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Sample records for jurassic preuss salt

  1. Early to middle Jurassic salt in Baltimore Canyon trough

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    McKinney, B. Ann; Lee, Myung W.; Agena, Warren F.; Poag, C. Wylie

    2005-01-01

    A pervasive, moderately deep (5-6 s two-way traveltime), high-amplitude reflection is traced on multichannel seismic sections over an approximately 7500 km² area of Baltimore Canyon Trough. The layer associated with the reflection is about 25 km wide, about 60 m thick in the center, and thins monotonically laterally, though asymmetrically, at the edges. Geophysical characteristics are compatible with an interpretation of this negative-polarity reflector as a salt lens deposited on the top of a synrift evaporite sequence. However, alternative interpretations of the layer as gas-saturated sediments, an overpressured shale, or a weathered igneous intrusion are also worthy of consideration.Geophysical analyses were made on three wavelet- and true-amplitude processed multichannel seismic dip lines. The lens-shaped layer demarked by the reflection has a velocity of 4.4 km/s; the lens lies within strata having velocities of 5.3 to 5.7 km/s. A trough marking the onset of the lens has an amplitude that is 10 to 20 db greater than reflections from the encasing layers and an apparent reflection coefficient of -0.24. Using amplitude versus offset analysis methods, we determined that observed reflection coefficients, though variable, decrease consistently with respect to increasing offset. Linear inversion yields a low density, about 2.2 g/cc. Integration of one of the true-amplitude-processed lines and one-dimensional modeling of the layer provide data on the impedance contrast and interference patterns that further reinforce the salt lens interpretation.The thin, horizontal salt lens was probably deposited or precipitated during the Jurassic in a shallow, narrow (peripheral) rift basin, as rifting progressed down the North Atlantic margin. Unlike thicker deposits in other areas that deformed and flowed, often into diapir structures, this thin lens has remained relatively undisturbed since deposition.

  2. La lengua uitota en la obra de K. Th. Preuss

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    Ardila Ardila Olga Felisa

    1995-06-01

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    El presente trabajo constituye el análisis lingüístico de los textos recopilados por Preuss en su obra Religión y mitología de los uitotos. Dichos textos en lengua y vernácula fueron revisados y traducidos al español por la autora y publicados en la obra Religión y mitología de los uitotos: primera parte, introducción a los textos; segunda parte, textos y diccionario, publicados igualmente por la editorial de la Universidad Nacional en 1994.

  3. Chapter 2. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley group, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

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    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System is defined for this assessment to include (1) Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation carbonates and calcareous shales and (2) Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group organic-rich shales. The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System includes four conventional Cotton Valley assessment units: Cotton Valley Blanket Sandstone Gas (AU 50490201), Cotton Valley Massive Sandstone Gas (AU 50490202), Cotton Valley Updip Oil and Gas (AU 50490203), and Cotton Valley Hypothetical Updip Oil (AU 50490204). Together, these four assessment units are estimated to contain a mean undiscovered conventional resource of 29.81 million barrels of oil, 605.03 billion cubic feet of gas, and 19.00 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The Cotton Valley Group represents the first major influx of clastic sediment into the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Major depocenters were located in south-central Mississippi, along the Louisiana-Mississippi border, and in northeast Texas. Reservoir properties and production characteristics were used to identify two Cotton Valley Group sandstone trends across northern Louisiana and east Texas: a high-permeability blanket-sandstone trend and a downdip, low-permeability massive-sandstone trend. Pressure gradients throughout most of both trends are normal, which is characteristic of conventional rather than continuous basin-center gas accumulations. Indications that accumulations in this trend are conventional rather than continuous include (1) gas-water contacts in at least seven fields across the blanket-sandstone trend, (2) relatively high reservoir permeabilities, and (3) high gas-production rates without fracture stimulation. Permeability is sufficiently low in the massive-sandstone trend that gas-water transition zones are vertically extensive and gas-water contacts are poorly defined. The interpreted presence of gas-water contacts within the Cotton Valley

  4. Geochemical evidences for palaeoclimatic fluctuations at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: southwestern margin of the Neotethys in the Salt Range, Pakistan

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    Iqbal, Shahid; Wagreich, Michael; Jan, Irfanullah; Kürschner, Wolfram Michael; Gier, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval reveals a change from warm-arid to a warm and humid climate in the Tethyan domain. Sea-level reconstruction records across the European basins during this interval reveal an end-Triassic global regression event and is linked to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) activity and Pangaea breakup. In the Tethyan Salt Range of Pakistan a succession of Upper Triassic dolomites/green-black mudstones (Kingriali Formation), overlying quartzose sandstone, mudstones, laterites and Lower Jurassic conglomerates/pebbly sandstones (Datta Formation) provides information on the palaeoclimatic evolution of the area. Preliminary palynological results from the mudstones indicate a Rhaetian age for the Kingriali Formation and a Hettangian age for the Datta Formation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the mudstones (upper part of the Kingriali Formation) indicates the presence of mainly illite while kaolinite is a minor component. The kaolinite content, a reflection of the advanced stage of chemical weathering and hence warm-humid conditions, increases up-section in the overlying sandstone-mudstone succession. The overlying laterite-bauxite horizons lack illite/smectite and are entirely composed of kaolinite, boehmite and haematite. At places these kaolinite rich horizons are mined in the area (Western Salt Range). The bulk rock geochemistry of the succession confirms a similar trend. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) displays an increasing trend from the Upper Triassic shales (CIA 75-80) through the overlying sandstones/mudstones-laterites to the overlying quartz rich sandstones and mudstones (CIA 90-97). The overall results for the succession reveal an increasing chemical maturity trend (increase in the intensity of chemical weathering) from Rhaetian to Hettangian thereby supporting a change from warm-arid to a warm-humid palaeoclimate, probably extreme greenhouse conditions.

  5. Architectural features of the Kayenta formation (Lower Jurassic), Colorado Plateau, USA: relationship to salt tectonics in the Paradox Basin

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    Bromley, Michael H.

    1991-09-01

    Fluvial sandstones of the Kayenta Formation were analyzed using architectural element analysis. Paleocurrent trends, the distribution of lacustrine facies and local silcrete development indicate that synsedimentary movement of evaporites in the underlying Paradox Basin created an unstable basin floor beneath the Kayenta fluvial system. This instability resulted in deflection of fluvial axes, local basin development and local areas of interrupted fluvial deposition with eolian dunes. Paleocurrent trends in the Kayenta system reflect periodic interruptions of southwesterly flow. Salt migrating laterally out of a rim syncline into an adjacent salt anticline resulted in a rim syncline of slight topographic relief. The resulting basin was probably rapidly filled, allowing the resumption of southwesterly flow. Differential movement of salt (incipient solution collapse features (?)) resulted in the formation of small centripetal basins in which playa mudstones formed. A laterally extensive resistant ledge underlies a horizontal surface, suggestive of deflation to the water table of an exposed section of valley fill. A channel scour in the top of one of these surfaces has margins much steeper ( > 60°) than the angle of repose for unconsolidated sand. Early cementation of the exposed floodplain could account for this resistance.

  6. Hydrocarbon potential of a new Jurassic play, central Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, A.O.; Law, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    A largely unrecognized Jurassic Sag Basin has been identified in central Tunisia, proximal to the Permo-Carboniferous flexure delineating the northern boundary of the Saharan platform of north Africa. The northwestern margin of the Sag is delineated by an extensive region of salt-cored anticlines and localized salt diapirs extending north and west. Due to lack of deep drilling, delineation of the Sag is largely based on regional gravity data. Subsidence of the Jurassic Sag Basin is characterized by rapid expansion of Jurassic sediments from 400 m. of tidal flat and shelf carbonate at the western outcrop to over 2000 meters of tidal flat and basinal carbonate and shale within the basin center, a five-fold expansion. Rapid loading of the basin continued into Lower Cretaceous time, marked by lateral flowage of Triassic salt into pronounced structural trends. Published source rock data and interpreted subsurface well data provided the basis for GENEX 1-D hydrocarbon generation and expulsion modeling of the Sag. Middle Jurassic black source shales typically contain Type II and Type III kerogens with T.O.C.'s ranging up to 4 percent. Modeling results indicate that middle Jurassic shales are presently mature for liquid generation within portions of the Sag, with maximum generation taking place during the Tertiary. Potential hydrocarbon generation yields, based on 60 meters of mature source shale, are 20,000 BOE/acre for gas and 75,000 BOE/acre for liquids. Prospects within the region could contain an estimated potential reserve of several T.C.F. or over 1 billion barrels of oil

  7. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Final Report and Topical Reports 5-8 on Smackover Petroleum system and Underdevelopment Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Ernest A.; Puckett, T. Markham; Parcell, William C.; Llinas, Juan Carlos; Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Townsend, Roger N.

    2002-03-05

    The Smackover Formation, a major hydrocarbon-producing horizon in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB), conformably overlies the Norphlet Formation and is conformably overlain by the Buckner Anhydrite Member of the Haynesville Formation. The Norphlet-Smackover contact can be either gradational or abrupt. The thickness and lithofacies distribution of the Smackover Formation were controlled by the configuration of incipient paleotopography. The Smackover Formation has been subdivided into three informal members, referred to as the lower, middle and upper members.

  8. Marine Jurassic lithostratigraphy of Thailand

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    Meesook, A.; Grant-Mackie, J. A.

    Marine Jurassic rocks of Thailand are well-exposed in the Mae Sot and Umphang areas and less extensively near Mae Hong Son, Kanchanaburi, Chumphon and Nakhon Si Thammarat, in the north, west, and south respectively. They are generally underlain unconformably by Triassic and overlain by Quaternary strata. Based mainly on five measured sections, fourteen new lithostratigraphic units are established: (in ascending order) Pa Lan, Mai Hung and Kong Mu Formations of the Huai Pong Group in the Mae Hong Son area; Khun Huai, Doi Yot and Pha De Formations of the Hua Fai Group in the Mae Sot area; Klo Tho, Ta Sue Kho, Pu Khloe Khi and Lu Kloc Tu Formations of the Umphang Group in the Umphang area; and the Khao Lak Formation in the Chumphon area. Mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, limestone and marl are the dominant lithologies. Mudstones, siltstones and sandstones are widespread; limestones are confined to the Mae Sot, Umphang, Kanchanaburi and Mae Hong Son areas; marls are found only in Mae Sot. The sequences are approximately 900 m thick in Mae Sot and 450 m thick in Umphang and are rather thinner in the other areas, particularly in the south. Based on ammonites, with additional data from bivalves and foraminifera, the marine Jurassic is largely Toarcian-Aalenian plus some Bajocian. Late Jurassic ages given previously for strata in the Mae Sot and Umphang areas have not been confirmed.

  9. UPPER JURASSIC OUTCROPS ALONG THE CALDAS DA RAINHA DIAPIR, WEST CENTRAL PORTUGAL: A REGIONAL GEOHERITAGE OVERVIEW

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    DINIS, JORGE; BERNARDES, CRISTINA

    2004-01-01

    The Mesozoic Portuguese geological heritage is very rich and varied, a legacy of the position in the western margin of Iberia and its relationship with the evolution of the North Atlantic, with an interesting tectonic history since the Late Triassic. Regarding the Upper Jurassic several connections can be established between the tectonics and the stratigraphic record in the area surrounding the Caldas da Rainha structure: the basement and salt pillow control on deposition; the beginning of a ...

  10. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

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    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  11. Middle Jurassic - Early Cretaceous rifting of the Danish Central Graben

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    Moeller, J.J.; Rasmussen, E.S.

    1998-12-01

    During the Jurassic-early Cretaceous, the Danish Central Graben developed as a N-S to NNW-SSE trending Graben bounded by the Ringkoebing-Fyn High towards the east and the Mid North Sea High towards the west. The Graben consists of a system of half-Grabens and evolved by fault-controlled subsidence; three main rift pulses have been recognized. The first pulse ranged from the Callovian to the early Oxfordian, the second pulse was initiated in the latest Late Kimmeridgian and Early Volgian, and the third and final pulse occurred within the Valanginian in the Early Cretaceous. The first pulse was characterized by subsidence along N-S trending faults. During the second pulse, in early Volgian times, subsidence was concentrated along new NNW-SSE trending faults and the main depocentre shifted westward, being most marked within the Tail End Graben, the Arne-Elin Graben, and the Feda Graben. This tectonic event was accompanied by the accumulation of a relatively thick sediment load resulting in the development of salt diapers, especially within the Salt Dome Province. The third tectonic pulse was essentially a reactivation of the NNW-SSE trending structures. This tectonic pulse also shows clear evidence of combined fault-controlled subsidence and salt movements. (EG) 12 figs.; 45 refs.

  12. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Jurassic lithostratigraphy and stratigraphic development onshore and offshore Denmark

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    Michelsen, Olaf

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A complete updated and revised lithostratigraphic scheme for the Jurassic succession of the onshore and offshore Danish areas is presented together with an overview of the geological evolution. The lithostratigraphies of Bornholm, the Danish Basin and the Danish Central Graben are described in ascending order, and a number of new units are defined. On Bornholm, the Lower-Middle Jurassic coal-bearing clays and sands that overlie the Lower Pliensbachian Hasle Formation are referred to the new Sorthat Formation (Lower Jurassic and the revised Bagå Formation (Middle Jurassic. In the southern Danish Central Graben, the Middle Jurassic succession formerly referred to the Lower Graben Sand Formation is now included in the revised Bryne Formation. The Lulu Formation is erected to include the uppermost part of the Middle Jurassic succession, previously referred to the Bryne Formation in the northern Danish Central Graben. The Upper Jurassic Heno Formation is subdivided into two new members, the Gert Member (lower and the Ravn Member (upper. The organic-rich part of the upper Farsund Formation, the former informal `hot unit', is established formally as the Bo Member. Dominantly shallow marine and paralic deposition in the Late Triassic was succeeded by widespread deposition of offshore marine clays in the Early Jurassic. On Bornholm, coastal and paralic sedimentation prevailed. During maximum transgression in the Early Toarcian, sedimentation of organic-rich offshore clays took place in the Danish area. This depositional phase was terminated by a regional erosional event in early Middle Jurassic time, caused by uplift of the central North Sea area, including the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. In the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone to the east, where slow subsidence continued, marine sandy sediments were deposited in response to the uplift. Uplift of the central North Sea area was followed by fault-controlled subsidence accompanied by fluvial and floodplain deposition

  13. SICILIAN JURASSIC PHYSIOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGIC REALMS (ITALY

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    BENEDETTO ABATE

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Two tectono-sedimentary domains, which were deformed during the Neogene and evolved into two large structural sectors, characterize the Sicilian Jurassic: the Maghrebides and Peloritani. Africa margin sediments, passing downward to Triassic successions and perhaps originally to Paleozoic deposits, characterize the former. The latter belongs to the European "Calabrian Arc", where the Jurassic transgressively rests on a continental substrate (i.e. the crystalline Variscan basement. These domains are characterized by four sedimentary facies: shallow platform-derived limestones; condensed seamount-type red limestones; nodular limestones with ammonites; deep radiolarites and shales. These facies are illustrated in a dozen of stratigraphic logs. The drowning of most Triassic-Liassic carbonate platforms or ramps and the deepening of adjacent basins came with inferred Jurassic strike-slip tectonics, connected to the relative movement of Africa (Gondwanan part vs Europe (Laurasian part; the same strike-slip tectonics may have caused scattered intraplate volcanic seamounts found in Maghrebides. During the Jurassic the Maghrebide realm was characterized by the interfingering of basins and carbonate platforms. During the Early and Middle Liassic, carbonate platforms and ramps were dominant. Since Toarcian either radiolarites in some basins or Ammonite-bearing calcareous muds developed with intervening basaltic flows, and were accompanied by condensed pelagic carbonates on the ensialic seamount-type highs. The Peloritani realm displays similar characteristics, but with later transgression on the basement, several strike-slip basins and without any volcanoes.

  14. Middle to late Jurassic in Poland; Mellem - Oevre jura i Polen

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    Poulsen, N.E.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J.; Drewniak, A.; Glowniak, E.; Ineson, J.; Matyja, B.A.; Merta, T.; Wierzbowski, A.

    1998-12-01

    Results of this project have contributed to the renewed research in the area of the Middle Jurassic ammonite stratigraphy. Upper Jurassic ammonite stratigraphy is a very actively researched field at the Geological Institute of the Warsaw University. The stratigraphical distribution of dinoflagellate cysts within the Upper Bajocian-Bathonian-Lower Callovian has provided a detailed correlation between the Polish Submediterranean Province (northern Tethyan realm) and the Subboreal Province of the North Sea area (chronostratigraphy and dinoflagellate zonation). One of the most interesting results is the improved correlation of the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgean boundary between these two provinces. The source mineral research contributed new data about the oil/gas potential of megafacies in the central Poland. The planned model development of catagenesis of Middle Jurassic clay sediments in relation to salt deposits could not be established from the found low TOC values and very low hydrogen index values between 6 and 141. The organic material can be characterized as kerogen-type III/IV. Kerogen is considered generally immature with regard to oil/gas formation. The detailed study of sponge bioherms in North-Western Poland has resulted in better understanding of the architecture and evolution of these bioherms. (EG)

  15. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Upper Jurassic of Europe: its subdivision and correlation

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    Zeiss, Arnold

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic of Europe has received much attention and considerable revision; much of the impetus behind this endeavour has stemmed from the work of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy. The Upper Jurassic Series consists of three stages, the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian which are further subdivided into substages, zones and subzones, primarily on the basis of ammonites. Regional variations between the Mediterranean, Submediterranean and Subboreal provinces are discussed and correlation possibilities indicated. The durations of the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian Stages are reported to have been 5.3, 3.4 and 6.5 Ma, respectively. This review of the present status of Upper Jurassic stratigraphy aids identification of a number of problems of subdivision and definition of Upper Jurassic stages; in particular these include correlation of the base of the Kimmeridgian and the top of the Tithonian between Submediterranean and Subboreal Europe. Although still primarily based on ammonite stratigraphy, subdivision of the Upper Jurassic is increasingly being refined by the incorporation of other fossil groups; these include both megafossils, such as aptychi, belemnites, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoderms, corals, sponges and vertebrates, and microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolaria, ciliata, ostracodes, dinoflagellates, calcareous nannofossils, charophyaceae, dasycladaceae, spores and pollen. Important future developments will depend on the detailed integration of these disparate biostratigraphic data and their precise combination with the abundant new data from sequence stratigraphy, utilising the high degree of stratigraphic resolution offered by certain groups of fossils. This article also contains some notes on the recent results of magnetostratigraphy and sequence chronostratigraphy.

  16. Jurassic Paleolatitudes, Paleogeography, and Climate Transitions In the Mexican Subcontinen

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    Molina-Garza, R. S.; Geissman, J. W.; Lawton, T. F.

    2014-12-01

    Jurassic northward migration of Mexico, trailing the North America plate, resulted in temporal evolution of climate-sensitive depositional environments. Lower-Middle Jurassic rocks in central Mexico contain a record of warm-humid conditions, which are indicated by coal and compositionally mature sandstone deposited in continental environments. Preliminary paleomagnetic data indicate that these rocks were deposited at near-equatorial paleolatitudes. The Middle Jurassic (ca. 170 Ma) Diquiyú volcanic sequence in central Oaxaca give an overall mean of D=82.2º/ I= +4.1º (n=10; k=17.3, α95=12º). In the Late Jurassic, the Gulf of Mexico formed as a subsidiary basin of the Atlantic Ocean, when the supercontinent Pangaea ruptured. Upper Jurassic strata, including eolianite and widespread evaporite deposits, across Mexico indicate dry-arid conditions. Available paleomagnetic data (compaction-corrected) from eolianites in northeast Mexico indicate deposition at ~15-20ºN. As North America moved northward during Jurassic opening of the Atlantic, different latitudinal regions experienced coeval Late Jurassic climatic shifts. Climate transitions have been widely recognized in the Colorado plateau region. The plateau left the horse-latitudes in the late Middle Jurassic to reach temperate humid climates at ~40ºN in the latest Jurassic. In turn, the southern end of the North America plate (central Mexico) reached arid horse-latitudes in the Late Jurassic. At that time, epeiric platforms developed in the circum-Gulf region after a long period of margin extension. We suggest that Upper Jurassic hydrocarbon source rocks in the circum-Gulf region accumulated on these platforms as warm epeiric hypersaline seas and the Gulf of Mexico itself were fertilized by an influx of wind-blown silt from continental regions. Additional nutrients were brought to shallow zones of photosynthesis by ocean upwelling driven by changes in the continental landmass configuration.

  17. Exotic Members of Southern Alaska's Jurassic Arc

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    Todd, E.; Jones, J. V., III; Karl, S. M.; Box, S.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Jurassic Talkeetna arc and contemporaneous plutonic rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith (ARB) are key components of the Peninsular terrane of southern Alaska. The Talkeetna arc, considered to be a type example of an intra-oceanic arc, was progressively accreted to northwestern North America in the Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, together with associated components of the Wrangellia Composite terrane. Older Paleozoic and Mesozoic rock successions closely associated with the ARB suggest that at least part of the Peninsular terrane might be an overlap succession built on pre-existing crust, possibly correlative with the Wrangellia terrane to the east. However, the relationship between the Talkeetna arc, ARB, and any pre-existing crust remains incompletely understood. Field investigations focused on the petrogenesis of the ARB near Lake Clark National Park show that Jurassic to Late Cretaceous plutonic rocks commonly host a diverse range of mineralogically distinct xenolith inclusions, ranging in size from several cm to hundreds of meters. The modal fraction of these inclusions ranges from 50% in some outcrops. They are generally mafic in composition and, with few exceptions, are more mafic than host plutonic rocks, although they are observed as both igneous (e.g., gabbro cumulate, diorite porphyry) and metamorphic types (e.g., amphibolite, gneiss and quartzite). Inclusion shapes range from angular to rounded with sharp to diffuse boundaries and, in some instances, are found as planar, compositionally distinct bands or screens containing high-temperature ductile shear fabrics. Other planar bands are more segmented, consistent with lower-temperature brittle behavior. Comparison of age, geochemical fractionation trends, and isotope systematics between the inclusions and host plutons provides a critical test of whether they are co-genetic with host plutons. Where they are related, mafic inclusions provide clues about magmatic evolution and fractionation history

  18. Modeling the Middle Jurassic ocean circulation

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    Maura Brunetti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present coupled ocean–sea-ice simulations of the Middle Jurassic (∼165 Ma when Laurasia and Gondwana began drifting apart and gave rise to the formation of the Atlantic Ocean. Since the opening of the Proto-Caribbean is not well constrained by geological records, configurations with and without an open connection between the Proto-Caribbean and Panthalassa are examined. We use a sea-floor bathymetry obtained by a recently developed three-dimensional (3D elevation model which compiles geological, palaeogeographical and geophysical data. Our original approach consists in coupling this elevation model, which is based on detailed reconstructions of oceanic realms, with a dynamical ocean circulation model. We find that the Middle Jurassic bathymetry of the Central Atlantic and Proto-Caribbean seaway only allows for a weak current of the order of 2 Sv in the upper 1000 m even if the system is open to the west. The effect of closing the western boundary of the Proto-Caribbean is to increase the transport related to barotropic gyres in the southern hemisphere and to change water properties, such as salinity, in the Neo-Tethys. Weak upwelling rates are found in the nascent Atlantic Ocean in the presence of this superficial current and we discuss their compatibility with deep-sea sedimentological records in this region.

  19. Early Jurassic Carbon and Sodium Sequestration in a CAMP basalt flow

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    Block, K. A.; Puffer, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The initial HTQ-type CAMP Orange Mountain Basalt flow, as well as related pillowed flows and the overlying Preakness flows, locally underwent substantial and well documented albitization, chloritization, and sulphate, carbonate, and zeolite mineralization. Layers representing at least 25 vol % of the Orange Mountain Basalt have undergone a major net increase in sodium and carbon content and a major redistribution of magnesium and calcium. Most alteration occurred during the development of a widespread early Jurassic geothermal system similar to the active system of Iceland. In both cases alteration was controlled by active circulation of basin brines through vesicular layers during rapid burial at temperatures that were kept elevated by recurring magmatism. Whole rock Na2O levels typically increased from 2.2 wt. % in unaltered layers to 3.2 wt. % in vesicular layers, and commonly reached levels exceeding 5 wt. %. The environmental implications of the removal of such massive amounts of sodium from the geothermal system on the chlorine budget and the salt content of Early Jurassic lakes are currently being evaluated. Massive amounts of carbon sequestration from the geothermal system may have mitigated an increased burden on the early Jurassic atmosphere where geothermal CO2 may have otherwise been vented at hot springs or solfataras. Calcite amygdules typically account for 5 to 10 vol. % of the vesiculated layers amounting to 66 to 132 kg of CO2 per m3 of basalt. If 25 vol. % of the 160 thick Orange Mountain Basalt is vesiculated that would equate to about 2640 to 5280 kg of CO2 per m2 of basalt. The full extent of calcite enrichment across the entire CAMP province, however, has not yet been determined.

  20. Tracking Early Jurassic marine (de)oxygenation

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    Them, T. R., II; Caruthers, A. H.; Gill, B. C.; Gröcke, D. R.; Marroquín, S. M.; Owens, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    It has been suggested that the carbon cycle was perturbed during the Toarcian OAE (T-OAE) as observed in the carbon isotope record, and more recently other elemental cycles (e.g., Hg, Mo, Os, S). The most widely accepted hypothesis focuses on the emplacement of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province, outgassing of greenhouse gases, and subsequent feedbacks in the Earth system, which caused severe environmental change and biological turnover. Feedbacks to elevated atmospheric pCO2 include enhanced weathering rates, dissociation of methane clathrates, increased terrestrial methanogenesis, and widespread marine anoxia. The sequence of events related to the development and duration of marine anoxia are not well constrained for this time interval due to a lack of open-ocean geochemical records. In order to reconstruct the timing of marine deoxygenation during the Early Jurassic T-OAE, we have utilized thallium isotopes, a novel geochemical proxy from multiple anoxic basins in North America and Germany. Three sites representing a basin transect from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, and one site from the South German Basin, were chosen to reconstruct the thallium isotopic composition (ɛ205Tl) of the ocean. The ɛ205Tl composition of sediments deposited under anoxic and euxinic water columns records the global seawater ɛ205Tl composition, a function of the amount of manganese oxides that are precipitated. Increased geographic extent of marine anoxia will cause a decrease in manganese oxide precipitation and perturb the thallium system. Importantly, the inputs of thallium are nearly identical, thus changes in these fluxes cannot drive the observed perturbation. Our new Early Jurassic ɛ205Tl records suggest that the onset of marine deoxygenation occurred concurrently with Karoo-Ferrar magmatism in the late Pliensbachian and continued until after the T-OAE. These new data support a Karoo-Ferrar trigger of the T-OAE. However, thallium isotopes also suggest that

  1. Annual monsoon rains recorded by Jurassic dunes.

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    Loope, D B; Rowe, C M; Joeckel, R M

    2001-07-05

    Pangaea, the largest landmass in the Earth's history, was nearly bisected by the Equator during the late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic eras. Modelling experiments and stratigraphic studies have suggested that the supercontinent generated a monsoonal atmospheric circulation that led to extreme seasonality, but direct evidence for annual rainfall periodicity has been lacking. In the Mesozoic era, about 190 million years ago, thick deposits of wind-blown sand accumulated in dunes of a vast, low-latitude desert at Pangaea's western margin. These deposits are now situated in the southwestern USA. Here we analyse slump masses in the annual depositional cycles within these deposits, which have been described for some outcrops of the Navajo Sandstone. Twenty-four slumps, which were generated by heavy rainfall, appear within one interval representing 36 years of dune migration. We interpret the positions of 20 of these masses to indicate slumping during summer monsoon rains, with the other four having been the result of winter storms. The slumped lee faces of these Jurassic dunes therefore represent a prehistoric record of yearly rain events.

  2. First Jurassic grasshopper (Insecta, Caelifera) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jun-Jie; Yue, Yanli; Shi, Fuming; Tian, He; Ren, Dong

    2016-09-20

    Orthoptera is divided into two suborders, the Ensifera (katydids, crickets and mole crickets) and the Caelifera (grasshoppers and pygmy mole crickets). The earliest definitive caeliferans are those found in the Triassic (Bethoux & Ross 2005). The extinct caeliferan families, such as Locustopsidae and Locustavidae, may prove to be stem groups to some of the modern superfamilies (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Locustopsidae is known from the Late Triassic or Early Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, consisting of two subfamilies (Gorochov et al. 2006). They are recorded from Europe, England, Russia, central Asia, China, Egypt, North America, Brazil and Australia. Up to now, Late Mesozoic fossil deposits of China has been reported plenty taxa of orthopterids, e.g. ensiferans, phasmatodeans, grylloblattids (Cui et al. 2012; Gu et al. 2010; Gu et al. 2012a; Gu et al. 2012b; Ren et al. 2012; Wang et al. 2014); but, with few caeliferans records, only four species, Pseudoacrida costata Lin 1982, Mesolocustopsis sinica Hong 1990, Tachacris stenosis Lin 1977 and T. turgis Lin 1980, were reported from the Early Cretaceous of Ningxia, Shandong, Yunnan and Zhejiang of China.

  3. Tellurium Enrichment in Jurassic Coal, Brora, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Bullock

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mid-Jurassic pyritic coals exposed at the village of Brora, northern Scotland, UK, contain a marked enrichment of tellurium (Te relative to crustal mean, average world coal compositions and British Isles Carboniferous coals. The Te content of Brora coal pyrite is more than one order of magnitude higher than in sampled pyrite of Carboniferous coals. The Te enrichment coincides with selenium (Se and mercury (Hg enrichment in the rims of pyrite, and Se/Te is much lower than in pyrites of Carboniferous coals. Initial pyrite formation is attributed to early burial (syn-diagenesis, with incorporation of Te, Se, Hg and lead (Pb during later pyrite formation. The source of Te may have been a local hydrothermal system which was responsible for alluvial gold (Au in the region, with some Au in Brora headwaters occurring as tellurides. Anomalous Te is not ubiquitous in coal, but may occur locally, and is detectable by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS.

  4. The first finding of reliable Jurassic radiolarians in the Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskaya, V. S.; Alekseev, A. S.; Zhegallo, E. A.

    2017-02-01

    Radiolarians of Leugeonidae Yang et Wang, 1990, which represent a morphologically distinctive group of spherical radiolarians of the Spumellaria order, were found for the first time in Crimea and reliably confirm the Jurassic age of the finding. The nodules, which host the Jurassic radiolarians, were collected by A.S. Alekseev in 1983 in the terrigenous sequence of the Lozovskaya tectonic zone. The radiolarian assemblage in the nodules includes Levileugeo ordinarius Yang et Wang, Triactoma jonesi Pessagno, Pseudocrucella aff. prava Blome, Paronella kotura Baumgartner, P. ex gr. mulleri Pessagno, and Praeconocaryomma sp. The Levileugeo genus is easily identified due to its unique hexagonal element, which is typical only of the Jurassic, in particular, Upper Bajocian-Lower Tithonian radiolarians.

  5. Jurassic domes in the North Sea - northern North Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the Jurassic of East Greenland, the Norwegian Shelf and the North Sea is remarkably similar. A major Middle Jurassic unconformity occurs in all three areas. In the North Sea it is commonly termed the `Mid-Cimmerian Unconformity` and is characterized by progressive truncation of the underlying section towards a centre at the triple junction between the Central Graben, Viking Graben and Moray Firth. Strata above the unconformity show a progressive Late Aalenian-Early Kimmeridgian onlap in the same direction. These relations have been interpreted as caused by Early Jurassic uplift and of a major thermal dome in the central North Sea, followed by Medial and Late Jurassic rifting, erosion, deflation and transgression of the dome. The East Greenland unconformity shows progressive truncation of underlying strata from south to north, and Bajocian to Callovian onlap in the same direction. The same pattern seems to be developed on the conjugate Norwegian margin. This suggests the possibility that the three unconformities have similar causes for their development. It is proposed that major rift domes formed in the Central North Sea and in the Greenland-Norway seaway in Early Jurassic times. The domes were eroded and gradually deflated during Medial Jurassic times and were finally submerged by the Late Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian. They were associated with volcanism and rifting which was delayed with respect to dome initiation. Roughly contemperaneous domes were present west of Britain, north of the Porcupine Seabight, and in Scania, southern Sweden, as reflected by development of asymmetrical unconformities showing progressive truncation of underlying strata, onlap of overlying Jurassic strata, and associated intrusive and extrusive volcanism. The domes are related to impingement of the heads of transient mantle plumes at the base of the lithosphere. The associated unconformities are thus of non-eustatic nature. Domal uplift and

  6. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  7. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  8. Virtual reconstruction of the endocranial anatomy of the early Jurassic marine crocodylomorph Pelagosaurus typus (Thalattosuchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Pierce

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thalattosuchians were highly specialised aquatic archosaurs of the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, and represent a peak of aquatic adaptation among crocodylomorphs. Relatively little is known of their endocranial anatomy or its relevance for the evolution of sensory systems, physiology, and other aspects of biology. Nevertheless, such data have significance for two reasons: (1 thalattosuchians represent an important data point regarding adaptation to marine life in tetrapods; and (2 as early-diverging members of the crocodylian stem-lineage, thalattosuchians provide information on the evolutionary assembly of the brain and other endocranial structures in crocodylomorphs. Here we use µCT data to virtually reconstruct the endocranial anatomy of Pelagosaurus typus, an early thalattosuchian with plesiomorphic traits of relevance to the split between the two major subgroups: Teleosauroidea and Metriorhynchoidea. Interpretation of these data in a broad comparative context indicate that several key endocranial features may be unique to thalattosuchians, including: a pyramidal morphology of the semicircular canals, the presence of an elongate endosseous cochlear duct that may indicate enhanced hearing ability, the presence of large, paired canals extending anteriorly from an enlarged pituitary fossa, a relatively straight brain (possibly due to the presence of large, laterally placed orbits, and an enlarged venous sinus projecting dorsally from the endocast that is confluent with the paratympanic sinus system. Notably, we document a large expansion of the nasal cavity anterior to the orbits in Pelagosaurus as an osteological correlate of an enlarged salt gland previously only documented in Late Jurassic metriorhynchoids. This is the first anatomical evidence of this structure in early thalattosuchians. Pelagosaurus also shares the presence of paired olfactory bulbs with metriorhynchoids, and shows an enlarged cerebrum, which may also be present in

  9. UPPER JURASSIC OUTCROPS ALONG THE CALDAS DA RAINHA DIAPIR, WEST CENTRAL PORTUGAL: A REGIONAL GEOHERITAGE OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE DINIS

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mesozoic Portuguese geological heritage is very rich and varied, a legacy of the position in the western margin of Iberia and its relationship with the evolution of the North Atlantic, with an interesting tectonic history since the Late Triassic. Regarding the Upper Jurassic several connections can be established between the tectonics and the stratigraphic record in the area surrounding the Caldas da Rainha structure: the basement and salt pillow control on deposition; the beginning of a diapiric and magmatic cycle associated to the on-set of sea-floor and the exhumation of both Jurassic deposits and the core of their controlling diapirs. The nature of the outcrops and richness in sedimentary environments, related with the different phases of rifting, is a remarkable case for extensional basin studies. Geological sites can be of regional, national or international importance due to scientific, educational, economical, social or historical reasons. The present proposal can be considered as a model for the establishment of tourist/educational routes with a strong component in communication on Earth Sciences, integrating social and historical aspects at a regional level. The recognition of those sites as geoheritage may contribute to a more sustainable management, in particular because it allows the achievement of a critical dimension for the investment in human resources and marketing. In Portugal, recent legal evolution might be considered promising. Nevertheless, since implementation of the concept of protected site depends on the approval of detailed management programs, there are frequent delays, misinterpretations and disrespect of legislation. The strategy to be adopted must integrate conservation, scientific studies and science communication in projects with economic and social interest.

  10. Diversity and paleogeographic distribution of Early Jurassic plesiosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Peggy; Suan, Guillaume

    2010-05-01

    Early Jurassic plesiosaurs, a group of extinct marine reptiles, were one of the first groups to be described in the history of vertebrate paleontology. Nevertheless, the paleogeographic distribution and the taxonomic diversity of these forms are still unclear, particularly because most descriptions and taxonomic attributions were realized during the mid 19th to early 20th century. Here we investigate the paleodiversity and paleogeographic distribution of Early Jurassic plesiosaurs using an extensive taxonomic and anatomical revision of most known Early Jurassic specimens. We also present an examination of the biostratigraphic and sedimentological framework of deposits in which these specimens were discovered, in order to decipher whether their fossil record reflects primary paleobiological trends or taphonomic/discovery biases. Early Jurassic Plesiosaur diversity appears to reach its maximum during the Toarcian (falciferum-bifrons ammonite zones). Nevertheless, the inclusion of ghost lineages into the diversity curves indicates that this pattern likely reflects discovery and taphonomical biases rather than primary biodiversity trends. Indeed, most strata where numerous plesiosaurs species were discovered correspond to sediments that were deposited under poorly-oxygenated conditions and exploited at least in a semi-industrial way during the 1800's-1950's. The Lower Jurassic fossiliferous localities that yielded identifiable plesiosaur species are only found in Western Europe (England, Germany, and France). In Europe, the Toarcian stage is the only interval where more than one fossiliferous locality is known (the Hettangian, Sinemurian and Pliensbachian stages being each represented by only one locality where specimens are identifiable at the species level). The different Toarcian fossiliferous sites of Europe do not bear any single common taxon, suggesting a high degree of endemism in Early Jurassic plesiosaurs. Nevertheless, these sites are fundamentally

  11. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Shallow marine syn-rift sedimentation: Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engkilde, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation – Fossilbjerget Formation couplet of Jameson Land, East Greenland, is a well-exposed example of the Middle Jurassic inshore–offshore successions characteristicof the rifted seaways in the Northwest European – North Atlantic region. Early Jurassic deposition took place under relatively quiet tectonic conditions following Late Permian – earliest Triassic and Early Triassic rift phases and the Lower Jurassic stratal package shows an overall layer-cake geometry. A long-term extensional phase was initiated in Middle Jurassic (Late Bajocian time, culminated in the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian–Volgian, and petered out in the earliest Cretaceous (Valanginian. The Upper Bajocian – Middle Callovian early-rift succession comprises shallow marine sandstones of the Pelion Formation and correlative offshore siltstones of theFossilbjerget Formation. Deposition was initiated by southwards progradation of shallow marine sands of the Pelion Formation in the Late Bajocian followed by major backstepping in Bathonian–Callovian times and drowning of the sandy depositional system in the Middle–Late Callovian. Six facies associations are recognised in the Pelion–Fossilbjerget couplet, representing estuarine, shoreface, offshore transition zone and offshore environments. The north–southtrendingaxis of the Jameson Land Basin had a low inclination, and deposition was sensitive to even small changes in relative sea level which caused the shorelines to advance or retreat over tens to several hundreds of kilometres. Eight composite sequences, termed P1–P8, are recognised and are subdivided into a total of 28 depositional sequences. The duration of the two orders of sequences was about 1–2 Ma and 360,000 years, respectively. The Upper Bajocian P1–2 sequencesinclude the most basinally positioned shallow marine sandstones, deposited during major sealevel lowstands. The lowstands were terminated by significant marine

  12. Rock mechanics related to Jurassic underburden at Valdemar oil field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels

    1999-01-01

    .It has been initiated as a feasibility study of the North Jens-1 core 12 taken in the top Jurassic clay shale as a test specimens for integrated petrological, mineralogical and rock mechanical studies. Following topics are studied:(1) Pore pressure generation due to conversion of organic matter...... and deformation properties of the clay shale using the actual core material or outcrop equivalents.(3) Flushing mechanisms for oil and gas from source rocks due to possibly very high pore water pressure creating unstable conditions in deeply burried sedimentsThere seems to be a need for integrating the knowledge...... in a number of geosciences to the benefit of common understanding of important reservoir mechanisms. Rock mechanics and geotechnical modelling might be key points for this understanding of reservoir geology and these may constitute a platform for future research in the maturing and migration from the Jurassic...

  13. A mysterious giant ichthyosaur from the lowermost Jurassic of Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy E. Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ichthyosaurs rapidly diversified and colonised a wide range of ecological niches during the Early and Middle Triassic period, but experienced a major decline in diversity near the end of the Triassic. Timing and causes of this demise and the subsequent rapid radiation of the diverse, but less disparate, parvipelvian ichthyosaurs are still unknown, notably because of inadequate sampling in strata of latest Triassic age. Here, we describe an exceptionally large radius from Lower Jurassic deposits at Penarth near Cardiff, south Wales (UK the morphology of which places it within the giant Triassic shastasaurids. A tentative total body size estimate, based on a regression analysis of various complete ichthyosaur skeletons, yields a value of 12–15 m. The specimen is substantially younger than any previously reported last known occurrences of shastasaurids and implies a Lazarus range in the lowermost Jurassic for this ichthyosaur morphotype.

  14. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  15. Dynamics of prolonged salt movement in the Glückstadt Graben (NW Germany) driven by tectonic and sedimentary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsitzka, Michael; Kley, Jonas; Jähne-Klingberg, Fabian; Kukowski, Nina

    2017-01-01

    The formation of salt structures exerted a major influence on the evolution of subsidence and sedimentation patterns in the Glückstadt Graben, which is part of the Central European Basin System and comprises a post-Permian sediment thickness of up to 11 km. Driven by regional tectonics and differential loading, large salt diapirs, salt walls and salt pillows developed. The resulting salt flow significantly influenced sediment distribution in the peripheral sinks adjacent to the salt structures and overprinted the regional subsidence patterns. In this study, we investigate the geometric and temporal evolution of salt structures and subsidence patterns in the central Glückstadt Graben. Along a key geological cross section, the post-Permian strata were sequentially decompacted and restored in order to reconstruct the subsidence history of minibasins between the salt structures. The structural restoration reveals that subsidence of peripheral sinks and salt structure growth were initiated in Early to Middle Triassic time. From the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic, salt movement and salt structure growth never ceased, but were faster during periods of crustal extension. Following a phase from Late Jurassic to the end of the early Late Cretaceous, in which minor salt flow occurred, salt movement was renewed, particularly in the marginal parts of the Glückstadt Graben. Subsidence rates and tectonic subsidence derived from backstripping of 1D profiles reveal that especially the Early Triassic and Middle Keuper times were periods of regional extension. Three specific types of salt structures and adjacent peripheral sinks could be identified: (1) Graben centre salt walls possessing deep secondary peripheral sinks on the sides facing away from the basin centre, (2) platform salt walls, whose main peripheral sinks switched multiple times from one side of the salt wall to the other, and (3) Graben edge pillows, which show only one peripheral sink facing the basin centre.

  16. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: key elements in the reconstruction of the North Atlantic Jurassic rift system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Jurassic succession of Denmark is largely confined to the subsurface with the exception of exposures on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. In East Greenland, in contrast, the Jurassic is extensively exposed. Comparison of basin evolution in the two regions, which now occur on two separate plates, thus relies on highly different datasets. It is possible nevertheless to construct an integrated picture allowing testing of hypotheses concerning basin evolution, regional uplift, onset and climax of rifting, relative versus eustatic sea-level changes and sequence stratigraphic subdivision and correlation. On a smaller scale, it is possible to compare the signatures of sequence stratigraphic surfaces as seen on well logs, in cores and at outcrop and of sequences recognised and defined on the basis of very different data types. Breakdown of the successions into tectonostratigraphic megasequences highlights the high degree of similarity in overall basin evolution and tectonic style. An important difference, however, lies in the timing. Major events such as late Early - Middle Jurassic uplift, followed by onset of rifting, basin reorganisation and rift climax were delayed in East Greenland relative to the Danish region. This has important implications both for regional reconstructions of the rift system and for the understanding and testing of classical sequence stratigraphic concepts involving eustatic versus tectonic controls of basin evolution and stratigraphy.

  17. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  18. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  19. Inter-layered clay stacks in Jurassic shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, K.; Krinsley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy in the backscattered electron mode is used together with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to show that Lower Jurassic shales from the North Sea Basin contain large numbers of clay mineral stacks up to 150 microns in size. Polished shale sections are examined to determine the size, shape orientation, textural relationships, and internal compositional variations of the clays. Preliminary evidence that the clay stacks are authigenic, and may have formed at shallow burial depths during early diagenesis, is presented.

  20. Tectonic forcing of early to middle jurassic seawater Sr/Ca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Korte, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The Jurassic Period (ca. 201–145 Ma) is marked by fundamental reorganizations of paleogeography, paleoceanography, ecosystems, and the progressive shift from aragonite to calcite as the favored marine biogenic carbonate polymorph. Sr/Ca ratios of well-preserved Jurassic oysters and belemnites from...

  1. The Jurassic section along McElmo Canyon in southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    In McElmo Canyon, Jurassic rocks are 1500-1600 ft thick. Lower Jurassic rocks of the Glen Canyon Group include (in ascending order) Wingate Sandstone, Kayenta Formation and Navajo Sandstone. Middle Jurassic rocks are represented by the San Rafael Group, which includes the Entrada Sandstone and overlying Wanakah Formation. Upper Jurassic rocks comprise the Junction Creek Sandstone overlain by the Morrison Formation. The Burro Canyon Formation, generally considered to be Lower Cretaceous, may be Late Jurassic in the McElmo Canyon area and is discussed with the Jurassic. The Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in the subsurface underlies, and the Upper Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone overlies, the Jurassic section. An unconformity is present at the base of the Glen Canyon Group (J-0), at the base of the San Rafael Group (J-2), and at the base of the Junction Creek Sandstone (J-5). Another unconformity of Cretaceous age is at the base of the Dakota Sandstone. Most of the Jurassic rocks consist of fluviatile, lacustrine and eolian deposits. The basal part of the Entrada Sandstone and the Wanakah Formation may be of marginal marine origin.

  2. Apatite Fission-Track Analysis of the Middle Jurassic Todos Santos Formation from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullin, Fanis; Solé, Jesús; Shchepetilnikova, Valentina; Solari, Luigi; Ortega-Obregón, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    The Sierra de Chiapas (SCH), located in the south of Mexico, is a complex geological province that can be divided on four different lithological or tectonic areas: (1) the Chiapas Massif Complex (CMC); (2) the Central Depression; (3) the Strike-slip Fault Province, and (4) the Chiapas Fold-and-thrust Belt. The CMC mostly consists of Permian granitoids and meta-granitoids, and represents the basement of the SCH. During the Jurassic period red beds and salt were deposited on this territory, related to the main pulse of rifting and opening of the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the Cretaceous stratigraphy contains limestones and dolomites deposited on a marine platform setting during the postrift stage of the Gulf of Mexico rift. During the Cenozoic Era took place the major clastic sedimentation along the SCH. According the published low-temperature geochronology data (Witt et al., 2012), SCH has three main phases of thermo-tectonic history: (1) slow exhumation between 35 and 25 Ma, that affected mainly the basement (CMC) and is probably related to the migration of the Chortís block; (2) fast exhumation during the Middle-Late Miocene caused by strike-slip deformation that affects almost all Chiapas territory; (3) period of rapid cooling from 6 to 5 Ma, that affects the Chiapas Fold-and-thrust Belt, coincident with the landward migration of the Caribbean-North America plate boundaries. The two last events were the most significant on the formation of the present-day topography of the SCH. However, the stratigraphy of the SCH shows traces of the existence of earlier tectonic events. This study presents preliminary results of apatite fission-track (AFT) dating of sandstones from the Todos Santos Formation (Middle Jurassic). The analyses are performed with in situ uranium determination using LA-ICP-MS (e.g., Hasebe et al., 2004). The AFT data indicate that this Formation has suffered high-grade diagenesis (probably over 150 ºC) and the obtained cooling ages, about 70-60 Ma

  3. A re-examination of paleomagnetic results from NA Jurassic sedimentary rocks: Additional evidence for proposed Jurassic MUTO?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Kent and Irving, 2010; and Kent et al, 2015 propose a monster shift in the position of Jurassic (160 to 145 Ma) paleopoles for North America- defined by results from igneous rocks. This monster shift is likely an unrecognized true polar wander occurrence. Although subject to inclination error, results from sedimentary rocks from North America, if corrected for these effects, can be used to supplement the available data for this time period. Steiner (2003) reported results from 48 stratigraphic horizons sampled from the Callovian Summerville Fm, from NE New Mexico. A recalculated mean of these results yields a mean direction of D = 332, I = 39, n=48, k = 15, α95 = 5.4°. These data were analyzed for possible inclination error-although the dataset is small, the E-I results yielded a corrected I = 53. This yields a corrected paleopole for NA at ~165 Ma located at 67° N and 168° E.Paleomagnetic results from the Black Hills- Kilanowski (2002) for the Callovian Hulett Mbr of the Sundance Fm, and Gregiore (2001) the Oxfordian-Tithonian Morrison Fm (Gregiore, 2001) have previously been interpreted to represent Eocene-aged remagnetizations- due to the nearly exact coincidence between the in-situ pole positions of these Jurassic units with the Eocene pole for NA. Both of the tilt-corrected results for these units have high latitude poles (Sundance Fm: 79° N, 146° E; Morrison Fm: 89° N, 165° E). An E-I analysis of these data will be presented- using a provisional inclination error of 10°, corrected paleopoles are: (Sundance Fm: 76° N, 220° E; Morrison Fm: 77° N, 266° E). The Black Hills 165 Ma (Sundance Fm) and 145 Ma (Morrison Fm) poles, provisionally corrected for 10° inclination error- occur fairly close to the NA APWP proposed by Kent et al, 2015- using an updated set of results from kimberlites- the agreement between the Sundance Fm and the Triple-B (158 Ma) pole would be nearly exact with a slightly lesser inclination error. The Summerville Fm- which is

  4. Amphibious flies and paedomorphism in the Jurassic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Diying; Nel, André; Cai, Chenyang; Lin, Qibin; Engel, Michael S

    2013-03-07

    The species of the Strashilidae (strashilids) have been the most perplexing of fossil insects from the Jurassic period of Russia and China. They have been widely considered to be ectoparasites of pterosaurs or feathered dinosaurs, based on the putative presence of piercing and sucking mouthparts and hind tibio-basitarsal pincers purportedly used to fix onto the host's hairs or feathers. Both the supposed host and parasite occur in the Daohugou beds from the Middle Jurassic epoch of China (approximately 165 million years ago). Here we analyse the morphology of strashilids from the Daohugou beds, and reach markedly different conclusions; namely that strashilids are highly specialized flies (Diptera) bearing large membranous wings, with substantial sexual dimorphism of the hind legs and abdominal extensions. The idea that they belong to an extinct order is unsupported, and the lineage can be placed within the true flies. In terms of major morphological and inferred behavioural features, strashilids resemble the recent (extant) and relict members of the aquatic fly family Nymphomyiidae. Their ontogeny are distinguished by the persistence in adult males of larval abdominal respiratory gills, representing a unique case of paedomorphism among endopterygote insects. Adult strashilids were probably aquatic or amphibious, shedding their wings after emergence and mating in the water.

  5. Triassic-Jurassic pteridosperms of Australasia: speciation, diversity and decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattemore, G. A.; Rigby, J. F.; Playford, G.

    2015-07-01

    Pteridosperms are preserved abundantly in the Gondwanan Triassic, with many species exhibiting consider- able morphological variation that has been attributed to a hybridization model of speciation. This is an improbable explanation given that hybridization is very rare in gymnosperms. Allopatric speciation resulting from geographic and climatic provincialism is a more likely explanation for the morphological diversity which is well represented in Anisian Norian (Middle and Upper Triassic) floras of Australasia and elsewhere in Gondwana. Most specimens are distributed among three families: Umkomasiaceae, Peltaspermaceae and Matatiellaceae. These families, together with other possibly pteridospermous genera, are reviewed herein. Diversity in these families apparently declined by the Rhaetian and they did not persist into the Gondwanan post-Triassic. Australasian post-Triassic strata contain remarkably different floral assemblages to those of the Triassic. No fructifications are clearly pteridospermous and no remains show any obvious relationship with pteridosperms of the Gondwanan Triassic. Caytonialean fructifications are not known in Australasian strata; however, associated foliage has been reported from the Eastern Gondwanan Upper Triassic through Middle Jurassic including Australia. Much fern-like foliage, claimed to be pteridospermous from the Lower Jurassic through Eocene of Eastern Gondwana, lacks supporting evidence of such affiliation. (Author)

  6. JURASSIC PALEONTOLOGICAL HERITAGE OF MURCIA (BETIC CORDILLERA, SOUTH-EASTERN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREGORIO ROMERO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Jurassic rocks of the External and Internal Zones of the Betic Cordillera are widespread in the province of Murcia. Four areas are considered of special interest for stratigraphical and paleontological analysis: a Sierra Quípar and b Sierras Lúgar-Corque (External Subbetic, c Sierra Ricote (Median Subbetic and d Sierra Espuña (Malaguide Complex. The first two contain Jurassic sections including Sinemurian-Tithonian deposits, and major stratigraphic discontinuities, containing significant cephalopod concentrations of taphonomic and taxonomic interest, occuring in the Lower-Upper Pliensbachian, Lower/Middle Jurassic and Middle/Upper Jurassic boundaries. These areas are also relevant for biostratigraphical analysis of the Middle-Upper Jurassic interval. In the Sierra de Ricote, the Mahoma section is of especial interest for the study of Lías/Dogger transition. Casa Chimeneas section constitutes the best Subbetic site for the analysis of the Lower/Upper Bajocian boundary. In the La Bermeja-Casas de Vite area, the Bajocian-Tithonian interval is well-represented, including a parastratotype of the Radiolarite Jarropa Formation. Finally, the Malvariche section in Sierra Espuña represents the best Jurassic succession of Internal Zones of the Betic Cordillera and could be considered as a reference section for this Betic Domain. In this paper a heritage evaluation has been carried out for these classical jurassic sections with the object of protecting these sites according to the legal framework prevailing in the province of Murcia.

  7. Middle to Late Jurassic Tectonic Evolution of the Klamath Mountains, California-Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gregory D.; Wright, James E.

    1984-12-01

    The geochronology, stratigraphy, and spatial relationships of Middle and Late Jurassic terranes of the Klamath Mountains strongly suggest that they were formed in a single west-facing magmatic arc built upon older accreted terranes. A Middle Jurassic arc complex is represented by the volcanic rocks of the western Hayfork terrane and consanguineous dioritic to peridotitic plutons. New U/Pb zircon dates indicate that the Middle Jurassic plutonic belt was active from 159 to 174 Ma and is much more extensive than previously thought. This plutonic belt became inactive just as the 157 Ma Josephine ophiolite, which lies west and structurally below the Middle Jurassic arc, was generated. Late Jurassic volcanic and plutonic arc rocks (Rogue Formation and Chetco intrusive complex) lie outboard and structurally beneath the Josephine ophiolite; U/Pb and K/Ar age data indicate that this arc complex is coeval with the Josephine ophiolite. Both the Late Jurassic arc complex and the Josephine ophiolite are overlain by the "Galice Formation," a Late Jurassic flysch sequence, and are intruded by 150 Ma dikes and sills. The following tectonic model is presented that accounts for the age and distribution of these terranes: a Middle Jurassic arc built on older accreted terranes undergoes rifting at 160 Ma, resulting in formation of a remnant arc/back-arc basin/island arc triad. This system collapsed during the Late Jurassic Nevadan Orogeny (150 Ma) and was strongly deformed and stacked into a series of east-dipping thrust sheets. Arc magmatism was active both before and after the Nevadan Orogeny, but virtually ceased at 140 Ma.

  8. Partial diagenetic overprint of late jurassic belemnites from New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz; Campbell, Hamish J.; Frei, Robert

    2013-01-01

    δ7Li values become more positive with progressive alteration. The direction and magnitude of the trends in the geochemical record indicate that one main phase of alteration that occurred in the Late Cretaceous caused most of the diagenetic signature in the calcite. Despite relatively deep burial......The preservation potential and trends of alteration of many isotopic systems (e.g. Li, Mg, Ca) that are measured in fossil carbonates are little explored, yet extensive paleoenvironmental interpretations have been made on the basis of these records. Here we present a geochemical dataset for a Late...... Jurassic (~153 Ma) belemnite (Belemnopsis sp.) from New Zealand that has been partially overprinted by alteration. We report the physical pathways and settings of alteration, the resulting elemental and isotopic trends including δ7Li values and Li/Ca ratios, and assess whether remnants of the primary shell...

  9. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of paralic and shallow marine Upper Jurassic sandstones in the northern Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannessen, Peter N.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Paralic and shallow marine sandstones were deposited in the Danish Central Graben during Late Jurassic rifting when half-grabens were developed and the overall eustatic sea level rose. During the Kimmeridgian, an extensive plateau area consisting of the Heno Plateau and the Gertrud Plateau was situated between two highs, the Mandal High to the north, and the combined Inge and Mads Highs to the west. These highs were land areas situated on either side of the plateaus and supplied sand to the Gertrud and Heno Plateaus. Two graben areas, the Feda and Tail End Grabens, flanked the plateau area to the west and east, respectively. The regressive–ransgressive succession consists of intensely bioturbated shoreface sandstones, 25–75 m thick. Two widespread unconformities (SB1, SB2 are recognised on the plateaus, forming the base of sequence 1 and sequence 2, respectively. These unconformities were created by a fall in relative sea level during which rivers may have eroded older shoreface sands and transported sediment across the Heno andGertrud Plateaus, resulting in the accumulation of shoreface sandstones farther out in the Feda and Tail End Grabens, on the south-east Heno Plateau and in the Salt Dome Province. Duringsubsequent transgression, fluvial sediments were reworked by high-energy shoreface processes on the Heno and Gertrud Plateaus, leaving only a lag of granules and pebbles on the marine transgressive surfaces of erosion (MTSE1, MTSE2.The sequence boundary SB1 can be traced to the south-east Heno Plateau and the Salt Dome Province, where it is marked by sharp-based shoreface sandstones. During low sea level, erosion occurred in the southern part of the Feda Graben, which formed part of the Gertrud and Heno Plateaus, and sedimentation occurred in the Norwegian part of the Feda Graben farther to the north. During subsequent transgression, the southern part of the Feda Graben began to subside, and a succession of backstepping back

  10. Paleoenvironments of the Jurassic and Cretaceous Oceans: Selected Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    There are many themes contributing to the sedimentation history of the Mesozoic oceans. This overview briefly examines the roles of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) and the associated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, of the evolution of marine calcareous microplankton, of major transgressive and regressive trends, and of super-plume eruptions. Initiation of Atlantic seafloor spreading in the Middle Jurassic coincided with an elevated carbonate compensation depth (CCD) in the Pacific-Tethys mega-ocean. Organic-rich sediments that would become the oil wealth of regions from Saudi Arabia to the North Sea were deposited during a continued rise in CCD during the Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian, which suggests a possible increase in carbon dioxide release by oceanic volcanic activity. Deep-sea deposits in near-equatorial settings are dominated by siliceous shales or cherts, which reflect the productivity of siliceous microfossils in the tropical surface waters. The end-Jurassic explosion in productivity by calcareous microplankton contributed to the lowering of the CCD and onset of the chalk ("creta") deposits that characterize the Tithonian and lower Cretaceous in all ocean basins. During the mid-Cretaceous, the eruption of enormous Pacific igneous provinces (Ontong Java Plateau and coeval edifices) increased carbon dioxide levels. The resulting rise in CCD terminated chalk deposition in the deep sea. The excess carbon was progressively removed in widespread black-shale deposits in the Atlantic basins and other regions - another major episode of oil source rock. A major long-term transgression during middle and late Cretaceous was accompanied by extensive chalk deposition on continental shelves and seaways while the oceanic CCD remained elevated. Pacific guyots document major oscillations (sequences) of global sea level superimposed on this broad highstand. The Cretaceous closed with a progressive sea-level regression and lowering of the CCD that again enabled

  11. Geochemical Astro- and Geochronological Constraints on the Early Jurassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, M.; Condon, D. J.; Ruhl, M.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Al-Suwaidi, A. H.; Percival, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Early Jurassic Hettangian and Sinemurian time scales are poorly defined due to the lack of continuous geochemical records, and the temporal constrain of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event and associated global carbon cycle perturbation is afflicted by geochemical and biostratigraphical uncertainties of the existing radiometric dates from various volcanic ash bearing sections. Here we present a continuous, orbitally paced Hettangian to Pliensbachian carbon-isotope record of the Mochras drill-core (Cardigan bay Basin, UK). The record generates new insights into the evolution and driving mechanisms of the Early Jurassic carbon cycle, and is contributing to improve the Hettangian and Sinemurian time scale. Furthermore, we introduce a new high-resolution carbon-isotope chemostratigraphy, integrated with ammonite biostratigraphy and new U/Pb single zircon geochronology of the Las Overas section (Neuquén Basin, Argentina). The studied section comprises sediments from the tenuicostatum to Dumortiera Andean Ammonite zone (tenuicostatum to levesqui European standard zones). A stratigraphically expanded negative shift in d13Corg values, from -24‰ down to -32­‰, appears in the tenuicostatum and hoelderi ammonite zone, coeval to the negative excursion in European realm which is associated with the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. The negative isotope excursion appears concomitant with an increase in sedimentary mercury levels, indicating enhanced volcanic activity. TOC values and elemental data suggest a high sedimentation dilution in the tenuicostatum to pacificum zone. The new geochronological data from several volcanic ash beds throughout the section are further improving the temporal correlation between the Early Toarcian isotope event and causal mechanisms

  12. Broad-scale patterns of late jurassic dinosaur paleoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Christopher R; Grossman, Ari

    2010-09-03

    There have been numerous studies on dinosaur biogeographic distribution patterns. However, these distribution data have not yet been applied to ecological questions. Ecological studies of dinosaurs have tended to focus on reconstructing individual taxa, usually through comparisons to modern analogs. Fewer studies have sought to determine if the ecological structure of fossil assemblages is preserved and, if so, how dinosaur communities varied. Climate is a major component driving differences between communities. If the ecological structure of a fossil locality is preserved, we expect that dinosaur assemblages from similar environments will share a similar ecological structure. This study applies Ecological Structure Analysis (ESA) to a dataset of 100+ dinosaur taxa arranged into twelve composite fossil assemblages from around the world. Each assemblage was assigned a climate zone (biome) based on its location. Dinosaur taxa were placed into ecomorphological categories. The proportion of each category creates an ecological profile for the assemblage, which were compared using cluster and principal components analyses. Assemblages grouped according to biome, with most coming from arid or semi-arid/seasonal climates. Differences between assemblages are tied to the proportion of large high-browsing vs. small ground-foraging herbivores, which separates arid from semi-arid and moister environments, respectively. However, the effects of historical, taphonomic, and other environmental factors are still evident. This study is the first to show that the general ecological structure of Late Jurassic dinosaur assemblages is preserved at large scales and can be assessed quantitatively. Despite a broad similarity of climatic conditions, a degree of ecological variation is observed between assemblages, from arid to moist. Taxonomic differences between Asia and the other regions demonstrate at least one case of ecosystem convergence. The proportion of different ecomorphs, which

  13. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Middle Jurassic of western and northern Europe: its subdivisions, geochronology and correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callomon, John H.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The palaeogeographic settings of Denmark and East Greenland during the Middle Jurassic are outlined. They lay in the widespread epicontinental seas that covered much of Europe in the post-Triassic transgression. It was a period of continuing eustatic sea-level rise, with only distant connections to world oceans: to the Pacific, via the narrow Viking Straits between Greenland and Norway and hence the arctic Boreal Sea to the north; and to the subtropical Tethys, via some 1200 km of shelf-seas to the south. The sedimentary history of the region was strongly influenced by two factors: tectonism and climate. Two modes of tectonic movement governed basinal evolution: crustal extension leading to subsidence through rifting, such as in the Viking and Central Grabens of the North Sea; and subcrustal thermal upwelling, leading to domal uplift and the partition of marine basins through emergent physical barriers, as exemplified by the Central North Sea Dome with its associated volcanics. The climatic gradient across the 30º of temperate latitude spanned by the European seas governed biotic diversity and biogeography, finding expression in rock-forming biogenic carbonates that dominate sediments in the south and give way to largely siliciclastic sediments in the north. Geochronology of unrivalled finesse is provided by standard chronostratigraphy based on the biostratigraphy of ammonites. The Middle Jurassic saw the onset of considerable bioprovincial endemisms in these guide-fossils, making it necessary to construct parallel standard zonations for Boreal, Subboreal or NW European and Submediterranean Provinces, of which the NW European zonation provides the primary international standard. The current versions of these zonations are presented and reviewed.

