technological practicability of its application in converting treated wood waste into resin adhesives. A total of 144 plywood panels were fabricated with experimental variables included 2 phenol to wood (P/W) ratios in liquefaction, 6 resin formulations (3 formaldehyde/liquefied wood (F/...

  11. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... piping for heating and cooking. (a) Leak tests as described in paragraph (b) of this section shall...

  12. 78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied...

  13. THE ORGANIZATION OF JURISDICTION FROM A EUROPEAN UNION PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA AGHENITEI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, universal jurisdiction is the favorite technique used to prevent impunity for international crimes and it is one of the most effective methods to deter and prevent international crimes by increasing the like hood of prosecution and punishment of its preparators. In regard to the defendant’s rights, the European Union states consider applicable all the rights that are necessary to assure that the trial is equitable and expeditious. There is no exception to the right to a fair trial. So, a defendant who is being prosecuted on the basis of the universality principle can rely on all the procedural rights provided for the Convention on Human Rights and the domestic code of criminal procedure without any restrictions. In Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, in a case concerning genocide committed abroad, declared expressly that no special criminal proceedings must be provided for specific crimes.

  14. DEFINING AGGRESSION IN THE LIGHT OF UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca MIGA-BEȘTELIU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Historical background of the crime of aggresion, in the light of Nuremberg Principles of 1947 and UN General Asembly Resolution of 1974. The Rome Statute, which created an International Criminal Court, enlists the crime of aggression, as one of the four crimes under its ratione materiae competence. Uunlike the other three crimes, the Rome Statute does not define the aggression, untrusting this task to the Assembly of State Parties, as the most important negociating fora of the Court. The Kampala Amendements, issued as a result of those negotiations, offer a significant distinction between the definition of the crime of aggression, imputable to a person, which fells under the ICC specific competence, and the aggression as an act of a state. The principle of universal jurisdiction, applied in light of the complementarity betwen ICC and national courts, represents an important additional avenue towards impunity, an efective means to discourage aggression, as an individual crime and as a crime of a state.

  15. Border Patrol: Professional Jurisdictions in Sustainable Urban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Henn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the United Nations, our world is becoming more populated, more urban, more connected, more globalized, and more complex. With this physical and social complexity comes a need for increased coordination in negotiating our urban futures. Environmental design and planning professionals have worked for decades according to traditional institutionalized role structures. Sustainability—in considering a wider variety of stakeholders—promises not only to include more members in the typical design and construction team (e.g., sustainability consultants, community representatives, technical specialists, etc., but also to change the jurisdiction of tasks (e.g., project management, decision making, design leadership, etc. taken on by actors in traditional roles (e.g., owner, architect, contractor, etc.. This paper examines how a wider social concern for environmental and social sustainability has affected the design and construction industry. Organizational and sociological theories suggest that professions are “bound to a set of tasks by ties of jurisdiction... [P]rofessions make up an interacting system... and a profession’s success reflects as much the situations of its competitors and the system structure as it does the profession’s own efforts” (Abbott 1988: 33. Abbott also suggests that “larger social forces” affect the structuring of professional boundaries. Treating sustainability as a “larger social force,” this paper examines current understandings of professional boundaries in the planning, design, and construction of our environments. It answers questions of how professionals renegotiate roles, responsibilities, and compensation when dealing with an uncertain change in traditional processes.The qualitative data stem from three university building projects. Each project was proposed ab initio without a mandate to achieve LEED Certification, but this complex criterion was subsequently added at different phases of

  16. 10 CFR 780.3 - Jurisdiction of the Patent Compensation Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Jurisdiction of the Patent Compensation Board. 780.3 Section 780.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PATENT COMPENSATION BOARD REGULATIONS General Provisions § 780.3 Jurisdiction of the Patent Compensation Board. The Patent Compensation Board was established by section 157...

  17. 8 CFR 1003.24 - Fees pertaining to matters within the jurisdiction of an immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... jurisdiction of an immigration judge. 1003.24 Section 1003.24 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.24 Fees pertaining to matters within the jurisdiction of...

  18. 77 FR 16899 - Jurisdictional Separations and Referral to the Federal-State Joint Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... jurisdictions. In this document, the Commission seeks comment on extending the current freeze of part 36... interstate jurisdictions. The FNPRM proposes extending the current freeze of part 36 category relationships... universal service and intercarrier compensation, we ask that commenters, in their comments on the...

  19. 15 CFR 806.10 - Determining place of residence and country of jurisdiction of individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.10 Determining place of residence and country of jurisdiction of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining place of residence and country of jurisdiction of individuals. 806.10 Section 806.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade...

  20. Marine Genetic Resources in Areas beyond National Jurisdiction: Access and Benefit Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drankier, P.; Oude Elferink, A.G.; Visser, L.; Takács, T.

    2012-01-01

    This report examines whether it is possible for the research and use of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) to follow an approach based on the system that is being used with plant genetic resources in areas within national jurisdiction, as developed by the Food and

  1. 76 FR 76037 - Office of the Attorney General; Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... country is subject to State criminal jurisdiction under Public Law 280 (18 U.S.C. 1162(a)) to request that... committed by or against Indians. Specifically, the Public Law 280 criminal-jurisdiction provision codified... violations of general Federal criminal statutes that apply nationwide, such as Federal narcotics laws,...

  2. 32 CFR 935.68 - Jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals. 935.68 Section 935.68 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.68 Jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals....

  3. 49 CFR 1108.2 - Statement of purpose, organization, and jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DISPUTES SUBJECT TO THE STATUTORY JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.2 Statement of... binding, voluntary arbitration of certain disputes subject to the statutory jurisdiction of the STB... revocation of any license, authorization (e.g., construction, abandonment, purchase, trackage rights, merger...

  4. 25 CFR 11.118 - What are the jurisdictional limitations of the Court of Indian Offenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the jurisdictional limitations of the Court of... the jurisdictional limitations of the Court of Indian Offenses? (a) A Court of Indian Offenses may... Offenses unless its tribal governing body explicitly waives its tribal immunity by tribal resolution or...

  5. 28 CFR 2.27 - Petition for reconsideration of original jurisdiction decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... jurisdiction decisions. 2.27 Section 2.27 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.27 Petition for reconsideration of original jurisdiction decisions. (a) A...

  6. 77 FR 56838 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc. v. All Jurisdictional Sellers, et al.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Puget Sound Energy, Inc. v. All Jurisdictional Sellers, et al.; Notice of..., Puget Sound Energy, Inc. v. All Jurisdictional Sellers, et al., Order Approving Settlement Subject...

  7. Jurisdiction by Necessity and the Regulation of the Transnational Corporate Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilenye Nwapi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the feasibility of using the jurisdiction by necessity doctrine to promote the accountability of transnational corporations (TNCs for extraterritorial human and environmental rights abuses committed in developing countries with weak accountability mechanisms. Under the doctrine, a court devoid of jurisdiction may nevertheless hear a dispute where it considers that there is no other court where the dispute may be heard or where the plaintiff may be reasonably expected to bring the action. The article analyzes the inadequacy of existing jurisdictional doctrines in light of the complex web of operations of TNCs, which shields them from the reach of traditional jurisdictional doctrines. After exploring the origin of the jurisdiction by necessity doctrine, the article critically examines the elements of the doctrine to see how they may be applied to the regulation of TNCs. The article argues that the emergence of the jurisdiction by necessity doctrine offers plaintiffs in transnational corporate human rights litigation a new jurisdictional possibility to weigh, as the doctrine has the potential to address some of the jurisdictional difficulties encountered in such litigation.

  8. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  9. Liquefied Natural Gas: A Potential for an Abundant Energy Supply or a Potential for Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Joseph

    This unit was designed to develop mathematical applications in relation to a community resource issue. It should both motivate mathematics learning and provide meaningful problems for reinforcing understanding of mathematics content and skills, including ratios and percentages, linear equations, exponential functions, graphing, and the reading and…

  10. 75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... provides guidance on the requirements for obtaining approval of alternative vapor-gas dispersion models... vapor-gas dispersion. Certain mathematical models and other parameters must be used to calculate the...

  11. Experimental and numerical study of liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool spreading and vaporization on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswami, Nirupama; Kakosimos, Konstantinos; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Mentzer, R; Mannan, M Sam

    2017-07-15

    The investigation of pool spreading and vaporization phenomenon is an essential part of consequence analysis to determine the severity of LNG spills on water. In this study, release of LNG on water during marine operations is studied through experimental and numerical methods The study involves emulation of an LNG leak from transfer arms during side by side loading operations. The experimental part involves flow of LNG in a narrow trench filled with water and subsequent measurement of pool spreading and vaporization parameters. The numerical part involves CFD simulation using a three dimensional hybrid homogenous Eulerian multiphase solver to model the pool spreading and vaporization phenomenon. In this method, LNG is modeled as dispersed phase droplets which can interact with continuous phases - water and air through interphase models. The numerical study also employs a novel user-defined routine for capturing the LNG vaporization process. The CFD solver was capable of capturing the salient features of LNG pool spreading and vaporization phenomena. It was observed from experiment and CFD simulation that wind influenced both pool spreading and vaporization phenomenon through entrainment and convection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Experiments Involving Pool and Vapor Fires from Spills of Liquefied Natural Gas on Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    smaller diametsr, but taller fire. The total radiating area. however, would be reduced. The movie films also provided data on visible flame height. We... cora te chianges.’ dras t i all v. ml - t talIly Meth e I vpo .M V- lIt .- : , ,I e* I! I aI I %. Vt t a tt;I nl 4ct’ i irat ion o! time,* the rnet har

  13. Liquefied natural gas (LNG): market tendencies and pricing; Tendencias do mercado de GNL e sua precificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: ricardo.uchoa@petrobras.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the value chain of the LNG, the historic of his commercialization and pricing, and the tendencies of this market and the variables which will influence the long term pricing formation. These variables will make the LNG to converge for a target-price roundly US$ 5.50 to US$7.00 the MBtu excluding the restriction occurrence supply at the balance supply x demand, or a petroleum scaling price over the US$ 60.00 by Bbl presently practiced.

  14. Consequence Assessment Methods for Incidents Involving Releases From Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-13

    Tanker and Terminal Operators SOLAS Safety of Life at Sea SSA ship security alarm STCW Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping TNT...IGC (replaced the Gas Carrier Code) • International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping ( STCW ) for Seafarers, 1978...include: • Training • Procedures • Inspections Training – Minimum training requirements for crews of LNG carriers are specified in the IMO STCW

  15. 41 CFR 102-173.10 - What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? 102-173.10 Section 102-173.10 Public Contracts and Property Management... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN General § 102-173.10 What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? Jurisdiction of the Internet GOV (dot-gov) domain was delegated to the General...

  16. An experimental study on dynamic response for MICP strengthening liquefiable sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiguang; Cheng, Xiaohui; Ma, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    The technology of bio-grouting is a new technique for soft ground improvement. Many researchers have carried out a large number of experiments and study on this topic. However, few studies have been carried out on the dynamic response of solidified sand samples, such reducing liquefaction in sand. To study this characteristic of microbial-strengthened liquefiable sandy foundation, a microorganism formula and grouting scheme is applied. After grouting, the solidified samples are tested via dynamic triaxial testing to examine the cyclic performance of solidified sand samples. The results indicate that the solidified sand samples with various strengths can be obtained to meet different engineering requirements, the use of bacteria solution and nutritive salt is reduced, and solidified time is shortened to 1-2 days. Most importantly, in the study of the dynamic response, it is found that the MICP grouting scheme is effective in improving liquefiable sand characteristic, such as liquefaction resistance.

  17. FIELD STUDIES OF SINGLE POINT IMPACT ON LIQUEFIABLE SOIL FOUNDATION OF HIGHWAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈正; 刘志彬; 方磊; 李汉光

    2013-01-01

    A highway in the floodplain of the Abandoned Yellow River in the north of Jiangsu Province is recently remediated to reduce liquefaction potential using the dynamic compaction (DC) method of densification of in-place soils .Firstly ,the liquefaction potential of the soil at the project site is analysed according to the code of seismic de-sign .Then the in-situ single point impact tests are performed on the liquefiable soil .Settlement of crater ,excess pore pressure ,ground heave and lateral deformation under DC impact are measured and analyzed .Subsequently , the standard penetration test (SPT ) and cone penetration test (CPT ) are used for investigating the compaction ef-fectiveness .At last ,the improvement effect of DC is discussed according to the technical specification of dynamic consolidation to ground treatment .The investigation results indicate that the DC technique is an effective way for remediating liquefiable soil in highway engineering practice .

  18. First Operating Results of a Dynamic Gas Bearing Turbine in AN Industrial Hydrogen Liquefier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, S.; Decker, L.

    2010-04-01

    Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

  19. Feasibility Analysis of Liquefying Oxygen Generated from Water Electrolysis Units on Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts for liquefying oxygen (O2) generated from water electrolysis subsystems on the Lunar surface were explored. Concepts for O2 liquefaction units capable of generating 1.38 lb/hr (0.63 kg/hr) liquid oxygen (LOX) were developed. Heat and mass balance calculations for the liquefaction concepts were conducted. Stream properties, duties of radiators, heat exchangers and compressors for the selected concepts were calculated and compared.

  20. Physical and mechanical properties of bio-composites from wood particles and liquefied wood resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    Compression molded composites were made from wood particles and a liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde co-condensed resin. Based on our previous research, a phenol to wood (P/W) ratio of 2/1 was chosen for this study. The two experimental variables selected were: 1) liquefaction temperature (150o and 180oC) and 2) cooking method (atmospheric and sealed). Panels were...

  1. Proposal of an innovative, high-efficiency, large-scale hydrogen liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, Gianluca; Macchi, Ennio [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, P.zza L. da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    An innovative, efficient and large hydrogen liquefier is described. Innovations lie in the fact that (i) the feed, 10 kg s{sup -1}, is refrigerated in heat exchangers catalytically promoting the ortho-para conversion (ii) down to the low temperature of 20.5 K and at the high pressure of 60 bar at which it is available and (iii) lastly expanded to the storage conditions of 1.5 bar and 20 K through a liquid-phase turbomachine; (iv) refrigeration is via four helium recuperative Joule-Brayton cycles arranged so that the refrigerant follows the cooling curve of hydrogen and the volume flow rates in compression and expansion processes are typical of axial-flow high-efficiency turbomachines; (v) compression is accomplished in 15 intercooled 8-stage devices derived from gas turbine technology. Heat exchangers require specific surfaces comparable to current state-of-the-art liquefiers. Nevertheless, the predicted work of approximately 18 MJ kg{sup -1} is half as much as the requirement of those liquefiers and corresponds to a second-law efficiency of almost 48%. (author)

  2. The optimization on flow scheme of helium liquefier with genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. R.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Liu, L. Q.

