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Sample records for jupiter state-of-the-art total

  1. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 2: An Assessment of the Current State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Results of a state-of-the-art assessment of technology areas which affect the Earth Resources Program are presented along with a functional description of the basic earth resources system. Major areas discussed include: spacecraft flight hardware, remote sensors, data processing techniques and hardware, user models, user interfaces, and operations technology.

  2. State-of-the-art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents a short overview on the state-of-the-art of wave tank testing of wave energy converters (WEC). Here for, it focuses mainly on the Phase 1 and 2 development phases of wave energy converters, as these are done in the wave tank (WEC), while the other development phases are perfo...... are performed in non-controllable open sea conditions....

  3. Total selenium and selenomethionine in pharmaceutical yeast tablets: assessment of the state of the art of measurement capabilities through international intercomparison CCQM-P86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenaga-Infante, H; Sturgeon, R; Turner, J; Hearn, R; Sargent, M; Maxwell, P; Yang, L; Barzev, A; Pedrero, Z; Cámara, C; Díaz Huerta, V; Fernández Sánchez, M L; Sanz-Medel, A; Emese, K; Fodor, P; Wolf, W; Goldschmidt, R; Vacchina, V; Szpunar, J; Valiente, L; Huertas, R; Labarraque, G; Davis, C; Zeisler, R; Turk, G; Rizzio, E; Mackay, L G; Myors, R B; Saxby, D L; Askew, S; Chao, W; Jun, W

    2008-01-01

    Results of an international intercomparison study (CCQM-P86) to assess the analytical capabilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) and selected expert laboratories worldwide to accurately quantitate the mass fraction of selenomethionine (SeMet) and total Se in pharmaceutical tablets of selenised-yeast supplements (produced by Pharma Nord, Denmark) are presented. The study, jointly coordinated by LGC Ltd., UK, and the Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada (NRCC), was conducted under the auspices of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) Inorganic Analysis Working Group and involved 15 laboratories (from 12 countries), of which ten were NMIs. Apart from a protocol for determination of moisture content and the provision of the certified reference material (CRM) SELM-1 to be used as the quality control sample, no sample preparation/extraction method was prescribed. A variety of approaches was thus used, including single-step and multiple-step enzymatic hydrolysis, enzymatic probe sonication and hydrolysis with methanesulfonic acid for SeMet, as well as microwave-assisted acid digestion and enzymatic probe sonication for total Se. For total Se, detection techniques included inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) with external calibration, standard additions or isotope dilution MS (IDMS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry , flame atomic absorption spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. For determination of SeMet in the tablets, five NMIs and three academic/institute laboratories (of a total of five) relied upon measurements using IDMS. For species-specific IDMS measurements, an isotopically enriched standard of SeMet (76Se-enriched SeMet) was made available. A novel aspect of this study relies on the approach used to distinguish any errors which arise during analysis of a SeMet calibration solution from those which occur during analysis of

  4. State of the art Open standaarden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manderveld, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Manderveld, J. (2004). State of the art Open standaarden. In: Van Geloven, M., Koper, R. & Van der Veen, J., E-learning trends (pp. 10-12). Utrecht, Stichting Digitale Universiteit.
    Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/212

  5. State of the art Open standaarden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manderveld, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Manderveld, J. (2004). State of the art Open standaarden. In: Van Geloven, M., Koper, R. & Van der Veen, J., E-learning trends (pp. 10-12). Utrecht, Stichting Digitale Universiteit.
    Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/212

  6. Multimodal Dialogue Management - State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.

    This report is about the state of the art in dialogue management. We first introduce an overview of a multimodal dialogue system and its components. Second, four main approaches to dialogue management are described (finite-state and frame-based, information-state based and probabilistic, plan-based,

  7. Smart antennas: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Boche, Holger; Bourdoux, André; Rodríguez Fonollosa, Javier; Kaiser, Thomas; Molisch, Andreas F.; Utschick, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Aim of this contribution is to illustrate the state of the art of smart antenna research from several perspectives. The bow is drawn from transmitter issues via channel measurements and modeling, receiver signal processing, network aspects, technological challenges towards first smart antenna applications and current status of standardization. Moreover, some future prospects of different disciplines in smart antenna research are given. Peer Reviewed

  8. State-of-the-art inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gerven, K.A.J.; Akkerman, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    The present report provides a state-of-the-art inventory of relevant information and technical concepts for the ComCoast project, being the first phase of the research stages of Work Package 3 (WP3). This project was assigned to Royal Haskoning by CUR. The information scan was set-up in a systematic

  9. State-of-the-Art bewaarsysteem tulpenbollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J.; Kok, M.; Kreuk, F.

    2007-01-01

    Het State-of-the-Art systeem voor het bewaren van tulpenbollen bestaat uit 4 componenten waarvan in eerder onderzoek is aangetoond dat deze ieder afzonderlijk veel energie kunnen besparen: 1) De moderne systeemwand met afgeronde uitblaasopeningen en een interne schuine wand en 2) de aangepaste kuubs

  10. State of the Art of Mechanical Circulatory Support

    OpenAIRE

    Mallidi, Hari R.; Anand, Jatin; Cohn, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support of the failing heart has become an important means of treating end-stage heart disease. This rapidly growing therapeutic field has produced impressive clinical outcomes and has great potential to help thousands of otherwise terminal patients worldwide. In this review, we examine the state of the art of mechanical circulatory support: current practice, totally implantable systems of the future, evolving biventricular support mechanisms, the potential for myocardi...

  11. Clinical supervision: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falender, Carol A; Shafranske, Edward P

    2014-11-01

    Since the recognition of clinical supervision as a distinct professional competence and a core competence, attention has turned to ensuring supervisor competence and effective supervision practice. In this article, we highlight recent developments and the state of the art in supervision, with particular emphasis on the competency-based approach. We present effective clinical supervision strategies, providing an integrated snapshot of the current status. We close with consideration of current training practices in supervision and challenges.

  12. Chyluria: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttilla, Andrea; Beltrami, Paolo; Bettin, Laura; Galantini, Andrea; Dal Moro, Fabrizio; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2017-03-27

    Chyluria is the passage of chyle in the urine. The cause seems to be the rupture of retroperitoneal lymphatics into the pyelocaliceal system, giving urine a milky appearance. This communication is caused by the obstruction of lymphatic drainage proximal to intestinal lacteals, resulting in dilatation of distal lymphatics and the eventual rupture of lymphatic vessels into the urinary collecting system.This condition, if left untreated, leads to significant morbidity because of hematochyluria, recurrent renal colic, nutritional problems due to protein losses and immunosuppression resulting from lymphocyturia.In this review, we summarize the state of the art of this condition and the newest treatments available.

  13. Visual systems - The state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrock, David

    State-of-the-art, computer-generated image simulator visual systems typically encompass a data base which generates the model of the operating environment, an image generator, and a display system suitable for the applications envisaged. Two basic approaches to such systems are discernible: those employing hybrid raster/calligraphy and those using raster/continuous tone. Attention is presently given to such capabilities and elements of visual displays as texture effects, transparencies, fade level-of-detail management, animation effects, and image generator functions for daylight and night/dusk conditions, as well as prospective developments in this field.

  14. Analyst workbenches state of the art report

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, R

    1987-01-01

    Analyst Workbenches examines various aspects of analyst workbenches and the tasks and data that they should support. The major advances and state of the art in analyst workbenches are discussed. A comprehensive list of the available analyst workbenches, both the experimental and the commercial products, is provided. Comprised of three parts, this book begins by describing International Computers Ltd's approach to automating analysis and design. It then explains what business analysis really means, outlines the principal features of analyst workbenches, and considers the ways in which they can

  15. Cardiac tissue engineering: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Marc N; Hansen, Arne; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2014-01-17

    The engineering of 3-dimensional (3D) heart muscles has undergone exciting progress for the past decade. Profound advances in human stem cell biology and technology, tissue engineering and material sciences, as well as prevascularization and in vitro assay technologies make the first clinical application of engineered cardiac tissues a realistic option and predict that cardiac tissue engineering techniques will find widespread use in the preclinical research and drug development in the near future. Tasks that need to be solved for this purpose include standardization of human myocyte production protocols, establishment of simple methods for the in vitro vascularization of 3D constructs and better maturation of myocytes, and, finally, thorough definition of the predictive value of these methods for preclinical safety pharmacology. The present article gives an overview of the present state of the art, bottlenecks, and perspectives of cardiac tissue engineering for cardiac repair and in vitro testing.

  16. Pediatric appendicitis: state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentea, Rebecca M; Peter, Shawn D St; Snyder, Charles L

    2017-03-01

    Appendicitis is a common cause of abdominal pain in children. The diagnosis and treatment of the disease have undergone major changes in the past two decades, primarily as a result of the application of an evidence-based approach. Data from several randomized controlled trials, large database studies, and meta-analyses have fundamentally affected patient care. The best diagnostic approach is a standardized clinical pathway with a scoring system and selective imaging. Non-operative management of simple appendicitis is a reasonable option in selected cases, with the caveat that data in children remain limited. A minimally invasive (laparoscopic) appendectomy is the current standard in US and European children's hospitals. This article reviews the current 'state of the art' in the evaluation and management of pediatric appendicitis.

  17. Imaging Acute Appendicitis: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gaitini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to present the state of the art in imaging tests for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Relevant publications regarding performance and advantages/disadvantages of imaging modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis in different clinical situations were reviewed. Articles were extracted from a computerized database (MEDLINE with the following activated limits: Humans, English, core clinical journals, and published in the last five years. Reference lists of relevant studies were checked manually to identify additional, related articles. Ultrasound (US examination should be the first imaging test performed, particularly among the pediatric and young adult populations, who represent the main targets for appendicitis, as well as in pregnant patients. A positive US examination for appendicitis or an alternative diagnosis of possible gastrointestinal or urological origin, or a negative US, either showing a normal appendix or presenting low clinical suspicion of appendicitis, should lead to a final diagnosis. A negative or indeterminate examination with a strong clinical suspicion of appendicitis should be followed by a computed tomography (CT scan or alternatively, a magnetic resonanace imaging (MRI scan in a pregnant patient. A second US examination in a patient with persistent symptoms, especially if the first one was performed by a less experienced imaging professional, is a valid alternative to a CT.

  18. State of the art: Oral antiplatelet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbel, Paul A; Myat, Aung; Kubica, Jacek; Tantry, Udaya S

    2016-01-01

    Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation are central to the propagation of coronary thrombosis following rupture, fissure, or erosion of an atherosclerotic plaque. This chain of deleterious events underlies the pathophysiological process leading to an acute coronary syndrome. Therefore, oral antiplatelet therapy has become the cornerstone of therapy for the management of acute coronary syndrome and the prevention of ischemic complications associated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Landmark trials have established aspirin, and the addition of clopidogrel to aspirin, as key therapeutic agents in the context of acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention. Dual antiplatelet therapy has been the guideline-mandated standard of care in acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention. Despite the proven efficacy of dual antiplatelet therapy, adverse ischemic events continue to occur and this has stimulated the development of novel, more potent antiplatelet agents. We focus this state-of-the-art review on the most recent advances in oral antiplatelet therapy, treading the tightrope of potency versus bleeding risk, the quest to determine the optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy and future of personalized antiplatelet therapy.

  19. State of the art of palliative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregni, E; Padovano, B; Coliva, A; Zecca, E; Bombardieri, E

    2011-08-01

    Bone pain in advanced stages of cancer significantly decreases the patient's quality of life having a great impact on physical, physiological and social functioning. About 65% of patients with prostate or breast cancer will experience symptomatic skeletal metastases. Bone pain sustained by osseous metastases represents the most frequent kind of pain and its clinical presentation and characteristics differ from other type of neoplastic pain (i.e., neuropathic or visceral ones). Pathophysiology of bone pain is not yet completely understood but a general mechanism including infiltration of bone tissue associated with osteolysis and release of biological active molecules able to stimulate peripheral nervous terminals, seems to be principally involved. In oncological practice, painful skeletal metastases are managed by different multidisciplinary modalities which include the use of systemic analgesics (i.e., bisphosphonates), antineoplastic agents (i.e., hormones and chemotherapeutics), external beam radiotherapy, interventional radiology and radiopharmaceuticals. In this review we will discuss the state of the art of palliative therapy of bone pain with particular emphasis to the current approved radiopharmaceuticals, focusing on indications, patient selection, efficacy and toxicity. Some remarks on new or under developing strategies in systemic metabolic radiopharmaceutical therapy will be reported.

  20. State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slide presentation at the SOT FDA Colloquium on State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and Threshold of Toxicological Concern in College Park, MD. Slide presentation at the SOT FDA Colloquium on State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and Threshold of Toxicological Concern in College Park, MD.

  1. Greenhouse mechanization: State of the art and future perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art and future perspective of greenhouse mechanization. Driving forces for mechanization are identified. Dutch greenhouse crop production is used as an example. Analysis of a generic crop production process combined with a review of the state of the art in greenho

  2. Rapid Prototyping: State of the Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-23

    announced the InVision si2 3D printer . It uses the same basic MJM jetting technology, but instead deposits and hardens acrylic photopolymer. The...Z406 color machine, considered the company’s flagship 3D printer , uses four heads with a total of 1,200 jets. This makes it possible to produce a...55,000) uses standard A4 size sheets. Consequently, Kira says that it has commercialized the world’s first plain paper 3D printer . The PLT-A3 ($73,000

  3. Reinforcement Learning State-of-the-Art

    CERN Document Server

    Wiering, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement learning encompasses both a science of adaptive behavior of rational beings in uncertain environments and a computational methodology for finding optimal behaviors for challenging problems in control, optimization and adaptive behavior of intelligent agents. As a field, reinforcement learning has progressed tremendously in the past decade. The main goal of this book is to present an up-to-date series of survey articles on the main contemporary sub-fields of reinforcement learning. This includes surveys on partially observable environments, hierarchical task decompositions, relational knowledge representation and predictive state representations. Furthermore, topics such as transfer, evolutionary methods and continuous spaces in reinforcement learning are surveyed. In addition, several chapters review reinforcement learning methods in robotics, in games, and in computational neuroscience. In total seventeen different subfields are presented by mostly young experts in those areas, and together the...

  4. Robotic rectal surgery: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staderini, Fabio; Foppa, Caterina; Minuzzo, Alessio; Badii, Benedetta; Qirici, Etleva; Trallori, Giacomo; Mallardi, Beatrice; Lami, Gabriele; Macrì, Giuseppe; Bonanomi, Andrea; Bagnoli, Siro; Perigli, Giuliano; Cianchi, Fabio

    2016-11-15

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery has demonstrated its superiority over the open approach, however it still has some technical limitations that lead to the development of robotic platforms. Nevertheless the literature on this topic is rapidly expanding there is still no consensus about benefits of robotic rectal cancer surgery over the laparoscopic one. For this reason a review of all the literature examining robotic surgery for rectal cancer was performed. Two reviewers independently conducted a search of electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) using the key words "rectum", "rectal", "cancer", "laparoscopy", "robot". After the initial screen of 266 articles, 43 papers were selected for review. A total of 3013 patients were included in the review. The most commonly performed intervention was low anterior resection (1450 patients, 48.1%), followed by anterior resections (997 patients, 33%), ultra-low anterior resections (393 patients, 13%) and abdominoperineal resections (173 patients, 5.7%). Robotic rectal surgery seems to offer potential advantages especially in low anterior resections with lower conversions rates and better preservation of the autonomic function. Quality of mesorectum and status of and circumferential resection margins are similar to those obtained with conventional laparoscopy even if robotic rectal surgery is undoubtedly associated with longer operative times. This review demonstrated that robotic rectal surgery is both safe and feasible but there is no evidence of its superiority over laparoscopy in terms of postoperative, clinical outcomes and incidence of complications. In conclusion robotic rectal surgery seems to overcome some of technical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery especially for tumors requiring low and ultra-low anterior resections but this technical improvement seems not to provide, until now, any significant clinical advantages to the patients.

  5. Guide to state-of-the-art electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Concise, high quality and comparative overview of state-of-the-art electron device development, manufacturing technologies and applications Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices marks the 60th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Committee and the 35th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, as such it defines the state-of-the-art of electron devices, as well as future directions across the entire field. Spans full range of electron device types such as photovoltaic devices, semiconductor manufacturing and VLSI technology and circuits, covered by IEEE Electron and Devices Society Contributed by internationally respected members of the electron devices community A timely desk reference with fully-integrated colour and a unique lay-out with sidebars to highlight the key terms Discusses the historical developments and speculates on future trends to give a more rounded picture of the topics covered A valuable resource R&D managers; engineers in the semiconductor industry; applied scientists...

  6. State of the art undersøgelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nils

    1998-01-01

    Dette skrift omhandler nogle af de erfaringer der til dato er opnået i forbindelse med standby projektets udførelse. Hovedtemaet er en “State of the art undersøgelse” der omhandler standby-spændingsforsyninger, samt komponenter der kan anvendes til konstruktion af dem......Dette skrift omhandler nogle af de erfaringer der til dato er opnået i forbindelse med standby projektets udførelse. Hovedtemaet er en “State of the art undersøgelse” der omhandler standby-spændingsforsyninger, samt komponenter der kan anvendes til konstruktion af dem...

  7. Random Vibrations: Assessment of the State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, T.L.

    1999-02-23

    Random vibration is the phenomenon wherein random excitation applied to a mechanical system induces random response. We summarize the state of the art in random vibration analysis and testing, commenting on history, linear and nonlinear analysis, the analysis of large-scale systems, and probabilistic structural testing.

  8. Flexible AC transmission systems: the state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edris, Abdel-Aty [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Electric Systems Division

    1994-12-31

    Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) is a concept promoting the use of power electronic controllers to enhance the controllability and usable capacity of AC transmission. This paper presents the state of the art of FACTS and the status of the current projects for the application of the FACTS controllers in transmission systems. (author) 8 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning: The State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Rebecca; Adams, Anne; Gaved, Mark; Mor, Yishay; Thomas, Rhodri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the state of the art in augmented reality (AR) for mobile learning. Previous work in the field of mobile learning has included AR as a component of a wider toolkit but little has been done to discuss the phenomenon in detail or to examine in a balanced fashion its potential for learning, identifying both positive…

  10. State of the art rapport "verkeersstroommodellen". Deel III: het basisdiagram.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H.

    1977-01-01

    In the third part of the state of the art report "traffic flow models" the basic diagram is discussed. It is a representation of the relation which consists in balance between intensity, density and average speed. Balance is considered in such a way that the magnitudes are constant for some time. A

  11. State of the art met betrekking tot het intellectueel eigendomsrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    Mossink, W. (2004). State of the art met betrekking tot het intellectueel eigendomsrecht. In: Van Geloven, M., Koper, R. & Van der Veen, J., E-learning trends (pp. 13-15). Utrecht, Stichting Digitale Universiteit.
    Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.hand

  12. State of the art in e-Learning toepassingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2004). State of the art in e-Learning toepassingen. In: Van Geloven, M., Koper, R. & Van der Veen, J., E-learning trends (pp. 16-18). Utrecht, Stichting Digitale Universiteit.
    Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/212

  13. Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning: The State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Rebecca; Adams, Anne; Gaved, Mark; Mor, Yishay; Thomas, Rhodri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the state of the art in augmented reality (AR) for mobile learning. Previous work in the field of mobile learning has included AR as a component of a wider toolkit but little has been done to discuss the phenomenon in detail or to examine in a balanced fashion its potential for learning, identifying both positive…

  14. Three State-of-the-Art Methods for Condition Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelius, H.T.; Meiler, P.P.; Maas, H.L.M.M.; Bonnier, B.; Grevink, J.S.; Kuilenburg, R.F. van

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different state-of-the-art condition monitoring techniques: first principles, feature extraction, and neural networks. The focus of the paper is on the application of the techniques, not on the underlying theory. Each technique is described briefly and is acco

  15. State of the art in e-Learning toepassingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2004). State of the art in e-Learning toepassingen. In: Van Geloven, M., Koper, R. & Van der Veen, J., E-learning trends (pp. 16-18). Utrecht, Stichting Digitale Universiteit.
    Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/212

  16. State of the art met betrekking tot het intellectueel eigendomsrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    Mossink, W. (2004). State of the art met betrekking tot het intellectueel eigendomsrecht. In: Van Geloven, M., Koper, R. & Van der Veen, J., E-learning trends (pp. 13-15). Utrecht, Stichting Digitale Universiteit.
    Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.hand

  17. State of the art incubator for controlled atmosphere studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    A state of the art incubator for studies of the biological effect of controlled atmosphere was designed. Working conditions are all combinations of: Temperature (5 to 40°C), Humidity (25 to 98%), oxygen (0.1 to 30%) and nitrogen (0.1 to 50%). Several points were given specific considerations...

  18. State of the art report on design for X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos; Andersen, Poul; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2009-01-01

    The present State of the Art report aims at defining and reviewing the curent state of the ship design process in the frame of a holistic approach, accounting for various objectives and constraints. The report addresses mainly the design of transportation carriers, though some covered aspects...