  14. Fe-Ni Micrometorites from Upper Jurassic Cañadon Asfalto Fm., Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, M.; Hauser, N.; Cabaleri, N.; Silva Nieto, D.; Cuadros, F. A.; Reyes, S.

    2014-09-01

    Microspherules from an upper Jurassic sediments from Patagonia, show mineralogical, geochemical and textural features very similar to those reported for I-type micrometeorites whereas some spherules are interpreted as typical G-type micrometeorites.

  15. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  16. First diagnostic marine reptile remains from the Aalenian (Middle Jurassic): a new ichthyosaur from southwestern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Erin E; Fernández, Marta S; Schoch, Rainer R

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Jurassic was a critical time in the evolutionary history of ichthyosaurs. During this time interval, the diverse, well-studied faunas of the Lower Jurassic were entirely replaced by ophthalmosaurids, a new group that arose sometime prior to the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary and by the latest middle Jurassic comprised the only surviving group of ichthyosaurs. Thus, the Middle Jurassic Aalenian-Bathonian interval (176-165 million years ago) comprises the time frame during which ophthalmosaurids not only originated but also achieved taxonomic dominance. However, diagnostic ichthyosaur remains have been described previously from only a single locality from this interval, from the Bajocian of Argentina. In this paper, we describe a new species of ichthyosaur based on a partial articulated specimen from the Middle Jurassic of southwestern Germany. This specimen was recovered from the Opalinuston Formation (early Aalenian) and is referable to Stenopterygius aaleniensis sp. nov. reflecting features of the skull and forefin. The genus Stenopterygius is diverse and abundant in the Lower Jurassic of Europe, but its presence has not previously been confirmed in younger (Middle Jurassic) rocks from the northern hemisphere. This specimen represents the only diagnostic ichthyosaur remains reported from the Aalenian. It bears numerous similarities in size and in morphology to the Lower Jurassic species of the genus Stenopterygius and provides additional evidence that the major ecological changes hypothesized to have occurred at the end of the Toarcian took place sometime after this point and most likely did not occur suddenly. There is currently no evidence for the presence of ophthalmosaurids in the northern hemisphere during the Aalenian-Bathonian interval.

  17. First diagnostic marine reptile remains from the Aalenian (Middle Jurassic: a new ichthyosaur from southwestern Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Maxwell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Middle Jurassic was a critical time in the evolutionary history of ichthyosaurs. During this time interval, the diverse, well-studied faunas of the Lower Jurassic were entirely replaced by ophthalmosaurids, a new group that arose sometime prior to the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary and by the latest middle Jurassic comprised the only surviving group of ichthyosaurs. Thus, the Middle Jurassic Aalenian-Bathonian interval (176-165 million years ago comprises the time frame during which ophthalmosaurids not only originated but also achieved taxonomic dominance. However, diagnostic ichthyosaur remains have been described previously from only a single locality from this interval, from the Bajocian of Argentina. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we describe a new species of ichthyosaur based on a partial articulated specimen from the Middle Jurassic of southwestern Germany. This specimen was recovered from the Opalinuston Formation (early Aalenian and is referable to Stenopterygius aaleniensis sp. nov. reflecting features of the skull and forefin. The genus Stenopterygius is diverse and abundant in the Lower Jurassic of Europe, but its presence has not previously been confirmed in younger (Middle Jurassic rocks from the northern hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This specimen represents the only diagnostic ichthyosaur remains reported from the Aalenian. It bears numerous similarities in size and in morphology to the Lower Jurassic species of the genus Stenopterygius and provides additional evidence that the major ecological changes hypothesized to have occurred at the end of the Toarcian took place sometime after this point and most likely did not occur suddenly. There is currently no evidence for the presence of ophthalmosaurids in the northern hemisphere during the Aalenian-Bathonian interval.

  18. Post-Jurassic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Seton, Maria; Dietmar Müller, R.; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The accretionary growth of Asia, linked to long-term convergence between Eurasia, Gondwana-derived blocks and the Pacific, resulted in a mosaic of terranes for which conflicting tectonic interpretations exist. Here, we propose solutions to a number of controversies related to the evolution of Sundaland through a synthesis of published geological data and plate reconstructions that reconcile both geological and geophysical constraints with plate driving forces. We propose that West Sulawesi, East Java and easternmost Borneo rifted from northern Gondwana in the latest Jurassic, collided with an intra-oceanic arc at ~115 Ma and subsequently sutured to Sundaland by 80 Ma. Although recent models argue that the Southwest Borneo core accreted to Sundaland at this time, we use volcanic and biogeographic constraints to show that the core of Borneo was on the Asian margin since at least the mid Jurassic. This northward transfer of Gondwana-derived continental fragments required a convergent plate boundary in the easternmost Tethys that we propose gave rise to the Philippine Archipelago based on the formation of latest Jurassic-Early Cretaceous supra-subduction zone ophiolites on Halmahera, Obi Island and Luzon. The Late Cretaceous marks the shift from Andean-style subduction to back-arc opening on the east Asian margin. Arc volcanism along South China ceased by ~60 Ma due to the rollback of the Izanagi slab, leading to the oceanward migration of the volcanic arc and the opening of the Proto South China Sea (PSCS). We use the Apennines-Tyrrhenian system in the Mediterranean as an analogue to model this back-arc. Continued rollback detaches South Palawan, Mindoro and the Semitau continental blocks from the stable east Asian margin and transfers them onto Sundaland in the Eocene to produce the Sarawak Orogeny. The extrusion of Indochina and subduction polarity reversal along northern Borneo opens the South China Sea and transfers the Dangerous Grounds-Reed Bank southward to

  19. AN EARLY JURASSIC SAUROPOD TOOTH FROM PATAGONIA (CAÑADÓN ASFALTO FORMATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR SAUROPOD DIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carballido, José L

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Eusauropods were a group of herbivorous dinosaurs that evolved during the Early Jurassic and dominated the terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous. A peak of diversity is represented by the Late Jurassic, when most of the lineages of the derived clade, Neosauropoda, are represented. Different lineages of eusauropods differ in several morphological aspects, including a great diversity in gathering strategies, inferred by their dentition morphology and wear facets. Here we describe a new tooth morphotype that can be well differentiated from any other tooth recovered from the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Lower Jurassic-Middle-Jurassic. Therefore this new tooth morphology increase the evidence of a high diversity of sauropods during that time as well as providing evidence of advanced characters in the dentition of some Early Jurassic sauropods (e.g., subcylindrical and narrow crowns with single apical wear facet.

  20. Boron-containing organic pigments from a Jurassic red alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenstein, Klaus; Gross, Jürgen H; Falk, Heinz

    2010-11-09

    Organic biomolecules that have retained their basic chemical structures over geological periods (molecular fossils) occur in a wide range of geological samples and provide valuable paleobiological, paleoenvironmental, and geochemical information not attainable from other sources. In rare cases, such compounds are even preserved with their specific functional groups and still occur within the organisms that produced them, providing direct information on the biochemical inventory of extinct organisms and their possible evolutionary relationships. Here we report the discovery of an exceptional group of boron-containing compounds, the borolithochromes, causing the distinct pink coloration of well-preserved specimens of the Jurassic red alga Solenopora jurassica. The borolithochromes are characterized as complicated spiroborates (boric acid esters) with two phenolic moieties as boron ligands, representing a unique class of fossil organic pigments. The chiroptical properties of the pigments unequivocally demonstrate a biogenic origin, at least of their ligands. However, although the borolithochromes originated from a fossil red alga, no analogy with hitherto known present-day red algal pigments was found. The occurrence of the borolithochromes or their possible diagenetic products in the fossil record may provide additional information on the classification and phylogeny of fossil calcareous algae.

  1. THE TRIASSIC/JURASSIC BOUNDARY IN THE ANDES OF ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO C. RICCARDI

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arroyo Malo Formation at Alumbre Creek, on the northern bank of the Atuel River, west central Argentina, comprises a c. 300 m thick continuous marine succession across the Triassic-Jurassic System boundary, consisting of massive and laminated pelites indicative of a slope depositional environment. Late Triassic invertebrates, including ammonoids, nautiloids, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods and corals are restricted to the lower 150 m. Beds between 125-135 m from the bottom yield Choristoceras cf. marshi Hauer, a species found in the Marshi/Crickmayi Zone of Europe and North America, together with loose fragments of Psiloceras cf. pressum Hillebrandt, coeval with the lower to middle part of the Hettangian Planorbis Zone. About 80 m higher are beds yielding Psiloceras cf. rectocostatum Hillebrandt, a species that gives name to an Andean biozone partially coeval with the Johnstoni and Plicatulum Subzones, upper Planorbis Zone. Other fossils recorded in the Rhaetian strata of this section are foraminifers, ostracods and plant remains identified as Zuberia cf. zuberi (Szaj. Freng. and Clathropteris sp. The section was also sampled for conodonts and radiolarians, thus far with negative results. A palaeomagnetic study is underway.

  2. A jurassic-cretaceous dolerite dike from Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Vitanage, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    A dolerite dike from southwestern Sri Lanka gave whole-rock K-Ar ages of 152.6 ± 7.6 Ma and 143.3 ± 7.2 Ma. Many of the other dolerite dikes of Sri Lanka are considered to be of Mesozoic ages judging from the present age data and tectonometamorphic history of Sri Lanka. Petrographic similarities should not be used for age correlations, because dolerites of different age may have the same petrography. Preliminary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) after AF and thermal demagnetization gave a mean inclination of 24.6deg and declination of 67.5deg with α95=21.7deg. A virtual geomagnetic pole position calculated from the mean NRM was rotated relative to Antarctica so as to fit with that obtained from the Jurassic Ferrar dolerite of Antarctica. This rotation results in the location and attitude of Sri Lanka to attach with Antarctica at Lutzow-Holm Bay as suggested by Barron et al. (1978). (author). 18 refs

  3. Ichnological evidence of Megalosaurid Dinosaurs Crossing Middle Jurassic Tidal Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzolini, Novella L.; Oms, Oriol; Castanera, Diego; Vila, Bernat; Santos, Vanda Faria Dos; Galobart, Àngel

    2016-08-01

    A new dinosaur tracksite in the Vale de Meios quarry (Serra de Aire Formation, Bathonian, Portugal)preserves more than 700 theropod tracks. They are organized in at least 80 unidirectional trackways arranged in a bimodal orientation pattern (W/NW and E/SE). Quantitative and qualitative comparisons reveal that the large tridactyl, elongated and asymmetric tracks resemble the typical Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Megalosauripus ichnogenus in all morphometric parameters. Few of the numerous tracks are preserved as elite tracks while the rest are preserved as different gradients of modified true tracks according to water content, erosive factors, radial fractures and internal overtrack formations. Taphonomical determinations are consistent with paleoenvironmental observations that indicate an inter-tidal flat located at the margin of a coastal barrier. The Megalosauripus tracks represent the oldest occurrence of this ichnotaxon and are attributed to large megalosaurid dinosaurs. Their occurrence in Vale de Meios tidal flat represents the unique paleoethological evidence of megalosaurids moving towards the lagoon, most likley during the low tide periods with feeding purposes.

  4. Neuroanatomy of the marine Jurassic turtle Plesiochelys etalloni (Testudinata, Plesiochelyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, Ariana Paulina; Sterli, Juliana; Müller, Johannes; Hilger, André

    2013-01-01

    Turtles are one of the least explored clades regarding endocranial anatomy with few available descriptions of the brain and inner ear of extant representatives. In addition, the paleoneurology of extinct turtles is poorly known and based on only a few natural cranial endocasts. The main goal of this study is to provide for the first time a detailed description of the neuroanatomy of an extinct turtle, the Late Jurassic Plesiochelysetalloni, including internal carotid circulation, cranial endocast and inner ear, based on the first digital 3D reconstruction using micro CT scans. The general shape of the cranial endocast of P. etalloni is tubular, with poorly marked cephalic and pontine flexures. Anteriorly, the olfactory bulbs are clearly differentiated suggesting larger bulbs than in any other described extinct or extant turtle, and indicating a higher capacity of olfaction in this taxon. The morphology of the inner ear of P. etalloni is comparable to that of extant turtles and resembles those of slow-moving terrestrial vertebrates, with markedly low, short and robust semicircular canals, and a reduced lagena. In P. etalloni the arterial pattern is similar to that found in extant cryptodires, where all the internal carotid branches are protected by bone. As the knowledge of paleoneurology in turtles is scarce and the application of modern techniques such as 3D reconstructions based on CT scans is almost unexplored in this clade, we hope this paper will trigger similar investigations of this type in other turtle taxa.

  5. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the Jurassic coal from Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baioumy, H.M. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-06-15

    The Jurassic coal deposit in the Maghara area, Sinai, Egypt contains at least 11 coal seams of lenticular shape. The thickness of the main coal seams ranges from 130 cm to 2 m and are underlain and overlain by thin black shale beds. Mineralogical analysis indicated that this coal is characterized by low mineral matter with traces of quartz in some samples. However, coal ash is made up of quartz with traces of calcite, anhydrite, and hematite. Analysis of coal rank parameters indicated that the Maghara coal can be classified as medium volatile bituminous coal. The high sulfur contents and the relatively high proportion of pyritic sulfur suggest a possible marine transgression after the deposition of precursor peat. This interpretation is supported by the relatively high B contents. The relatively high Ge in the Maghara coal could be attributed to an infiltration of Ge enriched water from the surrounding siliceous sediments probably during diagenesis. The high Au contents were contributed to an Au-rich provenance of the ash contents of this coal. Rare earth elements geochemistry indicated low concentrations of these elements with slight enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs), slight negative Eu anomaly, and relatively flat heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) patterns. The low contents of trace and rare earth elements, particularly those with environmental relevance, compared to the usual concentration ranges in worldwide coal gives an advantage for this coal.

  6. Geology of the north end of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gard, L.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The geology and hydrology of a portion of the Salt Valley anticline lying north of Moab, Utah, that is being studied as a potential site for underground storage of nuclear waste in salt are discussed. Selection of this area was based on recommendations made in an earlier appraisal of the potential of Paradox basin salt deposits for such use. Salt Valley anticline, a northwest-trending diapiric structure, consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks arched over a thick core of salt of the Paradox Member of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation. Salt began to migrate to form and/or develop this structure shortly after it was deposited, probably in response to faulting. This migration caused upwelling of the salt creating a linear positive area. This positive area, in turn, caused increased deposition of sediments in adjacent areas which further enhanced salt migration. Not until late Jurassic time had flowage of the salt slowed sufficiently to allow sediments of the Morrison and younger formations to be deposited across the salt welt. A thick cap of insoluble residue was formed on top of the salt diapir as a result of salt dissolution through time. The crest of the anticline is breached; it collapsed in two stages during the Tertiary Period. The first stage was graben collapse during the early Tertiary; the second stage occurred after Miocene regional uplift had caused downcutting streams to breach the salt core resulting in further collapse. The axis of the anticline is a narrow generally flat-floored valley containing a few hills composed of downdropped Mesozoic rocks foundered in thecaprock. The caprock, which underlies thin alluvium in the valley, is composed of contorted gypsum, shale, sandstone, and limestone--the insoluble residue of the Paradox salt

  7. Fish faunas from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina: One of the most important Jurassic marine ichthyofaunas of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouiric-Cavalli, Soledad; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2015-11-01

    The marine deposits of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Tithonian-Berriasian) houses one of the most diverse Late Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Gondwana. However, most of the specimens remain undescribed. Jurassic fishes have been recovered from several localities at Neuquén Province (i.e., Picún Leufú, Plaza Huincul, Cerro Lotena, Portada Las Lajas, Los Catutos, and Arroyo Covunco) but also from Mendoza Province (i.e., La Valenciana, Los Molles, and Arroyo del Cajón Grande). Presently, the fish fauna of Los Catutos, near Zapala city (Neuquén Province), has yielded the highest number of specimens, which are taxonomically and morphologically diverse. At Los Catutos locality, the Vaca Muerta Formation is represented by the Los Catutos Member, which is considered the only lithographic limestones known in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we review the Tithonian fish faunas from the Vaca Muerta Formation. During Late Jurassic times, the actual Argentinian territory could have been a morphological diversification center, at least for some actinopterygian groups. The apparently lower species diversity recorded in marine Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Argentina (and some Gondwanan countries) in comparison with Chilean and European fish faunas could be related to the fish paleontological research history in Gondwana and the low number of detailed studies of most of specimens recorded.

  8. Jurassic sedimentary evolution of southern Junggar Basin: Implication for palaeoclimate changes in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Li Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Junggar Basin, located in northern Xinjiang, presents continuous and multikilometer-thick strata of the Jurassic deposits. The Jurassic was entirely terrestrial fluvial and lacustrine deltaic sedimentation. Eight outcrop sections across the Jurassic strata were measured at a resolution of meters in southern Junggar Basin. Controlling factors of sedimentary evolution and palaeoclimate changes in Junggar Basin during the Jurassic were discussed based on lithology, fossils and tectonic setting. In the Early to Middle Jurassic, the warm and wide Tethys Sea generated a strong monsoonal circulation over the central Asian continent, and provided adequate moisture for Junggar Basin. Coal-bearing strata of the Badaowan, Sangonghe, and Xishanyao Formations were developed under warm and humid palaeoclimate in Junggar Basin. In the late Middle Jurassic, Junggar Basin was in a semi-humid and semi-arid environment due to global warming event. Stratigraphy in the upper part of the Middle Jurassic with less plant fossils became multicolor or reddish from dark color sediments. During the Late Jurassic, collision of Lhasa and Qiangtang Block obstructed monsoon from the Tethys Sea. A major change in climate from semi-humid and semi-arid to arid conditions took place, and reddish strata of the Upper Jurassic were developed across Junggar Basin.

  9. A new basal sauropod dinosaur from the middle Jurassic of Niger and the early evolution of sauropoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Remes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The early evolution of sauropod dinosaurs is poorly understood because of a highly incomplete fossil record. New discoveries of Early and Middle Jurassic sauropods have a great potential to lead to a better understanding of early sauropod evolution and to reevaluate the patterns of sauropod diversification.A new sauropod from the Middle Jurassic of Niger, Spinophorosaurus nigerensis n. gen. et sp., is the most complete basal sauropod currently known. The taxon shares many anatomical characters with Middle Jurassic East Asian sauropods, while it is strongly dissimilar to Lower and Middle Jurassic South American and Indian forms. A possible explanation for this pattern is a separation of Laurasian and South Gondwanan Middle Jurassic sauropod faunas by geographic barriers. Integration of phylogenetic analyses and paleogeographic data reveals congruence between early sauropod evolution and hypotheses about Jurassic paleoclimate and phytogeography.Spinophorosaurus demonstrates that many putatively derived characters of Middle Jurassic East Asian sauropods are plesiomorphic for eusauropods, while South Gondwanan eusauropods may represent a specialized line. The anatomy of Spinophorosaurus indicates that key innovations in Jurassic sauropod evolution might have taken place in North Africa, an area close to the equator with summer-wet climate at that time. Jurassic climatic zones and phytogeography possibly controlled early sauropod diversification.

  10. Toward establishing a definitive Late-Mid Jurassic (M-series) Geomagnetic Polarity Reversal Time Scale through unraveling the nature of Jurassic Quiet Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.; Sager, W.

    2017-12-01

    Two major difficulties have hindered improving the accuracy of the Late-Mid Jurassic geomagnetic polarity time scale: a dearth of reliable high-resolution radiometric dates and the lack of a continuous Jurassic geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) record. We present the latest effort towards establishing a definitive Mid Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (M-series) GPTS model using three high-resolution, multi-level (sea surface [0 km], mid-water [3 km], and near-source [5.2 km]) marine magnetic profiles from a seamount-free corridor adjacent to the Waghenaer Fracture Zone in the western Pacific Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ). The profiles show a global coherency in magnetic anomaly correlations between two mid ocean ridge systems (i.e., Japanese and Hawaiian lineations). Their unprecedented high data resolution documents a detailed anomaly character (i.e., amplitudes and wavelengths). We confirm that this magnetic anomaly record shows a coherent anomaly sequence from M29 back in time to M42 with previously suggested from the Japanese lineation in the Pigafetta Basin. Especially noticeable is the M39-M41 Low Amplitude Zone defined in the Pigafetta Bsin, which potentially defines the bounds of JQZ seafloor. We assessed the anomaly source with regard to the crustal architecture, including the effects of Cretaceous volcanism on crustal magnetization and conclude that the anomaly character faithfully represents changes in geomagnetic field intensity and polarity over time and is mostly free of any overprint of the original Jurassic magnetic remanence by later Cretaceous volcanism. We have constructed polarity block models (RMS Japanese M-series sequence. The anomalously high reversal rates during a period of apparent low field intensity suggests a unique period of geomagnetic field behavior in Earth's history.

  11. The Jurassic of North-East Greenland: Jurassic dinoflagellate cysts from Hochstetter Forland, North-East Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki, Stefan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Three sections in Hochstetter Forland, North-East Greenland, referred to the Jurassic Payer Dal and Bernbjerg Formations, have been analysed for dinoflagellate cysts. The dinoflagellate cysts,new finds of ammonites and previously recorded marine faunas form the basis for improved dating of the succession. The basal strata of the Payer Dal Formation at Kulhus is here dated as Late Callovian, Peltoceras athleta Chronozone, based on the presence of relatively abundant Limbicysta bjaerkei, Mendicodinium groenlandicum, Rhychoniopsis cladophora and Tubotuberella dangeardii in an otherwise poor Upper Callovian dinoflagellate assemblage. Ammoniteshave not been recorded from these strata. The upper Payer Dal Formation at Agnetesøelven is dated as Late Oxfordian, Amoeboceras glosense – Amoeboceras serratum Chronozones, based onthe presence of Sciniodinium crystallinum, together with Cribroperidinium granuligera and Stephanelytron sp. The age is in accordance with ammonites present in the uppermost part ofthe formation at Søndre Muslingebjerg. New ammonites in the Bernbjerg Formation at Agnetesøelven together with dinoflagellate cysts indicate an earliest Kimmeridgian age, Raseniacymodoce and Aulacostephanoides mutabilis Chronozones.The Upper Callovian dinoflagellate cysts from Hochstetter Forland belong to a local brackish to marginal marine assemblage, which only allows a fairly broad correlation to coeval assemblagesin central East Greenland. In contrast, the Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian assemblages are fully marine and can be correlated from Milne Land in central East Greenland via Hochstetter Forland to Peary Land in eastern North Greenland.

  12. Supra-salt normal fault growth during the rise and fall of a diapir: Perspectives from 3D seismic reflection data, Norwegian North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedt, Anette B. M.; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2016-10-01

    Normal faulting and the deep subsurface flow of salt are key processes controlling the structural development of many salt-bearing sedimentary basins. However, our detailed understanding of the spatial and temporal relationship between normal faulting and salt movement is poor due to a lack of natural examples constraining their geometric and kinematic relationship in three-dimensions. To improve our understanding of these processes, we here use 3D seismic reflection and borehole data from the Egersund Basin, offshore Norway, to determine the structure and growth of a normal fault array formed during the birth, growth and decay of an array of salt structures. We show that the fault array and salt structures developed in response to: (i) Late Triassic-to-Middle Jurassic extension, which involved thick-skinned, sub-salt and thin-skinned supra-salt faulting with the latter driving reactive diapirism; (ii) Early Cretaceous extensional collapse of the walls; and (iii) Jurassic-to-Neogene, active and passive diapirism, which was at least partly coeval with and occurred along-strike from areas of reactive diapirism and wall collapse. Our study supports physical model predictions, showcasing a three-dimensional example of how protracted, multiphase salt diapirism can influence the structure and growth of normal fault arrays.

  13. Structuring of The Jurassic Basin of Chott in Gabes region (Southern Tunisia) associated to the Liassic rifting from geophysical and well data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassine, Mouna; Abbes, Chedly; Azaiez, Hajer; Gabtni, Hakim; Bouzid, Wajih

    2016-04-01

    either by intrusions along major faults or as domes. They are especially observed on the northern margin of the basin where they delimit subsiding mini-basins bordered by high zones. The Middle Jurassic seismic horizons are then billeted in these mini-basins where they show an aggradational and retrogradational onlaps between the gutters zones and the salt rise zones. The Upper carbonate term of the series, attributed to the Upper Callovian- Tithonian sealed in unconformity the entire system. This early salt migration, that seems to be associated to the Liassic extension, was already mentioned in the Central Atlas (Bedir M. and al., 2000; D. Tanfous and al., 2005) and along the north-south chain (C . Gourmelen, 1984; C. Abbes, 2004). The residual gravity anomaly map shows a complex gravity field. Negative anomalies of -7.2 to -3.2 mlGal coincide with the graben structures; while positive anomalies reaching 2.2 mlGal overlap with horst structures. Moreover, Euler solutions reveal only the deep faults sealed by the upper member Callovo- Tithonian of the series, preferentially oriented in a direction close to East-West.

  14. Episodic Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous intraplate compression in Central Patagonia during Gondwana breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, César; Gianni, Guido; Echaurren, Andrés; Kingler, Federico Lince; Folguera, Andrés

    2016-12-01

    From Lower Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous, several intraplate compression events affected discrete sectors of Central Patagonia, under a general context of crustal extension associated with Gondwana breakup. This was demonstrated by means of 2D and 3D seismic and borehole data, which show partial inversion of Lower and Middle Jurassic extensional structures of the Chubut and Cañadón Asfalto basins, during the earliest stages of breakup. A comparison with surrounding areas in Patagonia, where similar Jurassic intraplate compression was described, allowed the discrimination of three discrete pulses of subtle compression (C1: ∼188-185 Ma; C2: ∼170-163; C3: ∼157-136? Ma). Interestingly, episodic intraplate compressional events are closely followed by high flux magmatic events linked to the westward expansion of the Karoo-Ferrar thermal anomaly, which impacted on the lithosphere of southwest Gondwana in Lower Jurassic. In addition, we determined the approximate direction of the main compressive strain (σ1) compatible with other Jurassic intraplate belts of South America. These observations led us to propose a linkage between a thermo mechanically weakened continental crust due to LIPs activity, changes in plate motions and ridge-push forces generated by the opening of the Weddell Sea, in order to explain intraplate shortening, interrupted while Karoo LIPs magmatic invigoration took place.

  15. Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Jurassic basins in Mongolia and neighboring China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Genyao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The important event in Jurassic tectonics in Mongolia was the subduction and closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean; correspondingly, basin evolution can be divided into two main stages, related to the orogeny and collapse of the orogenic belt, respectively. The developing of Early–Middle Jurassic basins to the north of the ocean resulted from back-arc extension. The fossil sutures, from the China–SE Asia sub-continent to the south of the ocean, were rejuvenated by subduction-related orogeny; in addition, the Yanshanian intra-continental movement occurred. Three Early–Middle Jurassic molasse basins were developed by movement in Inner Mongolia, all of which stretched westwards (or northwards into Mongolia; therefore, the molasse basins in eastern and southern Mongolia had the same geometric and kinematic features as the basins in the Inner Mongolia. Owing to the collapse of the Mongolia-Okhotsk orogenic belt, a group of rift basins developed during the Late Jurassic. In eastern Mongolia, the NE orientated extensional basins were controlled by the neogenic NE-structure. The contemporary basins in southern Mongolia and the neighboring areas in China were constrained by remobilization (inherited activation of the latitudinal or ENE-directional basement structures. Three stages can be recognized in the evolution of the Early–Middle Jurassic basins after reversal; the basins also experienced four episodes of reformation.

  16. The Oldest Jurassic Dinosaur: A Basal Neotheropod from the Hettangian of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martill, David M; Vidovic, Steven U; Howells, Cindy; Nudds, John R

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 40% of a skeleton including cranial and postcranial remains representing a new genus and species of basal neotheropod dinosaur is described. It was collected from fallen blocks from a sea cliff that exposes Late Triassic and Early Jurassic marine and quasi marine strata on the south Wales coast near the city of Cardiff. Matrix comparisons indicate that the specimen is from the lithological Jurassic part of the sequence, below the first occurrence of the index ammonite Psiloceras planorbis and above the last occurrence of the Rhaetian conodont Chirodella verecunda. Associated fauna of echinoderms and bivalves indicate that the specimen had drifted out to sea, presumably from the nearby Welsh Massif and associated islands (St David's Archipelago). Its occurrence close to the base of the Blue Lias Formation (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian) makes it the oldest known Jurassic dinosaur and it represents the first dinosaur skeleton from the Jurassic of Wales. A cladistic analysis indicates basal neotheropodan affinities, but the specimen retains plesiomorphic characters which it shares with Tawa and Daemonosaurus.

  17. Early Jurassic allotherians from South Wales (United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Clemens

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossils from two fissure fillings in Pant Quarry (designated Pant 4 and Pant 5, South Wales, United Kingdom, probably of Early Jurassic age document a taxonomically diverse vertebrate fauna, the Morganucodon-sphenodont fauna, composed of several kinds of reptiles, non-mammalian synapsids, and mammals. Six isolated molariform teeth from Pant 4 and 5 fissures clearly record the presence of Thomasia (Mammalia, Allotheria, Haramiyidae, a genus previously known only from purported Late Triassic faunas of southwestern England, France, Belgium, Luxemburg, Germany, and Switzerland. Small morphological differences from teeth in the larger English and continental European samples warrant identification of the Welsh material as Thomasia cf. moorei. The highly derived morphology of an isolated molariform tooth from Pant 5 fissure indicates the presence of another, possibly allotherian, taxon. Fossilien aus zwei wahrscheinlich unterjurassischen Spaltenfüllungen (Pant 4 und Pant 5 im Steinbruch Pant in Süd-Wales dokumentieren eine taxonomisch diverse Wirbeltierfauna. Diese Morganucodon-Sphenodontiden-Fauna besteht aus verschiedenen Formen von Reptilien, Synapsiden und Säugetieren. Sechs isolierte molariforme Zähne aus den Spaltenfüllungen Pant 4 und Pant 5 belegen eindeutig das Vorkommen von Thomasia (Mammalia, Allotheria, Haramiyidae, einer bisher nur aus vermutlich obertriassischen Faunen Südwest-Englands, Frankreichs, Belgiens, Luxemburgs, Deutschlands und der Schweiz bekannten Gattung. Geringe morphologische Unterschiede zu dem umfangreicheren Material aus England und Kontinental-Europa sprechen für die Identifikation des neuen Materials als Thomasia cf. moorei. Die stark abgeleitete Morphologie eines isolierten molariformen Zahnes aus der Spalte Pant 5 belegt das Vorkommen eines anderen Taxons, das möglicherweise auch den Allotheria zuzuordnen ist. doi:10.1002/mmng.200600018

  18. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  19. Chronological study of the pre-jurassic basement rocks of southern Patagonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankhurst, R.J; Rapela, C.W; Loske, W.P; Fanning, C.M

    2001-01-01

    Southern Patagonia east of the Andes was the site of extensive rhyolite volcanism during the Jurassic rifting of Gondwana and subsequent shallow marine basin formation during the Cretaceous. Thus exposures of pre-Jurassic basement are extremely sparse. Nevertheless, extraction of the maximum amount of information from these scattered outcrops of granite and metamorphic rocks is crucial to assessment of the Palaeozoic and earliest Mesozoic history and crustal structure of the Pacific margin of the supercontinent. In particular, the identification and possible correlation of early terrane accretion on this margin depends on comparison of pre-Jurassic igneous and metamorphic events with adjacent areas. This is a preliminary report on work now in progress to this end (au)

  20. Resetting the evolution of marine reptiles at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Philippa M; Ruta, Marcello; Benton, Michael J

    2011-05-17

    Ichthyosaurs were important marine predators in the Early Jurassic, and an abundant and diverse component of Mesozoic marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, however, the Early Jurassic species represent a reduced remnant of their former significance in the Triassic. Ichthyosaurs passed through an evolutionary bottleneck at, or close to, the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, which reduced their diversity to as few as three or four lineages. Diversity bounced back to some extent in the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction, but disparity remained at less than one-tenth of pre-extinction levels, and never recovered. The group remained at low diversity and disparity for its final 100 Myr. The end-Triassic mass extinction had a previously unsuspected profound effect in resetting the evolution of apex marine predators of the Mesozoic.

  1. Stratigraphy and macrofauna of the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Marrat Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Gameil, Mohamed; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled M.

    2017-10-01

    The stratigraphy and macrofaunal content of the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Marrat Formation was studied at Khashm adh Dhibi, central Saudi Arabia. The studied succession is dominated by limestones and dolomites, with subordinate occurrences of sandstones, siltstones and claystones. The formation is highly fossiliferous with brachiopods, gastropods, bivalves, ammonites and echinoids, particularly the lower and upper members. Twenty nine species are identified, they include 7 species of brachiopods, 8 gastropods, 8 bivalves, 4 ammonites and 2 echinoids. Many of the identified fauna are correlated with Jurassic equivalents in Jordan, Italy, Morocco, Egypt and India. Three gastropod species: Globularia subumbilicata, Ampullospira sp., Purpuroidea peristriata and seven bivalve species: Palaeonucula lateralis, Chlamys (Radulopecten) fibrosa, Eligmus weiri, E.integer, E. asiaticus, Musculus somaliensis and Pholadomya orientalis were recognized for the first time in the Lower Jurassic deposits of Saudi Arabia.

  2. Faunal turnover of marine tetrapods during the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Druckenmiller, Patrick S

    2014-02-01

    Marine and terrestrial animals show a mosaic of lineage extinctions and diversifications during the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition. However, despite its potential importance in shaping animal evolution, few palaeontological studies have focussed on this interval and the possible climate and biotic drivers of its faunal turnover. In consequence evolutionary patterns in most groups are poorly understood. We use a new, large morphological dataset to examine patterns of lineage diversity and disparity (variety of form) in the marine tetrapod clade Plesiosauria, and compare these patterns with those of other organisms. Although seven plesiosaurian lineages have been hypothesised as crossing the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, our most parsimonious topology suggests the number was only three. The robust recovery of a novel group including most Cretaceous plesiosauroids (Xenopsaria, new clade) is instrumental in this result. Substantial plesiosaurian turnover occurred during the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary interval, including the loss of substantial pliosaurid, and cryptoclidid diversity and disparity, followed by the radiation of Xenopsaria during the Early Cretaceous. Possible physical drivers of this turnover include climatic fluctuations that influenced oceanic productivity and diversity: Late Jurassic climates were characterised by widespread global monsoonal conditions and increased nutrient flux into the opening Atlantic-Tethys, resulting in eutrophication and a highly productive, but taxonomically depauperate, plankton. Latest Jurassic and Early Cretaceous climates were more arid, resulting in oligotrophic ocean conditions and high taxonomic diversity of radiolarians, calcareous nannoplankton and possibly ammonoids. However, the observation of discordant extinction patterns in other marine tetrapod groups such as ichthyosaurs and marine crocodylomorphs suggests that clade-specific factors may have been more important than overarching extrinsic drivers of faunal

  3. The Jurassic-early Cretaceous Ilo batholith of southern coastal Peru: geology, geochronology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, Flora; Sempere, Thierry; Spikings, Richard; Schaltegger, Urs

    2010-05-01

    The Ilo batholith (17°00 - 18°30 S) crops out in an area of about 20 by 100 km, along the coast of southern Peru. This batholith is emplaced into the ‘Chocolate‘ Formation of late Permian to middle Jurassic age, which consists of more than 1000 m of basaltic and andesitic lavas, with interbedded volcanic agglomerates and breccias. The Ilo Batholith is considered to be a rarely exposed fragment of the Jurassic arc in Peru. Our aim is to reconstruct the magmatic evolution of this batholith, and place it within the context of long-lasting magma genesis along the active Andean margin since the Paleozoic. Sampling for dating and geochemical analyses was carried out along several cross sections through the batholith that were exposed by post-intrusion eastward tilting of 20-30°. Sparse previous work postulates early to middle Jurassic and partially early Cretaceous emplacement, on the basis of conventional K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating methods in the Ilo area. Twenty new U-Pb zircon ages (LA-ICP-MS and CA-ID-TIMS) accompanied by geochemical data suggests the Ilo batholith formed via the amalgamation of middle Jurassic and early Cretaceous, subduction-related plutons. Preliminary Hf isotope studies reveal a primitive mantle source for middle Jurassic intrusions. Additional Sr, Nd and Hf isotope analyses are planned to further resolve the source regions of different pulses of plutonic activity. We strongly suggest that batholith emplacement was at least partly coeval with the emplacement of the late Permian to middle Jurassic Chocolate Formation, which was deposited in an extensional tectonic regime. Our age results and geochemical signature fit into the scheme of episodic emplacement of huge amounts of subduction related magmatism that is observed throughout the whole Andean event, particularly during the middle Jurassic onset of the first Andean cycle (southern Peru, northern Chile and southern Argentina). Although the exact geodynamic setting remains to be precisely

  4. Sea Salt vs. Table Salt: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and healthy eating What's the difference between sea salt and table salt? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. The main differences between sea salt and table salt are in their taste, texture ...

  5. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  6. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  7. The palaeogeography of Sundaland and Wallacea since the Late Jurassic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hall

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The continental core of Southeast (SE Asia, Sundaland, was assembled from Gondwana fragments by the Early Mesozoic. Continental blocks rifted from Australia in the Jurassic [South West (SW Borneo, East Java-West Sulawesi-Sumba], and the Woyla intraoceanic arc of Sumatra, were added to Sundaland in the Cretaceous. These fragments probably included emergent areas and could have carried a terrestrial flora and fauna. Sarawak, the offshore Luconia-Dangerous Grounds areas, and Palawan include Asian continental material. These probably represent a wide accretionary zone at the Asia-Pacific boundary, which was an active continental margin until the mid Cretaceous. Subduction ceased around Sundaland in the Late Cretaceous, and from about 80 Ma most of Sundaland was emergent, physically connected to Asia, but separated by deep oceans from India and Australia. India moved rapidly north during the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic but there is no evidence that it made contact with SE Asia prior to collision with Asia. One or more arc-India collisions during the Eocene may have preceded India-Asia collision. The arcs could have provided dispersal pathways from India into SE Asia before final suturing of the two continents. During the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic there was no significant subduction beneath Sumatra, Java and Borneo. At about 45 Ma Australia began to move north, subduction resumed and there was widespread rifting within Sundaland. During the Paleogene east and north Borneo were largely submerged, the Makassar Straits became a wide marine barrier within Sundaland, and West Sulawesi was separated from Sundaland but included land. By the Early Miocene the proto-South China Sea had been eliminated by subduction leading to emergence of land in central Borneo, Sabah and Palawan. Australia-SE Asia collision began, eliminating the former deep ocean separating the two continents, and forming the region now known as Wallacea. The microplate or

  8. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  9. High resolution stratigraphy of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary interval in the Gresten Klippenbelt (Austria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeneder, A.; Halásová, E.; Kroh, A.; Mayrhofer, S.; Pruner, Petr; Reháková, D.; Schnabl, Petr; Sprovieri, M.; Wagreich, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 5 (2010), s. 365-381 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1365 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary * Penninic Ocean, * paleoecology * paleogeography * environmental changes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2010

  10. New finds of stegosaur tracks from the Upper Jurassic Lourinhã formation, Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateus, Octavio; Milàn, Jesper; Romano, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Eleven new tracks from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal are described and attributed to the stegosaurian ichnogenus Deltapodus. One track exhibits exceptionally well−preserved impressions of skin on the plantar surface, showing the stegosaur foot to be covered by closely spaced skin tubercles of ca...

  11. New Chironomidae (Diptera) with elongate proboscises from the Late Jurassic of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Elena D.; Przhiboro, Andrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Chironomidae with well-developed elongate proboscises are described from a Late Jurassic site Shar Teg in SW Mongolia. These are named Cretaenne rasnicyni sp. n., Podonomius blepharis sp. n., Podonomius macromastix sp. n., ?Podonomius robustus sp. n. PMID:22259285

  12. Palynology of uppermost Jurassic and lowermost Cretaceous strata in the Eastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, D.

    1965-01-01

    The present investigation is a systematical treatment of the sporomorphs from strata at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the eastern Netherlands Twente area, and an attempt to apply palynology to detailed stratigraphical study, by making use of quantitative pollen analyses. The rock samples used

  13. Late Jurassic low latitude of Central Iran: paleogeographic and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Massimo; Muttoni, Giovanni; Cifelli, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The individual blocks forming present-day Central Iran are now comprised between the Zagros Neo-Tethys suture to the south and the Alborz Palaeo-Tethys suture to the north. At the end of the Palaeozoic, the Iranian blocks rifted away from the northern margin of Gondwana as consequence of the opening of the Neo-Tethys, and collided with Eurasia during the Late Triassic, giving place to the Eo-Cimmerian orogeny. From then on, the Iranian block(s) should have maintained European affinity. Modern generations of apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) show the occurrence in North American and African coordinates of a major and rapid shift in pole position (=plate shift) during the Middle-Late Jurassic. This so-called monster polar shift is predicted also for Eurasia from the North Atlantic plate circuit, but Jurassic data from this continent are scanty and problematic. Here, we present paleomagnetic data from the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian (Upper Jurassic) Garedu Formation of Iran. Paleomagnetic component directions of primary (pre-folding) age indicate a paleolatitude of deposition of 10°N ± 5° that is in excellent agreement with the latitude drop predicted for Iran from APWPs incorporating the Jurassic monster polar shift. We show that paleolatitudes calculated from these APWPs, used in conjunction with simple zonal climate belts, better explain the overall stratigraphic evolution of Iran during the Mesozoic.

  14. First records of crocodyle and pterosaur tracks in the Upper Jurassic of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateus, Octavio; Milàn, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Jurassic of Portugal has a rich vertebrate fauna well documented from both body and trace fossils. Although the occurrence of crocodyles and pterosaurs is well documented from body fossils, trace fossils from both groups were unknown until now. Here we describe an isolated crocodyle-lik...

  15. A new spelaeogriphacean (Crustacea: Peracarida) from the Upper Jurassic of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan-bin, Shen; Taylor, Rod S.; Schram, Frederick R.

    1998-01-01

    A new monotypic genus of Spelaeogriphacea is described from the Upper Jurassic of Liaoning Province, north-east China. This new genus and species brings the number of known spelaeogriphacean taxa to four, the others being two recent forms from Brazil and South Africa, and one from the Carboniferous

  16. Permeability, compressibility and porosity of Jurassic shale from the Norwegian-Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Krogsbøll, Anette

    2014-01-01

    The Fjerritslev Formation in the Norwegian-Danish Basin forms the main seal to Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic sandstone reservoirs. In order to estimate the sealing potential and rock properties, samples from the deep wells Vedsted-1 in Jylland, and Stenlille-2 and Stenlille-5 on Sjael-land, were ...

  17. Early and Middle Jurassic climate changes: implications for palaeoceanography and tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korte, Christoph; Hesselbo, Stephen; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of ‘ice ages’ within the overall warm Jurassic Period has been the subject of much discussion and not a little controversy. Recently it has been suggested on the basis of occurrence of glendonites in circum-Arctic basins that cold episodes took place in the Jurassic (Price, 1999; R...... by substantial changes in oceanic current patterns which were initiated by a major tectonic uplift that prevented the transport of heat to Polar Regions....... three pronounced oxygen isotope ‘Ice Age’ cycles, and the subsequent well known Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic ‘supergreenhouse’ Event is followed by very warm seawater temperatures in the late Toarcian. Moreover, a very pronounced and effective cooling occurred during the latest Toarcian and early Aalenian...... (Early-Middle Jurassic Boundary Event) resulted in substantial expansion of Arctic climates to palaeolatitudes as low as 45° and in distinctly cooler seawater temperatures in lower latitude European seas. At least the extensive cooling at the Early-Middle Jurassic Boundary Event was most likely driven...

  18. Depositional environments and oil potential of Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks within the Seychelles microcontinent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, P.S.; Joseph, P.R.; Samson, P.J. [Seychelles National Oil Co., Mahe (Seychelles)

    1998-12-31

    The Seychelles microcontinent became isolated between the Somali, Mascarene and Arabian basins of the Indian Ocean as a result of the Mesozoic fragmentation of Gondwana. Major rifting events occurred during the Triassic-Middle Jurassic and Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Santonian and Maastrichtian) during which shaly source rock facies accumulated in principally marginal marine/deltaic environments. Between these times, post-rift passive margin deposition within restricted to open marine environments produced shaly source rocks during late Middle Jurasic-Early Cretaceous, Campanian-Maastrichtian and Paleocene times. Recent geochemical analysis of cuttings from the Seagull Shoals-1 well has identified an oil-prone liptinitic (Type II) coaly shale within early Middle Jurassic abandoned deltaic deposits. This coaly source rock is regionally developed, having also been identified in the Majunja and Morondava basins of Madagascar. Oil-prone Type II organic matter has also been identified in the Owen Bank A-1 well within restricted marine shales of late Middle Jurassic age. These shales are part of a thick post-rift source rock sequence that extends into the Early Cretaceous and is in part correlative with the proven Late Jurassic Uarandab Shale of Somalia. Analysis of Campanian marine shales from Reith Bank-1 well identified significant dilution of total organic carbon content in composite, compared to picked, well cuttings samples. This finding supports a published inference that these post-rift shales have source rock potential. (author)

  19. Neutron activation analysis in geochemical characterization of Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks from the Nordvik Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk; Košťák, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 1 (2010), s. 211-219 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary * Nordvik Peninsula * Iridium anomaly Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2010

  20. Neutron activation analysis in geochemical characterization of Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks from the Nordvik Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Z.; Košťák, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 1 (2010), s. 211-219 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary * Nordvik Peninsula * Iridium anomaly Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2010

  1. Review of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy in Western Cameros basin, Northern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Maria del Pilar Clemente

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Cameros basin has been reviewed. In Western Cameros the stratigraphic sections are condensed but they have a parallel development with the basin depocentre and the same groups have been identified. The Tera Group consists of two formations: ...

  2. Basin geodynamics and sequence stratigraphy of Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic deposits of Southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Cédric; Hadouth, Suhail; Bouaziz, Samir; Lathuilière, Bernard; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2016-05-01

    Aims of this paper are to propose a geodynamic and sequential framework for the late Triassic and early Jurassic of and south Tunisia and to evidence the impact of local tectonics on the stratigraphic architecture. Facies of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic of Southern Tunisia have been interpreted in terms of depositional environments. A sequential framework and correlation schemes are proposed for outcrops and subsurface transects. Nineteen middle frequency sequences inserted in three and a half low frequency transgression/regression cycles were evidenced. Despite some datation uncertainties and the unknown durations of Lower Jurassic cycles, middle frequency sequences appear to be controlled by eustasy. In contrast the tectonics acted as an important control on low frequency cycles. The Carnian flooding was certainly favored by the last stages of a rifting episode which started during the Permian. The regression accompanied by the formation of stacked angular unconformities and the deposition of lowstand deposits during the late Carnian and Norian occured during the uplift and tilting of the northern basin margins. The transpressional activity of the Jeffara fault system generated the uplift of the Tebaga of Medenine high from the late Carnian and led to the Rhaetian regional angular Sidi Stout Unconformity. Facies analysis and well-log correlations permitted to evidence that Rhaetian to Lower Jurassic Messaoudi dolomites correspond to brecciated dolomites present on the Sidi Stout unconformity in the North Dahar area. The Early-cimmerian compressional event is a possible origin for the global uplift of the northern African margin and Western Europe during the late Carnian and the Norian. During the Rhaetian and the early Jurassic a new episode of normal faulting occured during the third low frequency flooding. This tectonosedimentary evolution ranges within the general geodynamic framework of the north Gondwana margin controlled by the opening of both

  3. Middle-Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic tetrapod track assemblages of southern Tunisia, Sahara Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Soussi, Mohamed; Boukhalfa, Kamel; Gierliński, Gerard D.

    2017-05-01

    Three tetrapod track assemblages from the early-middle Mesozoic of southern Tunisia are reported. The strata exposed at the Tejra 2 clay-pit near the Medenine and Rehach site, located in the vicinity of Kirchaou, contain the first tetrapod tracks found in the Triassic of Tunisia. The Middle Jurassic (early Aalenian) dinosaur tracks are reported from the Mestaoua plain near Tataouine. In the Middle Triassic outcrop of the Tejra 2 clay-pit, tridactyl tracks of small and medium-sized dinosauromorphs, were discovered. These tracks represent the oldest evidence of dinosaur-lineage elements in the Triassic deposits of Tunisia. Similar tracks have been described from the Middle Triassic of Argentina, France and Morocco. An isolated set of the manus and pes of a quadrupedal tetrapod discovered in Late Triassic Rehach tracksite is referred to a therapsid tracemaker. The Middle Jurassic deposits of the Mestaoua plain reveal small and large tridactyl theropod dinosaur tracks (Theropoda track indet. A-C). Based on comparison with the abundant record of Triassic tetrapod ichnofossils from Europe and North America, the ichnofauna described here indicates the presence of a therapsid-dinosauromorph ichnoassociation (without typical Chirotheriidae tracks) in the Middle and Late Triassic, which sheds light on the dispersal of the Middle-Upper Triassic tetrapod ichnofaunas in this part of Gondwana. The reported Middle Jurassic ichnofauna show close similarities to dinosaur track assemblages from the Lower and Middle Jurassic of northwestern Africa, North America, Europe and also southeastern Asia. Sedimentological and lithostratigraphic data of each new tracksite have been defined on published data and new observations. Taken together, these discoveries present a tantalizing window into the evolutionary history of tetrapods from the Triassic and Jurassic of southern Tunisia. Given the limited early Mesozoic tetrapod record from the region, these discoveries are of both temporal and

  4. Age, budget and dynamics of an active salt extrusion in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, C. J.; Jarvis, R. J.

    The Hormuz salt of Kuh-e-Namak, Iran began rising through its Phanerozoic cover in Jurassic times and had surfaced by Cretaceous times. In Miocene times, the still-active Zagros folds began to develop and the salt is still extruding to feed a massive topographic dome and two surface flows of salt which have previously been called salt glaciers but are here called namakiers. Two crude but independent estimates for the rate of salt extrusion and loss are shown to balance the salt budget if the current salt dynamics are assumed to be in steady state. First, to replace the extrusive salt likely to be lost in solution in the annual rainfall, the salt must rise at an average velocity of about 11 cm a -1. Second, the foliation pattern shows that the extruding (and partially dissolved) salt column spreads under its own weight. The maximum height of the salt dome is consistent with a viscous fluid with a viscosity of 2.6 × 10 17 poises extruding from its orifice at a rate of almost 17 cm a -1. Both estimates are consistent in indicating that salt can extrude onto the surface 42-85 times faster than the average long term rate at which salt diapirs rise to the surface. The structure, fabrics, textures and deformation mechanisms of the impure halite all change along the path of the extrusive salt from the dome down the length of both namakiers. Such changes tend to occur when the flowing salt encounters changes in its boundary conditions, and the recognition of buried namakiers is discussed in the light of such observations. Episodes of salt flow at a rate of 0.5 m per day have been measured along the margin of the N namakier after significant rain showers. Such brief episodes of rapid flow alternate with long periods when the namakier is dry and stationary. The shape of the colour bands cropping out on the N namakier indicate that the flow over the surface of impure salt with a mylonitic texture obeys a power law with n ≈ 3. Although the reported annual rainfall has the

  5. Geology of the north end of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Leonard Meade

    1976-01-01

    This report describes the geology and hydrology of a portion of the Salt Valley anticline lying north of Moab, Utah, that is being studied as a potential site for underground storage of nuclear waste in salt. Selection of this area was based on recommendations made in an earlier appraisal of the potential of Paradox basin salt deposits for such use. Part of sec. 5, T. 23 S., R. 20 E. has been selected as a site for subsurface investigation as a potential repository for radioactive waste. This site has easy access to transportation, is on public land, is isolated from human habitation, is not visible from Arches National Park, and the salt body lies within about 800 feet (244 m) of the surface. Further exploration should include investigation of possible ground water in the caprock and physical exploration of the salt body to identify a thick bed of salt for use as a storage zone that can be isolated from the shaly interbeds that possibly contain quantities of hydrocarbons. Salt Valley anticline, a northwest-trending diapiric structure, consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks arched over a thick core of salt of the Paradox Member of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation. Salt began to migrate to form and/or develop this structure shortly after it was deposited, probably in response to faulting. This migration caused upwelling of the salt creating a linear positive area. This positive area, in turn, caused increased deposition of sediments in adjacent areas which further enhanced salt migration. Not until late Jurassic time had flowage of the salt slowed sufficiently to allow sediments of the Morrison and younger formations to be deposited across the salt welt. A thick cap of insoluble residue was formed on top of the salt diapir as a result of salt dissolution through time. The crest of the anticline is breached; it collapsed in two stages during the Tertiary Period. The first stage was graben collapse during the early Tertiary; the second stage occurred after

  6. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  7. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  8. Integrated geophysical study of the Triassic salt bodies' geometry and evolution in central Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiez, Hajer; Amri, Dorra Tanfous; Gabtni, Hakim; Bedir, Mourad; Soussi, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive study, integrating gravity, magnetic and seismic reflection data, has been used to resolve the complex Triassic salt body geometry and evolution in central Tunisia. Regional seismic lines across the study area show a detachment level in the Upper Triassic evaporites, associated with chaotic seismic facies below the Souinia, Majoura, and Mezzouna structures. The Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous seismic horizons display pinching-outs and onlapping around these structures. A stack-velocity section confirms the existence of a high-velocity body beneath the Souinia Mountain. Regional gravity and magnetic profiles in this area were elaborated from ETAP (the Tunisian Firm of Petroleum Activities) measure stations. These profiles were plotted following the same layout from the west (Souinia) to the east (Mezzouna), across the Majoura and Kharrouba mountains. They highlight associated gravity and magnetic negative anomalies. These gravity and magnetic data coupled to the reflection seismic data demonstrate that, in the Souinia, Majoura, and El Hafey zones, the Triassic salt reaches a salt pillow and a salt-dome stage, without piercing the cover. These stages are expressed by moderately low gravity anomalies. On the other hand, in the Mezzouna area (part of the North-South Axis), the Triassic salt had pierced its cover during the Upper Cretaceous and the Tertiary, reaching a more advanced stage as a salt diapir and salt wall. These stages express important low gravity and magnetic anomalies. These results confirm the model of Tanfous et al. (2005) of halokinetic movements by fault intrusions inducing, from the west to the east, structures at different stages of salt pillow, salt dome, and salt diapir.

  9. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  10. TRANSITION FROM CARBONATE PLATFORM TO PELAGIC DEPOSITION (MID JURASSIC- LATE CRETACEOUS, VOURINOS MASSIF, NORTHERN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAOS CARRAS

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A Jurassic- Cretaceous carbonate succession crops out along the Zyghosti Rema, Kozani (Northern Greece. The substratum consists of the ophiolitic succession of the Vourinos Massif (Pelagonian Domain: serpentinites tectonically overlain by basalts, with thin lenses of radiolarian cherts of middle Bathonian age. The contact with the overlying Jurassic limestones is tectonic. Eight informal units have been distinguished within the Mesozoic limestones, from the base upwards. (A bioclastic, intraclastic and oolitic packstone (Callovian- Oxfordian. (B bioclastic packstone and coral boundstone (Oxfordian . (C bioclastic and oncoidal wackestone with Clypeina jurassica (Oxfordian- Upper Kimmeridgian. (D (Upper Kimmeridgian- Portlandian: oncoidal packstone and rudstone (facies D1; intraclastic and bioclastic grainstone and packstone (facies D2; neptunian dykes with intraclastic and bioclastic wackestone and packstone filling (facies D3; neptunian dykes with Fe-Mn rich laterite filling and with pink silty filling of early Late Cretaceous age. An unconformity surface, due to emersion and erosion of the platform during the latest Jurassic- Early Cretaceous, is overlain by (E intraclastic, bioclastic packstone and grainstone (Cenomanian. (F massive body of debrites with coral, echinoderm, algae and rudist large clasts (facies F1 (Cenomanian; turbiditic beds of bioclastic, intraclastic and lithoclastic rudstone and grainstone (facies F2. (G thin bedded bioclastic mudstone and wackestone with planktonic foraminifers and radiolarians, alternating with turbiditic beds of bioclastic, intraclastic packstone and rudstone and with conglomeratic levels and slumped beds of the previous turbidites (upper Santonian- lower Campanian. (H: bioclastic packstone with planktonic foraminifers (facies H1 (lower Campanian - ?Maastrichtian; amalgamated turbiditic beds of bioclastic wackestone and packstone with planktonic foraminifers (facies H2; turbiditic beds of bioclastic

  11. Correlation of basement rocks from Waka Nui-1 and Awhitu-1, and the Jurassic regional geology of Zealandia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.; Raine, J.I.; Cook, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Core and cuttings of sandstone and mudstone from Waka Nui-1, an offshore oil exploration well west of Northland, and from Awhitu-1, a water bore in western Auckland, add to the growing number of samples retrieved from otherwise inaccessible basement of the Zealandia continent. On the basis of pollen and spores, the sedimentary rocks at the bottom of Waka Nui-1 are dated as Early-Middle Jurassic, and rocks from Awhitu-1 are Late Jurassic. On the basis of age, sandstone petrology, and geographic position, a correlation of rocks in both wells with Murihiku Terrane is probable. In New Zealand, Jurassic sedimentary rocks have usually been interpreted in a tectonostratigraphic terrane context. An alternative way to look at the New Zealand Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks is as potentially interconnected forearc, intra-arc, back-arc, and intracontinental basins that evolved adjacent to an active margin. (author). 47 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Revised models for hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation in Jurassic coal measures of the Turpan basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Maowen; Stasiuk, L.D. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Bao Jianping [Jianghan Petroleum University, Hubei (China); Lin, R. [Petroleum University (Beijing), Changping (China); Yuan Mingsheng [PetroChina Tu-Ha Oilfield Company, Xingjiang (China)

    2001-07-01

    Whether or not the Lower-Middle Jurassic coal measures in the Turpan basin of NW China have generated commercial quantities of liquid petroleums is a problem of considerable importance that remains contentious as it has not yet been resolved unequivocally. This study provides evidence against the Jurassic humic coals as the only major source for the oils discovered in the Taibei depression of this basin and suggests additional significant contributions from the Upper Permian and Middle-Lower Jurassic lacustrine source rocks. The Carboniferous-Permian marine source rocks may have been important also in limited locations along the major basement faults. Molecular and petrographic data indicate that the majority of the Middle Jurassic strata are currently immature or marginally mature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. Within the major depocenters, the Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-bearing strata of the Baodaowan and Xishanyao formations has reached the conventional oil window (i.e. with vitrinite reflectance >0.7 per cent Ro). Pre-Jurassic (Upper Permian in particular) derived hydrocarbons appear to be widespread in extracts of fractured Jurassic coal and fine-grained rocks. Large differences have been observed in the absolute concentrations of biomarker compounds in rock extracts of various source intervals. Thus, 'coaly' biomarker signatures of the oils most likely resulted from mixing and migration contamination when hydrocarbons derived from mature source rocks migrated up through highly fractured coal seams along deep-seated faults. In addition to conventional exploration targets, revised petroleum generation and accumulation models predict that the focus in the Turpan basin should also include deep structures within the Carboniferous-Permian strata and subtle, low magnitude anticlines and stratigraphic traps within thr Triassic-Jurassic sections. (author)

  13. First American record of the Jurassic ichnogenus Deltapodus and a review of the fossil record of stegosaurian footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper; Chiappe, Luis M

    2009-01-01

    We describe the first American stegosaur track of the ichnospecies Deltapodus brodricki, collected in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of San Juan County, southeastern Utah, United States. The track is preserved as a natural cast on the underside of a slab of fluvial sandstone and consists o...... and highlights the similarities between the Late Jurassic dinosaur faunas of North America and those of Western Europe....