    2017-01-01

    There are several ways to organize the flow scheme of the helium liquefiers, such as arranging the expanders in parallel (reverse Brayton stage) or in series (modified Brayton stages). In this paper, the inlet mass flow and temperatures of expanders in Collins cycle are optimized using genetic algorithm (GA). Results show that maximum liquefaction rate can be obtained when the system is working at the optimal parameters. However, the reliability of the system is not well due to high wheel speed of the first turbine. Study shows that the scheme in which expanders are arranged in series with heat exchangers between them has higher operation reliability but lower plant efficiency when working at the same situation. Considering both liquefaction rate and system stability, another flow scheme is put forward hoping to solve the dilemma. The three configurations are compared from different aspects, they are respectively economic cost, heat exchanger size, system reliability and exergy efficiency. In addition, the effect of heat capacity ratio on heat transfer efficiency is discussed. A conclusion of choosing liquefier configuration is given in the end, which is meaningful for the optimal design of helium liquefier.

  3. Universal Jurisdiction between Unity and Fragmentation of International Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasculli Maria Antonella

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the outcome of research fellowship Marie Curie at the Universiteit Leiden -Campud Den Haag Grotius, Centre for International Legal Studies (prof. C. Stahn and prof. Larissa van den Herik, supervisors on the topic "The Fragmentation and the Diversification of International Criminal Law in a Global Society”.In my paper I will examine the question of whether Universal Jurisdiction (UJ leads to unity or fragmentation within International Criminal Law (ICL. Given that there is already quite a lot of literature on UJ, it is important to focus the research on the issue of fragmentation and/or unity rather than to deal with the issue of UJ more generally. I will focus on this topic in sections 1 and 2, explaining some cursory remarks to these issues in my analysis on fragmentation. In the introduction, I will briefly introduce UJ as a controversial form of jurisdiction, but still necessary given that territorial jurisdiction does not always function well in the case of international crime. I will demonstrate that many state parties to the International Criminal Court (ICC Statute have vested or reconfirmed UJ for the core crimes when implementing the ICC Statute. The leading question of my research is whether this practice has led or has the potential to lead to unity or rather to fragmentation within ICL. In the research I will approach this question from different perspectives.In section 1 I will examine how State parties have may actually enacted universal jurisdiction for the core crimes, with a view to determining whether there is indeed some unity on this front or whether the practice on this matter is actually rather diverse (or fragmented. Subsequently, I will analyse which conditions States have formulated for the exercise of UJ, and whether this practice is consistent (unity or again rather diverse (fragmentation. It might also be interesting to see whether States have different conditions for UJ over core crimes than

  4. Study on Some Special Issues of Juristic Rules and Jurisdiction Allocation in Minority Area%民族地区司法规律及司法权配置若干特殊问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马天山

    2011-01-01

    不同时代、不同国家有不同的司法规律。中国的司法规律决定中国司法权结构体系及司法权的特点,并由此决定我国民族地区司法权配置的原则。民族地区的司法活动受自然和社会两大因素影响,在司法权核心元素中呈现出地域性、时代性、文化性、民族性等特点,并由此影响司法权配置。%there are different juristic laws in different countries at different times.The juristic rules of China decide the characteristics of China′s jurisdiction and its jurisdiction structure system,and therefore define the principle of jurisdiction allocation in the minority areas of China.The juristic activity in minority area is affected by two factors: the nature and the society,showing the features that are oriented by geography,times,culture,and nationality in the core elements of jurisdiction,and therefore jurisdiction allocation is affected.

  5. 22 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xiv - Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISPUTES PANEL Ch. XIV, App. A Appendix A to Chapter XIV—Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions (a... Boston New Jersey New York New Mexico Dallas New York Boston/New York 2 North Carolina Atlanta North...

  6. 78 FR 28779 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All... sources in Armstrong County, Pennsylvania. Because FEMA has or ] will be issuing a Revised...

  7. UNIVERSAL CRIMINAL JURISDICTION:An option or a legal obligation for States?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir-Djuro DEGAN; Vesna BARIC PUNDA

    2010-01-01

    <正>I Universal criminal jurisdiction,which is exercised by domestic courts of States,is considered today by some scholars as a panacea for fighting against impunity of perpetrators of the most heinous international crimes worldwide.

  8. Antimicrobials Used in the Fermentation of Fuel Ethanol – Clarification of Jurisdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has determined that antimicrobials applied to processed food or feed during fermentation of organic material to produce fuel ethanol are outside the scope of EPA’s regulatory authority under FIFRA. The Food and Drug Administration has jurisdiction.

  9. FDA Issues Final Guidance Clarifying FDA and EPA Jurisdiction over Mosquito-Related Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    FDA finalized guidance to provide information on FDA and EPA jurisdiction over the regulation of mosquito-related products intended to function as pesticides, including those products intended to function as pesticides

  10. Abu Dhabi-Great Britain and the crisis over jurisdiction 1959-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Velez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las demandas presentadas por el Jeque Shakhbout en 1959 para obtener la plena soberanía jurídica sobre el emirato de Abu Dhabi generaron una crisis diplomática plasmada en la correspondencia interna del gobierno Británico. Con sus demandas, el Jeque Shakhbout forzaba a la burocracia a cargo de los Estados de la Tregua – La Oficina de Asuntos Extranjeros en Londres, el representante del gobierno Británico en Bahreín, y los agente administrativos y políticos en Dubai y Abu Dhabi a reexaminar las bases legales de la presencia Británica en la zona y los límites éticos del sistema judicial impuesto sobre sus habitantes. La crisis va mas allá de una discusión sobre los poderes jurisdiccionales. La crisis nos ofrece una ventana a las contradicciones inherentes a la  presencia Británica en la zona, en el marco del movimiento nacionalista árabe y del desarrollo de la industria petrolera y la futura redefinición de la relación entre Abu Dhabi  y la Gran Bretaña.Palabras clave: Abu Dhabi, Gran Bretaña, colonialismo___________________________Abstract:Demands to the British government for supreme jurisdiction over his territory presented by the ruler of Abu Dhabi in 1959 created a diplomatic crisis captured in the internal correspondence of the British government. Sheikh Shakhbout forced the entire bureaucracy that was dealing with the Trucial States – the Foreign Office in London, the British Resident in Bahrain, and the Political and Administrative Agents in Abu Dhabi and Dubai – to reexamine the legality of their presence in the region and the ethical limits of the judicial system imposed on this land.The crisis went beyond the mere discussion over jurisdictional powers. It is also a window into the contradictions linked to the British presence in the region, within the framework of the nascent Arab Nationalist movement and the development of the oil industry . All of which will soon change the nature of the relationship between

  11. Experimental investigation of mobile small-scale liquefier for 10000 NM3/D of coal bed methane gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaohu; Wu, J. F.; Gong, Maoqiong; Guo, Ping

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing recognition that unconventional sources of gas, such as shale gas, coal bed methane (CBM) and deep tight gas will contribute a significant component of future gas supplies as technologies evolve. In recent years, the interest in such source of gas utilization technologies based on small-scale LNG production has been rising steeply. In this paper, a mobile liquefier prototype for 10000 Nm3/d of CBM has been designed, constructed and tested. It has two cascade refrigeration systems. The high-temperature refrigeration system will pre-cool the resource gas to 5oC, and the low-temperature refrigeration system will continue to cool the resource gas to the liquefied point with a Mixed Refrigerant Cycle (MRC). The kernel compressor is a conventional oil-lubricated air-conditioning compressor with the discharge pressure of 2.0 MPa. The main heat exchanger is plate-fin heat exchanger with four passages. A series of experiments have been done on the prototype liquefier at different resource gas pressures and environmental temperatures. It is less than one hour from the start of the equipment to the existence of LNG. The maximum production of LNG is about 20 m3/d when a stream of about 12500 Nm3/d of pure CBM at a process pressure of 1.3 MPa is liquefied. The energy consumption of liquefying 1 Nm3 methane is 0.612 kWh.

  12. Analysis of the liquefied and solubilized coals by the action of microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, N.; Fernandez, M.; Monistrol, I.F.; Laborda, F. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia

    1997-12-31

    The analysis of liquefied/solubilized products from lignite by microorganisms showed some alterations in the chemical composition with regard to the original coal. Noteworthy, a reduction in the average molecular weight and an increase in the condensation index of humic acids derived from the liquid lignite were observed. These results could indicate that microorganisms degrade the humic acids to rend them more suitable as microbial nutrients. The observation that microorganisms could use humic acids as the only carbon source supported this supposition. (orig.)

  13. Large >60 gallon/day ‘pulse-tube’ oxygen liquefier for aircraft carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    An oxygen liquefier using a large ‘pulse-tube’ or acoustic-Stirling cryocooler is described, which has a liquefaction rate in excess of 60 gallons per day (227 liters per day) as measured by the increase in weight of a storage dewar, from <20 kWe input. Several of these systems will be deployed on U.S. Navy aircraft carriers to provide shipboard liquid oxygen. Paths to improvement in future systems are identified, although it is noted that since the present system exceeds the required specifications, these improvements may not be implemented in the near term.

  14. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwen Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Rare Earth Composite Materials Radiating Far Infrared for Activating Liquefied Petroleum Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth composite materials radiating far-infrared rays were prepared according to far infrared absorption spectrum of main component in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The composite materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transformed infrared spectra(FTIR). The results show that after the composite materials were calcined at 873 K for 4 h, FTIR spectra of rare earth composite materials display two new peaks at 1336 and 2926 cm-1 available for activating LPG.

  16. Population-level interventions in government jurisdictions for dietary sodium reduction: a Cochrane Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, Amanda M; Sumar, Nureen; Trieu, Kathy; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Tarasuk, Valerie; Webster, Jacqui; Campbell, Norman R C; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-02-15

    Worldwide, excessive salt consumption is common and is a leading cause of high blood pressure. Our objectives were to assess the overall and differential impact (by social and economic indicators) of population-level interventions for dietary sodium reduction in government jurisdictions worldwide. This is a Cochrane systematic review. We searched nine peer-reviewed databases, seven grey literature resources and contacted national programme leaders. We appraised studies using an adapted version of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. To assess impact, we computed the mean change in salt intake (g/day) from before to after intervention. Fifteen initiatives met the inclusion criteria and 10 provided sufficient data for quantitative analysis of impact. Of these, five showed a mean decrease in salt intake from before to after intervention including: China, Finland (Kuopio area), France, Ireland and the UK. When the sample was constrained to the seven initiatives that were multicomponent and incorporated activities of a structural nature (e.g. procurement policy), most (4/7) showed a mean decrease in salt intake. A reduction in salt intake was more apparent among men than women. There was insufficient information to assess differential impact by other social and economic axes. Although many initiatives had methodological strengths, all scored as having a high risk of bias reflecting the observational design. Study heterogeneity was high, reflecting different contexts and initiative characteristics. Population-level dietary sodium reduction initiatives have the potential to reduce dietary salt intake, especially if they are multicomponent and incorporate intervention activities of a structural nature. It is important to consider data infrastructure to permit monitoring of these initiatives.

  17. The Universal Jurisdiction of South African Criminal Courts and Immunities of Foreign State Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evode

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the "complementarity" regime of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC, the jurisdiction of the ICC is secondary to the jurisdiction of domestic courts. States Parties, not the ICC, have the primary responsibility of investigating and prosecuting international crimes. The ICC acts only when States are "unable" or "unwilling" to prosecute. As a State Party, in order to give effect to the complementarity principle, South Africa enacted the Implementation of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Act 27 of 2002, which determines the modalities of prosecuting perpetrators of the crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in South African courts. The Implementation Act also provides that South African courts will have jurisdiction over these crimes not only when they are committed on the territory of South Africa but also when they are committed outside the Republic. By granting South African courts jurisdiction over a person who commits a crime outside the Republic when that person is later found on South African territory, without regard to that person's nationality or the nationality of the victims, the Implementation Act empowers South African courts with universal jurisdiction over international crimes. This paper seeks to determine whether and to what extent foreign State officials, such as foreign heads of State, heads of government and ministers of foreign affairs, can plead immunity when they are accused of international crimes before South African courts when exercising their universal jurisdiction in terms of the Implementation Act and in accordance with the complementarity regime of the Rome Statute. In other words, the article endeavours to determine whether international law rules regarding immunities of State officials may or may not limit the ability of South African courts to exercise universal jurisdiction over international crimes committed in foreign States.

  18. Population-level interventions in government jurisdictions for dietary sodium reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; Sumar, Nureen; Barberio, Amanda M; Trieu, Kathy; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Tarasuk, Valerie; Webster, Jacqui; Campbell, Norman Rc

    2016-09-16

    . Population-level interventions in government jurisdictions for dietary sodium reduction have the potential to result in population-wide reductions in salt intake from pre-intervention to post-intervention, particularly if they are multi-component (more than one intervention activity) and incorporate intervention activities of a structural nature (e.g. food product reformulation), and particularly amongst men. Heterogeneity across studies was significant, reflecting different contexts (population and setting) and initiative characteristics. Implementation of future initiatives should embed more effective means of evaluation to help us better understand the variation in the effects.

  19. Provisions on waiting periods in international investment protection treaties and their impact on the jurisdiction of arbitral tribunals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đundić Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Provisions on so-called waiting periods in international investment protection treaties give an investor from one contracting state an opportunity to initiate arbitration against the host state provided that the time designated by the treaty from the date on which the dispute arose has elapsed. The aim of those provisions is to enable parties to the dispute to use this time for consultations and attempt to reach a negotiated settlement. The paper analyzes the attitude of contemporary arbitral practice towards the legal nature and effect of those provisions on tribunals' jurisdiction in investment disputes. The analysis shows gradual and clear shift of position taken by the tribunals in cases in which claimants did not comply with waiting periods. Because arbitral tribunals today are more resolved to penalize premature submission of the dispute to arbitration than they were one decade ago, in the future one can expect much more cautious conduct of potential claimants in this regard.

  20. The taxation jurisdiction of the ISSQN in the exclusive economic zone; A competencia tributaria do ISSQN na zona economica exclusiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, Rodrigo Luis Keller [Keller Raposo Escritorio Juridico, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The oil and natural gas exploitation in the Exclusive Economic Zone will propel the economy of the country, states and municipalities, due to tax revenues, jobs creation. It will also attract new businesses needed to support all the demand created by the main service and correlates. The Tax Service, under the municipal jurisdiction, is a major source of revenue. As the services are performed on the high seas and there is no law to regulate the territorial extent of each municipality, it can be argued that certain Artificial Island (oil platform, for example) is located within the extension of municipal sovereignty, which will allow the ISS taxation, problems will arise. This paper addresses these problems. (author)

  1. Explaining variation in cancer survival between 11 jurisdictions in the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Peter W; Rubin, Greg; Perera-Salazar, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) is a collaboration between 6 countries and 12 jurisdictions with similar primary care-led health services. This study investigates primary care physician (PCP) behaviour and systems that may contribute to the timeliness of inves......OBJECTIVES: The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) is a collaboration between 6 countries and 12 jurisdictions with similar primary care-led health services. This study investigates primary care physician (PCP) behaviour and systems that may contribute to the timeliness...... relating to the diagnosis of lung, colorectal or ovarian cancer. PARTICIPANTS: 2795 PCPs in 11 jurisdictions: New South Wales and Victoria (Australia), British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario (Canada), England, Northern Ireland, Wales (UK), Denmark, Norway and Sweden. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES......: Analysis compared the cumulative proportion of PCPs in each jurisdiction opting to investigate or refer at each phase for each vignette with 1-year survival, and conditional 5-year survival rates for the relevant cancer and jurisdiction. Logistic regression was used to explore whether PCP characteristics...