  19. PARA'04, State-of-the-art in scientific computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    This meeting in the series, the PARA'04 Workshop with the title ``State of the Art in Scientific Computing'', was held in Lyngby, Denmark, June 20-23, 2004. The PARA'04 Workshop was organized by Jack Dongarra from the University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Kaj Madsen and J...

  20. State of the art: alumina ceramics for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, W.E.; Stoddard, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    Prominent ceramic raw materials and products manufacturers were surveyed to determine the state of the art for alumina ceramic fabrication. This survey emphasized current capabilities and limitations for fabrication of large, high-density, high-purity, complex shapes. Some directions are suggested for future needs and development.

  1. Sensors and Technologies in Spain: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue was to provide a comprehensive view on the state-of-the-art sensor technology in Spain. Different problems cause the appearance and development of new sensor technologies and vice versa, the emergence of new sensors facilitates the solution of existing real problems. [...

  2. State-of-the-Art bewaarsysteem tulpenbollen : Resultaten 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J.; Putten, van der K.; Dam, van M.F.N.; Sapounas, A.; Gulik, van der T.; Diepen, van G.

    2011-01-01

    Het project State-of-the-Art bewaren van tulpenbollen is in 2007 opgestart om te demonstreren wat er met behoud of verbetering van productkwaliteit, met de huidige stand der techniek aan energiebesparing mogelijk is. En om met aanvullend onderzoek op de deelnemende bloembollenbedrijven in de toekoms

  3. State-of-the-art in Heterogeneous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre R. Brodtkorb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Node level heterogeneous architectures have become attractive during the last decade for several reasons: compared to traditional symmetric CPUs, they offer high peak performance and are energy and/or cost efficient. With the increase of fine-grained parallelism in high-performance computing, as well as the introduction of parallelism in workstations, there is an acute need for a good overview and understanding of these architectures. We give an overview of the state-of-the-art in heterogeneous computing, focusing on three commonly found architectures: the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture, graphics processing units (GPUs, and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs. We present a review of hardware, available software tools, and an overview of state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms. Furthermore, we present a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the architectures, and give our view on the future of heterogeneous computing.

  4. A State-of-the-Art Review of Cloud Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Sameera Abdulrahman Almulla; Youssef Iraqi; Andrew Jones

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing and digital forensics are emerging fields of technology. Unlike traditional digital forensics where the target environment can be almost completely acquired, isolated and can be under the investigators control; in cloud environments, the distribution of computation and storage poses unique and complex challenges to the investigators.Recently, the term "cloud forensics" has an increasing presence in the field of digital forensics. In this state-of-the-art review, we included th...

  5. [3D in laparoscopy: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, W; Storz, P; Müller, S; Axt, S; Kirschniak, A

    2013-03-01

    High definition stereoscopic (3D) vision has been introduced into the operation theatre. This review exposes the optical and physiological background as well as the state of the art of 3D in laparoscopy. The distinguishing marks of 3D laparoscopes and monitors are listed and characteristics of stereoscopy, such as comfort zones and ghosting are explained. Suggestions for the practical use in the clinical routine should help to extract the best benefit possible from the new technology.

  6. Modelling and simulation SSM: latest state of the art technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jahajeeah, N

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available during filling stage Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness ? Shear rate history important factor in design and casting processes ? Viscosity decreases over time after applied shear rate ? Ideally... and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness Modelling and Simulation SSM Latest state of the art technology N Jahajeeah Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness BEHAVIOUR OF THIXOTROPIC...

  7. The state of the art in medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiklin, Harris

    2011-08-01

    This is a review of the state of the art in Medical Sociology. Three approaches are used. One is looking at the work of the pioneers. Another approach involves examining textbooks, books of reading, and handbooks. The third approach is reporting on the 50th anniversary of the Medical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association. Special attention is given to the way medical sociologists examine issues in psychiatric diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Acute ischemic stroke treatment: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajan Ag; White, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Stroke is among the leading causes of death and serious disability in the United States. Treatment of the acute ischemic stroke patient requires a multidisciplinary approach involving first-responders, emergency department personnel, neurologists, advanced imaging experts and endovascular specialists with neurosurgical support. Contemporary stroke treatment is a rapidly advancing field. New developments in pharmacologic and endovascular stroke therapy require thoughtful trial design and expeditious trial implementation to assess clinical outcomes. This manuscript reviews the state of the art in acute stroke therapy.

  9. Management of venous ulcers: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marola, Silvia; Ferrarese, Alessia; Solej, Mario; Enrico, Stefano; Nano, Mario; Martino, Valter

    2016-09-01

    Venous ulceration is a complex and serious problem that affects 1-2% of the global elderly population (>65 years), and its incidence is constantly increasing. The population group with higher risk of development of venous ulceration is the elderly. These lesions have a significant negative impact on patients' quality of life. Our aim was to analyze the state of the art, starting with the medical literature review. The evidence supports that managing chronic wounds with a multidisciplinary wound care team significantly increases wound healing and reduces the severity of wound-associated pain and the required daily wound treatments compared with persons who are not managed by such a team.

  10. STATE OF THE ART - MODERN SEQUENTIAL RULE MINING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Paliwal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is state of the art of existing sequential rule mining algorithms. Extracting sequential rule is a very popular and computationally expensive task. We also explain the fundamentals of sequential rule mining. We describe today’s approaches for sequential rule mining. From the broad variety of efficient algorithms that have been developed we will compare the most important ones. We will systematize the algorithms and analyze their performance based on both their run t ime performance and theoretical considerations. Their strengths and weaknesses are also investigated.

  11. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  12. State of The Art - Modern Sequential Rule Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Anjali Paliwal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is state of the art of existing sequential rule mining algorithms. Extracting sequential rule is a very popular and computationally expensive task. We also explain the fundamentals of sequential rule mining. We describe today’s approaches for sequential rule mining. From the broad variety of efficient algorithms that have been developed we will compare the most important ones. We will systematize the algorithms and analyze their performance based on both their run time performance and theoretical considerations. Their strengths and weaknesses are also investigated.

  13. A state-of-the-art assessment of active structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    A state-of-the-art assessment of active structures with emphasis towards the applications in aeronautics and space is presented. It is felt that since this technology area is growing at such a rapid pace in many different disciplines, it is not feasible to cover all of the current research but only the relevant work as relates to aeronautics and space. Research in smart actuation materials, smart sensors, and control of smart/intelligent structures is covered. In smart actuation materials, piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, shape memory, electrorheological, and electrostrictive materials are covered. For sensory materials, fiber optics, dielectric loss, and piezoelectric sensors are examined. Applications of embedded sensors and smart sensors are discussed.

  14. State of the Art Priciples in Shoulder Rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward R. Laskowski

    2003-01-01

    @@ The primary goal of shoulder rehabilitation is to restore optimal pain-free shoulder function. In general terms, shoulder rehabilitation involves control of pain and inflammation,early non-traumatic motion, muscle reactivation, strengthening of shoulder group muscles, and restoration of normal shoulder function within the kinetic-kinematic chain. Finally, sports and activity-specific rehabilitative exercise are essential to maximize function and return the patient to their prior sport or activity without deficit. This discussion will review recent research findings that have expanded our knowledge and understanding of shoulder function and which will serve as guidelines for a state-of-the-art shoulder rehabilitation program.

  15. Solar sail technology-A state of the art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bo; Sperber, Evan; Eke, Fidelis

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the current state of the art of solar sail technology is reviewed. Solar sail research is quite broad and multi-disciplinary; this paper focuses mainly on areas such as solar sail dynamics, attitude control, design and deployment, and mission and trajectory analysis. Special attention is given to solar radiation pressure force modeling and attitude dynamics. Some basics of solar sailing which would be very useful for a new investigator in the area are also presented. Technological difficulties and current challenges in solar sail system design are identified, and possible ideas for future research in the field are also discussed.

  16. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  17. Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Penne, Barbra

    2017-01-01

    Our solar system's largest planet is huge enough that all of the system's other planets could fit inside it. Although Jupiter has been known since ancient times, scientists are still learning exciting new information about the planet and its satellites today. In fact, several of its moons are now believed to have oceans below their icy surfaces. Chapters focus on topics such as Jupiter's orbit and rotation, rings, atmosphere, and moons, as well as on the space missions that have helped us get a closer look at the planet and its moons over the past decades.

  18. Current state of the art of vision based SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Naveed; Fofi, David; Ainouz, Samia

    2009-02-01

    The ability of a robot to localise itself and simultaneously build a map of its environment (Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping or SLAM) is a fundamental characteristic required for autonomous operation of the robot. Vision Sensors are very attractive for application in SLAM because of their rich sensory output and cost effectiveness. Different issues are involved in the problem of vision based SLAM and many different approaches exist in order to solve these issues. This paper gives a classification of state-of-the-art vision based SLAM techniques in terms of (i) imaging systems used for performing SLAM which include single cameras, stereo pairs, multiple camera rigs and catadioptric sensors, (ii) features extracted from the environment in order to perform SLAM which include point features and line/edge features, (iii) initialisation of landmarks which can either be delayed or undelayed, (iv) SLAM techniques used which include Extended Kalman Filtering, Particle Filtering, biologically inspired techniques like RatSLAM, and other techniques like Local Bundle Adjustment, and (v) use of wheel odometry information. The paper also presents the implementation and analysis of stereo pair based EKF SLAM for synthetic data. Results prove the technique to work successfully in the presence of considerable amounts of sensor noise. We believe that state of the art presented in the paper can serve as a basis for future research in the area of vision based SLAM. It will permit further research in the area to be carried out in an efficient and application specific way.

  19. The State-of-the-art in Space Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Ijar M.; Pontuschka, Maurício N.

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the space robotics and associate space applications. An overview of the space era and the robotic space probes is presented to contextualize the space robotics in the space exploration scenario. Concepts, classification and key-questions associated with robotics for space applications are presented and discussed. Safety-critical aspects of the space robotics are discussed as well the human limitation to operate in the hostile space environment and long time duration missions. The paper also focuses on the state-of-the- art of robotics for the International Space Station EVA operations, for the planetary exploration such as the ongoing Mars exploration, Hayabusa rendezvous and landing in asteroids and the robotic probe Rosetta landed in a comet recently. The paper also includes a discussion of the applications of new concepts like the robonauts, the space tugs applications and robots for future planetary exploration.

  20. State of the art of robotic pancreatic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, Luca; Daskalaki, Despoina; Wang, Xiaoying; Giulianotti, Pier Cristoforo

    2013-12-01

    More than a decade has passed since robotic technology was adopted for abdominal surgery, and virtually every gastrointestinal operation has since been shown to be feasible, safe, and reproducible using the robotic approach. Robotic pancreatic surgery had been left behind at the beginning, because they were technically challenging, requiring not only being very familiar with the robotic technology but also having a perfect knowledge of the anatomical variations, very frequent in this area. Nonetheless in the last few years many authors have approached the robot for pancreatic surgery with very promising results in terms of surgical and oncological outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the literature on robotic pancreatic surgery and to define the state of the art use of the robotic approach for pancreatic disease.

  1. State of the art: therapeutic controversies in severe acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, M A; Camargo, C A; Rowe, B H; Silverman, R A

    2000-07-01

    This is a transcript of the 1999 SAEM State-of-the-Art session on "Therapeutic Controversies in Severe Acute Asthma," presented at the 1999 SAEM annual meeting in Boston. The aim of this session was to address some of the current controversies in the management of acute asthma exacerbations, a major issue in emergency medicine. Despite many recent advances in asthma management, morbidity and mortality remain high. While many of us have strong feelings on how asthma patients should be treated, many of our assertions are not based on good science, and there are numerous areas of controversy. This discussion focuses on the controversy over beta agonist treatment for acute asthma, the physiology of corticosteroids in asthma, and the emergency use of leukotriene-modifying agents.

  2. Organization Design: The Evolving State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Burton, Richard M.; Eriksen, Bo;

    . Nevertheless, over the past 25 years organizational reality has changed dramatically with the advent of all sorts of communication systems, AI agents, information technology, knowledge management systems, and more. Therefore leading researchers in Organization Design who understand the situation have......The design of organizations has been a prime characteristic of management theory and practice over the past several decades. However, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design since the introduction of contingency theory in the 1970s...... undertaken to address the problem. Organization Design: The Evolving State-of-the-Art will be organized in four sections: (1) Theoretical and Practical Issues, (2) Fit, Contingency and Configuration, (3) Design and Performance, and (4) The Dynamics of Adaptation and Change. The book will be a broad...

  3. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Giansanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues; the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities. The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  4. Functionalized Polymers from Lignocellulosic Biomass: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred Vermerris

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the realization that global sustainability depends on renewable sources of materials and energy, there has been an ever-increasing need to develop bio-based polymers that are able to replace petroleum-based polymers. Research in this field has shown strong potential in generating high-performance functionalized polymers from plant biomass. With the anticipated large-scale production of lignocellulosic biomass, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulosic polysaccharides will be abundantly available renewable feedstocks for biopolymers and biocomposites with physico-chemical properties that match or exceed those of petroleum-based compounds. This review examines the state of the art regarding advances and challenges in synthesis and applications of specialty polymers and composites derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, ending with a brief assessment of genetic modification as a route to tailor crop plants for specific applications.

  5. [State of the art diagnostic criteria of severe periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, X Y

    2017-02-09

    Periodontitis could be categorized as mild, moderate, and severe according to the severity of the disease. This categorizing system could also be used together with other classification systems. The present article introduced the status about the case definition of severe periodontitis, including the standard of case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in partnership with the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) and the consensus report on the definition of periodontitis case for use in risk factor research by Europe workshop. A consensus on the state of the art definition of severe periodontitis for use in clinical work was gained base on the expertise of Chinese Society of Periodontology, Chinese Association of Stomatology. The background of this consensus and the significance of the criteria for the case definition were discussed.

  6. Face Expression Recognition and Analysis: The State of the Art

    CERN Document Server

    Bettadapura, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    The automatic recognition of facial expressions has been an active research topic since the early nineties. There have been several advances in the past few years in terms of face detection and tracking, feature extraction mechanisms and the techniques used for expression classification. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2001 till date. The paper presents a time-line view of the advances made in this field, the applications of automatic face expression recognizers, the characteristics of an ideal system, the databases that have been used and the advances made in terms of their standardization and a detailed summary of the state of the art. The paper also discusses facial parameterization using FACS Action Units (AUs) and MPEG-4 Facial Animation Parameters (FAPs) and the recent advances in face detection, tracking and feature extraction methods. Notes have also been presented on emotions, expressions and facial features, discussion on the six prototypic expressions and the recent studies on e...

  7. A State of the Art Survey of Fraud Detection Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ulrich; Vayssière, Julien; Bitz, Gunter

    With the introduction of IT to conductbusiness we accepted the loss of a human control step.For this reason, the introductionof newIT systemswas accompanied by the development of the authorization concept. But since, in reality, there is no such thing as 100 per cent security; auditors are commissioned to examine all transactions for misconduct. Since the data exists in digital form already, it makes sense to use computer-based processes to analyse it. Such processes allow the auditor to carry out extensive checks within an acceptable timeframe and with reasonable effort. Once the algorithm has been defined, it only takes sufficient computing power to evaluate larger quantities of data. This contribution presents the state of the art for IT-based data analysis processes that can be used to identify fraudulent activities.

  8. Cryocoolers: the state of the art and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, Ray

    2009-04-22

    Cryocooler performance and reliability are continually improving. Consequently, they are more and more frequently implemented by physicists in their laboratory experiments or for commercial and space applications. The five kinds of cryocoolers most commonly used to provide cryogenic temperatures for various applications are the Joule-Thomson, Brayton, Stirling, Gifford-McMahon, and pulse tube cryocoolers. Many advances in all types have occurred in the past 20 years that have allowed all of them to be used for a wide variety of applications. The present state of the art and on-going developments of these cryocoolers are reviewed in this paper. In the past five years new research on these cryocoolers has offered the potential to significantly improve them and make them suitable for even more applications. The general trend of this new cryocooler research is also presented.

  9. State-of-the-Art Visual Cryptography Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud E. Hodeish

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual Cryptography (VC is recent technology used to the strengthen security of many applications in various fields. It allows visual information like printed text, handwritten notes, and images to be encrypted by dividing it into shares. The most important characteristic of VCS is that one can visually decrypted the secret image by stacking shares without computation. The current paper aims at introducing a descriptive review for VC, which covering the "state-of-the-art" concept, and classification of schemes. In this paper, we have classified the VC schemes and provide some interpretation on the base of some various measures such as pixel expansion, share generated, format of secret image and number of secret image, which actually deemed as valuable contribution in the field of VC studies

  10. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.

    1995-05-01

    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  11. Pattern Recognition and Natural Language Processing: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kocaleva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of information technologies is growing steadily. With the latest software technologies development and application of the methods of artificial intelligence and machine learning intelligence embededs in computers, the expectations are that in near future computers will be able to solve problems themselves like people do. Artificial intelligence emulates human behavior on computers. Rather than executing instructions one by one, as theyare programmed, machine learning employs prior experience/data that is used in the process of system’s training. In this state of the art paper, common methods in AI, such as machine learning, pattern recognition and the natural language processing (NLP are discussed. Also are given standard architecture of NLP processing system and the level thatisneeded for understanding NLP. Lastly the statistical NLP processing and multi-word expressions are described.

  12. State-of-the-art imaging of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Jamie; Gould, C Frank; Bonavia, Grant H; Wolfman, Darcy J

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Modern medical imaging is intimately involved in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Ultrasound is primarily used to guide prostate biopsy to establish the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging uses a multiparametric approach, including anatomic and functional imaging sequences. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging can be used for detection and localization of prostate cancer and to evaluate for disease recurrence. Computed tomography and scintigraphic imaging are primarily used to detect regional lymph node spread and distant metastases. Recent advancements in ultrasound, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphic imaging have the potential to change the way prostate cancer is diagnosed and managed. This article addresses the major imaging modalities involved in the evaluation of prostate cancer and updates the reader on the state of the art for each modality.

  13. Structural DNA Nanotechnology: State of the Art and Future Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades DNA has emerged as an exceptional molecular building block for nanoconstruction due to its predictable conformation and programmable intra- and intermolecular Watson–Crick base-pairing interactions. A variety of convenient design rules and reliable assembly methods have been developed to engineer DNA nanostructures of increasing complexity. The ability to create designer DNA architectures with accurate spatial control has allowed researchers to explore novel applications in many directions, such as directed material assembly, structural biology, biocatalysis, DNA computing, nanorobotics, disease diagnosis, and drug delivery. This Perspective discusses the state of the art in the field of structural DNA nanotechnology and presents some of the challenges and opportunities that exist in DNA-based molecular design and programming. PMID:25029570

  14. State of the art in robotic hepatobiliary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, Luca; Daskalaki, Despoina; Fernandes, Eduardo; Damoli, Isacco; Giulianotti, Pier Cristoforo

    2013-12-01

    Hepatobiliary (HB) surgery is a challenging surgical subspecialty that requires highly specialized training and an adequate level of experience in order to be performed safely. As a result, minimally invasive HB surgery has been met with slower acceptance as compared to other subspecialties, with many surgeons in the field still reluctant to adopt the approach. Recently development of the robotic platform has provided a tool that can overcome many of the limitations of conventional laparoscopic HB surgery. Augmented dexterity enabled by the endowristed movements, software filtration of the surgeon's movements, and high-definition three-dimensional vision provided by the stereoscopic camera combine to allow steady and careful dissection of the liver hilum structures, as well as prompt and precise endosuturing in cases of intraoperative bleeding. These advantages have fostered many centers to widen the indications for minimally invasive HB and gastric surgery, with encouraging initial results. As one of the surgical groups that has performed the largest number of robot-assisted procedures worldwide, we provide a review of the state of the art in minimally invasive robot-assisted HB surgery.

  15. [Surgical robotics, short state of the art and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravez, P

    2003-11-01

    State-of-the-art robotized systems developed for surgery are either remotely controlled manipulators that duplicate gestures made by the surgeon (endoscopic surgery applications), or automated robots that execute trajectories defined relatively to pre-operative medical imaging (neurosurgery and orthopaedic surgery). This generation of systems primarily applies existing robotics technologies (the remote handling systems and the so-called "industrial robots") to current surgical practices. It has contributed to validate the huge potential of surgical robotics, but it suffers from several drawbacks, mainly high costs, excessive dimensions and some lack of user-friendliness. Nevertheless, technological progress let us anticipate the appearance in the near future of miniaturised surgical robots able to assist the gesture of the surgeon and to enhance his perception of the operation at hand. Due to many in-the-body articulated links, these systems will have the capability to perform complex minimally invasive gestures without obstructing the operating theatre. They will also combine the facility of manual piloting with the accuracy and increased safety of computer control, guiding the gestures of the human without offending to his freedom of action. Lastly, they will allow the surgeon to feel the mechanical properties of the tissues he is operating through a genuine "remote palpation" function. Most probably, such technological evolutions will lead the way to redesigned surgical procedures taking place inside new operating rooms featuring a better integration of all equipments and favouring cooperative work from multidisciplinary and sometimes geographically distributed medical staff.