  14. Dinosaur tracks in Lower Jurassic coastal plain sediments (Sose Bugt Member, Rønne Formation) on Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Milàn, Jesper; Pedersen, Gunver K

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial palaeochannels of coastal plain sediments of the Lower Jurassic Sose Bugt Member of the Rønne Formation exposed in the coastal cliffs at Sose Bugt, Bornholm, contain abundant dinosaur or other large vertebrate tracks in the form of deformation structures exposed in vertical section...... track. Contemporary Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic strata from southern Sweden and Poland contain a diverse track fauna, supporting our interpretation. This is the earliest evidence of dinosaur activity in Denmark....

  15. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  16. Sediment geology and halokinetic processes in the Upper Jurassic of Konrad mine, Bleckenstedter Mulde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottomann, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Konrad mine is the only North German mine that is located in the Upper Jurassic. Lithologically, the sediment rock of the mine is not the same as in the rest of the Jurassic of Niedersachsen. The rock strata of the Bleckenstein trough are a special kind of facies. The report attempts to describe the effects of halokinetic movements on facies distribution. It describes the sedimentary and diagenetic, history of the whole Oxfordian and parts of the Kimmeridgian in the mine field on the basis of selected underground roadways. This necessitates a sufficient number of test points and sampled material. Sampling and mapping were carried out in the mine between January and July 1989. (orig.). 43 figs., 3 tabs [de

  17. The oldest known snakes from the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous provide insights on snake evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Michael W; Nydam, Randall L; Palci, Alessandro; Apesteguía, Sebastián

    2015-01-27

    The previous oldest known fossil snakes date from ~100 million year old sediments (Upper Cretaceous) and are both morphologically and phylogenetically diverse, indicating that snakes underwent a much earlier origin and adaptive radiation. We report here on snake fossils that extend the record backwards in time by an additional ~70 million years (Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous). These ancient snakes share features with fossil and modern snakes (for example, recurved teeth with labial and lingual carinae, long toothed suborbital ramus of maxillae) and with lizards (for example, pronounced subdental shelf/gutter). The paleobiogeography of these early snakes is diverse and complex, suggesting that snakes had undergone habitat differentiation and geographic radiation by the mid-Jurassic. Phylogenetic analysis of squamates recovers these early snakes in a basal polytomy with other fossil and modern snakes, where Najash rionegrina is sister to this clade. Ingroup analysis finds them in a basal position to all other snakes including Najash.

  18. The Requel: Between the Remake and the Sequel. Jurassic World as a Case Study Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene RAYA BRAVO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the audiovisual field, the expansion of the stories is, specifically, materialized through remakes, adaptations and franchises. In this context, the remakes or new versions are recurrent formulas because they recover familiar contents for audiences and, at the same time, they reinvent it in order to capture new generations’ attention. Nevertheless, the remake formula has been changing in the new millennium, adapting to new narrative trends. In recent years, because of the rise of intertextuality and the increasing value of nostalgia, many films have been produced halfway between the remake and the sequel, such as Star Wars. Episode VII: The Force Awakens or Terminator Genisys. In particular, the aim of this paper is to make a comparative analysis between Jurassic Park and Jurassic World because, although this last film extends the original discourse as a sequel, it also offers a reinterpretation of the first film.

  19. Dinosaur evolution. A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroit, Pascal; Sinitsa, Sofia M; Dhouailly, Danielle; Bolotsky, Yuri L; Sizov, Alexander V; McNamara, Maria E; Benton, Michael J; Spagna, Paul

    2014-07-25

    Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits from northeastern China have yielded varied theropod dinosaurs bearing feathers. Filamentous integumentary structures have also been described in ornithischian dinosaurs, but whether these filaments can be regarded as part of the evolutionary lineage toward feathers remains controversial. Here we describe a new basal neornithischian dinosaur from the Jurassic of Siberia with small scales around the distal hindlimb, larger imbricated scales around the tail, monofilaments around the head and the thorax, and more complex featherlike structures around the humerus, the femur, and the tibia. The discovery of these branched integumentary structures outside theropods suggests that featherlike structures coexisted with scales and were potentially widespread among the entire dinosaur clade; feathers may thus have been present in the earliest dinosaurs. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  1. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  2. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt......-reducerede produkter at købe eller som ender med at købe alle de salt-reducerede produkter....

  3. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  4. Structure and absolute configuration of Jurassic polyketide-derived spiroborate pigments obtained from microgram quantities.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkenstein, K.; Sun , H.; Falk, H.; Griesinger, C.

    2015-01-01

    Complete structural elucidation of natural products is often challenging due to structural complexity and limited availability. This is true for present-day secondary metabolites, but even more for exceptionally preserved secondary metabolites of ancient organisms that potentially provide insights into the evolutionary history of natural products. Here, we report the full structure and absolute configuration of the borolithochromes, enigmatic boron-containing pigments from a Jurassic putative...

  5. Compositions, sources and depositional environments of organic matter from the Middle Jurassic clays of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marynowski, Leszek; Zaton, Michal; Simoneit, Bernd R.T.; Otto, Angelika; Jedrysek, Mariusz O.; Grelowski, Cezary; Kurkiewicz, Slawomir

    2007-01-01

    The comprehensive biomarker characteristics from previously undescribed Middle Jurassic clays of Poland are presented. The molecular composition of the organic matter (OM) derived from clays of Aalenian to Callovian age has not changed significantly through time. High relative concentrations of many biomarkers typical for terrestrial material suggest a distinct dominance of OM derived from land plants. Increasing concentrations of C 29 -diaster-13(17)-enes towards the northern part of the basin indicate an increase in terrestrial input. This terrestrial material would have originated from the enhanced transport of organic matter from land situated at the northern bank of the basin, i.e., the Fennoscandian Shield. The organic matter was deposited in an oxic to suboxic environment, as indicated by relatively low concentrations of C 33 -C 35 homohopanes, moderate to high Pr/Ph ratio values, an absence of compounds characteristic for anoxia and water column stratification, such as isorenieratane, aryl isoprenoids and gammacerane, as well as common benthic fauna and burrows. δ 18 O measurements from calcitic rostra of belemnites suggest that the mean value of the Middle Jurassic sea-water temperature of the Polish Basin was 13.1 deg. C. It is suggested that this mirrored the temperature of the lower water column because belemnites are considered here to be necto-benthic. The organic matter from the Middle Jurassic basin of Poland is immature. This is clearly indicated by a large concentration of biomarkers with the biogenic configurations, such as ββ-hopanes, hop-13(18)-enes, hop-17(21)-enes, diasterenes and sterenes. The identification of preserved, unaltered biomolecules like ferruginol, 6,7-dehydroferruginol and sugiol in Protopodocarpoxylon wood samples from these sediments present particularly strong evidence for the presence of immature OM in the Middle Jurassic sediments. Moreover, the occurrence of these polar diterpenoids is important due to the fact that

  6. Relationships between the Brook Street Terrane and Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) : evidence from Jurassic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulloch, A.J.; Kimbrough, D.L.; Landis, C.A.; Mortimer, N.; Johnston, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of 237-180 Ma and c. 280 Ma of seven granitoid clasts from the Rainy River Conglomerate which lies within the eastern Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) in Nelson, and the Barretts Formation of the Brook Street Terrane in Southland, constrain the depositional ages of both units to be no older than c. 180-200 Ma (Early Jurassic). The minimum age of the Rainy River Conglomerate is constrained by the 147 +2 -1 Ma (Latest Jurassic) emplacement age of the One Mile Gabbronorite (new name: previously western Buller Diorite). The ages and chemistry of five of the granitoid clasts are broadly compatible with derivation from rocks that are now represented by Triassic plutons of the Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith), although ages as young as 180 Ma are slightly outside the range of the latter as currently exposed in New Zealand. The age (273-290 Ma, 237 +/- 3 Ma) and chemistry of the other two clasts (one each from Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation) suggest derivation from the Brook Street Terrane. Similarity in stratigraphic age, depositional characteristics, granitoid clast ages and composition between Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation suggests that they are broadly correlative and collectively overlapped a combined Brook Street Terrane - Median Batholith (MTZ) before the Late Jurassic (147 +2 -1 Ma). Sedimentary overlap may also have continued across to Middle Jurassic conglomeratic strata in the Murihiku Terrane to the east of the Brook Street Terrane. A U-Pb zircon age of 261 +/- 2 Ma is reported for Pourakino Trondhjemite of the Brook Street Terrane. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Astronomical constraints on the duration of the Early Jurassic Pliensbachian Stage and global climatic fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Micha; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Hinnov, Linda; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Xu, Weimu; Riding, James B.; Storm, Marisa; Minisini, Daniel; Ullmann, Clemens V.; Leng, Melanie J.

    2016-12-01

    The Early Jurassic was marked by multiple periods of major global climatic and palaeoceanographic change, biotic turnover and perturbed global geochemical cycles, commonly linked to large igneous province volcanism. This epoch was also characterised by the initial break-up of the super-continent Pangaea and the opening and formation of shallow-marine basins and ocean gateways, the timing of which are poorly constrained. Here, we show that the Pliensbachian Stage and the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian global carbon-cycle perturbation (marked by a negative shift in δ13 C of 2- 4 ‰), have respective durations of ∼8.7 and ∼2 Myr. We astronomically tune the floating Pliensbachian time scale to the 405 Kyr eccentricity solution (La2010d), and propose a revised Early Jurassic time scale with a significantly shortened Sinemurian Stage duration of 6.9 ± 0.4 Myr. When calibrated against the new time scale, the existing Pliensbachian seawater 87Sr/86Sr record shows relatively stable values during the first ∼2 Myr of the Pliensbachian, superimposed on the long-term Early Jurassic decline in 87Sr/86Sr. This plateau in 87Sr/86Sr values coincides with the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary carbon-cycle perturbation. It is possibly linked to a late phase of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) volcanism that induced enhanced global weathering of continental crustal materials, leading to an elevated radiogenic strontium flux to the global ocean.

  8. A Middle Jurassic heterodontosaurid dinosaur from Patagonia and the evolution of heterodontosaurids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Diego; Rauhut, Oliver W. M.; Becerra, Marcos

    2011-05-01

    Heterodontosauridae is a morphologically divergent group of dinosaurs that has recently been interpreted as one of the most basal clades of Ornithischia. Heterodontosaurid remains were previously known from the Early Jurassic of southern Africa, but recent discoveries and studies have significantly increased the geographical and temporal range for this clade. Here, we report a new ornithischian dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto Formation in central Patagonia, Argentina. This new taxon, Manidens condorensis gen. et sp. nov., includes well-preserved craniomandibular and postcranial remains and represents the only diagnostic ornithischian specimen yet discovered in the Jurassic of South America so far. Derived features of its anatomy indicate that Manidens belongs to Heterodontosauridae, as the sister taxon of Heterodontosaurus and other South African heterodontosaurids. The presence of posterior dentary teeth with high crowns but lacking extensive wear facets in Manidens suggests that this form represents an intermediate stage in the development of the remarkable adaptations to herbivory described for Heterodontosaurus. The dentition of Manidens condorensis also has autapomorphies, such as asymmetrically arranged denticles in posterior teeth and a mesially projected denticle in the posteriormost teeth. At an estimated total length of 60-75 cm, Manidens furthermore confirms the small size of basal heterodontosaurids.

  9. New evidence for mammaliaform ear evolution and feeding adaptation in a Jurassic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhe-Xi; Meng, Qing-Jin; Grossnickle, David M.; Liu, Di; Neander, April I.; Zhang, Yu-Guang; Ji, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Stem mammaliaforms are forerunners to modern mammals, and they achieved considerable ecomorphological diversity in their own right. Recent discoveries suggest that eleutherodontids, a subclade of Haramiyida, were more species-rich during the Jurassic period in Asia than previously recognized. Here we report a new Jurassic eleutherodontid mammaliaform with an unusual mosaic of highly specialized characteristics, and the results of phylogenetic analyses that support the hypothesis that haramiyidans are stem mammaliaforms. The new fossil shows fossilized skin membranes that are interpreted to be for gliding and a mandibular middle ear with a unique character combination previously unknown in mammaliaforms. Incisor replacement is prolonged until well after molars are fully erupted, a timing pattern unique to most other mammaliaforms. In situ molar occlusion and a functional analysis reveal a new mode of dental occlusion: dual mortar-pestle occlusion of opposing upper and lower molars, probably for dual crushing and grinding. This suggests that eleutherodontids are herbivorous, and probably specialized for granivory or feeding on soft plant tissues. The inferred dietary adaptation of eleutherodontid gliders represents a remarkable evolutionary convergence with herbivorous gliders in Theria. These Jurassic fossils represent volant, herbivorous stem mammaliaforms associated with pre-angiosperm plants that appear long before the later, iterative associations between angiosperm plants and volant herbivores in various therian clades.

  10. Bioerosion and encrustation: Evidences from the Middle ‒ Upper Jurassic of central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hedeny, Magdy; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed; Al Farraj, Saleh

    2017-10-01

    The Middle ‒ Upper Jurassic hard substrates of central Saudi Arabia displayed considerable signs of bioerosion and encrustations. They include organic (oysters, other bivalves, gastropods, corals and brachiopods) and an inorganic carbonate hardground that marks the boundary between the Middle Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone and the Upper Jurassic Hanifa Formation. Traces of bioerosion in organic substrates include seven ichnotaxa produced by bivalves (Gastrochaenolites Leymerie, 1842), polychaete annelids (Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932; MaeandropolydoraVoigt, 1965 and CaulostrepsisClarke, 1908), sponges (Entobia Bronn, 1837), acrothoracican cirripedes (Rogerella Saint-Seine, 1951), gastropods (Oichnus Bromley, 1981) and probable ?Centrichnus cf. eccentricus. The encrusting epifauna on these substrates consist of several organisms, including oysters, serpulid worms, corals and foraminifera. In contrast, the carbonate hardground was only bioeroded by Gastrochaenolite, Trypanites and Entobia. Epibionts on this hardground include ;Liostrea Douvillé, 1904-type; oysters, Nanogyra nana Sowerby, 1822 and serpulids. In general, bioerosion and encrustation are less diversified in hardground than in organic substrates, indicating a long time of exposition of organic substrates with slow to moderate rate of deposition in a restricted marine environment. Both organic and inorganic commuinities are correlated with those of other equatorial, subtropical and temperate equivalents.

  11. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  12. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  13. Molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Simon, N.; Renault, C.

    2014-01-01

    Molten salt reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. The principle of this reactor is very innovative: the nuclear fuel is dissolved in the coolant which allows the online reprocessing of the fuel and the online recovery of the fission products. A small prototype: the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE - 8 MWt) was operating a few years in the sixties in the USA. The passage towards a fast reactor by the suppression of the graphite moderator leads to the concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) which is presently studied through different European projects such as MOST, ALISIA and EVOL. Worldwide the main topics of research are: the adequate materials resisting to the high level of corrosiveness of the molten salts, fuel salt reprocessing, the 3-side coupling between neutron transport, thermohydraulics and thermo-chemistry, the management of the changing chemical composition of the salt, the enrichment of lithium with Li 7 in the case of the use of lithium fluoride salt and the use of MSFR using U 233 fuel (thorium cycle). The last part of the article presents a preliminary safety analysis of the MSFR. (A.C.)

  14. Geothermal regime and Jurassic source rock maturity of the Junggar basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansheng, Qiu; Zhihuan, Zhang; Ershe, Xu

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the thermal gradient distribution of the Junggar basin based on oil-test and well-logging temperature data. The basin-wide average thermal gradient in the depth interval of 0-4000 m is 22.6 °C/km, which is lower than other sedimentary basins in China. We report 21 measured terrestrial heat flow values based on detailed thermal conductivity data and systematical steady-state temperature data. These values vary from 27.0 to 54.1 mW/m 2 with a mean of 41.8 ± 7.8 mW/m 2. The Junggar basin appears to be a cool basin in terms of its thermal regime. The heat flow distribution within the basin shows the following characteristics. (1) The heat flow decreases from the Luliang Uplift to the Southern Depression; (2) relatively high heat flow values over 50 mW/m 2 are confined to the northern part of the Eastern Uplift and the adjacent parts of the Eastern Luliang Uplift and Central Depression; (3) The lowest heat flow of smaller than 35 mW/m 2 occurs in the southern parts of the basin. This low thermal regime of the Junggar basin is consistent with the geodynamic setting, the extrusion of plates around the basin, the considerably thick crust, the dense lithospheric mantle, the relatively stable continental basement of the basin, low heat generation and underground water flow of the basin. The heat flow of this basin is of great significance to oil exploration and hydrocarbon resource assessment, because it bears directly on issues of petroleum source-rock maturation. Almost all oil fields are limited to the areas of higher heat flows. The relatively low heat flow values in the Junggar basin will deepen the maturity threshold, making the deep-seated widespread Permian and Jurassic source rocks in the Junggar basin favorable for oil and gas generation. In addition, the maturity evolution of the Lower Jurassic Badaowan Group (J 1b) and Middle Jurassic Xishanyao Group (J 2x) were calculated based on the thermal data and burial depth. The maturity of the Jurassic

  15. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  16. The Tunisian Jurassic aquifer in the North African Sahara aquifer system: information derived from two-dimensional seismic reflection and well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lasmar, Rafika; Guellala, Rihab; Garrach, Mohamed; Mahroug, Ali; Sarsar Naouali, Benen; Inoubli, Mohamed Hédi

    2017-12-01

    Southern Tunisia is an arid area where socio-economic activities are dependent on groundwater resources. The presented study aims to better characterize the Jurassic aquifer based on geological and geophysical data, with a view to develop a rational exploitation program. Well logs are used to precisely determine the position and composition of the known Jurassic aquifer layers and to identify others able to produce good quality water. The logs show that limestones, sandstones and dolomites of the Krachoua, Techout and Foum Tataouine formations are the main Jurassic aquifers. Sixty-eight seismic-reflection sections are integrated within this study. The interpolation between the interpreted sections leads to the construction of isochronous isopach maps and geoseismic sections, and their analysis finds that compressive and extensive tectonic deformations have influenced the Jurassic aquifer geometry. The Hercynian orogeny phase manifestation is remarkable in that there are several stratigraphic gaps in the Jurassic sequence. The E-W, NW-SE, and NNW-SSE accidents, reactivated in normal faults since the Permian to Lower Cretaceous epochs, have generated the structures found in the Jurassic series, such as subsided and raised blocks. Their syn-sedimentary activity has controlled the thickness and facies of these series. The Cretaceous, Tortonian and Post-Villafranchian compressions are responsible for the Jurassic-deposits folding in some localities. The highlighted tectonic and sedimentary events have an important impact on the Jurassic aquifer function by favoring the Jurassic aquifer interconnections and their connections with the Triassic and Cretaceous permeable series.

  17. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  18. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite this article APA Style MLA Style ...

  19. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  20. Reinterpretation of Halokinetic Features in the Ancestral Rocky Mountains Paradox Salt Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. A.; Giles, K. A.; Rowan, M. G.; Hearon, T. E., IV

    2016-12-01

    The Paradox Basin in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado is a foreland basin formed in response to flexural loading by the Pennsylvanian-aged Uncompaghre uplift during the Ancestral Rocky Mountain orogen. Thick sequences of evaporites (Paradox Formation) were deposited within the foreland basin, which interfinger with clastic sediments in the foredeep and carbonates around the basin margin. Differential loading of the Pennsylvanian-Jurassic sediments onto the evaporites drove synsedimentary halokinesis, creating a series of salt walls and adjacent minibasins within the larger foreland basin. The growing salt walls within the basin influenced patterns of sediment deposition from the Pennsylvanian through the Cretaceous. By integrating previously published mapping with recent field observations, mapping, and subsurface interpretations of well logs and 2D seismic lines, we present interpretations of the timing, geometry, and nature of halokinesis within the Paradox Basin, which record the complex salt tectonic history in the basin. Furthermore, we present recent work on the relationships between the local passive salt history and the formation of syndepositional counter-regional extensional fault systems within the foreland. These results will be integrated into a new regional salt-tectonic and stratigraphic framework of the Paradox Basin, and have broader implications for interpreting sedimentary records in other basins with a mobile substrate.

  1. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  2. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  3. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Jurassic of East Greenland: a sedimentary record of thermal subsidence, onset and culmination of rifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Late Palaeozoic – Mesozoic extensional basin complex of East Greenland contains a record of deposition during a period of Rhaetian – Early Bajocian thermal subsidence, the onset of riftingin the Late Bajocian, its growth during the Bathonian–Kimmeridgian, culmination of rifting in the Volgian – Early Ryazanian, and waning in the Late Ryazanian – Hauterivian. The area was centred over a palaeolatitude of about 45°N in the Rhaetian and drifted northwards to about 50°N in the Hauterivian. A major climate change from arid to humid subtropical conditions took place at the Norian–Rhaetian transition. Deposition was in addition governed by a long-term sea-level rise with highstands in the Toarcian–Aalenian, latest Callovian and Kimmeridgian, and lowstands in the latest Bajocian – earliest Bathonian, Middle Oxfordian and Volgian.The Rhaetian – Lower Bajocian succession is considered the upper part of a megasequence, termed J1, with its base in the upper Lower Triassic, whereas the Upper Bajocian – Hauterivian succession forms a complete, syn-rift megasequence, termed J2. The southern part of the basin complex in Jameson Land contains a relatively complete Rhaetian–Ryazanian succession and underwent only minor tilting during Middle Jurassic – earliest Cretaceous rifting. Rhaetian – Lower Jurassic deposits are absent north of Jameson Land and this region was fragmented into strongly tilted fault blocks during the protracted rift event. The syn-rift successions of the two areas accordingly show different long-term trends in sedimentary facies. In the southern area, the J2 syn-rift megasequence forms a symmetrical regressive–transgressive–regressive cycle, whereas the J2 megasequence in the northern area shows an asymmetrical, stepwise deepening trend.A total of eight tectonostratigraphic sequences are recognised in the Rhaetian–Hauterivian interval. They reflect major changes in basin configuration, drainage systems

  4. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  5. Structure of an inverted basin from subsurface and field data: the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Maestrat Basin (Iberian Chain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebot, M.; Guimera, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Maestrat Basin experienced two main rifting events: Late Permian-Late Triassic and Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, and was inverted during the Cenozoic Alpine orogeny. During the inversion, an E-W-trending, N-verging fold-and-thrust belt developed along its northern margin, detached in the Triassic evaporites, while southwards it also involved the Variscan basement. A structural study of the transition between these two areas is presented, using 2D seismic profiles, exploration wells and field data, to characterize its evolution during the Mesozoic extension and the Cenozoic contraction. The S-dipping Maestrat basement thrust traverses the Maestrat Basin from E to W; it is the result of the Cenozoic inversion of the lower segment–within the acoustic basement–of the Mesozoic extensional fault system that generated the Salzedella sub-basin. The syn-rift Lower Cretaceous rocks filling the Salzedella sub-basin thicken progressively northwards, from 350m to 1100m. During the inversion, a wide uplifted area –40km wide in the N-S direction– developed in the hanging wall of the Maestrat basement thrust. This uplifted area is limited to the North by the E-W-trending Calders monocline, whose limb is about 13km wide in its central part, dips about 5ºN, and generates a vertical tectonic step of 800-1200m. We interpreted the Calders monocline as a fault-bend fold; therefore, a flat-ramp-flat geometry is assumed in depth for the Maestrat basement thrust. The northern synformal hinge of the Calders monocline coincides with the transition from thick-skinned to thin-skinned areas. The vast uplifted area and the low-dip of the monocline suggest a very low-dip for the basement ramp, rooted in the upper crust. The Calders monocline narrows and disappears laterally, in coincidence with the outcrop of the Maestrat basement thrust. The evaporitic Middle Muschelkalk detachment conditioned the structural style. Salt structures are also related to it; they developed during the

  6. Carbon cycle history through the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian - Bathonian) of the Mecsek Mountains, Southern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory D.; Főzy, István; Galácz, András

    2018-04-01

    A carbonate carbon isotope curve from the Aalenian-Bathonian interval is presented from the Óbánya valley, of the Mecsek Mountains, Hungary. This interval is certainly less well constrained and studied than other Jurassic time slices. The Óbánya valley lies in the eastern part of the Mecsek Mountains, between Óbánya and Kisújbánya and provides exposures of an Aalenian to Lower Cretaceous sequence. It is not strongly affected by tectonics, as compared to other sections of eastern Mecsek of the same age. In parts, a rich fossil assemblage has been collected, with Bathonian ammonites being especially valuable at this locality. The pelagic Middle Jurassic is represented by the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation and thin-bedded limestones of the Óbánya Limestone Formation. These are overlain by Upper Jurassic siliceous limestones and radiolarites of the Fonyászó Limestone Formation. Our new data indicate a series of carbon isotope anomalies within the late Aalenian and early-middle Bajocian. In particular, analysis of the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation reveals a negative carbon isotope excursion followed by positive values that occurs near the base of the section (across the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary). The origin of this carbon-isotope anomaly is interpreted to lie in significant changes to carbon fluxes potentially stemming from reduced run off, lowering the fertility of surface waters which in turn leads to lessened primary production and a negative δ13C shift. These data are comparable with carbonate carbon isotope records from other Tethyan margin sediments. Our integrated biostratigraphy and carbon isotope stratigraphy enable us to improve stratigraphic correlation and age determination of the examined strata. Therefore, this study of the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation confirms that the existing carbon isotope curves serve as a global standard for Aalenian-Bathonian δ13C variation.

  7. Anomalous Late Jurassic motion of the Pacific Plate with implications for true polar wander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Roger R.; Kent, Dennis V.

    2018-05-01

    True polar wander, or TPW, is the rotation of the entire mantle-crust system about an equatorial axis that results in a coherent velocity contribution for all lithospheric plates. One of the most recent candidate TPW events consists of a ∼30° rotation during Late Jurassic time (160-145 Ma). However, existing paleomagnetic documentation of this event derives exclusively from continents, which compose less than 50% of the Earth's surface area and may not reflect motion of the entire mantle-crust system. Additional paleopositional information from the Pacific Basin would significantly enhance coverage of the Earth's surface and allow more rigorous testing for the occurrence of TPW. We perform paleomagnetic analyses on core samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 801B, which were taken from the oldest available Pacific crust, to determine its paleolatitude during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous (167-133 Ma). We find that the Pacific Plate underwent a steady southward drift of 0.49°-0.74° My-1 except for an interval between Kimmeridgian and Tithonian time (157-147 Ma), during which it underwent northward motion at 1.45° ± 0.76° My-1 (1σ). This trajectory indicates that the plates of the Pacific Basin participated in the same large-amplitude (∼30°) rotation as continental lithosphere in the 160-145 Ma interval. Such coherent motion of a large majority of the Earth's surface strongly supports the occurrence of TPW, suggesting that a combination of subducting slabs and rising mantle plumes was sufficient to significantly perturb the Earth's inertia tensor in the Late Jurassic.

  8. Carbon cycle history through the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian – Bathonian of the Mecsek Mountains, Southern Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Gregory D.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A carbonate carbon isotope curve from the Aalenian–Bathonian interval is presented from the Óbánya valley, of the Mecsek Mountains, Hungary. This interval is certainly less well constrained and studied than other Jurassic time slices. The Óbánya valley lies in the eastern part of the Mecsek Mountains, between Óbánya and Kisújbánya and provides exposures of an Aalenian to Lower Cretaceous sequence. It is not strongly affected by tectonics, as compared to other sections of eastern Mecsek of the same age. In parts, a rich fossil assemblage has been collected, with Bathonian ammonites being especially valuable at this locality. The pelagic Middle Jurassic is represented by the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation and thin-bedded limestones of the Óbánya Limestone Formation. These are overlain by Upper Jurassic siliceous limestones and radiolarites of the Fonyászó Limestone Formation. Our new data indicate a series of carbon isotope anomalies within the late Aalenian and early-middle Bajocian. In particular, analysis of the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation reveals a negative carbon isotope excursion followed by positive values that occurs near the base of the section (across the Aalenian–Bajocian boundary. The origin of this carbon-isotope anomaly is interpreted to lie in significant changes to carbon fluxes potentially stemming from reduced run off, lowering the fertility of surface waters which in turn leads to lessened primary production and a negative δ13C shift. These data are comparable with carbonate carbon isotope records from other Tethyan margin sediments. Our integrated biostratigraphy and carbon isotope stratigraphy enable us to improve stratigraphic correlation and age determination of the examined strata. Therefore, this study of the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation confirms that the existing carbon isotope curves serve as a global standard for Aalenian–Bathonian δ13C variation.

  9. Mid-ocean ridges produced thicker crust in the Jurassic than in Recent times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Avendonk, H. J.; Harding, J.; Davis, J. K.; Lawver, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a compilation of published marine seismic refraction data to show that oceanic crust was 1.7 km thicker on average in the mid-Jurassic (170 Ma) than along the present-day mid-ocean ridge system. Plate reconstructions in a fixed hotspot framework show that the thickness of oceanic crust does not correlate with proximity to mantle hotspots, so it is likely that mid-plate volcanism is not the cause of this global trend. We propose that more melt was extracted from the upper mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges in the Jurassic than in recent times. Numerical studies show that temperature increase of 1 degree C in the mantle can lead to approximately 50-70 m thicker crust, so the upper mantle may have cooled 15-20 degrees C/100 Myr since 170 Ma. This average temperature decrease is larger than the secular cooling rate of the Earth's mantle, which is roughly 10 degrees C/100 Myr since the Archean. Apparently, the present-day configuration and dynamics of continental and oceanic plates removes heat more efficiently from the Earth's mantle than in its earlier history. The increase of ocean crustal thickness with plate age is also stronger in the Indian and Atlantic oceans than in the Pacific Ocean basin. This confirms that thermal insulation by the supercontinent Pangaea raised the temperature of the underlying asthenospheric mantle, which in turn led to more magmatic output at the Jurassic mid-ocean ridges of the Indian and Atlantic oceans.

  10. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Robert R; Huang, Timothy D; Roberts, Eric M; Peng, ShinRung; Sullivan, Corwin; Stein, Koen; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Shieh, DarBin; Chang, RongSeng; Chiang, ChengCheng; Yang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Shiming

    2013-04-11

    Fossil dinosaur embryos are surprisingly rare, being almost entirely restricted to Upper Cretaceous strata that record the late stages of non-avian dinosaur evolution. Notable exceptions are the oldest known embryos from the Early Jurassic South African sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Late Jurassic embryos of a theropod from Portugal. The fact that dinosaur embryos are rare and typically enclosed in eggshells limits their availability for tissue and cellular level investigations of development. Consequently, little is known about growth patterns in dinosaur embryos, even though post-hatching ontogeny has been studied in several taxa. Here we report the discovery of an embryonic dinosaur bone bed from the Lower Jurassic of China, the oldest such occurrence in the fossil record. The embryos are similar in geological age to those of Massospondylus and are also assignable to a sauropodomorph dinosaur, probably Lufengosaurus. The preservation of numerous disarticulated skeletal elements and eggshells in this monotaxic bone bed, representing different stages of incubation and therefore derived from different nests, provides opportunities for new investigations of dinosaur embryology in a clade noted for gigantism. For example, comparisons among embryonic femora of different sizes and developmental stages reveal a consistently rapid rate of growth throughout development, possibly indicating that short incubation times were characteristic of sauropodomorphs. In addition, asymmetric radial growth of the femoral shaft and rapid expansion of the fourth trochanter suggest that embryonic muscle activation played an important role in the pre-hatching ontogeny of these dinosaurs. This discovery also provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic remains in a terrestrial vertebrate.

  11. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  12. Tracing biosignatures from the Recent to the Jurassic in sabkha-associated microbial mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Land, Cees; Dutton, Kirsten; Andrade, Luiza; Paul, Andreas; Sherry, Angela; Fender, Tom; Hewett, Guy; Jones, Martin; Lokier, Stephen W.; Head, Ian M.

    2017-04-01

    Microbial mat ecosystems have been operating at the sediment-fluid interface for over 3400 million years, influencing the flux, transformation and preservation of carbon from the biosphere to the physical environment. These ecosystems are excellent recorders of rapid and profound changes in earth surface environments and biota as they often survive crisis-induced extreme paleoenvironmental conditions. Their biosignatures, captured in the preserved organic matter and the biominerals that form the microbialite rock, constitute a significant tool in understanding geobiological processes and the interactions of the microbial communities with sediments and with the prevailing physical chemical parameters, as well as the environmental conditions at a local and global scale. Nevertheless, the exact pathways of diagenetic organic matter transformation and early-lithification, essential for the accretion and preservation in the geological record as microbialites, are not well understood. The Abu Dhabi coastal sabkha system contains a vast microbial mat belt that is dominated by continuous polygonal and internally-laminated microbial mats across the upper and middle intertidal zones. This modern system is believed to be the best analogue for the Upper Jurassic Arab Formation, which is both a prolific hydrocarbon reservoir and source rock facies in the United Arab Emirates and in neighbouring countries. In order to characterise the processes that lead to the formation of microbialites we investigated the modern and Jurassic system using a multidisciplinary approach, including growth of field-sampled microbial mats under controlled conditions in the laboratory and field-based analysis of microbial communities, mat mineralogy and organic biomarker analysis. In this study, we focus on hydrocarbon biomarker data obtained from the surface of microbial mats actively growing in the intertidal zone of the modern system. By comparing these findings to data obtained from recently

  13. Nd isotope constraints on ocean circulation, paleoclimate, and continental drainage during the Jurassic breakup of Pangea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dera, Guillaume; Prunier, Jonathan; Smith, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    , western Russia, and North America. Combined with an extensive compilation of published εNd(t) data, our results show that the continental sources of Nd were very heterogeneous across the world. Volcanic inputs from a Jurassic equivalent of the modern Pacific Ring of Fire contributed to radiogenic ε......-Tethyan, and western Russian waters varied quite similarly through time, in response to regional changes in oceanic circulation, paleoclimate, continental drainage, and volcanism. Three positive shifts in εNd(t) values occurred successively in these epicontinental seas during the Pliensbachian, in the Aalenian...

  14. The first fossil spider (Araneae: Palpimanoidea) from the Lower Jurassic (Grimmen, Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A; Dunlop, Jason A

    2014-12-11

    The first Lower Jurassic (Lias) spider is described as Seppo koponeni n. gen. & n. sp. from a single female specimen from Grimmen, Germany. It most likely belongs to the Palpimanoidea, on account of the presence of cheliceral peg teeth and other features consistent with palpimanoid families, though its familial placement is uncertain. Its presence in the region at that time concurs with ideas about the more widespread presence of palpimanoids across the world in the early Mesozoic, before the break-up of Pangaea.

  15. The Middle Jurassic microflora from El Maghara N° 4 borehole, Northern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Sayed Abdel

    The coal bearing formation in El Maghara area, northern Sinai, yielded abundant, diverse and generally well preserved spores, pollen and marine microflora. The palynological analysis of the fine clastic sediments in this formation yielded (71) species related to (44) genera. Three different palynological assemblage zones can be distinguished. The sediments which contain lower and the upper assemblage zones bearing the coal seems, were deposited in non-marine (swamp) environment. In the middle assemblage zone few marine microflora can be identified, indicating a coastal near shore marine environment. Compared with other palynologic data obtained from Egypt and other countries, the three described assemblage zones belong to Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) age.

  16. Anomalous Late Jurassic motion of the Pacific Plate with implications for true polar wander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, R. R.; Kent, D.

    2017-12-01

    True polar wander, or TPW, is the rotation of the entire mantle-crust system that results in simultaneous change in latitude and orientation for all lithospheric plates. One of the most recent candidate TPW events consists of a 30˚ rotation during Late Jurassic time (160 - 145 Ma). However, existing paleomagnetic documentation of this event derives exclusively from continental studies. Because all major landmasses except China were connected directly or via spreading centers in the Late Jurassic, the velocities of these continents were mutually constrained and their motion as a group over the underlying mantle would be indistinguishable from TPW using only continental data. On the other hand, plates of the Pacific Basin constituted a kinematically independent domain, interfacing with continents at subduction zones and slip-strike boundaries. Coherent motion of both Pacific Basin and continental plates would therefore indicate uniform motion of virtually the entire lithosphere, providing a means to distinguish TPW from continental drift. We performed thermal demagnetization on remaining samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 801B, which were cored from the oldest sampled oceanic crust in the Western Pacific, to determine its change in paleolatitude during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous (167 - 134 Ma). We find that the Pacific Plate likely underwent a steady southward drift during this time period, consistent with previous results from magnetic anomalies, except for an episode of northward motion between Oxfordian and Tithonian time (161 - 147 Ma). Although the amplitude of this northward shift is subject to significant uncertainty due to the sparse recovery of core samples, the trajectory of the Pacific Plate is most simply explained by TPW in the 160 - 145 Ma interval as inferred from continental data. Furthermore, such an interpretation is consistent with the sense of shear inferred at the Farallon-North American Plate boundary, whereas uniform

  17. Paleomagnetic tests for tectonic reconstructions of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Woyla Group, Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advokaat, Eldert; Bongers, Mayke; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Rudyawan, Alfend; Marshal, Edo

    2017-04-01

    SE Asia consists of multiple continental blocks, volcanic arcs and suture zones representing remnants of closing ocean basins. The core of this mainland is called Sundaland, and was formed by accretion of continental and arc fragments during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. The former positions of these blocks are still uncertain but reconstructions based on tectonostratigraphic, palaeobiogeographic, geological and palaeomagnetic studies indicate the continental terranes separated from the eastern margin of Gondwana. During the mid-Cretaceous, more continental and arc fragments accreted to Sundaland, including the intra-oceanic Woyla Arc now exposed on Sumatra. These continental fragments were derived from Australia, but the former position of the Woyla Arc is unconstrained. Interpretations on the former position of the Woyla Arc fall in two end-member groups. The first group interprets the Woyla Arc to be separated from West Sumatra by a small back-arc basin. This back arc basin opened in the Late Jurassic, and closed mid-Cretaceous, when the Woyla Arc collided with West Sumatra. The other group interprets the Woyla Arc to be derived from Gondwana, at a position close to the northern margin of Greater India in the Late Jurassic. Subsequently the Woyla Arc moved northwards and collided with West Sumatra in the mid-Cretaceous. Since these scenarios predict very different plate kinematic evolutions for the Neotethyan realm, we here aim to place paleomagnetic constraints on paleolatitudinal evolution of the Woyla Arc. The Woyla Arc consists mainly of basaltic to andesitic volcanics and dykes, and volcaniclastic shales and sandstones. Associated limestones with volcanic debris are interpreted as fringing reefs. This assemblage is interpreted as remnants of an Early Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc. West Sumatra exposes granites, surrounded by quartz sandstones, shales and volcanic tuffs. These sediments are in part metamorphosed. This assemblage is interpreted as a Jurassic

  18. Review of the Dinosaur Remains from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. L. Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are rare from the Middle Jurassic worldwide. The Isle of Skye, is the only place in Scotland thus far to have produced dinosaur remains. These remains consist mainly of footprints, but also several bones and teeth. These Bajocian and Bathonian remains represent an important collection of a basal eusauropod, early examples of non-neosauropod and possible basal titanosauriform eusauropods, and theropod remains that may belong to an early coelurosaur and a possible megalosaurid, basal tyrannosauroid, or dromaeosaurid. The footprints from here also suggest a rich and diverse dinosaur fauna for which further better diagnosable remains are likely to be found.

  19. Mesozoic authigenic carbonate deposition in the Arctic: Do glendonites record gas hydrate destabilization during the Jurassic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Chloe; Suan, Guillaume; Wierzbowski, Hubert; Rogov, Mikhail; Teichert, Barbara; Kienhuis, Michiel V. M.; Polerecky, Lubos; Middelburg, Jack B. M.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; van de Schootbrugge, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Glendonites are calcite pseudomorphs after ikaite, an unstable hydrated calcium carbonate mineral. Because present-day ikaite occurs predominantly in sub-polar environments and is unstable at warm temperatures, glendonites have been used as an indicator of near-freezing conditions throughout Earth history. Ikaite has also been observed in cold deep-sea environments like the Gulf of Mexico, the Japan Trench, and the Zaire Fan where their formation is possibly governed by other parameters. The description of glendonites in Paleocene-Eocene sediments of Svalbard, and Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian) deposits of northern Germany, however questions the role of temperature on ikaite precipitation (Spielhagen and Tripati, 2009; Teichert and Luppold, 2013). Anomalously low carbon isotope values of Jurassic glendonites point to the involvement of methane as a possible carbon source for ikaite/glendonite formation. Terrestrial organic matter degradation is also frequently evoked as a potential source of carbon. The involved bio- and geochemical processes remains thus not well constrained. Here we present new geochemical data of a large number of glendonites specimens from the Lower and Middle Jurassic of northern Siberia and the Lena river middle flows (Bajocian, Bathonian, Pliensbachian). Carbon and oxygen isotopic values show comparable trends between the different sections. Bulk glendonites δ13C and δ18O values vary from 0.0 to -44.5o and -15.0 to -0.8 respectively and show a negative correlation. Some samples display similar low δ13C values as the Pliensbachian glendonites of Germany (Teichert and Luppold, 2013), suggesting thermogenic and/or biogenic methane sources. The range of carbon isotope values is comparable to those observed at other methane seeps deposits. Further investigations are needed to better constrain the carbon cycle in these particular environmental conditions. The role of microbial communities into ikaite/glendonite formation equally needs to be

  20. Possible markers of the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in the Mediterranean Tethys: A review and state of art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Michalík

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, several integrated studies of Tethyan Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary sections from different countries were published with the objective to indicate problems for the selection of biological, chemical or physical markers suitable for identification of the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary – the only system boundary within the Phanerozoic still not fixed by GSSP. Drawing the boundary between the Jurassic and Cretaceous systems is a matter of global scale discussions. The problem of proposing possible J/K boundary stratotypes results from lack of a global index fossils, global sea level drop, paleogeographic changes causing development of isolated facies areas, as well as from the effect of Late Cimmerian Orogeny. This contribution summarizes and comments data on J/K boundary interval obtained from several important Tethyan sections and shows still existing problems and discrepancies in its determination.

  1. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Tsukada, Kineo; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Oomichi, Toshihiko; Oono, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure, as well as improve the technical reliability and safety by the elimination of a proton beam entering window. Constitution: The nuclear reactor container main body is made of Hastelloy N and provided at the inner surface with two layers of graphite shields except for openings. An aperture was formed in the upper surface of the container, through which protons accelerated by a linear accelerator are directly entered to the liquid surface of molten salts such as 7LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 , 7LiF-NaF-ThF 4 , 7LiF-Rb-UF 4 , NaF-KF-UF 4 and the like. The heated molten salts are introduced by way of a pipeway into a heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to coolant salts and electric generation is conducted by way of heated steams. (Furukawa, Y.)

  2. Sedimentary record of subsidence pulse at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary interval in the Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rožič Boštjan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Alpine Realm the Early Jurassic is characterized by the disintegration and partial drowning of vast platform areas. In the eastern part of the Southern Alps (present-day NW Slovenia, the Julian Carbonate Platform and the adjacent, E-W extending Slovenian Basin underwent partial disintegration, drowning and deepening from the Pliensbachian on, whereas only nominal environmental changes developed on the large Dinaric (Friuli, Adriatic Carbonate Platform to the south (structurally part of the Dinarides. These events, however, were preceded by an earlier - and as yet undocumented extensional event - that took place near the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This paper provides evidence of an accelerated subsidence from four selected areas within the Slovenian Basin, which show a trend of eastwardly-decreasing deformation. In the westernmost (Mrzli vrh section - the Upper Triassic platform-margin - massive dolomite is overlain by the earliest Jurassic toe-of-slope carbonate resediments and further, by basin-plain micritic limestone. Further east (Perbla and Liščak sections the Triassic-Jurassic transition interval is marked by an increase in resedimented carbonates. We relate this to the increasing inclination and segmentation of the slope and adjacent basin floor. The easternmost (Mt. Porezen area shows a rather monotonous, latest Triassic-Early Jurassic basinal sedimentation. However, changes in the thickness of the Hettangian-Pliensbachian Krikov Formation point to a tilting of tectonic blocks within the basin area. Lateral facies changes at the base of the formation indicate that the tilting occurred at and/or shortly after the Triassic/Jurassic boundary

  3. Sedimentary record of subsidence pulse at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary interval in the Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožič, Boštjan; Jurkovšek, Tea Kolar; Rožič, Petra Žvab; Gale, Luka

    2017-08-01

    In the Alpine Realm the Early Jurassic is characterized by the disintegration and partial drowning of vast platform areas. In the eastern part of the Southern Alps (present-day NW Slovenia), the Julian Carbonate Platform and the adjacent, E-W extending Slovenian Basin underwent partial disintegration, drowning and deepening from the Pliensbachian on, whereas only nominal environmental changes developed on the large Dinaric (Friuli, Adriatic) Carbonate Platform to the south (structurally part of the Dinarides). These events, however, were preceded by an earlier - and as yet undocumented extensional event - that took place near the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This paper provides evidence of an accelerated subsidence from four selected areas within the Slovenian Basin, which show a trend of eastwardly-decreasing deformation. In the westernmost (Mrzli vrh) section - the Upper Triassic platform-margin - massive dolomite is overlain by the earliest Jurassic toe-of-slope carbonate resediments and further, by basin-plain micritic limestone. Further east (Perbla and Liščak sections) the Triassic-Jurassic transition interval is marked by an increase in resedimented carbonates. We relate this to the increasing inclination and segmentation of the slope and adjacent basin floor. The easternmost (Mt. Porezen) area shows a rather monotonous, latest Triassic-Early Jurassic basinal sedimentation. However, changes in the thickness of the Hettangian-Pliensbachian Krikov Formation point to a tilting of tectonic blocks within the basin area. Lateral facies changes at the base of the formation indicate that the tilting occurred at and/or shortly after the Triassic/Jurassic boundary

  4. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  5. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part 'CIRCUITS' regroups under a condensed form - in French and using international units - the essential information contained in both basic documents of the American project for a molten-salt breeder power plant. This part is only dealing with things relating to the CEA-EDF workshop 'CIRCUITS'. It is not concerned with information on: the reactor and the moderator replacement, the primary and secondary salts, and the fuel salt reprocessing, that are dealt with in parts 'CORE' and 'CHEMISTRY' respectively. The possible evolutions in the data - and solutions - taken by the American designers for their successive projects (1970 to 1972) are shown. The MSBR power plant comprises three successive heat transfer circuits. The primary circuit (Hastelloy N), radioactive and polluted, containing the fuel salt, includes the reactor, pumps and exchangers. The secondary circuit (pipings made of modified Hastelloy N) contaminated in the exchanger, ensures the separation between the fuel and the fluid operating the turbo-alternator. The water-steam circuit feeds the turbine with steam. This steam is produced in the steam generator flowed by the secondary fluid. Some subsidiary circuits (discharge and storage of the primary and secondary salts, ventilation of the primary circuit ...) complete the three principal circuits which are briefly described. All circuits are enclosed inside the controlled-atmosphere building of the nuclear boiler. This building also ensures the biological protection and the mechanical protection against outer aggressions [fr

  6. Testing thin-skinned inversion of a prerift salt-bearing passive margin (Eastern Prebetic Zone, SE Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escosa, Frederic O.; Roca, Eduard; Ferrer, Oriol

    2018-04-01

    Detailed geologic mapping combined with well and seismic data from the Eastern Prebetic Zone (SE Iberia) reveal extensional and contractional structures that permit characterization of passive margin development and its incorporation into a thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt. The study area is represented by NW-directed, ENE-trending folds and thrusts faults locally disrupted by the NW-trending Matamoros Basin and the active Jumilla and La Rosa diapirs. These structures resulted from the thin-skinned inversion of the proximal part of the Eastern South Iberian passive margin containing prerift salt. Here, Upper Jurassic to Santonian thick-skinned extension controlled the accumulation of sediment over mobile prerift salt. This in turn defined the style of salt tectonics characterized by monoclinal drape folds, suprasalt extensional faults and diapirs. The structural and sedimentological analysis suggests that during extension, salt localizes strain thus decoupling sub- and suprasalt deformation. Thick-skinned extension controls suprasalt deformation as well as its location and distribution which changes over time. Salt also localizes strain during inversion. The preexisting salt structures, weaker than adjacent areas, preferentially absorb the contractional deformation. In addition, the stepped subsalt geometry that results from thick-skinned extension also controls the shortening propagation. Therefore, the degree of strain localization depends on the thickness of the suprasalt cover and on the dip of subsalt faults relative to the thin-skinned transport direction.

  7. Jurassic animals and algae in the flooring of Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Poznań

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak Mateusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The flooring of Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Poznań is made of Jurassic rocks from the Świętokrzyskie Mountains (also known as Holy Cross Mountains and contain abundant marine invertebrate fossils: sponges, bivalves, brachiopods, various families of cephalopods, etc. Some of them can be identified to the genus level. The fossils make it possible to describe the environment and ecosystem of the Jurassic sea and biostratigraphy of the sediment. There are also some significant inorganic structures, which suggest post-diagenetic tectonic movements.

  8. New theropod, thyreophoran, and small sauropod tracks from the Middle Jurassic Bagå Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Three new dinosaur tracks are described from the Middle Jurassic Bagå Formation of Bornholm, Denmark. The tracks are all preserved as natural casts on the underside of fluvial sandstone blocks originating from the old Hasle Klinkefabrik’s clay pit, now called Pyritsøen. The new tracks are from...... a medium-sized theropod, a thyreophoran, and a small sauropod. Together with a hyreophoran track and large sauropod tracks described in 2005, the Middle Jurassic dinosaur fauna of Bornholm now comprises theropods, two sizes of sauropods and at least one type of thyreophoran dinosaur. This is important...

  9. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the...

  10. Evidence of Middle Jurassic magmatism within the Seychelles microcontinent: Implications for the breakup of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T.-Y.; Chiu, H.-Y.; Lee, Y.-H.; Wong, J.

    2015-12-01

    The breakup of East and West Gondwana occurred during the Jurassic, but the exact timing is uncertain due to the limited exposure of rocks suitable for radioisotopic dating. Trachytic rocks from Silhouette Island, Seychelles, yielded a range of zircon ages from Paleoproterozoic to Cenozoic. The 206Pb/238U age of the trachyte is 64.9 ± 1.6 Ma (Danian) but the majority of zircons yielded an age of 163.8 ± 1.8 Ma (Callovian) with a small subset yielding an age of 147.7 ± 4.5 Ma (Tithonian). The Hf isotopes of the Callovian (ɛHf(t) = +4.1 to +13.4) and Danian (ɛHf(t) = +1.9 to +7.1) zircons indicate that they were derived from moderately depleted mantle sources whereas the Tithonian zircons (ɛHf(t) = -7.0 to -7.3) were derived from an enriched source. The identification of middle Jurassic zircons indicates that rifting and magmatism were likely contemporaneous during the initial separation of East and West Gondwana.

  11. Volcanic sequence in Late Triassic – Jurassic siliciclastic and evaporitic rocks from Galeana, NE Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Gómez, E.M.; Velasco-Tapia, F.; Ramírez-Fernández, J.A.; Jenchen, U.; Rodríguez-Saavedra, P.; Rodríguez-Díaz, A.A.; Iriondo, A.

    2017-01-01

    In northeastern Mexico, volcanic rocks interbedded with Late Triassic–Jurassic siliciclastic and evaporitic strata have been linked to magmatic arcs developed in the Pangea western margin during its initial phase of fragmentation. This work provides new petrographic and geochemical data for volcanism included in the El Alamar and Minas Viejas formations outcropping in the Galeana region. Andesitic dykes and sills (n= 10) in the El Alamar redbeds show SiO2= 47.5–59.1% and MgO= 1.2–4.2%, as well as a geochemical affinity to island arc magmas. This work represents the first report of this tectonic setting in the region. Geological and petrographic evidence suggest that this arc system likely developed after ~220 and before ~193Ma. Trachy-andesitic and rhyodacitic domes (n= 20) associated with the Minas Viejas gypsum-carbonates sequence show SiO2= 61.8–82.7% and MgO= 0.1–4.0% with a tectonic affinity to continental arc. A rhyodacite sample from this region has been dated by U-Pb in zircon, yielding an age of 149.4 ± 1.2Ma (n= 21), being the youngest age related to this arc. Finally, we propose a threestep model to explain the tectonic evolution from Late Triassic island arc to Jurassic continental arc system in the northeastern Mexico.

  12. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Jurassic Polyketide-Derived Spiroborate Pigments Obtained from Microgram Quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenstein, Klaus; Sun, Han; Falk, Heinz; Griesinger, Christian

    2015-10-28

    Complete structural elucidation of natural products is often challenging due to structural complexity and limited availability. This is true for present-day secondary metabolites, but even more for exceptionally preserved secondary metabolites of ancient organisms that potentially provide insights into the evolutionary history of natural products. Here, we report the full structure and absolute configuration of the borolithochromes, enigmatic boron-containing pigments from a Jurassic putative red alga, from samples of less than 50 μg using microcryoprobe NMR, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations and reveal their polyketide origin. The pigments are identified as spiroborates with two pentacyclic sec-butyl-trihydroxy-methyl-benzo[gh]tetraphen-one ligands and less-substituted derivatives. The configuration of the sec-butyl group is found to be (S). Because the exceptional benzo[gh]tetraphene scaffold is otherwise only observed in the recently discovered polyketide clostrubin from a present-day Clostridium bacterium, the Jurassic borolithochromes now can be unambiguously linked to the modern polyketide, providing evidence that the fossil pigments are almost originally preserved secondary metabolites and suggesting that the pigments in fact may have been produced by an ancient bacterium. The borolithochromes differ fundamentally from previously described boronated polyketides and represent the first boronated aromatic polyketides found so far. Our results demonstrate the potential of microcryoprobe NMR in the analysis of previously little-explored secondary metabolites from ancient organisms and reveal the evolutionary significance of clostrubin-type polyketides.

  13. Volcanic sequence in Late Triassic – Jurassic siliciclastic and evaporitic rocks from Galeana, NE Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Gómez, E.M.; Velasco-Tapia, F.; Ramírez-Fernández, J.A.; Jenchen, U.; Rodríguez-Saavedra, P.; Rodríguez-Díaz, A.A.; Iriondo, A.

    2017-11-01

    In northeastern Mexico, volcanic rocks interbedded with Late Triassic–Jurassic siliciclastic and evaporitic strata have been linked to magmatic arcs developed in the Pangea western margin during its initial phase of fragmentation. This work provides new petrographic and geochemical data for volcanism included in the El Alamar and Minas Viejas formations outcropping in the Galeana region. Andesitic dykes and sills (n= 10) in the El Alamar redbeds show SiO2= 47.5–59.1% and MgO= 1.2–4.2%, as well as a geochemical affinity to island arc magmas. This work represents the first report of this tectonic setting in the region. Geological and petrographic evidence suggest that this arc system likely developed after ~220 and before ~193Ma. Trachy-andesitic and rhyodacitic domes (n= 20) associated with the Minas Viejas gypsum-carbonates sequence show SiO2= 61.8–82.7% and MgO= 0.1–4.0% with a tectonic affinity to continental arc. A rhyodacite sample from this region has been dated by U-Pb in zircon, yielding an age of 149.4 ± 1.2Ma (n= 21), being the youngest age related to this arc. Finally, we propose a threestep model to explain the tectonic evolution from Late Triassic island arc to Jurassic continental arc system in the northeastern Mexico.

  14. Primary migration of Jurassic coal-derived oil in Santanghu basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Zhong, N.; Ren, D. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept of Resource Exploitation Engineering

    2000-11-01

    It is known that the differential evolution of the multiple macerals results in 'oil generation by stage', and that 'early generation, early expulsion' is one of the preconditions for the efficient accumulation of the coal-derived oil. Based upon the study on the evolution of the physical properties, related to the hydrocarbon expulsion, of the Jurassic organic rock in Santanghu basin during the course of maturation, the mechanism of the primary migration of its coal-derived oil was discussed. The rapid loss of the inherent moisture in the organic rock was not accordant with the main generation stage of the coal-derived oil, so it was unrealistic that the oil migrated by dissolution in the expelled water. It is thought that the special forming mechanism of the continuous 'bitumen network' under the condition of over-pressure and an earlier history of primary migration may be essential to the Jurassic coal-derived oil in Santanghu basin. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  15. The bivalve Anopaea (Inoceramidae) from the Upper Jurassic-lowermost Cretaceous of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Patrick; Crame, J. Alistair; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Seija

    2015-07-01

    In Mexico, the Upper Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous La Casita and coeval La Caja and La Pimienta formations are well-known for their abundant and well-preserved marine vertebrates and invertebrates. The latter include conspicuous inoceramid bivalves of the genus Anopaea not formally described previously from Mexico. Anopaea bassei (Lecolle de Cantú, 1967), Anopaea cf. stoliczkai (Holdhaus, 1913), Anopaea cf. callistoensis Crame and Kelly, 1995 and Anopaea sp. are rare constituents in distinctive Tithonian-lower Berriasian levels of the La Caja Formation and one Tithonian horizon of the La Pimienta Formation. Anopaea bassei was previously documented from the Tithonian of central Mexico and Cuba, while most other members of Anopaea described here are only known from southern high latitudes. The Mexican assemblage also includes taxa which closely resemble Anopaea stoliczkai from the Tithonian of India, Indonesia and the Antarctic Peninsula, and Anopaea callistoensis from the late Tithonian to ?early Berriasian of the Antarctic Peninsula. Our new data expand the palaeogeographical distribution of the high latitude Anopaea to the Gulf of Mexico region and substantiate faunal exchange, in the Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, between Mexico and the Antarctic Realm.

  16. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Andrew R.C.; Harris, J.D.; Lockley, M.G.; Kirkland, J.I.; Matthews, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic (???198 millionyear- old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. Conclusions/Significance: The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods.

  17. The rediscovery and redescription of the holotype of the Late Jurassic turtle Plesiochelys etalloni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Anquetin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plesiochelyidae are a major component of Late Jurassic shallow marine environments throughout Europe. However, the taxonomy of plesiochelyid turtles is rather confused. Over the years, many taxa have been synonymized with Plesiochelys etalloni, one of the first described species. However, the holotype of P. etalloni (and only specimen known from Lect, the type locality was lost for more than 150 years. This specimen has been recently rediscovered in the collections of the Musée d’archéologie du Jura in Lons-le-Saunier, France. For the first time since its original description in 1857, the holotype of P. etalloni is redescribed and compared to relevant material. The taxonomic status of this taxon is revised accordingly. Based on the morphology of the newly rediscovered holotype and on a reassessment of specimens from Solothurn (Switzerland, the species P. solodurensis, P. sanctaeverenae and P. langii are synonymized with P. etalloni. Known skull-shell associations for P. etalloni are re-evaluated in light of the new morphological information available since the rediscovery of this holotype specimen. Finally, we confirm that Plesiochelys is represented by a single species in the Late Jurassic of the Jura Mountains.

  18. Structural complexity at and around the Triassic-Jurassic GSSP at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotai, M.; Pálfy, J.; Sasvári, Á.

    2017-10-01

    One of the key requirements for a Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) is the absence of tectonic disturbance. The GSSP for the Triassic-Jurassic system boundary was recently defined at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. New field observations in the area of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary GSSP site demonstrate that the overturned, tight, and almost upright Karwendel syncline was formed at semibrittle deformation conditions, confirmed by axial planar foliation. Tight to isoclinal folds at various scales were related to a tectonic transport to the north. Brittle faulting occurred before and after folding as confirmed by tilt tests (the rotation of structural data by the average bedding). Foliation is ubiquitous in the incompetent units, including the Kendlbach Formation at the GSSP. A reverse fault (inferred to be formed as a normal fault before folding) crosscuts the GSSP sections, results in the partial tectonic omission of the Schattwald Beds, and thus makes it impossible to measure a complete and continuous stratigraphic section across the whole Kendlbach Formation. Based on these observations, the Kuhjoch sections do not fulfil the specific requirement for a GSSP regarding the absence of tectonic disturbances near boundary level.