  2. Limited criminal jurisdiction on investigation and judgement of High-ranking government officials. Procedural issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of Colombia provides that certain senior officials, because of their position, should be investigated and tried by the Supreme Court (members of Congress or by the same Court upon indictment by the General Attorney (art. 235 n. 4. The Constitution provides that the President, the judges of the high courts and the prosecutor also have a special status, as the investigation and prosecution is allocated in the Senate, previous accusation in the House of Representatives, and in the Supreme Court for the common crimes. The criminal and disciplinary jurisdiction of investigation and prosecution has generated countless controversies at the doctrinal and jurisprudential level, related to the exclusive competence of the Prosecutor General’s Office and the judges of the Supreme Court to advance the investigation. In particular, the impossibility of delegating the commission of evidence and proceedings related to jurisdiction in such processes; the courts and their relationship with the position or function; the retention or recovery of competition by the criminal court room after renouncing the jurisdiction in the parapolitics processes; the notion tenure as a basis for criminal jurisdiction in the case of the governors in charge; a second hearing as a minimum guarantee derived from international standards on human rights and the issue related to jurisdiction and impunity on the subject of political or “impeachment” judgments.

  3. Au sensitized ZnO nanorods for enhanced liquefied petroleum gas sensing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakate, U.T., E-mail: umesh.nakate@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Deemed University, Pune 411025 (India); Bulakhe, R.N.; Lokhande, C.D. [Department of Physics, Thin films Physics Laboratory, Shivaji University Kolhapur 416004 (India); Kale, S.N. [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Deemed University, Pune 411025 (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • We studied ZnO nanorods film for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing. • The Au sensitization on ZnO nanorods gives improved LPG sensing response. • The Au–ZnO shows 48% LPG response for 1040 ppm with fast response time of 50 S. • We proposed schematic for sensing mechanism using band diagram. - Abstract: The zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have grown on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) method using zinc acetate solution. The phase formation, surface morphology and elemental composition of ZnO films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing response was remarkably improved by sensitization of gold (Au) surface noble metal on ZnO nanorods film. Maximum LPG response of 21% was observed for 1040 ppm of LPG, for pure ZnO nanorods sample. After Au sensitization on ZnO nanorods film sample, the LPG response greatly improved up to 48% at operating temperature 623 K. The improved LPG response is attributed Au sensitization with spill-over mechanism. Proposed model for LPG sensing mechanism discussed.

  4. Extraction of Fucoxanthin from Raw Macroalgae excluding Drying and Cell Wall Disruption by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kanda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgae are one of potential sources for carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin, which are consumed by humans and animals. This carotenoid has been applied in both the pharmaceutical and food industries. In this study, extraction of fucoxanthin from wet brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (water content was 93.2% was carried out with a simple method using liquefied dimethyl ether (DME as an extractant in semi-continuous flow-type system. The extraction temperature and absolute pressure were 25 °C and 0.59 MPa, respectively. The liquefied DME was passed through the extractor that filled by U. pinnatifida at different time intervals. The time of experiment was only 43 min. The amount of fucoxanthin could approach to 390 μg/g dry of wet U. pinnatifida when the amount of DME used was 286 g. Compared with ethanol Soxhlet and supercritical CO2 extraction, which includes drying and cell disruption, the result was quite high. Thus, DME extraction process appears to be a good method for fucoxanthin recovery from U. pinnatifida with improved yields.

  5. Ataxia with Parkinsonism and dystonia after intentional inhalation of liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godani M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Massimiliano Godani,1 Francesca Canavese,1 Sonia Migliorini,2 Massimo Del Sette1 1Neurology Unit, 2Department of Neuroradiology, Sant’Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy Abstract: The practice of inhaling liquefied petroleum gas (LPG to commit suicide is uncommon and almost exclusively a prerogative of the prison population. Numerous cases of sudden deaths caused by intentional propane and/or butane inhalation have been described, but these cases survived and a description of the consequences is very rare. We describe a prisoner who survived after voluntary inhalation of LPG, and who developed ataxia, Parkinsonism, and dystonia. Brain MRI showed bilateral hyperintensity in the basal ganglia and in the cerebellar hemispheres. The clinical evolution and the MRI abnormalities are similar to those described in cases of poisoning by CO where the mechanism of brain injury is related to histotoxic hypoxia. We believe that LPG, considered until now a mixture of gas with low neurotoxic power, may have caused direct toxic damage to the brain, mediated by a mechanism of hypoxia, such as in CO intoxication. Keywords: ataxia, Parkinsonism, dystonia, liquefied petroleum gas

  6. Polity size and political trust: A natural experiment using jurisdictional consolidations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling

    finds that political trust is negatively affected when municipal size changes but only under certain conditions: When respondents live in merged municipalities who were relatively small to begin with, and who only constituted a relatively small part of the merged municipality. This validates......The paper investigates the relationship between polity size and a central aspect of democracy: Political trust. Two schools of thought (Ostrom, 1972) offer competing expectations for this relationship: The reform theory posits a positive relationship while the political economy theory posits...... a negative relationship. This disagreement is in this paper resolved empirically using recent municipal merger reform in Denmark as a case. The paper addresses the question: How does changing the size of local government affect political trust? This is assessed from the citizens’ point of view using self...

  7. Final report on EURAMET.QM-S6/1195: Bilateral comparison of liquefied hydrocarbon mixtures in constant pressure (piston) cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S.; Downey, Michael L.; Milton, Martin J. T.; van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.; Zalewska, Ewelina T.; Li, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Traceable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures are required in order to underpin measurements of the composition and other physical properties of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and LNG (liquefied natural gas), thus meeting the needs of an increasingly large European industrial market. The development of traceable liquid hydrocarbon standards by National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) was still at a relatively early stage at the time this comparison was proposed in 2011. NPL and VSL, who were the only NMIs active in this area, had developed methods for the preparation and analysis of such standards in constant pressure (piston) cylinders, but neither laboratory had Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for these mixtures. This report presents the results of EURAMET 1195, the first comparison of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures between NMIs, which assessed the preparation and analytical capabilities of NPL and VSL for these mixtures. The comparison operated between August 2011 and January 2012. Each laboratory prepared a liquid hydrocarbon standard with nominally the same composition and these standards were exchanged for analysis. The results of the comparison show a good agreement between the laboratories' results and the comparison reference values for the six components with amount fractions greater than 1.0 cmol/mol (propane, propene, iso-butene, n-butane, iso-butane and 1-butene). Measurement of the three components with lower amount fractions (1,3-butadiene, iso-pentane and n-pentane) proved more challenging. In all but one case, the differences from the comparison reference values for these three components were greater than the expanded measurement uncertainty. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual

  8. Jurisdictional Boundaries in the Making: The Case of Parish Diaconal Work in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raija Pyykkö

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diaconal workers of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland have traditionally worked on the borderline between parish work and public welfare services. However, the role of parish diaconal workers in social services and nursing services has diminished as the Finnish welfare state has expanded. In conjunction with this downsizing, the so-called intra-church diaconate process has re-demarcated parish diaconal work. Andrew Abbott’s theory of how professional jurisdictions are negotiated in the societal arenas in which different actors are engaged inspired the analysis in this article. Using Thomas F. Gieryn’s concept of boundary work, the jurisdictional settlements that reshape professional parish diaconal work are examined. It is argued that institutional boundary work and disputes over whether the culture of diaconal work is secular or spiritual, serve to renew its cultural jurisdiction.

  9. Deep-sea genetic resources: New frontiers for science and stewardship in areas beyond national jurisdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden-Davies, Harriet

    2017-03-01

    The deep-sea is a large source of marine genetic resources (MGR), which have many potential uses and are a growing area of research. Much of the deep-sea lies in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ), including 65% of the global ocean. MGR in ABNJ occupy a significant gap in the international legal framework. Access and benefit sharing of MGR is a key issue in the development of a new international legally-binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in ABNJ. This paper examines how this is relevant to deep-sea scientific research and identifies emerging challenges and opportunities. There is no internationally agreed definition of MGR, however, deep-sea genetic resources could incorporate any biological material including genes, proteins and natural products. Deep-sea scientific research is the key actor accessing MGR in ABNJ and sharing benefits such as data, samples and knowledge. UNCLOS provides the international legal framework for marine scientific research, international science cooperation, capacity building and marine technology transfer. Enhanced implementation could support access and benefit sharing of MGR in ABNJ. Deep-sea scientific researchers could play an important role in informing practical new governance solutions for access and benefit sharing of MGR that promote scientific research in ABNJ and support deep-sea stewardship. Advancing knowledge of deep-sea biodiversity in ABNJ, enhancing open-access to data and samples, standardisation and international marine science cooperation are significant potential opportunity areas.

  10. Production of "Green Natural Gas" Using Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC): Status of Technology and Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives arguments in favour of using green natural gas (GNG) as storage media for the intermittent renewable energy sources. GNG is here defined as being CH4, i.e. methane, often called synthetic natural gas or substitute natural gas (SNG), produced using renewable or at least CO2 neutral...... energy sources only. Also dimethyl ether (DME = (CH3)2O), which might be called Liquefied Green Gas, LGG, in analogy to Liquefied Petroleum Gas, LPG, because DME has properties similar to LPG. It further gives a short review of the state of the art of electrolysis in general and SOEC in particular...

  11. 论仲裁管辖权与司法管辖权之间的冲突%Analysis of the arbitration jurisdiction conflict between rights and jurisdiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骞宇

    2013-01-01

    under the background of economic globalization , the international civil and commercial activi-ties are increasing , transnational civil and commercial disputes are also increasingly prominent .In order to solve the civil and commercial legal disputes , on one hand , the parties choose arbitration as civil and commer-cial disputes in the premise of an arbitration agreement or the arbitration clause under way;on the other hand , the parties may also choose to the jurisdiction of the courts of this traditional method of dispute settlement .In practice , as a dispute between the jurisdiction solution based conflicts , how to resolve the conflict of arbitration jurisdiction and judicial jurisdiction , has important practical significance to promote the civil and commercial disputes resolution .%经济全球化的背景下,国际民商事活动日益增多,跨国民商事争端也随之日益突显。为了妥善解决民商事法律争端,一方面,当事人在达成仲裁协议或仲裁条款的前提下会选择仲裁作为民商事争端的解决方式;另一方面,当事人亦可以选择向有管辖权的法院进行诉讼这一传统的争端解决方式。在实践中,作为争端解决方式基础的管辖权之间会产生冲突,如何解决仲裁管辖权与司法管辖权的冲突,对于推动民商事争端的解决具有重要的现实意义。

  12. Idea on safety of large-sized liquefied oxygen and liquefied nitrogen tank%对大型液氧、液氮贮槽安全的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马大方

    2012-01-01

    简述大型液氧、液氮贮槽的常规安全措施,结合大型低温液体贮槽的爆炸事故,阐述在排液口设置重锤式快速切断阀和顶盖设计为薄弱结构的必要性及其作用,分析在大型液氧、液氮贮槽槽区不设安全围堰的可行性。%The routine safety measures for large-sized liquefied oxygen and liquefied nitrogen tank are briefed. In combination with explosion accident of large-sized low-temperature liquid tank, the necessity to set a harmer type quick cut off valve at drain port and design the top cover as a weak structure and their reached effects are described, and the feasibility not to set a safe weir in the large-sized liquefied oxygen and liquefied nitrogen tank is analyzed.

  13. An Analysis of Statewide Adoption Rates of Building Energy Code by Local Jurisdictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2012-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to generally inform the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program of the local, effective energy code adoption rate for a sample set of 21 states, some which have adopted statewide codes and some that have not. Information related to the residential energy code adoption process and status at the local jurisdiction was examined for each of the states. Energy code status information was gathered for approximately 2,800 jurisdictions, which effectively covered approximately 80 percent of the new residential building construction in the 21 states included in the study.

  14. INTERNATIONAL JURISDICTION IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MATTERS: IS THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO JUSTICE GUARANTEED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bastos Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide an overview of international jurisdiction rules when it comes to intellectual property. Moreover, it provides an analysis of whether access to justice is guaranteed in international conflicts related to intellectual property. Firstly, the concept of international jurisdiction and its related principles are defined. Secondly, an explanation of the intellectual property rights is done in order to introduce the analysis of how international instruments regulate these conflicts. International and national case law are also analyzed. Lastly, it is concluded that legal uncertainty in this field can be itself an obstacle to access to justice.

  15. POSSIBILITY FOR APPLICATION OF LIQUEFIED GASES FOR PURIFICATION OF BARBERRY ALKALOIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko D.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Biologically active substances (BAS of barberry roots represented by alkaloids of isoquinoline group are perspective substances for development of preparations with multiple pharmacological activities. However, now manufacture of them in Ukraine is stopped. One of the reasons of this is out-of-date production technologies of alkaloids involving use of toxic and/or flammable solvents. In the article possibility for application of liquefied gases in technology of obtaining of alkaloids from barberry roots has been studied. Materials and methods. Initial raw herb drug were barberry (Berberis vulgaris roots harvested in spring on the territory of Southern Ukraine. Their moisture content was 11%, comminuting degree was 0,5-1,4 mm. At the first stage purification of raw herb drug from lipophilic impurities (defatting was made with use of some liquefied gases: tetrafluoroethane, isobutane, difluorochloromethane and difluoromethane. Extraction of the alkaloid sum was made with difluoromethane mixed with various quantities of liquid ammonia or diethylamine as alkaline agent. Crude extracts were exposed to two-level liquefied-gas purification. At first the alkaloid bases were transformed into saline forms with aqueous solutions of acids and purified from ballast impurities with liquefied freon-22. Then alkaloid salts were reextracted from aqueous phase in the base form with liquefied mixture of difluoromethane and ammonia. Mixing of liquid phases was provided by creation of alternate gradients of temperatures and, as consequence, pressures between separators feeding alternately cool water into jacket of one of them, and warm water – into jacket of another one. Quantity of lipophilic ballast impurities and also weight of extractives were determined gravimetrically. Quantitative analysis of the alkaloid sum was made by titrimetric method after sedimentation of alkaloids with volumetric solution of phosphomolybdic acid. Results and discussion

  16. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. 49 CFR 173.304b - Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles. 173.304b Section 173.304b Transportation Other Regulations...; Preparation and Packaging § 173.304b Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN... UN pressure receptacles subject to the requirements in this section and § 173.304. In addition,...

  18. Enhancement of the Liquefaction Rate in Small-Scale Helium Liquefiers Working Near and Above the Critical Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, C.; Gabal, M.; Lozano, M. P.; Sesé, J.; Spagna, S.; Diederichs, J.; Sager, R.; Chialvo, C.; Terry, J.; Rayner, G.; Warburton, R.; Reineman, R.