  16. Processing emotional body expressions: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea, Violeta; Iancu, Sorina

    2016-10-01

    Processing emotional body expressions has become recently an important topic in affective and social neuroscience along with the investigation of facial expressions. The objective of the study is to review the literature on emotional body expressions in order to discuss the current state of knowledge on this topic and identify directions for future research. The following electronic databases were searched: PsychINFO, Ebsco, ERIC, ProQuest, Sagepub, and SCOPUS using terms such as "body," "bodily expression," "body perception," "emotions," "posture," "body recognition" and combinations of them. The synthesis revealed several research questions that were addressed in neuroimaging, electrophysiological and behavioral studies. Among them, one important question targeted the neural mechanisms of emotional processing of body expressions to specific subsections regarding the time course for the integration of emotional signals from face and body, as well as the role of context in the perception of emotional signals. Processing bodily expression of emotion is similar to processing facial expressions, and the holistic processing is extended to the whole person. The current state-of-the-art in processing emotional body expressions may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of social behavior. At the end of the review, suggestions for future research directions are presented.

  17. State of the Art: Embedding Security in Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Weimerskirch

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For new automotive applications and services, information technology (IT has gained central importance. IT-related costs in car manufacturing are already high and they will increase dramatically in the future. Yet whereas safety and reliability have become a relatively well-established field, the protection of vehicular IT systems against systematic manipulation or intrusion has only recently started to emerge. Nevertheless, IT security is already the base of some vehicular applications such as immobilizers or digital tachographs. To securely enable future automotive applications and business models, IT security will be one of the central technologies for the next generation of vehicles. After a state-of-the-art overview of IT security in vehicles, we give a short introduction into cryptographic terminology and functionality. This contribution will then identify the need for automotive IT security while presenting typical attacks, resulting security objectives, and characteristic constraints within the automotive area. We will introduce core security technologies and relevant security mechanisms followed by a detailed description of critical vehicular applications, business models, and components relying on IT security. We conclude our contribution with a detailed statement about challenges and opportunities for the automotive IT community for embedding IT security in vehicles.

  18. State of the Art: Embedding Security in Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimerskirch André

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For new automotive applications and services, information technology (IT has gained central importance. IT-related costs in car manufacturing are already high and they will increase dramatically in the future. Yet whereas safety and reliability have become a relatively well-established field, the protection of vehicular IT systems against systematic manipulation or intrusion has only recently started to emerge. Nevertheless, IT security is already the base of some vehicular applications such as immobilizers or digital tachographs. To securely enable future automotive applications and business models, IT security will be one of the central technologies for the next generation of vehicles. After a state-of-the-art overview of IT security in vehicles, we give a short introduction into cryptographic terminology and functionality. This contribution will then identify the need for automotive IT security while presenting typical attacks, resulting security objectives, and characteristic constraints within the automotive area. We will introduce core security technologies and relevant security mechanisms followed by a detailed description of critical vehicular applications, business models, and components relying on IT security. We conclude our contribution with a detailed statement about challenges and opportunities for the automotive IT community for embedding IT security in vehicles.

  19. Modular robotics overview of the `state of the art`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Hamel, W.R.

    1996-08-01

    The design of a robotic arm processing modular components and reconfigurable links is the general goal of a modular robotics development program. The impetus behind the pursuit of modular design is the remote engineering paradigm of improved reliability and availability provided by the ability to remotely maintain and repair a manipulator operating in a hazardous environment by removing and replacing worn or failed modules. Failed components can service off- line and away from hazardous conditions. The desire to reconfigure an arm to perform different tasks is also an important driver for the development of a modular robotic manipulator. In order to bring to fruition a truly modular manipulator, an array of technical challenges must be overcome. These range from basic mechanical and electrical design considerations such as desired kinematics, actuator types, and signal and transmission types and routings, through controls issues such as the need for control algorithms capable of stable free space and contact control, to computer and sensor design issues like consideration of the use of embedded processors and redundant sensors. This report presents a brief overview of the state of the art of technical issues relevant of modular robotic arm design. The focus is on breadth of coverage, rather than depth, in order to provide a reference frame for future development.

  20. State-of-the-art: low vision rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Samuel N

    2016-04-01

    The State of the Art is strong - to paraphrase another famous saying. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) is today a recognized discipline in Ophthalmology, expanding and improving the quality of life of numerous visually impaired patients. It was not so about a century ago when it all started. Then, charity work aimed at helping blind children was all that LVR was. With advances in science, medicine and public health policy, help for the blind expanded its reach to all who were visually impaired. Devices and re-training of skills have been added to complement diagnosis and charity work. Modern LVR, which took hold in the last few decades, was propelled to new heights by relentless advances in basic and clinical sciences. Today we can provide significant and meaningful help to visually impaired patients in most situations. It could be as simple as a hand magnifier or as intricate as a retinal prosthesis. In many instances it seems to be just a beginning for things still to come.

  1. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production.

  2. [Proton imaging applications for proton therapy: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblard, R; Floquet, V; Angellier, G; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Hérault, J

    2015-04-01

    Proton therapy allows a highly precise tumour volume irradiation with a low dose delivered to the healthy tissues. The steep dose gradients observed and the high treatment conformity require a precise knowledge of the proton range in matter and the target volume position relative to the beam. Thus, proton imaging allows an improvement of the treatment accuracy, and thereby, in treatment quality. Initially suggested in 1963, radiographic imaging with proton is still not used in clinical routine. The principal difficulty is the lack of spatial resolution, induced by the multiple Coulomb scattering of protons with nuclei. Moreover, its realization for all clinical locations requires relatively high energies that are previously not considered for clinical routine. Abandoned for some time in favor of X-ray technologies, research into new imaging methods using protons is back in the news because of the increase of proton radiation therapy centers in the world. This article exhibits a non-exhaustive state of the art in proton imaging. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. STATE OF THE ART: INTEGRATING SERVICES FOR MEGA EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. B. Garay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the state of the art of a simplified model for integration of services in mega events. The project context, which was financed by the National Research Council – CNPq, is divided into six major areas or functional groups: Urban Mobility, Tourism, Airports, Security, Energy and Telecommunications. The proposal is described in layers, as an infrastructure model of integration and services evaluation, describing its main layers and interaction processes. The proposal described in this paper is restricted to the telecommunication subproject, however, in the modeling of the scenario for the study case, it was necessary to considerate requirements and variables that are common to all subprojects. In the specification process of these requirements, we noticed important processes that interact with some sectors in the city of São Paulo, however, in the mean time, we noticed some failures regarding the integration and collaboration performed by administrators elements of stadiums as main focus in the mega event and part of our case study. Currently, the proposal is in its first version as open software for the evaluation of the services quality and the mega event infrastructure through the use of performance indicators.

  4. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteijn, J M; White, B C; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; McCarron, P A; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    Benefit-risk assessment in medicine has been a valuable tool in the regulation of medicines since the 1960s. Benefit-risk assessment takes place in multiple stages during a medicine's life-cycle and can be conducted in a variety of ways, using methods ranging from qualitative to quantitative. Each benefit-risk assessment method is subject to its own specific strengths and limitations. Despite its widespread and long-time use, benefit-risk assessment in medicine is subject to debate and suffers from a number of limitations and is currently still under development. This state of the art review paper will discuss the various aspects and approaches to benefit-risk assessment in medicine in a chronological pathway. The review will discuss all types of benefit-risk assessment a medicinal product will undergo during its lifecycle, from Phase I clinical trials to post-marketing surveillance and health technology assessment for inclusion in public formularies. The benefit-risk profile of a drug is dynamic and differs for different indications and patient groups. In the end of this review we conclude benefit-risk analysis in medicine is a developed practice that is subject to continuous improvement and modernisation. Improvement not only in methodology, but also in cooperation between organizations can improve benefit-risk assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Discovery Mondays "State-of-the-art technologies for precision"

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic plate drilled with high precision in CERN’s workshop. The diameter of each hole is only 0.02 millimetres, comparable to the diameter of a hair.Scientists have to be infinitely precise to study the infinitely small. Thus, even though the LHC is the world’s largest accelerator, it has to be aligned to within a tenth of a millimetre. The detectors weigh several thousand tonnes but are capable of detecting the tiniest vibration of the Earth. Join us at the next Discovery Monday to find out about CERN’s state-of-the-art tools for achieving the degrees of resolution required in the field of particle physics. Don’t miss this opportunity to discover the world of precision! The event will be conducted in FrenchCome along to the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site) on Monday 5 November from 7.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Entrance Free http://www.cern.ch/LundisDecouverte/

  6. Technology in precision viticulture: a state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matese A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Matese,1 Salvatore Filippo Di Gennaro1,2 1Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy Abstract: Precision viticulture aims to maximize the oenological potential of vineyards. This is especially true in regions where the high quality standards of wine production justify the adoption of site-specific management practices to simultaneously increase both quality and yield. The introduction of new technologies for supporting vineyard management allows the efficiency and quality of production to be improved and, at the same time, reduces the environmental impact. The rapid evolution of information communication technologies and geographical science offers enormous potential for the development of optimized solutions for distributed information for precision viticulture. Recent technological developments have allowed useful tools to be elaborated that help in the monitoring and control of many aspects of vine growth. Precision viticulture thus seeks to exploit the widest range of available observations to describe the vineyard spatial variability with high resolution, and provide recommendations to improve management efficiency in terms of quality, production, and sustainability. This review presents a brief outline of state of the art of technologies in precision viticulture. It is divided in two sections, the first focusing on monitoring technologies such as geolocating and remote and proximal sensing; the second focuses on variable-rate technologies and the new agricultural robots. Keywords: remote sensing, proximal sensing, variable-rate technology, robot 

  7. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica VLADOIU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses, and include course planning materials, evaluation tools, and thematic content, under a Creative Commons license. OCW is free and open, accessible to anyone, anywhere, and anytime via the Internet. The OCW initiative started in 2002, and it has been followed by many more programs that offer open access to courseware: Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative, Harvard Medical School's MyCourses, Webcast.Berkeley, Rice University's Connexions, OpenCourseWare Consortium, Open Education Resources Commons, and The Saylor Foundation's Free Education Initiative, along with other major open courseware projects worldwide. The prospects for futur development of open courseware are taken into consideration, while its potential to provide for both social construction of knowledge and for development of open educational models, and therefore for E-Learning 2.0 and Web 2.0 is emphasized.

  8. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R&D) program history (focusing on DOE`s funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R&D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  9. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R D) program history (focusing on DOE's funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  10. State of the art in CFD pre- and postprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vembe, B. E.; Hansen, E. W. M.

    1994-06-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a generic name for a wide range of numerical techniques that are used for obtaining solutions to the governing equations of thermo-fluid dynamics with or without chemical reactions. The report presents to the state of the art in pre- and postprocessing for CFD codes, both commercial and in-house SINTEF-NTH codes. The objectives of advanced CFD systems are discussed and the techniques for pre- and postprocessing are reviewed. The user friendliness of CFD codes, in general, are highlighted. A common definition of a user friendly computer program is one that is easy to learn, efficient, easy to remember, and satisfactory to use. Most of today's commercial CFD codes could benefit from an enhanced interface. It is desirable to develop standard data formats for input and output of CFD codes and direct-manipulation user interfaces are desirable in CFD applications. Largest potential for improvements of CFD codes and for users is in geometry modeling and grid generation.

  11. State of the Art in the Research of Formal Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serna-M. Edgar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years research in formal verification of hardware and software has reached important progresses in the development of methodologies and tools to meet the increasing complexity of systems. The explicit role of Formal Verification is to find errors and to improve the reliability on the accuracy of system design, which implies a challenge for software engineering of this century. The purpose of this research is to perform a systematic review of the literature to establish the state of the art of research in formal verification during the last 10 years and to identify the approaches, methods, techniques and methodologies used, as well as the intensity of those research activities. During the process it was found that research in this field has doubled since 2005, and that the mean value of researches conducted year after year remains the same and that prevail the application in control and interaction systems. Additionally it was found that, the case study is the most used method and that empirical research is the most applied type.

  12. State-of-the-Art Prescriptive Criteria Weight Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Riabacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively few of the vast amounts of decision analytical methods suggested have been widely spread in actual practice. Some approaches have nevertheless been more successful in this respect than others. Quantitative decision making has moved from the study of decision theory founded on a single criterion towards decision support for more realistic decision-making situations with multiple, often conflicting, criteria. Furthermore, the identified gap between normative and descriptive theories seems to suggest a shift to more prescriptive approaches. However, when decision analysis applications are used to aid prescriptive decision-making processes, additional demands are put on these applications to adapt to the users and the context. In particular, the issue of weight elicitation is crucial. There are several techniques for deriving criteria weights from preference statements. This is a cognitively demanding task, subject to different biases, and the elicited values can be heavily dependent on the method of assessment. There have been a number of methods suggested for assessing criteria weights, but these methods have properties which impact their applicability in practice. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art weight elicitation methods in a prescriptive setting.

  13. Micro- and Nano-Air Vehicles: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Petricca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nano air vehicles are defined as “extremely small and ultra-lightweight air vehicle systems” with a maximum wingspan length of 15 cm and a weight less than 20 grams. Here, we provide a review of the current state of the art and identify the challenges of design and fabrication. Different configurations are evaluated, such as fixed wings, rotary wings, and flapping wings. The main advantages and drawbacks for each typology are identified and discussed. Special attention is given to rotary-wing vehicles (helicopter concept; including a review of their main structures, such as the airframe, energy storage, controls, and communications systems. In addition, a review of relevant sensors is also included. Examples of existing and future systems are also included. Micro- and nano-vehicles with rotary wings and rechargeable batteries are dominating. The flight times of current systems are typically around 1 hour or less due to the limited energy storage capabilities of the used rechargeable batteries. Fuel cells and ultra capacitors are promising alternative energy supply technologies for the future. Technology improvements, mainly based on micro- and nanotechnologies, are expected to continue in an evolutionary way to improve the capabilities of future micro- and nano air vehicles, giving improved flight times and payload capabilities.

  14. State of the art of pressurized fluidized bed combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to clarify the development status of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) and to place in perspective the problems which are yet to be solved before commercialization of the concept is practical. This report, in essence, supersedes the interim report published in 1979, Assessment of the State of the Art of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Systems. A brief overview of the PFBC concept is included citing potential advantages and disadvantages relative to atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) and conventional pulverized coal plants. A survey of existing and developing PFBC experimental facilities is presented in some detail which includes the major accomplishments at the respective facilities. Recent data on plant emissions, turbine/gas cleanup systems, and overall efficiency are provided. Findings of several design studies are also discussed. The results of recent gas turbine and cascade tests have been encouraging although the full assessment of the accomplishments have not been made. The delay in construction of the Grimethorpe plant causes further delay in proof-testing full-size, rotating turbomachinery. Several parameters are recommended for further assessment in design studies including: (1) effect of turbine life on cost of power; and (2) effect of reduced gas turbine inlet temperature and pressure on cost of power.

  15. State-of-the-art report on piping fracture mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Olson, R.J.; Scott, P.M. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report is an in-depth summary of the state-of-the-art in nuclear piping fracture mechanics. It represents the culmination of 20 years of work done primarily in the US, but also attempts to include important aspects from other international efforts. Although the focus of this work was for the nuclear industry, the technology is also applicable in many cases to fossil plants, petrochemical/refinery plants, and the oil and gas industry. In compiling this detailed summary report, all of the equations and details of the analysis procedure or experimental results are not necessarily included. Rather, the report describes the important aspects and limitations, tells the reader where he can go for further information, and more importantly, describes the accuracy of the models. Nevertheless, the report still contains over 150 equations and over 400 references. The main sections of this report describe: (1) the evolution of piping fracture mechanics history relative to the developments of the nuclear industry, (2) technical developments in stress analyses, material property aspects, and fracture mechanics analyses, (3) unresolved issues and technically evolving areas, and (4) a summary of conclusions of major developments to date.

  16. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-08-15

    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector.

  17. Fabricating biomedical origami: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Meredith; Chen, Yue; Hovet, Sierra; Xu, Sheng; Wood, Bradford; Ren, Hongliang; Tokuda, Junichi; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2017-03-04

    Origami-based biomedical device design is an emerging technology due to its ability to be deployed from a minimal foldable pattern to a larger volume. This paper aims to review state-of-the-art origami structures applied in the medical device field. Publications and reports of origami structure related to medical device design from the past 10 years are reviewed and categorized according to engineering specifications, including the application field, fabrication material, size/volume, deployment method, manufacturability, and advantages. This paper presents an overview of the biomedical applications of devices based on origami structures, including disposable sterilization covers, cardiac catheterization, stent grafts, encapsulation and microsurgery, gastrointestinal microsurgery, laparoscopic surgical grippers, microgrippers, microfluidic devices, and drug delivery. Challenges in terms of materials and fabrication, assembly, modeling and computation design, and clinical adoptability are discussed at the end of this paper to provide guidance for future origami-based design in the medical device field. Concepts from origami can be used to design and develop novel medical devices. Origami-based medical device design is currently progressing, with researchers improving design methods, materials, fabrication techniques, and folding efficiency.

  18. Wind power forecasting : state-of-the-art 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.; Bessa, R.; Miranda, V.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.; Conzelmann, G.; Decision and Information Sciences; INESC Porto

    2009-11-20

    uncertainty in wind power and to more efficiently operate power systems with large wind power penetrations. Moreover, in a market environment, the wind power contribution to the generation portofolio becomes important in determining the daily and hourly prices, as variations in the estimated wind power will influence the clearing prices for both energy and operating reserves. With the increasing penetration of wind power, WPF is quickly becoming an important topic for the electric power industry. System operators (SOs), generating companies (GENCOs), and regulators all support efforts to develop better, more reliable and accurate forecasting models. Wind farm owners and operators also benefit from better wind power prediction to support competitive participation in electricity markets against more stable and dispatchable energy sources. In general, WPF can be used for a number of purposes, such as: generation and transmission maintenance planning, determination of operating reserve requirements, unit commitment, economic dispatch, energy storage optimization (e.g., pumped hydro storage), and energy trading. The objective of this report is to review and analyze state-of-the-art WPF models and their application to power systems operations. We first give a detailed description of the methodologies underlying state-of-the-art WPF models. We then look at how WPF can be integrated into power system operations, with specific focus on the unit commitment problem.

  19. Biopesticides: state of the art and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, James N; Coats, Joel; Duke, Stephen O; Gross, Aaron D

    2014-12-03

    The use of biopesticides and related alternative management products is increasing. New tools, including semiochemicals and plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs), as well as botanical and microbially derived chemicals, are playing an increasing role in pest management, along with plant and animal genetics, biological control, cultural methods, and newer synthetics. The goal of this Perspective is to highlight promising new biopesticide research and development (R&D), based upon recently published work and that presented in the American Chemical Society (ACS) symposium "Biopesticides: State of the Art and Future Opportunities," as well as the authors' own perspectives. Although the focus is on biopesticides, included in this Perspective is progress with products exhibiting similar characteristics, namely those naturally occurring or derived from natural products. These are target specific, of low toxicity to nontarget organisms, reduced in persistence in the environment, and potentially usable in organic agriculture. Progress is being made, illustrated by the number of biopesticides and related products in the registration pipeline, yet major commercial opportunities exist for new bioherbicides and bionematicides, in part occasioned by the emergence of weeds resistant to glyphosate and the phase-out of methyl bromide. The emergence of entrepreneurial start-up companies, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fast track for biopesticides, and the availability of funding for registration-related R&D for biorational pesticides through the U.S. IR-4 program provide incentives for biopesticide development, but an expanded effort is warranted both in the United States and worldwide to support this relatively nascent industry.

  20. EEG artifact removal—state-of-the-art and guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urigüen, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Zapirain, Begoña

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an extensive review on the artifact removal algorithms used to remove the main sources of interference encountered in the electroencephalogram (EEG), specifically ocular, muscular and cardiac artifacts. We first introduce background knowledge on the characteristics of EEG activity, of the artifacts and of the EEG measurement model. Then, we present algorithms commonly employed in the literature and describe their key features. Lastly, principally on the basis of the results provided by various researchers, but also supported by our own experience, we compare the state-of-the-art methods in terms of reported performance, and provide guidelines on how to choose a suitable artifact removal algorithm for a given scenario. With this review we have concluded that, without prior knowledge of the recorded EEG signal or the contaminants, the safest approach is to correct the measured EEG using independent component analysis—to be precise, an algorithm based on second-order statistics such as second-order blind identification (SOBI). Other effective alternatives include extended information maximization (InfoMax) and an adaptive mixture of independent component analyzers (AMICA), based on higher order statistics. All of these algorithms have proved particularly effective with simulations and, more importantly, with data collected in controlled recording conditions. Moreover, whenever prior knowledge is available, then a constrained form of the chosen method should be used in order to incorporate such additional information. Finally, since which algorithm is the best performing is highly dependent on the type of the EEG signal, the artifacts and the signal to contaminant ratio, we believe that the optimal method for removing artifacts from the EEG consists in combining more than one algorithm to correct the signal using multiple processing stages, even though this is an option largely unexplored by researchers in the area.