  19. Marine ecosystem resilience during extreme deoxygenation: the Early Jurassic oceanic anoxic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Bryony A; Frid, Christopher L J

    2017-01-01

    Global warming during the Early Jurassic, and associated widespread ocean deoxygenation, was comparable in scale with the changes projected for the next century. This study quantifies the impact of severe global environmental change on the biological traits of marine communities that define the ecological roles and functions they deliver. We document centennial-millennial variability in the biological trait composition of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) seafloor communities and examine how this changed during the event using biological traits analysis. Environmental changes preceding the global oceanic anoxic event (OAE) produced an ecological shift leading to stressed benthic palaeocommunities with reduced resilience to the subsequent OAE. Changes in traits and ecological succession coincided with major environmental changes; and were of similar nature and magnitude to those in severely deoxygenated benthic communities today despite the very different timescales. Changes in community composition were linked to local redox conditions whereas changes in populations of opportunists were driven by primary productivity. Throughout most of the OAE substitutions by tolerant taxa conserved the trait composition and hence functioning, but periods of severe deoxygenation caused benthic defaunation that would have resulted in functional collapse. Following the OAE recovery was slow probably because the global nature of the event restricted opportunities for recruitment from outside the basin. Our findings suggest that future systems undergoing deoxygenation may initially show functional resilience, but severe global deoxygenation will impact traits and ecosystem functioning and, by limiting the species pool, will slow recovery rates.

  20. A Middle Jurassic abelisaurid from Patagonia and the early diversification of theropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Diego; Rauhut, Oliver W M

    2012-08-22

    Abelisaurids are a clade of large, bizarre predatory dinosaurs, most notable for their high, short skulls and extremely reduced forelimbs. They were common in Gondwana during the Cretaceous, but exceedingly rare in the Northern Hemisphere. The oldest definitive abelisaurids so far come from the late Early Cretaceous of South America and Africa, and the early evolutionary history of the clade is still poorly known. Here, we report a new abelisaurid from the Middle Jurassic of Patagonia, Eoabelisaurus mefi gen. et sp. nov., which predates the so far oldest known secure member of this lineage by more than 40 Myr. The almost complete skeleton reveals the earliest evolutionary stages of the distinctive features of abelisaurids, such as the modification of the forelimb, which started with a reduction of the distal elements. The find underlines the explosive radiation of theropod dinosaurs in the Middle Jurassic and indicates an unexpected diversity of ceratosaurs at that time. The apparent endemism of abelisauroids to southern Gondwana during Pangean times might be due to the presence of a large, central Gondwanan desert. This indicates that, apart from continent-scale geography, aspects such as regional geography and climate are important to reconstruct the biogeographical history of Mesozoic vertebrates.

  1. Discovery of the first ichthyosaur from the Jurassic of India: Implications for Gondwanan palaeobiogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntupalli V R Prasad

    Full Text Available An articulated and partially preserved skeleton of an ichthyosaur was found in the Upper Jurassic (Upper Kimmeridgian Katrol Formation exposed at a site south of the village Lodai in Kachchh district, Gujarat (western India. Here we present a detailed description and inferred taxonomic relationship of the specimen. The present study revealed that the articulated skeleton belongs to the family Ophthalmosauridae. The new discovery from India further improves the depauperate fossil record of ichthyosaurs from the former Gondwanan continents. Based on the preserved length of the axial skeleton and anterior part of the snout and taking into account the missing parts of the skull and postflexural region, it is suggested that the specimen may represent an adult possibly reaching a length of 5.0-5.5 m. The widespread occurrence of ophthalmosaurids in the Upper Jurassic deposits of western Tethys, Madagascar, South America and India points to possible faunal exchanges between the western Tethys and Gondwanan continents through a southern seaway.

  2. A Jurassic avialan dinosaur from China resolves the early phylogenetic history of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroit, Pascal; Cau, Andrea; Dong-Yu, Hu; Escuillié, François; Wenhao, Wu; Dyke, Gareth

    2013-06-20

    The recent discovery of small paravian theropod dinosaurs with well-preserved feathers in the Middle-Late Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation of Liaoning Province (northeastern China) has challenged the pivotal position of Archaeopteryx, regarded from its discovery to be the most basal bird. Removing Archaeopteryx from the base of Avialae to nest within Deinonychosauria implies that typical bird flight, powered by the forelimbs only, either evolved at least twice, or was subsequently lost or modified in some deinonychosaurians. Here we describe the complete skeleton of a new paravian from the Tiaojishan Formation of Liaoning Province, China. Including this new taxon in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for basal Paraves does the following: (1) it recovers it as the basal-most avialan; (2) it confirms the avialan status of Archaeopteryx; (3) it places Troodontidae as the sister-group to Avialae; (4) it supports a single origin of powered flight within Paraves; and (5) it implies that the early diversification of Paraves and Avialae took place in the Middle-Late Jurassic period.

  3. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R C Milner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic ( approximately 198 million-year-old lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods.

  4. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Andrew R C; Harris, Jerald D; Lockley, Martin G; Kirkland, James I; Matthews, Neffra A

    2009-01-01

    Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic ( approximately 198 million-year-old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods.

  5. Didactyl tracks of paravian theropods (Maniraptora from the ?Middle Jurassic of Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mudroch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A new dinosaur tracksite from ?Middle Jurassic sediments of the Irhazer Group on the plains of Agadez (Rep. Niger, northwest Africa revealed extraordinarily well preserved didactyl tracks of a digitigrade bipedal trackmaker. The distinct morphology of the pes imprints indicates a theropod trackmaker from a paravian maniraptoran closely related to birds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The early age and the morphological traits of the tracks allow for description of the new ichnotaxon Paravipus didactyloides. A total of 120 tracks are assigned to 5 individual trackways. The 'medium-sized' tracks with an average footprint length of 27.5 cm and footprint width of 23.1 cm are deeply imprinted into the track bearing sandstone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison with other didactyl tracks gives new insights into the foot morphology of advanced maniraptoran theropods and contributes to knowledge of their evolutionary history. The new ichnotaxon takes an important position in the ichnological fossil record of Gondwana and the mid-Jurassic biota worldwide, because it is among the earliest known records of paravian maniraptorans and of didactyl theropod tracks from Africa.

  6. to salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 3Inner Mongolia Industrial Engineering Research, Center of University for Castor, Tongliao 028042, ... strengthen and improve salt stress tolerance in plants. .... 2 µl cDNA, 1 µl each of 4 µM forward and reverse primer, 0.2 µl.

  7. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  8. Molten salt electrorefining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Shoji, Yuichi; Matsumaru, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    A molten cadmium phase (lower side) and a molten salt phase (upper side) are filled in an electrolytic bath. A basket incorporating spent nuclear fuels is inserted/disposed in the molten cadmium phase. A rotatable solid cathode is inserted/disposed in the molten salt phase. The spent fuels, for example, natural uranium, incorporated in the basket is dissolved in the molten cadmium phase. In this case, the uranium concentration in the molten salt phase is determined as from 0.5 to 20wt%. Then, electrolysis is conducted while setting a stirring power for stirring at least the molten salt phase of from 2.5 x 10 2 to 1 x 10 4 based on a reynolds number. Crystalline nuclei of uranium are precipitated uniformly on the surface of the solid cathode, and they grow into fine dendrites. With such procedures, since short-circuit between the cathode precipitates and the molten cadmium phase (anode) is scarcely caused, to improve the recovering rate of uranium. (I.N.)

  9. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  10. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  11. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  12. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Bryne and Lulu Formations, Middle Jurassic, northern Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andsbjerg, Jan

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Bryne and Lulu Formations of the Søgne Basin (northern part of the Danish Central Graben consist of fluvially-dominated coastal plain deposits, overlain by interfingering shoreface and back-barrier deposits. Laterally continuous, mainly fining-upwards fluvial channel sandstones that locally show evidence for tidal influence dominate the alluvial/coastal plain deposits of the lower Bryne Formation. The sandstones are separated by units of fine-grained floodplain sediments that show a fining-upwards - coarsening-upwards pattern and locally grade into lacustrine mudstones. A regional unconformity that separates the lower Bryne Formation from the mainly estuarine upper Bryne Formation is defined by the strongly erosional base of a succession of stacked channel sandstones, interpreted as the fill of a system of incised valleys. Most of the stacked channel sandstones show abundant mud laminae and flasers, and rare herringbone structures, suggesting that they were deposited in a tidal environment, probably an estuary. Several tens of metres of the lower Bryne Formation may have been removed by erosion at this unconformity. The estuarine channel sandstone succession is capped by coal beds that attain a thickness of several metres in the western part of the Søgne Basin, but are thin and poorly developed in the central part of the basin. Above the coal beds, the Lulu Formation is dominated by various types of tidally influenced paralic deposits in the western part of the basin and by coarsening-upwards shoreface and beach deposits in central parts. Westwards-thickening wedges of paralic deposits interfinger with eastwards-thickening wedges of shallow marine deposits. The Middle Jurassic succession is subdivided into nine sequences. In the lower Bryne Formation, sequence boundaries are situated at the base of laterally continuous fluvial channel sandstones whereas maximum flooding surfaces are placed in laterally extensive floodplain

  13. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  14. Sedimentary Provenance Constraints on the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous Paleogeography of the Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; He, D.; Li, D.; Lu, R.

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentary provenance of the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous sediments in the Sichuan Basin is constrained by sandstone petrology and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, which provides critical insights into mid-late Mesozoic paleogeographic evolution of the Sichuan Basin. Petrographic analyses of 22 sandstone samples indicate moderate to high mature sediments and are primarily derived from cratonic or recycled sources. U-Pb age data for the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous detrital zircons generally show populations at 130-200, 200-330, 400-490, 680-890, 1730-1960, and 2360-2600 Ma, with up-section variations. The Middle Jurassic sediments contain a relatively high density of 1.85 and 2.5 Ga zircons and a low density of the 800 Ma zircons, which are consistent with derivation mainly from the Songpan-Ganzi terrane and the South Qinling belt, and secondarily from the Western Jiangnan Orogen. The Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sedimentation with a scattered age distribution shared common multiple-source to sink systems that were predominantly draining towards the south and southeast, but increasingly drained southward, and were later disrupted by a synchronous northeastward drainage capture. Late Cretaceous sediments have a distinct reduction in Block.

  15. Early Jurassic extensional inheritance in the Lurestan region of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano; Parente, Mariano; Vitale, Stefano; Puzone, Francesco; Erba, Elisabetta; Bottini, Cinzia; Morsalnejad, Davoud; Mazzoli, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    It has long been recognized that the tectonic architecture of the Zagros mountain belt was strongly controlled by inherited structures previously formed within the Arabian plate. These preexisting features span in age from the pre-Cambrian to the Mesozoic, showing different trends and deformation styles. Yet, these structures are currently not fully understood. This uncertainty is partly related with the paucity of exposures, which rarely allows a direct observation of these important deformation features. The Lurestan Province of Iran provides a remarkable exception, since it is one of the few places of the Zagros mountain belt where exposures of Triassic and Jurassic rocks are widespread. In this area we carried out structural observations on Mesozoic extensional structures developed at the southern margin of the Neo-Tethyan basin. Syn-sedimentary extensional faults are hosted within the Triassic-Cretaceous succession, being particularly abundant in the Jurassic portion of the stratigraphy. Early to Middle Jurassic syn-sedimentary faults are observed in different paleogeographic domains of the area, and their occurrence is coherent with the subsequent transition from shallow-water to deep-sea basin environments, observed in a wide portion of the area. Most of the thrusts exposed in the area may indeed be interpreted as reactivated Jurassic extensional faults, or as reverse faults whose nucleation was controlled by the location of preexisting normal faults, as a result of positive inversion during crustal shortening and mountain building.

  16. A new early brachyuran (Crustacea, Decapoda) from the Middle Jurassic of northwest France, epibionts and ecological considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, N.; Bakel, van B.W.M.; Hondt, d' J.-L.; Charbonnier, S.

    2015-01-01

    The earliest known crabs are of Early and Middle Jurassic age; in general, they are rare. Here we describe a new species of homolodromioid from the late Bathonian of Sarthe (France), based on a single dorsal carapace, Tanidromites raboeufi n. sp. This specimen has mostly well-preserved cuticle, and

  17. Integrated stratigraphy of the Jurassic-Cretaceous sequences of the Kurovice Quarry, Outer Western Carpathians: correlations and tectonic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr; Schnabl, Petr; Čížková, Kristýna; Elbra, Tiiu; Kdýr, Šimon; Svobodová, Andrea; Reháková, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120 (2017), s. 216-216 ISSN 1017-8880. [International Symposium on the Cretaceous /10./. 21.08.2017-26.08.2017, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09979S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : stratigraphy * Jurassic-Cretaceous sequences * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  18. Multivariate and Cladistic Analyses of Isolated Teeth Reveal Sympatry of Theropod Dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic of Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Oliver; Wings, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Remains of theropod dinosaurs are very rare in Northern Germany because the area was repeatedly submerged by a shallow epicontinental sea during the Mesozoic. Here, 80 Late Jurassic theropod teeth are described of which the majority were collected over decades from marine carbonates in nowadays abandoned and backfilled quarries of the 19th century. Eighteen different morphotypes (A-R) could be distinguished and 3D models based on micro-CT scans of the best examples of all morphotypes are included as supplements. The teeth were identified with the assistance of discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis based on updated datamatrices. The results show that a large variety of theropod groups were present in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany. Identified specimens comprise basal Tyrannosauroidea, as well as Allosauroidea, Megalosauroidea cf. Marshosaurus, Megalosauridae cf. Torvosaurus and probably Ceratosauria. The formerly reported presence of Dromaeosauridae in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany could not be confirmed. Some teeth of this study resemble specimens described as pertaining to Carcharodontosauria (morphotype A) and Abelisauridae (morphotype K). This interpretation is however, not supported by discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis. Two smaller morphotypes (N and Q) differ only in some probably size-related characteristics from larger morphotypes (B and C) and could well represent juveniles of adult specimens. The similarity of the northern German theropods with groups from contemporaneous localities suggests faunal exchange via land-connections in the Late Jurassic between Germany, Portugal and North America.

  19. Geological and technological characterization of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous clay deposits (Jebel Ammar, northeastern Tunisia) for ceramic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben M'barek-Jemaï, Moufida; Sdiri, Ali; Ben Salah, Imed; Ben Aissa, Lassaad; Bouaziz, Samir; Duplay, Joelle

    2017-05-01

    Late Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clays of the Jebel Ammar study site were used as raw materials for potential applications in ceramic industry. Physico-chemical characterization of the collected samples was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and dilatometry (Bugot's curve). Geotechnical study was also undertaken by the assessment of plasticity and liquidity limits. It was found that high concentrations of silica, alumina with SiO2/Al2O3 ratio characterized the studied clays; its high amounts of CaO and Fe2O3 in the Late Jurassic clays indicated their calcareous nature. In addition, technological tests indicated moderate to low plasticity values for the Late Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous clays, respectively. Clay fraction (<2 μm) reached 50% of the natural clay in some cases. Mineralogical analysis showed that Jurassic clays were dominated by smectite, illite and kaolinite, as clay mineral species; calcite was the main associated mineral. Lower Cretaceous clays were mainly composed of abundant illite accompanied by well-crystallized smectite and kaolinite. Kaolinite gradually increased upwards, reaching 70% of the total clay fraction (i.e. <2 μm). Quartz, calcite and feldspar were the main non-clay minerals. Based on these analyses, the clays meet technological requirements that would allow their use in the ceramic industry and for the manufacturing of ceramic tiles.

  20. Multivariate and Cladistic Analyses of Isolated Teeth Reveal Sympatry of Theropod Dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic of Northern Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gerke

    Full Text Available Remains of theropod dinosaurs are very rare in Northern Germany because the area was repeatedly submerged by a shallow epicontinental sea during the Mesozoic. Here, 80 Late Jurassic theropod teeth are described of which the majority were collected over decades from marine carbonates in nowadays abandoned and backfilled quarries of the 19th century. Eighteen different morphotypes (A-R could be distinguished and 3D models based on micro-CT scans of the best examples of all morphotypes are included as supplements. The teeth were identified with the assistance of discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis based on updated datamatrices. The results show that a large variety of theropod groups were present in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany. Identified specimens comprise basal Tyrannosauroidea, as well as Allosauroidea, Megalosauroidea cf. Marshosaurus, Megalosauridae cf. Torvosaurus and probably Ceratosauria. The formerly reported presence of Dromaeosauridae in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany could not be confirmed. Some teeth of this study resemble specimens described as pertaining to Carcharodontosauria (morphotype A and Abelisauridae (morphotype K. This interpretation is however, not supported by discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis. Two smaller morphotypes (N and Q differ only in some probably size-related characteristics from larger morphotypes (B and C and could well represent juveniles of adult specimens. The similarity of the northern German theropods with groups from contemporaneous localities suggests faunal exchange via land-connections in the Late Jurassic between Germany, Portugal and North America.

  1. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  2. Early to Middle Jurassic tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains, Northwest China: Evidence from sedimentology and detrital zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongjie; Tao, Huifei; Wang, Qi; Qiu, Zhen; Ma, Dongxu; Qiu, Junli; Liao, Peng

    2018-03-01

    The Bogda Mountains, as an important intracontinental orogenic belt, are situated in the southern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and are a key area for understanding the Mesozoic evolution of the CAOB. However, the tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains remains controversial during the Mesozoic Era, especially the Early to Middle Jurassic Periods. The successive Lower to Middle Jurassic strata are well preserved and exposed along the northern flank of the Western Bogda Mountains and record the uplift processes of the Bogda Mountains. In this study, we analysed sedimentary facies combined with detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology at five sections of Lower to Middle Jurassic strata to detect the tectonic evolution and changes of provenance in the Bogda area. During Early to Middle Jurassic times, the fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine environments dominated in the western section of the Bogda area. The existence of Early Triassic peak age indicates that the Bogda Mountains did not experience uplift during the period of early Badaowan Formation deposition. The Early Triassic to Late Permian granitoid plutons and Carboniferous volcanic rocks from the Barkol and Santanghu areas were the main provenances. The significant change in the U-Pb age spectrum implies that the Eastern Bogda Mountains initiated uplift in the period of late Badaowan Formation deposition, and the Eastern Junggar Basin and the Turpan-Hami Basin were partially partitioned. The Eastern Bogda Mountains gradually became the major provenance. From the period of early Sangonghe to early Toutunhe Formations deposition, the provenance of the sediments and basin-range frame were similar to that of late Badaowan. However, the Eastern Bogda Mountains suffered intermittent uplift three times, and successive denudation. The uplifts respectively happened in early Sangonghe, late Sangonghe to early Xishanyao, and late Xishanyao to early Toutunhe. During the deposition stage of Toutunhe Formation, a

  3. Si-Metasomatism During Serpentinization of Jurassic Ultramafic Sea-floor: a Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Boschi, C.; Schwarzenbach, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Bracco-Levanto ophiolitic complex (northwestern Italy) represents one of the largest and better-exposed ophiolitic successions in the Northern Apennines. It is considered to be a fragment of heterogeneous Jurassic lithosphere that records tectono-magmatic and alteration histories similar to those documented along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), such as at the 15°20'N area and the Atlantis Massif at 30°N. Structural and petrological studies on these rocks provide constraints on metamorphic/deformation processes during formation and hydrothermal alteration of the Jurassic oceanic lithosphere. We present a petrological and geochemical study of serpentinization processes and fluid-rock interaction in the Bracco-Levanto ophiolitic complex and compare these to published data from modern oceanic hydrothermal systems, such as the Lost City hydrothermal field hosted in serpentinites on the Atlantis Massif. Major element and mineral compositional data allow us to distinguish a multiphase history of alteration characterized by: (1) widespread Si-metasomatism during progressive serpentinization, and (2) multiple phases of veining and carbonate precipitation associated with circulation of seawater in the shallow ultramafic-dominated portions of the Jurassic seafloor, resulting in the formation of ophicalcites. In detail, regional variations in Si, Mg and Al content are observed in zones of ophicalcite formation, indicating metasomatic reactions and Si-Al transport during long-lived fluid-rock interaction and channelling of hydrothermal fluids. Rare earth element and isotopic analysis indicate that the Si-rich fluids are derived from alteration of pyroxenes to talc and tremolite in ultramafic rocks at depth. Comparison with serpentinites from the Atlantis Massif and 15°20'N indicates a similar degree of Si-enrichment in the modern seafloor and suggests that Si-metasomatism may be a fundamental process associated with serpentinization at slow-spreading ridge environments

  4. Restoration of Circum-Arctic Upper Jurassic source rock paleolatitude based on crude oil geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Ramos, L.S.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Scotese, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Tectonic geochemical paleolatitude (TGP) models were developed to predict the paleolatitude of petroleum source rock from the geochemical composition of crude oil. The results validate studies designed to reconstruct ancient source rock depositional environments using oil chemistry and tectonic reconstruction of paleogeography from coordinates of the present day collection site. TGP models can also be used to corroborate tectonic paleolatitude in cases where the predicted paleogeography conflicts with the depositional setting predicted by the oil chemistry, or to predict paleolatitude when the present day collection locality is far removed from the source rock, as might occur due to long distance subsurface migration or transport of tarballs by ocean currents. Biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were measured for 496 crude oil samples inferred to originate from Upper Jurassic source rock in West Siberia, the North Sea and offshore Labrador. First, a unique, multi-tiered chemometric (multivariate statistics) decision tree was used to classify these samples into seven oil families and infer the type of organic matter, lithology and depositional environment of each organofacies of source rock [Peters, K.E., Ramos, L.S., Zumberge, J.E., Valin, Z.C., Scotese, C.R., Gautier, D.L., 2007. Circum-Arctic petroleum systems identified using decision-tree chemometrics. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 91, 877-913]. Second, present day geographic locations for each sample were used to restore the tectonic paleolatitude of the source rock during Late Jurassic time (???150 Ma). Third, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to construct linear TGP models that relate tectonic and geochemical paleolatitude, where the latter is based on 19 source-related biomarker and isotope ratios for each oil family. The TGP models were calibrated using 70% of the samples in each family and the remaining 30% of samples were used for model validation. Positive

  5. A toothed turtle from the Late Jurassic of China and the global biogeographic history of turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Walter G; Rabi, Márton; Clark, James M; Xu, Xing

    2016-10-28

    Turtles (Testudinata) are a successful lineage of vertebrates with about 350 extant species that inhabit all major oceans and landmasses with tropical to temperate climates. The rich fossil record of turtles documents the adaptation of various sub-lineages to a broad range of habitat preferences, but a synthetic biogeographic model is still lacking for the group. We herein describe a new species of fossil turtle from the Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China, Sichuanchelys palatodentata sp. nov., that is highly unusual by plesiomorphically exhibiting palatal teeth. Phylogenetic analysis places the Late Jurassic Sichuanchelys palatodentata in a clade with the Late Cretaceous Mongolochelys efremovi outside crown group Testudines thereby establishing the prolonged presence of a previously unrecognized clade of turtles in Asia, herein named Sichuanchelyidae. In contrast to previous hypotheses, M. efremovi and Kallokibotion bajazidi are not found within Meiolaniformes, a clade that is here reinterpreted as being restricted to Gondwana. A revision of the global distribution of fossil and recent turtle reveals that the three primary lineages of derived, aquatic turtles, including the crown, Paracryptodira, Pan-Pleurodira, and Pan-Cryptodira can be traced back to the Middle Jurassic of Euramerica, Gondwana, and Asia, respectively, which resulted from the primary break up of Pangaea at that time. The two primary lineages of Pleurodira, Pan-Pelomedusoides and Pan-Chelidae, can similarly be traced back to the Cretaceous of northern and southern Gondwana, respectively, which were separated from one another by a large desert zone during that time. The primary divergence of crown turtles was therefore driven by vicariance to the primary freshwater aquatic habitat of these lineages. The temporally persistent lineages of basal turtles, Helochelydridae, Meiolaniformes, Sichuanchelyidae, can similarly be traced back to the Late Mesozoic of Euramerica, southern Gondwana, and Asia. Given

  6. The Upper Jurassic Stanleyville Group of the eastern Congo Basin: An example of perennial lacustrine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, Alexis; Blanpied, Christian; Delvaux, Damien

    2017-08-01

    The intracratonic Congo Basin, located in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), is the largest sedimentary basin of Africa. The Jurassic strata outcrop along its eastern margin, south of Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville). In the last century, the Upper Jurassic Stanleyville Group was described as a lacustrine series containing a thin basal marine limestone designed as the ;Lime Fine; beds. Since the proposal of this early model, the depositional environment of the Stanleyville Group, and especially the possible marine incursion, has been debated, but without re-examining the existing cores, outcrop samples and historical fossils from the type location near Kisangani that are available at the Royal Museum for Central Africa (MRAC/KMMA, Tervuren, Belgium). In order to refine the former sedimentology, a series of nine exploration cores drilled in the Kisangani sub-basin have been described. This study aims at integrating sedimentary facies in existing sedimentary models and to discuss the hypothesis of the presence of Kimmeridgian marine deposits along the Congo River near Kisangani, a region which lies in the middle of the African continent. Eight facies have been identified, which permit a reinterpretation of the depositional environment and paleogeography of the Stanleyville Group. The base of the Stanleyville Group is interpreted to represent a conglomeratic fluvial succession, which filled an inherited Triassic paleotopography. Above these conglomerates, a transition to a typically lacustrine system is interpreted, which includes: (1) a basal profundal, sublittoral (brown to dark fine-grained siltstones with microbial carbonates, i.e., the ;Lime Fine; beds) and littoral lacustrine series; covered by (2) a sublittoral to profundal interval (brown to dark organic-rich, fine-grained siltstones), which corresponds to the maximum extent of the paleo-lake; and, finally (3) a shallow lacustrine series (greenish calcareous siltstones and sandstones with red siltstones

  7. InGen Inconsistencies: The "Dinosaurs" Of Jurassic Park May Not Be What The Corporation Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, R. J.; Traer, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    InGen has made and continues to make dubious claims about proprietary technology developed to clone non-avian dinosaurs for exhibition within their "Jurassic Park." Notably, there are several inconsistencies between their claims for how their technology works and what has been observed within the park. Here we investigate several of these inconsistencies in the hopes that it will push for increased transparency between corporations and academia. First, we highlight a disconnect between supposedly Jurassic amber used for dinosaur DNA extraction and the overwhelming presence of Late Cretaceous dinosaurs within the park. Further, InGen's mining operations only publicly operate in Jurassic-aged formations of the Dominican Republic, which clashes with the presence of Velociraptor and Gallimimus, known only from Mongolia. Second, the park contains seemingly full-grown adult specimens despite InGen's claims that they first successfully cloned a prehistoric animal in 1984, though there is no publicly available information as to what animal this was. That the park was nearly ready to open by 1993 precludes the presence of fully mature dinosaurs and suggests that InGen might be misrepresenting their technologies. Third, we must point out that fossil DNA denatures to the point of uselessness within thousands, not millions, of years. Additionally, the use of anuran DNA to fill in gaps from fossil dinosaurian DNA is a dubious choice given that more closely related organisms are available. Either there is an unexplained reason for this choice, or little attention has been paid to dinosaurian phylogeny by InGen geneticists. Finally, rumors of a secret InGen project to produce a dinosaur not currently known to paleontologists suggests one of two things: they were able to find DNA from a dinosaur previously unknown in the fossil record, which is highly plausible if their techniques are valid, or that InGen is able to artificially manipulate DNA to a degree far beyond what other

  8. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  9. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous continental convergence and intracontinental orogenesis in East Asia: A synthesis of the Yanshan Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhang, Fuqin; Cui, Jianjun; Chen, Xuanhua; Zhang, Shuanhong; Miao, Laicheng; Li, Jianhua; Shi, Wei; Li, Zhenhong; Huang, Shiqi; Li, Hailong

    2015-12-01

    The basic tectonic framework of continental East Asia was produced by a series of nearly contemporaneous orogenic events in the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Commonly, the Late Mesozoic orogenic processes were characterized by continent-continent collision, large-scale thrusting, strike-slip faulting and intense crustal shortening, crustal thickening, regional anatexis and metamorphism, followed by large-scale lithospheric extension, rifting and magmatism. To better understand the geological processes, this paper reviews and synthesizes existing multi-disciplinary geologic data related to sedimentation, tectonics, magmatism, metamorphism and geochemistry, and proposes a two-stage tectono-thermal evolutionary history of East Asia during the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (ca. 170-120 Ma). In the first stage, three orogenic belts along the continental margins were formed coevally at ca. 170-135 Ma, i.e., the north Mongol-Okhotsk orogen, the east paleo-Pacific coastal orogen, and the west Bangong-Nujiang orogen. Tectonism related to the coastal orogen caused extensive intracontinental folding and thrusting that resulted in a depositional hiatus in the Late Jurassic, as well as crustal anatexis that generated syn-kinematic granites, adakites and migmatites. The lithosphere of the East Asian continent was thickened, reaching a maximum during the latest Jurassic or the earliest Cretaceous. In the second stage (ca. 135-120 Ma), delamination of the thickened lithosphere resulted in a remarkable (>120 km) lithospheric thinning and the development of mantle-derived magmatism, mineralization, metamorphic core complexes and rift basins. The Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous subduction of oceanic plates (paleo-Pacific, meso-Tethys, and Mongol-Okhotsk) and continent-continent collision (e.g. Lhasa and Qiangtang) along the East Asian continental margins produced broad coastal and intracontinental orogens. These significant tectonic activities, marked by

  10. Chemical Remagnetization of Jurassic Carbonates and a Primary Paleolatitude of Lower Cretaceous Volcaniclastic Rocks of the Tibetan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Dekkers, M. J.; Garzanti, E.; Dupont Nivet, G.; Lippert, P. C.; Li, X.; Maffione, M.; Langereis, C. G.; Hu, X.; Guo, Z.; Kapp, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Paleolatitudes for the Tibetan Himalaya Zone based on paleomagnetic inclinations provide kinematic constraints of the passive northern Indian margin and the extent of 'Greater India' before the India-Asia collision. Here, we present a paleomagnetic investigation of the Jurassic (carbonates) to Lower Cretaceous (volcaniclastic rocks) Wölong section of the Tibetan Himalaya in the Everest region. The carbonates yield positive fold tests, suggesting that the remanent magnetizations have a pre-folding origin. However, detailed paleomagnetic analyses, rock magnetic tests, end-member modeling of acquisition curves of isothermal remanent magnetization, and petrographic studies reveal that the magnetic carrier of the Jurassic carbonates is authigenic magnetite, whereas the dominant magnetic carrier of the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic rocks is detrital magnetite. We conclude that the Jurassic carbonates were remagnetized, whereas the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastics retain a primary remanence. We hypothesize that remagnetization of the Jurassic carbonates was probably caused by the oxidation of early diagenetic pyrite to magnetite within the time interval at ~86-84 Ma during the latest Cretaceous Normal Superchron and earliest deposition of Cretaceous oceanic red beds in the Tibetan Himalaya. The remagnetization of the limestones prevents determining the size of 'Greater India' during Jurassic time. Instead, a paleolatitude of the Tibetan Himalaya of 23.8±2.1° S at ~86-84 Ma is suggested. This value is lower than the expected paleolatitude of India from apparent polar wander path (APWP). The volcaniclastic rocks with the primary remanence, however, yielded a Lower Cretaceous paleolatitude of Tibetan Himalaya of 55.5±3° S, fitting well with the APWP of India.

  11. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  12. Discovery of Jurassic ammonite-bearing series in Jebel Bou Hedma (South-Central Tunisian Atlas): Implications for stratigraphic correlations and paleogeographic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrouni, Néjib; Houla, Yassine; Soussi, Mohamed; Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Ali, Walid Ben; Nasri, Ahmed; Bouaziz, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Recent geological mapping undertaken in the Southern-Central Atlas of Tunisia led to the discovery of Jurassic ammonite-bearing series in the Jebel Bou Hedma E-W anticline structure. These series represent the Southernmost Jurassic rocks ever documented in the outcrops of the Tunisian Atlas. These series which outcrop in a transitional zone between the Southern Tunisian Atlas and the Chott basin offer a valuable benchmark for new stratigraphic correlation with the well-known Jurassic series of the North-South Axis of Central Tunisia and also with the Jurassic subsurface successions transected by petroleum wells in the study area. The preliminary investigations allowed the identification, within the most complete section outcropping in the center of the structure, of numerous useful biochronological and sedimentological markers helping in the establishment of an updated Jurassic stratigraphic framework chart of South-Western Tunisia. Additionally, the Late Jurassic succession documents syn-sedimentary features such as slumping, erosion and reworking of sediments and ammonite faunas that can be considered as strong witnesses of an important geodynamic event around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. These stratigraphic and geodynamic new data make of the Jurassic of Jebel Bou Hedma a key succession for stratigraphic correlation attempt between Atlas Tunisian series and those currently buried in the Chott basin or outcropping in the Saharan platform. Furthermore, the several rich-ammonite identified horizons within the Middle and Upper Jurassic series constitute reliable time lines that can be useful for both paleogeographic and geodynamic reconstructions of this part of the North African Tethyan margin but also in the refinement of the potential migration routes for ammonite populations from the Maghrebian Southern Tethys to Arabia.

  13. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  14. TECHNOLOGY VS NATURE: HUMAN ERROR IN DEALING WITH NATURE IN CRICHTON'S JURASSIC PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Prasasti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Witnessing the euphoria of the era of biotechnology in the late twentieth century, Crichton exposes the theme of biotechnology in his works. In Jurassic Park, he voices his concern about the impact of the use of biotechnology to preserve nature and its living creatures. He further describes how the purpose of preserving nature and the creatures has turned out to be destructive. This article discusses Crichton's main character, Hammond, who attempts to control nature by genetically recreating the extinct fossil animals. It seems that the attempt ignores his human limitations. Although he is confident that has been equipped with the technology, he forgets to get along with nature. His way of using technology to accomplish his purpose proves not to be in harmony with nature. As a consequence, nature fights back. And he is conquered.

  15. Architecture of an Upper Jurassic barrier island sandstone reservoir, Danish Central Graben:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Peter N.; Nielsen, Lars H.; Nielsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    An unusually thick (c. 88 m), transgressive barrier island and shoreface sandstone succession characterizes the Upper Jurassic Heno Formation reservoir of the Freja oil field situated on the boundary of Denmark and Norway. The development and preservation of such thick transgressive barrier island...... sands is puzzling since a barrier island typically migrates landwards during transgression and only a thin succession of back-barrier and shoreface sands is preserved. Investigation of the development and geometry of the Freja reservoir sandstones is problematic since the reservoir is buried c. 5 km...... and seismic resolution is inadequate for architectural analysis. Description of the reservoir sandstone bodies is thus based on sedimentological interpretation and correlation of seven wells, of which five were cored. Palaeotopography played a major role in the position and preservation of the thick reservoir...

  16. The geology and hydrocarbon possibilities of the Triassic-Jurassic Fundy Basin, eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, J.A.; Fensome, R.A. [Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Atlantic Geoscience Centre; Brown, D.E. [Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The development of the Mesozoic sedimentary basins beneath the waters of the eastern coast of North America was discussed. These basins have been linked to the rifting of the central part of Pangaea during Mid and Late Triassic time that ended in the formation of a series of grabens extending from Florida to The Grand Banks of Newfoundland, one of them being the Bay of Fundy Basin which is about 16,500 square kilometres in size. Onshore and offshore geologic mapping and seismic interpretations have shown their age range to be from the Mid Triassic Anisian or Ladinian to Mid Jurassic. Up to 12 km of Mesozoic rocks were deposited in the basin with up to 9 km still present. The depositional history of the area was described. The two areas with greatest hydrocarbon potential are the Bay of Fundy and the Chignecto subbasins.

  17. Parameters controlling fracturing distribution: example of an Upper Jurassic marly-calcareous formation (eastern Paris Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, G.; Rebours, H.; Wileveau, Y.; Proudhon, B.

    2006-01-01

    Study of fractures along a 490-m vertical section of marl/limestone alternations in the Upper Jurassic (Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory-eastern Paris Basin) reveals their organization and the different states of palaeo-stress. Type and extension of tectonic structures seem to be controlled principally by lithology and secondary by depth. Also, it appears deviations of Alpine palaeo-stresses between Kimmeridgian and Oxfordian formations. These deviations are related to the presence of marl/limestone contacts. The vertical evolution of current horizontal maximum stress shows a similar behaviour, with deviations at the walls of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites. These results allow us to point out and to discuss the impact of lithology, rheology and depth on fracturing occurrence and distribution. Furthermore, this study suggests the role of Callovo-Oxfordian as a barrier for fracture development between the limestones of Dogger and Oxfordian formations. (authors)

  18. A new mesoserphid wasp from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China (Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of Mesoserphidae (Hymenoptera, Juraserphus modicus gen. et sp. nov., is described based on a well-preserved fossil specimen from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of northeastern China. It is characterized by the following forewing features: the forking of Rs+M located approximately one-third of the distance between 1m-cu and 2r-rs, both 1cu-a and 2cu-a antefurcal; 1-M more than twice as long as 1m-cu and hind wing with cells r and rm closed. In addition, it has a short ovipositor, only extending slightly beyond the metasomal apex. Its new morphological characters broaden the diversity of Mesoserphidae in the Mesozoic and provide new insights into the evolution and relationships of Mesoserphidae.

  19. Stable and strontium isotopic records of molluscan shells, lower jurassic, Cuenca Neuquina, southwestern Mendoza, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnoni, M.C.; Valencio, S.A.; Ramos, A.M; Riccardi, A.C; Panarello, H.O

    2001-01-01

    The strontium, carbon and oxygen isotopic signal of the past oceans is accurately recorded by authigenic marine minerals such as carbonates, sulfates and phosphates. The variation of these isotope ratios through the geological time is used as a tool in correlating and dating marine sedimentary rocks. Many works have been done concerning to the changes in carbon, oxygen and strontium isotope ratios of different marine successions in the world. These allow the construction of curves of secular variations of the isotope signals with geological time (Jones et al., 1994a, 1994b; Veizer et al., 1999; Jacobsen and Kaufman, 1999). This work presents strontium, carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Early Jurassic biogenic marine carbonates of Cuenca Neuquina in southwestern Mendoza (au)

  20. The vertebrate fauna from the stipite layers of the Grands Causses (Middle Jurassic, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eKnoll

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The stipites are Bathonian (Middle Jurassic coals that formed in an everglades-like environment and are now exposed in the Grands Causses (southern France. The vertebrate assemblage of the stipites and of the transitional layers to the carbonates in which they are interspersed are reviewed. To date, only small-sized and isolated vertebrate bones, teeth, and scales have been recovered. These record the presence of sharks (Hybodus, Asteracanthus, bony fishes (Lepidotes, Pycnodontiformes, Caturus, Aspidorhynchus, amphibians (Anura, Albanerpetontidae, and reptiles (Crocodylomorpha, Ornithischia, Theropoda. Despite its relatively limited taxonomic diversity, the vertebrate assemblage from the stipites and from their associated layers is notable for being one of the few of this age with both terrestrial and marine influences. Compared to other approximately coeval formations in Western Europe, the stipites vertebrate assemblage is surpassed in diversity only by those from the British Isles.

  1. Research on sequence stratigraphy of Shuixigou group, jurassic in Yili basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengfu; Wang Guo; Wei Anxin; Qi Junrang; Zhang Zhongwang

    2006-01-01

    The Shuixigou Group, Jurassic in Yili basin is a set of coal-bearing clastic formation formed under basically consistent tectonic stress and sedimentary environment. In the middle of the Group (Sangonghe Formation) abrupt changes appear in the lithology and the colour of rocks, and an abrupt turning in logging curve appears correspondingly. Using the point view of sequence stratigraphy, the authors analyse the above phenomenon in aspects of the chrono-stratigraphy, the lithology, the sedimentary system tract, the sedimentary rhythum, as well as the interpretation of logging curves, and suggest that a unconformity surface (or a sequence boundary) exists in the middle of the Group, and try make a re-division of sequence stratigraphy for the Shuixigou Group. (authors)

  2. Ocean basin volume constraints on global sea level since the Jurassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in the volume of the ocean basins, predominately via changes in the age-area distribution of oceanic lithosphere, have been suggested as the main driver for long-term eustatic sea-level change. As ocean lithosphere cools and thickens, ocean depth increases. The balance between the abundance of hot and buoyant crust along mid ocean ridges relative to abyssal plains is the primary driving force of long-term sea level changes. The emplacement of volcanic plateaus and chains as well as sedimentation contribute to raising eustatic sea level. Quantifying the average ocean basin depth through time primarily relies on the present day preserved seafloor spreading record, an analysis of the spatio-temporal record of plate boundary processes recorded on the continental margins adjacent to ocean basins as well as a consideration of the rules of plate tectonics, to reconstruct the history of seafloor spreading in the oceanic basins through time. This approach has been successfully applied to predict the magnitude and pattern of eustatic sea-level change since the Cretaceous (Müller et. al. 2008) but uncertainties in reconstructing mid ocean ridges and flanks increase back through time, given that we mainly depend on information preserved in preserved ocean crust. We have reconstructed the age-area distribution of oceanic lithosphere and the plate boundary configurations back to the Jurassic (200 Ma) in order to assess long-term sea-level change from amalgamation to dispersal of Pangaea. We follow the methodology presented in Müller et. al. (2008) but incorporate a new absolute plate motion model derived from Steinberger and Torsvik (2008) prior to 100 Ma, a merged Wessel et. al. (2006) and Wessel and Kroenke (2008) fixed Pacific hotspot reference frame, and a revised model for the formation of Panthalassa and the Cretaceous Pacific. Importantly, we incorporate a model for the break-up of the Ontong Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi plateaus between 120-86 Ma. We extend a

  3. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Phillip L; Egerton, Victoria M; Romano, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new record of a sauropodomorph dinosaur is here described from the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian) Saltwick Formation of Whitby (Yorkshire), UK. A single caudal vertebra represents an early sauropodomorph and signifies the earliest recognised eusauropod dinosaur from the United Kingdom. The absence of pleurocoels and a narrow, dorsoventrally deep, but craniocaudally short centrum, suggests a primitive sauropodomorph. Distinct spinopostzygopophyseal laminae rise from the lateral margins of the postzygapophyses and pass caudally along what remains of the neural spine, a character unique to a subgroup of sauropods that includes Barapasaurus, Omeisaurus and other neosauropods and eusauropods. The lack of phylogenetically robust characters in sauropod caudal vertebrae usually makes it difficult to establish affinities, but the absence of mild procoely excludes this specimen from both Diplodocoidea and Lithostrotia. The vertebra cannot be further distinguished from those of a wide range of basal sauropods, cetiosaurids and basal macronarians. However, this plesiomorphic vertebra still signifies the earliest stratigraphic occurrence for a British sauropod dinosaur.

  4. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip L Manning

    Full Text Available A new record of a sauropodomorph dinosaur is here described from the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian Saltwick Formation of Whitby (Yorkshire, UK. A single caudal vertebra represents an early sauropodomorph and signifies the earliest recognised eusauropod dinosaur from the United Kingdom. The absence of pleurocoels and a narrow, dorsoventrally deep, but craniocaudally short centrum, suggests a primitive sauropodomorph. Distinct spinopostzygopophyseal laminae rise from the lateral margins of the postzygapophyses and pass caudally along what remains of the neural spine, a character unique to a subgroup of sauropods that includes Barapasaurus, Omeisaurus and other neosauropods and eusauropods. The lack of phylogenetically robust characters in sauropod caudal vertebrae usually makes it difficult to establish affinities, but the absence of mild procoely excludes this specimen from both Diplodocoidea and Lithostrotia. The vertebra cannot be further distinguished from those of a wide range of basal sauropods, cetiosaurids and basal macronarians. However, this plesiomorphic vertebra still signifies the earliest stratigraphic occurrence for a British sauropod dinosaur.

  5. A new primitive Neornithischian dinosaur from the Jurassic of Patagonia with gut contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Leonardo; Canudo, José I.; Garrido, Alberto C.; Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Martínez, Leandro C. A.; Coria, Rodolfo A.; Gasca, José M.

    2017-02-01

    We describe a new species of an ornithischian dinosaur, Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov. The specimen, consisting in an almost complete skull and incomplete postcranium was collected from the marine-deltaic deposits of the Los Molles Formation (Toarcian-Bajocian), being the first reported dinosaur for this unit, one of the oldest from Neuquén Basin, and the first neornithischian dinosaur known from the Jurassic of South America. Despite showing a general stegosaurian appearance, the extensive phylogenetic analysis carried out depicts Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov. as a basal ornithopod, suggesting that both Thyreophora and neornithischians could have achieved significant convergent features. The specimen was preserved articulated and with some of its gut content place in the middle-posterior part of the thoracic cavity. Such stomach content was identified as seeds, most of them belonging to the Cycadales group. This finding reveals a possible and unexpected role of this ornithischian species as seed-dispersal agent.

  6. Some of Alpheus Hyatt's unfigured types from the Jurassic of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crickmay, C.H.

    1933-01-01

    Alpheus Hyatt named a considerable number of Jurassic fossils from California. Only a few of these were described, arid none were illustrated. In this paper 16 of these species are evaluated in terms of present-day nomenclature, figures of the type specimens are shown, and their probable age significance is given. Included are Monotis semiplicata (=Entolium semiplicata),Monotis symmetrica (=Entolium symmetrica), Daonella?subjecta ( = '' Daonella" subjecta), Daonella bOchiformts (=" Daonella" bOchiformis), Daonella cardinoides (="Duonella"cardinoides), A ucella erringtoni var. arcuata ( = Buchia arcuata), Aucella elongata ( = Buchia elongata), AuceUa var.elongata orbicularis ( = Buchia sinzovi), Aucella aviculaeformis ( = Buchia erringtoni var. aviculaeformis), Aucella aviculaeformis var. acuta ( = Buchia erringtoni var. orbicularis), Aucella orb·.icularis( = Buchia erringtoni var. orbicularis), Cardioceras dub\\~um ( = Amoeboceras dubium), Perisphinctes virgulatiformis ( = Viigatosphinctes virgulatiformis), Perisphinctes miihlbachi ( = Dichotomoceras miihlbachi), iJlcostephanus lindgreni ( =" Galilaeiceras"

  7. Pangaean climate during the Early Jurassic: GCM simulations and the sedimentary record of paleoclimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, M.A. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States); Rind, D.; Ruedy, R. [Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Results from new simulations of the Early Jurassic climate show that increased ocean heat transport may have been the primary force generating warmer climates during the past 180 m.y. The simulations, conducted using the general circulation model (GCM) at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, include realistic representations of paleocontinental distribution, topography, epeiric seas, and vegetation, in order to facilitate comparisons between model results and paleoclimate data. three major features of the simulated Early Jurassic climate include the following. (1) A global warming, compared to the present, of 5 {degrees}C to 10 {degrees}C, with temperature increases at high latitudes five times this global average. Average summer temperatures exceed 35 {degrees}C in low-latitude regions of western Pangaea where eolian sandstones testify to the presence of vast deserts. (2) Simulated precipitation and evaporation patterns agree closely with the moisture distribution interpreted from evaporites, and coal deposits. High rainfall rates are associated primarily with monsoons that originate over the warm Tethys Ocean. Unlike the {open_quotes}megamonsoons{close_quotes} proposed in previous studies, these systems are found to be associated with localized pressure cells whose positions are controlled by topography and coastal geography. (3) Decreases in planetary albedo, occurring because of reductions in sea ice, snow cover, and low clouds, and increases in atmospheric water vapor are the positive climate feedbacks that amplify the global warming. Similar to other Mesozoic climate simulations, our model finds that large seasonal temperature fluctuations occurred over mid- and high-latitude continental interiors, refuting paleoclimate evidence that suggests more equable conditions. 101 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Equatorial origin for Lower Jurassic radiolarian chert in the Franciscan Complex, San Rafael Mountains, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Murchey, B.L.; Bogar, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Lower Jurassic radiolarian chert sampled at two localities in the San Rafael Mountains of southern California (???20 km north of Santa Barbara) contains four components of remanent magnetization. Components A, B???, and B are inferred to represent uplift, Miocene volcanism, and subduction/accretion overprint magnetizations, respectively. The fourth component (C), isolated between 580?? and 680??C, shows a magnetic polarity stratigraphy and is interpreted as a primary magnetization acquired by the chert during, or soon after, deposition. Both sequences are late Pliensbachian to middle Toarcian in age, and an average paleolatitude calculated from all tilt-corrected C components is 1?? ?? 3?? north or south. This result is consistent with deposition of the cherts beneath the equatorial zone of high biologic productivity and is similar to initial paleolatitudes determined for chert blocks in northern California and Mexico. This result supports our model in which deep-water Franciscan-type cherts were deposited on the Farallon plate as it moved eastward beneath the equatorial productivity high, were accreted to the continental margin at low paleolatitudes, and were subsequently distributed northward by strike-slip faulting associated with movements of the Kula, Farallon, and Pacific plates. Upper Cretaceous turbidites of the Cachuma Formation were sampled at Agua Caliente Canyon to determine a constraining paleolatitude for accretion of the Jurassic chert sequences. These apparently unaltered rocks, however, were found to be completely overprinted by the A component of magnetization. Similar in situ directions and demagnetization behaviors observed in samples of other Upper Cretaceous turbidite sequences in southern and Baja California imply that these rocks might also give unreliable results.

  9. Thermo-mechanical Properties of Upper Jurassic (Malm) Carbonate Rock Under Drained Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Liang; Blöcher, Guido; Milsch, Harald; Zimmermann, Günter; Sass, Ingo; Huenges, Ernst

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to quantify the thermo-mechanical properties of Neuburger Bankkalk limestone, an outcrop analog of the Upper Jurassic carbonate formation (Germany), and to provide a reference for reservoir rock deformation within future enhanced geothermal systems located in the Southern German Molasse Basin. Experiments deriving the drained bulk compressibility C were performed by cycling confining pressure p c between 2 and 50 MPa at a constant pore pressure p p of 0.5 MPa after heating the samples to defined temperatures between 30 and 90 °C. Creep strain was then measured after each loading and unloading stage, and permeability k was obtained after each creep strain measurement. The drained bulk compressibility increased with increasing temperature and decreased with increasing differential pressure p d = p c - p p showing hysteresis between the loading and unloading stages above 30 °C. The apparent values of the indirectly calculated Biot coefficient α ind containing contributions from inelastic deformation displayed the same temperature and pressure dependencies. The permeability k increased immediately after heating and the creep rates were also temperature dependent. It is inferred that the alteration of the void space caused by temperature changes leads to the variation of rock properties measured under isothermal conditions while the load cycles applied under isothermal conditions yield additional changes in pore space microstructure. The experimental results were applied to a geothermal fluid production scenario to constrain drawdown and time-dependent effects on the reservoir, overall, to provide a reference for the hydromechanical behavior of geothermal systems in carbonate, and more specifically, in Upper Jurassic lithologies.

  10. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Palynostratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Middle Jurassic Sortehat Formation (Neill Klinter Group, Jameson Land, East Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppelhus, Eva B.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The grey–black mudstones of the Sortehat Formation form part of the Middle Jurassic fill of the Jameson Land Basin in East Greenland. The formation is exposed in the southernmost part of the north–south-trending, Mesozoic rift system in East Greenland that was part of the epeiric seaway between East Greenland and Norway. Sedimentological observations of the Sortehat Formation indicate deposition in an offshore marine setting that was typically low energy and periodically oxygen-deficient but was influenced by storm currents on occasion. Detailed palynological studies of the Sortehat Formation have resulted in the definition of three palynological assemblage zones recognised at four localities, namely Enhjørningen Dal and Pelion (north Jameson Land, the type section at Sortehat (central Jameson Land and Albuen at Neill Klinter along Hurry Inlet(south-east Jameson Land. In stratigraphic order, these zones are termed the Botryococcus Assemblage Zone, the Nannoceratopsis gracilis – Nannoceratopsis senex Assemblage Zone, and the Sentusidinium pelionense Assemblage Zone. They are recognised on the basis of the identification of approximately 110 species of palynomorphs, including 45 species of spores, 30 of pollen, 22 of dinoflagellate cysts, 10 acritarch species, two species of algae, and some fungal spores. An Aalenian – ?Early Bajocian age is suggested for the Sortehat Formation on the basis of thepalynoflora.Interpretation of the palynomorph assemblages suggests that the formation accumulated in a shallow, brackish marine environment. A significant terrestrial input, including the freshwater greenalga Botryococcus, is recorded in the lower part of the formation and interpreted as an allochthonous accumulation in an offshore marine environment related to transgression of a low-lyingcoastal plain. A marked shift in the palynomorph assemblage seen by diversification of marine microplankton above the base of the formation, indicates an

  11. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  12. Generic aspects of salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughon, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of geological disposal of radioactive wastes in salt is presented from 1957 when a panel of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council recommended burial in bedded salt deposits. Early work began in the Kansas, portion of the Permian Basin where simulated wastes were placed in an abandoned salt mine at Lyons, Kansas, in the late 1960's. This project was terminated when the potential effect of nearby solution mining activities could not be resolved. Evaluation of bedded salts resumed a few years later in the Permian Basin in southeastern New Mexico, and search for suitable sites in the 1970's resulted in the formation of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program in 1976. Evaluation of salt deposits in many regions of the United States has been virtually completed and has shown that deposits having the greatest potential for radioactive waste disposal are those of the largest depositional basins and salt domes of the Gulf Coast region

  13. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  14. Astronomically-calibrated magnetostratigraphy of the Lower Jurassic marine successions at St. Audrie's Bay and East Quantoxhead (Hettangian-Sinemurian; Somerset, UK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüsing, S.K.; Beniest, A.; van der Boon, A.; Abels, H.A.; Deenen, M.H.L.; Ruhl, M.; Krijgsman, W.

    Astronomically-calibrated magnetostratigraphies are becoming the standard in the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) because in time these records can be accurately compared for consistency. The Lower Jurassic GPTS is however still poorly resolved with major inconsistencies between different

  15. Zechstein salt Denmark. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngsie Jacobsen, F.; Soenderholm, M.; Springer, N.; Gutzon Larsen, J.; Lagoni, P.; Fabricius, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Salt Research Project EFP-81 has mainly been aiming upon an elucidation of the stratigraphy of the Danish Zechstein evaporites. Also an attempt to clarify the connection between the fabric and the strength of the strongly deformed domal rock salt is performed. The unravelling of the stratigraphy is carried out by means of renewed interpretations of new and old data from all the wells drilling in the Danish Permian basin in connection with a revaluation of the core descriptions. By means of trace elements analysis it is possible to some extent to distinguish between Zestein 1 and 2 ''grey salt''. A description of the transition zone between Zechstein 1 and 2 is carried out. New methods of fabric analyses are introduced and the strength measurements of the rock salt are treated statistically in connection with new defined rock salt parameters. An investigation of fluid inclusions in halite and quartz crystals from dome salt has resulted in the determination of salinity and chemical composition of the brines present in the salt. Temperatures and corresponding pressures during the evolution of the salt pillow and salt dome have been established. The dehydration conditions of natural carnallite in situ are clarified. (author)

  16. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  17. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  18. Regional and temporal variability of melts during a Cordilleran magma pulse: Age and chemical evolution of the jurassic arc, eastern mojave desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Miller, David; Howard, Keith A.; Fox, Lydia; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Jacobson, C.E.

    2017-01-01

    Intrusive rock sequences in the central and eastern Mojave Desert segment of the Jurassic Cordilleran arc of the western United States record regional and temporal variations in magmas generated during the second prominent pulse of Mesozoic continental arc magmatism. U/Pb zircon ages provide temporal control for describing variations in rock and zircon geochemistry that reflect differences in magma source components. These source signatures are discernible through mixing and fractionation processes associated with magma ascent and emplacement. The oldest well-dated Jurassic rocks defining initiation of the Jurassic pulse are a 183 Ma monzodiorite and a 181 Ma ignimbrite. Early to Middle Jurassic intrusive rocks comprising the main stage of magmatism include two high-K calc-alkalic groups: to the north, the deformed 183–172 Ma Fort Irwin sequence and contemporaneous rocks in the Granite and Clipper Mountains, and to the south, the 167–164 Ma Bullion sequence. A Late Jurassic suite of shoshonitic, alkali-calcic intrusive rocks, the Bristol Mountains sequence, ranges in age from 164 to 161 Ma and was emplaced as the pulse began to wane. Whole-rock and zircon trace-element geochemistry defines a compositionally coherent Jurassic arc with regional and secular variations in melt compositions. The arc evolved through the magma pulse by progressively greater input of old cratonic crust and lithospheric mantle into the arc magma system, synchronous with progressive regional crustal thickening.

  19. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  20. Crestal unconformities on an exposed Jurassic tilted fault block, Wollaston Forland, East Greenland as an analogue for buried hydrocarbon traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlyk, Finn; Korstgård, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stratigraphy of successions exposed in footwall crests of tilted fault blocks is commonly highly complex. Crestal stratigraphy and structure are particularly difficult to unravel in the subsurface due to poor seismic resolution across fault zones, footwall collapse, and coalescing syn- and post......-rift unconformities. Crestal ridges are important elements in basin evolution, as they form drainage divides and sediment sources for aprons along footwall scarps and hangingwall deltas. A Middle Jurassic – lowermost Cretaceous footwall crest is exceptionally well exposed in the mountain Stratumbjerg in Wollaston...... Forland, East Greenland. Rifting and block tilting was initiated in the (?)Bajocian, intensified in the Oxfordian–Kimmeridgian, culminated in latest Jurassic, Volgian, time and faded out in the earliest Cretaceous. The main border faults of the westward tilted blocks trend roughly N–S. The first early syn...

  1. Facies and carbon/oxygen isotopes of the Calabozo Formation (Middle Jurassic), Arroyo La Vaina, Mendoza, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabaleri, N.G.; Valencio, S.A.; Cagnoni, M.C.; Ramos, A.M.; Armella, C.; Panarello, H.O; Riccardi, A.C

    2001-01-01

    Facial / microfacial studies and geochemical isotopic analyses on marine jurassic carbonates of the Calabozo Formation (Dessanti, 1973) were carried out to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment and postdepositional history of the unit. This study is part of a project which purpose is the sedimentological and geochemical characterization of the Jurassic carbonate sequences of Cuenca Neuquina, in the southwestern Mendoza, Argentina. A detailed description about this basin can be found in Legarreta and Uliana (1999) and Riccardi et al. (2000). During the Late Bathonian and Early Callovian, the basin showed a reduction of the sedimentation area and a marked marginal facies progradation. West of Malargue, in areas with low detritic contribution, limestones of the Calabozo Formation were deposited. At the end of the Early Callovian, the basin was isolated, prevailing hypersaline conditions which caused the accumulation of the evaporites of the Tabanos Formation (Stipanicic, 1966) (au)

  2. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  3. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  4. Reconstruction of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation extinct ecosystem—a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Christine E.; Peterson, Fred

    2004-05-01

    A synthesis of recent and previous studies of the Morrison Formation and related beds, in the context of a conceptual climatic/hydrologic framework, permits reconstruction of the Late Jurassic dinosaurian ecosystem throughout the Western Interior of the United States and Canada. Climate models and geologic evidence indicate that a dry climate persisted in the Western Interior during the Late Jurassic. Early and Middle Kimmeridgian eolian deposits and Late Kimmeridgian alkaline, saline wetland/lacustrine deposits demonstrate that dryness persisted throughout the Kimmeridgian. Tithonian-age coal reflects lower evaporation rates associated with a slight cooling trend, but not a significant climate change. With a subtropical high over the Paleo-Pacific Ocean and atmospheric circulation generally toward the east, moisture carried by prevailing winds "rained out" progressively eastward, leaving the continental interior—and the Morrison depositional basin—dry. Within the basin, high evaporation rates associated with the southerly paleolatitude and greenhouse effects added to the dryness. Consequently, the two main sources of water—groundwater and surface water—originated outside the basin, through recharge of regional aquifers and streams that originated in the western uplands. Precipitation that fell west of the basin recharged aquifers that underlay the basin and discharged in wetlands and lakes in the distal, low-lying part of the basin. Precipitation west of the basin also fed intermittent and scarce perennial streams that flowed eastward. The streams were probably "losing" streams in their upstream reaches, and contributed to a locally raised water table. Elsewhere in the basin, where the floodplain intersected the water table, small lakes dotted the landscape. Seasonal storms, perhaps in part from the Paleo-Gulf of Mexico, brought some precipitation directly to the basin, although it was also subjected to "rain out" en route. Thus, meteoric input to the

  5. Reconstruction of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation extinct ecosystem - A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, C.E.; Peterson, F.