    2015-05-01

    Low-temperature research laboratories with typical liquid-helium consumption of the order of tens of liters per day have greatly benefited from the recent development of small-scale liquefiers. In general, these liquefiers are based on Gifford-McMahon or pulse-tube closed-cycle refrigerators with a nominal cooling power ranging from 1 to 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The liquefaction rate for these cryocooler-based liquefiers depends on the pressure at which the helium is liquefied, although the final user conditions of the produced liquid helium are always atmospheric pressure and boiling temperature (e.g., 4.2 K at 100 kPa). Here, we show a systematic study on this effect, in which an enhancement in excess of 70% in liquefaction rate is found experimentally for pressures near and above the critical point of helium (220 kPa). We propose that the underlying mechanism for the liquefaction enhancement is based on the increase in cryocooler cooling power with temperature and the decrease of the helium enthalpy with pressure.

  19. 41 CFR 60-1.25 - Assumption of jurisdiction by or referrals to the Deputy Assistant Secretary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... jurisdiction by or referrals to the Deputy Assistant Secretary. 60-1.25 Section 60-1.25 Public Contracts and... referrals to the Deputy Assistant Secretary. The Deputy Assistant Secretary may inquire into the status of... herein. Whenever the Deputy Assistant Secretary assumes jurisdiction over any matter, or an agency refers...

  20. The Congressional Debates on the 19th Amendment: Jurisdictional Rhetoric and the Assemblage of the US Body Politic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keremidchieva, Zornitsa

    2013-01-01

    Through its analysis of the rhetorical means by which the US Congress overcame jurisdictional objections to federal action on the issue of woman suffrage, this essay argues that the stasis of jurisdiction operates as a mode of assemblage of discourses, institutions, and populations. In Congress, the woman suffrage issue helped re-organize federal…

  1. "They Call Me Wonder Woman": The Job Jurisdictions and Work-Related Learning of Higher Level Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roger; Hall, Thelma; Cable, Carrie; Eyres, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth interview study of the roles, job jurisdictions and associated learning of higher level teaching assistants (HLTAs). This role has the core purpose of covering classes to enable teacher release for planning, preparation and assessment. HLTAs' individual job jurisdictions are described and discussed as are…

  2. "They Call Me Wonder Woman": The Job Jurisdictions and Work-Related Learning of Higher Level Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roger; Hall, Thelma; Cable, Carrie; Eyres, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth interview study of the roles, job jurisdictions and associated learning of higher level teaching assistants (HLTAs). This role has the core purpose of covering classes to enable teacher release for planning, preparation and assessment. HLTAs' individual job jurisdictions are described and discussed as are…

  3. An Urgent Suggestion to Pour Old Wine into New Bottles : Comment on "A New Jurisprudential Framework for Jurisdiction"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryngaert, C.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Dan Svantesson is quickly establishing himself as a leading voice in the field of jurisdiction. Coming to this field from Internet and data protection law, he is surely well placed to criticize the current legal framework of international jurisdiction in light of technological evolution, which has m

  4. 29 CFR 101.31 - Initiation of proceedings to hear and determine jurisdictional disputes under section 10(k).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of proceedings to hear and determine jurisdictional disputes under section 10(k). 101.31 Section 101.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD STATEMENTS OF PROCEDURES Jurisdictional Dispute Cases Under Section 10(k) of the...

  5. Sinking/floatation of pipelines and other objects in liquefied soil under waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Christensen, S.

    1999-01-01

    , and the experiments with the structure model (a pipeline, a sphere, and a cube). In the former experiments, the pore-water pressure was measured across the soil depth. The pore-water pressure built up, as the waves progressed. The soil was liquefied for wave heights larger than a critical value. Regarding...... the experiments with the structure model, the displacement of the structure (sinking or floatation) was measured simultaneously with the pore-water pressure. The influence of various parameters (such as the initial position of the object, the specific gravity, the soil layer thickness, and the wave height......) was investigated. It was found that while the pipe sank in the soil to a depth of 2-3 times the pipe diameter, the sphere sank to even larger depths. The pipe with a relatively small specific gravity, initially buried, floated to the surface of the soil. The drag coefficients for the objects sinking...

  6. Uplifting behavior of shallow buried pipe in liquefiable soil by dynamic centrifuge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Liu, Jingwen; Lin, Peng; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure.

  7. Uplifting Behavior of Shallow Buried Pipe in Liquefiable Soil by Dynamic Centrifuge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure.

  8. Estimation on Global Reaction Heat for the Aromatization Process of Liquefied Petroleum Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎小辉; 朱建华; 郝代军

    2013-01-01

    The reaction heat effect analysis for the aromatization process of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was completed in this paper. In order to characterize this complex reaction system, one set of independent reactions was determined by means of atomic coefficient matrix method. Based on reaction thermodynamic and stoichiometric knowledge, the heat effect, Gibbs free energy change and equilibrium constant for each independent reaction was calculated for the specified conditions. Under these conditions, based on the initial and final composition data from LPG aromatization experiments, the actual extent of reaction for each independent reaction was determined. Fur-thermore, the global reaction heat and adiabatic temperature rise of LPG aromatization reaction system could be es-timated. This work would provide a theoretical guidance for the design and scale-up of reactor for LPG aromatiza-tion process, as well as for the selection of proper operating conditions.

  9. Multipurpose closed-cycle cryocooler for liquefying hydrogen, helium-4 or helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Calvin

    1990-08-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator utilizing helium-4 gas in closed-cycle Gifford-McMahon and Joule-Thomson cooling loops was built and achieves continuous operating temperatures of 2.8R. The object cooled is a thin walled (0.1mm) seamless electroformed nickel target sample cell with a volume of 160m1. Room temperature hydrogen, helium-4 or helium-3 gas, supplied at a pressure slightly above atmospheric, is liquefied by the cryocooler and fills the cell. Unusual features include: horizontal operation; a long narrow extension on the vacuum shroud (900mm long, 76mm diameter) and special valves to select an operating temperature appropriate to the sample gas and maximize the cooling power available at that temperature.

  10. Liquefaction of bamboo,preparation of liquefied bamboo adhesives,and properties of the adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Shenyuan; Ma Lingfei; Li Wenzhu; Cheng Shuna

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the liquefaction of bamboo in phenol,which involved the effects of weight ratios of phenol to bamboo,amount of catalyst,temperature,etc.The study showed that liquefaction could be accomplished with a phenol to bamboo weight ratio of 2-1:1,a 5% catalyst of HCI or BF3,and a temperature of 1150C.Liquefied bamboo formaldehyde (BLF) resin adhesive for exterior use could be obtained with a phenol to formaldehyde molar ratio of 1:1.6-2.0.The curing behavior of BLF resin adhesive,studied by TG-DSC and IR analyses,showed that BLF resin adhesives had a lower curing temperature than PF adhesives but had the same characteristic trough in IR spectra as PF adhesives.

  11. Liquefied gaseous fuels safety and environmental control assessment program: third status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    This Status Report contains contributions from all contractors currently participating in the DOE Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LG) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program and is presented in two principal sections. Section I is an Executive Summary of work done by all program participants. Section II is a presentation of fourteen individual reports (A through N) on specific LGF Program activities. The emphasis of Section II is on research conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Reports A through M). Report N, an annotated bibliography of literature related to LNG safety and environmental control, was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of its LGF Safety Studies Project. Other organizations who contributed to this Status Report are Aerojet Energy Conversion Company; Applied Technology Corporation; Arthur D. Little, Incorporated; C/sub v/ International, Incorporated; Institute of Gas Technology; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for Reports A through N for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  12. IR spectra of halothane-acetone complex in liquefied noble gases (Kr and Xe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikova, S. M.; Rutkowski, K. S.; Rospenk, M.

    2017-07-01

    IR absorption spectra of solutions of halothane (C2HBrClF3) and acetone ((CD3)2CO) mixtures in liquefied noble gases (krypton and xenon) have been recorded and analyzed. Bands due to weak hydrogenbonded complexes are identified. The complex-formation enthalpy is estimated in a series of temperature experiments on the change in the total intensity of the bands due to monomers and complexes. Second-order bands are found, which are assigned to the first overtone of stretching vibration CH of halothane and the Raman band related to simultaneous excitation of stretching vibration CH of halothane and stretching vibration CO of acetone. The results of ab initio calculation performed within the MP2/6-311++G(d, p) approximation are used to analyze the spectroscopic data.

  13. 77 FR 49054 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request for Commodity Jurisdiction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Affairs, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, PM/DDTC. ] Form Number: DS-4076. Respondents: Business and Nonprofit Organizations. Estimated Number of Respondents: 1,260. Estimated Number of Responses: 1,260... Collection: Request for Commodity Jurisdiction (CJ) Determination. OMB Control Number: 1405-0163. Type...

  14. 8 CFR 337.7 - Information and assignment of individuals under exclusive jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information and assignment of individuals under exclusive jurisdiction. 337.7 Section 337.7 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 337.7 Information and assignment of individuals under...

  15. 8 CFR 1337.7 - Information and assignment of individuals under exclusive jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information and assignment of individuals... assignment of individuals under exclusive jurisdiction. (a) No later than at the time of the examination on the application pursuant to § 335.2 of 8 CFR chapter I, an employee of the Service shall advise...

  16. Ukraine and the International Criminal Court: Implications of the Ad Hoc Jurisdiction Acceptance and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    during the 2014 Maydan protests (Declaration I) and the alleged war crimes committed in eastern Ukraine and Crimea (Declaration II). It provides an in-depth analysis of constitutional law issues linked to the acceptance of the jurisdiction by Ukraine and discusses its possible implications...

  17. 8 CFR 1003.1 - Organization, jurisdiction, and powers of the Board of Immigration Appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Board of Immigration Appeals. 1003.1 Section 1003.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.1 Organization, jurisdiction, and powers of the Board of Immigration Appeals....

  18. Universal jurisdiction: state of affairs and ways ahead. : A policy paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zegveld (Liesbeth); J.D. Handmaker (Jeff)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOn 17 September 2010, the International Institute of Social Studies (ISS), Leiden University and ICCO organised an expert meeting at the ISS on universal jurisdiction (UJ). The meeting was chaired in the morning by Professor John Dugard and in the afternoon by Professor Karin Arts. The a

  19. 78 FR 35961 - Pilot Project for Tribal Jurisdiction Over Crimes of Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... of the Attorney General Pilot Project for Tribal Jurisdiction Over Crimes of Domestic Violence AGENCY... accelerated basis, pursuant to the voluntary pilot project described in section 908(b)(2) of the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 (``the Pilot Project''), and also proposes procedures for the...

  20. Amendment of the Provisions of the Dutch Penal Code Pertaining to the Exercise of Extraterritorial Jurisdiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryngaert, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    By the Act of 27 November 2013, the Dutch Government has radically changed the provisions of its Penal Code pertaining to the exercise of extraterritorial jurisdiction (Arts. 4-8 Penal Code). The new rules take effect from July 1st 2014 onwards. Most importantly, the Act widens the scope of the

  1. 76 FR 57074 - Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction at or Near Great Sand Dunes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... National Park Service Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction at or Near Great Sand Dunes National Park... benefit of Great Sand Dunes National Park, Baca National Wildlife Refuge, and the Rio Grande National... (Secretary) acquired certain lands and interests in land for the benefit of Great Sand Dunes National...

  2. 47 CFR 76.913 - Assumption of jurisdiction by the Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... jurisdiction by the Commission. (a) Upon denial or revocation of the franchising authority's certification, the... continue until the franchising authority has obtained certification or recertification. (b) A franchising... cable service and associated equipment of its franchisee when: (1) The franchising authority lacks...

  3. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions. 200.926c Section 200.926c Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for use in partially accepted...

  4. 20 CFR 410.701 - Jurisdiction for determining entitlement under part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.701 Jurisdiction... death, or that death was due to pneumoconiosis, and that death occurred prior to January 1, 1974, or...

  5. 24 CFR 92.106 - Continuous designation as a participating jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuous designation as a participating jurisdiction. 92.106 Section 92.106 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Consortia; Designation...

  6. Extraterritoriality from the Port: EU’s approach to jurisdiction over ship-source pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, N.F.

    2015-01-01

    Ship-source pollution represents a threat to the environment, regardless of where it occurs. The European Union has been developing standards that aim to counter accidental, operational and intentional pollution in the waters under its member-state’s jurisdiction. However, and precisely because mari

  7. 25 CFR 547.2 - How do these regulations affect state jurisdiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect state jurisdiction? 547.2 Section 547.2 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.2 How do these...

  8. 32 CFR 151.5 - Reports on the exercise of foreign criminal jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports on the exercise of foreign criminal... exercise of foreign criminal jurisdiction. The following reporting system, which has been implemented by... statistical summary (DD Form 838) by country and type of offense of all cases involving U.S. personnel. (2)...

  9. State and Jurisdictional Eligibility Definitions for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities under IDEA. NECTAC Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Jo

    Under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), participating states and jurisdictions must provide services to children who are either experiencing developmental delays, or who have a diagnosed mental or physical condition that has a a high probability of resulting in developmental delay. Additionally, states may choose to…

  10. Abundance and Utility: For Military Operations, Liquid Fuels Remain a Solid Choice over Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    and combat support vehicles, ships, and aircraft, the adoption of natural gas —whether as compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG...tacticaldefensemedia.com16 | DoD Power & Energy Fall 2014 For Military Operations, Liquid Fuels Remain a Solid Choice over Natural Gas By Bret...Strogen and Patrick Lobner Abundance and Utility Fueling the Force Natural Gas M ilitary energy strategists often recount the British Royal Navy’s decision

  11. Arsenic in private drinking water wells: an assessment of jurisdictional regulations and guidelines for risk remediation in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappells, Heather; Parker, Louise; Fernandez, Conrad V; Conrad, Cathy; Drage, John; O'Toole, Gary; Campbell, Norma; Dummer, Trevor J B

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a known carcinogen found globally in groundwater supplies due to natural geological occurrence. Levels exceeding the internationally recognized safe drinking water standard of 10 μg/L have been found in private drinking water supplies in many parts of Canada and the United States. Emerging epidemiological evidence confirms groundwater arsenic to be a significant health concern, even at the low to moderate levels typically found in this region. These findings, coupled with survey data reporting limited public adherence to testing and treatment guidelines, have prompted calls for improved protective measures for private well users. The purpose of this review is to assess current jurisdictional provisions for private well water protection in areas where arsenic is known to naturally occur in groundwater at elevated levels. Significant limitations in risk management approaches are identified, including inconsistent and uncoordinated risk communication approaches, lack of support mechanisms for routine water testing and limited government resources to check that testing and treatment guidelines are followed. Key action areas are discussed that can help to build regulatory, community and individual capacity for improved protection of private well water supplies and enhancement of public health.