  1. Moving target defense:state of the art and characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-lin CAI; Bao-sheng WANG; Wei HU; Tian-zuo WANG

    2016-01-01

    Moving target defense (MTD) has emerged as one of the game-changing themes to alter the asymmetric situation between attacks and defenses in cyber-security. Numerous related works involving several facets of MTD have been published. However, comprehensive analyses and research on MTD are still absent. In this paper, we present a survey on MTD technologies to scientifi cally and systematically introduce, categorize, and summarize the existing research works in this fi eld. First, a new security model is introduced to describe the changes in the traditional defense paradigm and security model caused by the introduction of MTD. A function-and-movement model is provided to give a panoramic overview on different perspectives for understanding the existing MTD research works. Then a systematic interpretation of published literature is presented to describe the state of the art of the three main areas in the MTD fi eld, namely, MTD theory, MTD strategy, and MTD evaluation. Specifi cally, in the area of MTD strategy, the common characteristics shared by the MTD strategies to improve system security and effectiveness are identifi ed and extrapolated. Thereafter, the methods to implement these characteristics are concluded. Moreover, the MTD strategies are classifi ed into three types according to their specifi c goals, and the necessary and sufficient conditions of each type to create effective MTD strategies are then summarized, which are typically one or more of the aforementioned characteristics. Finally, we provide a number of observations for the future direction in this fi eld, which can be helpful for subsequent researchers.

  2. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, H; Tijhuis, M J; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Holm, F

    2012-01-01

    Risk-taking is normal in everyday life if there are associated (perceived) benefits. Benefit-Risk Analysis (BRA) compares the risk of a situation to its related benefits and addresses the acceptability of the risk. Over the past years BRA in relation to food and food ingredients has gained attention. Food, and even the same food ingredient, may confer both beneficial and adverse effects. Measures directed at food safety may lead to suboptimal or insufficient levels of ingredients from a benefit perspective. In BRA, benefits and risks of food (ingredients) are assessed in one go and may conditionally be expressed into one currency. This allows the comparison of adverse and beneficial effects to be qualitative and quantitative. A BRA should help policy-makers to make more informed and balanced benefit-risk management decisions. Not allowing food benefits to occur in order to guarantee food safety is a risk management decision much the same as accepting some risk in order to achieve more benefits. BRA in food and nutrition is making progress, but difficulties remain. The field may benefit from looking across its borders to learn from other research areas. The BEPRARIBEAN project (Best Practices for Risk-Benefit Analysis: experience from out of food into food; http://en.opasnet.org/w/Bepraribean) aims to do so, by working together with Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics & Marketing-Finance and Consumer Perception. All perspectives are reviewed and subsequently integrated to identify opportunities for further development of BRA for food and food ingredients. Interesting issues that emerge are the varying degrees of risk that are deemed acceptable within the areas and the trend towards more open and participatory BRA processes. A set of 6 'state of the art' papers covering the above areas and a paper integrating the separate (re)views are published in this volume.

  3. Nanoribbons: From fundamentals to state-of-the-art applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmurcukardes, M.; Peeters, F. M.; Senger, R. T.; Sahin, H.

    2016-12-01

    Atomically thin nanoribbons (NRs) have been at the forefront of materials science and nanoelectronics in recent years. State-of-the-art research on nanoscale materials has revealed that electronic, magnetic, phononic, and optical properties may differ dramatically when their one-dimensional forms are synthesized. The present article aims to review the recent advances in synthesis techniques and theoretical studies on NRs. The structure of the review is organized as follows: After a brief introduction to low dimensional materials, we review different experimental techniques for the synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, theoretical investigations on width and edge-shape-dependent electronic and magnetic properties, functionalization effects, and quantum transport properties of GNRs are reviewed. We then devote time to the NRs of the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) family. First, various synthesis techniques, E-field-tunable electronic and magnetic properties, and edge-dependent thermoelectric performance of NRs of MoS2 and WS2 are discussed. Then, strongly anisotropic properties, growth-dependent morphology, and the weakly width-dependent bandgap of ReS2 NRs are summarized. Next we discuss TMDs having a T-phase morphology such as TiSe2 and stable single layer NRs of mono-chalcogenides. Strong edge-type dependence on characteristics of GaS NRs, width-dependent Seebeck coefficient of SnSe NRs, and experimental analysis on the stability of ZnSe NRs are reviewed. We then focus on the most recently emerging NRs belonging to the class of transition metal trichalcogenides which provide ultra-high electron mobility and highly anisotropic quasi-1D properties. In addition, width-, edge-shape-, and functionalization-dependent electronic and mechanical properties of blackphosphorus, a monoatomic anisotropic material, and studies on NRs of group IV elements (silicene, germanene, and stanene) are reviewed

  4. Harvesting Robots for High-value Crops: State-of-the-art Review and Challenges Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac, C.W.; Henten, van E.; Hemming, J.; Edan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This review article analyzes state-of-the-art and future perspectives for harvesting robots in high-value crops. The objectives were to characterize the crop environment relevant for robotic harvesting, to perform a literature review on the state-of-the-art of harvesting robots using quantitative me

  5. 14 CFR 1203.403 - State-of-the-art and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State-of-the-art and intelligence. 1203.403... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.403 State-of-the-art and intelligence. A logical... available from intelligence sources is known or is available to others. It is also important to...

  6. Preliminary Radiation Testing of a State-of-the-Art Commercial 14nm CMOS Processor/System-on-a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Carl M., Jr.; Duncan, Adam; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Kay, Matt; Bruner, Pat; Krzesniak, Mike; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hardness assurance test results of Intel state-of-the-art 14nm “Broadwell” U-series processor / System-on-a-Chip (SoC) for total ionizing dose (TID) are presented, along with exploratory results from trials at a medical proton facility. Test method builds upon previous efforts [1] by utilizing commercial laptop motherboards and software stress applications as opposed to more traditional automated test equipment (ATE).

  7. Preliminary Radiation Testing of a State-of-the-Art Commercial 14nm CMOS Processor - System-on-a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Carl M., Jr.; Duncan, Adam; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Kay, Matt; Bruner, Pat; Krzesniak, Mike; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hardness assurance test results of Intel state-of-the-art 14nm Broadwell U-series processor System-on-a-Chip (SoC) for total dose are presented, along with first-look exploratory results from trials at a medical proton facility. Test method builds upon previous efforts by utilizing commercial laptop motherboards and software stress applications as opposed to more traditional automated test equipment (ATE).

  8. Hydrogen from biomass: state of the art and research challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, Thomas A; Elam, Carolyn C; Evans, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen, Task 16, Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials. Hydrogen's share in the energy market is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production will need to keep pace with this growing market. In the near term, increased production will likely be met by conventional technologies, such as natural gas reforming. In these processes, the carbon is converted to CO2 and released to the atmosphere. However, with the growing concern about global climate change, alternatives to the atmospheric release of CO2 are being investigated. Sequestration of the CO2 is an option that could provide a viable near-term solution. Reducing the demand on fossil resources remains a significant concern for many nations. Renewable-based processes like solar- or wind-driven electrolysis and photobiological water splitting hold great promise for clean hydrogen production; however, advances must still be made before these technologies can be economically competitive. For the near-and mid-term, generating hydrogen from biomass may be the more practical and viable, renewable and potentially carbon-neutral (or even carbon-negative in conjunction with sequestration) option. Recently, the IEA Hydrogen Agreement launched a new task to bring together international experts to investigate some of these near- and mid-term options for producing hydrogen with reduced environmental impacts. This review of the state of the art of hydrogen production from biomass was prepared to facilitate in the planning of work that should be done to achieve the goal of near-term hydrogen energy systems. The relevant technologies that convert biomass to hydrogen, with emphasis on thermochemical routes are described. In evaluating the viability of the conversion routes, each must be put in the context of the availability of

  9. Environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for E-waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlayel, Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for proper e-waste handling using Jordan as a case study. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was employed to evaluate five advanced management systems represent state-of-the-art treatment technologies, including sanitary landfilling; proper recycling of metals, materials, and precious metals (PMs); and incineration of plastic and the hazardous portion of printed circuit boards (PCBs). Six e-waste products that contribute the most to the e-waste in Jordan were included in the assessment of each scenario, which resulted in 30 total cases of e-waste management. The findings indicated that landfills for the entire components of the e-waste stream are the worst option and should be avoided. The most promising e-waste management scenario features integrated e-waste processes based on the concept of Integrated Waste Management (IWM), including recycling materials such as non-PMs and PMs, incinerating plastic and the hazardous content of PCBs using the energy recovered from incineration, and using sanitary landfills of residues. For this scenario, the best environmental performance was obtained for the treatment of mobile phones. Incineration of the portion of hazardous waste using energy recovery is an option that deserves attention. Because scenario implementation depends on more than just the environmental benefits (e.g., economic cost and technical aspects), the study proposes a systematic approach founded on the IWM concept for e-waste management scenario selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Water Treatment Plant Sludges--An Update of the State of the Art: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Water Works Association Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This report outlines the state of the art with respect to nonmechanical and mechanical methods of dewatering water treatment plant sludge, ultimate solids disposal, and research and development needs. (CS)

  11. Introduction to the Special Issue on "State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan 2015".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumitsu, Masahiro; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2016-08-23

    This Special Issue, "State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan 2015", collected papers on different kinds of sensing technology: fundamental technology for intelligent sensors, information processing for monitoring humans, and information processing for adaptive and survivable sensor systems.[...].

  12. A quick guide to wind power forecating : state-of-the-art 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.; Keko, H.; Bessa, R.; Miranda, V.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.; Conzelmann, G.; Decision and Information Sciences; INESC Porto

    2009-11-20

    This document contains a summary of the main findings from our full report entitled 'Wind Power Forecasting: State-of-the-Art 2009'. The aims of this document are to provide guidelines and a quick overview of the current state-of-the-art in wind power forecasting (WPF) and to point out lines of research in the future development of forecasting systems.

  13. Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Current State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    strength between 190 to 240 MPa and is broadly characterized as a reactive powder concrete (RPC). RPCs have fine aggregates and powders but do not...ER D C/ G SL T R- 17 -1 9 Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber-Reinforced Concrete : Current State-of-the-Art G eo te...Discontinuous Fibers in Ultra-High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete : Current State-of-the-Art Charles A. Burchfield Geotechnical and

  14. Shrublands and Soil Erosion. An State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Estríngana, Pablo; Dunkerley, David; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Shrublands and Soil Erosion. An State-of-the-Art Arid and semiarid regions occupy two-fifth of the continents (Reynolds et al., 2007). These regions are characterized by dry climatic conditions, recurrent droughts and a scant rainfall pattern with a marked seasonality and a high inter-annual variability which makes water to be a scant resource and vegetation to follow a high variability spatial distribution pattern (Breshears et al., 1998; Cecchi et al., 2006; Dunkerley, 2008). These conditions make these areas more sensitive to climate change (Rowell, 2005) and to land use change as a consequence of land abandonment (Poyatos et al., 2003; Delgado et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010), increasing the risk of desertification (Puigdefábregas and Mendizabal, 1998; Geeson et al., 2002), in such a way that 65-70% of arid and semiarid areas are vulnerable to this degradation process (UNEP, 1991). Soil Erosion and Land Degradation are closely related to the changes in the vegetation cover (Zhao et al., 2013). Although other factors such as rainfall intensity or slope (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) the plant cover is the main factor that controls the soil erosion, controlling the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1998a; Kargar Chigani et al., 2012; Haregeweyn, 2013). Soil erosion show non-sustainable rates under these regions, such as under Mediterranean conditions (Cerdà et al., 2010) and on agriculture land (Cerdà et al; 2007; 2009) due to climatic conditions, to parent material and to the roughed terrain (Romero Díaz et al., 2010). The traditional impact of grazing, of extremely intense fires, of ploughing and the widespread use of herbicides on agriculture, the increase of the road and railway embankments and the agricultural land abandonment cause vegetation removal. Canopy cover partitions rainfall reducing the amount of water reaching the soil and the kinetic energy of rainfall drops, protecting the soil against the impact of rainfall drops. Vegetation

  15. State-of-the-Art for Prediction of Pavement Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    exhibit a significant nonlinearity, e.g., saturated granular soils, cohesive soils, and asphaltic cements. Consequently, it does not appear that time...current total level of stress and strain). The variable modulus models represent mate- rials of the hypoelastic classification; that is, the...development of this model is given in Reference 36. Base course layers are almost exclusively composed of various gradations of granular materials

  16. Glucocorticoids and the cardiovascular system: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinovitch, Udi; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Pereira, Rosa Maria R; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are drugs commonly used, by approximately 1% of the total adult population as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapies for asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, dermatological, ophthalmic, neurological, and rheumatic autoimmune diseases. Supporting evidence exists of GC use in both immune mediated and non-immune mediated heart disease. The molecular mechanisms by which GC induces immune-modulation and direct cardioprotection, are complex and not fully understood. We review herein, the current knowledge of GC use in various immune-mediated or non-immune mediated cardiovascular conditions. GC have been investigated in autoimmune, inflammatory and idiopathic heart diseases such as atrio-ventricular conduction abnormalities, rheumatic fever, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Kawasaki disease and sarcoidosis. GC therapy has been studied in non-autoimmune and non-inflammatory indications such as acute myocardial infarction, angina, postpericardiotomy syndrome and other pericardial diseases, endocarditis and cardiac amyloidosis, as well as in invasive cardiology, coronary interventions, and cardiopulmonary-bypass surgery. Despite GC's role as natural, physiologic regulators of the immune system, cardiovascular adverse outcomes may occur. Some of the well-known side effects of GC therapy involve bone, metabolic, and cardiovascular systems and include osteoporosis, fractures, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension.

  17. Ash dispersal dynamics: state of the art and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, R.

    2013-05-01

    Volcanic ash, during dispersal and deposition, is among the major hazards from explosive eruptions. Volcanic ash fallout can disrupt communities downwind, interrupt surface transportation networks and lead to closure of airports. Airborne ash seriously threatens modern jet aircraft in flight. In several documented cases, encounters between aircraft and volcanic clouds have resulted in engine flameout and near crashes, so there is a need to accurately predict the trajectory of volcanic ash clouds in order to improve aviation safety and reduce economic losses. The ash clouds affect aviation even in distal regions, as demonstrated by several eruptions with far-range dispersal. Recent examples include Crater Peak 1992, Tungurahua 1999-2001, Mount Cleveland 2001, Chaitén 2008, Eyjafjallajökull 2010, Grimsvötn 2011, and Cordón-Caulle 2011. Amongst these, the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland provoked the largest civil aviation breakdown. Accumulation of tephra can produce roof collapse, interruption of lifelines (roads, railways, etc.), disruption to airport operations, and damage to communications and electrical power lines. Deposition of ash decreases soil permeability, increases surface runoff, and promotes floods. Ash leaching can result in the pollution of water resources, damage to agriculture, pastures, and livestock, impinge on aquatic ecosystems, and alteration of the geochemical environment on the seafloor. Despite the potential big impact, the dispersal dynamics of volcanic ash is still an unsolved problem for volcanologists, which claims for fiture high level research. Here, a critical overview about models (field, experimental and numerical) for inversion of field data to gain insights on physics of dispersal of volcanic ash is proposed. A special focus is devoted to some physical parameters that are far from a satisfactory inversion (e.g. reconstruction of total grain size distribution), and clues for future research are suggested.

  18. West Nile Virus State of the Art Report of MALWEST Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani Marka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last three years Greece is experiencing the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV epidemics. Within this framework, an integrated surveillance and control programme (MALWEST project with thirteen associate partners was launched aiming to investigate the disease and suggest appropriate interventions. One out of seven work packages of the project is dedicated to the State of the Art report for WNV. Three expert working groups on humans, animals and mosquitoes were established. Medical databases (PubMed, Scopus were searched together with websites: e.g., WHO, CDC, ECDC. In total, 1,092 relevant articles were initially identified and 258 of them were finally included as references regarding the current knowledge about WNV, along with 36 additional sources (conference papers, reports, book chapters. The review is divided in three sections according to the fields of interest: (1 WNV in humans (epidemiology, molecular characteristics, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, surveillance; (2 WNV in animals (epidemiological and transmission characteristics concerning birds, horses, reptiles and other animal species and (3 WNV in mosquitoes (control, surveillance. Finally, some examples of integrated surveillance programmes are presented. The introduction and establishment of the disease in Greece and other European countries further emphasizes the need for thorough research and broadening of our knowledge on this viral pathogen.

  19. West Nile Virus State of the Art Report of MALWEST Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marka, Andriani; Diamantidis, Alexandros; Papa, Anna; Valiakos, George; Chaintoutis, Serafeim C.; Doukas, Dimitrios; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Patsoula, Eleni; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Baka, Agoritsa; Tseroni, Maria; Pervanidou, Danai; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Koliopoulos, George; Tontis, Dimitrios; Dovas, Chrysostomos I.; Billinis, Charalambos; Tsakris, Athanassios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    During the last three years Greece is experiencing the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) epidemics. Within this framework, an integrated surveillance and control programme (MALWEST project) with thirteen associate partners was launched aiming to investigate the disease and suggest appropriate interventions. One out of seven work packages of the project is dedicated to the State of the Art report for WNV. Three expert working groups on humans, animals and mosquitoes were established. Medical databases (PubMed, Scopus) were searched together with websites: e.g., WHO, CDC, ECDC. In total, 1,092 relevant articles were initially identified and 258 of them were finally included as references regarding the current knowledge about WNV, along with 36 additional sources (conference papers, reports, book chapters). The review is divided in three sections according to the fields of interest: (1) WNV in humans (epidemiology, molecular characteristics, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, surveillance); (2) WNV in animals (epidemiological and transmission characteristics concerning birds, horses, reptiles and other animal species) and (3) WNV in mosquitoes (control, surveillance). Finally, some examples of integrated surveillance programmes are presented. The introduction and establishment of the disease in Greece and other European countries further emphasizes the need for thorough research and broadening of our knowledge on this viral pathogen. PMID:24317379

  20. Transit apps for people with brain injury and other cognitive disabilities: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone-Lee, Sharon A; Skelton, Ronald W; Livingston, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with cognitive disability have difficulty using public transit, but little research is directed toward this issue. Recent studies suggest that smartphones may be useful assistive devices in this context. Current objectives were to (1) survey research into difficulties people with cognitive disabilities experience when using public transit, (2) survey the current state of the art of transit and personal navigation applications (apps) and features, (3) recommend best existing transit apps for people with cognitive disability, and (4) recommend the best designs and features of these apps to developers of future transit apps. Potentially useful features were found in four categories: Transit apps for (1) individuals with cognitive disabilities and (2) healthy individuals, and personal navigation apps for (3) individuals with cognitive disabilities and (4) healthy individuals. A total of 159 apps were examined, but only seven were found specific to public transit for cognitive disability. By comparing research recommendations and currently available features, we identified several unmet needs. We note that there appears to be a shortage of apps for this population-function but that there is good research in the area and it is well suited to inform app development.

  1. State of the art treatments for cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Itai; Gorelick, David A

    2012-06-01

    The treatment of cannabis dependence can be viewed as a cup half empty or half full. On the one hand, few people who might benefit from treatment actually receive it. Among those who undergo treatment in randomized trials, long-term abstinence is achieved by fewer than 20%. Moderate use goals have been associated with decreases in consequences, but the differential impact of such goals on the long-term course of cannabis dependence is unknown. Optimal duration of treatment is unclear, and certain populations, particularly patients with co-occurring disorders, have not been studied adequately. Twelve-step programs are low cost, effective for other substance use disorders, and readily available in most regions of the world. However, their role and efficacy in cannabis dependence has not been examined. Finally, effective pharmacologic treatments are under development, but none have yet been firmly established. On the other hand, psychotherapeutic strategies used to treat other substance use disorders can be effective for cannabis dependence. A recent meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for illicit substance use disorders found that treatments for cannabis dependence had comparatively larger effect sizes than treatments for other substance use disorders. Combination therapies have proven most effective, particularly those that begin with a motivational intervention, utilize incentives to enhance the commitment to change, and teach behavioral and cognitive copings skills to prevent relapse. Among adolescents, family engagement and collaboration with community stakeholders adds substantial value. Although only 9% of cannabis users develop cannabis dependence, the volume of people who smoke cannabis ensures that the total number of people in need of help is larger than the capacity of substance abuse specialty services. Thus, although efforts to refine and improve the efficacy of treatment interventions continue, innovations that increase the availability and

  2. State of the art-hydraulic yaw systems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole;

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the yawing systems of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT’s). HAWT’s represents close to all of the commercial large wind turbines sold today and must be considered state-of-the art within wind turbine technology. Two choices exists when considering components for the active...... mounted with a reduction gear. This paper presents state-of-the art within; hydraulic yaw system design and control of yaw systems in general. Primary focus on the advantages and disadvantages of using a hydraulic system for controlling the yaw of a wind turbine with a soft yaw concept....