    2004-01-01

    A synthesis of recent and previous studies of the Morrison Formation and related beds, in the context of a conceptual climatic/hydrologic framework, permits reconstruction of the Late Jurassic dinosaurian ecosystem throughout the Western Interior of the United States and Canada. Climate models and geologic evidence indicate that a dry climate persisted in the Western Interior during the Late Jurassic. Early and Middle Kimmeridgian eolian deposits and Late Kimmeridgian alkaline, saline wetland/lacustrine deposits demonstrate that dryness persisted throughout the Kimmeridgian. Tithonian-age coal reflects lower evaporation rates associated with a slight cooling trend, but not a significant climate change. With a subtropical high over the Paleo-Pacific Ocean and atmospheric circulation generally toward the east, moisture carried by prevailing winds "rained out" progressively eastward, leaving the continental interior-and the Morrison depositional basin-dry. Within the basin, high evaporation rates associated with the southerly paleolatitude and greenhouse effects added to the dryness. Consequently, the two main sources of water-groundwater and surface water-originated outside the basin, through recharge of regional aquifers and streams that originated in the western uplands. Precipitation that fell west of the basin recharged aquifers that underlay the basin and discharged in wetlands and lakes in the distal, low-lying part of the basin. Precipitation west of the basin also fed intermittent and scarce perennial streams that flowed eastward. The streams were probably "losing" streams in their upstream reaches, and contributed to a locally raised water table. Elsewhere in the basin, where the floodplain intersected the water table, small lakes dotted the landscape. Seasonal storms, perhaps in part from the Paleo-Gulf of Mexico, brought some precipitation directly to the basin, although it was also subjected to "rain out" en route. Thus, meteoric input to the basin was

  6. Jurassic onychites (arm hooks) from squid-like cephalopods from the Wessex Basin, southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Malcolm; Hughes, Zoe; Page, Kevin; Price, Gregory; Smart, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    of hook that are often arranged in pairs. Using the abundance of material available to us from the Wessex Basin, we are attempting to identify the host animals wherever this is possible. If this can be established then it may be possible, using micropalaeontological samples, to determine the stratigraphical and palaeoecological ranges of some of the host macro-fossils, many of which are otherwise rarely preserved outside known lagerstätte. A recently described specimen (Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, BRMSG Ce12385) of only the hooks associated with 4 arms can, therefore, be attributed to the Clarkeiteuthis lineage. Coming from the Lower Pliensbachian of the Dorset Coast this occurrence falls in the stratigraphical 'gap' between the known taxa of the Sinemurian (Clarkeiteuthis montefiore) and the Toarcian (Clarkeiteuthis conocauda). This specimen does, however, show paired hooks of different types, similar to another specimen in Manchester University Museum: this is not seen in C. conocauda and places the specimen in C. montefiore or a yet undescribed species of Clarkeiteuthis. Engeser, T.S. & Clarke, M.R. 1988. Cephalopod hooks, both recent and fossil. In: Clarke, M.R. & Trueman, E.R. (eds), Palaeontology and Neontology of Cephalopods, vol. 12,; Wilbur, K.M. (Ed.), The Mollusca, Academic press Inc., London, 133-151. Hart, M.B. & Hutchinson, D. in press. A newly described 'clarkeiteuthid' from the Lias Group of Dorset. Geoscience in South-West England. Hart, M.B., De Jonghe, A., Page, K.N., Price, G.D. & Smart, C.W. 2016. Exceptional accumulations of statoliths in association with the Christian Malford lagerstätte (Callovian, Jurassic) in Wiltshire, United Kingdom. Palaios, 31, 203-220. Kulicki, C. & Szaniawski, H. 1972. Cephalopod arm hooks from the Jurassic of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 17, 379-419. Wilby, P.R., Hudson, J.D., Clements, R.G. & Hollingworth, N.T.J. 2004. Taphonomy and origin of an accumulate of soft-bodied cephalopods in the Oxford Clay

  7. Multiple episodes of dolomitization and dolomite recrystallization during shallow burial in Upper Jurassic shelf carbonates: eastern Swabian Alb, southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, C.

    1998-10-01

    The Upper Jurassic of the eastern Swabian Alb is composed of oolitic platform sands with associated microbe-siliceous sponge mounds at the platform margins. They are surrounded by argillaceous or calcareous mudstones and marl-limestone alternations, deposited in adjacent marl basins. Partial to complete dolomitization is predominantly confined to the mound facies. Six types of dolomite, as well as one type of ankerite, document a complex diagenetic history during shallow burial with multiple episodes of dolomite formation and recrystallization. The earliest massive matrix dolomitization is Ca-rich, has slightly depleted oxygen isotope values relative to Late Jurassic seawater, and carbon isotopic values in equilibrium with Late Jurassic seawater. This initial massive matrix dolomitization occurred during latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous and is related to pressure dissolution during very shallow burial at temperatures of at least 50°C. Hydrologic conditions and mass-balance calculations indicate that burial compaction provided sufficient fluids for dolomitization. Mg is derived from negligibly modified seawater, that was expelled from the adjacent off-reef strata into the mound facies. Position of the mounds along the platform margins controlled the distribution of the shallow-burial dolomite. Covariant trends between textural modification, increasing stoichiometry, partial changes in trace element content (Mn, Fe, Sr) and depletion in stable isotopes as well as distinctive CL pattern illustrate two recrystallization phases of the precursor matrix dolomite during further burial at elevated temperatures. Strong Sr enrichment of the second phase of recrystallized dolomite is ascribed to Sr-rich meteoric waters descending from overlying aragonite-bearing reef limestones or evaporite-bearing peritidal carbonates. Late-stage coarsely crystalline dolomite cements occur as vug and fracture fillings and formed during burial. Ankerite, associated with sulphide and

  8. New ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs from the European Lower Cretaceous demonstrate extensive ichthyosaur survival across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ichthyosauria is a diverse clade of marine amniotes that spanned most of the Mesozoic. Until recently, most authors interpreted the fossil record as showing that three major extinction events affected this group during its history: one during the latest Triassic, one at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary (JCB, and one (resulting in total extinction at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. The JCB was believed to eradicate most of the peculiar morphotypes found in the Late Jurassic, in favor of apparently less specialized forms in the Cretaceous. However, the record of ichthyosaurs from the Berriasian-Barremian interval is extremely limited, and the effects of the end-Jurassic extinction event on ichthyosaurs remains poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on new material from the Hauterivian of England and Germany and on abundant material from the Cambridge Greensand Formation, we name a new ophthalmosaurid, Acamptonectes densus gen. et sp. nov. This taxon shares numerous features with Ophthalmosaurus, a genus now restricted to the Callovian-Berriasian interval. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that Ophthalmosauridae diverged early in its history into two markedly distinct clades, Ophthalmosaurinae and Platypterygiinae, both of which cross the JCB and persist to the late Albian at least. To evaluate the effect of the JCB extinction event on ichthyosaurs, we calculated cladogenesis, extinction, and survival rates for each stage of the Oxfordian-Barremian interval, under different scenarios. The extinction rate during the JCB never surpasses the background extinction rate for the Oxfordian-Barremian interval and the JCB records one of the highest survival rates of the interval. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is currently no evidence that ichthyosaurs were affected by the JCB extinction event, in contrast to many other marine groups. Ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs remained diverse from their rapid radiation in the Middle

  9. Discontinuities Characteristics of the Upper Jurassic Arab-D Reservoir Equivalent Tight Carbonates Outcrops, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdlmutalib, Ammar; Abdullatif, Osman

    2017-04-01

    Jurassic carbonates represent an important part of the Mesozoic petroleum system in the Arabian Peninsula in terms of source rocks, reservoirs, and seals. Jurassic Outcrop equivalents are well exposed in central Saudi Arabia and which allow examining and measuring different scales of geological heterogeneities that are difficult to collect from the subsurface due to limitations of data and techniques. Identifying carbonates Discontinuities characteristics at outcrops might help to understand and predict their properties and behavior in the subsurface. The main objective of this study is to identify the lithofacies and the discontinuities properties of the upper Jurassic carbonates of the Arab D member and the Jubaila Formation (Arab-D reservoir) based on their outcrop equivalent strata in central Saudi Arabia. The sedimentologic analysis revealed several lithofacies types that vary in their thickness, abundances, cyclicity and vertical and lateral stacking patterns. The carbonates lithofacies included mudstone, wackestone, packstone, and grainstone. These lithofacies indicate deposition within tidal flat, skeletal banks and shallow to deep lagoonal paleoenvironmental settings. Field investigations of the outcrops revealed two types of discontinuities within Arab D Member and Upper Jubaila. These are depositional discontinuities and tectonic fractures and which all vary in their orientation, intensity, spacing, aperture and displacements. It seems that both regional and local controls have affected the fracture development within these carbonate rocks. On the regional scale, the fractures seem to be structurally controlled by the Central Arabian Graben System, which affected central Saudi Arabia. While, locally, at the outcrop scale, stratigraphic, depositional and diagenetic controls appear to have influenced the fracture development and intensity. The fracture sets and orientations identified on outcrops show similarity to those fracture sets revealed in the upper

  10. Possible trace fossils of putative termite origin in the Lower Jurassic (Karoo Supergroup of South Africa and Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Catuneanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex structures in the sandstones of the Lower Jurassic aeolian Clarens Formation (Karoo Supergroup are found at numerous localities throughout southern Africa, and can be assigned to five distinct architectural groups: (1 up to 3.3-m high, free-standing, slab-shaped forms of bioturbated sandstones with elliptical bases, orientated buttresses and an interconnecting large burrow system; (2 up to 1.2-m high, free-standing, irregular forms of bioturbated sandstones with 2-cm to 4-cm thick, massive walls, empty chambers and vertical shafts; (3 about 0.15-m to 0.25-m high, mainly bulbous, multiple forms with thin walls (larger than 2 cm, hollow chambers with internal pillars and bridges; (4 about 0.15-m to 0.2-m (maximum 1-m high, free-standing forms of aggregated solitary spheres associated with massive horizontal, orientated capsules or tubes, and meniscate tubes; and (5 about 5 cmin diameter, ovoid forms with weak internal shelving in a close-fitting cavity. Based on size, wall thickness, orientation and the presence of internal chambers, these complex structures are tentatively interpreted as ichnofossils of an Early Jurassic social organism; the different architectures are reflective of the different behaviours of more than one species, the history of structural change in architectural forms (ontogenetic series or an architectural adaptation to local palaeoclimatic variability. While exact modern equivalents are unknown, some of these ichnofossils are comparable to nests (or parts of nests constructed by extant termites, and thus these Jurassic structures are very tentatively interpreted here as having been made by a soil-dwelling social organism, probably of termite origin. This southern African discovery, along with reported Triassic and Jurassic termite ichnofossils from North America, supports previous hypotheses that sociality in insects, particularity in termites, likely evolved prior to the Pangea breakup in the Early Mesozoic.

  11. Possible trace fossils of putative termite origin in the Lower Jurassic (Karoo Supergroup) of South Africa and Lesotho

    OpenAIRE

    Bordy, E.M.; Bumby, A.J.; Catuneanu, O.; Eriksson, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    Complex structures in the sandstones of the Lower Jurassic aeolian Clarens Formation (Karoo Supergroup) are found at numerous localities throughout southern Africa, and can be assigned to five distinct architectural groups: (1) up to 3.3-m high, free-standing, slab-shaped forms of bioturbated sandstones with elliptical bases, orientated buttresses and an interconnecting large burrow system; (2) up to 1.2-m high, free-standing, irregular forms of bioturbated sandstones with 2-cm to 4-cm thick,...

  12. Revision of the Late Jurassic crocodyliform Alligatorellus, and evidence for allopatric speciation driving high diversity in western European atoposaurids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Mannion, Philip D

    2014-01-01

    Atoposaurid crocodyliforms represent an important faunal component of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Laurasian semi-aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems, with numerous spatiotemporally contemporaneous atoposaurids known from western Europe. In particular, the Late Jurassic of France and Germany records evidence for high diversity and possible sympatric atoposaurid species belonging to Alligatorellus, Alligatorium and Atoposaurus. However, atoposaurid taxonomy has received little attention, and many species are in need of revision. As such, this potentially high European diversity within a narrow spatiotemporal range might be a taxonomic artefact. Here we provide a taxonomic and anatomical revision of the Late Jurassic atoposaurid Alligatorellus. Initially described as A. beaumonti from the Kimmeridgian of Cerin, eastern France, additional material from the Tithonian of Solnhofen, south-eastern Germany, was subsequently referred to this species, with the two occurrences differentiated as A. beaumonti beaumonti and A. beaumonti bavaricus, respectively. We provide a revised diagnosis for the genus Alligatorellus, and note a number of anatomical differences between the French and German specimens, including osteoderm morphology and the configuration and pattern of sculpting of cranial elements. Consequently, we restrict the name Alligatorellus beaumonti to include only the French remains, and raise the rank of the German material to a distinct species: Alligatorellus bavaricus. A new diagnosis is provided for both species, and we suggest that a recently referred specimen from a coeval German locality cannot be conclusively referred to Alligatorellus. Although it has previously been suggested that Alligatorellus, Alligatorium and Atoposaurus might represent a single growth series of one species, we find no conclusive evidence to support this proposal, and provide a number of morphological differences to distinguish these three taxa that appear to be independent of

  13. The First Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph from the Middle Jurassic of Spain, with Implications for Evolution of the Subclade Rhacheosaurini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla-Bel, Jara; Young, Mark T.; Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Canudo, José Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Background Marine deposits from the Callovian of Europe have yielded numerous species of metriorhynchid crocodylomorphs. While common in English and French Formations, metriorhynchids are poorly known from the Iberian Peninsula. Twenty years ago an incomplete, but beautifully preserved, skull was discovered from the Middle Callovian of Spain. It is currently the oldest and best preserved metriorhynchid specimen from the Iberian Peninsula. Until now it has never been properly described and its taxonomic affinities remained obscure. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present a comprehensive description for this specimen and in doing so we refer it to a new genus and species: Maledictosuchus riclaensis. This species is diagnosed by numerous autapomorphies, including: heterodont dentition; tightly interlocking occlusion; lachrymal anterior process excludes the jugal from the preorbital fenestra; orbits longer than supratemporal fenestrae; palatine has two non-midline and one midline anterior processes. Our phylogenetic analysis finds Maledictosuchus riclaensis to be the basal-most known member of Rhacheosaurini (the subclade of increasingly mesopelagic piscivores that includes Cricosaurus and Rhacheosaurus). Conclusions/Significance Our description of Maledictosuchus riclaensis shows that the craniodental morphologies that underpinned the success of Rhacheosaurini in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, as a result of increasing marine specialization to adaptations for feeding on fast small-bodied prey (i.e. divided and retracted external nares; reorientation of the lateral processes of the frontal; elongate, tubular rostrum; procumbent and non-carinated dentition; high overall tooth count; and dorsolaterally inclined paroccipital processes), first appeared during the Middle Jurassic. Rhacheosaurins were curiously rare in the Middle Jurassic, as only one specimen of Maledictosuchus riclaensis is known (with no representatives discovered from the well

  14. Neutron and photon activation analyses in geochemical characterization of sediment profiles at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 1 (2009), s. 53-57 ISSN 0236-5731. [MARC VIII (8th International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radionalytical Chemistry ). Kailua-Kona, Hawai, 05.04.2009-10.04.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary * Brodno section * Neutron activation analysis Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.631, year: 2009

  15. AN APPROACH TO PROVENANCE, TECTONIC AND REDOX CONDITIONS OF JURASSIC-CRETACEOUS AKKUYU FORMATION, CENTRAL TAURIDS, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SARI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available - Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Akkuyu formation was deposited in a marine carbonate platform in Central Tarurids. The organic material of the unit is composed of Type III kerogen which is woody material transported from the land. Late Jurassic- Early Cretaceous is an important period which great anoxic events in deep sea bottom occurred due to the primary organic productivity in global sea surface. Use of several trace elements values (Ni, V, U, Cr, Co, Th revealed that Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Akkuyu formation shows oxic, disoxic and anoxic paleoredox conditions. In this period the primary productivity was considerably high. Examination of specimen derived from Akkuyu formation revealed that there exists a very good positive relationship between the major oxides of Al2O3, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, and K2O. These combinations of major oxides indicate a detrital origin of source rock. Chemical weathering evaluations of Central Taurids in the Jurassic-Cretaceous period indicated moderate and strong weathering of source rock. K2O/Na2O versus SiO2; SiO2/Al2O3 versus K2O/Na2O; Al2O3/ SiO2 versus Fe2O3 + MgO ve TiO2 versus Fe2O3 + MgO diagrams indicated that Akkuyu formation was deposited along active and/or passive continental margin and derived from basalt and basalt+granite mixed rocks.

  16. Paleolatitudes of the Tibetan Himalaya from primary and secondary magnetizations of Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; Li, Xiaochun; Maffione, Marco; Langereis, Cor G.; Hu, Xiumian; Guo, Zhaojie; Kapp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Tibetan Himalaya represents the northernmost continental unit of the Indian plate that collided with Asia in the Cenozoic. Paleomagnetic studies on the Tibetan Himalaya can help constrain the dimension and paleogeography of "Greater India," the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted and underthrusted below Asia after initial collision. Here we present a paleomagnetic investigation of a Jurassic (limestones) and Lower Cretaceous (volcaniclastic sandstones) section of the Tibetan Himalaya. The limestones yielded positive fold test, showing a prefolding origin of the isolated remanent magnetizations. Detailed paleomagnetic analyses, rock magnetic tests, end-member modeling of acquisition curves of isothermal remanent magnetization, and petrographic investigation reveal that the magnetic carrier of the Jurassic limestones is authigenic magnetite, whereas the dominant magnetic carrier of the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones is detrital magnetite. Our observations lead us to conclude that the Jurassic limestones record a prefolding remagnetization, whereas the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones retain a primary remanence. The volcaniclastic sandstones yield an Early Cretaceous paleolatitude of 55.5°S [52.5°S, 58.6°S] for the Tibetan Himalaya, suggesting it was part of the Indian continent at that time. The size of "Greater India" during Jurassic time cannot be estimated from these limestones. Instead, a paleolatitude of the Tibetan Himalaya of 23.8°S [21.8°S, 26.1°S] during the remagnetization process is suggested. It is likely that the remagnetization, caused by the oxidation of early diagenetic pyrite to magnetite, was induced during 103-83 or 77-67 Ma. The inferred paleolatitudes at these two time intervals imply very different tectonic consequences for the Tibetan Himalaya.

  17. The occurrence of a shallow-water Ammobaculoides assemblage in the Middle Jurassic (Bajocian) Dhruma Formation of Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael A.; Hammad Malik, Muhammad; Setoyama, Eiichi

    2018-01-01

    We report the occurrence of an Ammobaculoides-dominated assemblage in the lowermost member of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation exposed west of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The new species Ammobaculoides dhrumaensis n.sp. is described from the green shale of the D1 unit (also known as the Balum Member) of the Dhruma Formation, which has been assigned an early Bajocian age based on ammonites. Our new finding constitutes the oldest reported worldwide occurrence of the agglutinated foraminiferal genus Ammobaculoides Plummer, 1932.

  18. Paleocurrents of the Middle-Upper Jurassic strata in the Paradox Basin, Colorado, inferred from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejembi, J. I.; Ferre, E. C.; Potter-McIntyre, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Middle-Upper Jurassic sedimentary strata in the southwestern Colorado Plateau recorded pervasive eolian to fluvio-lacustrine deposition in the Paradox Basin. While paleocurrents preserved in the Entrada Sandstone, an eolian deposition in the Middle Jurassic, has been well constrained and show a northwesterly to northeasterly migration of ergs from the south onto the Colorado Plateau, there is yet no clear resolution of the paleocurrents preserved in the Wanakah Formation and Tidwell Member of the Morrison Formation, both of which are important sedimentary sequences in the paleogeographic framework of the Colorado Plateau. New U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology of sandstones from these sequences suggests that an abrupt change in provenance occurred in the early Late Jurassic, with sediments largely sourced from eroding highlands in central Colorado. We measured the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of sediments in oriented sandstone samples from these three successive sequences; first, to determine the paleocurrents from the orientations of the AMS fabrics in order to delineate the source area and sediments dispersal pattern and second, to determine the depositional mechanisms of the sediments. Preliminary AMS data from two study sites show consistency and clustering of the AMS axes in all the sedimentary sequences. The orientations of the Kmin - Kint planes in the Entrada Sandstone sample point to a NNE-NNW paleocurrent directions, which is in agreement with earlier studies. The orientations of the Kmin - Kint planes in the Wanakah Formation and Tidwell Member samples show W-SW trending paleocurrent directions, corroborating our hypothesis of a shift in provenance to the eroding Ancestral Front Range Mountain, located northeast of the Paradox Basin, during the Late Jurassic. Isothermal remanence magnetization (IRM) of the samples indicate that the primary AMS carriers are detrital, syndepositional ferromagnetic minerals. Thus, we contend that AMS can

  19. Geomagnetic Reversals of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous Captured in a North China Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, T.; Fu, R. R.; Kent, D. V.; Olsen, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Tuchengzi formation in North China nominally spans nearly 20 million years of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, an interval during which age calibration of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) based on seafloor magnetic anomalies is poorly known. The overlying Yixian formation is of special paleontological interest due to an abundance of spectacularly preserved macrofossils of feathered non-avian dinosaurs, birds, mammals, and insects. Scarce fossils in the Tuchengzi, sparse accurate radiometric dates on both the Tuchengzi and overlying Yixian formation, and scant previous paleomagnetic studies on these formations motivated our application of magnetostratigraphy as a geochronological tool. We constructed a geomagnetic reversal sequence from the upper 142m of a 200m core extracted in Liaoning Province at Huangbanjigou spanning the lower Yixian Formation and the unconformably underlying Tuchengzi Formation. Thermal demagnetization up to 680°C in steps of 25-50°C revealed predominantly normal overprints consistent with the modern day field with unblocking temperatures between 125°C and as high as 550°C, as well as normal and reverse characteristic components with unblocking temperatures between 500°C and 680°C. Going up from the base of the core, there is a reverse polarity magnetozone >6m thick, followed by a 5m normal magnetozone, a 10m reverse magnetozone, a 25m normal magnetozone, and a 6m reverse magnetozone truncated by the Yixian-Tuchengzi unconformity. Above the unconformity, all 81m of core were normal. These results indicate that a meaningful polarity stratigraphy can be recovered from the Tuchengzi and Yixian formations that will be invaluable for correlations across the Tuchengzi and potentially the Yixian formations, which span thousands of square kilometers and vary in thickness by many hundreds of meters. The results also demonstrate that, in combination with accurate and precise radiometric dates, the Tuchengzi Formation has the

  20. Bald Mountain gold mining district, Nevada: A Jurassic reduced intrusion-related gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, C.J.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Bald Mountain mining district has produced about 2 million ounces (Moz) of An. Geologic mapping, field relationships, geochemical data, petrographic observations, fluid inclusion characteristics, and Pb, S, O, and H isotope data indicate that An mineralization was associated with a reduced Jurassic intrusion. Gold deposits are localized within and surrounding a Jurassic (159 Ma) quartz monzonite porphyry pluton and dike complex that intrudes Cambrian to Mississippian carbonate and clastic rocks. The pluton, associated dikes, and An mineralization were controlled by a crustal-scale northwest-trending structure named the Bida trend. Gold deposits are localized by fracture networks in the pluton and the contact metamorphic aureole, dike margins, high-angle faults, and certain strata or shale-limestone contacts in sedimentary rocks. Gold mineralization was accompanied by silicification and phyllic alteration, ??argillic alteration at shallow levels. Although An is typically present throughout, the system exhibits a classic concentric geochemical zonation pattern with Mo, W, Bi, and Cu near the center, Ag, Pb, and Zn at intermediate distances, and As and Sb peripheral to the intrusion. Near the center of the system, micron-sized native An occurs with base metal sulfides and sulfosalts. In peripheral deposits and in later stages of mineralization, Au is typically submicron in size and resides in pyrite or arsenopyrite. Electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS analyses show that arsenopyrite, pyrite, and Bi sulfide minerals contain 10s to 1,000s of ppm Au. Ore-forming fluids were aqueous and carbonic at deep levels and episodically hypersaline at shallow levels due to boiling. The isotopic compositions of H and O in quartz and sericite and S and Pb in sulfides are indicative of magmatic ore fluids with sedimentary sulfur. Together, the evidence suggests that Au was introduced by reduced S-bearing magmatic fluids derived from a reduced intrusion. The reduced

  1. Lacustrine basin evolution and coal accumulation of the Middle Jurassic in the Saishiteng coalfield, northern Qaidam Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extensive borehole survey of the Middle Jurassic coal-bearing sequences in the Saishiteng coalfield, northern Qaidam Basin (NQB, a total of 20 rock types and 5 sedimentary facies were identified, including braided river, meandering river, braided delta, meandering river delta, and lacustrine facies. The distribution of rock types and sedimentary facies contributed to the reconstruction of three periods' sedimentary facies maps of the Middle Jurassic in the Saishiteng coalfield, namely, the Dameigou age, the early Shimengou age and the late Shimengou age. That also provided the basis for the development of a three-stage depositional model of the Middle Jurassic in the NQB, indicating the lacustrine basin of the NQB in the Dameigou age and early Shimengou age were corresponding to an overfill basin, and that in the late Shimengou age was related to a balanced-fill basin. The analysis of the stability and structure of coal seams based on sedimentary facies maps showed that the preferred coal-forming facies in the Saishiteng coalfield were inter-delta bay and interdistributary bay of lower delta plain in the Dameigou age. In particular, the swamps that developed on the subaqueous palaeohigh favored the development of thick coal seams. Thus, minable coal seams may also be found along the Pingtai palaeohigh in the western part of the Saishiteng coalfield.

  2. New dinosaur (Theropoda, stem-Averostra) from the earliest Jurassic of the La Quinta formation, Venezuelan Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Max C; Rincón, Ascanio D; Ramezani, Jahandar; Solórzano, Andrés; Rauhut, Oliver W M

    2014-10-01

    Dinosaur skeletal remains are almost unknown from northern South America. One of the few exceptions comes from a small outcrop in the northernmost extension of the Andes, along the western border of Venezuela, where strata of the La Quinta Formation have yielded the ornithischian Laquintasaura venezuelae and other dinosaur remains. Here, we report isolated bones (ischium and tibia) of a small new theropod, Tachiraptor admirabilis gen. et sp. nov., which differs from all previously known members of the group by an unique suite of features of its tibial articulations. Comparative/phylogenetic studies place the new form as the sister taxon to Averostra, a theropod group that is known primarily from the Middle Jurassic onwards. A new U-Pb zircon date (isotope dilution thermal-ionization mass spectrometry; ID-TIMS method) from the bone bed matrix suggests an earliest Jurassic maximum age for the La Quinta Formation. A dispersal-vicariance analysis suggests that such a stratigraphic gap is more likely to be filled by new records from north and central Pangaea than from southern areas. Indeed, our data show that the sampled summer-wet equatorial belt, which yielded the new taxon, played a pivotal role in theropod evolution across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

  3. A new upper jurassic ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur from the Slottsmøya Member, Agardhfjellet formation of central Spitsbergen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey Jane Roberts

    Full Text Available Abundant new ichthyosaur material has recently been documented in the Slottsmøya Member of the Agardhfjellet Formation from the Svalbard archipelago of Norway. Here we describe a partial skeleton of a new taxon, Janusaurus lundi, that includes much of the skull and representative portions of the postcranium. The new taxon is diagnosed by a suite of cranial character states including a very gracile stapedial shaft, the presence of a dorsal process on the prearticular and autapomorphic postcranial features such as the presence of an interclavicular trough and a conspicuous anterodorsal process of the ilium. The peculiar morphology of the ilia indicates a previously unrecognized degree of morphological variation in the pelvic girdle of ophthalmosaurids. We also present a large species level phylogenetic analysis of ophthalmosaurids including new and undescribed ichthyosaur material from the Upper Jurassic of Svalbard. Our results recover all Svalbard taxa in a single unresolved polytomy nested within Ophthalmosaurinae, which considerably increases the taxonomic composition of this clade. The paleobiogeographical implications of this result suggest the presence of a single clade of Boreal ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs that existed during the latest Jurassic, a pattern also reflected in the high degree of endemicity among some Boreal invertebrates, particularly ammonoids. Recent and ongoing descriptions of marine reptiles from the Slottsmøya Member Lagerstätte provide important new data to test hypotheses of marine amniote faunal turnover at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary.

  4. Adaptations for marine habitat and the effect of Triassic and Jurassic predator pressure on development of decompression syndrome in ichthyosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, B. M.; Xiaoting, Z.; Martin, L. D.

    2012-06-01

    Decompression syndrome (caisson disease or the "the bends") resulting in avascular necrosis has been documented in mosasaurs, sauropterygians, ichthyosaurs, and turtles from the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, but it was unclear that this disease occurred as far back as the Triassic. We have examined a large Triassic sample of ichthyosaurs and compared it with an equally large post-Triassic sample. Avascular necrosis was observed in over 15 % of Late Middle Jurassic to Cretaceous ichthyosaurs with the highest occurrence (18 %) in the Early Cretaceous, but was rare or absent in geologically older specimens. Triassic reptiles that dive were either physiologically protected, or rapid changes of their position in the water column rare and insignificant enough to prevent being recorded in the skeleton. Emergency surfacing due to a threat from an underwater predator may be the most important cause of avascular necrosis for air-breathing divers, with relative frequency of such events documented in the skeleton. Diving in the Triassic appears to have been a "leisurely" behavior until the evolution of large predators in the Late Jurassic that forced sudden depth alterations contributed to a higher occurrence of bends.

  5. Presence of the dinosaur Scelidosaurus indicates Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation (Glen Canyon Group, northern Arizona)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padian, Kevin

    1989-05-01

    The Glen Canyon Group (Moenave, Wingate, Kayenta and Navajo Formations) of northern Arizona represents an extensive outcrop of early Mesozoic age terrestrial sediments. The age of these formations has long been disputed because independent stratigraphic data from marine tie-ins, paleobotanical and palynological evidence, and radiometric calibrations have been scanty or absent. The fauna of the Kayenta Formation in particular has been problematic because it has appeared to contain both typical Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa Here I report that the principal evidence for Late Triassic taxa, dermal scutes previously assigned to an aetosaur, in fact belongs to the thyreophoran ornithischian dinosaur Scelidosaurus, previously known only as a washed-in form found in marine sediments in the Early Jurassic of England. The presence of this dinosaur represents the first vertebrate biostratigraphic tie-in of the Glen Canyon Group horizons with reliably dated marine deposits in Europe. Together with revised systematic assessments of other vertebrates and independent evidence from fossil pollen, it supports an Early Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation and most or all of the Glen Canyon Group.

  6. Lower limits of ornithischian dinosaur body size inferred from a new Upper Jurassic heterodontosaurid from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Richard J.; Galton, Peter M.; Porro, Laura B.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Henderson, Donald M.; Erickson, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    The extremes of dinosaur body size have long fascinated scientists. The smallest (dinosaurs are carnivorous saurischian theropods, and similarly diminutive herbivorous or omnivorous ornithischians (the other major group of dinosaurs) are unknown. We report a new ornithischian dinosaur, Fruitadens haagarorum, from the Late Jurassic of western North America that rivals the smallest theropods in size. The largest specimens of Fruitadens represent young adults in their fifth year of development and are estimated at just 65–75 cm in total body length and 0.5–0.75 kg body mass. They are thus the smallest known ornithischians. Fruitadens is a late-surviving member of the basal dinosaur clade Heterodontosauridae, and is the first member of this clade to be described from North America. The craniodental anatomy and diminutive body size of Fruitadens suggest that this taxon was an ecological generalist with an omnivorous diet, thus providing new insights into morphological and palaeoecological diversity within Dinosauria. Late-surviving (Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous) heterodontosaurids are smaller and less ecologically specialized than Early (Late Triassic and Early Jurassic) heterodontosaurids, and this ecological generalization may account in part for the remarkable 100-million-year-long longevity of the clade. PMID:19846460

  7. Improvement to molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    The invention proposes a molten salt nuclear reactor whose core includes a mass of at least one fissile element salt to which can be added other salts to lower the melting temperature of the mass. This mass also contains a substance with a low neutron capture section that does not give rise to a chemical reaction or to an azeotropic mixture with these salts and having an atmospheric boiling point under that of the mass in operation. Means are provided for collecting this substance in the vapour state and returning it as a liquid to the mass. The kind of substance chosen will depend on that of the molten salts (fissile element salts and, where required, salts to lower the melting temperature). In actual practice, the substance chosen will have an atmospheric pressure boiling point of between 600 and 1300 0 C and a melting point sufficiently below 600 0 C to prevent solidification and clogging in the return line of the substance from the exchanger. Among the materials which can be considered for use, mention is made of magnesium, rubidium, cesium and potassium but metal cesium is not employed in the case of many fissile salts, such as fluorides, which it would reduced to the planned working temperatures [fr

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  9. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part describes the MSBR core (data presented are from ORNL 4541). The principal characteristics of the core are presented in tables together with plane and elevation drawings, stress being put upon the reflector, and loading and unloading. Neutronic, and thermal and hydraulic characteristics (core and reflectors) are more detailed. The reasons why a graphite with a tight graphite layer has been chosen are briefly exposed. The physical properties of the standard graphite (irradiation behavior) have been determined for an isotropic graphite with fine granulometry; its dimensional variations largely ressemble that of Gilsonite. The mechanical stresses computed (Wigner effect) do not implicate in any way the graphite stack [fr

  10. The Salt II Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    The first strategic arms limitation talks resulted in two agreements: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms. Senator Henry M. (Scoop) Jackson (D-Wa.) was concerned about the numerical advantage granted to the USSR by the Latter agreement and proposed an amendment that would prohibit future negotiators from granting the Soviet Union similar terms. This paper discusses the second round of SALT negotiations which opened in November 1972 and continued under presidents Richard M. Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. As the negotiators met, U.S. and Soviet scientists and engineers continued their work to develop new nuclear weapons and launchers. Particularly problematic were modern, large ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and the Soviet Backfire bomber

  11. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  12. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated

  13. The Late Jurassic Panjeh submarine volcano in the northern Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, northwest Iran: Mantle plume or active margin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Hossein; Lucci, Federico; Stern, Robert J.; Hasannejad, Shima; Asahara, Yoshihiro

    2018-05-01

    The tectonic setting in which Jurassic igneous rocks of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SaSZ) of Iran formed is controversial. SaSZ igneous rocks are mainly intrusive granodiorite to gabbroic bodies, which intrude Early to Middle Jurassic metamorphic basement; Jurassic volcanic rocks are rare. Here, we report the age and petrology of volcanic rocks from the Panjeh basaltic-andesitic rocks complex in the northern SaSZ, southwest of Ghorveh city. The Panjeh magmatic complex consists of pillowed and massive basalts, andesites and microdioritic dykes and is associated with intrusive gabbros; the overall sequence and relations with surrounding sediments indicate that this is an unusually well preserved submarine volcanic complex. Igneous rocks belong to a metaluminous sub-alkaline, medium-K to high-K calc-alkaline mafic suite characterized by moderate Al2O3 (13.7-17.6 wt%) and variable Fe2O3 (6.0-12.6 wt%) and MgO (0.9-11.1 wt%) contents. Zircon U-Pb ages (145-149 Ma) define a Late Jurassic (Tithonian) age for magma crystallization and emplacement. Whole rock compositions are enriched in Th, U and light rare earth elements (LREEs) and are slightly depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti. The initial ratios of 87Sr/86Sr (0.7039-0.7076) and εNd(t) values (-1.8 to +4.3) lie along the mantle array in the field of ocean island basalts and subcontinental metasomatized mantle. Immobile trace element (Ti, V, Zr, Y, Nb, Yb, Th and Co) behavior suggests that the mantle source was enriched by fluids released from a subducting slab (i.e. deep-crustal recycling) with some contribution from continental crust for andesitic rocks. Based the chemical composition of Panjeh mafic and intermediate rocks in combination with data for other gabbroic to dioritic bodies in the Ghorveh area we offer two interpretations for these (and other Jurassic igneous rocks of the SaSZ) as reflecting melts from a) subduction-modified OIB-type source above a Neo-Tethys subduction zone or b) plume or rift tectonics involving

  14. Origin attachments of the caudofemoralis longus muscle in the Jurassic dinosaur Allosaurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cau

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The caudofemoralis longus muscle (CFL is the primary limb retractor among non-avian sauropsids, and underwent a dramatic reduction along the dinosaur lineage leading to birds. The osteological correlates of the CFL among fossil reptiles have been controversial, because, contrary to traditional interpretations, the extent of the muscle is not necessarily related to the distribution of the caudal ribs. In some Cretaceous dinosaurs, the extent of the CFL has been inferred based on the preserved bony septa between the CFL and other tail muscles. Here, we describe a series of tail vertebrae of the Jurassic dinosaur Allosaurus, each showing a previously-unreported feature: a sulcus, formed by a regular pattern of tightly packed horizontal slits, that runs vertically along the lateral surfaces of the centra and neural arches. These sulci are interpreted as the origin attachment sites of the CFL, allowing for direct determination of the muscle extent along the tail of this dinosaur. Anteriorly to the 18th caudal vertebra, the sulcus runs along most of the centrum and neural arch, then it progressively reduces its vertical extent, and disappears between caudals 24 and 32, a pattern consistent with previous CFL reconstructions in other theropods.

  15. Fungal decomposition of terrestrial organic matter accelerated Early Jurassic climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieńkowski, Grzegorz; Hodbod, Marta; Ullmann, Clemens V.

    2016-08-01

    Soils - constituting the largest terrestrial carbon pool - are vulnerable to climatic warming. Currently existing uncertainties regarding carbon fluxes within terrestrial systems can be addressed by studies of past carbon cycle dynamics and related climate change recorded in sedimentary successions. Here we show an example from the Early Jurassic (early Toarcian, c. 183 mya) marginal-marine strata from Poland, tracking the hinterland response to climatic changes through a super-greenhouse event. In contrast to anoxia-related enhanced carbon storage in coeval open marine environments, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations in the Polish successions are substantially reduced during this event. Increasing temperature favoured fungal-mediated decomposition of plant litter - specifically of normally resistant woody tissues. The associated injection of oxidized organic matter into the atmosphere corresponds to abrupt changes in standing vegetation and may have contributed significantly to the amplified greenhouse climate on Earth. The characteristic Toarcian signature of multiple warm pulses coinciding with rapidly decreasing carbon isotope ratios may in part be the result of a radical reduction of the terrestrial carbon pool as a response to climate change.

  16. Animal behavior frozen in time: gregarious behavior of Early Jurassic lobsters within an ammonoid body chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Fraaije, René H B

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells.

  17. A golden orb-weaver spider (Araneae: Nephilidae: Nephila) from the Middle Jurassic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A; Shih, ChungKun; Ren, Dong

    2011-10-23

    Nephila are large, conspicuous weavers of orb webs composed of golden silk, in tropical and subtropical regions. Nephilids have a sparse fossil record, the oldest described hitherto being Cretaraneus vilaltae from the Cretaceous of Spain. Five species from Neogene Dominican amber and one from the Eocene of Florissant, CO, USA, have been referred to the extant genus Nephila. Here, we report the largest known fossil spider, Nephila jurassica sp. nov., from Middle Jurassic (approx. 165 Ma) strata of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. The new species extends the fossil record of the family by approximately 35 Ma and of the genus Nephila by approximately 130 Ma, making it the longest ranging spider genus known. Nephilidae originated somewhere on Pangaea, possibly the North China block, followed by dispersal almost worldwide before the break-up of the supercontinent later in the Mesozoic. The find suggests that the palaeoclimate was warm and humid at this time. This giant fossil orb-weaver provides evidence of predation on medium to large insects, well known from the Daohugou beds, and would have played an important role in the evolution of these insects.

  18. The first fossil salmonfly (Insecta: Plecoptera: Pteronarcyidae), back to the Middle Jurassic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yingying; Béthoux, Olivier; Kondratieff, Boris; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2016-10-18

    The fossil record of Plecoptera (stoneflies) is considered relatively complete, with stem-groups of each of the three major lineages, viz. Antarctoperlaria, Euholognatha and Systellognatha (and some of their families) represented in the Mesozoic. However, the family Pteronarcyidae (the salmonflies; including two genera, Pteronarcys and Pteronarcella) has no fossil record to date, and the family has been suggested to have diverged recently. In this paper, we report on a set of specimens belonging to a new fossil species of stonefly, discovered from the Middle Jurassic Daohugou locality (China). Our comparative analysis of wing venation and body characters demonstrates that the new species belongs to the Pteronarcyidae, and is more closely related to Pteronarcys than to Pteronarcella. However, it differs from all known species of the former genus. It is therefore assigned to a new genus and named Pteroliriope sinitshenkovae gen. et sp. nov. under the traditional nomenclatural procedure. The cladotypic nomenclatural procedure is also employed, with the resulting combination Pteroliriope nec Pteronarcys sinitshenkovae sp. nov. The first discovery of a fossil member of the Pteronarcyidae demonstrates that the corresponding lineage is not a very recent offshoot but was already present ca. 165 million years ago. This discovery concurs with the view that divergence of most stonefly families took place very early, probably in the Triassic, or even in the Permian. This contribution demonstrates the need for (re-)investigations of the systematics of fossil stoneflies to refine divergence date estimates for Plecoptera lineages.

  19. Lithofacies of deep marine basalts emplaced on a Jurassic backarc apron, Baja California (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby-Spera, C.J.

    1987-09-01

    Basalts of the mid-Jurassic Gran Canon Formation, Cedros Island, Mexico, were emplaced on a volcaniclastic apron in a deep marine backarc basin. Elongate pillows and lava tubes, as well as paleocurrent data from the volcaniclastic apron, indicate a southward regional paleoslope away from the island arc source. Basalts emplaced on relatively proximal parts of the apron are nearly entirely pillowed and have thick flow units with mega-pillows. Basalts on distal parts of the apron (about 15 to 20 km down paleo-current) are dominated by pillow fragment breccias (flow foot rubble), and individual lava flows are generally thin, with small pillows, suggesting that the distal ends of lava flows, erupted upslope, are represented. These distal flow fronts, however, are interstratified with features that typically form close to a vent, including thick massive to mega-pillowed lavas and lava tubes up to 8 m in diameter. It is inferred that a fissure (or system of fissures) extended from the arc into the backarc basin, erupting basalt lavas onto both proximal and distal parts of the volcaniclastic apron. Such intraplate volcanism may be common on the hot frontal arc side of backarc basins. 26 references.

  20. A Jurassic pterosaur from Patagonia and the origin of the pterodactyloid neurocranium

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    Laura Codorniú

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pterosaurs are an extinct group of highly modified flying reptiles that thrived during the Mesozoic. This group has unique and remarkable skeletal adaptations to powered flight, including pneumatic bones and an elongate digit IV supporting a wing-membrane. Two major body plans have traditionally been recognized: the primitive, primarily long-tailed paraphyletic “rhamphorhynchoids” (preferably currently recognized as non-pterodactyloids and the derived short-tailed pterodactyloids. These two groups differ considerably in their general anatomy and also exhibit a remarkably different neuroanatomy and inferred head posture, which has been linked to different lifestyles and behaviours and improved flying capabilities in these reptiles. Pterosaur neuroanatomy, is known from just a few three-dimensionally preserved braincases of non-pterodactyloids (as Rhamphorhynchidae and pterodactyloids, between which there is a large morphological gap. Here we report on a new Jurassic pterosaur from Argentina, Allkaruen koi gen. et sp. nov., remains of which include a superbly preserved, uncrushed braincase that sheds light on the origins of the highly derived neuroanatomy of pterodactyloids and their close relatives. A µCT ray-generated virtual endocast shows that the new pterosaur exhibits a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived traits of the inner ear and neuroanatomy that fills an important gap between those of non-monofenestratan breviquartossans (Rhamphorhynchidae and derived pterodactyloids. These results suggest that, while modularity may play an important role at one anatomical level, at a finer level the evolution of structures within a module may follow a mosaic pattern.

  1. A Jurassic pterosaur from Patagonia and the origin of the pterodactyloid neurocranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codorniú, Laura; Paulina Carabajal, Ariana; Pol, Diego; Unwin, David; Rauhut, Oliver W M

    2016-01-01

    Pterosaurs are an extinct group of highly modified flying reptiles that thrived during the Mesozoic. This group has unique and remarkable skeletal adaptations to powered flight, including pneumatic bones and an elongate digit IV supporting a wing-membrane. Two major body plans have traditionally been recognized: the primitive, primarily long-tailed paraphyletic "rhamphorhynchoids" (preferably currently recognized as non-pterodactyloids) and the derived short-tailed pterodactyloids. These two groups differ considerably in their general anatomy and also exhibit a remarkably different neuroanatomy and inferred head posture, which has been linked to different lifestyles and behaviours and improved flying capabilities in these reptiles. Pterosaur neuroanatomy, is known from just a few three-dimensionally preserved braincases of non-pterodactyloids (as Rhamphorhynchidae) and pterodactyloids, between which there is a large morphological gap. Here we report on a new Jurassic pterosaur from Argentina, Allkaruen koi gen. et sp. nov., remains of which include a superbly preserved, uncrushed braincase that sheds light on the origins of the highly derived neuroanatomy of pterodactyloids and their close relatives. A µCT ray-generated virtual endocast shows that the new pterosaur exhibits a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived traits of the inner ear and neuroanatomy that fills an important gap between those of non-monofenestratan breviquartossans (Rhamphorhynchidae) and derived pterodactyloids. These results suggest that, while modularity may play an important role at one anatomical level, at a finer level the evolution of structures within a module may follow a mosaic pattern.

  2. Perennial Lakes as an Environmental Control on Theropod Movement in the Jurassic of the Hartford Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R. Getty

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Eubrontes giganteus is a common ichnospecies of large dinosaur track in the Early Jurassic rocks of the Hartford and Deerfield basins in Connecticut and Massachusetts, USA. It has been proposed that the trackmaker was gregarious based on parallel trackways at a site in Massachusetts known as Dinosaur Footprint Reservation (DFR. The gregariousness hypothesis is not without its problems, however, since parallelism can be caused by barriers that direct animal travel. We tested the gregariousness hypothesis by examining the orientations of trackways at five sites representing permanent and ephemeral lacustrine environments. Parallelism is only prominent in permanent lacustrine rocks at DFR, where trackways show a bimodal orientation distribution that approximates the paleoshoreline. By contrast, parallel trackways are uncommon in ephemeral lacustrine facies, even at sites with large numbers of trackways, and those that do occur exhibit differences in morphology, suggesting that they were made at different times. Overall, the evidence presented herein suggests that parallelism seen in Hartford Basin Eubrontes giganteus is better explained as a response to the lake acting as a physical barrier rather than to gregariousness. Consequently, these parallel trackways should not be used as evidence to support the hypothesis that the trackmaker was a basal sauropodomorph unless other evidence can substantiate the gregariousness hypothesis.

  3. Tetradactyl footprints of an unknown affinity theropod dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of Morocco.

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    Jaouad Nouri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New tetradactyl theropod footprints from Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian have been found in the Iouaridène syncline (Morocco. The tracksites are at several layers in the intermediate lacustrine unit of Iouaridène Formation. The footprints were named informally in previous works "Eutynichnium atlasipodus". We consider as nomen nudum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Boutakioutichnium atlasicus ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov. is mainly characterized by the hallux impression. It is long, strong, directed medially or forward, with two digital pads and with the proximal part of the first pad in lateral position. More than 100 footprints in 15 trackways have been studied with these features. The footprints are large, 38-48 cm in length, and 26-31 cm in width. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Boutakioutichnium mainly differs from other ichnotaxa with hallux impression in lacking metatarsal marks and in not being a very deep footprint. The distinct morphology of the hallux of the Boutakioutichnium trackmaker -i.e. size and hallux position- are unique in the dinosaur autopodial record to date.

  4. Sedimentology and palaeontology of upper Karoo aeolian strata (Early Jurassic) in the Tuli Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; Catuneanu, Octavian

    2002-08-01

    The Karoo Supergroup in the Tuli Basin (South Africa) consists of a sedimentary sequence composed of four stratigraphic units, namely the Basal, Middle and Upper units, and Clarens Formation. The units were deposited in continental settings from approximately Late Carboniferous to Middle Jurassic. This paper focuses on the Clarens Formation, which was examined in terms of sedimentary facies and palaeo-environments based on evidence provided by primary sedimentary structures, palaeo-flow measurements and palaeontological findings. Two main facies associations have been identified: (i) massive and large-scale planar cross-bedded sandstones of aeolian origin; and (ii) horizontally and cross-stratified sandstones of fluvial origin. Most of the sandstone lithofacies of the Clarens Formation were generated as transverse aeolian dunes produced by northwesterly winds in a relatively wet erg milieu. Direct evidence of aquatic subenvironments comes from local small ephemeral stream deposits, whereas palaeontological data provide indirect evidence. Fossils of the Clarens Formation include petrified logs of Agathoxylon sp. wood type and several trace fossils which were produced by insects and vertebrates. The upper part of the Clarens Formation lacks both direct and indirect evidence of aquatic conditions, and this suggests aridification that led to the dominance of dry sand sea conditions.

  5. New Jurassic tettigarctid cicadas from China with a novel example of disruptive coloration

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    Jun Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tettigarctidae is the most primitive family of Cicadoidea, with only two relict species. Although they are relatively well known from Eurasia, Australia, Africa, and South America, their Mesozoic examples are typically preserved only as isolated forewings. Herein, a new genus Sanmai Chen, Zhang, and B. Wang with three new species (Sanmai kongi Chen, Zhang, and B. Wang, S. mengi Chen, Zhang, and B. Wang, and S. xuni Chen, Zhang, and B. Wang are described based on fossil specimens from the Middle–Upper Jurassic of northeastern China, with well-preserved body structures, forewing and hindwing venations, making it the hitherto best known extinct tettigarctid taxon. The new genus, provisionally assigned to the tribe Turutanoviini, provides some new information about the evolution and palaeobiogeography of Mesozoic Tettigarctidae. The genus Paraprosbole is synonymized with Shuraboprosbole. In addition, the coloration pattern of forewing, prominent on some specimens of Sanmai kongi Chen, Zhang, and B. Wang sp. nov. and Sanmai xuni Chen, Zhang, and B. Wang sp. nov., represents a novel example of disruptive coloration in Tettigarctidae, which can effectively break up the body outline as well as surface, and so likely enabled these cicadas to reduce the detectability of potential predators.

  6. The potentiality of hydrocarbon generation of the Jurassic source rocks in Salam-3x well,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the identification of the potential and generating capability of oil generation in the Jurassic source rocks in the Salam-3x well. This depending on the organo-geochemical analyses of cutting samples representative of Masajid, Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations, as well as, representative extract samples of the Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations. The geochemical analysis suggested the potential source intervals within the encountered rock units as follows: Masajid Formation bears mature source rocks and have poor to fair generating capability for generating gas (type III kerogen. Khatatba Formation bears mature source rock, and has poor to good generating capability for both oil and gas. Ras Qattara Formation constituting mature source rock has good to very good generating capability for both oil and gas. The burial history modeling shows that the Masajid Formation lies within oil and gas windows; Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations lie within the gas window. From the biomarker characteristics of source rocks it appears that the extract is genetically related as the majority of them were derived from marine organic matters sources (mainly algae deposited under reducing environment and take the direction of increasing maturity and far away from the direction of biodegradation. Therefore, Masajid Formation is considered as effective source rocks for generating hydrocarbons, while Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations are the main source rocks for hydrocarbon accumulations in the Salam-3x well.

  7. Ichthyosaurs from the French Rhaetian indicate a severe turnover across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Valentin; Cappetta, Henri; Vincent, Peggy; Garcia, Géraldine; Goolaerts, Stijn; Martin, Jeremy E.; Roggero, Daniel; Valentin, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Mesozoic marine reptiles went through a severe turnover near the end of the Triassic. Notably, an important extinction event affected ichthyosaurs, sweeping a large part of the group. This crisis is, however, obscured by an extremely poor fossil record and is regarded as protracted over the entire Norian-earliest Jurassic interval, for the lack of a more precise scenario. The iconic whale-sized shastasaurid ichthyosaurs are regarded as early victims of this turnover, disappearing by the middle Norian. Here we evaluate the pattern of this turnover among ichthyosaurs by analysing the faunal record of two Rhaetian localities. One locality is Autun, eastern France; we rediscovered in this material the holotypes or partial `type' series of Rachitrema pellati, Actiosaurus gaudryi, Ichthyosaurus rheticus, Ichthyosaurus carinatus and Plesiosaurus bibractensis; a revised taxonomic scheme is proposed. The second assemblage comes from a new locality: Cuers, southeastern France. Both these assemblages provide several lines of evidence for the presence of shastasaurid-like ichthyosaurs in the Rhaetian of Europe. These occurrences suggest that both the demise of shastasaurids and the sudden radiation of neoichthyosaurians occurred within a short time window; this turnover appears not only more abrupt but also more complex than previously postulated and adds a new facet of the end-Triassic mass extinction.

  8. Shaly sand evaluation using gamma ray spectrometry, applied to the North Sea Jurassic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marett, G.; Chevalier, P.; Souhaite, P.; Suau, J.

    1976-01-01

    In formations where radioactive minerals other than clay are present, their effects on log responses result in a reduction of the accuracy of determination of the shale fraction. The gamma ray log, which is one of the primary indicators for shaliness determination, is the most affected; other logs used in shaliness indicators are also influenced, particularly when heavy minerals are present, such as those encountered in the micaceous sandstones of the North Sea Jurassic. For comparison purposes, possible ways to correct for heavy radioactive minerals using a conventional logging suite are described. Computer processed examples illustrate the results obtained. A different approach is through an analysis of the natural gamma ray spectrum of the formation, as determined with the gamma ray spectrometry tool. Natural gamma rays originate from the radioactive isotope of potassium and the radioactive elements of the uranium and thorium series. Each of these three elements contributes its distinctive spectrum to that of the formation in proportion to its abundance. Thus, by analysis of the formation spectrum, the presence of each can be detected and its amount estimated. This makes possible quantitative corrections to the shaliness indicators. A computer program which performs the necessary computations is described, and several log examples using this technique are presented

  9. Use of Landsat thermal imagery for dynamically monitoring spontaneous combustion of Datong Jurassic coalfields in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongan; Liu, Jin; Li, Jun; Shang, Changsheng; Zhao, Jinling; Zhang, Mingmei

    2018-06-01

    It is highly helpful and necessary to investigate and monitor the status of coal seam. Fortunately, remote sensing has facilitated the identification and dynamical monitoring of spontaneous combustion for a large area coal mining area, especially using the time series remotely-sensed datasets. In this paper, Datong Jurassic coal mining area is used as the study area, China, and an exclusion method and a multiple-factor analysis method are jointly used to identify the spontaneous combustion, including land surface temperature (LST), burnt rocks, and land use and land cover change (LUCC). The LST is firstly retrieved using a single-window algorithm due to a thermal infrared band of Landsat-5 TM (Thematic Mapper). Burnt rocks is then extracted using a decision-tree classification method based on a high-resolution SPOT-5 image. The thermal anomaly areas are identified and refined by the spatial overlay analysis of the above affecting factors. Three-period maps of coal fire areas are obtained and dynamically analyzed in 2007, 2009 and 2010. The results show that a total of 12 coal fire areas have been identified, which account for more than 1% of the total area of the study area. In general, there is an increasing trend yearly and a total of 771,970 m2 is increased. The average annual increase is 257,320 m2, the average annual growth rate is 3.78%, and the dynamic degree is 11.29%.

  10. Depositional architecture and sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic Hanifa Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Almadani, Sattam; Tawfik, Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    To document the depositional architecture and sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic Hanifa Formation in central Saudi Arabia, three composite sections were examined, measured and thin section analysed at Al-Abakkayn, Sadous and Maashabah mountains. Fourteen microfacies types were identified, from wackestones to boundstones and which permits the recognition of five lithofacies associations in a carbonate platform. Lithofacies associations range from low energy, sponges, foraminifers and bioclastic burrowed offshoal deposits to moderate lithoclstic, peloidal and bioclastic foreshoal deposits in the lower part of the Hanifa while the upper part is dominated by corals, ooidal and peloidal high energy shoal deposits to moderate to low energy peloidal, stromatoporoids and other bioclastics back shoal deposits. The studied Hanifa Formation exhibits an obvious cyclicity, distinguishing from vertical variations in lithofacies types. These microfacies types are arranged in two third order sequences, the first sequence is equivalent to the lower part of the Hanifa Formation (Hawtah member) while the second one is equivalent to the upper part (Ulayyah member). Within these two sequences, there are three to six fourth-order high frequency sequences respectively in the studied sections.

  11. A new basal sauropodiform dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; You, Hai-Lu; Wang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The Lufeng Formation in Lufeng Basin of Yunnan Province, southwestern China preserves one of the richest terrestrial Lower Jurassic vertebrate faunas globally, especially for its basal sauropodomorphs, such as Lufengosaurus and Yunnanosaurus. Here we report a new taxon, Xingxiulong chengi gen. et sp. nov. represented by three partial skeletons with overlapping elements. Xingxiulong possesses a number of autapomorphies, such as transversely expanded plate-like summit on top of the neural spine of posterior dorsal vertebrae, four sacral vertebrae, robust scapula, and elongated pubic plate approximately 40% of the total length of the pubis. Phylogenetic analysis resolves Xingxiulong as a basal member of Sauropodiformes, and together with another two Lufeng basal sauropodiforms Jingshanosaurus and Yunnanosaurus, they represent the basalmost lineages of this clade, indicating its Asian origin. Although being relatively primitive, Xingxiulong displays some derived features normally occurred in advanced sauropodiforms including sauropods, such as a four sacral-sacrum, a robust scapula, and a pubis with elongated pubic plate. The discovery of Xingxiulong increases the diversity of basal sauropodomorphs from the Lufeng Formation and indicates a more complicated scenario in the early evolution of sauropodiforms.

  12. FIRST REPORT OF SITTING ANOMOEPUS TRACKS IN EUROPEAN LOWER JURASSIC (LAVINI DI MARCO SITE - NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO AVANZINI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The palaeontologic site at Lavini di Marco, near to Rovereto (Trento, reveals a wide fossil tidal flat of Early Jurassic age (Calcari Grigi Formations – lower Member; Hettangian to lower Sinemurian . An extensive set of dinosaur prints were discovered a few years ago and are now the subject of ichnological and paleobiological studies. The prints which are described in present short note are believed to represent the right and left foot of the same individual, set in a side-by-side, sub-parallel, sitting posture. The prints can be classified as Anomoepus Hitchcock 1848. Amongst recognised ichnospecies, most of the charachteristics of the prints here described point to Moyenisauropus dodai Ellenberger 1974 (recte Anomoepus dodai Olsen & Galton 1984 of Lesotho. By contrast, the prints found at Lavini di Marco differ from the Anomoepus found in central-east Europe. These characters would seem to confirm the Gondwanic origins of the Rovereto ichnofauna as previously supposed from the study of other taxa. 

  13. Lowland-upland migration of sauropod dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic epoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Henry C; Hencecroth, Justin; Hoerner, Marie E

    2011-10-26

    Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest vertebrates ever to walk the Earth, and as mega-herbivores they were important parts of terrestrial ecosystems. In the Late Jurassic-aged Morrison depositional basin of western North America, these animals occupied lowland river-floodplain settings characterized by a seasonally dry climate. Massive herbivores with high nutritional and water needs could periodically experience nutritional and water stress under these conditions, and thus the common occurrence of sauropods in this basin has remained a paradox. Energetic arguments and mammalian analogues have been used to suggest that migration allowed sauropods access to food and water resources over a wide region or during times of drought or both, but there has been no direct support for these hypotheses. Here we compare oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O) of tooth-enamel carbonate from the sauropod Camarasaurus with those of ancient soil, lake and wetland (that is, 'authigenic') carbonates that formed in lowland settings. We demonstrate that certain populations of these animals did in fact undertake seasonal migrations of several hundred kilometres from lowland to upland environments. This ability to describe patterns of sauropod movement will help to elucidate the role that migration played in the ecology and evolution of gigantism of these and associated dinosaurs.

  14. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  15. Impacts of using salt and salt brine for roadway deicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) uses a variety of methods to help ensure safe travel on the state highway system : following winter storm events. These methods include plowing, use of sand to improve traction, and use of salt and chemical : com...

  16. Molten salts in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirian, J.; Saint-James

    1959-01-01

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [fr

  17. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  18. Wildfire Activity Across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary in the Polish Basin: Evidence from New Fossil Charcoal & Carbon-isotope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, R.; Belcher, C.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Hodbod, M.; Pieńkowski, G.

    2017-12-01

    New fossil charcoal abundance and carbon-isotope data from two sedimentary cores provide new evidence of extreme environmental conditions in the Polish Basin during the Latest Triassic to Earliest Jurassic. Sedimentary cores from the Polish Basin provide an excellent record of terrestrial environmental conditions across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary, a time of climatic extremes. Previous work has shown that the marine realm was affected by a large perturbation to the carbon cycle across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary (manifested by large negative and positive carbon-isotope excursions) and limited records of charcoal abundance and organic geochemistry have indicated important changes in fire regime in the coeval ecosystems. Here we present two new carbon-isotope records generated from fossil plant matter across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, and present new charcoal records. The charcoal abundance data confirm that there was variation in wildfire activity during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the Polish Basin. Peaks in the number of fossil charcoal fragments present occur in both sedimentary cores, and increases in fossil charcoal abundance are linked to wildfires, signalling a short-lived rise in wildfire activity. Fossil charcoal abundance does not appear to be fully controlled by total organic matter content, depositional environment or bioturbation. We argue that increased wildfire activity is likely caused by an increase in ignition of plant material as a result of an elevated number of lightning strikes. Global warming (caused by a massive input of carbon into the atmosphere, as indicated by carbon-isotope data) can increase storm activity, leading to increased numbers of lightning strikes. Previous Triassic-Jurassic Boundary wildfire studies have found fossil charcoal abundance peaks at other northern hemisphere sites (Denmark & Greenland), and concluded that they represent increases in wildfire activity in the earliest Jurassic. Our new charcoal and

  19. Structural and thermal development of the Atlantic margin offshore Essaouira (Morocco) - evidence of salt extrusion and implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumaier, Martin; Littke, Raf; Kleine, Adrian; Schnabel, Michael; Reichert, Christian

    2013-04-01

    . Three of the four salt diapirs identified on the BGR11-202 profile are situated at the same stratigraphic level. Only the westernmost diapir is stuck deeper and did not seem to have extruded in the past (at least in the 2D section). This suggests that along-dip lateral variability exists in the structural style of the salt diapirs. This could be due to initial composition or deposition amounts, or, as it could be an explanation for the latter case, increasing volcanic content towards the west. The lack of identifiable salt structures in the east (out of section) could be explained by the increasing strength of the Jurassic carbonate platform, preventing the underlying Liassic salt to rise. We performed basin modelling based on the above described structural scenario to develop and test several thermal scenarios through geologic time. Both the presence and influence of the ocean-continent transition and the related volcanic activity are discussed. The salt extrusion provides excellent trapping and sealing conditions for the truncated early Cretaceous potential reservoirs. By the means of petroleum systems modelling, which uses both the structural and thermal models, we discuss and evaluate the trap versus charge timing of the salt-related plays.