  12. Trace DNA analysis: do you know what your neighbour is doing? A multi-jurisdictional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jennifer J; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Walsh, Simon J; Roux, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Since 1997 the analysis of DNA recovered from handled objects, or 'trace' DNA, has become routine and is frequently demanded from crime scene examinations. However, this analysis often produces unpredictable results. The factors affecting the recovery of full profiles are numerous, and include varying methods of collection and analysis. Communication between forensic laboratories in Australia and New Zealand has been limited in the past, due in some part to sheer distance. Because of its relatively small population and low number of forensic jurisdictions this region is in an excellent position to provide a collective approach. However, the protocols, training methods and research of each jurisdiction had not been widely exchanged. A survey was developed to benchmark the current practices involved in trace DNA analysis, aiming to provide information for training programs and research directions, and to identify factors contributing to the success or failure of the analysis. The survey was divided in to three target groups: crime scene officers, DNA laboratory scientists, and managers of these staff. In late 2004 surveys were sent to forensic organisations in every Australian jurisdiction and New Zealand. A total of 169 completed surveys were received with a return rate of 54%. Information was collated regarding sampling, extraction, amplification and analysis methods, contamination prevention, samples collected, success rates, personnel training and education, and concurrent fingerprinting. The data from the survey responses provided an insight into aspects of trace DNA analysis, from crime scene to interpretation and management. Several concerning factors arose from the survey. Results collation is a significant issue being identified as poor and differing widely, preventing inter-jurisdictional comparison and intra-jurisdictional assessment of both the processes and outputs. A second point of note is the widespread lack of refresher training and proficiency

  13. Relevance of pre-contractual arrangements for jurisdiction and merits in international investment arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đajić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author discusses the issue whether pre-contractual arrangements and pre-investment expenditures may qualify for an investment within the meaning of applicable legal framework. The answer to this question is relevant for jurisdiction of investment tribunals. Chronological overview of cases dealing with pre-contractual arrangements demonstrates the shift from the original position according to which pre-investment expenditures do not amount to an investment to the understanding that pre-contractual arrangement may amount to an investment under certain circumstances, such as extensive definitions of an investment coupled with the existing investment in the host country. While there has been a significant shift recently which favored jurisdiction of investment tribunals, the established position of majority of tribunals in denying claims for loss of profits on the basis of failed commercial transactions remained unchanged.

  14. The monkey selfie: copyright lessons for originality in photographs and internet jurisdiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Guadamuz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a macaque monkey used a camera belonging to British photographer David Slater in Indonesia to take a self-portrait. The selfie picture became famous worldwide after it was published in the British media. In 2014 Slater sent a removal request to Wikimedia Commons, which indicated that the picture was in the public domain because it had been taken by the monkey and animals cannot own copyright works. While most of the legal analysis so far has been centred around US law, this article takes a completely different approach. Re-assessing jurisdictional issues, I examine the case from a UK and European perspective. The monkey selfie is of importance to internet policy: it has a lot to teach us about online jurisdiction. Under current originality rules, David Slater has a good copyright claim for ownership of the picture.

  15. Australia’s National Anti-Bullying Jurisdiction: Paper Tiger or Velvet Glove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Ballard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Australia’s innovative national anti-bullying legislation came into effect on 1 January 2014, against a backdrop of fear and resistance on the part of some conservative politicians and other stakeholder opponents. This paper contributes to an understanding of the efficacy and value of this fledgling jurisdiction or its lack thereof. In it, we describe the beginnings of the anti-bullying regime, outline the new legislative provisions, explore whether the inaction of the first six months has continued, examine the statistics arising from the jurisdiction’s first 15 months of operation, and review the case law development over its first 18 months. We ask whether the anti-bullying jurisdiction is proving to be a paper tiger in an empty suit or iron fist in a velvet glove.

  16. Inter-jurisdictional fiscal competition: a review of the literature and policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Guimarães Ferreira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the literature on fiscal competition. We consider tax and expenditure competition in a more general set up where different jurisdictions within a federation may compete in the provision of public goods in order to attract some residents (Tiebout, 1956 and expel others (Brueckner, 1999; and/or for business. We address the vast literature on welfare gains or losses of these types of competition. Then, we discuss the empirical evidence, focusing on estimates of the sensitiveness of production factors to tax differentials and on the importance of the strategic interdependence among jurisdictions. We combine econometric studies with some case studies. Last we discuss the design of mechanisms to cope with fiscal competition, especially under a more global environment where factors become more mobile.

  17. Risks associated to liquefied petroleum gas: evaluation and management; Riscos do gas liquefeito de petroleo: avaliacao e gerenciamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Gonzalez, Amelia Beatriz [Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Lima (Peru). Facultad de Ingenieria Ambiental; Rocha, Aristides Almeida [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Saude Publica

    1997-07-01

    This work presents the discussion and evaluation of the environmental risks related to the use of liquefied petroleum gas (GLP) when the safety standards and proceedings are not obeyed. It also presents a bibliographic review mainly concerning the actual legislation and a case study in a industrial plant. The methodologies used in such a study are based in the HAZOP and WHAZAM models. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods.

  19. Jurisdiction and military justice in Colombia: debates and controversy. 1821-1829

    OpenAIRE

    Chaparro, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    During the years that followed the Independence of Colombia, an intense, controversial and difficult debate rose around the reorganization of the Army Forces, especially on the reform of their jurisdiction and military justice. Even though it is true that the origin of such project was part of a process of organization and structuring of a new political and institutional order, its setting-up was also  grounded on power relations established by both opponents and supporters of the meas...

  20. Of Judges and Jurisdictions – An Overture to Comparative Legal Reasoning in National Case Law

    OpenAIRE

    Coendet Thomas

    2014-01-01

    “No foreign judges” is a recurrent clamor in contemporary Swiss politics. With this slogan some Swiss politicians challenge the European Supreme Court’s jurisdiction within the bilateral agreements between Switzerland and the European Union. Treaty negotiations usually associated with sober diplomacy thereby receive a strong emotional flavor. Even academic discussions on more subtle forms of how “foreign law” influences national legal discourse sometimes turn emotional: Should courts be permi...

  1. Extraterritoriality from the Port: EU’s approach to jurisdiction over ship-source pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, N.F.

    2015-01-01

    Ship-source pollution represents a threat to the environment, regardless of where it occurs. The European Union has been developing standards that aim to counter accidental, operational and intentional pollution in the waters under its member-state’s jurisdiction. However, and precisely because marine pollution knows no boundaries, the EU is not coy in contemplating what ships do beyond waters under the sovereignty of its member states. This article analyses the international lawfulness of EU...

  2. Jurisdictional immunities of the state : why the ICJ got it wrong

    OpenAIRE

    SOURESH, Anogika

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the decision in Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v Italy: Greece Intervening) regarding the relationship between State immunities and jus cogens norms. It focuses on three assertions in the case, regarding the criminal/civil distinction, the procedural/substantive distinction and the pronouncement that the gravity of the crime is irrelevant when assessing the claim for State immunity. The article picks apart the three assertions in turn, which leads to the...

  3. Isolation and identification of an agar-liquefying marine bacterium and some properties of its extracellular agarases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATURRAHMAN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Faturrahman, Meryandini A, Junior MZ, Rusmana I (2011 Isolation and identification of an agar-liquefying marine bacterium and some properties of its extracellular agarases. Biodiversitas 12: 192-197. A new agar-liquefying bacterium, designated Alg3.1, was isolated from Gracilaria samples collected from the Kuta Coast at Central Lombok in West Nusa Tenggara and was identified as Aeromonas sp. on the basis of morphology, biochemical-physiological character and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The bacterium appeared capable of liquifying agar in nutrient agar-plate within 48 hours of incubation and the agar was completely liquefied after l5 days at 29oC. When the isolate was grown in basal salts solution medium B supplemented with peptone and yeast extract, produced extracellular agarases within a short period of time (4-16 h and the maximum agarase activity was 0.489 nkat/mL at 36h after incubation.

  4. Effects of a thin liquefiable foundation layer on deformations of a rockfill dam subjected to earthquake shaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seid-Karbasi, M.; Atukorala, U. [Golder Associates Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada); Gowan, M.; Barrett, A. [Golder Associates Pty, Toowong, Queensland (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed a coupled stress-flow dynamic analysis procedure designed to predict the stability and seismic deformations of an 85 meter high earth dam located near a polymetallic mine in Vietnam. The procedure was developed to capture sand element behaviours observed in previous laboratory tests. The analysis was conducted using a UBCSAND model to capture the liquefiable soil response. Nonlinear behaviour of the non-liquefiable materials was modelled using the UBCHYST simulation tool. Both models were incorporated within the FLAC model. Dam specifications, foundation characteristics, and predicted behaviours were discussed. The dam body and its foundation were analyzed under gravity loads with drained conditions in order to establish the pre-earthquake stress state. A dynamic analysis was then conducted using undrained properties for fine-grained soils. The FLAC model finite difference analysis was used to examine stress-flow under static and dynamic loading conditions. Earthquake motions were applied as a time history of excitation at the model's boundaries. Volumetric strains were controlled by the compressibility of the pore fluid and the flow of water through the soil elements. The model was calibrated using laboratory and centrifuge data. Results of the study showed that the tailings and downstream free-field alluvial soils developed high excess pore water pressures and liquefied during strong shaking motions. Results suggested that the seismic performance of the Oxide dam were satisfactory. 41 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  5. JURISDICTION OVER CRIMES COMMITTED ON BOARD AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT UNDER THE TOKYO CONVENTION 1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sopilko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main aim of this paper is to clarify several issues of conflicting jurisdiction over crimes committed on board aircraft in flight. The study will examine the way in which the Tokyo Convention attempts to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and discuss its effectiveness in preventing such offences in the future. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction over crimes and other offences committed on board aircraft in flight. Results: it follows from the study that although the Tokyo Convention has contributed considerably to the establishing of clearer rules of jurisdiction over offences committed on board aircraft, considerable deficiencies of this treaty remain. The results have important implications for international policy-making. Discussion: the results of the study reveal several weaknesses of the Tokyo Convention. Firstly, it does not provide any definition or list of offences to which it applies, instead it relies on national penal laws to do so. In addition, the ‘freedom fighter exception’ and the lack of a strong enforcement mechanism may prove to impede the effective attainment of the Tokyo Convention’s main objectives – that is, to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and prevent such offences in the future. Therefore, further improvement in aviation security legislation is necessary to ensure that it is effective and adequate in the challenges faced today.

  6. Kinetic modeling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) reduction of titania in MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tan Wei; Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Rezan, Sheikh Abdul; Noor, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Izah Shoparwe, Noor; Alizadeh, Reza; Roohi, Parham

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, reduction of Titania (TiO2) by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-hydrogen-argon gas mixture was investigated by experimental and kinetic modelling in MATLAB. The reduction experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 1100-1200°C with a reduction time from 1-3 hours and 10-20 minutes of LPG flowing time. A shrinking core model (SCM) was employed for the kinetic modelling in order to determine the rate and extent of reduction. The highest experimental extent of reduction of 38% occurred at a temperature of 1200°C with 3 hours reduction time and 20 minutes of LPG flowing time. The SCM gave a predicted extent of reduction of 82.1% due to assumptions made in the model. The deviation between SCM and experimental data was attributed to porosity, thermodynamic properties and minute thermal fluctuations within the sample. In general, the reduction rates increased with increasing reduction temperature and LPG flowing time.

  7. Activities to support the liquefied gaseous fuels spill test facility program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.; Routh, T.

    1997-03-01

    Approximately a hundred years ago the petrochemical industry was in its infancy, while the chemical industry was already well established. Today, both of these industries, which are almost indistinguishable, are a substantial part of the makeup of the U.S. economy and the lifestyle we enjoy. It is difficult to identify a single segment of our daily lives that isn`t affected by these industries and the products or services they make available for our use. Their survival and continued function in a competitive world market are necessary to maintain our current standard of living. The occurrence of accidents in these industries has two obvious effects: (1) the loss of product during the accident and future productivity because of loss of a portion of a facility or transport medium, and (2) the potential loss of life or injury to individuals, whether workers, emergency responders, or members of the general public. A great deal of work has been conducted at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill test Facility (LGFSTF) on hazardous spills. WRI has conducted accident investigations as well as provided information on the research results via the internet and bibliographies.

  8. VidaGas : powering health clinics and households in Mozambique with liquefied petroleum gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprague, C. [Witwatersand Univ. (South Africa). Graduate School of Business Administration; Woolman, S. [Pretoria Univ., Pretoria (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described a pro-poor venture established to provide a sustainable supply of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in northern Mozambique. The venture is needed in order to become a venue-generating entity within 3 years. Challenges to the success of the VidaGas project include insufficient LPG supply and storage facilities, and a lack of commercial and industrial infrastructure. Retailers and consumers in the region have little experience in dealing with LPG. Most households and medical practices in the region rely on wood or charcoal for cooking. The deforestation of local mangroves is now imperilling the region's commercial fishing industry. To date, the venture has replaced kerosene refrigerators in health facilities with LPG refrigerators. Staff have also been trained to deliver LPG and lamps to healthcare workers on a regular basis. The healthcare initiative has increased interest in the use of LPG in the region, and the VidaGas project now involves several large commercial and industrial consumers. LPG emits fewer greenhouse gases (GHGs) than many other fuels, and is highly portable. The LPG in Mozambique is supplied by South Africa. It was concluded that VidaGas is now achieving financial sustainability in the region. 24 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sakuragi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME, which is an environmentally friendly solvent. In this study, three common IFWs (spent coffee grounds, soybean, and rapeseed cakes were evaluated with respect to oil yield for biodiesel fuel (BDF production by the DME extraction method. The coffee grounds were found to contain 16.8% bio-oil, whereas the soybean and rapeseed cakes contained only approximately 0.97% and 2.6% bio-oil, respectively. The recovered oils were qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The properties of fatty acid methyl esters derived from coffee oil, such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, and higher heating value (HHV, were also determined. Coffee grounds had the highest oil content and could be used as biofuel. In addition, the robust oil extraction capability of DME indicates that it may be a favourable alternative to conventional oil extraction solvents.

  10. Effect of liquefied petroleum gas on ozone formation in Guadalajara and Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes-López, J Luis; Sandoval-Fernández, Julio; González-Ortíz, Emmanuel; Vázquez-García, Marcos; González-Macías, Uriel; Zambrano-García, Angel

    2005-06-01

    Leakages of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are suspected to contribute greatly to ozone (O3) formation in Mexico City. We tested such a hypothesis by outdoor captive-air irradiation (CAI) experiments in the two largest Mexican metropolitan areas: Guadalajara (GMA) in 1997 and Mexico City (MCMA) in 2000. O3 was monitored in each city for 20 days (8:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m.) in smog chambers containing unaltered morning air or morning air enriched with either commercial LPG or LPG synthetic mixture 60/40 (propane and butane). Tested additions of both components were 35% (by volume) in GMA and 60% (by volume) in MCMA. The addition effects on O3 (max) were compared with effects from diluting LPG components or total nonmethane hydrocarbons (tNMHCs) by 50%. Diluting tNMHCs had the greatest absolute effect at both cities: it lowered O3 (max) by 24% in GMA and 55% in MCMA. Adding commercial LPG increased O3 (max) by 6% in GMA and 28% in MCMA; whereas adding LPG synthetic mixture 60/40 caused a similar increase in O3 (max), 4 and 21% in GMA and MCMA, respectively. Compared with dilution of tNMHCs, dilution of LPG-associated compounds had a smaller decreasing effect on O3 (max), only 4% in GMA and 15% in MCMA. These results show that commercial LPG and LPG synthetic mixture 60/40 affect O3 formation to a lesser extent than estimated previously.