  3. O&M Modeling of Offshore Wind Farms - State of the Art and Future Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgarpour, Masoud; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the state of the art in O&M models for O&M cost estimation of offshore wind farms is discussed and then, a case study for O&M cost estimation of an 800 MW reference offshore wind farm is given. Moreover, a framework for an ideal O&M strategy optimizer to achieve the maximum possible O...

  4. State-of-the-art of automated generalisation in commercial software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, J.E.; Baella, B.; Blok, C.; Burghardt, D.; Duchêne, C.; Pla, M.; Regnauld, N.; Touya, G.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the EuroSDR research project that studied the state-of-the-art of automated generalisation in commercial software in a collaboration between National Mapping Agencies (NMAs), research institutes and vendors. The aims of the study were to learn more about generic and specific map

  5. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings from the SWAFEA preliminary state of the art study. It covers trends in aspects of future air transport, potential candidate fuels and associated feedstock along with sustainability and economical issues relevant for alternative fuels in aviation..

  6. Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Systems for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Jensen, Søren Holdt; Jensen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates four state-of-the-art acoustic feedback cancellation systems in hearing aids in terms of the cancellation performance, sound quality degradation, and computational complexity. The authors compared a traditional full-band system to a system with a prediction error method...

  7. IMS Learning Design: State of the art and research hot topics on eLearning standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Burgos, D. (2006). IMS Learning Design: State of the art and research hot topics on eLearning standardization. Presentation at the 8th International Simposio of Educational Computer Science. October, 24-27, 2006, León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technology.

  8. State-of-the-art reviews and bibliographies on energy. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-07-01

    Citations to bibliographies, state-of-the-art reviews, and literature surveys on various aspects of fossil fuels, wind, solar energy, hydrogen, geothermal energy, nuclear energy, and batteries are presented. A few citations pertain to electric power. This updated bibliography contains 107 citations, 77 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  9. Library Services for the Handicapped in Maine; A State-of-the-Art Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patrick A.

    The purpose of this state-of-the-art report is to describe how handicapped readers in Maine receive their special library services as part of the national network. Handicapped readers are defined as those persons who are unable to read conventional print or handle conventionally printed materials because of some visual or physical impairment. The…

  10. State of the art analysis of online fault location on AC cables in underground transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth

    2011-01-01

    In this article the state of the art research for online fault location on cross-bonded transmission level cables is presented. The article is focused on the difficulties in using the algorithms developed for OHL-systems and distribution cables directly on cross-bonded transmission cables. Impeda...

  11. Geneesmiddelengebruik en verkeersveiligheid : covernota bij het state-of-the-art onderzoek Geneesmiddelen en drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P. Twisk, D.A.M. & Vis, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    A state of the art report on the use of medicines and drugs and traffic safety (based on three other reports see B 26479, 29954 and 29960) is presented. Policy recommendations are discussed. It is argued that a large scale epidemiological study to determine the relative risk is not indicated. Instea

  12. 77 FR 5281 - State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    .... ACTION: Draft NUREG; public meeting and request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is holding public meetings concerning the release of Draft NUREG-1935, ``State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) Report,'' for public comment. The purpose of Draft NUREG-1935 is...

  13. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the ...

  14. Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Systems for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Jensen, Søren Holdt; Jensen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates four state-of-the-art acoustic feedback cancellation systems in hearing aids in terms of the cancellation performance, sound quality degradation, and computational complexity. The authors compared a traditional full-band system to a system with a prediction error method...

  15. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Axelsson, M.; Chabot, D.; Van der Meer, J.; Metcalfe, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of howit can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiologicalknowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limit

  16. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis; Claireaux, Guy; Cooke, Steven J.; Corner, Richard A.; Boeck, De Gudrun; Domenici, Paolo; Guerreiro, Pedro M.; Hamer, Bojan; Jørgensen, Christian; Killen, Shaun S.; Lefevre, Sjannie; Marras, Stefano; Michaelidis, Basile; Nilsson, Göran E.; Peck, Myron A.; Perez-Ruzafa, Angel; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Shiels, Holly A.; Steffensen, John F.; Svendsen, Jon C.; Svendsen, Morten B.S.; Teal, Lorna R.; Meer, Van Der Jaap; Wang, Tobias; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Wilson, Rod W.; Metcalfe, Julian D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental p

  17. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Axelsson, M.; Chabot, D.; Claireaux, G.; Cooke, S.J.; Corner, R.A.; De Boeck, G.; Domenici, P.; Guerreiro, P.M.; Hamer, B.; Jørgensen, C.; Killen, S.S.; Lefevre, S.; Marras, S.; Michaelidis, B.; Nilsson, G.E.; Peck, M.A.; Perez-Ruzafa, A.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Shiels, H.A.; Steffensen, J.F.; Svendsen, J.C.; Svendsen, M.B.S.; Teal, L.R.; Van der Meer, J.; Wang, T.; Wilson, J.M.; Wilson, R.W.; Metcalfe, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the lim

  18. PRELIDA D3.1 State of the art assessment on Linked Data and Digital Preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batsakis, Sotiris; Giaretta, David; Gueret, Christophe; van Horik, M.P.M.; Hoogerwerf, Maarten; Isaac, Antoine; Meghini, Carlo; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The state of the art of Linked Data technologies and standards and of Digital Preservation solutions, standards and technologies is presented, along with an analysis of the characteristics of Linked Data that make their preservation different from that of other digital resources (A consolidated vers

  19. Literature Survey Concerning State of the Art and Surface Generation in High Speed Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    This report constitutes a short description of a literature survey concerning the state of the art and latest achievements on the rather new and powerful technology of high speed milling and its modelling, particularly looking at modelling of the generated surfaces. This task has been conducted i...

  20. EVALUATION OF THE STATE-OF-THE-ART CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling approaches for evaluating the transport and fate of sediment and associated contaminants are briefly reviewed. The main emphasis is on: 1) the application of EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code), the state-of-the-art contaminated sediment transport and fate public do...

  1. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings from the SWAFEA preliminary state of the art study. It covers trends in aspects of future air transport, potential candidate fuels and associated feedstock along with sustainability and economical issues relevant for alternative fuels in aviation..

  2. Electrocatalysis and electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells: fundamentals, state of the art, research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendt Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with electrocatalysis and electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells and also with established means and methods in electrocatalyst research, development and characterization. The intention is to inform about the fundamentals, state of the art, research and development of noble metal electrocatalysts for fuel cells operating at low temperatures.

  3. IMS Learning Design: State of the art and research hot topics on eLearning standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Burgos, D. (2006). IMS Learning Design: State of the art and research hot topics on eLearning standardization. Presentation at the 8th International Simposio of Educational Computer Science. October, 24-27, 2006, León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technology.

  4. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Axelsson, M.; Chabot, D.; Van der Meer, J.; Metcalfe, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of howit can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiologicalknowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limit

  5. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis; Claireaux, Guy; Cooke, Steven J.; Corner, Richard A.; Boeck, De Gudrun; Domenici, Paolo; Guerreiro, Pedro M.; Hamer, Bojan; Jørgensen, Christian; Killen, Shaun S.; Lefevre, Sjannie; Marras, Stefano; Michaelidis, Basile; Nilsson, Göran E.; Peck, Myron A.; Perez-Ruzafa, Angel; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Shiels, Holly A.; Steffensen, John F.; Svendsen, Jon C.; Svendsen, Morten B.S.; Teal, Lorna R.; Meer, Van Der Jaap; Wang, Tobias; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Wilson, Rod W.; Metcalfe, Julian D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental p

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  7. State of the art rapport "verkeersstroommodellen". Deel IV: Macroscopische dynamische verkeersstroommodellen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H.

    1977-01-01

    In the fourth part of the state of the art report "traffic flow models" the behaviour of macroscopic traffic flow characteristics in dynamic situations is discussed. The models are mostly formulated here as one, or as a system of, partial differential equations. First the so called input-output mo

  8. Pragmatics: The State of the Art: An Online Interview with Keith Allan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Keith; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    This interview was conducted with Professor Keith Allan with the aim of providing a brief but informative summary of the state of the art of pragmatics. In providing answers to the interview questions, Professor Allan begins with a definition of pragmatics as it is practiced today, i.e., the study of the meanings of utterances with attention to…

  9. Mine Burial Assessment State-of the Art in Prediction and Modeling Workshop and Initiation of Technical Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-30

    Mine Burial Assessment State-of the Art in Prediction and Modeling Workshop and Initiation of Technical Program Richard H. Bennett SEAPROBE, Inc 501...Assessment State-of the Art in Prediction and Modeling Workshop and Initiation of Technical Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM... Technical Program , Agenda, Background, and References, Bennett and Wilkens, 2000. d. Completed Reviews of the state-of-the-art practices in Mine Burial

  10. The LIFE Laser Design in Context: A Comparison to the State-of-the-Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R J; Bayramian, A J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-03-21

    The current point design for the LIFE laser leverages decades of solid-state laser development in order to achieve the performance and attributes required for inertial fusion energy. This document provides a brief comparison of the LIFE laser point design to other state-of-the-art solid-state lasers. Table I compares the attributes of the current LIFE laser point design to other systems. the state-of-the-art for single-shot performance at fusion-relevant beamline energies is exemplified by performance observed on the National Ignition Facility. The state-of-the-art for high average power is exemplified by the Northrup Grumman JHPSSL laser. Several items in Table I deal with the laser efficiency; a more detailed discussion of efficiency can be found in reference 5. The electrical-to-optical efficiency of the LIFE design exceeds that of reference 4 due to the availability of higher efficiency laser diode pumps (70% vs. {approx}50% used in reference 4). LIFE diode pumps are discussed in greater detail in reference 6. The 'beam steering' state of the art is represented by the deflection device that will be used in the LIFE laser, not a laser system. Inspection of Table I shows that most LIFE laser attributes have already been experimentally demonstrated. The two cases where the LIFE design is somewhat better than prior experimental work do not involve the development of new concepts: beamline power is increased simply by increasing aperture (as demonstrated by the power/aperture comparison in Table I), and efficiency increases are achieved by employing state-of-the-art diode pumps. In conclusion, the attributes anticipated for the LIFE laser are consistent with the demonstrated performance of existing solid-state lasers.

  11. Hurricane Loss Estimation Models: Opportunities for Improving the State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles C., Jr.; Johnson, Mark E.

    2004-11-01

    The results of hurricane loss models are used regularly for multibillion dollar decisions in the insurance and financial services industries. These models are proprietary, and this “black box” nature hinders analysis. The proprietary models produce a wide range of results, often producing loss costs that differ by a ratio of three to one or more. In a study for the state of North Carolina, 324 combinations of loss models were analyzed, based on a combination of nine wind models, four surface friction models, and nine damage models drawn from the published literature in insurance, engineering, and meteorology. These combinations were tested against reported losses from Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew as reported by a major insurance company, as well as storm total losses for additional storms. Annual loss costs were then computed using these 324 combinations of models for both North Carolina and Florida, and compared with publicly available proprietary model results in Florida. The wide range of resulting loss costs for open, scientifically defensible models that perform well against observed losses mirrors the wide range of loss costs computed by the proprietary models currently in use. This outcome may be discouraging for governmental and corporate decision makers relying on this data for policy and investment guidance (due to the high variability across model results), but it also provides guidance for the efforts of future investigations to improve loss models. Although hurricane loss models are true multidisciplinary efforts, involving meteorology, engineering, statistics, and actuarial sciences, the field of meteorology offers the most promising opportunities for improvement of the state of the art.

  12. STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN NATURAL GAS ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, M

    2003-08-24

    Current, state of the art natural gas engines provide the lowest emission commercial technology for use in medium heavy duty vehicles. NOx emission levels are 25 to 50% lower than state of the art diesel engines and PM levels are 90% lower than non-filter equipped diesels. Yet, in common with diesel engines, natural gas engines are challenged to become even cleaner and more efficient to meet environmental and end-user demands. Cummins Westport is developing two streams of technologies to achieve these goals for medium-heavy and heavy-heavy duty applications. For medium-heavy duty applications, lowest possible emissions are sought on SI engines without significant increase in complexity and with improvements in efficiency and BMEP. The selected path builds on the capabilities of the CWI Plus technology and recent diesel engine advances in NOx controls, providing potential to reduce emissions to 2010 values in an accelerated manner and without the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction or NOx Storage and Reduction technology. For heavy-heavy duty applications where high torque and fuel economy are of prime concern, the Westport-Cycle{trademark} technology is in field trial. This technology incorporates High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI{trademark}) of natural gas with a diesel pilot ignition source. Both fuels are delivered through a single, dual common rail injector. The operating cycle is entirely unthrottled and maintains the high compression ratio of a diesel engine. As a result of burning 95% natural gas rather than diesel fuel, NOx emissions are halved and PM is reduced by around 70%. High levels of EGR can be applied while maintaining high combustion efficiency, resulting in extremely low NOx potential. Some recent studies have indicated that DPF-equipped diesels emit less nanoparticles than some natural gas vehicles [1]. It must be understood that the ultrafine particles emitted from SI natural gas engines are generally accepted to consist predominantly of

  13. State-of-the-art report on the theoretical modeling of interfacial area concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Euh, Dong Jin

    1998-03-01

    Classical approaches based on experimental correlations and the mechanistic approaches based on the interfacial area concentration were reviewed. The study focuses on the state-of-the-art researches based on the mechanistic modeling of the interfacial area concentration. The investigation is performed by classifying the mechanistic modeling approaches into those using the number density transport equations supported with a simple algebraic relation for obtaining interfacial area concentration and those using the direct interfacial area transport equations. The modeling approaches are subdivided into one group and multi-group models. The state-of-the-art source terms of transport equations are also investigated for their applicability and limitations. (author). 62 refs., 6 tabs., 49 figs

  14. Analytical clinical chemistry precision. State of the art for fourteen analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J W; Fraser, M D

    1977-07-01

    Relationships of concentration and coefficient of variation for 14 clinical chemistry analytes are described. Estimated mean regression curves and standard deviations of individual laboratory coefficients of variation about the mean regression are calculated. Two analytes, calcium and sodium, showed no relationship of concentration to precision. Twelve analytes showed significant relations between concentration and coefficient of variation. State-of-the-art precision is compared with medical goals. The average coefficient of variation for one analyte, calcium, fails to meet medical goals for automated or manual methods. Average precisions for 13 analytes meet medical goals. The distribution of individual laboratory precision above average state-of-the-art figures is discussed. The proportions of laboratories failing to meet medical goals are large for sodium, chloride and glucose, in addition to calcium.

  15. Summary of State-of-the-Art Power Conversion Systems for Energy Storage Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcitty, S.; Gray-Fenner, A.; Ranade, S.

    1998-09-01

    The power conversion system (PCS) is a vital part of many energy storage systems. It serves as the interface between the storage device, an energy source, and an AC load. This report summarizes the results of an extensive study of state-of-the-art power conversion systems used for energy storage applications. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for cost reduction and performance improvement in these power conversion systems and to provide recommendations for fiture research and development. This report provides an overview of PCS technology, a description of several state-of-the-art power conversion systems and how they are used in specific applications, a summary of four basic configurations for l:he power conversion systems used in energy storage applications, a discussion of PCS costs and potential cost reductions, a summary of the stancku-ds and codes relevant to the technology, and recommendations for future research and development.

  16. State-of-the-art of fiber-reinforced polymers in additive manufacturing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have received a lot of attention in recent years for their use in multiple materials such as metals, ceramics, and polymers. The aim of this review article is to analyze the technology of fiber-reinforced polymers and its implementation with additive...... manufacturing. This article reviews recent developments, ideas, and state-of-the-art technologies in this field. Moreover, it gives an overview of the materials currently available for fiber-reinforced material technology....

  17. Conclusion: Reflections on the State of the Art of Sustainability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Jenny; Bond, Alan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2015-01-01

    In this concluding chapter we offer some of our reflections on the state of the art of sustainability assessment based upon the contributions to this Handbook. We do not claim that this is a definitive summary of global sustainability assessment theory and practice, as this is not possible based solely on the 17 preceding chapters, varied and interesting though they are. The focus of this Handbook is sustainability assessment research, and the chapters reflect both applied research and more c...

  18. Localized excitations in nonlinear complex systems current state of the art and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Frantzeskakis, Dimitri; Karachalios, Nikos; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Palmero-Acebedo, Faustino

    2014-01-01

    The study of nonlinear localized excitations is a long-standing challenge for research in basic and applied science, as well as engineering, due to their importance in understanding and predicting phenomena arising in nonlinear and complex systems, but also due to their potential for the development and design of novel applications. This volume is a compilation of chapters representing the current state-of-the-art on the field of localized excitations and their role in the dynamics of complex physical systems.

  19. State of the art on historic building insulation materials and retrofit strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumberga, Andra; Kass, Kristaps; Kamendere, Edite

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an analysis and evaluation of a state-of-the-art of internal insulation materials and methods for application in historic buildings, and review on methods, tools and guidelines used as decision making tools for implementation of internal insulation in historic buildings....... Historic buildings in RIBuild represent all types of protected1 and non-protected buildings built before 1945. The survey is limited to buildings with heavy walls (stone, brick, timber framing), thus excluding wooden buildings....

  20. Alkali activated materials state-of-the-art report, RILEM TC 224-AAM

    CERN Document Server

    Deventer, Jannie

    2014-01-01

    This is a State of the Art Report resulting from the work of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM in the period 2007-2013. The Report summarises research to date in the area of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a particular focus on the following areas: binder design and characterisation, durability testing, commercialisation, standardisation, and providing a historical context for this rapidly-growing research field.

  1. Introduction to the Special Issue on “State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru Ishida

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The combination of sensing technology with information and communication technology (ICT could serve both as global eyes that monitor the environment for environmental issues, and as local eyes that monitor humans for aging society issues. System technology is also required to form such global and local eyes. This special issue, “State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan”, contains articles and reviews related to the monitoring of humans and the environment, and the integration of sensor systems. [...

  2. State of the Art Review for Applying Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning Techniques to Portfolio Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Computational techniques have shown much promise in the field of Finance, owing to their ability to extract sense out of dauntingly complex systems. This paper reviews the most promising of these techniques, from traditional computational intelligence methods to their machine learning siblings, with particular view to their application in optimising the management of a portfolio of financial instruments. The current state of the art is assessed, and prospective further work is assessed and recommended

  3. Selection of suppliers. An approach to the state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In the search for better competitive performance, there is a world trend towards the management of supply chains. As part of this trend, the selection of suppliers has become a strategic decision with a high impact on organisational performance. For this reason, this article makes an approach to the state of the art in supplier selection, taking major international specialised magazines as the point of reference. The objective of this document is to offer support as a point of reference for f...

  4. The reversibility of sea ice loss in a state-of-the-art climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, K. C.; Eisenman, I; Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E.; McCusker, K. E.; Bitz, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid Arctic sea ice retreat has fueled speculation about the possibility of threshold (or ‘tipping point’) behavior and irreversible loss of the sea ice cover. We test sea ice reversibility within a state-of-the-art atmosphere–ocean global climate model by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide until the Arctic Ocean becomes ice-free throughout the year and subsequently decreasing it until the initial ice cover returns. Evidence for irreversibility in the form of hysteresis outside the envelo...

  5. Plugging wells for abandonment: a state-of-the-art study and recommended procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herndon, J.; Smith, D.K.

    1976-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of borehole plugging of abandoned oil wells and the tools and materials used are discussed. Special problems encountered are considered and several case studies are outlined. The special procedures which must be followed if the plugged borehole is to be considered as a repository for radioactive wastes are discussed and special recommendations are made. A state-by-state summary is given of the regulatory requirements for borehole plugging. (JSR)

  6. Enterprise Modeling in the context of Enterprise Engineering: State of the art and outlook

    OpenAIRE

    François Vernadat

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise Modeling is a central activity in Enterprise Engineering and can facilitate Production Management activities. This state-of-the-art paper first recalls definitions and fundamental principles of enterprise modelling, which goes far beyond process modeling. The CIMOSA modeling framework, which is based on an event-driven process-based modeling language suitable for enterprise system analysis and model enactment, is used as a reference conceptual framework because of its generality. N...

  7. Biomarkers in community-acquired pneumonia: A state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Seligman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP exhibits mortality rates, between 20% and 50% in severe cases. Biomarkers are useful tools for searching for antibiotic therapy modifications and for CAP diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up treatment. This non-systematic state-of-the-art review presents the biological and clinical features of biomarkers in CAP patients, including procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, copeptin, pro-ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, cortisol and D-dimers.