  20. The Jurassic-Cretaceous basaltic magmatism of the Oued El-Abid syncline (High Atlas, Morocco): Physical volcanology, geochemistry and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Mohamed Khalil; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Mata, João; Madeira, José; Martins, Línia; El Hachimi, Hind; Bertrand, Hervé; Marzoli, Andrea; Bellieni, Giuliano; Doblas, Miguel; Font, Eric; Medina, Fida; Mahmoudi, Abdelkader; Beraâouz, El Hassane; Miranda, Rui; Verati, Chrystèle; De Min, Angelo; Ben Abbou, Mohamed; Zayane, Rachid

    2013-05-01

    Basaltic lava flows, dykes and sills, interbedded within red clastic continental sedimentary sequences (the so called "Couches Rouges") are widespread in the Oued El-Abid syncline. They represent the best candidates to study the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatism in the Moroccan High Atlas. The volcanic successions were formed during two pulses of volcanic activity, represented by the Middle to Upper Jurassic basaltic sequence B1 (1-4 eruptions) and the Lower Cretaceous basaltic sequence B2 (three eruptions). Whether belonging to the B1 or B2, the lava flows present morphology and internal structures typical of inflated pahoehoe. Our geochemical data show that, at least for Jurassic magmatism, the dykes, and sills cannot be considered as strictly representing the feeders of the sampled lava flows. The Middle to Upper Jurassic pulse is moderately alkaline in character, while the Lower Cretaceous one is transitional. Crustal contamination plays a minor role in the petrogenesis of these magmas, which were generated by variable partial melting degrees of a garnet-bearing mantle source. Magmatism location was controlled by pre-existing Hercynian fault systems reactivated during a Middle to Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous rifting event. The associated lithospheric stretching induced melting, by adiabatic decompression, of enriched low-solidus infra-lithospheric domains.

  1. Sedimentation of Jurassic fan-delta wedges in the Xiahuayuan basin reflecting thrust-fault movements of the western Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengfa; Liu, Shaofeng; Zhuang, Qitian; Steel, Ronald J.

    2018-06-01

    Mesozoic thrusting within the Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt of North China resulted in a series of fault-bounded intramontane basins whose infill and evolution remain poorly understood. In particular, the bounding faults and adjacent sediment accumulations along the western segments of the belt are almost unstudied. A sedimentological and provenance analysis of the Lower Jurassic Xiahuayuan Formation and the Upper Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation have been mapped to show two distinctive clastic wedges: an early Jurassic wedge representing a mass-flow-dominated, Gilbert-type fan delta with a classic tripartite architecture, and an late Jurassic shoal-water fan delta without steeply inclined strata. The basinward migration of the fan-delta wedges, together with the analysis of their conglomerate clast compositions, paleocurrent data and detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra, strongly suggest that the northern-bounding Xuanhuan thrust fault controlled their growth during accumulation of the Jiulongshan Formation. Previous studies have suggested that the fan-delta wedge of the Xiahuayuan Formation was also syntectonic, related to movement on the Xuanhua thrust fault. Two stages of thrusting therefore exerted an influence on the formation and evolution of the Xiahuayuan basin during the early-late Jurassic.

  2. Rifting and Subsidence in the Gulf of Mexico: Implications for Syn-rift, Sag, and Salt Sections, and Subsequent Paleogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindell, J. L.; Graham, R.; Horn, B.

    2013-05-01

    Thick (up to 5 km), rapid (depression where basement had already subsided tectonically, and thus could receive up to 5 km of salt, roughly the isostatic maximum on exhumed mantle, hyper-thinned continent, or new ocean crust. ION-GXT and other seismic data along W Florida and NW Yucatán show that (1) mother salt was only 1 km thick in these areas, (2) that these areas were depositionally connected to areas of thicker deposition, and (3) the top of all salt was at global sea level, and hence the sub-salt unconformity along Florida and Yucatán was only 1 km deep by end of salt deposition. These observations fit the air-filled chasm hypothesis; however, two further observations make that mechanism highly improbable: (1) basinward limits of sub-salt unconformities along Florida/Yucatán are deeper than top of adjacent ocean crust emplaced at ~2.7 km subsea (shown by backstripping), and (2) deepest abyssal sediments over ocean crust onlap the top of distal salt, demonstrating that the salt itself was rapidly drowned after deposition. Study of global ION datasets demonstrates the process of "rapid outer marginal collapse" at most margins, which we believe is achieved by low-angle detachment on deep, landward-dipping, Moho-equivalent surfaces such that outer rifted margins are hanging walls of crustal scale half-grabens over mantle. The tectonic accommodation space produced (up to 3 km, < 3 Ma) can be filled by ~5 km of sag/salt sequences with little apparent hanging wall rifting. When salt (or other) deposition lags behind, or ends during, outer marginal collapse, deep-water settings result. We suggest that this newly identified, "outer marginal detachment phase", normally separates the traditional "rift" from "drift" stages during continental margin creation. Importantly, this 2-3 km of subsidence presently is neither treated as tectonic nor as thermal in traditional subsidence analysis; thus, Beta estimates may be excessive at many outer margins. Outer marginal

  3. INORGANIC AND ORGANIC ONIUM SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrosonium NO ion absorbs in the infrared between 1/2400 and 1/ 2150 cm. Salts of complex fluoro-acids absorb at higher frequencies than salts...halide adducts generally contain nitrosonium ions . Hexaphenylditin does not undergo marked heterolytic dissociation in nitromethane solution...influencing the covalent-ionic equilibrium are discussed. Infrared spectrum nitrosonium ion ; ionic character in lattice and position nitrosonium ion absorption

  4. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  5. Animal behavior frozen in time: gregarious behavior of Early Jurassic lobsters within an ammonoid body chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiël A Klompmaker

    Full Text Available Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism. The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells.

  6. Geochemistry of the triassic-Jurassic alpine continental deposits: origin and geodynamic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Goffe, B.; Toulhoat, P.

    1997-01-01

    Mid-Triassic to mid-Jurassic Alpine continental deposits are known all along the former Brianconnais peninsula. They constitutes small karstic pockets on the thick Triassic calcareous series and their chemistry evolves between bauxites s.s. and aluminous argilites. Most of them were deeply buried during the Alpine orogenesis as recorded by HP-LT metamorphism. Only the deposits of the Pre-Alps were submitted to lower PT conditions (diagenesis-anchizone boundary) during their incorporation in the thrust wedge of the 'Prealpes Medianes'. These formations are known for containing traces of light elements (Li, F) and heavy elements (Zn, REE...). In order to understand the possible origin of these elements, we studied the geochemistry (major and trace elements) of two representative deposits, one in Vanoise which underwent a HP-LT metamorphism, the other one in the Pre-Alps, which was only submitted to diagenesis. Trace elements patterns allow us to preclude an autochthonous origin for these formations as well as the intervention of metasomatism, and demonstrate a granitic origin. Moreover, discrimination diagrams for granites indicate an obvious alkaline granitic origin for these deposits. In the framework of the Alpine palaeogeography, we then discuss the possible granitic sources. Two main sources can be invoked: either a Brianconnais s.s. formation (crystalline or sediments), which supposes a more intense erosion as classically admitted, or more distant sources such as the Corso-Sardinian alkaline acid-rocks, which supposes a complex palaeo-hydrography. This confirms the sedimentary origin of the light elements in these rocks and precludes the intervention of light elements-rich hydrothermal fluids migrating through Alpine metamorphic units. (author)

  7. Sedimentology of the Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic (?) Mosolotsane Formation (Karoo Supergroup), Kalahari Karoo Basin, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; Segwabe, Tebogo; Makuke, Bonno

    2010-08-01

    The Mosolotsane Formation (Lebung Group, Karoo Supergroup) in the Kalahari Karoo Basin of Botswana is a scantly exposed, terrestrial red bed succession which is lithologically correlated with the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic Molteno and Elliot Formations (Karoo Supergroup) in South Africa. New evidence derived from field observations and borehole data via sedimentary facies analysis allowed the assessment of the facies characteristics, distribution and thickness variation as well as palaeo-current directions and sediment composition, and resulted in the palaeo-environmental reconstruction of this poorly known unit. Our results show that the Mosolotsane Formation was deposited in a relatively low-sinuosity meandering river system that drained in a possibly semi-arid environment. Sandstone petrography revealed mainly quartz-rich arenites that were derived from a continental block provenance dominated by metamorphic and/or igneous rocks. Palaeo-flow measurements indicate reasonably strong, unidirectional current patterns with mean flow directions from southeast and east-southeast to northwest and west-northwest. Regional thickness and facies distributions as well as palaeo-drainage indicators suggest that the main depocenter of the Mosolotsane Formation was in the central part of the Kalahari Karoo Basin. Separated from this main depocenter by a west-northwest - east-southeast trending elevated area, an additional depocenter was situated in the north-northeast part of the basin and probably formed part of the Mid-Zambezi Karoo Basin. In addition, data also suggests that further northeast-southwest trending uplands probably existed in the northwest and east, the latter separating the main Kalahari Karoo depocenter from the Tuli Basin.

  8. Resedimented Limestones in Middle and Upper Jurassic Succession of the Slovenian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Rožič

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Middle and Upper Jurassic succession of the Slovenian Basin is characterized by pelagic sedimentation of siliceous limestones and radiolarian cherts. In the southern and central part of the basin two packages of resedimented limestones are interbedded within pelagic sediments. The Lower resedimented limestones are lower-middle Bajocian to lower Callovian in age. In the southern part of the basin they form laterally discontinuous sequences composed of limestone breccias, calcarenites and micritic limestone and in the central part of the basin calcarenite intercalations within pelagic beds. They were transported by turbidity currents from highly productive ooidal shoals of the Dinaric Carbonate Platform. The Lower resedimented carbonates correlate with the lower three members of the Travnik Formation in the Bovec Trough and similarly developed but much thicker Vajont Formation in the Belluno Basin. The difference in thickness is interpreted as a consequence of shallow-water and longshore currents on the Dinaric Carbonate Platform that transported platform material towards southwest in the direction of the Belluno Basin. The Upper resedimented limestones are upper Kimmeridgian to lower Tithonian and occur within radiolarian cherts in the upper part of the succession as calcarenite beds that originated by turbidity currents. Onset of resedimentation coincides with the emersion-related demise of barrier reef and following deposition of micritic and rare oolitic limestones on the Dinaric Carbonate Platform. Approximatelly coeval resedimented limestones occur in the fourth member of the Travnik Formation in the Bovec Trough, but are not reported from the Ammonitico Rosso Superiore Formation in the Belluno Basin.

  9. Low durophagous predation on Toarcian (Early Jurassic ammonoids in the northwestern Panthalassa shelf basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Takeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory shell breakage is known to occur occasionally on the ventrolateral portion of the body chamber in Mesozoic ammonoids. Here we report, for the first time, quantitative data of shell breakage in large ammonoid samples that were recovered from the lower Toarcian (Lower Jurassic strata in the Toyora area, western Japan. The strata yielding the ammonoid samples consisted mostly of well-laminated, bituminous black shale that was deposited in an oxygen-depleted shelf basin of the northwestern Panthalassa, under the influence of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event. Among a total of 1305 specimens from 18 localities, apparent shell breakage was recognised in 35 specimens belonging to 7 genera, resulting in only a 2.7% frequency of occurrence relative to the total number of specimens. The breakage occurs mostly on the ventrolateral side of the body chamber with a complete shell aperture. This fact, as well as the low energy bottom condition suggested for the ammonoid-bearing shale, indicate that the shell breaks observed in the examined ammonoids were not produced by non-biological, post-mortem biostratinomical processes but were lethal injuries inflicted by nektonic predators such as reptiles, jawed fishes, coleoids, nautiloids, and carnivorous ammonoids with calcified rostral tips in their upper and lower jaws. Similar predatory shell breaks on the ventrolateral side of the body chamber have been found in contemporaneous ammonoid assemblages of the Tethys Realm, with a much higher frequency of occurrence than in the examined samples from the northwestern Panthalassa, suggesting a weaker durophagous predation pressure on ammonoids in the latter bioprovince.

  10. A new pterosaur tracksite from the Jurassic Summerville formation, near Ferron, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Debra L.; Lockley, Martin G.; Bishop, John; Kirkland, James I.

    2003-01-01

    Pterosaur tracks (cf. Pteraichnus) from the Summerville Formation of the Ferron area of central Utah add to the growing record of Pteraichnus tracksites in the Late Jurassic Summerville Formation and time-equivalent, or near time-equivalent, deposits. The site is typical in revealing high pterosaur track densities, but low ichnodiversity suggesting congregations or “flocks” of many individuals. Footprint length varies from 2.0 to 7.0 cms. The ratio of well-preserved pes:manus tracks is about 1:3.4. This reflects a bias in favor of preservation of manus tracks due to the greater weight-bearing role of the front limbs, as noted in other pterosaur track assemblages. The sample also reveals a number of well-preserved trackways including one suggestive of pes-only progression that might be associated with take off or landing, and another that shows pronounced lengthening of stride indicating acceleration.One well-preserved medium-sized theropod trackway (Therangospodus) and other larger theropod track casts (cf. Megalosauripus) are associated with what otherwise appears to be a nearly monospecific pterosaur track assemblage. However, traces of a fifth pes digit suggest some tracks are of rhamphorynchoid rather than pterodactyloid origin, as usually inferred for Pteraichnus. The tracks occur at several horizons in a thin stratigraphic interval of ripple marked sandstones and siltstones. Overall the assemblage is similar to others found in the same time interval in the Western Interior from central and eastern Utah through central and southern Wyoming, Colorado, northeastern Arizona, and western Oklahoma. This vast “Pteraichnusichnofacies,” with associated saurischian tracks, remains the only ichnological evidence of pre-Cretaceous pterosaurs in North America and sheds important light on the vertebrate ecology of the Summerville Formation and contiguous deposits.

  11. Desert and groundwater dynamics of the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, southeast Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M. A.; Hasiotis, S. T.; Parrish, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Jurassic Navajo Sandstone of southeastern Utah is a rich archive of a desert complex with an active groundwater system, influenced by climate changes and recharge from the Uncompahgre Uplift of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains. This eastern erg margin was dominated by dune deposits of large (>10 m thick) and small (m-scale) crossbedded sandstone sets. Within these porous deposits, common soft sediment deformation is expressed as contorted and upturned bedding, fluid escape structures, concentrations of clastic pipes with ring faults, and thick intervals of massive sandstone embedded in crossbedded sandstone. Collectively, these deformation features reflect changes and/or overpressure in the groundwater system. Interdune deposits record laterally variable bounding surfaces, resulting from the change in position of and proximity to the water table. Interdune modification by pedogenesis from burrows, roots, and trees suggest stable periods of moisture and water supply, as well as periodic drying expressed as polygonal cracked mud- to sand-cracked layers. Freshwater bedded and platy limestone beds represent lakes of decameter to kilometer extent, common in the upper part of the formation. Some carbonate springs that fed the lakes are preserved as limestone buildups (tufa mounds) with microbial structures. Extradunal deposits of rivers to small ephemeral streams show channelized and lenticular, subhorizontal, cm- to m-scale sandstone bodies with basal scours and rip-up clasts. Proxy records of the active hydrology imply a changing landscape at the Navajo desert's edge, punctuated by periods of significant rainfall, runoff, rivers, lakes, and springs, fed by high water table conditions to sustain periods of flourishing communities of plants, arthropods, reptiles, mammals, and dinosaurs. Strong ground motion perturbations periodically disrupted porous, water-saturated sands with possible surface eruptions, adding to the dynamic activity of the desert regime.

  12. Paleoenvironmental conditions across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in central-eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Yáñez, Mario; Núñez-Useche, Fernando; López Martínez, Rafael; Gardner, Rand D.

    2017-08-01

    The Padni section of central-eastern Mexico is characterized by pelagic, organic-rich carbonates and shales dated in this study by calpionellid biostratigraphy to the late Tithonian-late Berriasian time interval. Microfacies, pyrite framboid size, spectrometric gamma-ray and mineralogical data are herein integrated in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental change during the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. Deposits of the late Tithonian-early Berriasian are characterized by laminated, organic-rich facies with abundant radiolarian, tiny pyrite framboids and low Th/U ratios. They are linked to upwelling in a semi-restricted basin, high marine productivity and anoxic bottom waters. The early incursions of Tethyan oceanic waters into the proto-Gulf of Mexico occurred during late Tithonian as attested the appearance of calpionellids. Short and intermittent accumulations of saccocomids during early Berriasian suggest episodes of sporadic connection between the Tethys, the proto-Atlantic and the Pacific ocean during sea-level rise events. A full and stable connection between the Tethys and proto-Gulf of Mexico was established until the late Berriasian. This event is supported by the presence of open marine and bioturbated facies with a framboid population typical of dysoxic conditions, higher Th/U ratios and a decreasing pattern of the total organic carbon content. In addition to highlighting the replenishment of the oxygen supply to the basin, this facies also points to a younger age for the finalization of the Yucatán Block rotation and the end of the Gulf of Mexico opening. Deposition of the studied section occurred mostly during a Tithonian-Berriasian arid phase reported in other Tethyan and Atlantic regions. The similarity between the discrete segments of the standard gamma-ray curve defined in the studied outcrop and those reported from subsurface implies their regional continuity allowing their use for correlation purposes.

  13. Global patterns in Earth's dynamic topography since the Jurassic: the role of subducted slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rubey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the spatial and temporal evolution of Earth's long-wavelength surface dynamic topography since the Jurassic using a series of high-resolution global mantle convection models. These models are Earth-like in terms of convective vigour, thermal structure, surface heat-flux and the geographic distribution of heterogeneity. The models generate a degree-2-dominated spectrum of dynamic topography with negative amplitudes above subducted slabs (i.e. circum-Pacific regions and southern Eurasia and positive amplitudes elsewhere (i.e. Africa, north-western Eurasia and the central Pacific. Model predictions are compared with published observations and subsidence patterns from well data, both globally and for the Australian and southern African regions. We find that our models reproduce the long-wavelength component of these observations, although observed smaller-scale variations are not reproduced. We subsequently define geodynamic rules for how different surface tectonic settings are affected by mantle processes: (i locations in the vicinity of a subduction zone show large negative dynamic topography amplitudes; (ii regions far away from convergent margins feature long-term positive dynamic topography; and (iii rapid variations in dynamic support occur along the margins of overriding plates (e.g. the western US and at points located on a plate that rapidly approaches a subduction zone (e.g. India and the Arabia Peninsula. Our models provide a predictive quantitative framework linking mantle convection with plate tectonics and sedimentary basin evolution, thus improving our understanding of how subduction and mantle convection affect the spatio-temporal evolution of basin architecture.

  14. Analysis of late Jurassic-recent paleomagnetic data from active plate margins of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Myrl E.

    Paleomagnetic results for rocks of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic age from South America are analyzed and interpreted. Emphasis is placed on the active margins of the continent. Some important conclusions are reached, with varying degrees of certainty: (1) The reference APW path for stable South America is fairly well defined for the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous, and is not much different from the present rotation axis. (2) The so-called "Bolivian orocline" involved counterclockwise rotations in Peru and northernmost Chile and clockwise rotations in Chile south of about latitude 18.5S. These rotations probably are a result of in situ small-block rotations in response to shear, not actual oroclinal bending. (3) The Bonaire block of northern Venezuela and Colombia has been rotated clockwise relative to the stable interior of South America by about 90°. It also seems to have drifted northward relative to the craton by as much as 1600 km. It probably represents a true accreted terrane, one of very few recognized in South America so far. (4) The "Magellanes orocline" at the southern tip of South America apparently involves some counterclockwise rotation of paleomagnetic vectors, but this too is probably the result of distributed shear. (5) Tectonic processes have very thoroughly "rearranged" the rocks making up the active margins of South America. "Rearrange" here denotes displacement of crustal blocks relative to their surroundings, without significant internal deformation By analogy with North America "rearrangement" might entail in situ block rotation, translation of crustal blocks along the continental margin, and accretion of exotic "tectonostratigraphic terranes". However, in western South America "rearrangement" seems to have consisted dominantly of block rotations that were essentially in situ. For the parts of the Andes investigated so far, late Mesozoic and Cenozoic accretion of exotic terranes and large-scale translation of crustal slivers, as found in western

  15. Molten-salt converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Molten-salt reactors appear to have substantial promise as advanced converters. Conversion ratios of 0.85 to 0.9 should be attainable with favourable fuel cycle costs, with 235 U valued at $12/g. An increase in 235 U value by a factor of two or three ($10 to $30/lb. U 3 O 8 , $75/SWU) would be expected to increase the optimum conversion ratio, but this has not been analyzed in detail. The processing necessary to recover uranium from the fuel salt has been partially demonstrated in the MSRE. The equipment for doing this would be located at the reactor, and there would be no reliance on an established recycle industry. Processing costs are expected to be quite low, and fuel cycle optimization depends primarily on inventory and burnup or replacement costs for the fuel and for the carrier salt. Significant development problems remain to be resolved for molten-salt reactors, notably the control of tritium and the elimination of intergranular cracking of Hastelloy-N in contact with tellurium. However, these problems appear to be amenable to solution. It is appropriate to consider separating the development schedule for molten-salt reactors from that for the processing technology required for breeding. The Molten-Salt Converter Reactor should be a useful reactor in its own right and would be an advance towards the achievement of true breeding in thermal reactors. (author)

  16. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidation-reduction phenomena in tabular uranium-vanadium bearing sandstone from the Salt Wash deposits (Upper Jurassic) of the Cottonwood Wash district (Utah, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, J.D.

    1984-02-01

    A braided to meandering fluvial environment has been postulated for this area after a sedimentological study. The mineralization is spatially related with conifer derived organic matter and wood is preserved in these sediments because of the reducing environment of deposition. The degree of maturation of the organic matter has been estimated from chemical analyses. Results show the presence of variable diagenetic oxidation depending on the environment. The organic matter which was least affected by this oxidation have attained a thermal maturation characteristic of the end stage of diagenesis. The high grade ore is situated at the edges of or within the trunks of trees (which remained permeable during diagenesis) and at the boundaries of the carbonaceous beds. Geochemical study shows there to be good correlation between uranium and vanadium. Uranium occurs as pitchblende, coffinite or as impregnations in the vanadiferous clay cement. A detailed study of clays shows an association of chlorite and roscoelite which most probably contain V 3+ . Fluid inclusion study suggests burying temperatures of >= 100 0 C and shows the existance of brines before the mineralization. The following genetical model is proposed. Low Eh uraniferous solutions move through a reduced pyritised environment. The low degree of oxidation of the pyrites propagates the destabilization of the clastic iron-titanium oxides which release vanadium and the dissociation of uranylcarbonates. Then, the deposit of pitchblende, coffinite, montroseite and vanadiferous clays took place in association with a secondary pyrite. When the rocks were uplifted to the subsurface, uranium (IV) and vanadium (III) were remobilised in an oxidising environment to form a secondary mineralization essentially represented by tyuyamunite [fr

  18. Structure and thermodynamics of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheodorou, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates single-component molten salts and multicomponent salt mixtures. Molten salts provide an important testing ground for theories of liquids, solutions, and plasmas. Topics considered include molten salts as liquids (the pair potential, the radial distribution function, methods of characterization), single salts (structure, thermodynamic correlations), and salt mixtures (the thermodynamics of mixing; spectroscopy and structure). Neutron and X-ray scattering techniques are used to determine the structure of molten metal halide salts. The corresponding-states theory is used to obtain thermodynamic correlations on single salts. Structural information on salt mixtures is obtained by using vibrational (Raman) and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Charge-symmetrical systems and charge-unsymmetrical systems are used to examine the thermodynamics of salt mixtures

  19. Along strike behavior of the Tizi n' Firest fault during the Lower Jurassic rifting (Central High Atlas Carbonate basin, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarih, S.; Quiquerez, A.; Allemand, P.; Garcia, J. P.; El Hariri, K.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the along-strike early syn-rift history of the Lower Jurassic Carbonate basin of the Central High Atlas (Morocco) by combining sedimentological observations and high-resolution biostratigraphy. Six sections, each from the Sinemurian to the Upper Pliensbachian, were investigated along a 75 km-long transect at the hanging wall of a major fault of the Lower Jurassic Basin (i.e. the Tizi n' Firest fault). Depositional geometries of the early syn-rift deposits were reconstructed from the correlation between eight main timelines dated by biochronological markers for a time span covering about 6 Ma. Depocentre migration was examined and accommodation rates were calculated at the sub-zone timescale to discuss the along-strike-fault behavior of the Lower Jurassic basin formation. The early stages of extension are marked by contrasted along-strike variations in depositional geometry thickness, depocentre migration and accommodation rates, leading to the growth of three independent sub-basins (i.e. western, central, and eastern), ranging in size from 30 to 50 km, and displaying three contrasted tectono-sedimentary histories. Our results suggest that, during the early rifting phase, tectonic activity was not a continuous and progressive process evolving towards a rift climax stage, but rather a series of acceleration periods that alternated with periods of much reduced activity. The length of active fault segments is estimated at about 15-20 km, with a lifespan of a few ammonite sub-zones (> 2-3 Ma).

  20. A new rhynchocephalian from the late jurassic of Germany with a dentition that is unique amongst tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhut, Oliver W M; Heyng, Alexander M; López-Arbarello, Adriana; Hecker, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Rhynchocephalians, the sister group of squamates (lizards and snakes), are only represented by the single genus Sphenodon today. This taxon is often considered to represent a very conservative lineage. However, rhynchocephalians were common during the late Triassic to latest Jurassic periods, but rapidly declined afterwards, which is generally attributed to their supposedly adaptive inferiority to squamates and/or Mesozoic mammals, which radiated at that time. New finds of Mesozoic rhynchocephalians can thus provide important new information on the evolutionary history of the group. A new fossil relative of Sphenodon from the latest Jurassic of southern Germany, Oenosaurus muehlheimensis gen. et sp. nov., presents a dentition that is unique amongst tetrapods. The dentition of this taxon consists of massive, continuously growing tooth plates, probably indicating a crushing dentition, thus representing a previously unknown trophic adaptation in rhynchocephalians. The evolution of the extraordinary dentition of Oenosaurus from the already highly specialized Zahnanlage generally present in derived rhynchocephalians demonstrates an unexpected evolutionary plasticity of these animals. Together with other lines of evidence, this seriously casts doubts on the assumption that rhynchocephalians are a conservative and adaptively inferior lineage. Furthermore, the new taxon underlines the high morphological and ecological diversity of rhynchocephalians in the latest Jurassic of Europe, just before the decline of this lineage on this continent. Thus, selection pressure by radiating squamates or Mesozoic mammals alone might not be sufficient to explain the demise of the clade in the Late Mesozoic, and climate change in the course of the fragmentation of the supercontinent of Pangaea might have played a major role.

  1. Rise and demise of the Bahama-Grand Banks gigaplatform, northern margin of the Jurassic proto-Atlantic seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poag, C. Wylie

    1991-01-01

    An extinct, > 5000-km-long Jurassic carbonate platform and barrier reef system lies buried beneath the Atlantic continental shelf and slope of the United States. A revised stratigraphic framework, a series of regional isopach maps, and paleogeographic reconstructions are used to illustrate the 42-m.y. history of this Bahama-Grand Banks gigaplatform from its inception in Aalenian(?) (early Middle Jurassic) time to its demise and burial in Berriasian-Valanginian time (early Early Cretaceous). Aggradation-progradation rates for the gigaplatform are comparable to those of the familiar Capitan shelf margin (Permian) and are closely correlated with volumetric rates of siliciclastic sediment accumulation and depocenter migration. Siliciclastic encroachment behind the carbonate tracts appears to have been an important impetus for shelf-edge progradation. During the Early Cretaceous, sea-level changes combined with eutrophication (due to landward soil development and seaward upwelling) and the presence of cooler upwelled waters along the outer shelf appear to have decimated the carbonate producers from the Carolina Trough to the Grand Banks. This allowed advancing siliciclastic deltas to overrun the shelf edge despite a notable reduction in siliciclastic accumulation rates. However, upwelling did not extend southward to the Blake-Bahama megabank, so platform carbonate production proceeded there well into the Cretaceous. Subsequent stepwise carbonate abatement characterized the Blake Plateau Basin, whereas the Bahamas have maintained production to the present. The demise of carbonate production on the northern segments of the gigaplatform helped to escalate deep-water carbonate deposition in the Early Cretaceous, but the sudden augmentation of deep-water carbonate reservoirs in the Late Jurassic was triggered by other agents, such as global expansion of nannoplankton communities. ?? 1991.

  2. Lower-Middle Jurassic paleomagnetic data from the Mae Sot area (Thailand): Paleogeographic evolution and deformation history of Southeastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. Y.; Besse, J.; Sutheetorn, V.; Bassoullet, J. P.; Fontaine, H.; Buffetaut, E.

    1995-12-01

    We have carried out a paleomagnetic study (12 sites, 85 samples) of Early-Middle Jurassic limestones and sandstones from the Mae Sot area of western Thailand. This area is part of the Shan-Thai-Malay (STM) block, and its geological characteristics have led some authors to suggest a Late Jurassic accretion of this region against the rest of Indochina along the Changning-Menglian zone, the latter sometimes being interpreted as a Mesozoic suture. The high-temperature (or high-coercivity) component isolated yields a paleodirection at D = 359.8 °, I = 31.4 ° (α 95 = 5.0 °). The primary nature of the magnetization acquisition is ascertained at a site with reversed polarity and a positive fold test (at the 95% confidence level). Comparison of the Mae Sot paleolatitude and another one from the STM with those recently published for the Simao and Khorat blocks show no significant difference at the 95% level, showing that the STM was situated close to, or had already accreted with, the Simao or Khorat blocks in the Early-Middle Jurassic. Comparison of the latitudes from these blocks with those from China indicates a relative southward motion of 8 ± 4° of Indochina as a single entity relative to China. Most rotations of these regions relative to China are found to be clockwise (between 14 and 75°). These rotations, and most prominently the 1200 ± 500 km post-Cretaceous left-lateral motion inferred for the Red River Fault, provide quantitative estimates of the large amount of extrusion of Indochina with respect to the rest of Asia.

  3. Reconstructing Plate Boundaries in the Jurassic Neo-Tethys From the East and West Vardar Ophiolites (Greece and Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffione, Marco; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2018-03-01

    Jurassic subduction initiation in the Neo-Tethys Ocean eventually led to the collision of the Adria-Africa and Eurasia continents and the formation of an 6,000 km long Alpine orogen spanning from Iberia to Iran. Reconstructing the location and geometry of the plate boundaries of the now disappeared Neo-Tethys during the initial moments of its closure is instrumental to perform more realistic plate reconstructions of this region, of ancient ocean basins in general, and on the process of subduction initiation. Neo-Tethyan relics are preserved in an ophiolite belt distributed above the Dinaric-Hellenic fold-thrust belt. Here we provide the first quantitative constraints on the geometry of the spreading ridges and trenches active in the Jurassic Neo-Tethys using a paleomagnetically based net tectonic rotation analysis of sheeted dykes and dykes from the West and East Vardar Ophiolites of Serbia (Maljen and Ibar) and Greece (Othris, Pindos, Vourinos, and Guevgueli). Based on our results and existing geological evidence, we show that initial Middle Jurassic ( 175 Ma) closure of the western Neo-Tethys was accommodated at a N-S trending, west dipping subduction zone initiated near and parallel to the spreading ridge. The West Vardar Ophiolites formed in the forearc parallel to this new trench. Simultaneously, the East Vardar Ophiolites formed above a second N-S to NW-SE trending subduction zone located close to the European passive margin. We tentatively propose that this second subduction zone had been active since at least the Middle Triassic, simultaneously accommodating the closure of the Paleo-Tethys and the back-arc opening of Neo-Tethys.

  4. Early to Middle Jurassic palaeoenvironmental changes: High resolution δ13C and δ18O records from the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korte, Christoph; Hesselbo, Stephen; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    Low-Mg-calcite fossils, such as bivalves, belemnites and brachiopods, and bulk rocks have been extensively utilized to reconstruct past seawater chemistry and paleoenviron¬mental changes. Recent work on major bioevents demonstrated that particularly higher resolution stable isotope records...... are necessary to reveal short-term paleoenviron¬mental fluctuations and, in addition, to discover its causes. Here we present a new high resolution carbon and oxygen isotope dataset generated from low-Mg-calcite fossils, fossil wood and bulk rocks collected from Early to Middle Jurassic marine successions...

  5. Jurassic ash-flow sheets, calderas, and related intrusions of the Cordilleran volcanic arc in southeastern Arizona: implications for regional tectonics and ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Volcanologic, petrologic, and paleomagnetic studies of widespread Jurassic ash-flow sheets in the Huachuca-southern Dragoon Mountains area have led to identification of four large source calderas and associated comagnetic intracaldera intrusions. Stratigraphic, facies, and contact features of the caldera-related tuffs also provide constraints on the locations, lateral displacements, and very existence for some major northwest-trending faults and inferred regional thrusts in southeastern Arizona. Silicic alkalic compositions of the Jurassic caldera-related, ash-flow tuffs; bimodal associated mafic magmatism; and interstratified coarse sedimentary deposits provide evidence for synvolcanic extension and rifting within the Cordilleran magmatic arc. Gold-copper mineralization is associated with subvolcanic intrusions at several of the Jurassic calderas. -from Authors

  6. Early Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction event: evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Sebastian; Ansorge, Jörg; Pfaff, Cathrin; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-07-04

    A new genus and species of pycnodontiform fishes, Grimmenodon aureum , from marginal marine, marine-brackish lower Toarcian ( Harpoceras exaratum ammonite subzone) clay deposits of Grimmen in northeastern Germany is described. The single specimen represents a diagnostic left prearticular dentition characterized by unique tooth arrangement and ornamentation patterns. Grimmenodon aureum , gen. et sp. nov., is the second unambiguously identified pycnodontiform species from the Early Jurassic, in addition to Eomesodon liassicus from the early Lower Jurassic of western Europe. We also report an indeterminate pycnodontiform tooth crown from the upper Pliensbachian ( Pleuroceras apyrenum ammonite subzone) of the same site. The material expands the Early Jurassic range of pycnodontiforms significantly northwards and confirms their presence before and immediately following the onset of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) in the marginal marine ecosystems south of the Fennoscandian Shield. Moreover, the new records indicate that the Early Jurassic diversity of pycnodontiform fishes was greater than previously assumed and probably equaled that of the Late Triassic. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction event did not affect pycnodontiform fishes significantly. Micro-computed tomography was used to study the internal anatomy of the prearticular of Grimmenodon aureum , gen. et sp. nov. Our results show that no replacement teeth were formed within the tooth-bearing bone but rather were added posteriorly to functional teeth. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A56BDE9C-40C4-4CFA-9C2E-F5FA35A66F2 Citation for this article: Stumpf, S., J. Ansorge, C. Pfaff, and J. Kriwet. 2017. Early Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction event: Evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum . Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2017.1344679.

  7. Petrogenesis of Jurassic granitoids at the northeastern margin of the North China Craton: New geochemical and geochronological constraints on subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Zhenghong; Yin, Changqing; Zhao, Chen; Peng, Youbo

    2018-06-01

    At the junction between the North China Craton (NCC) and the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), northern Liaoning province, NE China, there are widespread Jurassic igneous rocks. The tectonic setting and petrogenesis of these rocks are unresolved. Zircon U-Pb dating, whole-rock geochemistry, and Hf isotopic compositions of Jurassic granitoids were investigated to constrain their ages and petrogenesis in order to understand the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean along the northeastern margin of the NCC. Geochronological data indicate that magmatism occurred between the early and late Jurassic (180-156 Ma). Despite the wide range in ages of the intrusions, Jurassic granitoids were likely derived from a similar or common source, as inferred from their geochemical and Hf isotopic characteristics. Compared to the island arc andesite-dacite-rhyolite series, the Jurassic granitoids are characterized by higher SiO2, Al2O3, and Sr contents, and lower MgO, FeOT, Y, and Yb contents, indicating that the primary magmas show typical characteristics of adakitic magmas derived from partial melting of thickened lower crust. These findings, combined with their εHf(t) values (+1.4 to +5.4) and two-stage model ages (1515-1165 Ma), indicate the primary magmas originated from partial melting of juvenile crustal material accreted during the Mesoproterozoic. They are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, K, Th, Ba, and U) and light rare-earth elements (REE), and depleted in high-field-strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and P) and heavy REE. Based on these findings and previous studies, we suggest that the Jurassic adakitic granitoids (180-156 Ma) were formed in an active continental margin and compressive tectonic setting, related to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate.

  8. Equatorial seawater temperatures and latitudinal temperature gradients during the Middle to Late Jurassic: the stable isotope record of brachiopods and oysters from Gebel Maghara, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Matthias; Fürsich, Franz T.; Abdelhady, Ahmed A.; Andersen, Nils

    2017-04-01

    The Jurassic climate has traditionally been described as equable, warmer than today, with weak latitudinal temperature gradients, and no polar glaciations. This view changed over the last decades with studies pointing to distinct climate fluctuations and the occasional presence of polar ice caps. Most of these temperature reconstructions are based on stable isotope analyses of fossil shells from Europe. Additional data from other parts of the world is slowly completing the picture. Gebel Maghara in the northern Sinai Peninsula of Egypt exposes a thick Jurassic succession. After a phase of terrestrial sedimentation in the Early Jurassic, marine conditions dominated since the end of the Aalenian. The stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) composition of brachiopod and oyster shells was used to reconstruct seawater temperatures from the Bajocian to the Kimmeridgian at a palaeolatitude of ca. 3°N. Throughout this time interval, temperatures were comparatively constant aorund an average of 25.7°C. Slightly warmer conditions existed in the Early Bathonian ( 27.0°C), while the Kimmeridgian shows the lowest temperatures ( 24.3°C). The seasonality has been reconstructed with the help of high-resolution sampling of two oyster shells and was found to be very low (temperature gradients. During the Middle Jurassic, this gradient was much steeper than previously expected and comparable to today. During the Kimmeridgian, temperatures in Europe were generally warmer leading to weaker latitudinal gradients. Based on currently used estimates for the δ18O value of seawater during the Jurassic, reconstructed water temperatures for localities above the thermocline in Egypt and Europe were mostly lower than Recent sea-surface temperatures. These results improve our understanding of the Jurassic climate and its influence on marine faunal diversity patterns.

  9. 57Fe Mössbauer analysis of the Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic deep-sea chert: Paleo-redox history across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomohiko; Isozaki, Yukio; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Seimiya, Kimiko; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the paleo-redox change across the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary (∼200 Ma) and the Early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE; ∼183 Ma) recorded in the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic pelagic deep-sea cherts in the Inuyama area, Central Japan. The present 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis for these cherts identified five iron species, i.e., hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ), pyrite (FeS 2 ), paramagnetic Fe 3 +  , and two paramagnetic Fe 2 +  with different quadrupole splittings. The occurrence of hematite and pyrite in deep-sea cherts essentially indicates primary oxidizing and reducing depositional conditions, respectively. The results confirmed that oxidizing conditions persisted in deep-sea across the T-J boundary. In contrast, across the T-OAE, deep-sea environment shifted to reducing conditions. The first appearance of the gray pyrite-bearing chert marked the onset of the deep-sea oxygen-depletion in the middle Pliensbachian, i.e., clearly before the shallow-sea T-OAE.

  10. The conchostracan subgenus Orthestheria (Migransia) from the Tacuarembó Formation (Late Jurassic-?Early Cretaceous, Uruguay) with notes on its geological age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanbin, Shen; Gallego, Oscar F.; Martínez, Sergio

    2004-04-01

    Conchostracans from the Tacuarembó Formation s.s. of Uruguay are reassigned to the subgenus Orthestheria (Migransia) Chen and Shen. They show more similarities to genera of Late Jurassic age in the Congo Basin and China than to those of Early Cretaceous age. On the basis of the character of the conchostracans, we suggest that the Tacuarembó Formation is unlikely to be older than Late Jurassic. It is probably Kimmeridgian, but an Early Cretaceous age cannot be excluded. This finding is consistent with isotopic dating of the overlying basalts, as well as the age range of recently described fossil freshwater sharks.

  11. Total petroleum systems of the Paleozoic and Jurassic, Greater Ghawar Uplift and adjoining provinces of central Saudi Arabia and northern Arabian-Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    The greater Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems of the Arabian Peninsula form two of the most prolific petroleum-producing systems in the world. Source rocks of these systems extend throughout the eastern Arabian Peninsula and Arabian-Persian Gulf. Primary elements of these Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems - source, reservoir, and seal rocks - are of great areal extent and exceptional quality. The combination of these regionally extensive, exceptional petroleum-system elements, and the formation of large subtle structural closures prior to, or coincident with, peak oil generation and migration, have produced oil and gas fields with reserve volumes second to none.

  12. A new long-proboscid genus of Pseudopolycentropodidae (Mecoptera from the Middle Jurassic of China and its plant-host specializations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChungKun Shih

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new genus and species of Mecoptera with siphonate mouthparts, Sinopolycentropus rasnitsyni gen. et sp. n., assigned to the family Pseudopolycentropodidae Handlirsch, 1925. The specimen was collected from late middle Jurassic nonmarine strata of the Jiulongshan Formation in Inner Mongolia, northeastern China. The new material provides additional evidence for an early diversification of pseudopolycentropodids that was ongoing during the middle Jurassic. This diversity also adds to the variety of known pseudopolycentropodids with tubular proboscides that apparently fed on ovulate fluids produced by Mesozoic gymnosperms.

  13. Thermal conductivity of crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    Heat transfer through an annular space filled with crushed salt depends primarily on the thermal conductivity, lambda, of the material. This report gives a formula with which lambda can be computed. The formula includes two quantities that can be influenced through screening of the salt smalls: the porosity, psi, and the fraction, alpha, of the more highly resistive heat-flow paths. The report computes and presents graphically the thermal conductivities for various values of psi and alpha. Heat-transfer properties are computed and compared for an annular space filled with crushed salt and for an air gap. The comparison shows that the properties of the annular space are larger only up to a certain temperature, because the properties of the air gap increase exponentially while those f the annular space increase only in an approximately linear way. Experimental results from Project Salt Vault in the U.S. are in good agreement with the calculations performed. Trials in Temperature Experimental Field 2 at the Asse II salt mine will provide an additional check on the calculations. 3 figures, 3 tables

  14. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  15. Swelling behaviour of Early Jurassic shales when exposed to water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Maartje; Barnhoorn, Auke; Peach, Colin; Drury, Martyn

    2017-04-01

    The presence of water in mudrocks has a largely negative impact on production of gas, due to the fact that water causes swelling of the rock. Removing the water from the mudrock on the other hand could potentially shrink the rock and increase the matrix permeability. Investigation of the swelling/shrinkage behaviour of the rock during exposure to water vapour is of key importance in designing and optimizing unconventional production strategies. We have used outcrop samples of the Whitby Mudstone and the Posidonia shale [1], potential unconventional sources for gas in North-western Europe, to measure the swelling and shrinkage behaviour. Subsamples, 1 mm cubes, were prepared by the Glass Workshop at Utrecht University using a high precision digitally controlled diamond wafering saw cooled by air. The mm cubes were then exposed to atmospheres with different relative humidities either in an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) or in a 3D dilatometer. So that the sample responses to exposure of water vapour could be measured. Parallel to the bedding we found a swelling strain between 0.5 and 1.5 %, perpendicular to the bedding though swelling strain varied between 1 and 3.5%. Volumetric swelling strain varied between 1 and 2% at a maximum relative humidity of 95%. Volumetric swelling strains measured in the Early Toarcian Shales are similar to the ones found in coal [2], where the results suggest that it might be possible to increase permeability in the reservoir by decreasing the in-situ water activity due to shrinkage of the matrix. [1] M.E. Houben, A. Barnhoorn, L. Wasch, J. Trabucho-Alexandre, C. J. Peach, M.R. Drury (2016). Microstructures of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) shales of Northern Europe, International Journal of Coal Geology, 165, 76-89. [2] Jinfeng Liu, Colin J. Peach, Christopher J. Spiers (2016). Anisotropic swelling behaviour of coal matrix cubes exposed to water vapour: Effects of relative humidity and sample size, International Journal of

  16. Deep-burial microporosity in upper Jurassic Haynesville oolitic grainstones, East Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravis, Jeffrey J.

    1989-07-01

    Secondary micromoldic porosity generated during deep-burial diagenesis occurs pervasively in Upper Jurassic Haynesville oolitic grainstones in East Texas and constitutes the major pore type in these gas reservoirs. Petrographic and geochemical relationships establish that development of this microporosity postdates emplacement of bitumen and most pressure solution fabrics in the reservoir grainstones. Microporosity development is strictly controlled by depositional texture and is restricted to either active shoal complex grainstones or thicker grainstones shed downramp by storm processes. Haynesville diagenetic and porosity relationships are consistent along the entire length of the east flank of the East Texas Basin, a distance greater than 100 km; identical relationships have also been observed along the west flank of this basin. Haynesville micromoldic porosity development is confined principally to ooids but also occurs in normally "stable" calcitic skeletal grains like oysters. Resultant micropores are a few microns across or less; complete dissolution of ooids to form oomoldic macroporosity is not observed in Haynesville limestones. Nearly all primary porosity in the Haynesville is now occluded by carbonate cement. Confirmation of a late, deep-burial origin for Haynesville secondary microporosity is based on physical relationships observed in numerous cores, regional petrography and geochemical data. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that Haynesville sediments were never locally or regionally exposed to freshwater but have undergone progressive burial diagenesis punctuated by a major late dissolution event which created the microporosity. Key observations which support Haynesville deep-burial microporosity development include: (1) petrographic relationships which demonstrate microporosity developed after emplacement of bitumen; (2) lack of subaerial exposure features in core, both atop shoal complexes and at the contact between the Haynesville and

  17. Macroinvertebrate palaeo-communities from the Jurassic succession of Gebel Maghara (Sinai, Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhady, Ahmed Awad; Fürsich, Franz Theodor

    2014-09-01

    Macrobenthic palaeo-communities of the Middle and Upper Jurassic strata of G. Maghara, Egypt, were investigated to identify relationships with environmental parameters and to trace the temporal changes of the ecosystem associated with sea-level fluctuations. The quantitative analysis of a data matrix comprising 198 macrobenthic taxa in 138 samples collected from four sections identified nine associations and three assemblages, interpreted to be representative of their original environment. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) delineated the same degree of habitat partitioning as hierarchical clusters with very little overlap. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) identified water depth as the primary environmental gradient controlling the distribution of the fauna, while Axis 2 reflects substrate consistency. Community structure is related to the various ramp environments. Based on diversities, the associations and assemblages have been divided into two major groups, low-stress polyspecific associations and high-stress paucispecific associations. The low-stress polyspecific associations were interpreted to represent two different habitats, a high-energy, firm substrate habitat, in which epifaunal bivalves and brachiopods in addition to solitary corals dominated during advanced stages of transgression, and a low-energy, soft substrate habitat dominated by infaunal bivalves during the maximum flooding. The high-stress paucispecific associations are dominated by one or few taxa and occurred (1) in an oligotrophic setting that developed during episodes of sediment starvation in restricted inner ramp environments or during early transgression, (2) in a setting characterized by high sedimentation rates which developed during advanced regression, (3) in a distal prodelta setting with soft substrate and dysoxia during sea-level lowstand, and (4) in a high-energy shoal environment during peak regression. A combined stress involving a shortage in food supply

  18. Razanandrongobe sakalavae, a gigantic mesoeucrocodylian from the Middle Jurassic of Madagascar, is the oldest known notosuchian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Dal Sasso

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Razanandrongobe sakalavae Maganuco, Dal Sasso & Pasini, 2006 is a large predatory archosaur from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian of the Mahajanga Basin, NW Madagascar. It was diagnosed on the basis of teeth and a fragmentary maxilla, but its affinities were uncertain. Here we describe new cranial remains (above all, an almost complete right premaxilla and a caudally incomplete left dentary that greatly improve our knowledge on this enigmatic species and reveal its anatomy to be crocodylomorph. The right premaxilla indicates that the rostrum was deep, wide, and not pointed; it bears five teeth that are sub-vertical and just slightly curved lingually; the mesial teeth are U-shaped in cross-section and have serrated carinae on the lingual side; the aperturae nasi osseae (external bony nares are confluent and face rostrally; and there is no lateral groove at the premaxillomaxillary suture for reception of a hypertrophied lower caniniform tooth. The preserved portion of the left dentary has an edentulous tip and bears eight large mandibular teeth of which the mesial (1–3 are the largest, but none is a hypertrophied caniniform tooth; the mandibular (dentary symphysis extends caudally to the level of the third tooth; the splenial is not preserved, but its sutural marks on the dentary indicate that it contributed to the mandibular symphysis for at least 20% of the symphyseal length in dorsal aspect. On the basis of this new data, some previously uncertain features of the holotype maxilla—such as the margin of the suborbital fenestra, the contact surfaces for the palatine, the ectopterygoid, and the jugal—are now apparent. Testing of the phylogenetic position of the species within Crocodylomorpha indicates that R. sakalavae is a mesoeucrocodylian. It also represents one of the earliest events of exacerbated increase in body size along the evolutionary history of the group. In addition, it is by far the oldest notosuchian. A cranial reconstruction of

  19. Development of a high resolution chemostratigraphy for the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic Newark Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, S.; Olsen, P. E.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    The 6.7 km of continuous core recovered from the paleo-tropical Triassic-Jurassic Newark rift basin during the Newark Basin Coring Project (NBCP) has provided a wealth of data since the conclusion of drilling 25 years ago. These cores comprise the longest ( 30 Myr) continuously-cored record of orbitally-paced environmental change and have informed our understanding in several different areas including tropical climate change, history of CO­2, mass extinctions, the geological time scale, and solar system dynamics. Despite the utility of NBCP cores for these endeavors, a critical missing dataset is a comprehensive characterization of their geochemical variations relevant to paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic interests, largely a consequence of the cost of analyses at an appropriate resolution using conventional techniques. With the advent of new technology permitting the rapid acquisition of reliable geochemical data, such limitations may no longer be an obstacle for constructing a high-resolution chemostratigraphic record for the NBCP. We present the results of a proof-of-concept study using both ICP-MS-calibrated scanning ITRAX XRF and handheld Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) using the SciAps Z-300. We will show elemental abundances at resolutions as high as 500 mm obtained using these methods from correlative sections of the Titusville and Nursery cores (Lockatong Fm.). These sections are sufficiently long to capture orbital variations and include the range of lithologies present throughout the entire section. Our preliminary results are consistent with previous, semi-quantitative means (e.g., depth ranks) of assessing Milankovitch-scale orbital variations and are also consistent with core and hole geophysical data, demonstrating that these methods can acquire meaningful geochemical data from the entire NBCP. With continued work, we aim to provide an objective characterization of orbitally-paced lake level cyclicity using geochemical proxy

  20. Integrated Modeling and Carbonate Reservoir Analysis, Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation, Fishpond Field, Southwest Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Alexander Emory

    This field case study focuses on Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover hydrocarbon reservoir characterization, modeling and evaluation at Fishpond Field, Escambia County, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of North America. The field is located in the Conecuh Embayment area, south of the Little Cedar Creek Field in Conecuh County and east of Appleton Field in Escambia County. In the Conecuh Embayment, Smackover microbial buildups commonly developed on Paleozoic basement paleohighs in an inner to middle carbonate ramp setting. The microbial and associated facies identified in Fishpond Field are: (F-1) peloidal wackestone, (F-2) peloidal packstone, (F-3) peloidal grainstone, (F-4) peloidal grainstone/packstone, (F-5) microbially-influenced wackestone, (F-6) microbially-influenced packstone, (F-7) microbial boundstone, (F-8) oolitic grainstone, (F-9) shale, and (F-10) dolomitized wackestone/packstone. The Smackover section consists of an alternation of carbonate facies, including F-1 through F-8. The repetitive vertical trend in facies indicates variations in depositional conditions in the area as a result of changes in water depth, energy conditions, salinity, and/or water chemistry due to temporal variations or changes in relative sea level. Accommodation for sediment accumulation also was produced by a change in base level due to differential movement of basement rocks as a result of faulting and/or subsidence due to burial compaction and extension. These changes in base level contributed to the development of a microbial buildup that ranges between 130-165 ft in thickness. The Fishpond Field carbonate reservoir includes a lower microbial buildup interval, a middle grainstone/packstone interval and an upper microbial buildup interval. The Fishpond Field has sedimentary and petroleum system characteristics similar to the neighboring Appleton and Little Cedar Creek Fields, but also has distinct differences from these Smackover fields. The characteristics of the

  1. Facies analysis of an Upper Jurassic carbonate platform for geothermal reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hartmann, Hartwig; Buness, Hermann; Dussel, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Upper Jurassic Carbonate platform in Southern Germany is an important aquifer for the production of geothermal energy. Several successful projects were realized during the last years. 3D-seismic surveying has been established as a standard method for reservoir analysis and the definition of well paths. A project funded by the federal ministry of economic affairs and energy (BMWi) started in 2015 is a milestone for an exclusively regenerative heat energy supply of Munich. A 3D-seismic survey of 170 square kilometer was acquired and a scientific program was established to analyze the facies distribution within the area (http://www.liag-hannover.de/en/fsp/ge/geoparamol.html). Targets are primarily fault zones where one expect higher flow rates than within the undisturbed carbonate sediments. However, since a dense net of geothermal plants and wells will not always find appropriate fault areas, the reservoir properties should be analyzed in more detail, e.g. changing the viewpoint to karst features and facies distribution. Actual facies interpretation concepts are based on the alternation of massif and layered carbonates. Because of successive erosion of the ancient land surfaces, the interpretation of reefs, being an important target, is often difficult. We found that seismic sequence stratigraphy can explain the distribution of seismic pattern and improves the analysis of different facies. We supported this method by applying wavelet transformation of seismic data. The splitting of the seismic signal into successive parts of different bandwidths, especially the frequency content of the seismic signal, changed by tuning or dispersion, is extracted. The combination of different frequencies reveals a partition of the platform laterally as well as vertically. A cluster analysis of the wavelet coefficients further improves this picture. The interpretation shows a division into ramp, inner platform and trough, which were shifted locally and overprinted in time by other

  2. Depositional environments of the Jurassic Maghara main coal seam in north central Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edress, Nader Ahmed Ahmed; Opluštil, Stanislav; Sýkorová, Ivana

    2018-04-01

    Twenty-eight channel samples with a cumulative thickness of about 4 m collected from three sections of the Maghara main coal seam in the middle Jurassic Safa Formation have been studied for their lithotype and maceral compositions to reconstruct the character of peat swamp, its hydrological regime and the predominating type of vegetation. Lithotype composition is a combination of dully lithotypes with duroclarain (19% of total cumulative thickness), clarodurain (15%), black durain (15%), and shaly coal (15%) and bright lithotypes represented by clarain (23%), vitrain (12%) and a small proportion of wild fire-generated fusain (1%). Maceral analyses revealed the dominance of vitrinite (70.6% on average), followed by liptinite (25.2%) and inertinite (8.1%). Mineral matter content is ∼9% on average and consists of clay, quartz and pyrite concentrate mostly at the base and the roof of the seam. Dominantly vitrinite composition of coal and extremely low fire- and oxidation-borne inertinite content, together with high Gelification Indices imply predomination of waterlogged anoxic conditions in the precursing mire with water tables mostly above the peat surface throughout most of the time during peat swamp formation. Increases in collotelinite contents and Tissue Preservation Index up the section, followed by a reversal trend in upper third of the coal section, further accompanied by a reversal trend in collodetrinite, liptodetrinite, alginite, sporinite and clay contents records a transition from dominately limnotelmatic and limnic at the lower part to dominately limnotelmatic with increase telmatic condition achieved in the middle part of coal. At the upper part of coal seam an opposite trend marks the return to limnic and limnotelmatic conditions in the final phases of peat swamp history and its subsequent inundation. The proportion of arborescent (mostly coniferous) and herbaceous vegetation varied throughout the section of the coal with tendency of increasing

  3. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation, Colorado Plateau, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Diego Ignacio

    2001-07-01

    Detailed outcrop analysis of the Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation provides the basis for the formulation of a new sequence stratigraphic model for arid to semi-arid continental deposits and the generation of a comprehensive set of sedimentologic criteria for the recognition of ephemeral stream deposits. Criteria for the recognition of ephemeral deposits in the ancient record were divided into three categories according to the scale of the feature being considered. The first category takes into account sedimentary structures commonly found in the record of ephemeral stream deposits including hyperconcentrated and debris flow deposits, planar parallel bedding, sigmoidal cross-bedding, hummocky cross-bedding, climbing ripple lamination, scour-and-fill structures, convolute bedding, overturned cross-bedding, ball-and-pillow structures, pocket structures, pillars, mud curls, flaser lamination, algal lamination, termite nests, and vertebrate tracks. The second category is concerned with the mesoscale facies architecture of ephemeral stream deposits and includes waning flow successions, bedform climb, downstream accretion, terminal wadi splays, and channel-fill successions indicating catastrophic flooding. At the large-scale facies architecture level, the third category, ephemeral stream deposits are commonly arranged in depositional units characterized by a downstream decrease in grain size and scale of sedimentary structures resulting from deposition in terminal fan systems. Outcrops of the Kayenta Formation and its transition to the Navajo Sandstone along the Vermilion and Echo Cliffs of Northern Arizona indicate that wet/dry climatic cyclicity exerted a major control on regional facies architecture. Two scales of wet/dry climatic cyclicity can be recognized in northern Arizona. Three sequence sets composed of rocks accumulated under predominantly dry or wet conditions are the expression of long-term climatic cyclicity. Short-term climatic cyclicity, on the other hand

  4. Dinosaur ichnofauna of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous of the Paraná Basin (Brazil and Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischini, H.; Dentzien–Dias, P. C.; Fernandes, M. A.; Schultz, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary layers are represented in the Brazilian Paraná Basin by the fluvio-aeolian Guará Formation and the Botucatu Formation palaeoerg, respectively, overlapped by the volcanic Serra Geral Formation. In Uruguay, the corresponding sedimentary units are named Batoví and Rivera Members (both from the Tacuarembó Formation), and the lava flows constitute the Arapey Formation (also in Paraná Basin). Despite the lack of body fossils in the mentioned Brazilian formations, Guará/Batoví dinosaur fauna is composed of theropod, ornithopod and wide-gauge sauropod tracks and isolated footprints, as well as theropod teeth. In turn, the Botucatu/Rivera dinosaur fauna is represented by theropod and ornithopod ichnofossils smaller than those from the underlying units. The analysis of these dinosaur ichnological records and comparisons with other global Mesozoic ichnofauna indicates that there is a size reduction in dinosaur fauna in the more arid Botucatu/Rivera environment, which is dominated by aeolian dunes. The absence of sauropod trackways in the Botucatu Sandstone fits with the increasingly arid conditions because it is difficult for heavy animals to walk on sandy dunes, as well as to obtain the required amount of food resources. This comparison between the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous dinosaur fauna in south Brazil and Uruguay demonstrates the influence of aridization on the size of animals occupying each habitat.

  5. Calpionellid distribution and microfacies across the Jurassic/ Cretaceous boundary in western Cuba (Sierra de los Órganos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Rafael; Barragán, Ricardo; Reháková, Daniela; Cobiella-Reguera, Jorge Luis

    2013-06-01

    A detailed bed-by-bed sampled stratigraphic section of the Guasasa Formation in the Rancho San Vicente area of the "Sierra de los Órganos", western Cuba, provides well-supported evidence about facies and calpionellid distribution across the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. These new data allowed the definition of an updated and sound calpionellid biozonation scheme for the section. In this scheme, the drowning event of a carbonate platform displayed by the facies of the San Vicente Member, the lowermost unit of the section, is dated as Late Tithonian, Boneti Subzone. The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary was recognized within the facies of the overlying El Americano Member on the basis of the acme of Calpionella alpina Lorenz. The boundary is placed nearly six meters above the contact between the San Vicente and the El Americano Members, in a facies linked to a sea-level drop. The recorded calpionellid bioevents should allow correlations of the Cuban biozonation scheme herein proposed, with other previously published schemes from distant areas of the Tethyan Domain.