  11. The Effect of Polymer-Cement Stabilization on the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Liquefiable Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ateş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil stabilization has been widely used as an alternative to substitute the lack of suitable material on site. The use of nontraditional chemical stabilizers in soil improvement is growing daily. In this study a laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of waterborne polymer on unconfined compression strength and to study the effect of cement grout on pre-venting of liquefiable sandy soils. The laboratory tests were performed including grain size of sandy soil, unit weight, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and unconfined compressive strength test. The sand and various amounts of polymer (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% and cement (10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were mixed with all of them into dough using mechanical kneader in laboratory conditions. Grouting experiment is performed with a cylindrical mould of  mm. The samples were subjected to unconfined compression tests to determine their strength after 7 and 14 days of curing. The results of the tests indicated that the waterborne polymer significantly improved the unconfined compression strength of sandy soils which have susceptibility of liquefaction.

  12. Regulation and market power in the Spanish liquefied petroleum gas industry: Progress or failure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Alejandro; Huerta, Emilio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents a detailed study of the structure, market power and competition in the distribution sector for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), within Spain. It is a segment of energy consumption and supply that is not often given serious attention, despite the fact that LPG is a crucial source of energy to many households, in many countries in Europe and in the rest of the world. Despite formally being an open and liberalized sector, the Spanish LPG market is characterized by high concentration within the industry; Repsol Butano, the dominant operator, practically controls the entire value chain. These structural characteristics probably justify state intervention in the form of price fixing, in order to guarantee accessible prices for final consumers. Nevertheless, applying this tool has had negative effects on the opening and liberalization process. On the one hand, it fails to encourage entry or an increase in the participation of new operators; on the other, it has considerably deteriorated the economic and financial performance of the distribution agents that are subjected to two strong forces. First, the dominant operator looks after its own interests and its income; and second, the Government tries to defend the interests of final consumers by fixing prices that inadequately remunerate the activity. This shows the contradictory regulatory actions that try to promote competition, and then establish mechanisms to regulate activity by fixing prices that act as price limits. These government set prices discourage new competitors from entering. (author)

  13. Comparative investigation of diesel and mixed liquefied petroleum gas/diesel injection engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, J.; Bian, Y.; Qi, D.; Cheng, Q.; Wu, T. [Changan University, Xian (China). Automobile Faculty

    2004-05-01

    Experiments are conducted on engine performance and sprays and a characteristics analysis is made between diesel and mixed liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/diesel injection engines. The performance test results show that with LPG the mixed ratio increases, engine power reduces slightly, fuel consumption and engine noise have almost no change, pollutant emissions of smoke, CO and NO{sub x} at full load are improved significantly, but the amount of unburned HC increases. The experimental results of the sprays indicate that because of flash boiling injection of mixed fuel, mean diameters in a spray decrease, the number distribution curve of fuel droplet size moves towards smaller diameters, small-size droplet numbers increase, spray quality is good and engine smoke reduces accordingly. Because large-size droplet diameters show almost no change and small-size droplet diameters decrease, the relative span factor and dispersion boundary factor of the droplet diameter increase. High-resolution digital camera photography is invaluable when carrying out a comparative investigation of spray. (author)

  14. Polyaniline-Cadmium Ferrite Nanostructured Composite for Room-Temperature Liquefied Petroleum Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotresh, S.; Ravikiran, Y. T.; Tiwari, S. K.; Vijaya Kumari, S. C.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce polyaniline-cadmium ferrite (PANI-CdFe2O4) nanostructured composite as a room-temperature-operable liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensor. The structure of PANI and the composite prepared by chemical polymerization was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Comparative XRD and FT-IR analysis confirmed CdFe2O4 embedded in PANI matrix with mutual interfacial interaction. The nanostructure of the composite was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. A simple LPG sensor operable at room temperature, exclusively based on spin-coated PANI-CdFe2O4 nanocomposite, was fabricated with maximum sensing response of 50.83% at 1000 ppm LPG. The response and recovery time of the sensor were 50 s and 110 s, respectively, and it was stable over a period of 1 month with slight degradation of 4%. The sensing mechanism is discussed on the basis of the p- n heterojunction barrier formed at the interface of PANI and CdFe2O4.

  15. Sperm counts in enzymatically liquefied cervical mucus: quantitative validation using donor cervical mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Agostini, A; Campana, A

    1996-02-01

    The post-coital test evaluates the penetration of spermatozoa into cervical mucus; it relies on subjective measurements and therefore lacks precision. Enzymatic liquefaction of cervical mucus allows sperm concentration to be measured in post-coital test samples, but the reliability of such measurements is not known. Donor cervical mucus was used as a model to test the accuracy and sensitivity of sperm quantification in liquefied cervical mucus. Donor cervical mucus was dissolved by enzymatic treatments in the presence of known numbers of spermatozoa and the recovery of sperm cells was assessed after liquefaction of the samples. Enzymatic treatment of cervical mucus with a combination of bromelin and glycosidases resulted in reliable and fast liquefaction of the samples. The accuracy of sperm concentration measurements was 89 +/- 10% (mean +/- SD, n = 50), and the sensitivity limits were 1 x 10(6) and 0.2 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml for quantitative concentration measurement and qualitative sperm detection respectively. This study demonstrates that liquefaction of cervical mucus by combined protease and glycosidases allows accurate and sensitive determination of sperm concentration in the sample. Therefore we believe that valuable data can be obtained for sperm concentration and total sperm counts in post-coital tests, that should help to improve the reliability of the post-coital test.

  16. The risks of Bobtail truck LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gases) distribution in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Cesar A. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway)], e-mail: cesar.leal@dnv.com

    2008-07-01

    The use of 'Bobtail' trucks (6 and 9 ton) for distribution of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in Brazilian cities represents a new and mobile source of risk. In this paper, it will be presented a discussion about some of the possible accident scenarios that can occur with this kind of vehicle, with emphasis on the possible consequences (BLEVE/fireball). The goal is to spread information and call attention of Government Authorities and gas distribution companies, as well as the general public, about this source of risk. In the case of a 9 ton fireball, fatalities could be expected up to 176 m, according to TNO models. Collapse of the tank engulfed in fire is expected in 10 to 20 minutes, a too short time interval for the arrival of a fire brigade and control of the situation. Suggestions are presented for the use of insulating coating in the tanks capable of withstanding an external fire for two hours without collapsing and the realization of a risk study for estimation of the impact of the use of insulation in terms of risk reduction for the population and a comparison of risks associated to the two forms of LPG distribution. (author)

  17. Supply of Liquefied Natural Gas according to the European Federation of Energy Traders. An analysis of the applied supply modality; Levering van Liquefied Natural Gas volgens de European Federation of Energy Traders. Een analyse van de gebruikte leveringsmodaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Linde, D.M. [Afdeling Juridische Zaken, Eneco, Capelle aan den IJssel (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    This article addresses the relation between the title subject and the status of the so-called International Commercial Terms and their place in laws and regulations. Subsequently, an analysis is conducted of the title, risk and ownership transfer within LNG MA (Master Delivery Ex Ship (DES) LNG Sale and Purchase Agreement). Moreover, attention is paid to various obligations in view of the International Treaty of 1996 regarding liability and compensation for damage caused by sea shipping of dangerous and hazardous substances (HNS treaty). Finally, an answer is provided to the question whether the Incoterm DES is the best Incoterm, or if a better alternative is provided by the International Chamber of Commerce. [Dutch] In dit artikel wordt in relatie met het titelonderwerp ingegaan op de status van de zogenaamde International Commercial Terms en hun plaats in de wet- en regelgeving. Hierop volgt een analyse van de titel-, risico- en eigendomsovergang binnen de LNG MA (Master Delivery Ex Ship (DES) LNG Sale and Purchase Agreement). Ook wordt aandacht geschonken aan verschillende verplichtingen vanuit het Internationaal Verdrag van 1996 inzake aansprakelijkheid en vergoeding voor schade in samenhang met het vervoer over zee van gevaarlijke en schadelijke stoffen (HNS-verdrag). Tenslotte volgt het antwoord op de vraag of de Incoterm DES wel de meest aangewezen Incoterm is, of dat er wellicht door de International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) een beter alternatief geboden wordt.

  18. 76 FR 58741 - Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Natural Gas Companies AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies that are currently codified in our regulations. The...) Interstate natural gas companies subject to the Commission's jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act (NGA),...

  19. 76 FR 33746 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... parties opposing the authorization bear the burden of overcoming this presumption. Freeport LNG states... interest. Environmental Impact Freeport LNG states that no change to the Freeport LNG terminal on Quintana...

  20. Costs and Financial Risks of Certain Liquefied Natural Gas Import Projects to U.S. Taxpayers and Gas Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-19

    project and write down its investment in LNG facilities to a realizable value . Southern, Consolidated, and Columbia, however, are continuing to...abandon its LNG project, it wrote down its assets to what it considered their net realizable value . El Paso’s 1980 financial statements show that, before

  1. Guidance on Risk Analysis and Safety Implications of a Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spill Over Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    stack source. Recently, the code called SCIPUFF (Second-order Closure Integrated Puff), developed by Titan Research and Technology, includes a dense...gas release model [Sykes et al. 1999]. SCIPUFF uses a Lagrangian puff dispersion model that captures nonlinear interaction among a collection of

  2. Design of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle gas cylinder filling semi-physical simulation training and assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zheng, Jianrong; Zhao, Yinghui

    2017-08-01

    With the rapid development of LNG vehicle in China, the operator's training and assessment of the operating skills cannot operate on material objects, because of Vehicle Gas Cylinder's high pressure, flammable and explosive characteristics. LNG Vehicle Gas Cylinder's filling simulation system with semi-physical simulation technology presents the overall design and procedures of the simulation system, and elaborates the realization of the practical analog machine, data acquisition and control system and the computer software, and introduces the design process of equipment simulation model in detail. According to the designed assessment system of the Vehicle Gas Cylinder, it can obtain the operation on the actual cylinder filling and visual effects for the operator, and automatically record operation, the results of real operation with its software, and achieve the operators' training and assessment of operating skills on mobile special equipment.

  3. 77 FR 64964 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... regional, state, and national economy through job creation and increased economic activity, (3) Promote the..., Texas, and the US (Perryman Report). Based on this report, CMI presents the following reasons why the... the regional economy, $19.6 billion to $23.5 billion to the Texas economy, and $25.5 billion to $31.1...

  4. 78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...://www.deloitte.com/view/en_US/us/Services/consulting/9f70dd1cc9324310VgnVCM1000001a56f00aRCRD.htm \\12... security, and any other issues, including the impact on the U.S. economy (GDP), consumers, and industry...

  5. Refueling emissions from cars in Japan: Compositions, temperature dependence and effect of vapor liquefied collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Refueling emissions from cars available on the Japanese market, which were not equipped with specific controlling devices, were investigated. For the composition analysis, a proton transfer reaction plus switchable reagent ion mass spectrometry (PTR + SRI-MS), which is capable of real-time measurement, was used. In addition, the performance of a vapor liquefied collection system (VLCS), which is a recently developed controlling device, was evaluated and compared with an onboard refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) system. The refueling emission factor of uncontrolled vehicles at 20 °C was 1.02 ± 0.40 g/L in the case dispensing 20 L of fuel. The results of composition analysis indicated that the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) of refueling emissions in Japan was 3.49 ± 0.83. The emissions consist of 80% alkanes and 20% alkenes, and aromatics and di-enes were negligible. C4 alkene had the highest impact on the MIR of refueling emissions. The amounts of refueling emissions were well reproduced by a function developed by MOVE2010 in the temperature range of 5-35 °C. The compositions of the refueling emissions varied in this temperature range, but the change in MIR was negligible. The trapping efficiency of VLCS was the same level as that of the ORVR (over 95%). The MIRs of refueling and evaporative emissions were strongly affected by that of the test fuel. This study and our previous study indicated that MIRbreakthrough ≈ MIRrefueling ≈ MIRfuel + 0.5 and MIRpermeation ≈ MIRfuel. The real-world estimated average MIRfuel in Japan was about 3.0.

  6. Application of computational chemistry methods to obtain thermodynamic data for hydrogen production from liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Sousa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate thermodynamic data, such as standard enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy changes of reaction and, consequently, chemical equilibrium constants, for a reaction system describing the hydrogen production from Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG. The acquisition of those properties was made using computational chemistry methods and the results were compared with experimental data reported in the literature. The reaction system of steam reforming of LPG was reported as a set of seven independent reactions involving the chemical species n-C4H10, C3H8, C2H6, C2H4, CH4, CO2, CO, H2O, H2 and solid carbon. Six computational approaches were used: Density Functional Theory (DFT employing Becke's three parameter hybrid exchange functional, and the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional (B3LYP using the 6-31G++(d,p basis set and the composite methods CBS-QB3, Gaussian-1 (G1, Gaussian-2 (G2, Gaussian-3 (G3 and Gaussian-4 (G4. Mole fractions of the system components were also determined between 873.15 and 1173.15 K, at 1 atm and a feed with a stoichiometric amount of water. Results showed that the hybrid functional B3LYP/6-31G++(d,p, G3 and G4 theories were the most appropriated methods to predict the properties of interest. Gaussian-3 and Gaussian-4 theories are expected to be good thermodynamic data predictors and the known efficient prediction of vibrational frequencies by B3LYP is probably the source of the good agreement found in this study. This last methodology is of special interest since it presents low computational cost, which is important when more complex molecular systems are considered.

  7. Melt With This Kiss: Paralyzing and Liquefying Venom of The Assassin Bug Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Madio, Bruno; Jin, Jiayi; Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2017-04-01

    Assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are venomous insects, most of which prey on invertebrates. Assassin bug venom has features in common with venoms from other animals, such as paralyzing and lethal activity when injected, and a molecular composition that includes disulfide-rich peptide neurotoxins. Uniquely, this venom also has strong liquefying activity that has been hypothesized to facilitate feeding through the narrow channel of the proboscis-a structure inherited from sap- and phloem-feeding phytophagous hemipterans and adapted during the evolution of Heteroptera into a fang and feeding structure. However, further understanding of the function of assassin bug venom is impeded by the lack of proteomic studies detailing its molecular composition.By using a combined transcriptomic/proteomic approach, we show that the venom proteome of the harpactorine assassin bug Pristhesancus plagipennis includes a complex suite of >100 proteins comprising disulfide-rich peptides, CUB domain proteins, cystatins, putative cytolytic toxins, triabin-like protein, odorant-binding protein, S1 proteases, catabolic enzymes, putative nutrient-binding proteins, plus eight families of proteins without homology to characterized proteins. S1 proteases, CUB domain proteins, putative cytolytic toxins, and other novel proteins in the 10-16-kDa mass range, were the most abundant venom components. Thus, in addition to putative neurotoxins, assassin bug venom includes a high proportion of enzymatic and cytolytic venom components likely to be well suited to tissue liquefaction. Our results also provide insight into the trophic switch to blood-feeding by the kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae). Although some protein families such as triabins occur in the venoms of both predaceous and blood-feeding reduviids, the composition of venoms produced by these two groups is revealed to differ markedly. These results provide insights into the venom evolution in the insect suborder

  8. Ventilation of liquefied petroleum gas components from the Valley of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Scott; Blake, Donald R.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Lu, Rong; Brown, Michael J.; Williams, Michael D.; Russell, Armistead G.; Bossert, James E.; Streit, Gerald E.; Santoyo, Marisa Ruiz; Guzman, Francisco; Porch, William M.; McNair, Laurie A.; Keyantash, John; Kao, Chih-Yue Jim; Turco, Richard P.; Eichinger, William E.