  8. State of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (european union Parsoar project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, F.; Bachellerie, E. [Technicatome, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Auglaire, M. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium); Boeck, B. de [Association Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium); Braillard, O. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Eckardt, B. [Siemens AG, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Ferroni, F. [Electrowatt Engineering Limited, Zurich (Switzerland); Moffett, R. [Atomic Energy Canada Limited, Pinawa (Canada); Van Goethem, G. [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the European Union PARSOAR project, which consists in carrying out a state of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (PAR) and a handbook guide for implementing these devices in nuclear power plants. This work is performed in the area ''Operational Safety of Existing Installations'' of the key action ''Nuclear Fission'' of the fifth Euratom Framework Programme (1998-2002). (author)

  9. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis; Claireaux, Guy; Cooke, Steven J.; Corner, Richard A.; Boeck, de, H.J.; Domenici, Paolo; Guerreiro, Pedro M.; Hamer, Bojan; Jørgensen, Christian; Killen, Shaun S.; Lefevre, Sjannie; Marras, Stefano; Michaelidis, Basile

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental physiology of a wider range of species. Multifactorial field and laboratory studies on biomarkers hold promise ...

  10. State-of-the-art in photovoltaic research and application (except for use in concentrators)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeer, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    A review is given of the state-of-the-art of single and polycrystalline solar cells, which includes a short theoretical review, laboratory achievements, and production methods. The Si single and polycrystalline cell and the amorphous Si cell are described, including material preparation, crystal and sheet growth, and cell and panel production. Promising second generation thin film solar cells including GaAs, CdS(CuInSe/sub 2/), and CdTe are briefly described. Economical aspects are discussed.

  11. Fractal-Based Methods and Inverse Problems for Differential Equations: Current State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Herb E.; Davide La Torre; Franklin Mendivil; Manuel Ruiz Galán; Rachad Zaki

    2014-01-01

    We illustrate, in this short survey, the current state of the art of fractal-based techniques and their application to the solution of inverse problems for ordinary and partial differential equations. We review several methods based on the Collage Theorem and its extensions. We also discuss two innovative applications: the first one is related to a vibrating string model while the second one considers a collage-based approach for solving inverse problems for partial differential equations on ...

  12. Homogeneous catalytic systems for selective oxidation of methane: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balcer Sylwia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous catalysts for methane oxidation are of a particular interest from scientific and economic points of view. The results show a great potential for activation and functionalization of CH bonds of unreactive methane. There are still gaps in the knowledge of how to rationally design catalysts for this process. In this paper state-of-the-art. in methane oxidation homogenous catalysis is presented.

  13. Maintenance of NASTRAN (R) as a state-of-the-art computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The maintenance requirements for a large, general purpose, finite element computer program are presented. The program is maintained as state-of-the-art on three computer systems (IBM, CDC, and UNIVAC) with respect to both finite element and computer technology. There are four primary areas involved in the maintenance effort: (1) error correction; (2) incorporation of advances in technology; (3) documentation; and (4) new level generation. The complexity of the maintenance effort is compounded by the sizes of the program (400,000 lines of code) and the documentation (7000 pages divided into seven manuals).

  14. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Ioan Curiac

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues.

  15. The current state of the art of quantitative phosphoproteomics and its applications to diabetes research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chi Yuet X’avia; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2016-03-17

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes and aberrant perturbation of phosphorylation has been revealed in various human diseases. Kinases and their cognate inhibitors have been hotspot for drug development. Therefore, the emerging tools, which enable a system-wide quantitative profiling of phosphoproteome, would offer a powerful impetus in unveiling novel signaling pathways, drug targets and/or biomarkers for the disease of interest. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in phosphoproteomics, the current state-of-the-art of the technologies, and the challenges and future perspectives of this research area. Finally, we will underscore some exemplary applications of phosphoproteomics in diabetes research.

  16. State-of-the-art steam generator on-line chemistry monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Koul, L.J.; Mc Clendon, M.E.; Richards, J.E.; Wozniak, S.M.

    1986-04-01

    Recent understanding of corrosion mechanisms has changed the industry's approach to one of establishing and maintaining proper water chemistry conditions to increase steam generator life and availability. A rigorous sampling and analysis program, along with management's commitment to proper water chemistry, are integral to the success of this approach. This paper describes Virginia Power's recent commitment to better maintenance of secondary side water chemistry conditions at its nuclear power stations through an on-line, comprehensive, state-of-the-art chemistry monitoring system.

  17. Building Energy Benchmarking in India: an Action Plan for Advancing the State-of-the-Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarraf, Saket [Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) Univ., Ahmedabad (India); Anand, Shilpi [Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) Univ., Ahmedabad (India); Shukla, Yash [Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) Univ., Ahmedabad (India); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singh, Reshma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This document describes an action plan for advancing the state of the art of commercial building energy benchmarking in the Indian context. The document is primarily intended for two audiences: (a) Research and development (R&D) sponsors and researchers can use the action plan to frame, plan, prioritize and scope new energy benchmarking R&D in order to ensure that their research is market relevant; (b) Policy makers and program implementers engaged in the deployment of benchmarking and building efficiency rating programmes can use the action plan for policy formulation and enforcement .

  18. State-of-the-art analytical methods for assessing dynamic bonding soft matter materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Josef; Oehlenschlaeger, Kim K; Schmidt, Friedrich Georg; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Lederer, Albena

    2014-09-03

    Dynamic bonding materials are of high interest in a variety of fields in material science. The reversible nature of certain reaction classes is frequently employed for introducing key material properties such as the capability to self-heal. In addition to the synthetic effort required for designing such materials, their analysis is a highly complex--yet important--endeavor. Herein, we critically review the current state of the art analytical methods and their application in the context of reversible bonding on demand soft matter material characterization for an in-depth performance assessment. The main analytical focus lies on the characterization at the molecular level.

  19. Numerical radiative transfer with state-of-the-art iterative methods made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, J; Josselin, E; Glorian, J -M

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an on-line tool (rttools.irap.omp.eu) and its accompanying software ressources for the numerical solution of basic radiation transfer out of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). State-of-the-art stationary iterative methods such as Accelerated $\\Lambda$-Iteration and Gauss-Seidel schemes, using a short characteristics-based formal solver are used. We also comment on typical numerical experiments associated to the basic non-LTE radiation problem. These ressources are intended for the largest use and benefit, in support to more classical radiation transfer lectures usually given at the Master level.

  20. The state-of-the-art of power electronics in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Akagi, Hirofumi

    1998-01-01

    Since the late 1950s, power electronics has been developing by leaps and bounds without saturation to become the key technology essential to modern society and human life as well as to electrical engineering. This paper mainly focuses on the state-of-the-art of power electronics technology and its medium to high-power applications because the author cannot survey the whole spectrum of power electronics ranging from a 5 W switching regulator to a 2.8 GW high-voltage DC transmission system now ...

  1. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff: state of the art in diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Giovanni; Singh, Sanjay; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a painful shoulder disorder characterised by either single or multiple deposits in the rotator cuff tendon. Although the disease subsides spontaneously in most cases, a subpopulation of patients continue to complain of pain and shoulder dysfunction and the deposits do not show any signs of resolution. Although several treatment options have been proposed, clinical results are controversial and often the indication for a given therapy remains a matter of clinician choice. Herein, we report on the current state of the art in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff.

  2. STATE OF THE ART OF SEISMIC DESIGN OF RC PRECAST FARM BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tassinari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural design of rural buildings deals with several requirements, among which seismic resistance. In this study the state of the art of Italian seismic zoning and its possible consequences over the design of rural buildings are analyzed. Study cases are proposed referring to a municipality of Emilia-Romagna region, regarding precast concrete structures, that are widely employed in farms. Linear and non linear criteria are adopted for modelling seismic-resistant elements. Pushover analyses are performed to verify the designed structures. Results are expressed in terms of parameters quantifying structural reliability and construction costs.

  3. Metacognition: state-of-the-art learning theory implications for clinical nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, J M

    1996-04-01

    Clinical nursing education represents one of the most challenging aspects of the faculty role because nursing educators are being required to teach crucial aspects of comprehensive clinical practice to students in limited time periods and in increasingly demanding, high-acuity affiliation sites. State-of-the-art research in metacognition provides a stimulating array of instructional strategies that can assist in this process and provide an impetus for further cognitive inquiry in nursing. The article analyzes metacognition, explores its historical roots, delineates its relationship to memory theory, and describes a range of metacognitive strategies that are useful to faculty and students in nursing.

  4. The current state of the art of quantitative phosphoproteomics and its applications to diabetes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Yuet X'avia; Gritsenko, Marina A; Smith, Richard D; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes and aberrant perturbation of phosphorylation has been implicated in various human diseases. Kinases and their cognate inhibitors have been considered as hotspots for drug development. Therefore, the emerging tools, which enable a system-wide quantitative profiling of phosphoproteome, would offer a powerful impetus in unveiling novel signaling pathways, drug targets and/or biomarkers for diseases of interest. This review highlights recent advances in phosphoproteomics, the current state of the art of the technologies and the challenges and future perspectives of this research area. Finally, some exemplary applications of phosphoproteomics in diabetes research are underscored.

  5. A State-of-the-Art Report on Cutting Technologies for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-10-15

    This report provides the status of the cryogenic cutting technology as a new dismantling technology for dismantling radioactive nuclear facilities and also presents the direction of study to apply it to a radioactive nuclear facility research aim of its nuclear. This report consists of four chapter : - 1. Background and objectives of dismantling technology for dismantling a radioactive nuclear facility. - 2. Analysis of the status of conventional cutting technologies - 3. Analysis of the status of cryogenic cutting technology - 4. Discussion, conclusion, and future work on state-of-the-art technology of dismantling for nuclear facilities.

  6. Generators for Wind Energy Conversion Systems: State of the Art and Coming Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Amirat*

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS have become a focal point in the research of renewable energy sources. This paper provides then a comparative study of past and present generator technologies used in WECS. This study is based on an exhaustive review of the state of the art and on an effective comparison of the performances of the four main topologies that are permanent magnet generators, synchronous generators, induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators. The different generator-WECS schemes are compared on the basis of topology, cost, efficiency, power consumption and control complexity. Moreover, attempts are made to highlight future issues so as to index some emerging solutions.

  7. Endovascular Interventions for Acute and Chronic Lower Extremity Deep Venous Disease: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, Akhilesh K; Vedantham, Suresh; Kaufman, John A; Madoff, David C

    2015-07-01

    The societal and individual burden caused by acute and chronic lower extremity venous disease is considerable. In the past several decades, minimally invasive endovascular interventions have been developed to reduce thrombus burden in the setting of acute deep venous thrombosis to prevent both short- and long-term morbidity and to recanalize chronically occluded or stenosed postthrombotic or nonthrombotic veins in symptomatic patients. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of the techniques and challenges, rationale, patient selection criteria, complications, postinterventional care, and outcomes data for endovascular intervention in the setting of acute and chronic lower extremity deep venous disease. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  8. Photovoltaic power conditioning subsystem: state of the art and development opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauthamer, S.; Bahrami, K.; Das, R.; Macie, T.; Rippel, W.

    1984-01-15

    Photovoltaic sytems, the state of the art of power conditioning subsystem components, and the design and operational interaction between photovoltaic systems and hot utilities are detailed in this document. Major technical issues relating to the design and development of power conditioning systems for photovoltaic application are also considered, including: (1) standards, guidelines, and specifications; (2) cost-effective hardware design; (3) impact of advanced components on power conditioning development; (4) protection and safety; (5) quality of power; (6) system efficiency; and (7) system integration with the host utility. In addition, theories of harmonic distortion and reactive power flow are discussed, and information about power conditioner hardware and manufacturers is provided.

  9. State of the Art Assessment of Simulation in Advanced Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kristopher E.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in both the underlying theory and in the practical implementation of molecular modeling techniques have increased their value in the advanced materials development process. The objective is to accelerate the maturation of emerging materials by tightly integrating modeling with the other critical processes: synthesis, processing, and characterization. The aims of this report are to summarize the state of the art of existing modeling tools and to highlight a number of areas in which additional development is required. In an effort to maintain focus and limit length, this survey is restricted to classical simulation techniques including molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. The fifth generation computer project state of the art report 111

    CERN Document Server

    Scarrott

    1983-01-01

    The Fifth Generation Computer Project is a two-part book consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The invited papers examine various aspects of The Fifth Generation Computer Project. The analysis part assesses the major advances of the Fifth Generation Computer Project and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in The Fifth Generation. This part provides a balanced and comprehensive view of the development in Fifth Generation Computer technology. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of The Fifth Generation.

  11. State of the art: Mechanical behavior of soil-structure interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ga Zhang; Jianmin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The monotonic and cyclic behavior of a soil-structure interface has a significant effect on the mechanical response of a soil-structure interaction system. Thus, the behavior of the interface should be investigated with focusing on the individual characters different from other geomaterials. A brief introduction and critical review are presented on the state of the art of monotonic and cyclic behavior of soil-structure interface, including the test device and measurement techniques, fundamental rules and deformation mechanism, constitutive models and their applications in the numerical simulations. The tendencies of the investigation on the interface are also predicted in this paper.

  12. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2016-04-07

    Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues.

  13. State-of-the-art, Multi-Fidelity Modeling and Simulation (M&S) Tool for Nonlinear Aeroelasticity Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed for the development of a state-of-the-art computational aeroelastic tool. This tool will include various levels of fidelity and the ability to...

  14. State of the Art High-Throughput Approaches to Genotoxicity: Flow Micronucleus, Ames II, GreenScreen and Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    State of the Art High-Throughput Approaches to Genotoxicity: Flow Micronucleus, Ames II, GreenScreen and Comet (Presented by Dr. Marilyn J. Aardema, Chief Scientific Advisor, Toxicology, Dr. Leon Stankowski, et. al. (6/28/2012)

  15. MRI sequences in head and neck radiology. State of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Henninger, Benjamin; Kremser, Christian; Jaschke, Werner [Medical Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology

    2017-05-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of head and neck pathologies. However, the diagnostic power of MRI is strongly related to the appropriate selection and interpretation of imaging protocols and sequences. The aim of this article is to review state-of-the-art sequences for the clinical routine in head and neck MRI and to describe the evidence for which medical question these sequences and techniques are useful. Literature review of state-of-the-art sequences in head and neck MRI. Basic sequences (T1w, T2w, T1wC+) and fat suppression techniques (TIRM/STIR, Dixon, Spectral Fat sat) are important tools in the diagnostic workup of inflammation, congenital lesions and tumors including staging. Additional sequences (SSFP (CISS, FIESTA), SPACE, VISTA, 3D-FLAIR) are used for pathologies of the cranial nerves, labyrinth and evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease. Vessel and perfusion sequences (3D-TOF, TWIST/TRICKS angiography, DCE) are used in vascular contact syndromes, vascular malformations and analysis of microvascular parameters of tissue perfusion. Diffusion-weighted imaging (EPI-DWI, non-EPI-DWI, RESOLVE) is helpful in cholesteatoma imaging, estimation of malignancy, and evaluation of treatment response and posttreatment recurrence in head and neck cancer. Understanding of MRI sequences and close collaboration with referring physicians improves the diagnostic confidence of MRI in the daily routine and drives further research in this fascinating image modality.

  16. State-of-the-art MRI techniques in neuroradiology: principles, pitfalls, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Magalie; Cuvinciuc, Victor; Delattre, Benedicte; Merlini, Laura; Barnaure-Nachbar, Isabelle; Toso-Patel, Seema; Becker, Minerva; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Haller, Sven

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews the most relevant state-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, which are clinically available to investigate brain diseases. MR acquisition techniques addressed include notably diffusion imaging (diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)) as well as perfusion imaging (dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)). The underlying models used to process these images are described, as well as the theoretic underpinnings of quantitative diffusion and perfusion MR imaging-based methods. The technical requirements and how they may help to understand, classify, or follow-up neurological pathologies are briefly summarized. Techniques, principles, advantages but also intrinsic limitations, typical artifacts, and alternative solutions developed to overcome them are discussed. In this article, we also review routinely available three-dimensional (3D) techniques in neuro MRI, including state-of-the-art and emerging angiography sequences, and briefly introduce more recently proposed 3D quantitative neuro-anatomy sequences, and new technology, such as multi-slice and multi-transmit imaging.

  17. Mazingira Centre: A state-of-the-art environmental research infrastructure in Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, Lutz; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Goopy, John; Mutuo, Paul; Korir, Daniel; Pelster, David; Wanyama, George

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs), performed in various terrestrial and marine ecosystems have led to a fundamental understanding of the Earth System during the last century. While there are numerous extant long-term measurements of GHGs across the globe, these are mainly located in developed countries of the northern hemisphere, leaving large regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) without a consolidated observational network. Moreover, in SSA also infrastructures capable of measuring GHGs following best scientific practice are lacking. The Mazingira Centre - a state-of-the-art environmental laboratory - hosted by the International Livestock Research Institute in Kenya has been established in 2013. The laboratory is equipped with state-of-the-art GHG measurement technology (gas chromatographs, animal respiration chambers, laser absorption spectrometers) and aims at providing fundamental environmental data (e.g. GHGs and auxiliary information) from the most common land-cover types in Eastern Africa and beyond. Thereby a special focus is given to mixed crop-livestock systems managed by smallholders. The first results from the activities of the Mazingira Centre show much lower GHG emissions from manure management and arable systems as commonly assumed using emission factor approaches (EFs). This highlights the need of direct, in-situ measurements from all land-cover types and agricultural systems in Eastern Africa. The Mazingira Centre is furthermore a core training facility for undergraduate and graduate students, technicians as well policy makers that report GHG emissions to the UNFCCC with reliable and accurate emissions factors.

  18. Myoelectric forearm prostheses: State of the art from a user-centered perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Peerdeman, MSc

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available User acceptance of myoelectric forearm prostheses is currently low. Awkward control, lack of feedback, and difficult training are cited as primary reasons. Recently, researchers have focused on exploiting the new possibilities offered by advancements in prosthetic technology. Alternatively, researchers could focus on prosthesis acceptance by developing functional requirements based on activities users are likely to perform. In this article, we describe the process of determining such requirements and then the application of these requirements to evaluating the state of the art in myoelectric forearm prosthesis research. As part of a needs assessment, a workshop was organized involving clinicians (representing end users, academics, and engineers. The resulting needs included an increased number of functions, lower reaction and execution times, and intuitiveness of both control and feedback systems. Reviewing the state of the art of research in the main prosthetic subsystems (electromyographic [EMG] sensing, control, and feedback showed that modern research prototypes only partly fulfill the requirements. We found that focus should be on validating EMG-sensing results with patients, improving simultaneous control of wrist movements and grasps, deriving optimal parameters for force and position feedback, and taking into account the psychophysical aspects of feedback, such as intensity perception and spatial acuity.

  19. State-of-the-art MRI techniques in neuroradiology: principles, pitfalls, and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viallon, Magalie [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, UMR CNRS 5220 - INSERM U1044, INSA de Lyon, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon-Saint-Etienne, Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Saint Etienne (France); Cuvinciuc, Victor; Barnaure-Nachbar, Isabelle; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Haller, Sven [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Delattre, Benedicte; Toso-Patel, Seema; Becker, Minerva [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Merlini, Laura [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews the most relevant state-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, which are clinically available to investigate brain diseases. MR acquisition techniques addressed include notably diffusion imaging (diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)) as well as perfusion imaging (dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)). The underlying models used to process these images are described, as well as the theoretic underpinnings of quantitative diffusion and perfusion MR imaging-based methods. The technical requirements and how they may help to understand, classify, or follow-up neurological pathologies are briefly summarized. Techniques, principles, advantages but also intrinsic limitations, typical artifacts, and alternative solutions developed to overcome them are discussed. In this article, we also review routinely available three-dimensional (3D) techniques in neuro MRI, including state-of-the-art and emerging angiography sequences, and briefly introduce more recently proposed 3D quantitative neuro-anatomy sequences, and new technology, such as multi-slice and multi-transmit imaging. (orig.)

  20. The state of the art report on the development of advanced nuclear fuel cladding tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Myung Ho; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Nam, Cheol; Choi, Byung Kwon

    2001-04-01

    Since the operating conditions of modern PWR trend toward long-term operation, high burn-up, high coolant temperature and high pH, the need to develop a new advanced nuclear fuel cladding as an alternative to Zircaloy-4 increased. To overcome this problem, a number of researches to develop a advanced nuclear fuel cladding tube with superior corrosion resistance and creep resistance have been performed in many advanced nations in the field of nuclear power. Especially, some advanced cladding tubes are already confirmed to have an excellent in-pile properties from the test results in commercial reactor. Also in Korea, KAERI has been researching extensively to develop a high burn-up nuclear fuel cladding Zr alloy since 1990. To design new alloys, it is necessary to study the state of the art on the development of advanced alloys in other countries. In this report, as a part of development of advanced Zr alloy, we studied the state of the art on the development of ZIRLO in U.S.A., E635 in Russia, M5 in France, and MDA and NDA in Japan, which will be applied as basic data to develop an advanced Zr alloy.

  1. Patient-centric healthcare supply chains in sub-Saharan Africa : state of the art and possible implications

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Overview \\ud This paper addresses the following questions: \\ud \\ud 1. What is the current State of the Art in terms of research into patient-centric healthcare supply chains? \\ud 2. Based on the State of the Art and thought leadership in this area, what are some possible implications for the future in terms of drug product design, drug supply chain, ICT enablement and business models in the context of \\ud sub-Saharan Africa?