  6. A unique fossil record from neptunian sills: the world's most extreme example of stratigraphic condensation (Jurassic, western Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Jobst

    2017-06-01

    Neptunian sills at Rocca Busambra, a fragment of the Trapanese/Saccense Domain in western Sicily, host the most abundant ammonite and gastropod fauna which has ever been recorded from the Jurassic of the western Tethys. The fauna is dominated by parautochthonous organisms which were swept into the sills by gentle transport. Ammonites are characterized by perfect preservation and small size, a feature which is due to the predominance of microconchs but also of stunting. The most complete sill is 0.7 m thick and could be separated into 17 levels which range in age from the early Toarcian into the late Kimmeridgian, thus representing the most extreme case of palaeontologically and depositionally documented stratigraphic condensation in Earth history. The unique feature of the Rocca Busambra sills is due to the interaction of three processes: extreme stratigraphic condensation on the sea floor, weak tectonic fracturing of the host rock and repeated reopening on top of already existing sills. Contrasting percentages of gastropods in individual levels reflect sea-level oscillations which correspond to long known low- and highstands during the Jurassic of the western Tethys. Comparisons with other ammonite-bearing sill faunas reveal several similarities, but represent only short-timed phases of tectonic pulses and deposition.

  7. CARBONATE FACIES ZONATION OF THE UPPER JURASSIC-LOWER CRETACEOUS APULIA PLATFORM MARGIN (GARGANO PROMONTORY, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELE MORSILLI

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Apulia platform margin and the transition to adjacent basinal deposits (inner platform to basin are well exposed in the Gargano Promontory. Detailed field work has allowed to recognize eight main facies associations which reflect various depositional environments, and which document a differentiated zonation, from the inner platform to the basin. A shallow lagoon existed in the internal part of the Gargano Promontory with a transition to tidal flat areas (F1. Oolitic shoals (F2 bordered this internal peritidal area passing seaward to a reef-flat with abundant corals (F3. A reef-front, associated with a coral rubble zone, has been found in some areas (F4. In the external margin zone, massive wackestones with Ellipsactinia occur (F5 and pass gradually to a rudstone facies on the proximal slope (F6. The base-of-slope facies association consists of pelagic sediments interbedded with gravity-displaced deposits (F7 and F8. The depositional profile of the Apulia Platform is typical of the Tethyan Jurassic-Early Cretaceous platforms, with slope declivities in the order of 25°-28°. The remarkable progradation of the platform in the northern tract of the Gargano (Lesina and Varano lakes area and its substantial stability east- and southwards (Mattinata area suggest a possible windward position of the margin in this latter portion and, in contrast, a leeward position of the northern portion.   

  8. Thermochronological Record of a Jurassic Heating-Cooling Cycle Within a Distal Rifted Margin (Calizzano Massif, Ligurian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, S.; Decarlis, A.; Fellin, M. G.; Maino, M.; Beltrando, M.; Ferrando, S.; Manatschal, G.; Gaggero, L.; Stuart, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyse, through thermochronological investigations, the thermal evolution of a fossil distal margin owing to the Alpine Tethys rifting system. The studied distal margin section consists of a polymetamorphic basement (Calizzano basement) and of a well-developed Mesozoic sedimentary cover (Case Tuberto unit) of the Ligurian Alps (NW Italy). The incomplete reset of zircon (U-Th)/He ages and the non-reset of the zircon fission track ages during the Alpine metamorphism indicate that during the subduction and the orogenic stages these rocks were subjected to temperatures lower than 200 ºC. Thus, the Alpine metamorphic overprint occurred during a short-lived, low temperature pulse. The lack of a pervasive orogenic reset, allowed the preservation of an older heating-cooling event that occurred during Alpine Tethys rifting. Zircon fission-track data indicate, in fact, that the Calizzano basement records a cooling under 240 °C, at 156 Ma (early Upper Jurassic). This cooling followed a Middle Jurassic syn-rift heating at temperatures of about 300-350°C, typical of greenschist facies conditions occurred at few kilometres depth, as indicated by stratigraphic and petrologic constraints. Thus, in our interpretation, major crustal thinning likely promoted high geothermal gradients ( 60-90°C/km) triggering the circulation of hot, deep-seated fluids along brittle faults, causing the observed thermal anomaly at shallow crustal level.

  9. Long bone histology of the stem salamander Kokartus honorarius (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutschas, Pavel; Stein, Koen

    2015-04-01

    Kokartus honorarius from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Kyrgyzstan is one of the oldest salamanders in the fossil record, characterized by a mixture of plesiomorphic morphological features and characters shared with crown-group salamanders. Here we present a detailed histological analysis of its long bones. The analysis of a growth series demonstrates a significant histological maturation during ontogeny, expressed by the progressive appearance of longitudinally oriented primary vascular canals, primary osteons, growth marks, remodelling features in primary bone tissues, as well as progressive resorption of the calcified cartilage, formation of endochondral bone and development of cartilaginous to bony trabeculae in the epiphyses. Apart from the presence of secondary osteons, the long bone histology of Kokartus is very similar to that of miniaturized temnospondyls, other Jurassic stem salamanders, miniaturized seymouriamorphs and modern crown-group salamanders. We propose that the presence of secondary osteons in Kokartus honorarius is a plesiomorphic feature, and the loss of secondary osteons in the long bones of crown-group salamanders as well as in those of miniaturized temnospondyls is the result of miniaturization processes. Hitherto, all stem salamander long bong histology (Kokartus, Marmorerpeton and 'salamander A') has been generally described as having paedomorphic features (i.e. the presence of Katschenko's Line and a layer of calcified cartilage), these taxa were thus most likely neotenic forms. The absence of clear lines of arrested growth and annuli in long bones of Kokartus honorarius suggests that the animals lived in an environment with stable local conditions. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  10. Sedimentology of the Early Jurassic terrestrial Steierdorf Formation in Anina, Colonia Cehă Quarry, South Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędzior, Artur; Popa, Mihai E.

    2013-06-01

    Kędzior, A. and Popa, E.M. 2013. Sedimentology of the Early Jurassic terrestrial Steierdorf Formation in Anina, Colonia Cehă Quarry, South Carpathians, Romania. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 175-199. Warszawa. The continental, coal bearing Steierdorf Formation, Hettangian - Sinemurian in age, is included in the Mesozoic cover of the Reşiţa Basin, Getic Nappe, South Carpathians, Romania. The Steierdorf Formation can be studied in Anina, a coal mining center and an exceptional locality for Early Jurassic flora and fauna, occurring in the middle of the Reşiţa Basin. This paper presents the results of sedimentological, stratigraphical and paleobotanical researches undertaken in Colonia Cehă open cast mine in Anina, where the Steierdorf Formation outcrops widely. Several sedimentary facies associations have been described, these associations permitting the reconstruction of various depositional systems such as alluvial fans, braided and meandering river systems, as well as lacustrine and coal generating marsh systems of the Steierdorf Formation. The sedimentary associations recorded within the Steierdorf Formation show a gradual fining upward trend, pointing to a rising marine water table and a decreasing relief within the source area.

  11. Salt site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  12. Field experiments in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1986-01-01

    Field experiments in salt formations started as early as 1965 with Project Salt Vault in the Lyons Mine, Kansas, U.S.A., and with the purchase of the Asse salt mine by the German Federal Government. Underground tests concentrated on the heat dissipation around buried high-level radioactive wastes and the geomechanical consequences of their disposal. Near-field investigations cover the properties of water and gas release, radiolysis and corrosion. Further objectives of field experiments are the development and underground testing of a handling system for high-level wastes. The performance of an underground test disposal for such wastes is not only considered to be necessary for technical and scientific reasons but also for improving public acceptance of the concept of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  13. The molten salt reactor adventure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    A personal history of the development of molten salt reactors in the United States is presented. The initial goal was an aircraft propulsion reactor, and a molten fluoride-fueled Aircraft Reactor Experiment was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1954. In 1956, the objective shifted to civilian nuclear power, and reactor concepts were developed using a circulating UF 4 -ThF 4 fuel, graphite moderator, and Hastelloy N pressure boundary. The program culminated in the successful operation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment in 1965 to 1969. By then the Atomic Energy Commission's goals had shifted to breeder development; the molten salt program supported on-site reprocessing development and study of various reactor arrangements that had potential to breed. Some commercial and foreign interest contributed to the program which, however, was terminated by the government in 1976. The current status of the technology and prospects for revived interest are summarized

  14. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures

  15. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME...

  16. The last frontier? High-resolution, near-bottom measurements of the Hawaiian Jurassic magnetic anomaly sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivey, M.; Tominaga, M.; Sager, W. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Jurassic sequence of marine magnetic anomalies i.e. older than M29 remain the last part of the marine magnetic anomaly sequence of the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS) that can be gleaned from the ocean crustal record. While Jurassic crust is present in several areas of the world's ocean basins, the oldest and arguably best preserved sequence is in the western Pacific where three lineations sets (Japanese, Hawaiian and Phoenix) converge on the oldest remaining ocean crust on the planet (i.e. crust that has not been subducted). The magnetic anomalies in these 3 lineation sets are marked by low amplitude, relatively indistinct anomalies (tiny wiggles) that collectively have been called the Jurassic quiet Zone (JQZ). Over the past 20 years we have been working on resolving the character and origin of these anomalies with various technologies to improve our resolution of this period. Following an aeromagnetic survey that revealed the possible presence of lineated anomalies older than M29 in the Japanese lineations, we conducted a deeptow magnetometer survey of the Japanese sequence in 1992. In 2002/03 we extended and confirmed this deeptow record with a deeptowed sidescan and magnetometer survey of the Japanese lineation sequence by tying in ODP Hole 801C and extending the anomaly sequence between M29 and M44. These surveys reveal remarkably fast reversals that are lineated and decrease in intensity back in time until M38, prior to which the sequence becomes somewhat confused (the LAZ or low amplitude zone) before recovering in both amplitude and lineated character around Hole 801C (M42). These results are partially supported by recently reported terrestrial magnetostratigraphy records that show the existence of reversals back to M38. A Jurassic GPTS was constructed from this Japanese anomaly sequence, but the overall global significance of the reversal sequence and systematic field intensity changes require confirmation from crustal records created at

  17. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior which can be used effectively to reduce the amount of development required for future systems, some significant molten salt chemical questions must still be addressed. copyright American Institute of Physics 1995

  18. Salted, dried and smoked fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, E.; Riley, F.R.; Vermaak, K.; Venn, C.

    1986-01-01

    Heat resistance tests were carried out using a heat resistant strain of red halophiles isolated from a commercial salt and comparing this with three known species, i.e. Halobacterium halobium, H. salinarum and H. antirubrum. These four halophic strains were used to prepare artificially infected salts which were then subjected to three different forms of heat treatment: heat-treatment in oil bath, microwave heating and gamma radiation. The conclusion was made that gamma radiation appears to be less effective than microwave heating at the levels tested

  19. Simulation of salt production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraveva, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper an approach to the use of simulation software iThink to simulate the salt production system has been proposed. The dynamic processes of the original system are substituted by processes simulated in the abstract model, but in compliance with the basic rules of the original system, which allows one to accelerate and reduce the cost of the research. As a result, a stable workable simulation model was obtained that can display the rate of the salt exhaustion and many other parameters which are important for business planning.

  20. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Sodium intake measured as 24-hour urinary sodium is increased in subjects with hypertension attesting to sodium intake as a risk factor for the development of high blood pressure. Subjects with high salt taste threshold also have increased urinary sodium excretion which may predispose them to deveploment ...

  1. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  2. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  3. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: salt selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Huang, V.S.

    1976-08-01

    A research program aimed at the development of a molten salt thermal energy storage system commenced in June 1976. This topical report describes Work performed under Task I: Salt Selection is described. A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000/sup 0/F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. We concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show high thermal conductivity, low volumetric expansion on melting, low corrosivity and good stability, they are attractive as heat-of-fusion storage materials in this temperature range. A 35 wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (50 mole percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-50 mole percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mixture was selected as a model system for further experimental work. This is a eutectoid mixture having a heat of fusion of 148 Btu/lb (82 cal/g) that forms an equimolar compound, LiKCO/sub 3/. The Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture is intended to serve as a model system to define heat transfer characteristics, potential problems, and to provide ''first-cut'' engineering data required for the prototype system. The cost of a thermal energy storage system containing this mixture cannot be predicted until system characteristics are better defined. However, our comparison of different salts indicated that alkali and alkaline earth chlorides may be more attractive from a salt cost point of view. The long-term corrosion characteristics and the effects of volume change on melting for the chlorides should be investigated to determine their overall suitability as a heat-of-fusion storage medium.

  4. Palaeoecology and depositional environments of the Tendaguru Beds (Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aberhan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Tendaguru Beds (Tanzania, East Africa have been well known for nearly a century for their diverse dinosaur assemblages. Here, we present sedimentological and palaeontological data collected by the German-Tanzanian Tendaguru Expedition 2000 in an attempt to reconstruct the palaeo-ecosystems of the Tendaguru Beds at their type locality. Our reconstructions are based on sedimentological data and on a palaeoecological analysis of macroinvertebrates, microvertebrates, plant fossils and microfossils (ostracods, foraminifera, charophytes, palynomorphs. In addition, we included data from previous expeditions, particularly those on the dinosaur assemblages. The environmental model of the Tendaguru Beds presented herein comprises three broad palaeoenvironmental units in a marginal marine setting: (1 Lagoon-like, shallow marine environments above fair weather wave base and with evidence of tides and storms. These formed behind barriers such as ooid bar and siliciclastic sand bar complexes and were generally subject to minor salinity fluctuations. (2 Extended tidal flats and low-relief coastal plains. These include low-energy, brackish coastal lakes and ponds as well as pools and small fluvial channels of coastal plains in which the large dinosaurs were buried. Since these environments apparently were, at best, poorly vegetated, the main feeding grounds of giant sauropods must have been elsewhere. Presumably, tidal flats and coastal plains were visited by dinosaurs primarily during periods of drought. (3 Vegetated hinterland. Vegetation of this environment can only be inferred indirectly from plant material transported into the other depositional environments. Vegetation was dominated by a diverse conifer flora, which apparently formed part of the food source of large herbivorous sauropods. Evidence from various sources suggests a subtropical to tropical palaeoclimate, characterised by seasonal rainfall alternating with

  5. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  6. Association constants of telluronium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, N.A.; Rivkin, B.B.; Sadekov, T.D.; Shvajka, O.P.

    1996-01-01

    Association constants in acetonitrile of triphenyl telluronium salts, which are dilute electrolytes, are determined through the conductometry method. Satisfactory correlation dependence of constants of interion association and threshold molar electroconductivity on the Litvinenko-Popov constants for depositing groups is identified. 6 refs

  7. Properties of organic salt superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whangbo, M.H.; Jung, D.; Evain, M.; Williams, J.M.; Beno, M.A.; Schultz, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Structural and electronic properties of the β- and κ-phase superconducting salts of organic donor molecules are compared. Importance of donor... donor and donor...anion interactions involving the C-H bonds in setting the lattice softness, the electron-phonon coupling constant, and the superconducting transitions temperature are discussed

  8. Salt decontamination demonstration test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, E.B.; Heng, C.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Salt Decontamination Demonstration confirmed that the precipitation process could be used for large-scale decontamination of radioactive waste sale solution. Although a number of refinements are necessary to safely process the long-term requirement of 5 million gallons of waste salt solution per year, there were no observations to suggest that any fundamentals of the process require re-evaluation. Major accomplishments were: (1) 518,000 gallons of decontaminated filtrate were produced from 427,000 gallons of waste salt solution from tank 24H. The demonstration goal was to produce a minimum of 200,000 gallons of decontaminated salt solution; (2) cesium activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 43,000 below the cesium activity in the tank 24 solution. This decontamination factor (DF) exceeded the demonstration goal of a DF greater than 10,000; (3) average strontium-90 activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 26 to less than 10 3 d/m/ml versus a goal of less than 10 4 d/m/ml; and (4) the concentrated precipitate was washed to a final sodium ion concentration of 0.15 M, well below the 0.225 M upper limit for DWPF feed. These accomplishments were achieved on schedule and without incident. Total radiation exposure to personnel was less than 350 mrem and resulted primarily from sampling precipitate slurry inside tank 48. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  9. thermic oil and molten salt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A

    1 mai 2016 ... [27] Zavoico, AB. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document. Tech. rep, Sandia National. Laboratories, SAND2001-2100, 2001. How to cite this article: Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A. Performance simulation of parabolic trough solar collector using two fluids (thermic oil and molten salt).

  10. Total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province, Tunisia, Libya, Italy, and Malta; the Bou Dabbous, Tertiary and Jurassic-Cretaceous composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province (2048) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Pelagian Province is located mainly in eastern Tunisia and northwestern Libya. Small portions of the province extend into Malta and offshore Italy. Although several petroleum systems may exist, only two ?composite? total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system comprises a single assessment unit. These total petroleum systems are called the Bou Dabbous?Tertiary and Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite, named after the source-rock intervals and reservoir-rock ages. The main source rocks include mudstone of the Eocene Bou Dabbous Formation; Cretaceous Bahloul, Lower Fahdene, and M?Cherga Formations; and Jurassic Nara Formation. Known reservoirs are in carbonate rocks and sandstone intervals throughout the Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary sections. Traps for known accumulations include fault blocks, low-amplitude anticlines, high-amplitude anticlines associated with reverse faults, wrench fault structures, and stratigraphic traps. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province are as follows: [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids] Total Petroleum System MMBO BCFG MMBNGL Bou Dabbous?Tertiary 667 2,746 64 Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite 403 2,280 27

  11. New insights into the Middle Jurassic floras of Sardinia (Italy) : the Miccolis Collection at the Museo di Storia Naturale of Venice, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanu, Giovanni G.; Kustatscher, E.; Pittau, Paola; van Konijnenburg - van Cittert, J.H.A.

    2016-01-01

    The fossil plants of the Domenico Miccolis Collection, stored at the Museo di Storia Naturale of Venice (Italy), are from the Middle Jurassic Genna Selole Formation of central Sardinia. The assemblage contains 11 taxa: Marattia intermedia, Phlebopteris muensteri, P. braunii, Coniopteris sp. cf. C.

  12. Preservation of carbohydrates through sulfurization in a Jurassic euxinic shelf sea: Examination of the Blackstone Band TOC-cycle in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, B.E. van; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    A complete total organic carbon (TOC) cycle in the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF) comprising the extremely TOC-rich (34%) Blackstone Band was studied to investigate the controlling factors on TOC accumulation. Compared with the under- and overlying strata, TOC in the Blackstone

  13. Telling Apart Ornithopod and Theropod Trackways : A Closer Look at a Large, Late Jurassic Tridactyl Dinosaur Trackway at Serwah, Republic of Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    A large bipedal tridactyl dinosaur trackway from the Late Jurassic of Serwah, near Madar, Arhab district, Republic of Yemen, has been attributed to an ornithopod trackmaker. As the distinction between theropod and ornithopod dinosaurs can pose a challenge, we present additional data to support and

  14. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  15. High temperature salting of fish mince

    OpenAIRE

    Talabi, S.O.; Sorinmade, S.O.; Nwanekezie, R.U.; Aliu, A.

    1986-01-01

    Freshly caught miscellaneous fish were transported to the laboratory, gutted and washed before mechanical separation into bone and mince. Seven batches of the mince were then treated with seven different concentrations (Wt/Wt) of sodium chloride before cooking. The cooked mince was divided into two groups, pressed and unpressed. Percentage residual salt of the salted cooked mince, cooked water and salted pressed mince was determined. Also, the moisture content of the salted cooked mince and s...

  16. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  17. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Francis D.; Gadbury, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  18. Serpentinization and fluid-rock interaction in Jurassic mafic and ultramafic sea-floor: constraints from Ligurian ophiolite sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Monica; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Boschi, Chiara; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.

    2014-05-01

    The Bracco-Levanto ophiolitic complex (Eastern Liguria) represents one of the largest and better-exposed ophiolitic successions in the Northern Apennines. It is considered to be a fragment of heterogeneous Jurassic lithosphere that records tectono-magmatic and alteration histories similar to those documented along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, such as at the 15°20'N area and the Atlantis Massif at 30°N. Structural and petrological studies on these rocks provide constraints on metamorphic/deformation processes during formation and hydrothermal alteration of the Jurassic oceanic lithosphere. We present a petrological and geochemical study of deformation processes and fluid-rock interaction in the Bracco-Levanto ophiolitic complex and compare these to modern oceanic hydrothermal systems, such as the Lost City Hydrothermal Field hosted in ultramafic rocks on the Atlantis Massif. A focus is on investigating mass transfer and fluid flow paths during high and low temperature hydrothermal activity, and on processes leading to hydrothermal carbonate precipitation and the formation of ophicalcites, which are characteristic of the Bracco-Levanto sequences. Major element and mineral compositional data allow us to distinguish a multiphase history of alteration characterized by: (1) widespread SiO2 metasomatism during progressive serpentinization, and (2) multiple phases of veining and carbonate precipitation associated with circulation of seawater and high fluid-rock ratios in the shallow ultramafic-dominated portions of the Jurassic seafloor. We observe regional variations in MgO, SiO2 and Al2O3, suggesting Si-flux towards stratigraphically higher units. In general, the ophicalcites have higher Si, Al and Fe concentrations and lower Mg than the serpentinite basement rocks or serpentinites with minimal carbonate veins. Bulk rock trace element data and Sr isotope ratios indicate seawater reacting with rocks of more mafic composition, then channeled towards stratigraphically higher

  19. Petrogenesis of the middle Jurassic appinite and coeval granitoids in the Eastern Hebei area of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenbo; Jiang, Neng; Xu, Xiyang; Hu, Jun; Zong, Keqing

    2017-05-01

    An integrated study of zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopic compositions, whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry was conducted on three lithologically diverse middle Jurassic plutons from the Eastern Hebei area of the North China Craton (NCC), in order to reveal both their petrogenesis and possible tectonic affinity. The three plutons have consistent magmatic zircon U-Pb ages from 167 ± 1 Ma to 173 ± 1 Ma. The Nianziyu pluton has typical characteristics of appinite with low SiO2 (43.7-52.6%), high Ca, Mg, Fe and H2O contents. It possesses subduction-related trace element patterns, enriched Nd-Hf isotopic signatures as well as elevated zircon δ18O values (6.2-7.2‰), arguing for an enriched mantle source metasomatized by fluids related to subduction. The Shuihutong monzogranites have high silica (SiO2 = 75.4-75.9%) and alkali contents, low Ca contents and striking negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies. Samples from the pluton have more evolved Nd-Hf isotopic values and are considered to be most likely derived from anatexis of ancient lower continental crust. Hybridization between mantle- and ancient lower crust-derived magmas is proposed for the mafic microgranular enclave-bearing Baijiadian granitoids, which are characterized by variable εNd (t) and εHf(t) values. Integrated with the regional geologic history, we suggest that the formation of the three middle Jurassic plutons were related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific ocean plate beneath the NCC. Their petrogenetic differences reflect complex magmatic processes in subduction settings involving melting of multiple sources, possible partly facilitated by fluid metasomatism and water-rich magma injection, accompanied with various degrees of magma mixing. The appearance of middle Jurassic appinitic rocks leads us to propose that the NCC destruction and lithosphere thinning were facilitated and controlled by the weakening of the lithospheric mantle after hydration because of the subduction of the

  20. New Insights into the Provenance of the Southern Junggar Basin in the Jurassic from Heavy Mineral Analysis and Sedimentary Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T. Q.; Wu, C.; Zhu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Being a vital component of foreland basin of Central-western China, Southern Junggar Basin has observed solid evidences of oil and gas in recent years without a considerable advancement. The key reason behind this is the lack of systematic study on sedimentary provenance analysis of the Southern Junggar basin. Three parts of the Southern Junggar basin, including the western segment (Sikeshu Sag), the central segment (Qigu Fault-Fold Belt) and the eastern segment (Fukang Fault Zone), possess varied provenance systems, giving rise to difficulties for oil-gas exploration. In this study, 3468 heavy minerals data as well as the sedimentary environment analysis of 10 profiles and 7 boreholes were used to investigate the provenances of the deposits in the southern Junggar basin . Based on this research, it reveals that: Sikeshu sag initially shaped the foreland basin prototype in the Triassic and its provenance area of the sediments from the Sikeshu sag has primarily been situated in zhongguai uplift-chepaizi uplift depositional systems located in the northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin. From the early Jurassic, the key sources were likely to be late Carboniferous to early Permain post-collisional volcanic rocks from the North Tian Shan block to Centrao Tian Shan. In the Xishanyao formation, Abundant lithic metamorphic, epidote and garnet that suggests the source rocks were possibly late Carboniferous subduction-related arc volcanic rocks of the Central Tian Shan. In the Toutunhe formation, Bogda Mountains began uplifting and gradually becoming the major provenance. Moreover, the sedimentary boundaries of Junggar basin have also shifted towards the North Tian Shan again. In the late Jurassic, the conglomerates of the Kalazha formation directly overlie the fine-grained red beds of Qigu formation, which throw light on the rapid tectonic uplift of the North Tian Shan. In the eastern segment, meandering river delta and shore-lacustrine environments were fully developed

  1. A remarkable new family of Jurassic insects (Neuroptera with primitive wing venation and its phylogenetic position in Neuropterida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lacewings (insect order Neuroptera, known in the fossil record since the Early Permian, were most diverse in the Mesozoic. A dramatic variety of forms ranged in that time from large butterfly-like Kalligrammatidae to minute two-winged Dipteromantispidae. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the intriguing new neuropteran family Parakseneuridae fam. nov. with three new genera and 15 new species from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou (Inner Mongolia, China and the Early/Middle Jurassic of Sai-Sagul (Kyrgyzstan: Parakseneura undula gen. et sp. nov., P. albomacula gen. et sp. nov., P. curvivenis gen. et sp. nov., P. nigromacula gen. et sp. nov., P. nigrolinea gen. et sp. nov., P. albadelta gen. et sp. nov., P. cavomaculata gen. et sp. nov., P. inflata gen. et sp. nov., P. metallica gen. et sp. nov., P. emarginata gen. et sp. nov., P. directa gen. et sp. nov., Pseudorapisma jurassicum gen. et sp. nov., P. angustipenne gen. et sp. nov., P. maculatum gen. et sp. nov. (Daohugou; Shuraboneura ovata gen. et sp. nov. (Sai-Sagul. The family comprises large neuropterans with most primitive wing venation in the order indicated by the presence of ScA and AA1+2, and the dichotomous branching of MP, CuA, CuP, AA3+4, AP1+2. The phylogenetic position of Parakseneuridae was investigated using a phylogenetic analysis of morphological scoring for 33 families of extinct and extant Neuropterida combined with DNA sequence data for representatives of all extant families. Parakseneuridae were recovered in a clade with Osmylopsychopidae, Prohemerobiidae, and Ithonidae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of the presumed AA1+2 in wings of Parakseneuridae is a unique plesiomorphic condition hitherto unknown in Neuropterida, the clade comprising Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera. The relative uncertainty of phylogenetic position of Parakseneuridae and the majority of other families of Neuroptera reflects deficient paleontological data, especially from critical

  2. Magmatic-dominated fluid evolution in the Jurassic Nambija gold skarn deposits (southeastern Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Jean; Fontboté, Lluís; Chiaradia, Massimo; Markowski, Agnès; Schmidt, Susanne; Vennemann, Torsten

    2009-05-01

    The Jurassic (approximately 145 Ma) Nambija oxidized gold skarns are hosted by the Triassic volcanosedimentary Piuntza unit in the sub-Andean zone of southeastern Ecuador. The skarns consist dominantly of granditic garnet (Ad20-98) with subordinate pyroxene (Di46-92Hd17-42Jo0-19) and epidote and are spatially associated with porphyritic quartz-diorite to granodiorite intrusions. Endoskarn is developed at the intrusion margins and grades inwards into a potassic alteration zone. Exoskarn has an outer K- and Na-enriched zone in the volcanosedimentary unit. Gold mineralization is associated with the weakly developed retrograde alteration of the exoskarn and occurs mainly in sulfide-poor vugs and milky quartz veins and veinlets in association with hematite. Fluid inclusion data for the main part of the prograde stage indicate the coexistence of high-temperature (500°C to >600°C), high-salinity (up to 65 wt.% eq. NaCl), and moderate- to low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluids interpreted to have been trapped at pressures around 100-120 MPa, corresponding to about 4-km depth. Lower-temperature (510-300°C) and moderate- to low-salinity (23-2 wt.% eq. NaCl) aqueous fluids are recorded in garnet and epidote of the end of the prograde stage. The microthermometric data (Th from 513°C to 318°C and salinity from 1.0 to 23 wt.% eq. NaCl) and δ18O values between 6.2‰ and 11.5‰ for gold-bearing milky quartz from the retrograde stage suggest that the ore-forming fluid was dominantly magmatic. Pressures during the early retrograde stage were in the range of 50-100 MPa, in line with the evidence for CO2 effervescence and probable local boiling. The dominance of magmatic low-saline to moderately saline oxidizing fluids during the retrograde stage is consistent with the depth of the skarn system, which could have delayed the ingression of external fluids until relatively low temperatures were reached. The resulting low water-to-rock ratios explain the weak retrograde alteration

  3. Salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions of methylcellulose in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Wang, C; Tam, K C; Li, L

    2004-02-03

    The effects of various salts on the sol-gel transition of aqueous methylcellulose (MC) solutions have been studied systematically by means of a micro differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the heating process was endothermic while the cooling process was exothermic for both MC solutions with and without salts. The addition of salts did not change the patterns of gelation and degelation of MC. However, the salts could shift the sol-gel transition and the gel-sol transition to lower or higher temperatures from a pure MC solution, depending on the salt type. These opposite effects were termed the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions. Either the salt-assisted transition or the salt-suppressed sol-gel transition was a function of salt concentration. In addition, each salt was found to have its own concentration limit for producing a stable aqueous solution of MC at a given concentration of MC, which was related to the anionic charge density of the salt. Cations were proved to have weaker effects than anions. The "salt-out strength", defined as the salt effect per mole of anion, was obtained for each anion studied. The thermodynamic mechanisms involved in the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions are discussed.

  4. Wing stridulation in a Jurassic katydid (Insecta, Orthoptera) produced low-pitched musical calls to attract females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jun-Jie; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Engel, Michael S; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Ren, Dong

    2012-03-06

    Behaviors are challenging to reconstruct for extinct species, particularly the nature and origins of acoustic communication. Here we unravel the song of Archaboilus musicus Gu, Engel and Ren sp. nov., a 165 million year old stridulating katydid. From the exceptionally preserved morphology of its stridulatory apparatus in the forewings and phylogenetic comparison with extant species, we reveal that A. musicus radiated pure-tone (musical) songs using a resonant mechanism tuned at a frequency of 6.4 kHz. Contrary to previous scenarios, musical songs were an early innovation, preceding the broad-bandwidth songs of extant katydids. Providing an accurate insight into paleoacoustic ecology, the low-frequency musical song of A. musicus was well-adapted to communication in the lightly cluttered environment of the mid-Jurassic forest produced by coniferous trees and giant ferns, suggesting that reptilian, amphibian, and mammalian insectivores could have also heard A. musicus' song.

  5. Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous foraminiferal biozonation of the Amran Group, eastern Sana'a Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; El-Anbaawy, Mohammed; Al-Thour, Khalid

    2017-06-01

    Two sections of strata assigned to the Amran Group at Jabal Salab and Jabal Yam in the eastern Sana'a governorate were sampled and correlated. These sections are part of a carbonate platform that extends from the city of Marib in the east to Naqil Ibn Ghailan, 20 km east of the city of Sana'a to the west. Palaeontological analysis of samples recovered has resulted in identification of 123 foraminiferal species, which are used to subdivide the sequence of the Amran Group into five biostratigraphic zones, aged between Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) and Berriasian (Early Cretaceous). The proposed biozones are those of Riyadhella rotundata, Kurnubia jurassica, Ammomarginulina sinaica, Alveosepta jaccardi and Pseudocyclammina sulaiyana/Furitilla caspianseis. These biozones were constructed and correlated with the equivalent zones reported from several localities.

  6. New data on internal morphology of exceptionally preserved Nannirhynchia pygmaea (Morris, 1847 from the Lusitanian Basin (Brachiopoda, Early Jurassic, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schemm-Gregory

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyritized internal moulds of articulated shells of the Early Jurassic brachiopod taxon Nannirhynchia pygmaea were found in beds closely below the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in the Polymorphum Zone in Portugal. The material allows a detailed study of the outline of the muscle fields, the length and direction of the crura, and the orientation of the cardinalia, which are hitherto undescribed. Three-dimensional reconstructions of articulated shells of N. pygmaea occurring in a single horizon were produced to show the orientation and length of arcuiform crura. The preservation of internal moulds together with the three-dimensional reconstruction of the internal shell morphology allow a more precise description of the internal morphology of this taxon than it is possible with articulated shells and serial sections. doi:10.1002/mmng.201200005

  7. Biotic and environmental dynamics through the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous transition: evidence for protracted faunal and ecological turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Mannion, Philip D; Upchurch, Paul; Sutton, Mark D; Price, Gregory D

    2017-05-01

    The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous interval represents a time of environmental upheaval and cataclysmic events, combined with disruptions to terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Historically, the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundary was classified as one of eight mass extinctions. However, more recent research has largely overturned this view, revealing a much more complex pattern of biotic and abiotic dynamics than has previously been appreciated. Here, we present a synthesis of our current knowledge of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous events, focusing particularly on events closest to the J/K boundary. We find evidence for a combination of short-term catastrophic events, large-scale tectonic processes and environmental perturbations, and major clade interactions that led to a seemingly dramatic faunal and ecological turnover in both the marine and terrestrial realms. This is coupled with a great reduction in global biodiversity which might in part be explained by poor sampling. Very few groups appear to have been entirely resilient to this J/K boundary 'event', which hints at a 'cascade model' of ecosystem changes driving faunal dynamics. Within terrestrial ecosystems, larger, more-specialised organisms, such as saurischian dinosaurs, appear to have suffered the most. Medium-sized tetanuran theropods declined, and were replaced by larger-bodied groups, and basal eusauropods were replaced by neosauropod faunas. The ascent of paravian theropods is emphasised by escalated competition with contemporary pterosaur groups, culminating in the explosive radiation of birds, although the timing of this is obfuscated by biases in sampling. Smaller, more ecologically diverse terrestrial non-archosaurs, such as lissamphibians and mammaliaforms, were comparatively resilient to extinctions, instead documenting the origination of many extant groups around the J/K boundary. In the marine realm, extinctions were focused on low-latitude, shallow marine shelf-dwelling faunas

  8. Community solar salt production in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Kabilan; Salgaonkar, Bhakti B; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith M

    2012-12-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa's riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans.Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1-2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested.Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced.The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa's history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the biota

  9. Chapter 5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources-Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston formations, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation of east Texas and southern Arkansas (and the correlative Hosston Formation of Louisiana and Mississippi) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin from east Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic detritus was derived from two main fluvial-deltaic depocenters, one in northeastern Texas and the other extending from southeastern Mississippi northwestward into northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in east Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are about 2,000 ft thick.

  10. High diversity, low disparity and small body size in plesiosaurs (Reptilia, Sauropterygia from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B J Benson

    Full Text Available Invasion of the open ocean by tetrapods represents a major evolutionary transition that occurred independently in cetaceans, mosasauroids, chelonioids (sea turtles, ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Plesiosaurian reptiles invaded pelagic ocean environments immediately following the Late Triassic extinctions. This diversification is recorded by three intensively-sampled European fossil faunas, spanning 20 million years (Ma. These provide an unparalleled opportunity to document changes in key macroevolutionary parameters associated with secondary adaptation to pelagic life in tetrapods. A comprehensive assessment focuses on the oldest fauna, from the Blue Lias Formation of Street, and nearby localities, in Somerset, UK (Earliest Jurassic: 200 Ma, identifying three new species representing two small-bodied rhomaleosaurids (Stratesaurus taylori gen et sp. nov.; Avalonnectes arturi gen. et sp. nov and the most basal plesiosauroid, Eoplesiosaurus antiquior gen. et sp. nov. The initial radiation of plesiosaurs was characterised by high, but short-lived, diversity of an archaic clade, Rhomaleosauridae. Representatives of this initial radiation were replaced by derived, neoplesiosaurian plesiosaurs at small-medium body sizes during a more gradual accumulation of morphological disparity. This gradualistic modality suggests that adaptive radiations within tetrapod subclades are not always characterised by the initially high levels of disparity observed in the Paleozoic origins of major metazoan body plans, or in the origin of tetrapods. High rhomaleosaurid diversity immediately following the Triassic-Jurassic boundary supports the gradual model of Late Triassic extinctions, mostly predating the boundary itself. Increase in both maximum and minimum body length early in plesiosaurian history suggests a driven evolutionary trend. However, Maximum-likelihood models suggest only passive expansion into higher body size categories.

  11. X-ray Synchrotron Microtomography of a silicified Jurassic Cheirolepidiaceae (Conifer) cone: histology and morphology of Pararaucaria collinsonae sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steart, David C; Spencer, Alan R T; Garwood, Russell J; Hilton, Jason; Munt, Martin C; Needham, John; Kenrick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We document a new species of ovulate cone (Pararaucaria collinsonae) on the basis of silicified fossils from the Late Jurassic Purbeck Limestone Group of southern England (Tithonian Stage: ca. 145 million years). Our description principally relies on the anatomy of the ovuliferous scales, revealed through X-ray synchrotron microtomography (SRXMT) performed at the Diamond Light Source (UK). This study represents the first application of SRXMT to macro-scale silicified plant fossils, and demonstrates the significant advantages of this approach, which can resolve cellular structure over lab-based X-ray computed microtomography (XMT). The method enabled us to characterize tissues and precisely demarcate their boundaries, elucidating organ shape, and thus allowing an accurate assessment of affinities. The cones are broadly spherical (ca. 1.3 cm diameter), and are structured around a central axis with helically arranged bract/scale complexes, each of which bares a single ovule. A three-lobed ovuliferous scale and ovules enclosed within pocket-forming tissue, demonstrate an affinity with Cheirolepidiaceae. Details of vascular sclerenchyma bundles, integument structure, and the number and attachment of the ovules indicate greatest similarity to P. patagonica and P. carrii. This fossil develops our understanding of the dominant tree element of the Purbeck Fossil Forest, providing the first evidence for ovulate cheirolepidiaceous cones in Europe. Alongside recent discoveries in North America, this significantly extends the known palaeogeographic range of Pararaucaria, supporting a mid-palaeolatitudinal distribution in both Gondwana and Laurasia during the Late Jurassic. Palaeoclimatic interpretations derived from contemporaneous floras, climate sensitive sediments, and general circulation climate models indicate that Pararaucaria was a constituent of low diversity floras in semi-arid Mediterranean-type environments.

  12. X-ray Synchrotron Microtomography of a silicified Jurassic Cheirolepidiaceae (Conifer cone: histology and morphology of Pararaucaria collinsonae sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Steart

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We document a new species of ovulate cone (Pararaucaria collinsonae on the basis of silicified fossils from the Late Jurassic Purbeck Limestone Group of southern England (Tithonian Stage: ca. 145 million years. Our description principally relies on the anatomy of the ovuliferous scales, revealed through X-ray synchrotron microtomography (SRXMT performed at the Diamond Light Source (UK. This study represents the first application of SRXMT to macro-scale silicified plant fossils, and demonstrates the significant advantages of this approach, which can resolve cellular structure over lab-based X-ray computed microtomography (XMT. The method enabled us to characterize tissues and precisely demarcate their boundaries, elucidating organ shape, and thus allowing an accurate assessment of affinities. The cones are broadly spherical (ca. 1.3 cm diameter, and are structured around a central axis with helically arranged bract/scale complexes, each of which bares a single ovule. A three-lobed ovuliferous scale and ovules enclosed within pocket-forming tissue, demonstrate an affinity with Cheirolepidiaceae. Details of vascular sclerenchyma bundles, integument structure, and the number and attachment of the ovules indicate greatest similarity to P. patagonica and P. carrii. This fossil develops our understanding of the dominant tree element of the Purbeck Fossil Forest, providing the first evidence for ovulate cheirolepidiaceous cones in Europe. Alongside recent discoveries in North America, this significantly extends the known palaeogeographic range of Pararaucaria, supporting a mid-palaeolatitudinal distribution in both Gondwana and Laurasia during the Late Jurassic. Palaeoclimatic interpretations derived from contemporaneous floras, climate sensitive sediments, and general circulation climate models indicate that Pararaucaria was a constituent of low diversity floras in semi-arid Mediterranean-type environments.

  13. New insights into Mesozoic cycad evolution: an exploration of anatomically preserved Cycadaceae seeds from the Jurassic Oxford Clay biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R.T. Spencer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Most knowledge concerning Mesozoic Era floras has come from compression fossils. This has been augmented in the last 20 years by rarer permineralized material showing cellular preservation. Here, we describe a new genus of anatomically preserved gymnosperm seed from the Callovian–Oxfordian (Jurassic Oxford Clay Formation (UK, using a combination of traditional sectioning and synchrotron radiation X-ray micro-tomography (SRXMT. Oxfordiana motturii gen. et sp. nov. is large and bilaterally symmetrical. It has prominent external ribs, and has a three-layered integument comprising: a narrow outer layer of thick walled cells; a thick middle parenchymatous layer; and innermost a thin fleshy layer. The integument has a longitudinal interior groove and micropyle, enveloping a nucellus with a small pollen chamber. The large size, bilateral symmetry and integumentary groove demonstrate an affinity for the new species within the cycads. Moreover, the internal groove in extant taxa is an autapomorphy of the genus Cycas, where it facilitates seed germination. Based upon the unique seed germination mechanism shared with living species of the Cycadaceae, we conclude that O. motturii is a member of the stem-group lineage leading to Cycas after the Jurassic divergence of the Cycadaceae from other extant cycads. SRXMT—for the first time successfully applied to fossils already prepared as slides—reveals the distribution of different mineral phases within the fossil, and allows us to evaluate the taphonomy of Oxfordiana. An early pyrite phase replicates the external surfaces of individual cells, a later carbonate component infilling void spaces. The resulting taphonomic model suggests that the relatively small size of the fossils was key to their exceptional preservation, concentrating sulfate-reducing bacteria in a locally closed microenvironment and thus facilitating soft-tissue permineralization.

  14. The importance of thermal behaviour and petrographic composition for understanding the characteristics of a Portuguese perhydrous Jurassic coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A. [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Flores, D. [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Geociencias, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Territorio, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Pevida, C.; Rubiera, F. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain); Iglesias, M.J. [Area de Quimica Organica, Universidad de Almeria (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    The perhydrous Batalha coal (Portugal) is found in the Cabacos and Montejunto Formation of the Oxfordian-Kimeridgian, Upper Jurassic age. From the macroscopic point of view, its appearance is similar to other perhydrous coals. Microscopically, the maceral group of huminite is the main organic component (96%), ulminite being the most important petrographic component, followed by textinite with resinite (4%) lumina filled. The huminite random reflectance is 0.33%. This coal is characterized by high H/C atomic ratio, and anomalous physical and chemical properties that are characteristic of perhydrous coals such as: (i) the absence of any correlation between reflectance and the chemical rank parameters; (ii) a lower real density than that of non-perhydrous coals; (iii) a high hydrogen content; and (iv) suppressed reflectance. Using its calorific value (moist, ash-free basis) as rank parameter, Batalha coal must be considered a subbituminous A coal. Hydrogen enrichment due to the presence of resinite has influenced the technological properties of this coal, namely: (i) reduction of the thermostability and decrease in the temperature of initial thermal decomposition due to, among other reasons, the existence of aliphatic structures with low dissociation energy bonds resulting from the presence of resinite; (ii) from the DTG profile, the volatile matter combustion and char combustion is not evident; (iii) development of chars made up of isotropic particles with angular edges, which is typical of a low rank coal; (iv) the evolution trend of gaseous compounds (CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) during pyrolysis; and, (v) an increase in its calorific value due to its hydrogen content. The study of this coal which is interbedded in Jurassic formations in the Lusitanian Basin of Portugal is a new contribution to the assessment of the evolution of organic matter in this area. (author)

  15. Multiple sulfur-isotopic evidence for a shallowly stratified ocean following the Triassic-Jurassic boundary mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Genming; Richoz, Sylvain; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Algeo, Thomas J.; Xie, Shucheng; Ono, Shuhei; Summons, Roger E.

    2018-06-01

    The cause of the Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J) boundary biotic crisis, one of the 'Big Five' mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic, remains controversial. In this study, we analyzed multiple sulfur-isotope compositions (δ33S, δ34S and δ36S) of pyrite and Spy/TOC ratios in two Tr-J successions (Mariental, Mingolsheim) from the European Epicontinental Seaway (EES) in order to better document ocean-redox variations during the Tr-J transition. Our results show that upper Rhaetian strata are characterized by 34S-enriched pyrite, low Spy/TOC ratios, and values of Δ33Spy (i.e., the deviation from the mass-dependent array) lower than that estimated for contemporaneous seawater sulfate, suggesting an oxic-suboxic depositional environment punctuated by brief anoxic events. The overlying Hettangian strata exhibit relatively 34S-depleted pyrite, high Δ33Spy, and Spy/TOC values, and the presence of green sulfur bacterial biomarkers indicate a shift toward to euxinic conditions. The local development of intense marine anoxia thus postdated the Tr-J mass extinction, which does not provide support for the hypothesis that euxinia was the main killing agent at the Tr-J transition. Sulfur and organic carbon isotopic records that reveal a water-depth gradient (i.e., more 34S-, 13C-depleted with depth) in combination with Spy/TOC data suggest that the earliest Jurassic EES was strongly stratified, with a chemocline located at shallow depths just below storm wave base. Shallow oceanic stratification may have been a factor for widespread deposition of black shales, a large positive shift in carbonate δ13C values, and a delay in the recovery of marine ecosystems following the Tr-J boundary crisis.

  16. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic radiolarian chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, and implications for its paleogeographic origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Murchey, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Upper Jurassic red tuffaceous chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California (lat 35??N, long 240??E), contains three components of remanent magnetization. The first component (A; removed by ???100-???200 ??C) has a direction near the present-day field for southern California and is probably a recently acquired thermoviscous magnetization. A second component (B; removed between ???100 and ???600 ??C) is identical to that observed by previous workers in samples of underlying pillow basalt and overlying terrigenous sedimentary rocks. This component has constant normal polarity and direction throughout the entire section, although these rocks were deposited during a mixed polarity interval of the geomagnetic field. The B magnetization, therefore, is inferred to be a secondary magnetization acquired during accretion, uplift, or Miocene volcanism prior to regional clockwise rotation. The highest temperature component (C; removed between ???480 and 680 ??C) is of dual polarity and is tentatively interpreted as a primary magnetization, although it fails a reversal test possibly due to contamination by B. Separation of the B and C components is best shown by samples with negative-inclination C directions, and a corrected mean direction using only these samples indicates an initial paleolatitude of 32??N ?? 8??. Paleobiogeographic models relating radiolarian faunal distribution patterns to paleolatitude have apparently been incorrectly calibrated using the overprint B component. Few other paleomagnetic data have been incorporated in these models, and faunal distribution patterns are poorly known and mostly unqualified. The available data, therefore, do not support formation of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain near the paleoequator or accretion at ???10??N paleolatitude, as has been previously suggested based on paleomagnetic data, but indicate deposition near expected paleolatitudes for North America (35??N ?? 4??) during Late Jurassic

  17. Accelerator molten-salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Kuroi, Hideo; Kato, Yoshio; Oomichi, Toshihiko.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain fission products and to transmute transuranium elements and other radioactive wastes by the use of Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor. Constitution: Beams from an accelerator pipe at one end of a target vessel is injected through a window into target molten salts filled inside of the target vessel. The target molten salts are subjected to pump recycling or spontaneous convection while forcively cooled by blanket molten salts in an outer vessel. Then, energy is recovered from the blanket molten salts or the target molten salts at high temperatures through electric power generation or the like. Those salts containing such as thorium 232 and uranium 238 are used as the blanket molten salts so that fission products may be produced by neutrons generated in the target molten salts. PbCl 2 -PbF 2 and LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 can be used as the target molten salts and as the blanket molten salts respectively. (Seki, T.)

  18. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  19. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  20. Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product

  1. Bile salts as semiochemicals in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Bile salts are potent olfactory stimuli in fishes; however the biological functions driving such sensitivity remain poorly understood. We provide an integrative review of bile salts as semiochemicals in fish. First, we present characteristics of bile salt structure, metabolism, and function that are particularly relevant to chemical communication. Bile salts display a systematic pattern of structural variation across taxa, are efficiently synthesized, and are stable in the environment. Bile salts are released into the water via the intestine, urinary tract, or gills, and are highly water soluble. Second, we consider the potential role of bile salts as semiochemicals in the contexts of detecting nearby fish, foraging, assessing risk, migrating, and spawning. Lastly, we suggest future studies on bile salts as semiochemicals further characterize release into the environment, behavioral responses by receivers, and directly test the biological contexts underlying olfactory sensitivity.

  2. Yttria hydroxy-salt binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Binder phase (primarily chloride or nitrate) formation was examined in YX 3 --NaOH--H 2 O, Y 2 O 3 --acid--H 2 O, and Y 2 O 3 --salt--H 2 O systems. The cementitious phase consisted mostly of plate- (or needle-) shaped hydroxy salts of the general formula Y 2 (OH)/sub 6-m/X/sub m/ nH 2 O, where m and n normally equal one. These binders were examined by x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques. Nitrate binders decompose to Y 2 O 3 by 600 0 C, whereas chloride binders form oxychlorides that sublime or convert to Y 2 O 3 after oxygen replacement of chlorine (in air) at > 1000 0 C. Although nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions form porous ( 2 O 3 powder, salt solutions (i.e., NH 4 NO 3 , Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , NH 4 Cl, and YCl 3 approx. = 6H 2 O) slow the reaction considerably (48 h to 4 weeks), allowing 70- to 80%-dense cements to form. The effects of formation conditions on physical properties of binders were studied. Examination of scandium and lanthanide oxides showed that several behave in the same way as yttria

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, J V; De Prados, M; Pérez-Muelas, N; Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J

    2012-01-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p 2 = 0.975) and moisture (R 2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  4. Late-Variscan Tectonic Inheritance and Salt Tectonics Interplay in the Central Lusitanian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Carlos R.; Marques, Fernando O.

    2017-04-01

    Tectonic inheritance and salt structures can play an important role in the tectono-sedimentary evolution of basins. The Alpine regional stress field in west Iberia had a horizontal maximum compressive stress striking approximately NNW-SSE, related to the Late Miocene inversion event. However, this stress field cannot produce a great deal of the observed and mapped structures in the Lusitanian Basin. Moreover, many observed structures show a trend similar to well-known basement fault systems. The Central Lusitanian basin shows an interesting tectonic structure, the Montejunto structure, generally assigned to this inversion event. Therefore, special attention was paid to: (1) basement control of important observed structures; and (2) diapir tectonics (vertical maximum compressive stress), which can be responsible for significant vertical movements. Based on fieldwork, tectonic analysis and interpretation of geological maps (Portuguese Geological Survey, 1:50000 scale) and geophysical data, our work shows: (1) the Montejunto structure is a composite structure comprising an antiform with a curved hinge and middle Jurassic core, and bounding main faults; (2) the antiform can be divided into three main segments: (i) a northern segment with NNE-SSW trend showing W-dipping bedding bounded at the eastern border by a NNE-SSW striking fault, (ii) a curved central segment, showing the highest topography, with a middle Jurassic core and radial dipping bedding, (iii) a western segment with ENE-WSW trend comprising an antiform with a steeper northern limb and periclinal termination towards WSW, bounded to the south by ENE-WSW reverse faulting, (3) both fold and fault trends at the northern and western segments are parallel to well-known basement faults related to late-Variscan strike-slip systems with NNE-SSW and ENE-WSW trends; (4) given the orientation of Alpine maximum compressive stress, the northern segment border fault should be mostly sinistral strike-slip and the western

  5. Jurassic and Cretaceous clays of the northern and central North Sea hydrocarbon reservoirs reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.; Haszeldine, R.S.; Fallick, A.E.

    2006-03-15

    illite occurs almost ubiquitously within the clastic sediments of the North Sea. An early pore-lining phase has been interpreted as both infiltrated clastic clay, and as an early diagenetic phase. Early clays may have been quite smectite-rich illites, or even discrete smectites. Later, fibrous illite is undoubtedly neoformed, and can degrade reservoir quality significantly. Both within sandstones and shales, there is an apparent increase in the K content deeper than 4 km of burial, which could be due to dilution of the early smectite-rich phase by new growth illite, or to the progressive illitization of existing I-S. Much of the 'illite' that has been dated by the K-Ar method may therefore actually be I-S. The factors that control the formation of fibrous illite are only poorly known, though temperature must play a role. Illite growth has been proposed for almost the entire range of diagenetic temperatures (e.g. 15-20{sup o}C, Brent Group; 35-40{sup o}C, Oxfordian Sand, Inner Moray Firth; 50-90{sup o}C, Brae formation; 100-110{sup o}C, Brent Group; 130-140{sup o}C, Haltenbanken). It seems unlikely that there is a threshold temperature below which illite growth is impossible (or too slow to be significant), though this is a recurring hypothesis in the literature. Instead, illite growth seems to be an event, commonly triggered by oil emplacement or another change in the physiochemical conditions within the sandstone, such as an episode of overpressure release. Hence fibrous illite can grow at any temperature encountered during diagenesis. Although there is an extensive dataset of K-Ar ages of authigenic illites from the Jurassic of the North Sea, there is no consensus as to whether the data are meaningful, or whether the purified illite samples prepared for analysis are so contaminated with detrital phases as to render the age data meaningless. At present it is unclear about how to resolve this problem, though there is some indication that chemical micro

  6. Geochemical characterization of the Jurassic Amran deposits from Sharab area (SW Yemen): Origin of organic matter, paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate conditions during deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Makeen, Yousif M.; Saeed, Shadi A.; Al-Hakame, Hitham; Al-Moliki, Tareq; Al-Sharabi, Kholah Qaid; Hatem, Baleid Ali

    2017-05-01

    Calcareous shales and black limestones of the Jurassic Amran Group, located in the Sharab area (SW Yemen), were analysed based on organic and inorganic geochemical methods. The results of this study were used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions during Jurassic time and their relevance to organic matter enrichment during deposition of the Amran calcareous shale and black limestone deposits. The analysed Amran samples have present-day TOC and Stotal content values in the range of 0.25-0.91 wt % and 0.59-4.96 wt %, respectively. The relationship between Stotal and TOC contents indicates that the Jurassic Amran deposits were deposited in a marine environment as supported by biomarker environmental indicators. Biomarker distributions also reflect that the analysed Amran deposits received high contributions of marine organic matter (e.g., algal and microbial) with minor amount of land plant source inputs. Low oxygen (reducing) conditions during deposition of the Jurassic Amran deposits are indicated from low Pr/Ph values and relatively high elemental ratios of V/Ni and V/(V + Ni). Enrichment in the pyrite grains and very high DOPT and high Fe/Al ratios further suggest reducing bottom waters. This paleo-redox (i.e., reducing) conditions contributed to preservation of organic matter during deposition of the Jurassic Amran deposits. Semi-arid to warm climatic conditions are also evidenced during deposition of the Amran sediments and consequently increased biological productivity within the photic zone of the water column during deposition. Therefore, the increased bio-productivity in combination with good preservation of organic matter identified as the major mechanisms that gave rise to organic matter enrichment. This contradicts with the low organic matter content of the present-day TOC values of less than 1%. The biomarker maturity data indicate that the analysed Amran samples are of high thermal maturity; therefore, the low present-day TOC

  7. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF 2 was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.)

  9. Discretionary salt use in airline meal service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S; Wellman, N S; Dierkes, K E; Johnson, P M

    1987-02-01

    Salt use in airline meal service was studied through observation of returned meal trays of 932 passengers. Observation and weighing of salt packets on returned trays revealed that 64% of passengers did not salt their airline dinner, while 6% used the entire salt packet, 0.92 gm NaCl (362 mg Na). Average discretionary salt use among the 234 passengers (25%) who added salt was 0.57 gm NaCl (232 mg Na). Estimates of total sodium in the four airline dinners averaged 2.0 gm NaCl (786 mg Na). Laboratory assays of menu items produced by the airline foodservice differed 3% to 19% from estimated values. Sodium content of the four airline dinner menus was similar and did not affect salt use. Discretionary salt use was related to the total amount of entrée consumed but was not affected by the amount of salad consumed. It is postulated that salt use in the "captive" airline situation is predicated on consistent, habitual practices. Lowering sodium consumption in this setting may require alteration in both food preparation methods and quantity of salt presented in the packets.

  10. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Masahiro [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF{sub 2} was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.).

  11. Thermal performances of molten salt steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yibo; He, Canming; Lu, Jianfeng; Ding, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal performances of molten salt steam generator were experimentally studied. • Overall heat transfer coefficient reached maximum with optimal molten salt flow rate. • Energy efficiency first rose and then decreased with salt flow rate and temperature. • Optimal molten salt flow rate and temperature existed for good thermal performance. • High inlet water temperature benefited steam generating rate and energy efficiency. - Abstract: Molten salt steam generator is the key technology for thermal energy conversion from high temperature molten salt to steam, and it is used in solar thermal power station and molten salt reactor. A shell and tube type molten salt steam generator was set up, and its thermal performance and heat transfer mechanism were studied. As a coupling heat transfer process, molten salt steam generation is mainly affected by molten salt convective heat transfer and boiling heat transfer, while its energy efficiency is also affected by the heat loss. As molten salt temperature increased, the energy efficiency first rose with the increase of heat flow absorbed by water/steam, and then slightly decreased for large heat loss as the absorbed heat flow still rising. At very high molten salt temperature, the absorbed heat flow decreased as boiling heat transfer coefficient dropping, and then the energy efficiency quickly dropped. As the inlet water temperature increased, the boiling region in the steam generator remarkably expanded, and then the steam generation rate and energy efficiency both rose with the overall heat transfer coefficient increasing. As the molten salt flow rate increased, the wall temperature rose and the boiling heat transfer coefficient first increased and then decreased according to the boiling curve, so the overall heat transfer coefficient first increased and then decreased, and then the steam generation rate and energy efficiency of steam generator both had maxima.

  12. Geochemical characteristics of Lower Jurassic source rocks in the Zhongkouzi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haiqing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wei, Jianshe; Zhang, Huiyuan; Wang, Baowen

    2018-01-01

    Zhongkouzi basin is formed in Mesozoic and Cenozoic and developed on the Hercynian folded belt, the degree of exploration for oil and gas is relatively low hitherto. In order to find out the geochemical characteristics of the source rocks and the potentials for hydrocarbon generation. The research result shows that by analysis the geochemical characteristics of outcrop samples and new core samples in Longfengshan Group, Longfengshan Group are most developed intervals of favorable source rocks. They are formed in depression period of the basin when the sedimentary environments is salt water lacustrine and the water is keeping stable; The organic matter abundance is middle-higher, the main kerogen type is II1-II2 and few samples act as III type, The organic matter maturity is low maturity to medium maturity. The organic matter maturity of the source rock from eastern part of the basin is higher than in the western region. The source rock of Longfengshan Group are in the hydrocarbon generation threshold. The great mass of source rocks are matured and in the peak stage of oil generation.

  13. Basement inheritance and salt tectonics in the SE Barents Sea: Insights from new potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernigon, L.; Broenner, M.; Dumais, M. A.; Gradmann, S.; Grønlie, A.; Nasuti, A.; Roberts, D.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of the former `grey zone' between Russia and Norway has so far remained poorly constrained due to a lack of geophysical data. In 2014, we carried out a new aeromagnetic survey (BASAR-14) in the southern part of the new Norwegian offshore territory. Caledonian and Timanian structures, highlighted by the new potential field data, dominate the basement patterns and have exerted a strong influence on the structure and development of the overlying basins and basement highs. Clearly associated with NW-SE-oriented Timanian trends, the Tiddlybanken Basin represents an atypical sag basin that developed at the southern edge of the Fedynsky High. Regional extension and rapid sedimentation initiated the salt tectonics in the Barents Sea in the Early Triassic. Some of the pillows became diapiric during the Early Triassic and rejuvenated during subsequent Jurassic-Tertiary episodes of regional extension and/or compression. At present, quite a few large diapiric salt domes along the Nordkapp and Tiddlybanken basins are relatively shallow, locally reaching the seabed and thus show a clear bathymetric and magnetic signature. Quantitative modelling along 2D seismic transects was also carried out to constrain the structural and basement composition of the study area. The predominant NE-SW Mesozoic trend of the Nordkapp Basin represents a major crustal hinge zone between the Finnmark Platform, poorly affected by major crustal deformation, and the Bjarmeland Platform where Late Palaeozoic rifting controlled the widespread accumulation of salt deposits in Late Carboniferous-Early Permian time. The entire structure and segmentation of the Nordkapp Basin have been influenced by the inherited basement configuration highlighted by the new aeromagnetic data. Both the Nordkapp and the Tiddlybanken basins appear to lie at the edge of a peculiar thick and rigid crustal feature that coincides with a highly magnetic region. The abrupt termination of the eastern Nordkapp

  14. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  15. 168 Hours Salt Fog Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin

    2011-01-01

    This report explained the test conducted in salt fog chamber to evaluate the effectiveness of mild steel, coated with rust converter, for 168 hours in artificial seawater exposure. The samples were compared with mild steel coated with commercial primer. The tests were conducted followed ASTM B117. Individual pictures were taken of each sample before the tests began, at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours to see the progression of the corrosion. Results showed that the samples coated with rust converter provide a good significant protection against corrosion phenomenon than the samples coated with commercial primer that available in the market. (author)

  16. Seismic anisotropy in deforming salt bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, P.; Wookey, J. M.; Kendall, J. M.; Dutko, M.