    1997-09-01

    The saturated hydrocarbons propane and the butane isomers are both indirect greenhouse gases and key species in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Leakage of LPG and its component alkanes/alkenes is now thought to explain a significant fraction of the volatile organic burden and oxidative potential in the basin which confines Mexico City. Propane and the butanes, however, are stable enough to escape from the basin. The gas Chromatographie measurements which have drawn attention to their sources within the urban area are used here to estimate rates of ventilation into the free troposphere. The calculations are centered on several well studied February/March pollution episodes. Carbon monoxide observations and emissions data are first exploited to provide a rough time constant for the removal of typical inert pollutant species from the valley. The timescale obtained is validated through an examination of meteorological simulations of three-dimensional flow. Heuristic arguments and transport modeling establish that propane and the butanes are distributed through the basin in a manner analogous to CO despite differing emissions functions. Ventilation rates and mass loadings yield outbound fluxes in a box model type computation. Estimated in this fashion, escape from the Valley of Mexico constitutes of the order of half of 1% of the northern hemispheric inputs for both propane and n-butane. Uncertainties in the calculations are detailed and include factors such as flow into the basin via surface winds and the size of the polluted regime. General quantification of the global propane and butane emissions from large cities will entail studies of this type in a variety of locales.

  9. The impact of liquefied petroleum gas usage on air quality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasca, J.; Ortiz, E.; Castillo, H.; Jaimes, J. L.; González, U.

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is the main fuel used in the residential sector of the Metropolitan Zone in the Valley of Mexico (MZVM). LPG represents 16% of the total fuel consumption in the MZVM and its demand increased 14% from 1986 to 1999. Propane and butanes, the main compounds of LPG, constituted 29% of all non-methane hydrocarbons found in the air of Mexico City. Some researchers have reported that LPG losses are a significant cause of high ozone concentration in MZVM. Three analyses are carried out in this work to estimate LPG's share of responsibility for MZVM pollution problems. First, the correlation between LPG consumption and three ozone pollution indicators was calculated for the period of 1986-1999. The non-significant correlation of these indicators with LPG consumption in a monthly basis suggests that LPG associated emissions are not the foremost cause of ozone formation. Second, a simulation model is applied to three LPG related emission control strategies to estimate the reduction in the maximum ozone concentration. The most noticeable effect was obtained when both hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) emissions associated with LPG use were totally reduced. The other two strategies, that only reduce HC emissions, had a minimum effect on the ozone concentration. Third, organic compounds consumption in air samples captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers is used to determine the chemical loss rate of LPG associated species and aromatics in the MZVM. The smog chamber results showed that 70% of propane and n-butane remain at the end of a 1-day irradiation, therefore they remain in the MZVM atmosphere for several days being the reason for the high concentration of these compounds. LPG associated compounds only account for 18% of ozone formed but aromatics contribute 35% to ozone in smog chamber.

  10. Ventilation of liquefied petroleum gas components from the Valley of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Blake, D.R.; Sherwood Rowland, F. [Chemistry Department, University of California, Irvine (United States); Lu, R. [Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Brown, M.J.; Williams, M.D. [Technology and Safety Assessment Division, Energy and Environmental Analysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Russell, A.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Bossert, J.E. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Streit, G.E. [Technology and Safety Assessment Division, Energy and Environmental Analysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Santoyo, M.R.; Guzman, F. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Gerencia de Ciencias del Ambiente, (Mexico) D.F.; Porch, W.M. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); McNair, L.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Keyantash, J. [Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Kao, C.J. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Turco, R.P. [Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Eichinger, W.E. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The saturated hydrocarbons propane and the butane isomers are both indirect greenhouse gases and key species in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Leakage of LPG and its component alkanes/alkenes is now thought to explain a significant fraction of the volatile organic burden and oxidative potential in the basin which confines Mexico City. Propane and the butanes, however, are stable enough to escape from the basin. The gas chromatographic measurements which have drawn attention to their sources within the urban area are used here to estimate rates of ventilation into the free troposphere. The calculations are centered on several well studied February/March pollution episodes. Carbon monoxide observations and emissions data are first exploited to provide a rough time constant for the removal of typical inert pollutant species from the valley. The timescale obtained is validated through an examination of meteorological simulations of three-dimensional flow. Heuristic arguments and transport modeling establish that propane and the butanes are distributed through the basin in a manner analogous to CO despite differing emissions functions. Ventilation rates and mass loadings yield outbound fluxes in a box model type computation. Estimated in this fashion, escape from the Valley of Mexico constitutes of the order of half of 1{percent} of the northern hemispheric inputs for both propane and n-butane. Uncertainties in the calculations are detailed and include factors such as flow into the basin via surface winds and the size of the polluted regime. General quantification of the global propane and butane emissions from large cities will entail studies of this type in a variety of locales.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  11. The impact of liquefied petroleum gas usage on air quality in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasca, J.; Ortiz, E.; Castillo, H.; Jaimes, J.L.; Gonzalez, U. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is the main fuel used in the residential sector of the Metropolitan Zone in the Valley of Mexico (MZVM). LPG represents 16% of the total fuel consumption in the MZVM and its demand increased 14% from 1986 to 1999. Propane and butanes, the main compounds of LPG, constituted 29% of all non-methane hydrocarbons found in the air of Mexico City. Some researchers have reported that LPG losses are a significant cause of high ozone concentration in MZVM. Three analyses are carried out in this work to estimate LPG's share of responsibility for MZVM pollution problems. First, the correlation between LPG consumption and three ozone pollution indicators was calculated for the period of 1986-1999. The non-significant correlation of these indicators with LPG consumption on a monthly basis suggests that LPG associated emissions are not the foremost cause of ozone formation. Second, a simulation model is applied to three LPG related emission control strategies to estimate the reduction in the maximum ozone concentration. The most noticeable effect was obtained when both hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions associated with LPG use were totally reduced. The other two strategies, that only reduce HC emissions, had a minimum effect on the ozone concentration. Third, organic compounds consumption in air samples captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers is used to determine the chemical loss rate of LPG associated species and aromatics in the MZVM. The smog chamber results showed that 70% of propane and n-butane remain at the end of a 1-day irradiation, therefore they remain in the MZVM atmosphere for several days being the reason for the high concentration of these compounds. LPG associated compounds only account for 18% of ozone formed but aromatics contribute 35% to ozone in smog chamber. (Author)

  12. TREATMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY ADSORPTION OF CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Kristýna Hádková; Viktor Tekáč; Karel Ciahotný; Zdeněk Beňo; Veronika Vrbová

    2015-01-01

    Apart from burning, one of the possible uses of natural gas is as a fuel for motor vehicles. There are two types of fuel from natural gas — CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) or LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas). Liquefaction of natural gas is carried out for transport by tankers, which are an alternative to long-distance gas pipelines, as well as for transport over short distance, using LNG as a fuel for motor vehicles. A gas adjustment is necessary to get LNG. As an important part of the necessary adju...

  13. Receipt and timing of HIV drug resistance testing in six U.S. jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sharoda; Hall, H Irene; Hernandez, Angela L; Ocfemia, M Cheryl Bañez; Saduvala, Neeraja; Oster, Alexandra M

    2017-05-03

    The Department of Health and Human Services recommends drug resistance testing at linkage to HIV care. Because receipt and timing of testing are not well characterized, we examined testing patterns among persons with diagnosed HIV who are linked to care. Using surveillance data in six jurisdictions for persons aged ≥13 years with HIV infection diagnosed in 2013, we assessed the proportion receiving testing, and among these, the proportion receiving testing at linkage. Multivariable log-binomial regression modeling estimated associations between selected characteristics and receipt of testing (1) overall, and (2) at linkage among those tested. Of 9,408 persons linked to care, 66% received resistance testing, among whom 68% received testing at linkage. Less testing was observed among male persons who inject drugs (PWID), compared with men who have sex with men (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.97) and persons living in areas with population testing was lower for persons with initial CD4 counts ≥500 cells/mm(3), compared with those with CD4 counts tested, testing at linkage was lower among male PWID (aPR: 0.85; CI: 0.75-0.95) and, in some jurisdictions, persons with CD4 counts ≥500 cells/mm(3) (aPR range: 0.63-0.73). Two-thirds of persons with diagnosed HIV who were linked to care received resistance testing, and most received testing at linkage as recommended. Improving receipt and timing of testing among male PWID, persons in less populous settings, and in all jurisdictions, regardless of CD4 count, may improve care outcomes.

  14. Financial and Legal Characteristics of Cross-Jurisdictional Shared Service Agreements Between Local Public Health Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Theresa; Zahner, Susan; Mrochek, Tracy

    2017-03-01

    Cross-jurisdictional sharing is a resource management strategy increasingly being used by local health departments to provide essential and mandated public health services. Cross-jurisdictional shared service agreements (CJSSAs) are the legal documents that govern cross-jurisdictional sharing arrangements. Information on the financial and legal characteristics of CJSSAs is limited. This study described the financial and legal elements of a set of formal, written CJSSAs in one state to offer guidance to practitioners on how to structure the financial and legal elements in CJSSAs. CJSSAs, which included a written statement about the financial commitment governed by the agreement (n = 63), were analyzed. Data collection occurred through 2 structured data extraction tools and structured telephone interviews conducted with local and tribal health department directors. Descriptive statistics of all variables and a single predictor linear regression were performed. The higher population partner to the CJSSA more often provided the public health service and received payment (n = 41; 65%). Financial statements were found to vary by CJSSA characteristic. CJSSAs were more likely to be legally complete when a legal counsel was involved in creating them (odds ratio = 2.74; 95% confidence interval, 2.19-3.29; P ≤ .001). Yet, only 2 (3%) of the CJSSAs described all the legal elements and were considered legally complete. Clearly identifying and including necessary fiscal and legal elements when creating and managing CJSSAs may strengthen agreements and reduce local health department legal and fiscal vulnerabilities. Local health department capacity for planning, coordination, budgeting, management, and evaluation is essential when creating CJSSA. Careful consideration of cost-sharing and consulting with legal counsel could strengthen the CJSSA.

  15. The problem of epistemic jurisdiction in global governance: The case of sustainability standards for biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winickoff, David E; Mondou, Matthieu

    2017-02-01

    While there is ample scholarly work on regulatory science within the state, or single-sited global institutions, there is less on its operation within complex modes of global governance that are decentered, overlapping, multi-sectorial and multi-leveled. Using a co-productionist framework, this study identifies 'epistemic jurisdiction' - the power to produce or warrant technical knowledge for a given political community, topical arena or geographical territory - as a central problem for regulatory science in complex governance. We explore these dynamics in the arena of global sustainability standards for biofuels. We select three institutional fora as sites of inquiry: the European Union's Renewable Energy Directive, the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials, and the International Organization for Standardization. These cases allow us to analyze how the co-production of sustainability science responds to problems of epistemic jurisdiction in the global regulatory order. First, different problems of epistemic jurisdiction beset different standard-setting bodies, and these problems shape both the content of regulatory science and the procedures designed to make it authoritative. Second, in order to produce global regulatory science, technical bodies must manage an array of conflicting imperatives - including scientific virtue, due process and the need to recruit adoptees to perpetuate the standard. At different levels of governance, standard drafters struggle to balance loyalties to country, to company or constituency and to the larger project of internationalization. Confronted with these sometimes conflicting pressures, actors across the standards system quite self-consciously maneuver to build or retain authority for their forum through a combination of scientific adjustment and political negotiation. Third, the evidentiary demands of regulatory science in global administrative spaces are deeply affected by 1) a market for standards, in which firms and states can

  16. A determination Standard of Jurisdiction in Cross-Border Insolvency——Center of Main Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玥

    2010-01-01

    The UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency (‘the Model Law’) enacted on May 5 1997 and the European Commission Insolvency Regulation enforced in 2002 both adopted a new type of establishing standard-company’s main interest (COMI)-to distribute the jurisdiction around the world in cross-border insolvency cases. The purpose of these two legal documents is to endeavor to find the place that has the most significant connection with the debtor. This essay is trying to analyze the new standard and enlighten the judicial practice of China in cross-border insolvency field.

  17. Jurisdiction Size and Local Democracy: Evidence on Internal Political Efficacy from Large-scale Municipal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritzlew, Søren

    2011-01-01

    and problems of endogeneity. We focus on internal political efficacy, a psychological condition that many see as necessary for high-quality participatory democracy. We identify a quasiexperiment, a large-scale municipal reform in Denmark, which allows us to estimate a causal effect of jurisdiction size...... on internal political efficacy. The reform, affecting some municipalities, but not all, was implemented by the central government, and resulted in exogenous, and substantial, changes in municipal population size. Based on survey data collected before and after the reform, we find, using various difference...

  18. Jurisdictional Consequences Associated with the Multiplication of International Tribunals: What Are the Potential Risks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bellei Tagle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dispute resolution system is an essential aspect in order to grant efficacy to international law. In recent years various transformations have been tried, the most significant of which are the multiplication of international courts and tribunals. This work explores the different effects this result has generated, concentrating on some considered negative. Likewise, it reviews different alternatives that have arisen to mitigate the jurisdictional risks occasioned by the explosive increase in organs of adjudication.

  19. Liquefaction of remote sources of natural gas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D.W.

    1981-12-01

    The objective was to determine the technical and financial feasibility of liquefying remote reserves of natural gas and transporting the liquefied product to users. The proposed methodology included efforts to (1) identify any prohibitive or limiting laws and/or regulations; (2) identify sufficient unutilized reserves in remote areas to justify further investigation; (3) identify existing portable liquefaction equipment (or an interested manufacturer that could supply the needed equipment) to obtain cost and performance data; (4) determine site preparation, supply and production costs for use in assessing economic feasibility; and (5) identify potential users. The conclusion is that the liquefaction of natural gas in remote areas of Appalachia is not economically feasible as long as an adequate and reliable supply of pipeline gas is perceived to be available for the forseable future and the price per Btu of pipeline gas remains so far below other fuels. 3 tables.

  20. Incidence of cancer in children residing in ten jurisdictions of the Mexican Republic: importance of the Cancer registry (a population-based study)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In 1996, Mexico started to register cases of childhood cancer. Here, we describe the incidence of cancer in children, residing in ten Mexican jurisdictions, who were treated by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Methods New cases of childhood cancer, which were registered prospectively in nine principal Medical Centers of IMSS during the periods 1998–2000 (five jurisdictions) and 1996–2002 (five jurisdictions), were analyzed. Personnel were specifically train...