  2. The state of the art of flood forecasting - Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen-Del Pozo, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Salamon, P.; Bogner, K.; Burek, P.; de Roo, A.

    2010-09-01

    Flood forecasting systems form a key part of ‘preparedness' strategies for disastrous floods and provide hydrological services, civil protection authorities and the public with information of upcoming events. Provided the warning leadtime is sufficiently long, adequate preparatory actions can be taken to efficiently reduce the impacts of the flooding. Because of the specific characteristics of each catchment, varying data availability and end-user demands, the design of the best flood forecasting system may differ from catchment to catchment. However, despite the differences in concept and data needs, there is one underlying issue that spans across all systems. There has been an growing awareness and acceptance that uncertainty is a fundamental issue of flood forecasting and needs to be dealt with at the different spatial and temporal scales as well as the different stages of the flood generating processes. Today, operational flood forecasting centres change increasingly from single deterministic forecasts to probabilistic forecasts with various representations of the different contributions of uncertainty. The move towards these so-called Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (HEPS) in flood forecasting represents the state of the art in forecasting science, following on the success of the use of ensembles for weather forecasting (Buizza et al., 2005) and paralleling the move towards ensemble forecasting in other related disciplines such as climate change predictions. The use of HEPS has been internationally fostered by initiatives such as "The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment" (HEPEX), created with the aim to investigate how best to produce, communicate and use hydrologic ensemble forecasts in hydrological short-, medium- und long term prediction of hydrological processes. The advantages of quantifying the different contributions of uncertainty as well as the overall uncertainty to obtain reliable and useful flood forecasts also for extreme events

  3. A Review of Smart Energy Projects & Smart Energy State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, Dave; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    The aim of this study was to investigate the research projects in Smart Energy over the past 10 years in Denmark, the Nordic region and the EU in order to find gaps and to inform the Smart Energy Network’s recommendations. The study also investigated the Smart Energy state-of-the-art research based...... on expert knowledge. Smart Energy is a cross-sectoral approach that makes use of synergies between the various energy sectors when identifying suitable and cost-effective renewable energy solutions. The three main energy sectors involved are electricity, thermal and gas. Different sub-sectors form parts...... of these sectors, for example electric vehicles in the electricity sector, and district heating in the thermal sector. In this study a database of Danish projects was made that labelled each project with their Smart Energy focus and other metadata such as funding body, and type of project. The database...

  4. State-of-the-art review of some artificial intelligence applications in pile foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed A. Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Geotechnical engineering deals with materials (e.g. soil and rock) that, by their very nature, exhibit varied and uncertain behavior due to the imprecise physical processes associated with the formation of these materials. Modeling the behavior of such materials in geotechnical engineering applications is complex and sometimes beyond the ability of most traditional forms of physically-based engineering methods. Artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming more popular and particularly amenable to modeling the complex behavior of most geotechnical engineering applications because it has demonstrated superior predictive ability compared to traditional methods. This paper provides state-of-the-art review of some selected AI techniques and their applications in pile foundations, and presents the salient features associated with the modeling development of these AI techniques. The paper also discusses the strength and limitations of the selected AI techniques compared to other available modeling approaches.

  5. Trends in Mobile Computing: State-of-the-Art and Next Steps

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Computing is moving to the edge of the network. It is becoming increasingly personal and allowing people to enjoy and express themselves in unprecedented ways. The same development allows professionals and enterprises to increase quality and productivity through improved mobility. The seminar discusses the underlying technical and societal trends and the state-of-the-art of mobile computing. Examples of current developments include the transformation of mobile devices into servers, augmented reality in mobile devices and the opportunities offered by wireless sensor networks. The fusion of the physical and digital worlds enabled by mobile computing is driving industry and society to adopt new uses of digital technologies and causing the focus of development to shift from hardware products to new services. Bio:Since 2004 Prof. Jan Bosch is working as Vice President and Head of the Software and Application Technology Laboratory of Nokia Research Centre in Helsinki, Finland. The Software & Application Tec...

  6. Management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedzicha Jadwiga A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are important events in the natural history of this prevalent and devastating condition. This review provides a concise, state of the art summary on prevention and management of exacerbations. Considerable new data underpins evidence in support of many preventative interventions, pharmacological and non-pharmacological, that are now available. Challenges remain in developing new approaches, and delivering those that already exist to the right patient at the right time. Management of an exacerbation remains stepwise according to clinical severity, but there is now additional focus on addressing comorbidities and taking the opportunity at acute events to optimise preventative strategies for the future. Ultimately, exacerbations are heterogeneous events in a heterogeneous disease, and an individualised approach is paramount.

  7. Near-Infrared Sub-Bandgap All-Silicon Photodetectors: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Sirleto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent breakthroughs, silicon photonics is now the most active discipline within the field of integrated optics and, at the same time, a present reality with commercial products available on the market. Silicon photodiodes are excellent detectors at visible wavelengths, but the development of high-performance photodetectors on silicon CMOS platforms at wavelengths of interest for telecommunications has remained an imperative but unaccomplished task so far. In recent years, however, a number of near-infrared all-silicon photodetectors have been proposed and demonstrated for optical interconnect and power-monitoring applications. In this paper, a review of the state of the art is presented. Devices based on mid-bandgap absorption, surface-state absorption, internal photoemission absorption and two-photon absorption are reported, their working principles elucidated and their performance discussed and compared.

  8. State of the art review and future directions in oil spill modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Malcolm L

    2017-02-15

    A review of the state of the art in oil spill modeling, focused on the period from 2000 to present is provided. The review begins with an overview of the current structure of spill models and some lessons learned from model development and application and then provides guiding principles that govern the development of the current generation of spill models. A review of the basic structure of spill models, and new developments in specific transport and fate processes; including surface and subsurface transport, spreading, evaporation, dissolution, entrainment and oil droplet size distributions, emulsification, degradation, and sediment oil interaction are presented. The paper concludes with thoughts on future directions in the field with a primary focus on advancements in handling interactions between Lagrangian elements.

  9. Text mining for adverse drug events: the promise, challenges, and state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz, Rave; Callahan, Alison; Tamang, Suzanne; Low, Yen; Odgers, David; Finlayson, Sam; Jung, Kenneth; LePendu, Paea; Shah, Nigam H

    2014-10-01

    Text mining is the computational process of extracting meaningful information from large amounts of unstructured text. It is emerging as a tool to leverage underutilized data sources that can improve pharmacovigilance, including the objective of adverse drug event (ADE) detection and assessment. This article provides an overview of recent advances in pharmacovigilance driven by the application of text mining, and discusses several data sources-such as biomedical literature, clinical narratives, product labeling, social media, and Web search logs-that are amenable to text mining for pharmacovigilance. Given the state of the art, it appears text mining can be applied to extract useful ADE-related information from multiple textual sources. Nonetheless, further research is required to address remaining technical challenges associated with the text mining methodologies, and to conclusively determine the relative contribution of each textual source to improving pharmacovigilance.

  10. The new science of moral cognition: the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Olivera La Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for multidisciplinary approaches to the scientific study of human nature is a widely supported academic claim. This assumption has proved to be especially successful in the field of moral psychology. Although studies of moral topics have been ubiquitous in both humanities and social sciences, it is not until the integration of different scientific disciplines in the convergent science of moral psychology that the study of morality seems to start its flourishing age. Thus, in the last ten years, a growing body of research from cognitive sciences, experimental philosophy, primatology, clinical and developmental psychology, economy and anthropology have made possible a "new era" on the study of morality. In this paper, we review the most striking findings that constitute the "state of the art' of moral psychology, with the aim to facilitate a better understanding of how the mind functions in the moral domain.

  11. A Review of Smart Energy Projects & Smart Energy State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, Dave; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    on expert knowledge. Smart Energy is a cross-sectoral approach that makes use of synergies between the various energy sectors when identifying suitable and cost-effective renewable energy solutions. The three main energy sectors involved are electricity, thermal and gas. Different sub-sectors form parts......The aim of this study was to investigate the research projects in Smart Energy over the past 10 years in Denmark, the Nordic region and the EU in order to find gaps and to inform the Smart Energy Network’s recommendations. The study also investigated the Smart Energy state-of-the-art research based...... of these sectors, for example electric vehicles in the electricity sector, and district heating in the thermal sector. In this study a database of Danish projects was made that labelled each project with their Smart Energy focus and other metadata such as funding body, and type of project. The database...

  12. Neurofeedback Therapy for Enhancing Visual Attention: State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordikhani-Seyedlar, Mehdi; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2016-01-01

    function. Although progress has been made in the studies of neural mechanisms of attention, extraction of attention-related neural signals needed for BCI operations is a difficult problem. To attain good BCI performance, it is important to select the features of neural activity that represent attentional......We have witnessed a rapid development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) linking the brain to external devices. BCIs can be utilized to treat neurological conditions and even to augment brain functions. BCIs offer a promising treatment for mental disorders, including disorders of attention. Here...... we review the current state of the art and challenges of attention-based BCIs, with a focus on visual attention. Attention-based BCIs utilize electroencephalograms (EEGs) or other recording techniques to generate neurofeedback, which patients use to improve their attention, a complex cognitive...

  13. Asset Management The State of the Art in Europe from a Life Cycle Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Herder, Paulien; Wijnia, Ype

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades asset intensive companies have witnessed a number of regulatory changes and especially industry is facing ever increasing competitiveness. To overcome these challenges different asset management methods have been developed aimed to improve the asset life cycle. Especially the design phase and operation and maintenance phase have seen a rise in tools and methods. Smarter design can lead to improved operation. Likewise, improved operation and maintenance leads to lower replacement costs and may provide the basis for better design.   This book brings together and coherently presents the current state of the art in asset management research and practice in Europe from a life cycle perspective. Each chapter  focuses on specific parts of this life cycle and explains how the methods and techniques described are connected and how they improve the asset life cycle, thus treating this important subject from a unique perspective.

  14. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis;

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes...... is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental physiology of a wider range of species. Multifactorial field and laboratory studies on biomarkers hold promise to relate ecophysiology directly to habitat quality and population status. The 'Fry paradigm' could have...... broad applications for conservation physiology research if it provides a universal mechanism to link physiological function with ecological performance and population dynamics of fishes, through effects of abiotic conditions on aerobic metabolic scope. The available data indicate, however...

  15. A General Simulation Framework for Supply Chain Modeling: State of the Art and Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cimino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a large availability of discrete event simulation software that can be easily used in different domains: from industry to supply chain, from healthcare to business management, from training to complex systems design. Simulation engines of commercial discrete event simulation software use specific rules and logics for simulation time and events management. Difficulties and limitations come up when commercial discrete event simulation software are used for modeling complex real world-systems (i.e. supply chains, industrial plants. The objective of this paper is twofold: first a state of the art on commercial discrete event simulation software and an overview on discrete event simulation models development by using general purpose programming languages are presented; then a Supply Chain Order Performance Simulator (SCOPS, developed in C++ for investigating the inventory management problem along the supply chain under different supply chain scenarios is proposed to readers.

  16. Advanced robotics for medical rehabilitation current state of the art and recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Focussing on the key technologies in developing robots for a wide range of medical rehabilitation activities – which will include robotics basics, modelling and control, biomechanics modelling, rehabilitation strategies, robot assistance, clinical setup/implementation as well as neural and muscular interfaces for rehabilitation robot control – this book is split into two parts; a review of the current state of the art, and recent advances in robotics for medical rehabilitation. Both parts will include five sections for the five key areas in rehabilitation robotics: (i) the upper limb; (ii) lower limb for gait rehabilitation (iii) hand, finger and wrist; (iv) ankle for strains and sprains; and (v) the use of EEG and EMG to create interfaces between the neurological and muscular functions of the patients and the rehabilitation robots. Each chapter provides a description of the design of the device, the control system used, and the implementation and testing to show how it fulfils the needs of that specific ...

  17. Electric automation history and state of the art; Historia da automacao eletrica e estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, M.F. [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Eletronica e Sistemas de Controle], E-mail: mendes@ieee.org; Jardini, J.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PEA/EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], E-mail: jardini@pea.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The article summarizes the history of electric systems automation, used in hydroelectric power plants, since the rise to the present day. Technologies are presented employed at various times, developments, the difference and the reasons for evolution. The emphasis is on today's modern systems technology, covering: communication, standardization, hardware, software, architecture, maintenance, operation and challenges. This work pretend to give subsidies for the design and implementation of automation systems electricity using state of the art. The scope are the new plants as well as those being modernized. Knowledge of history is important to investigate, to plan and evaluate the costs and benefits of automation systems for new electric plants and those that are undergoing processes technological upgrading.

  18. Additive manufacturing of titanium alloys state of the art, challenges and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Alloys: State of the Art, Challenges and Opportunities provides alternative methods to the conventional approach for the fabrication of the majority of titanium components produced via the cast and wrought technique, a process which involves a considerable amount of expensive machining. In contrast, the Additive Manufacturing (AM) approach allows very close to final part configuration to be directly fabricated minimizing machining cost, while achieving mechanical properties at least at cast and wrought levels. In addition, the book offers the benefit of significant savings through better material utilization for parts with high buy-to-fly ratios (ratio of initial stock mass to final part mass before and after manufacturing). As titanium additive manufacturing has attracted considerable attention from both academicians and technologists, and has already led to many applications in aerospace and terrestrial systems, as well as in the medical industry, this book explores the un...

  19. Light, sound, chemistry… action: state of the art optical methods for animal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Jorge; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, macroscopic optical methods have been promoted from backstage to main actors in biological imaging. Many possible forms of energy conservation have been explored that involve light, including fluorescence emission, sound generated through absorption and bioluminescence, that is light generated through a chemical reaction. These physicochemical approaches for contrast generation have resulted in optical imaging methods that come with potent performance characteristics over simple epi-illumination optical imaging approaches of the past, and can play a central role in imaging applications in vivo as it pertains to modern biological and drug discovery, pre-clinical imaging and clinical applications. This review focuses on state of the art optical and opto-acoustic (photo-acoustic) imaging methods and discusses key performance characteristics that convert optical imaging from a qualitative modality to a powerful high-resolution and quantitative volumetric interrogation tool for operation through several millimeters of tissue depth.: © 2011 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

  20. Ionic Liquids Beyond Simple Solvents: Glimpses at the State of the Art in Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbuch, Andrea; Giernoth, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Within the last 25 years ionic liquids have written a tremendous success story, which is documented in a nearly uncountable amount of original research papers, reviews, and numerous applications in research and industry. These days, ionic liquids can be considered as a mature class of compounds for many different applications. Frequently, they are used as neoteric solvents for chemical tansformations, and the number of reviews on this field of research is huge. In this focused review, though, we are trying to evaluate the state of the art of ionic liquid chemistry beyond using them simply as solvents for chemical transformations. It is not meant to be a comprehensive overview on the topic; the choice of emphasis and examples rather refects the authors' personal view on the field. We are especially highlighting fields in which we believe the most fundamental developments within the next five years will take place: biomass processing, (chiral) ionic liquids from natural sources, biotransformations, and organic synthesis.

  1. Analysis of nonextractable phenolic compounds in foods: the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2011-12-28

    More than 500 phenolic compounds have been reported as present in foodstuffs, and their intake has been related to the prevention of several chronic diseases. Most of the literature on phenolic compounds focuses on those present in the supernatant of aqueous-organic extractions: extractable phenolics. Nevertheless, significant amounts of phenolic compounds remain in the solid residues after such extractions. These nonextractable phenolics are mostly proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, and hydrolyzable tannins that are closely associated with the food matrix. Studies of this fraction of dietary phenolic compounds are scarce, and the few there are usually refer to particular types of phenolics rather than to the fraction as a whole. The present review reports the state-of-the-art methods that currently exist for analyzing nonextractable phenolic compounds in foods.

  2. State of the art review of semi active control for magnetorheological dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Umair Najeeb

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes causes severe damage to badly designed structures or buildings to fail or collapse, and also have caused some damage to well-designed structures to malfunction due to the damage or failure of the equipment housed in the structure or building. The use magnetorheological dampers to mitigate the effect of external excitation is increased to resolve this. This article is a state of the art review of nonlinear analytical models to understand the efficacy of semi-active control theory for magnetorheological dampers. A nonlinear semi active control law is desired to be designed which atleast guarantees analytical closed loop stability in order to mitigate the effect of perturbations and drive the desired output to equilibrium.

  3. Improvement of EEG Signal Acquisition: An Electrical Aspect for State of the Art of Front End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bulent Usakli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present some practical state-of-the-art considerations in acquiring satisfactory signals for electroencephalographic signal acquisition. These considerations are important for users and system designers. Especially choosing correct electrode and design strategy of the initial electronic circuitry front end plays an important role in improving the system's measurement performance. Considering the pitfalls in the design of biopotential measurement system and recording session conditions creates better accuracy. In electroencephalogram (EEG recording electrodes, system electronics including filtering, amplifying, signal conversion, data storing, and environmental conditions affect the recording performance. In this paper, EEG electrode principles and main points of electronic noise reduction methods in EEG signal acquisition front end are discussed, and some suggestions for improving signal acquisition are presented.

  4. State-of-the-art Review : Vol. 2A. Responsive Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blümel, Ernst; Haghighat, Fariborz; Li, Yuguo

    . The publication is an internal Annex report. With a focus on innovative building elements that dynamically respond to changes in climate and user demands, the report describes materials, components and systems that have been tested in laboratories and buildings around the world. This report is aimed......This report resumes and presents the activity done in Subtask A of IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 “Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings” concerning the state of the art review of Responsive Building Elements. It is based on the contributions from the participating countries...... at researchers in the field and gives an overview of how these elements work together with available performance data. It is hoped, that this report will be helpful for researchers in their search for new solutions to the problem of designing and constructing sustainable buildings....

  5. ZnO nanoforms: The state-of-the art of synthetic strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Devaramani, Basavaraj S; Manjasetty, Babu A; Nair, Gopalakrishna T R

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has already made indelible dents in the fields of communication, computation, electronics, photonics, gas sensors, diagnostic technologies, catalysis, drug delivery systems and imaging. In particular, ZnO nanostructures have attracted a lot of research interest due to their unique structure- and size-dependent electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. ZnO nanosystems are abundant with respect to a wide variety of morphologies whose syntheses are critically dependent on several experimental parameters. Cursory presentation of the immense potential of these tiny systems and the state-of-the-art of the synthetic methodologies along with our initial research on ZnO nanorods has been presented. ZnO nanorods in the size range 50-150nm have been synthesized by solid-state route by heating zinc acetate with caustic soda under specific growth conditions. X-ray diffraction pattern unequivocally establishes a wurtzite structure. Scanning electron microscope images of ZnO nanorods display a random di...

  6. The History of Liquid Ear Acupuncture and the Current Scientific State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litscher, Daniela; Litscher, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    This short review article presents a current overview of existing publications and scientific results regarding liquid (ear) acupuncture. The injection of liquids into defined acupuncture points of the ear is not a method commonly used in the Western world. The term liquid acupuncture has different definitions, which makes understanding each definition and differentiating one from the other difficult. General terms like pharmacopuncture, homeosiniatry, and liquid acupuncture, which all describe the method of injecting different kinds of drugs into a defined body acupuncture point, are used. This article presents the history of liquid acupuncture, as well as the current scientific state of the art, from the point of view of two European researchers. Some articles are discussed and a few practical examples are presented.

  7. Origin, state of the art and some prospects of the diamond CVD

    CERN Document Server

    Spitsyn, B V; Alexenko, A E

    2000-01-01

    A short review on the diamond CVD origin, together with its state of the art and some prospects was given. New hybrid methods of the diamond CVD permit to gain 1.2 to 6 times of growth rate in comparison with ordinary diamond CVD's. Recent results on n-type diamond film synthesis through phosphorus doping in the course of the CVD process are briefly discussed. In comparison with high-pressure diamond synthesis, the CVD processes open new facets of the diamond as ultimate crystal for science and technology evolution. It was stressed that, mainly on the basis of new CVDs of diamond, the properties of natural diamond are not only reproduced, but can be surpassed. As examples, mechanical (fracture resistance), physical (thermal conductivity), and chemical (oxidation stability) properties are mentioned. Some present issues in the field are considered.

  8. Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors from basis to state-of-the-art applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, Candid; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in 1988, spintronics has been presented as a new technology paradigm, awarded by the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2007. Initially used in read heads of hard disk drives, and while disputing a piece of the market to the flash memories, GMR devices have broadened their range of usage by growing towards magnetic field sensing applications in a huge range of scenarios. Potential applications at the time of the discovery have become real in the last two decades. Definitively, GMR was born to stand. In this sense, selected successful approaches of GMR based sensors in different applications: space, automotive, microelectronics, biotechnology … are collected in the present book. While keeping a practical orientation, the fundamentals as well as the current trends and challenges of this technology are also analyzed. In this sense, state of the art contributions from academy and industry can be found through the contents. This book can be used by starting ...