    2017-12-01

    Salt is often involved in forming hydrocarbon traps. Studying salt dynamics and the deformation processes is important for the exploration industry. We have performed numerical texture simulations of single halite crystals deformed by simple shear and axial extension using the visco-plastic self consistent approach (VPSC). A methodology from subduction studies to estimate strain in a geodynamic simulation is applied to a complex high-resolution salt diapir model. The salt diapir deformation is modelled with the ELFEN software by our industrial partner Rockfield, which is based on a finite-element code. High strain areas at the bottom of the head-like strctures of the salt diapir show high amount of seismic anisotropy due to LPO development of halite crystals. The results demonstrate that a significant degree of seismic anisotropy can be generated, validating the view that this should be accounted for in the treatment of seismic data in, for example, salt diapir settings.

  17. High throughput salt separation from uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.W.; Park, K.M.; Kim, J.G.; Kim, I.T.; Park, S.B., E-mail: swkwon@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system owing to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites in pyroprocessing. Multilayer porous crucible system was proposed to increase a throughput of the salt distiller in this study. An integrated sieve-crucible assembly was also investigated for the practical use of the porous crucible system. The salt evaporation behaviors were compared between the conventional nonporous crucible and the porous crucible. Two step weight reductions took place in the porous crucible, whereas the salt weight reduced only at high temperature by distillation in a nonporous crucible. The first weight reduction in the porous crucible was caused by the liquid salt penetrated out through the perforated crucible during the temperature elevation until the distillation temperature. Multilayer porous crucibles have a benefit to expand the evaporation surface area. (author)

  18. Waste treatment using molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Stewart, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    MSO technology can be characterized as a submerged oxidation process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The molten salt (usually sodium carbonate at 900-1000 C) provides four waste management functions: providing a heat transfer medium, catalyzing the oxidation reaction, preventing the formation of acid gases by forming stable salts, and efficiently capturing ash particles and radioactive materials by the combined effects of wetting, encapsulation and dissolution. The MSO process requires no wet scrubbing system for off-gas treatment. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous wastes). (author). 24 refs, 2 tabs, 2 figs

  19. U-Pb La-ICP-ms geochronology and regional correlation of middle Jurassic intrusive rocks from the Garzon Massif, Upper Magdalena Valley and central cordillera, southern Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, Camilo; Cardona, Agustin; Bayona, German; Mora, Andres; Valencia, Victor; Gehrels, George; Vervoort, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    New U-Pb zircon geochronology from four granitic units sampled along a southeast-northwest transect between the Garzon massif and the Serrania de las Minas (central cordillera), records a middle Jurassic magmatic activity with two different spatio-temporal domains at ca. 189 ma and 180-173 ma. Reconnaissance data suggest that the four granitoids are characterized by mineralogical and geochemical characteristics akin to a continental magmatic arc setting. The new results suggest that the southern Colombian continental margin includes remnants of tectonomagmatic elements formed by the subduction of the Farallon plate under the South American continental margin. This middle Jurassic arc magmatism is part of the broader Andean scale arc province, and is significant for understanding the tectonic and paleogeographic scenario that characterized the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the northern Andes.

  20. Combined oxygen- and carbon-isotope records through the Early Jurassic: multiple global events and two modes of carbon-cycle/temperature coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Korte, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    , to the extent that meaningful comparisons between these events can begin to be made. Here we present new carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusks (bivalves and belemnites) and brachiopods collected through the marine Early Jurassic succession of NE England, including the Sinemurian-Plienbachian boundary...... GSSP. All materials have been screened by chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy to check for diagenetic alteration. Analysis of carbon isotopes from marine calcite is supplemented by analysis of carbon-isotope values from fossil wood collected through the same section. It is demonstrated...... that both long-term and short-term carbon-isotope shifts from the UK Early Jurassic represent global changes in carbon cycle balances. The Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary event is an event of global significance and shows several similarities to the Toarcian OAE (relative sea-level change, carbon-isotope...

  1. Salt Block II: description and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfelder, J.J.

    1980-06-01

    A description of and results from the Salt Block II experiment, which involved the heating of and measurement of water transport within a large sample of rock salt, are presented. These results include the measurement of water released into a heated borehole in the sample as well as measured temperatures within the salt. Measured temperatures are compared with the results of a mathematical model of the experiment

  2. Dissolution of the Mors salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem Jensen, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Regardless of the interpretation of the measured salinity profiles above the Mors salt dome, they can at most be the result of dissolution rates of about 0.004 mm per year. This means that it would take more than 2.5 mill. years to dissolve 10 m of salt. Variations in groun water velocity and cap rock porosity will not significantly change this condition. The stability of the Mors salt dome is therefore not affected by dissolution of the dome. (EG)

  3. Coastal salt-marshes in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    JULIAN SHEHU; ALMA IMERI; RUDINA KOCI; ALFRED MULLAJ

    2014-01-01

    The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds) and often h...

  4. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  5. Litholepas klausreschi gen. et sp. nov., a new neolepadine barnacle (Cirripedia, Thoracica) on a sponge from the Upper Jurassic lithographic limestones of southern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagler, Christina; Haug, Joachim T.; Glenner, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In this study we describe a unique fossil comprising 13 intact specimens of a pedunculate cirripede attached to a sponge (Codites serpentinus). The fossil comes from the Upper Jurassic lithographic limestones of southern Germany. Based on the shape and distinctive sculpture of the plates, a new...... uncertain. Representatives of L. klausreschi gen. et sp. nov. are considered to have lived either in a parasitic or commensal relationship partially buried within the sponge....

  6. Ecpagloxylon mathiesenii gen. nov. et sp. nov., a Jurassic wood from Greenland with several primitive angiosperm features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippe, Marc; Cuny, Gilles Guy Roger; Bashforth, Arden Roy

    2010-01-01

    Fossil wood specimens from the late Early–early Middle Jurassic of Jameson Land, Eastern Greenland, have several unexpected features: tracheids of irregular size and shape, thinly pitted ray cell walls, heterogeneous rays, partially scalariform radial pitting, both areolate and simple pits, and p...... is an early bench-mark in the evolution that led from homoxylous conifer-like wood to that of the angiosperms. Its particular biogeography (Arctic) could renew the discussion about the area of origin of the angiosperms....

  7. Late Jurassic – early Cretaceous inversion of rift structures, and linkage of petroleum system elements across post-rift unconformity, U.S. Chukchi Shelf, arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Connors, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Basin evolution of the U.S. Chukchi shelf involved multiple phases, including Late Devonian–Permian rifting, Permian–Early Jurassic sagging, Late Jurassic–Neocomian inversion, and Cretaceous–Cenozoic foreland-basin development. The focus of ongoing exploration is a petroleum system that includes sag-phase source rocks; inversion-phase reservoir rocks; structure spanning the rift, sag, and inversion phases; and hydrocarbon generation during the foreland-basin phase.

  8. Mineralization of soft-part anatomy and invading microbes in the horseshoe crab Mesolimulus from the Upper Jurassic Lagerstätte of Nusplingen, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E G; Moore, Rachel A; Shultz, Jeffrey W; Schweigert, Günter

    2005-03-22

    A remarkable specimen of Mesolimulus from the Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) of Nusplingen, Germany, preserves the musculature of the prosoma and associated microbes in three dimensions in calcium phosphate (apatite). The musculature of Mesolimulus conforms closely to that of modern horseshoe crabs. Associated with the muscles are patches of mineralized biofilm with spiral and coccoid forms. This discovery emphasizes the potential of soft-bodied fossils as a source for increasing our knowledge of the diversity of fossil microbes in particular settings.

  9. Unravelling the collapse mechanisms at a Jurassic caldera of the Chon Aike silicic LIP in Southern Patagonia (47 deg. 15 'S, 71 deg. 40'W), Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sruoga, P; Japas, S; Salani, F; Kleiman, L; Graffigna, M

    2008-01-01

    La Peligrosa Caldera is located at Sierra Colorada (47 0 15'S, 71 0 40' W) in the Chon-Aike silicic LIP. It represents an unique window to understand the eruptive mechanisms that prevailed throughout the ignimbritic flare-up in Southern Patagonia during middle to late Jurassic times. Key pieces of lithologic and structural evidences are taken into account to reconstruct the volcanic structure.

  10. Unravelling the collapse mechanisms at a Jurassic caldera of the Chon Aike silicic LIP in Southern Patagonia (47° 15 'S, 71° 40'W), Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sruoga, P.; Japas, S.; Salani, F.; Kleiman, L.; Graffigna, M.

    2008-10-01

    La Peligrosa Caldera is located at Sierra Colorada (47° 15'S, 71° 40' W) in the Chon-Aike silicic LIP. It represents an unique window to understand the eruptive mechanisms that prevailed throughout the ignimbritic flare-up in Southern Patagonia during middle to late Jurassic times. Key pieces of lithologic and structural evidences are taken into account to reconstruct the volcanic structure.

  11. Burial history, thermal history and hydrocarbon generation modelling of the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep and Outer Carpathians (SE Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Wróbel, Magdalena

    2012-08-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of hydrocarbon generation were modelled for the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Carpathian Foredeep and marginal part of the Outer Carpathians. The area of investigation was bounded to the west by Kraków, to the east by Rzeszów. The modelling was carried out in profiles of wells: Będzienica 2, Dębica 10K, Góra Ropczycka 1K, Goleszów 5, Nawsie 1, Pławowice E1 and Pilzno 40. The organic matter, containing gas-prone Type III kerogen with an admixture of Type II kerogen, is immature or at most, early mature to 0.7 % in the vitrinite reflectance scale. The highest thermal maturity is recorded in the south-eastern part of the study area, where the Jurassic strata are buried deeper. The thermal modelling showed that the obtained organic matter maturity in the initial phase of the "oil window" is connected with the stage of the Carpathian overthrusting. The numerical modelling indicated that the onset of hydrocarbon generation from the Middle Jurassic source rocks was also connected with the Carpathian thrust belt. The peak of hydrocarbon generation took place in the orogenic stage of the overthrusting. The amount of generated hydrocarbons is generally small, which is a consequence of the low maturity and low transformation degree of kerogen. The generated hydrocarbons were not expelled from their source rock. An analysis of maturity distribution and transformation degree of the Jurassic organic matter shows that the best conditions for hydrocarbon generation occurred most probably in areas deeply buried under the Outer Carpathians. It is most probable that the "generation kitchen" should be searched for there.

  12. Two-phase southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate constrained by Permian-Jurassic granitoids in the Erguna and Xing'an massifs (NE China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huichuan; Li, Yinglei; He, Hongyun; Huangfu, Pengpeng; Liu, Yongzheng

    2018-04-01

    Geodynamics of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate southward subduction are still pending problems. This paper presents new zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age and whole-rock geochemical data for the middle Permian to Middle Jurassic granitoids in the western Erguna and central Xing'an massifs. 267-264 Ma, 241 Ma and 173 Ma I-type granites, and 216 Ma A-type granites were identified in the Erguna and Xing'an massifs (NE China). The I-type granites were produced by partial melting of the lower mafic crust. The 216 Ma A-type granites were derived from partial melting of crustal materials with tonalitic to granodioritic compositions. The 267-264 Ma and 241 Ma I-type granites were generated in an Andean-type arc setting, wheras the 216 Ma A-type and 173 Ma granites were formed in supra subduction extensional setting. We summarized previous age data of the middle Permian to Middle Jurassic magmtaic rocks in the Erguna and Xing'an Massifs and identified two isolated phases of magmatic activity including the ca. 267-225 Ma and ca. 215-165 Ma periods, with a significant magmatic gap at ca. 225-215 Ma. These middle Permian to Middle Jurassic magmatic rocks are closely related to the southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk ocean. A two-stage tectonic evolutionary model was proposed to account for these geological observations in the Erguna and Xing'an massifs, involving Permian to Middle Triassic continuous southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate and Late Triassic to Jurassic slab-rollback and supra subduction extension.

  13. Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900 0 C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In this article we describe the processes now in use at Los Alamos and our studies of alternate salts and eutectics

  14. Fuel processing for molten-salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Research devoted to development of processes for the isolation of protactinium and for the removal of fission products from molten-salt breeder reactors is reported. During this report period, engineering development progressed on continuous fluorinators for uranium removal, the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal, the fuel reconstitution step, and molten salt--bismuth contactors to be used in reductive extraction processes. The metal transfer experiment MTE-3B was started. In this experiment all parts of the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal are demonstrated using salt flow rates which are about 1 percent of those required to process the fuel salt in a 1000-MW(e) MSBR. During this report period the salt and bismuth phases were transferred to the experimental vessels, and two runs with agitator speeds of 5 rps were made to measure the rate of transfer of neodymium from the fluoride salt to the Bi--Li stripper solution. The uranium removed from the fuel salt by fluorination must be returned to the processed salt in the fuel reconstitution step before the fuel salt is returned to the reactor. An engineering experiment to demonstrate the fuel reconstitution step is being installed. In this experiment gold-lined equipment will be used to avoid introducing products of corrosion by UF 6 and UF 5 . Alternative methods for providing the gold lining include electroplating and mechanical fabrication

  15. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  16. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  17. Vacuum distillation of plutonium pyrochemical salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, Gilles; Faure, S.; Fiers, B.; Saintignon, S.; Lemoine, O.; Cardona-Barrau, D.; Devillard, D.

    2012-01-01

    A pyrochemical process is developed to upgrade the safety of plutonium spent salts interim storage. The feed material, consisting of alkali or alkali-earth chlorides containing various Pu and Am species, is first oxidized to convert the actinides into oxides. Then the chlorides are removed by vacuum distillation which requires temperature from 750 degrees C to 1100 degrees C. After a comprehensive R and D program, full-scale equipment was built to test the distillation of active salts. Tests with NaCl/KCl oxidized spent salt give decontamination factor of chlorides higher than 20000. The distilled salt meets the radiologic requirements to be discarded as low level waste. (authors)

  18. Early Jurassic mafic dykes from the Aigao uranium ore deposit in South China: Geochronology, petrogenesis and relationship with uranium mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Shao-Yong

    2018-05-01

    Mafic dykes are abundant and widely distributed in many granite-hosted uranium ore deposits in South China. However, their geochronology, petrogenesis and relationship with uranium mineralization were poorly constrained. In this study, apatite U-Pb dating, whole-rock major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analysis were conducted for the dolerite dykes from the Aigao uranium ore deposit. Apatite U-Pb isotopic data indicate that the mafic dykes were emplaced at Early Jurassic (189 ± 4 Ma), which provides new evidence for the rarely identified Early Jurassic magmatism in South China. Pyroxene from the dykes is mainly augite, and plagioclase belongs to albite. The dolerite samples have relatively low SiO2 contents (45.33-46.79 wt%), relatively high total alkali contents (K2O + Na2O = 4.11-4.58 wt%) and Al2O3 contents (13.39-13.80 wt%), and medium MgO contents (4.29-5.16 wt%). They are enriched in Nb, Ta, Ti, rare earth elements and depleted in Rb, K, Sr, Th, showing the typical OIB-like geochemical affinity. All the dolerite samples show homogeneous Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions, with (87Sr/86Sr)i varying from 0.706049 to 0.707137, εNd(t) from +4.6 to +5.2, 206Pb/204Pb from 19.032 to 19.126 and 207Pb/204Pb from 15.641 to 15.653. The mafic dykes in the Aigao deposit should be derived from the partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle and formed in a within-plate extensional environment. The emplacement age of the mafic dykes is older than the uranium mineralization age. Therefore, CO2 in ore-forming fluids couldn't originate from the basaltic magma as suggested by previous studies. The dolerite dykes might only provide a favorable reducing environment to promote the precipitation of uraninite from oxidize hydrothermal fluids.

  19. Timing of the Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (Early Jurassic) from correlation of astronomically forced global stratigraphic sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Hinnov, L. A.; Hesselbo, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) in the Early Jurassic Period is associated with a major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE), mass extinction, marine transgression and global warming. The Toarcian OAE is thought to have been caused by flood basalt magmatism, and may have been a trigger for mass extinction. However, these proposed causes of the Toarcian OAE and associated biotic crisis are not adequately resolved by a precise chronology. The duration of the Toarcian OAE has been estimated to be anywhere from ~0.12 to ~0.9 Myr, most recently 0.74 to 3.26 Myr from U-Pb dating. The CIE associated with the Toarcian OAE has a similar pattern at numerous localities, and there is evidence for astronomical forcing of marine carbon isotopes. Here we estimate a duration of ~625 kyr for the main negative CIE, ~860 kyr for the polymorphum zone and >1.58 Myr for the levisoni zone based on 405-kyr astronomical eccentricity tuning of the marine section at Peniche (Portugal). This 405-kyr tuned series provides a ~2.5 Myr continuous high-resolution chronology through the Early Toarcian. There are 6, or possibly 7 short eccentricity cycles in the main CIE interval at Peniche. To confirm this astronomically based estimate, we analyzed five other sections at Yorkshire (UK), Dotternhausen (Germany), Valdorbia (Italy), Mechowo (Poland) and Serrucho, Neuquén (Argentina), from marine and terrestrial carbon isotopic series. These six stratigraphic sections from Early Jurassic western Tethys and eastern Panthalassa record the Toarcian OAE with ~6 prominent carbon isotope cycles in the CIE that provide us a 600 ± 100 kyr duration. The Peniche 405 kyr-tuned series indicates that the pre- and post-CIE intervals experienced strong precession-eccentricity-forced climate change, whereas the CIE interval is marked by dominant obliquity forcing. These dramatic and abrupt changes in astronomical response in the carbon isotopes point to fundamental shifting in the Early Toarcian

  20. Stratigraphic distribution, taphonomy and paleoenvironments of Spinicaudata in the Triassic and Jurassic of the Paraná Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenisch, Alan Gregory; Lehn, Ilana; Gallego, Oscar Florencio; Monferran, Mateo Daniel; Horodyski, Rodrigo Scalise; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio

    2017-12-01

    Due to the chitino-phosphatic nature of Spinicaudata conchostracan exoskeletons, their carapaces exhibit a low preservational potential compared to other bivalve groups. However, the recent studies point towards the increased tolerance of the carapace against the physical processes. Due to this peculiar characteristic, conchostracan carapace have been utilized as precise temporal markers in estimating stratigraphic and taphonomic parameters. The same characteristic also makes the spinicaudatans useful in evaluating the depositional processes and environments. The present work aims at providing a paleoenvironmental and stratigraphic analysis of conchostracans (Spinicaudata) from the Triassic-Jurassic of the Paraná Basin (Santa Maria and Caturrita formations) in terms of the sedimentary facies analysis, depositional system characterization, and analysis of the taphonomic signatures of the fossiliferous horizons within these formations. The results from the taphonomic study delineates the presence of 4 distinct fossil assemblages based on the causative mechanism and fundamental characteristics of the fossil concentrations: two taphonomic assemblages in the laminated mudstone beds deposited from the decanting fine-grained sediments in floodplains; the sandstone beds with plane parallel laminations and dune- and ripple-cross-stratifications deposited from the flooding-related overflow in the floodplains; and the association of laminated mudstone and massive sandstone beds deposited as the river mouth bars. The results show that the taphonomic signatures, e.g., closed valves, may indicate the various patterns of autochthony and allochthony. In the fine-grained floodplain assemblages, the high degree of preservation can be attributed to autochthony in the conchostracans, whereas the preservational condition of floodplain sandstone sheet and mouth bar assemblages point toward parautochthony and even allochthony. Therefore, the preservational quality of conchostracan

  1. Sedimentology and High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation Carbonates Outcrops in the Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ibrahim; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Abdulghani, Waleed

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the microfacies and sequence stratigraphic frame work of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation in outcrops in central Saudi Arabia. The study contributes to the efforts to understand and enhance local and regional stratigraphic relationship and correlation of the Jurassic carbonate sequences and their significance to reservoir description and prediction in the subsurcae. The study describes and characterizes the sedimentology, microfacies and the stratigraphy of Dhruma Formation from outcrop sections having a total thickness of 70 m. Detailed microfacies and high-resolution stratigraphical analysis were carried out to determine microfacies, cyclicity, sequences and staking pattern. The study revealed ten lithofacies namely: oolitic grainstone,bioclastic oolitic grainstone, oolitic grapestone, bioclastic grainstone,foraminiferal packstone, echinoderm packstone, peloidal packstone to grainstone,skeletal wackestone to packstone, mudstone, and marlstone.These lithofacies were grouped into five lithofacies associations that deposited on a carbonate ramp setting. The depositional environment ranging from low energy lagoonal setting to high-energy shoals and banks to low energy outer ramp setting. Five high-resolution composite sequences have been defined and each sequence is composed at the bottom of intercalated mudstone/wackestone that passing up into grainstone lithofacies.The composite sequences range in thickness from 7 to 15 m, while the parasequences range from 0.5 to 1.5 m. The composite sequences extend laterally for a distance of more than 350 m. The overall composite section shows a shallowing upward succession of the 4th to the 5th order high-resolution sequences.The dominant lithofacies are the grainy ones, which constitute 30%, 50% and 80% of the studied sections. Furthermore, the parasequences thickness and their bio-components are increasing towards the top. The muddy lithofacies intensively affected the vertical continuity of the

  2. Extent and impact of Cretaceous magmatism on the formation and evolution of Jurassic oceanic crust in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H.; Lizarralde, D.; Tominaga, M.; Hart, L.; Tivey, M.; Swift, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-channel seismic (MCS) images and wide-angle sonobuoy data acquired during a 2011 cruise on the R/V Thomas G. Thompson (TN272) show widespread emplacement of igneous sills and broadly thickened oceanic Layer 2 through hundreds of kilometers of oceanic crust in one of the oldest ocean basins in the western Pacific, a region known as the Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ). Oceanic crust from the JQZ has grown through at least two main magmatic phases: It was formed by mid-ocean ridge processes in the Jurassic (at ~170 Ma), and then it was added to by a substantial Cretaceous magmatic event (at ~75-125 Ma). The scale of Cretaceous magmatism is exemplified by massive seafloor features such as the Ontong Java Plateau, Mid-Pacific Mountains, Marshall-Gilbert Islands, Marcus-Wake Seamount Chain, and numerous guyots, seamounts, and volcaniclastic flows observed throughout the region. We use seismic data to image heavily intruded and modified oceanic crust along an 800-km-long transect through the JQZ in order to examine how processes of secondary crustal growth - including magmatic emplacement, transport, and distribution - are expressed in the structure of modified oceanic crust. We also model gravity anomalies to constrain crustal thickness and depth to the Moho. Our observations suggest that western Pacific crust was modified via the following modes of emplacement: (a) extrusive seafloor flows that may or may not have grown into seamounts, (b) seamounts formed through intrusive diking that pushed older sediments aside during their formation, and (c) igneous sills that intruded sediments at varying depths. Emplacement modes (a) and (b) tend to imply a focused, pipe-like mechanism for melt transport through the lithosphere. Such a mechanism does not explain the observed broadly distributed intrusive emplacement of mode (c) however, which may entail successive sill emplacement between igneous basement and sediments thickening oceanic Layer 2 along ~400 km of our seismic line

  3. Discovery of the early Jurassic Gajia mélange in the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone: Southward subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wen; Hu, Xiumian; Zhu, Dicheng; An, Wei; Ma, Anlin

    2017-06-01

    Mélange records a series of geological processes associated with oceanic subduction and continental collision. This paper reports for the first time the presence of Early Jurassic mélange from NW Nagqu in the southern margin of the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone, termed as the Gajia mélange. It shows typically blocks-in-matrix structure with matrix of black shale and siliceous mudstone, and several centimeters to several meters sized blocks of sandstone, silicalite, limestone and basalt. The sandstone blocks consist of homologous sandstone and two types of exotic sandstone, with different modal compositions. The Group 1 of exotic sandstone blocks consists of mainly of feldspar and quartz, whereas the Group 2 is rich in volcanic detritus. The Group 3 of homologous sandstone blocks is rich in feldspar and volcanic detritus with rare occurrence of quartz. U-Pb age data and in situ Hf isotopic compositions of detrital zircons from sandstone blocks are similar to those from the Lhasa terrane, suggesting that the sandstone blocks in the Gajia mélange most probably came from the Lhasa terrane. The YC1σ(2+) age of homologous sandstone blocks is 177 ± 2.4 Ma, suggesting an Early Jurassic depositional age for the sandstones within the Gajia mélange. The Gajia mélange likely records the southward subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean during the Early Jurassic.

  4. Petrosal anatomy and inner ear structures of the Late Jurassic Henkelotherium (Mammalia, Cladotheria, Dryolestoidea): insight into the early evolution of the ear region in cladotherian mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Irina; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Wible, John R; Martin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The petrosal anatomy and inner ear structure of Jurassic cladotherian mammals represent the ancestral morphological conditions (groundplan) from which modern therian mammals (marsupials and placentals) have evolved. We present the reconstruction of the petrosal and inner ear features of the Late Jurassic dryolestoid mammal Henkelotherium guimarotae from high-resolution computed tomography and three-dimensional imaging analysis. This study of Henkelotherium revealed a combination of derived and primitive features, including: cladotherian apomorphies, such as the promontorial sulcus for the internal carotid artery and reduced lateral trough; trechnotherian characters, such as an enclosed cochlear canaliculus for the perilymphatic duct, post-promontorial tympanic sinus and caudal tympanic process; in addition to plesiomorphic mammalian features, such as the cavum supracochleare and prootic canal. The inner ear of Henkelotherium shows a division between the utricle and saccule, a cochlear canal coiled through at least 270°, a distinctive primary bony lamina for the basilar membrane, and a secondary bony lamina. The development of the primary and secondary bony laminae in the cochlear canal is suggested here to be correlated with the concurrent coiling of the bony canal and membranous duct of the inner ear cochlea, apomorphies of the more inclusive cladotherian clade that also represent the ancestral morphotype of modern therian mammals. Because these features are crucial for high-frequency hearing in extant therian mammals, their early appearance in Late Jurassic cladotherians suggests a more ancient origination for high-frequency hearing in mammalian history than previously thought. PMID:19438763

  5. A revision of Sanpasaurus yaoi Young, 1944 from the Early Jurassic of China, and its relevance to the early evolution of Sauropoda (Dinosauria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair W. McPhee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Early Jurassic of China has long been recognized for its diverse array of sauropodomorph dinosaurs. However, the contribution of this record to our understanding of early sauropod evolution is complicated by a dearth of information on important transitional taxa. We present a revision of the poorly known taxon Sanpasaurus yaoi Young, 1944 from the late Early Jurassic Ziliujing Formation of Sichuan Province, southwest China. Initially described as the remains of an ornithopod ornithischian, we demonstrate that the material catalogued as IVPP V156 is unambiguously referable to Sauropoda. Although represented by multiple individuals of equivocal association, Sanpasaurus is nonetheless diagnosable with respect to an autapomorphic feature of the holotypic dorsal vertebral series. Additional material thought to be collected from the type locality is tentatively referred to Sanpasaurus. If correctly attributed, a second autapomorphy is present in a referred humerus. The presence of a dorsoventrally compressed pedal ungual in Sanpasaurus is of particular interest, with taxa possessing this typically ‘vulcanodontid’ character exhibiting a much broader geographic distribution than previously thought. Furthermore, the association of this trait with other features of Sanpasaurus that are broadly characteristic of basal eusauropods underscores the mosaic nature of the early sauropod–eusauropod transition. Our revision of Sanpasaurus has palaeobiogeographic implications for Early Jurassic sauropods, with evidence that the group maintained a cosmopolitan Pangaean distribution.

  6. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  7. ERG review of salt constitutive law, salt stress determinations, and salt corrosion and modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balon, J.E.

    1986-03-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The August 1983 meeting of the ERG reviewed a RE/SPEC technical report containing a review of eight constitutive laws that have been proposed to model the creep of salt over the ranges of stress and temperature anticipated in a nuclear repository. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on this subject and the ONWI responses to the specific points raised by the ERG

  8. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winicov, I [Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, Univ. of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. `Pokkali`. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with {+-} 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from `Pokkali` seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs.

  9. Balancing sub- and supra-salt strain in salt-influenced rifts: Implications for extension estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Alexander J.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Duffy, Oliver B.

    2017-09-01

    The structural style of salt-influenced rifts may differ from those formed in predominantly brittle crust. Salt can decouple sub- and supra-salt strain, causing sub-salt faults to be geometrically decoupled from, but kinematically coupled to and responsible for, supra-salt forced folding. Salt-influenced rifts thus contain more folds than their brittle counterparts, an observation often ignored in extension estimates. Fundamental to determining whether sub- and supra-salt structures are kinematically coherent, and the relative contributions of thin- (i.e. gravity-driven) and thick-skinned (i.e. whole-plate stretching) deformation to accommodating rift-related strain, is our ability to measure extension at both structural levels. We here use published physical models of salt-influenced extension to show that line-length estimates yield more accurate values of sub- and supra-salt extension compared to fault-heave, before applying these methods to seismic data from the Halten Terrace, offshore Norway. We show that, given the abundance of ductile deformation in salt-influenced rifts, significant amounts of extension may be ignored, leading to the erroneous interpretations of thin-skinned, gravity-gliding. If a system is kinematically coherent, supra-salt structures can help predict the occurrence and kinematics of sub-salt faults that may be poorly imaged and otherwise poorly constrained.

  10. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-01-01

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and

  11. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winicov, I.

    1997-01-01

    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. 'Pokkali'. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with ± 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from 'Pokkali' seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  12. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-12-02

    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  13. Petrogenesis of volcanic rocks that host the world-class Agsbnd Pb Navidad District, North Patagonian Massif: Comparison with the Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province of Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhier, Verónica E.; Franchini, Marta B.; Caffe, Pablo J.; Maydagán, Laura; Rapela, Carlos W.; Paolini, Marcelo

    2017-05-01

    We present the first study of the volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation that host the Navidad world-class Ag + Pb epithermal district located in the North Patagonian Massif, Patagonia, Argentina. These volcanic and sedimentary rocks were deposited in a lacustrine environment during an extensional tectonic regime associated with the breakup of Gondwana and represent the mafic to intermediate counterparts of the mainly silicic Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province. Lava flows surrounded by autobrecciated carapace were extruded in subaerial conditions, whereas hyaloclastite and peperite facies suggest contemporaneous subaqueous volcanism and sedimentation. LA-ICPMS Usbnd Pb ages of zircon crystals from the volcanic units yielded Middle Jurassic ages of 173.9 ± 1.9 Ma and 170.8 ± 3 Ma. In the Navidad district, volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation show arc-like signatures including high-K basaltic-andesite to high-K dacite compositions, Rb, Ba and Th enrichment relative to the less mobile HFS elements (Nb, Ta), enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), Ysbnd Ti depletion, and high Zr contents. These characteristics could be explained by assimilation of crustal rocks in the Jurassic magmas, which is also supported by the presence of zircon xenocrysts with Permian and Middle-Upper Triassic ages (281.3 Ma, 246.5, 218.1, and 201.3 Ma) and quartz xenocrysts recognized in these volcanic units. Furthermore, Sr and Nd isotope compositions suggest a contribution of crustal components in these Middle Jurassic magmas. High-K basaltic andesite has initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70416-0.70658 and ξNd(t) values of -5.3 and -4. High-K dacite and andesite have initial 87Sr/86Sr compositions of 0.70584-0.70601 and ξNd(t) values of -4,1 and -3,2. The range of Pb isotope values (206Pb/204Pb = 18.28-18.37, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.61-15.62, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.26-38.43) of Navidad volcanic rocks and ore minerals suggest mixing Pb sources with contributions of

  14. Mesozoic (Lower Jurassic) red stromatactis limestones from the Southern Alps (Arzo, Switzerland): calcite mineral authigenesis and syneresis-type deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuweiler, Fritz; Bernoulli, Daniel

    2005-02-01

    The Broccatello lithological unit (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian to lower parts of Upper Sinemurian) near the village of Arzo (southern Alps, southern Switzerland) is a mound-shaped carbonate deposit that contains patches of red stromatactis limestone. Within the largely bioclastic Broccatello unit, the stromatactis limestone is distinguished by its early-diagenetic cavity system, a relatively fine-grained texture, and an in-situ assemblage of calcified siliceous sponges (various demosponges and hexactinellids). A complex shallow subsurface diagenetic pathway can be reconstructed from sediment petrography in combination with comparative geochemical analysis (carbon and oxygen isotopes; trace and rare earth elements, REE + Y). This pathway includes organic matter transformation, aragonite and skeletal opal dissolution, patchy calcification and lithification, sediment shrinkage, sagging and collapse, partial REE remobilization, and multiple sediment infiltration. These processes occurred under normal-marine, essentially oxic conditions and were independent from local, recurring syn-sedimentary faulting. It is concluded that the stromatactis results from a combination of calcite mineral authigenesis and syneresis-type deformation. The natural stromatactis phenomenon may thus be best explained by maturation processes of particulate polymer gels expected to form in fine-grained carbonate sediments in the shallow subsurface. Conditions favorable for the evolution of stromatactis appear to be particularly frequent during drowning of tropical or subtropical carbonate platforms.

  15. A special kind of sandstone-type uranium deposit related to Jurassic palaeochannel systems in the northeastern Ordos Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziying; Fang Xiheng; Xia Yuliang; Sun Ye; Jiao Yangquan; Chen Anping; Zhang Ke

    2010-01-01

    Dongsheng sandstone-type uranium deposit is a large one discovered in recent years in the northeastern Ordos Basin, China. It is a special kind of sandstone-type uranium deposit,different from other ordinary sandstone-type deposits because of its unique signatures. It is generally controlled by a transitional zone between greenish and grayish sandstones, both of those two kinds of sandstones now indicate reduced geochemical environments. The greenish color of the palaeo-oxidized sandstones mainly results from chloritization and epidotization related to oil and gas secondary reduction processes. The deposit genetically is different from ordinary sandstone uranium deposits,which is of more complex origin,undergoing not only palaeo-oxidization mineralization process, but also oil-gas fluid and hydrothermal reworking processes. It is spatially related to Jurassic Zhiluo Formation with braided palaeo channel systems. The uranium mineralization zone with higher grade usually exists in the branching area of the distributary channels of main braided streams, whose sandstone heterogeneity shows a transfer sedimentary facies from the braided stream sedimentary system to the braided delta sedimentary system. Statistical results show that medium and fine-grained sandstones are the most favorable rock types for uranium mineralization. (authors)

  16. Lithology and uranium potential of Jurassic formations in the San Ysidro--Cuba and majors ranch areas, northwestern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.S.

    1975-01-01

    The aggregate thickness of sedimentary rocks of Jurassic age near the eastern and southeastern margin of the San Juan Basin in Sandoval County, N. Mex., is about 1150 feet (350 metres). The Entrada Sandstone is the base. The Entrada Sandstone, 97 to 227 feet (30 to 69 m) thick, consists of red and brown siltstone and fine-grained sandstone and brown and white sandstone. The Todilto Formation, 5 to 125 feet (1.5 to 38 m) thick, consists of a limestone unit and a massive white gypsum unit. The Summerville Formation, 0 to 50 feet (0 to 15 m) thick, consists of variegated, interstratified mudstone, claystone, siltstone, and sandstone. The Morrison Formation, 750 to 870 feet (229 to 265 m) thick, is divided into three members. The Recapture Member consists mainly of red and white color-banded fine-grained sandstone. The Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin Members consist mainly of red and green mudstone interstratified with grayish-orange arkosic sandstone. The upper unit of the Brushy Basin Member is called the Jackpile sandstone, a name of economic usage. Most of the sandstone in the Morrison Formation above the Recapture Member in the area studied is considered to be a potential host for uranium ore deposits. (auth)

  17. Breccia pipes in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, as conduits for metamorphic gases to the Early Jurassic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkoset, Petter; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

    2014-05-01

    The Toarcian (Early Jurassic) event was manifested by globally elevated temperatures and anoxic ocean conditions that particularly affected shallow marine taxa. The event coincided with the emplacement of the vast Karoo-Ferrar Large Igneous Province. Among the suggestions for trigger mechanisms for the climatic perturbation is metamorphic methane generation from black shale around the sills in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. The sill emplacement provides a mechanism for voluminous in-situ production and emission of greenhouse gases, and establishes a distinct link between basin-trapped and atmospheric carbon. In the lower stratigraphic levels of the Karoo Basin, black shales are metamorphosed around sills and the sediments are cut by a large number of pipe structures with metamorphic haloes. The pipes are vertical, cylindrical structures that contain brecciated and baked sediments with variable input of magmatic material. Here, we present borehole, petrographic, geochemical and field data from breccia pipes and contact aureoles based on field campaigns over a number of years (2004-2014). The metamorphism around the pipes show equivalent metamorphic grade as the sediments around nearby sills, suggesting a more prominent phreatomagmatic component than previously thought. The stratigraphic position of pipes and the breccia characteristics strengthens the hypothesis of a key role in the Toarcian carbon isotope excursion.

  18. A Late Jurassic fossil assemblage in Gondwana: Biostratigraphy and correlations of the Tacuarembó Formation, Parana Basin, Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Daniel; Soto, Matías; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Martínez, Sergio; Ubilla, Martín

    2009-08-01

    The Tacuarembó Formation has yielded a fossil assemblage that includes the best known body fossils, consisting of isolated scales, teeth, spines, and molds of bones, recovered from thin and patchy bonebeds, from the Botucatu Desert, Parana Basin, South America. The remains are preserved in the sandstones widespread around the city of Tacuarembó. We propose a new formalized nomenclature for the Tacuarembó Formation, naming its "Lower" and "Upper" members as the Batoví (new name) and Rivera (new rank) members, respectively. An assemblage zone is defined for the Batoví Member (fluviolacustrine and aeolian deposits). In this unit, the freshwater hybodontid shark Priohybodusarambourgi D'Erasmo is well represented. This species was previously recorded in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous units of the Sahara and the southern Arabian Peninsula. Globally considered, the fossil assemblage of this member ( P. arambourgi, dipnoan fishes, Ceratosaurus-like theropods, and conchostracans) is indicative of a Kimmeridgian-Tithonian age, which in combination with the stratigraphic relationships of the Tacuarembó Formation with the overlying basalts of the Arapey Formation (132 My average absolute age) implies that the latter was deposited during the Kimmeridgian-Hauterivian interval.

  19. Absolute paleointensity of the Earth's magnetic field during Jurassic: case study of La Negra Formation (northern Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juan; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Alva-Valdivia, Luis M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2003-08-01

    We carried out a detailed rock-magnetic and paleointensity study of the ˜187-Ma volcanic succession from northern Chile. A total of 32 consecutive lava flows (about 280 oriented standard paleomagnetic cores) were collected at the Tocopilla locality. Only 26 samples with apparently preserved primary magnetic mineralogy and without secondary magnetization components were pre-selected for Thellier paleointensity determination. Eleven samples coming from four lava flows yielded reliable paleointensity estimates. The flow-mean virtual dipole moments range from 3.7±0.9 to 7.1±0.5 (10 22 A m 2). This corresponds to a mean value of (5.0±1.8)×10 22 A m 2, which is in reasonably good agreement with other comparable quality paleointensity determinations from the Middle Jurassic. Given the large dispersion and the very poor distribution of reliable absolute intensity data, it is hard to draw any firm conclusions regarding the time evolution of the geomagnetic field. To cite this article: J. Morales et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  20. Hg concentrations from Late Triassic and Early Jurassic sedimentary rocks: first order similarities and second order depositional and diagenetic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, J. A.; West, A. J.; Bergquist, B. A.; Thibodeau, A. M.; Corsetti, F. A.; Berelson, W.; Bottjer, D. J.; Rosas, S.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury concentrations in sediments have recently gained prominence as a potential tool for identifying large igneous province (LIP) volcanism in sedimentary records. LIP volcanism coincides with several mass extinctions during the Phanerozoic, but it is often difficult to directly tie LIP activity with the record of extinction in marine successions. Here, we build on mercury concentration data reported by Thibodeau et al. (Nature Communications, 7:11147, 2016) from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic of New York Canyon, Nevada, USA. Increases in Hg concentrations in that record were attributed to Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) activity in association with the end-Triassic mass extinction. We expand the measured section from New York Canyon and report new mercury concentrations from Levanto, Peru, where dated ash beds provide a discrete chronology, as well as St. Audrie's Bay, UK, a well-studied succession. We correlate these records using carbon isotopes and ammonites and find similarities in the onset of elevated Hg concentrations and Hg/TOC in association with changes in C isotopes. We also find second order patterns that differ between sections and may have depositional and diagenetic controls. We will discuss these changes within a sedimentological framework to further understand the controls on Hg concentrations in sedimentary records and their implications for past volcanism.

  1. The dentition of the enigmatic pycnodont fish, Athrodon wittei (Fricke, 1876 (Neopterygii, Pycnodontiformes; Late Jurassic; NW Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kriwet

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Most pycnodontiform fishes are represented by their distinctive dentition alone, whereas articulated skeletons are very rare and the systematic position of most taxa based upon isolated teeth and the association of upper and lower dentitions to a specific taxon is still somewhat ambiguous in most cases. The vomerine dentition of the Late Jurassic pycnodontiform Athrodon wittei (Fricke, 1876, which is described here for the first time, is characterised by a high number of lateral tooth rows and the distinct morphology of the teeth. The dentition of Athrodon differs from most other pycnodont dentitions in the peculiar arrangement of the teeth into irregular rows and not well-differentiated principal row. The absence of regular tooth rows is not considered plesiomorphic here but most probably was achieved independently in different pycnodont lineages. The high number of lateral tooth rows (> four is considered to be autapomorphic for Athrodon. The pycnodont fish Nonaphalagodus from the Albian of Texas, which also is known by isolated dentitions only, resembles Athrodon in the high number of vomerine tooth rows but differs in that this taxon displays the more derived feature of the teeth being arranged more regularly and individualized rows. doi:10.1002/mmng.200800002

  2. Depositional features of the Middle Jurassic formation of Field N and their influence on optimal drilling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishina, D; Rukavishnikov, V; Belozerov, B; Bochkov, A

    2015-01-01

    The Middle Jurassic formation of Field N represented by 4 hydrodynamically connected layers (J5-6, J4, J3 and J2) contains 42% of the field STOIIP. The J2-6 formation is characterized as a gas-oil-condensate massive lithologically and tectonically screened accumulation with a gas cap (J2, J3 layers) and bottom water (J5-6 layer). Oil is predominantly in the J3 and J4 layers. There is a high risk of early gas coning from gas-bearing layers to oil producing wells determined on the basis of production test results, which can significantly decrease the life of the well. To select a more optimal drilling schedule, it is necessary to take the risk of early gas coning into account and determine distinctive features within the gas- saturated zone that can reduce it. The presence of a thick shale barrier between the J2 and J3 layers with thicknesses varying from 0 to 30 m is recognized as the beginning of a transgression cycle, and if the gas cap is only in the J2 layer, this barrier with the thickness of more than 5 m can extensively prevent early gas coning into oil producing wells. The integration of geological information represented by the probability map constructed and petrophysical information represented by the kh map provide the more precise determination of an optimal drilling schedule

  3. Basinwide sedimentation and the continuum of paleoflow in an ancient river system: Kayenta Formation (Lower Jurassic), central portion Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, Patty Rubick

    1993-05-01

    Utilizing detailed documentation of alluvial architecture to reconstruct the continuum of paleoflow (perennial, intermittent, ephemeral), a basinwide study of the Kayenta Formation (Lower Jurassic) reveals that the northern half of the basin is characterized by sandy, low-sinuosity fluvial systems which exhibit perennial (Assoc. 1) to intermittent (Assoc. 2) discharge indicators. The rivers had headwaters east of the Uncompahgre Highlands (western Colorado) and flowed southwest across the basin depositing a braidplain of channel sands with well-preserved 3-dimensional macroforms. One significant aspect of the macroform architecture is documentation of macroform climb in both an upstream and downstream direction. The macroforms aggrade vertically by climbing (maximum 10° dip in an upstream direction) and migrating over the backs (upstream ends) of underlying macroforms. The process of macroform climb records a minimum water depth of 8 m and a maximum of 16 m which places the Kayenta perennial waterways (Assoc. 1) within a mesothermal hydrologic regime. The southern portion of the basin contains intermittent (Assoc. 2) to ephemeral (Assoc. 3) fluvial deposits, extensive floodplain preservation and eolian dune and interdune/sandsheet deposition (Assoc. 4). A tributary drainage pattern to the northwest was established by smaller, low- to moderately-sinuous streams. Eolian dune and interdune deposits migrated across this more arid windswept portion of the basin. The range of alluvial architecture present in the Kayenta attests to the diversity that can be found in a small continental sedimentary basin.

  4. Architectural element analysis within the Kayenta Formation (Lower Jurassic) using ground-probing radar and sedimentological profiling, southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mark

    1994-05-01

    A well exposed outcrop in the Kayenta Formation (Lower Jurassic) in southwestern Colorado was examined in order to delineate the stratigraphy in the subsurface and test the usefulness of ground-probing radar (GPR) in three-dimensional architectural studies. Two fluvial styles are present within the Kayenta Formation. Sandbodies within the lower third of the outcrop are characterized by parallel laminations that can be followed in the cliff-face for well over 300 m. These sandbodies are sheet-like in appearance, and represent high-energy flood deposits that most likely resulted from episodic floods. The remainder of the outcrop is characterized by concave-up channel deposits with bank-attached and mid-channel macroforms. Their presence suggests a multiple channel river system. The GPR data collected on the cliff-top, together with sedimentological data, provided a partial three-dimensional picture of the paleo-river system within the Kayenta Formation. The 3-D picture consists of stacked channel-bar lenses approximately 50 m in diameter. The GPR technique offers a very effective means of delineating the subsurface stratigraphy. Its high resolution capabilities, easy mobility, and rapid rate of data collection make it a useful tool. Its shallow penetration depth and limitation to low-conductivity environments are its only drawbacks.

  5. Architectural elements and bounding surfaces in fluvial deposits: anatomy of the Kayenta formation (lower jurassic), Southwest Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miall, Andrew D.

    1988-03-01

    Three well-exposed outcrops in the Kayenta Formation (Lower Jurassic), near Dove Creek in southwestern Colorado, were studied using lateral profiles, in order to test recent regarding architectural-element analysis and the classification and interpretation of internal bounding surfaces. Examination of bounding surfaces within and between elements in the Kayenta outcrops raises problems in applying the three-fold classification of Allen (1983). Enlarging this classification to a six-fold hierarchy permits the discrimination of surfaces intermediate between Allen's second- and third-order types, corresponding to the upper bounding surfaces of macroforms, and internal erosional "reactivation" surfaces within the macroforms. Examples of the first five types of surface occur in the Kayenta outcrops at Dove Creek. The new classifications is offered as a general solution to the problem of description of complex, three-dimensional fluvial sandstone bodies. The Kayenta Formation at Dove Creek consists of a multistorey sandstone body, including the deposits of lateral- and downstream-accreted macroforms. The storeys show no internal cyclicity, neither within individual elements nor through the overall vertical thickness of the formation. Low paleocurrent variance indicates low sinuosity flow, whereas macroform geometry and orientation suggest low to moderate sinuosity. The many internal minor erosion surfaces draped with mud and followed by intraclast breccias imply frequent rapid stage fluctuation, consistent with variable (seasonal? monsonal? ephemmeral?) flow. The results suggest a fluvial architecture similar to that of the South Saskatchewan River, through with a three-dimensional geometry unlike that interpreted from surface studies of that river.

  6. Trajectories of Late Permian – Jurassic radiolarian extinction rates: no evidence for an end-Triassic mass extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kiessling

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that ocean acidification was a proximate trigger of the marine end-Triassic mass extinction rests on the assumption that taxa that strongly invest in the secretion of calcium-carbonate skeletons were significantly more affected by the crisis than other taxa. An argument against this hypothesis is the great extinction toll of radiolarians that has been reported from work on local sections. Radiolarians have siliceous tests and thus should be less affected by ocean acidification. We compiled taxonomically vetted occurrences of late Permian and Mesozoic radiolarians and analyzed extinction dynamics of radiolarian genera. Although extinction rates were high at the end of the Triassic, there is no evidence for a mass extinction in radiolarians but rather significantly higher background extinction in the Triassic than in the Jurassic. Although the causes for this decline in background extinction levels remain unclear, the lack of a major evolutionary response to the end-Triassic event, gives support for the hypothesis that ocean acidification was involved in the dramatic extinctions of many calcifying taxa. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000017

  7. Regional diagenesis of sandstone in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansley, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports that early authigenic mineral assemblages and vitroclastic textures are very well preserved in upper sandstones of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. The distributions of the authigenic minerals were controlled, in part, by chemical gradients in a large saline, alkaline lake (Lake T'oo'dichi) that existed in late Morrison time. Sandstones on lake margins were cemented by smectite and silica, whereas sandstones nearer the lake center, in which waters were most saline and alkaline, were cemented by zeolites. Diagenetic alterations in sandstones were promoted by alkaline interstitial waters that emanated from adjacent fine-grained, tuffaceous lake beds. Metastable phases that precipitated first were replaced relatively quickly by more stable, ordered phases in the geochemically favorable environment of the closed basin setting. Elevation of temperatures above the geothermal gradient was proved by the influx of warm, deep-basin waters that locally modified early diagenetic assemblages during burial diagenesis. In organic- (and commonly also uranium ore-) bearing sandstones located primarily in the southern part of the basin, complex diagenetic assemblages resulted from water/rock reactions involving soluble organic complexes

  8. Fertile organs and in situ spores of a new dipteridaceous fern Hausmannia sinensis from the Jurassic of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongdong; Zhang, Hong

    2010-01-22

    As a representative fossil member of the dipteridaceous fern, genus Hausmannia was reported worldwide from the Mesozoic strata; however, little is known about the fertile structures, including sporangia and in situ spores, of this genus. In this study, a new species Hausmannia sinensis was identified from the Middle Jurassic of Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), northern China. The specimens are compressions and are well preserved with details of sporangia and in situ spores. The leaf laminae are broadly fan-shaped, with an almost entire margin. Primary and lateral veins dichotomously branch to form square or polygonal meshes. Each ultimate mesh bears one to two circular sori of 0.4 mm in diameter. Sori are exindusiate; each sorus contains three to six round to ovoid sporangia. The annulus is developed and oblique, with stomial region present in proximal position. Spores are trilete, circular to oval in shape. Both proximal and distal surfaces are covered with baculate to subverrucate sculptures. Spores range from 20 to 30 microm in diameter (average 28 microm), and are comparable to the dispersed genera Baculatisporites Thomas and Pflug and Apiculatisporis Potonié and Kremp. Hausmannia sinensis represents the first compression species of genus Hausmannia form Eurasia, which shows the combination of well-preserved sori, sporangia, annuli and in situ spore characters, and is therefore helpful for further understanding the diversity and evolution of the Dipteridaceae fern lineage through time.

  9. Mined salt storage feasibility: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This study addresses a method of eliminating the surface storage of mined salt at the Deaf Smith repository site. It provides rough estimates of the logistics and costs of transporting 3.7 million tons of salt from the repository to the salt disposal site near Carlsbad, New Mexico and returning it to the repository for decommissioning backfill. The study assumes that a railcar/truck system will be installed and that the excavated salt will be transported from the repository to an existing potash mine located near Carlsbad, New Mexico approximately 300 miles from the repository. The 3.7 million tons of salt required for repository decommissioning backfill can be stored in the potash mines along with the excess salt, with no additional capital costs required for either a railcar or a truck transportation system. The capital cost for facilities to reclaim the 3.7 million tons of salt from the potash mine is estimated to be $4,400,000 with either a rail or truck transportation system. Segregating the 3.7 million tons of backfill salt in a surface storage area at the potash mine requires a capital cost of $13,900,000 with a rail system or $11,400,000 with a truck system. Transportation costs are estimated at $0.08/ton-mile for rail and $0.13/ton-mile for truck. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Specific investigations related to salt rock behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vons, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. In the French contribution the geological conditions have been investigated that might promote or prevent the formation of salt domes from layers in view of possible use of the latter type of formation. This was done theoretically by the finite element method, and a start was made with centrifuge tests. The density of a number of samples from salt and overburden from the Bresse basin was measured and it was shown that a favourable condition exists in this region for waste disposal. In the German contribution various subjects are touched upon, one being the effect of water on the mobility in the early stages of salt dome formation. Evidence was found for an anisotropy in salt. One Dutch contribution describes results of studies on the effect of small amounts of water on the rheology of salt. The results imply that flow laws obtained for salt at rapid strain rates and/or low confining pressure cannot be reliably extrapolated to predict the long term behaviour of wet or even very dry material under natural conditions. Preliminary results on the effect of water upon ion-mobility indicate a certain pseudo-absorptive capacity of salt e.g. for Sr

  11. Fundamentals of molten-salt thermal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This book has been published by the Society of Molten-Salt Thermal Technology to publish a part of the achievement of its members. This book is composed of seven chapters. The chapter 1 is Introduction. The chapter 2 explains the physical properties of molten salts, such as thermal behavior, surface tension, viscosity, electrical conductivity and others. The chapter 3 presents the compatibility with construction materials. Corrosion in molten salts, the electrochemical behavior of fluoride ions on carbon electrodes in fluoride melts, the behaviors of hastelloy N and metals in melts are items of this chapter. The equipments and instruments for molten salts are described in chapter 4. The heat transfer in molten salts is discussed in chapter 5. The chapter 6 explains the application of molten salt technology. The molten salt technology can be applied not only to thermal engineering and energy engineering but also to chemical and nuclear engineerings, and the technical fundamentals, current development status, technical problems and the perspective for the future are outlined. The chapter 7 is the summary of this book. The commercialization of molten salt power reactors is discussed at the end of this book. (Kato, T.)

  12. Salt extraction by poulticing : an NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voronina, V.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization of salts is widely recognized as one of the most significant causes of damage to many cultural objects consisting of porous materials, such as monuments, sculptures, historic buildings, wall paintings, etc. A common response to salt damage problems are treatments aimed at

  13. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  14. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...

  15. Disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts from the Molten Salt Reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is an 8 MW reactor that was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1965 through 1969. The reactor used a unique liquid salt fuel, composed of a mixture of LIF, BeF 2 , ZrF 4 , and UF 4 , and operated at temperatures above 600 degrees C. The primary fuel salt circulation system consisted of the reactor vessel, a single fuel salt pump, and a single primary heat exchanger. Heat was transferred from the fuel salt to a coolant salt circuit in the primary heat exchanger. The coolant salt was similar to the fuel salt, except that it contains only LiF (66%) and BeF, (34%). The coolant salt passed from the primary heat exchanger to an air-cooled radiator and a coolant salt pump, and then returned to the primary heat exchanger. Each of the salt loops was provided with drain tanks, located such that the salt could be drained out of either circuit by gravity. A single drain tank was provided for the non-radioactive coolant salt. Two drain tanks were provided for the fuel salt. Since the fuel salt contained radioactive fuel, fission products, and activation products, and since the reactor was designed such that the fuel salt could be drained immediately into the drain tanks in the event of a problem in the fuel salt loop, the fuel salt drain tanks were provided with a system to remove the heat generated by radioactive decay. A third drain tank connected to the fuel salt loop was provided for a batch of flush salt. This batch of salt, similar in composition to the coolant salt, was used to condition the fuel salt loop after it had been exposed to air and to flush the fuel salt loop of residual fuel salt prior to accessing the reactor circuit for maintenance or experimental activities. This report discusses the disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salt

  16. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, J.A.; Garcia, E.; Dole, V.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed.

  17. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, James A.; Garcia, Eduardo; Dole, Vonda R.; Griego, Walter J.

    1995-01-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed

  18. Dam construction in salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmann, N.; Beinlich, A.; Flach, D.; Jockwer, N.; Klarr, K.; Krogmann, P.; Miehe, R.; Schmidt, M.W.; Schwaegermann, H.F.; Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1991-11-01

    Barriers are a major component of the satefy concept for the Gorleben repository. The construction and performance of dams are currently tested within the framework of a project carried out in the Asse salt mine. A measuring programme has been established to give evidence of the sealing capacities of a barrier consisting of an abatement, long-term sealing material, and a hydraulic sealing system. Tests are to be made to verify the barrier's performance for shorter of long time periods (up to about 500 years). The tests are assisted by computed models established for the project. The long-term safety aspects to be studied include such conditions as permeability changes due to mechanical impacts, circulation conditions at the roadside, and the serviceable life and efficiency of the sealing components. (DG) [de

  19. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Shibad, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  20. Fluid migration studies in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefelbine, H.C.; Raines, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    This discussion will be limited to the migration of water trapped in the rock salt under the influence of the heat field produced by nuclear waste. This is of concern because hypotheticl scenarios have been advanced in which this fluid movement allows radionuclides to escape to the biosphere. While portions of these scenarios are supported by observation, none of the complete scenarios has been demonstrated. The objectives of the present fluid migration studies are two-fold: 1. determine the character of the trapped fluid in terms of quantity, habitat and chemical constituents; and 2. define the mechanisms that cause the fluid to migrate toward heat sources. Based on the observations to date, fluid migration will not have a major impact on repository integrity. However, the above objectives will be pursued until the impacts, if any, can be quantified

  1. Hopper Growth of Salt Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desarnaud, Julie; Derluyn, Hannelore; Carmeliet, Jan; Bonn, Daniel; Shahidzadeh, Noushine

    2018-06-07

    The growth of hopper crystals is observed for many substances, but the mechanism of their formation remains ill understood. Here we investigate their growth by performing evaporation experiments on small volumes of salt solutions. We show that sodium chloride crystals that grow very fast from a highly supersaturated solution form a peculiar form of hopper crystal consisting of a series of connected miniature versions of the original cubic crystal. The transition between cubic and such hopper growth happens at a well-defined supersaturation where the growth rate of the cubic crystal reaches a maximum (∼6.5 ± 1.8 μm/s). Above this threshold, the growth rate varies as the third power of supersaturation, showing that a new mechanism, controlled by the maximum speed of surface integration of new molecules, induces the hopper growth of cubic crystals in cascade.

  2. Chemical characterisation of himalayan rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.U.; Din, M.U.

    2017-01-01

    Present study involves the chemical evaluation of rock salt samples collected from the plugging sites of Himalayan salt (Khewra salt mines and Kalabagh salt mines) for their moisture content, water insoluble matter, calcium, magnesium, sulphate content and trace minerals such as Fe,Cu,Cd,Pb,As,Ag and Zn determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Moisture content of Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples ranged from 0.03 wt. % to 0.09 wt. % and 0.06 % to 0.08 %, respectively. Water insoluble matter ranged from 0.08 wt. % to 1.4 wt. % and 1.5 wt. % to 2.8wt. % for Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples, respectively. Sulphate content for Khewra salt sample was from 0.39 % to 0.91 % and for Kalabagh salt mines from 0.75 wt. % to 0.95 wt. %. For Khewra salt mines calcium ranged 0.15 wt. % to 0.32 wt. % and for Kalabagh salt samples from 0.1 wt. % to 0.27 wt. %. Magnesium ranged from 0.11 wt. % to 0.35 wt. % for Khewra salt mines, while for Kalabagh salt samples its range was 0.18 wt. % to 0.89 wt. %. Trace metals had the concentration ranges between 0.2 to 1.85 mg/kg for copper; between 0.21 to 0.42 mg/kg for manganese; between 0.04 to 0.06 mg/kg for zinc; between 0.12 to 0.18 mg/kg for arsenic and between 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg for lead while cadmium content was either below the method's detection limits or in very trace amounts. The results show that the concentrations of all the parameters studied are below the limits set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Therefore, it can be concluded from the paper that the Himalayan salt from the plugging sites of Khewra and Kalabagh salt mines are safe to use. (author)

  3. Vitrification in the presence of salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.C.; Andrews, M.K.; Schumacher, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Glass is an advantageous material for the immobilization of nuclear wastes because of the simplicity of processing and its unique ability to accept a wide variety of waste elements into its network structure. Unfortunately, some anionic species which are present in the nuclear waste streams have only limited solubility in oxide glasses. This can result in either vitrification concerns or it can affect the integrity, of the final vitrified waste form. The presence of immiscible salts can also corrode metals and refractories in the vitrification unit as well as degrade components in the off-gas system. The presence of a molten salt layer on the melt may alter the batch melting rate and increase operational safety concerns. These safety concerns relate to the interaction of the molten salt and the melter cooling fluids. Some preliminary data from ongoing experimental efforts examining the solubility of molten salts in glasses and the interaction of salts with melter component materials is included

  4. Molten salt processes in special materials preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    As a class, molten salts are the largest collection of non aqueous inorganic solvents. On account of their stability at high temperature and compatibility to a number of process requirements, molten salts are considered indispensable to realize many of the numerous benefits of high temperature technology. They play a crucial role and form the basis for numerous elegant processes for the preparation of metals and materials. Molten salt are considered versatile heat transfer media and have led to the evolution of many interesting reactor concepts in fission and possibly in fusion. They also have been the basis of thinking for few novel processes for power generation. While focusing principally on the actual utilization of molten salts for a variety of materials preparation efforts in BARC, this lecture also covers a few of the other areas of technological applications together with the scientific basis for considering the molten salts in such situations. (author)

  5. SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D.M.

    1959-01-20

    It has bee