  1. Drug Courts and Community Crime Rates: A Nationwide Analysis of Jurisdiction-Level Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Lilley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a substantial number of studies have reported that drug courts reduced the recidivism of graduates (Wilson et al., 2006, a series of recent analyses suggested that drug courts and similar programs were associated with unintended crime outcomes in cities and counties across the nation (Lilley and Boba, 2008; Miethe et al., 2000; Peters et al., 2002; Worrall et al., 2009. Given that over 220,000 offenders participated in this alternative to incarceration and most did not successfully complete the drug court program, jurisdictional crime may have been impacted. A series of panel data analyses were conducted among more than 5,000 jurisdictions nationwide from 1995 to 2002 to assess the impact of drug court implementation grants on UCR Part I felony offenses. Consistent with prior findings, drug court implementation grants were associated with net increases in vehicle theft, burglary, larceny, and some violent offenses. Possible explanations for these unintended outcomes are discussed along with recommendations for adjustments to current drug court programs across the nation.

  2. Generic and product-specific health claim processes for functional foods across global jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, Stephanie; Vanstone, Catherine A; Antoine, Jean-Michel; Jones, Peter J H

    2008-06-01

    Worldwide consumer interest in functional foods and their potential health benefits has been increasing over the past 10 y. To respond to this interest, regulatory bodies have developed guidelines for assessing health claims on functional foods. The objective of this article is to investigate the type and amount of evidence needed in various jurisdictions on a worldwide basis to substantiate both generic and product-specific health claims. Two types of health claims were examined using separate case studies. Analysis of generic health claims was highlighted by (n-3) fatty acids and their relation to heart health; whereas examination of product-specific health claims was conducted using probiotics and their association with gastrointestinal well-being. Results showed a common core for use of convincing high-quality human data, especially in the form of randomized controlled trials (RCT), but there was significant variability in the type and amount of scientific evidence needed to substantiate health claims, both generic and product specific, across different jurisdictions. Product-specific claims tended to use human RCT as the main basis for claims, whereas generic claims tended to base their statements on a wider spectrum of literature.

  3. 18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Natural gas produced... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian...

  4. 75 FR 29404 - Contract Reporting Requirements of Intrastate Natural Gas Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ...: In this Final Rule, the Commission revises the contract reporting requirements for those natural gas pipelines that fall under the Commission's jurisdiction pursuant to section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act or section 1(c) of the Natural Gas Act. The Final Rule revises Sec. 284.126(b) and replaces...

  5. The natural gas storage in France and in Europe; Le stockage de gaz naturel en France et en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    The natural gas storages play a great role in the gas supplying security. They allow to compensate for the variations of the supply and demand. This document presents the different natural gas storage technic: in the phreatic cave, in salt hollows, in abandoned deposits and the natural liquefied gas. It includes also a map of the natural gas storage situation in France. (A.L.B.)

  6. The Fire Protection Design of Liquefied Hydrocarbon Spherical Tank%液化烃球罐的消防设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵军

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis of the composition and fire characteristics of liquefied hydrocarbon,the fire control cooling method and system of liquefied hydrocarbon spherical tank were described.According to the design experience,taking the spherical tank of 3000 m3 as an example,starting from the protection area of water spray cone,the number of nozzles and water quantity of the cooling device was estimated,and the economy and rationality of the entire cooling system was back calculated.%通过分析液化烃的组成和着火特点,阐述液化烃球罐发生火灾时的消防冷却方式及系统组成,并根据自己的设计经历,以容积为3000 m3的球罐为例,从水雾喷头水雾锥的保护面积入手,估算出冷却装置所需要的喷头数量和水量,反向核算整个冷却系统的经济性和合理性。

  7. Determination of trace anions in liquefied petroleum gas using liquid absorption and electrokinetic migration for enrichment followed by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meilan; Yang, Jianmin; Li, Hai-Fang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2012-06-01

    A simple sample enrichment technique, electrokinetic migration enrichment in single phase using a designed device, coupled with ion chromatography is presented for the determination of four anions (H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), and SO(4)(2-)) in liquefied petroleum gas by liquid adsorption. The electrokinetic migration enrichment is based on the phenomenon of ion electrokinetic migration to the opposite electrode. When the anions migrated to the anode in a smaller volume chamber under the electric field, the concentration was realized. The main parameters affecting enrichment efficiency of applied voltage and enrichment time were investigated. The ion chromatography condition for anions separation was also studied. Under the optimal electrokinetic migration enrichment and ion chromatography conditions, the four anions were detected simultaneously with good linear relationship (r(2) = 0.9908-0.9968) and high precisions (less than 5% of the relative standard deviations of peak areas). The limits of detection of anions (S/N of 3) were in the range of 8-600 μg L(-1). The enrichment factors of the four anions ranged from 3.1 to 5.8. The established method was successfully applied to the analysis of the trace anions in liquefied petroleum gas by liquid adsorption with satisfactory results. The advantages of this method are simple operation and low cost.

  8. Effect of temperature and time on microstructure and surface functional groups of activated carbon fibers prepared from liquefied wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers were prepared from liquefied wood through stream activation. The effects of activation temperature and time on the microstructure and surface functional groups of the liquefied wood activated carbon fibers (LWACFs were studied using analysis of burning behavior, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and SEM. The results showed that the burn-off value of the LWACFs increased gradually with the increase in temperature or time. All the LWACFs were far from being structurally graphitized, and in general, as temperature or time increased, the degree of graphitization and thickness of crystal structure increased. In addition, the LWACFs possessed rich micropores, and their specific surface area, pore volume, micropore size, and mesopore quantity were directly related to the activation temperature or time. The maximum specific surface area was found to be 2641 m2/g. The fractal dimension values of all samples were close to 3, indicating that their surfaces were very rough. Furthermore, with an increase in temperature or time, the elemental content of carbon increased, while that of oxygen decreased. Meanwhile, as the temperature or time increased, the relative content of graphitic carbon decreased, whereas that of carbon bonded to oxygen-containing functions increased. The surface of samples prepared at higher temperature or with longer time formed a considerable amount of holes.

  9. The emissions trading in view of the jurisdiction. Pt. 1; Der Emissionshandel im Lichte der Rechtsprechung. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobes, Stefan [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Berlin (Germany); Bundesumweltministerium, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Emissionshandel zur Bekaempfung des Treibhauseffektes' ' ; Engel, Gernot-Ruediger [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Berlin (Germany)

    2011-02-28

    With the introduction of emissions trading in the year 2003, the legislator has created a new, complex field of law which specially challenges the jurisdiction. The task of the jurisdiction primarily consisted to clarify constitutional issues and to design the system. Meanwhile there exist more than 100 decisions of European and German courts. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the German jurisprudence on the Directive 2003/87/EC and on general issues of emissions trading in the period between 1st September, 2004 and 30th June, 2010.

  10. 75 FR 57766 - Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations Under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC September 15, 2010. Take notice that on September 3, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron), 101 Ash Street, San Diego, California 92101, filed a petition to amend the authorizations issued... liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal facility located in Cameron Parish, Louisiana, for the additional...

  11. Legislative Research on Amalgamated Jurisdiction in Civil Procedure%民事诉讼合并管辖立法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋红

    2012-01-01

    Amalgamated jurisdiction is different from traditional legal jurisdiction,appearance on jurisdiction and acknowledged jurisdiction.The purpose of amalgamated jurisdiction is to provide the procedural guarantees of jurisdiction to the joined.It has legal effect on preventing the litigants from raising objections of the jurisdiction and satisfies the legislative demand of the development of the joinder.Therefore,the Civil Procedure Law of the PRC should add amalgamated jurisdiction into the jurisdiction system,clarify the scope of application of the joinder,and solve the problems of conflict and adaptation existed between the application of the joinder and both jurisdiction by forum level and exclusive jurisdiction.%合并管辖既不同于传统意义上的法定管辖,也不同于应诉管辖或承认管辖。合并管辖的目的在于为诉的合并提供管辖上的程序保障,具有阻止当事人对管辖权提出异议的法定效力,并能满足诉的合并类型发展的立法需求。因此,我国《民事诉讼法》应当在管辖制度中增加合并管辖的立法内容,明确合并管辖的适用范围,合理解决合并管辖的适用与级别管辖、专属管辖的冲突及变通的问题。

  12. A BRIEF ANALYSIS ON BREXIT’S CONSEQUENCES ON THE CJEU’S JURISDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Mădălina LARION

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland’s effective withdrawal from the European Union advances, there is a growing interest on what solutions shall be found for the complex legal problems raised by Brexit. The research intends to highlight the main issues relevant for the Court of Justice of the European Union’s jurisdiction, in an effort to better understand the possible consequences on the European Court’s competence to receive, hear and solve cases involving the United Kingdom, as well as on the means to enforce its rulings. The study aims to anticipate and suggest possible approaches to the practical challenges that shall have to be addressed.

  13. Health professionals in the first level of care in Argentina. An analysis on jurisdictional inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Salvador Ballesteros

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes jurisdictional inequalities in human resources in Centers of Primary Health Care (CAPS in the public sectors of Argentina, considering the people who will be potential patients. The methodology is quantitative and it is based on secondary data. As a source of information we used the Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010 and the Catastro de CAPS 2004-2005. We begin by analyzing the provincial and departmental differences in the presence of doctors, dentists and mental health specialists in CAPS. Then we analyze the relationship between the hours that these professionals work in CAPS with the potential patients. We emphasize that the characteristics of the supply of health services vary greatly among different provinces, but also in the departments within the same province.

  14. Governing stem cell therapy in India: regulatory vacuum or jurisdictional ambiguity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shashank S.; Raman, Sujatha

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell treatments are being offered in Indian clinics although preclinical evidence of their efficacy and safety is lacking. This is attributed to a governance vacuum created by the lack of legally binding research guidelines. By contrast, this paper highlights jurisdictional ambiguities arising from trying to regulate stem cell therapy under the auspices of research guidelines when treatments are offered in a private market disconnected from clinical trials. While statutory laws have been strengthened in 2014, prospects for their implementation remain weak, given embedded challenges of putting healthcare laws and professional codes into practice. Finally, attending to the capacities of consumer law and civil society activism to remedy the problem of unregulated treatments, the paper finds that the very definition of a governance vacuum needs to be reframed to clarify whose rights to health care are threatened by the proliferation of commercial treatments and individualized negligence-based remedies for grievances. PMID:25431534

  15. Patenting in Europe: The Jurisdiction of the CJEU over European Patent Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minn Mari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will deal with EU competence over patent law, especially in the context of the TRIPS Agreement with reference to the ruling of CJEU in the Daiichi Sankyo case (CJEU case C-414/11 Daiichi Sankyo v DEMO Anonimos. The first part will explain the process of claiming patents at the national as well as the European level in order to understand the complexity of patent law, the second part will deal with the implications of jurisdiction and developments in EU patent regulations, the third part will deal with the effects of EU competence over the TRIPS patent provisions and the forth part will deal with the interpretation of substantive patent law in the light of the Daiichi Sankyo case.

  16. Job Satisfaction: Insights from Home Support Care Workers in Three Canadian Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotoglou, Dimitra; Fancey, Pamela; Keefe, Janice; Martin-Matthews, Anne

    2017-03-01

    This mixed-methods study identified the personal and workplace characteristics that drive the job satisfaction of home support workers (HSWs) providing assistance to elderly clients. Data were based on a standardized measure of job satisfaction, along with in-depth qualitative interviews with 176 home support workers from three Canadian provincial jurisdictions (British Columbia, n = 108; Ontario, n = 28; Nova Scotia, n = 40). We anticipated that variability in demographic profiles between the three groups of workers and different job descriptions would be associated with differences in perceived job satisfaction. This was not the case. Results from the qualitative analysis highlight key areas that contributed to job satisfaction. These are job (scheduling, travel, and safety), economic (income security), and organizational (communication, support, and respect) factors. Given these findings, we recommend improvements to workplace communication, increased travel time allowance between clients, and wage parity with equivalent positions in long-term care facilities.

  17. Governing stem cell therapy in India: regulatory vacuum or jurisdictional ambiguity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shashank S; Raman, Sujatha

    2014-10-02

    Stem cell treatments are being offered in Indian clinics although preclinical evidence of their efficacy and safety is lacking. This is attributed to a governance vacuum created by the lack of legally binding research guidelines. By contrast, this paper highlights jurisdictional ambiguities arising from trying to regulate stem cell therapy under the auspices of research guidelines when treatments are offered in a private market disconnected from clinical trials. While statutory laws have been strengthened in 2014, prospects for their implementation remain weak, given embedded challenges of putting healthcare laws and professional codes into practice. Finally, attending to the capacities of consumer law and civil society activism to remedy the problem of unregulated treatments, the paper finds that the very definition of a governance vacuum needs to be reframed to clarify whose rights to health care are threatened by the proliferation of commercial treatments and individualized negligence-based remedies for grievances.

  18. Unnatural monopoly: natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copulos, M.

    1984-07-01

    There appears to be no change in position despite the annual congressional debate over natural gas issues. A fresh look is needed, particularly at the idea that interstate gas pipelines are a natural monopoly that require a government franchise. The Natural Gas Act of 1938 giving the Federal Power Commission jurisdiction over gas pipelines was intended to correct abuses, but resulted in encouraging the pipelines to assume a monopolistic behavior. This was not a serous problem until natural gas prices began rising and shortages appeared due to uneven distribution. The Natural Gas Policy Act reinforced the monopolistic behavior by extending federal controls to the intrastate market. Contract carriage is a remedy that would allow firms and utilities to contract for gas on their own. They would pay pipelines for transport costs only. Competition would increase because there would be new buyers and sellers, and pipelines would have an incentive to seek lower wellhead prices for their contract gas.

  19. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  20. Synthesizing Global and Local Datasets to Estimate Jurisdictional Forest Carbon Fluxes in Berau, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronson W Griscom

    Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts are increasingly being implemented at the scale of sub-national jurisdictions in order to mitigate global climate change and provide other ecosystem services. We see an urgent need for robust estimates of historic forest carbon emissions at this scale, as the basis for credible measures of climate and other benefits achieved. Despite the arrival of a new generation of global datasets on forest area change and biomass, confusion remains about how to produce credible jurisdictional estimates of forest emissions. We demonstrate a method for estimating the relevant historic forest carbon fluxes within the Regency of Berau in eastern Borneo, Indonesia. Our method integrates best available global and local datasets, and includes a comprehensive analysis of uncertainty at the regency scale.We find that Berau generated 8.91 ± 1.99 million tonnes of net CO2 emissions per year during 2000-2010. Berau is an early frontier landscape where gross emissions are 12 times higher than gross sequestration. Yet most (85% of Berau's original forests are still standing. The majority of net emissions were due to conversion of native forests to unspecified agriculture (43% of total, oil palm (28%, and fiber plantations (9%. Most of the remainder was due to legal commercial selective logging (17%. Our overall uncertainty estimate offers an independent basis for assessing three other estimates for Berau. Two other estimates were above the upper end of our uncertainty range. We emphasize the importance of including an uncertainty range for all parameters of the emissions equation to generate a comprehensive uncertainty estimate-which has not been done before. We believe comprehensive estimates of carbon flux uncertainty are increasingly important as national and international institutions are challenged with comparing alternative estimates and identifying a credible range of historic emissions values.