  9. Community health clinical education in Canada: part 1--"state of the art".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benita E; Gregory, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a survey of community health clinical education in twenty-four Canadian pre-licensure baccalaureate nursing programs. A qualitative research design was used, involving a content analysis of Canadian course syllabi and supporting documents for community health courses. This study afforded a cross-sectional understanding of the "state of the art" of community health clinical education in Canadian schools of nursing. Clinical course conceptual approaches, course objectives, types of clinical sites, format and number of clinical hours, and methods of student evaluation are identified. The findings suggest the need for a national dialogue or consensus building exercise regarding curriculum content for community health nursing. Informing this dialogue are several strengths including the current focus on community health (as opposed to community-based) nursing education, and a solid socio-environmental perspective informing clinical learning and practice. The national data set generated by this study may have relevance to nursing programs globally.

  10. Blast Protection of Unreinforced Masonry Walls: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Lantz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent rise of terrorist attacks has reinforced the need for mitigation of damage caused by blast loading on unreinforced masonry walls. The primary goal of the techniques is to prevent the loss of life while simultaneously preserving the integrity of the structure. This paper presents a compilation of recently available literature on blast protection of unreinforced masonry walls. It seeks to present the state of the art in this field, including mitigation techniques considered as well as testing methods selected. Fiber reinforced polymers and polyurea are the two dominant retrofitting techniques being assessed in the field. Other techniques include but are not limited to polyurethane, steel sheets, and aluminum foam. Since there is no widely implemented standard for blast loading test procedures, direct comparisons between the efficiencies of the mitigation techniques proposed are not always feasible. Although fragmentation is an indicator of the efficiency of retrofits, it is currently measured by subjective observation of postblast debris.

  11. State of the art in trueness and interlaboratory harmonization for 10 analytes in general clinical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Greg; Myers, Gary L; Ashwood, Edward R; Killeen, Anthony A; Wang, Edward; Ehlers, Glenn W; Hassemer, David; Lo, Stanley F; Seccombe, David; Siekmann, Lothar; Thienpont, Linda M; Toth, Alan

    2008-05-01

    Harmonization and standardization of results among different clinical laboratories is necessary for clinical practice guidelines to be established. To evaluate the state of the art in measuring 10 routine chemistry analytes. A specimen prepared as off-the-clot pooled sera and 4 conventionally prepared specimens were sent to participants in the College of American Pathologists Chemistry Survey. Analyte concentrations were assigned by reference measurement procedures. Approximately 6000 clinical laboratories. For glucose, iron, potassium, and uric acid, more than 87.5% of peer groups meet the desirable bias goals based on biologic variability criteria. The remaining 6 analytes had less than 52% of peer groups that met the desirable bias criteria. Routine measurement procedures for some analytes had acceptable traceability to reference systems. Conventionally prepared proficiency testing specimens were not adequately commutable with a fresh frozen specimen to be used to evaluate trueness of methods compared with a reference measurement procedure.

  12. State of the art of biological processes for coal gasification wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW) poses a serious challenge on the sustainable development of the global coal industry. The CGW contains a broad spectrum of high-strength recalcitrant substances, including phenolic, monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds and long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon. So far, biological treatment of CGW has been considered as an environment-friendly and cost-effective method compared to physiochemical approaches. Thus, this reviews aims to provide a comprehensive picture of state of the art of biological processes for treating CGW wastewater, while the possible biodegradation mechanisms of toxic and refractory organic substances were also elaborated together with microbial community involved. Discussion was further extended to advanced bioprocesses to tackle high-concentration ammonia and possible options towards in-plant zero liquid discharge.

  13. State of the Art Power-in Tube Niobium-Tin Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godeke, A.; Ouden, A. Den; Nijhuis, A.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2008-06-01

    Powder-in-Tube (PIT) processed Niobium-Tin wires are commercially manufactured for nearly three decades and have demonstrated a combination of very high current density (presently up to 2500 A mm{sup -2} non-Cu at 12 T and 4.2 K) with fine (35 {micro}m), well separated filaments. We review the developments that have led to the present state of the art PIT Niobium-Tin wires, discuss the wire manufacturing and A15 formation processes, and describe typical superconducting performance in relation to magnetic field and strain. We further highlight successful applications of PIT wires and conclude with an outlook on possibilities for further improvements in the performance of PIT Niobium-Tin wires.

  14. Pressure Sensor: State of the Art, Design, and Application for Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Almassri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We survey the state of the art in a variety of force sensors for designing and application of robotic hand. Most of the force sensors are examined based on tactile sensing. For a decade, many papers have widely discussed various sensor technologies and transducer methods which are based on microelectromechanical system (MEMS and silicon used for improving the accuracy and performance measurement of tactile sensing capabilities especially for robotic hand applications. We found that transducers and materials such as piezoresistive and polymer, respectively, are used in order to improve the sensing sensitivity for grasping mechanisms in future. This predicted growth in such applications will explode into high risk tasks which requires very precise purposes. It shows considerable potential and significant levels of research attention.

  15. State-of-the-art technology in modern computer-aided drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkas, Georgios A; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Tsagkrasoulis, Dimosthenis; Kastania, Anastasia; Kossida, Sophia

    2013-11-01

    The quest for small drug-like compounds that selectively inhibit the function of biological targets has always been a major focus in the pharmaceutical industry and in academia as well. High-throughput screening of compound libraries requires time, cost and resources. Therefore, the use of alternative methods is necessary for facilitating lead discovery. Computational techniques that dock small molecules into macromolecular targets and predict the affinity and activity of the small molecule are widely used in drug design and discovery, and have become an integral part of the industrial and academic research. In this review, we present an overview of some state-of-the-art technologies in modern drug design that have been developed for expediting the search for novel drug candidates.

  16. Tuberculosis vaccines--state of the art, and novel approaches to vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Christopher; Walker, Barry; Bonavia, Aurelio

    2015-03-01

    The quest for a vaccine that could have a major impact in reducing the current global burden of TB disease in humans continues to be extremely challenging. Significant gaps in our knowledge and understanding of the pathogenesis and immunology of tuberculosis continue to undermine efforts to break new ground, and traditional approaches to vaccine development have thus far met with limited success. Existing and novel candidate vaccines are being assessed in the context of their ability to impact the various stages that culminate in disease transmission and an increase in the global burden of disease. Innovative methods of vaccine administration and delivery have provided a fresh stimulus to the search for the elusive vaccine. Here we discuss the current status of preclinical vaccine development, providing insights into alternative approaches to vaccine delivery and promising candidate vaccines. The state of the art of clinical development also is reviewed.

  17. Solar cells: state of the art and trends; Solarzellen: Stand der Technik und Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettling, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The present article gives an overview of the state of the art of solar cell design. In this connection it deals with the following technologies: solar cells of crystalline silicon (serigraphic solar cells of Cs silicon and mc silicon, high-efficiency silicon solar cells), thin film solar cells (solar cells of amorphous silicon; solar cells of gallium arsenide, solar cells of copper indium (gallium) diselenide, solar cells of cadmium telluride), crystalline silicon film solar cells, and nanocrystalline dye-sensitised solar cells. (HW) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber den Stand der Technik bei Solarzellen. In diesem Zusammenhang wird auf folgende Technologien eingegangen: Solarzellen aus kristallinem Silizium (Siebdruck-Solarzellen aus Cs-Silicium und mc-Silicium, High-efficiency-Silicium-Solarzellen), Duennschicht-Solarzellen (Solarzellen aus amorphem Silicium, Solarzellen aus Galliumarsenid, Solarzellen aus Kupferindium(Gallium)diselenid, Solarzellen aus Cadmiumtellurid), kristalline Silicium-Film-Solarzellen, Nanokristalline farbstoffsensibilisierte Solarzellen. (HW)

  18. State of the art/science: Visual methods and information behavior research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartel, Jenna; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Lundh, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This panel reports on methodological innovation now underway as information behavior scholars begin to experiment with visual methods. The session launches with a succinct introduction to visual methods by Jenna Hartel and then showcases three exemplar visual research designs. First, Dianne...... will have gained: knowledge of the state of the art/science of visual methods in information behavior research; an appreciation for the richness the approach brings to the specialty; and a platform to take new visual research designs forward....... Sonnenwald presents the "information horizon interview" (1999, 2005), the singular visual method native to the information behavior community. Second, Anna Lundh (2010) describes her techniques for capturing and analyzing primary school children's information activities utilizing video recordings. Third...

  19. Aeroelastic Tailoring of Transport Aircraft Wings: State-of-the-Art and Potential Enabling Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Christine; Stanford, Bret K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the state-of-the-art for aeroelastic tailoring of subsonic transport aircraft and offers additional resources on related research efforts. Emphasis is placed on aircraft having straight or aft swept wings. The literature covers computational synthesis tools developed for aeroelastic tailoring and numerous design studies focused on discovering new methods for passive aeroelastic control. Several new structural and material technologies are presented as potential enablers of aeroelastic tailoring, including selectively reinforced materials, functionally graded materials, fiber tow steered composite laminates, and various nonconventional structural designs. In addition, smart materials and structures whose properties or configurations change in response to external stimuli are presented as potential active approaches to aeroelastic tailoring.

  20. Tuberculosis Vaccines – state of the art, and novel approaches to vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher da Costa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quest for a vaccine that could have a major impact in reducing the current global burden of TB disease in humans continues to be extremely challenging. Significant gaps in our knowledge and understanding of the pathogenesis and immunology of tuberculosis continue to undermine efforts to break new ground, and traditional approaches to vaccine development have thus far met with limited success. Existing and novel candidate vaccines are being assessed in the context of their ability to impact the various stages that culminate in disease transmission and an increase in the global burden of disease. Innovative methods of vaccine administration and delivery have provided a fresh stimulus to the search for the elusive vaccine. Here we discuss the current status of preclinical vaccine development, providing insights into alternative approaches to vaccine delivery and promising candidate vaccines. The state of the art of clinical development also is reviewed.

  1. State-of-the-art Space Weather Forecast with AFFECTS and HELCATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothmer, Volker; Affects Team; Helcats Team

    2016-04-01

    The space weather projects fostered through the European Union FP7 and Horizon 2020 programs have opened up new horizons in the field of space weather research and have facilitated state-of-the-art-forecasts. Here we present an overview on the services and space weather forecasts the EU FP7 project AFFECTS (Advanced Forecast For Ensuring Communications Through Space) is providing and how the precision of the forecast is qualitatively greatly enhanced by new results derived from the EU FP7 project HELCATS (Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis, and Techniques Services). The forecast techniques base on near-real time multipoint analysis of coronal mass ejections observed by SOHO and STEREO and simulations of their Sun to Earth evolution.

  2. The self-consistent multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing. Motivations, state of the art and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, N.; Robin, C.; Dupuis, M.; Hupin, G.; Berger, J.-F.

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of this paper is to review the state of the art of the multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing approach which was proposed and implemented using the Gogny interaction ˜ 10 years ago. Various theoretical aspects are re-analyzed when a Hamiltonian description is chosen: the link with exact many-body theories, the impact of truncations in the multiconfigurational space, the importance of defining single-particle orbitals which are consistent with the correlations introduced in the many-body wave function, the role of the self-consistency, and more practically the numerical convergence algorithm. Several applications done with the phenomenological effective Gogny interaction are discussed. Finally, future directions to extend and generalize the method are discussed.

  3. Coupling Resistive Switching Devices with Neurons: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro; Chiappalone, Michela; Ariano, Paolo; Bocchini, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Here we provide the state-of-the-art of bioelectronic interfacing between biological neuronal systems and artificial components, focusing the attention on the potentiality offered by intrinsically neuromorphic synthetic devices based on Resistive Switching (RS). Neuromorphic engineering is outside the scopes of this Perspective. Instead, our focus is on those materials and devices featuring genuine physical effects that could be sought as non-linearity, plasticity, excitation, and extinction which could be directly and more naturally coupled with living biological systems. In view of important applications, such as prosthetics and future life augmentation, a cybernetic parallelism is traced, between biological and artificial systems. We will discuss how such intrinsic features could reduce the complexity of conditioning networks for a more natural direct connection between biological and synthetic worlds. Putting together living systems with RS devices could represent a feasible though innovative perspective for the future of bionics. PMID:28261048

  4. Ischemic heart disease in the emergency room: state of the art, innovation and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This opinion paper is aimed to provide an overview about the state of the art, innovation and research in ischemic heart disease in the emergency room, and is a synopsis of the lectures of the 3rd Italian GREAT Network Congress (Rome, 15-19 October 2012. The leading issues of a multidisciplinary risk stratification and diagnosis of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected ischemic heart disease will be discussed taking into consideration the variable onset of clinical signs and symptoms, the role of novel highly-sensitive troponin immunoassays, the promising use of an 80-lead electrocardiogram, echocardiography and risk stratification scores. Preliminary information will also be provided about the ongoing Italian multicentric registry on chest pain patients in emergency department, an observational prospective study aimed to collect data about patients presenting at the emergency department with typical chest pain suggesting an acute coronary syndrome.

  5. Quinoxaline, its derivatives and applications: A State of the Art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana A; Pessoa, Ana M; Cordeiro, M Natália D S; Fernandes, Rúben; Prudêncio, Cristina; Noronha, João Paulo; Vieira, Mónica

    2015-06-01

    Quinoxaline derivatives are an important class of heterocycle compounds, where N replaces some carbon atoms in the ring of naphthalene. Its molecular formula is C8H6N2, formed by the fusion of two aromatic rings, benzene and pyrazine. It is rare in natural state, but their synthesis is easy to perform. In this review the State of the Art will be presented, which includes a summary of the progress made over the past years in the knowledge of the structure and mechanism of the quinoxaline and quinoxaline derivatives, associated medical and biomedical value as well as industrial value. Modifying quinoxaline structure it is possible to obtain a wide variety of biomedical applications, namely antimicrobial activities and chronic and metabolic diseases treatment.

  6. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal synapses using state-of-the-art nano-imaging techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changlu Tao; Chenglong Xia; Xiaobing Chen; Z. Hong Zhou; Guoqiang Bi

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal synapses are functional nodes in neural circuits.Their organization and activity define an individual's level of intelligence,emotional state and mental health.Changes in the structure and efficacy of synapses are the biological basis of learning and memory.However,investigation of the molecular architecture of synapses has been impeded by the lack of efficient techniques with sufficient resolution.Recent developments in state-of-the-art nano-imaging techniques have opened up a new window for dissecting the molecular organization of neuronal synapses with unprecedented resolution.Here,we review recent technological advances in nano-imaging techniques as well as their applications to the study of synapses,emphasizing super-resolution light microscopy and 3-dimensional electron tomography.

  7. State of the Art of HVAC Technology in Europe and America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2015-01-01

    for increasing the energy efficiency of HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) systems and for increasing the amount of renewable energy used. Especially these types of systems are getting increasing attention in Europe and North-America. In the present study, operation characteristics, possibilities...... mechanisms and media to emit and remove heat or moisture from indoor spaces (e.g. hydronic radiant heating and cooling systems, fan-coil units, and active beams). The main differences between HVAC systems in Europe, North America and other parts of the world are often the indoor terminal units. Type...... of energy sources and energy generators are very much similar. This paper will present state-of the art-off energy efficient systems that will provide a good indoor environmental quality at a decreased energy use. Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling systems are an important requirement...

  8. State of the art on defenses against wormhole attacks in wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.; Giannetsos, T.; Dimitriou, T.

    2009-01-01

    describe the wormhole attack, a severe routing attack against sensor networks that is particularly challenging to defend against. We detail its characteristics and study its effects on the successful operation of a sensor network. We present state-of-the-art research for addressing wormhole related...... the possibility of using more sophisticated methods, like intrusion detection systems, to achieve a more complete and autonomic defense mechanism against wormhole attackers. We present our work on intrusion detection and introduce a lightweight IDS framework, called LIDeA, designed for wireless sensor networks....... LIDeA is based on a distributed architecture, in which nodes overhear their neighboring nodes and collaborate with each other in order to successfully detect an intrusion. We conclude by highlighting how such a system can be used for defending against wormhole attackers....

  9. Analyzing wet weather flow management using state of the art tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Denny S; Merlo, Rion P; Jimenez, Jose A; Wahlberg, Eric J

    2008-01-01

    Optimal secondary clarifier performance is crucial to meet treatment requirements, especially when treating peak wet weather flows (PWWFs), to prevent high effluent suspended solids (ESS) concentrations and elevated sludge blankets. A state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model was successfully used as a design and diagnostic tool to optimize performance for municipal wastewater treatment plants subject to significant PWWFs. Two case studies are presented. For Case Study 1, the model was used to determine the number of secondary clarifiers that will be necessary to treat future PWWF conditions for a plant under design. For Case Study 2, the model was used to identify modifications that are currently being made to increase the clarifier capacity for handling PWWF. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  10. Automatic control systems for submerged membrane bioreactors: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Giuliana; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi; Comas, Joaquim

    2012-07-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has become relatively widespread as an advanced treatment for both industrial and municipal wastewater, especially in areas prone to water scarcity. Although operational cost is a key issue in MBRs, currently only a few crucial papers and inventions aimed to optimise and enhance MBR efficiency have been published. The present review summarises the available solutions in the area of automatic control systems and widely explores the advances in automation and control for MBRs. In this review of state of the art, different control systems are evaluated comparatively, distinguishing between control systems used for the filtration process and those used for the biological process of MBRs and describing the challenge faced by integrated control systems. The existing knowledge is classified according to the manipulated variables, the operational mode (open-loop or closed-loop) and the controlled variables used.

  11. Enterprise Modeling in the context of Enterprise Engineering: State of the art and outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Vernadat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Modeling is a central activity in Enterprise Engineering and can facilitate Production Management activities. This state-of-the-art paper first recalls definitions and fundamental principles of enterprise modelling, which goes far beyond process modeling. The CIMOSA modeling framework, which is based on an event-driven process-based modeling language suitable for enterprise system analysis and model enactment, is used as a reference conceptual framework because of its generality. Next, the focus is on new features of enterprise modeling languages including risk, value, competency modeling and service orientation. Extensions for modeling collaborative aspects of networked organizations are suggested as research outlook. Major approaches used in enterprise modeling are recalled before concluding.

  12. State of the Art Power-in Tube Niobium-Tin Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godeke, A.; Ouden, A. Den; Nijhuis, A.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2008-06-01

    Powder-in-Tube (PIT) processed Niobium-Tin wires are commercially manufactured for nearly three decades and have demonstrated a combination of very high current density (presently up to 2500 A mm{sup -2} non-Cu at 12 T and 4.2 K) with fine (35 {micro}m), well separated filaments. We review the developments that have led to the present state of the art PIT Niobium-Tin wires, discuss the wire manufacturing and A15 formation processes, and describe typical superconducting performance in relation to magnetic field and strain. We further highlight successful applications of PIT wires and conclude with an outlook on possibilities for further improvements in the performance of PIT Niobium-Tin wires.

  13. Deep Learning for Brain MRI Segmentation: State of the Art and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Zeynettin; Galimzianova, Alfiia; Hoogi, Assaf; Rubin, Daniel L; Erickson, Bradley J

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of brain MRI is routine for many neurological diseases and conditions and relies on accurate segmentation of structures of interest. Deep learning-based segmentation approaches for brain MRI are gaining interest due to their self-learning and generalization ability over large amounts of data. As the deep learning architectures are becoming more mature, they gradually outperform previous state-of-the-art classical machine learning algorithms. This review aims to provide an overview of current deep learning-based segmentation approaches for quantitative brain MRI. First we review the current deep learning architectures used for segmentation of anatomical brain structures and brain lesions. Next, the performance, speed, and properties of deep learning approaches are summarized and discussed. Finally, we provide a critical assessment of the current state and identify likely future developments and trends.

  14. A Webcast of Bird Nesting as a State-of-the-Art Citizen Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárybnická, Markéta; Sklenicka, Petr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    The quality of people's knowledge of nature has always had a significant influence on their approach to wildlife and nature conservation. However, direct interactions of people with nature are greatly limited nowadays, especially because of urbanization and modern lifestyles. As a result, our isolation from the natural world has been growing. Here, we present an example of a state-of-the-art Citizen Science project with its educational, scientific, and popularizing benefits. We conclude that modern media and new forms of education offer an effective opportunity for inspiring children and others to have fun learning to act like scientists. This approach provides broad opportunities for developing the hitherto neglected educational potential of Citizen Science.

  15. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo [Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  16. Signal Processing in High-End Hearing Aids: State of the Art, Challenges, and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Rass

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of hearing aids incorporates two aspects, namely, the audiological and the technical point of view. The former focuses on items like the recruitment phenomenon, the speech intelligibility of hearing-impaired persons, or just on the question of hearing comfort. Concerning these subjects, different algorithms intending to improve the hearing ability are presented in this paper. These are automatic gain controls, directional microphones, and noise reduction algorithms. Besides the audiological point of view, there are several purely technical problems which have to be solved. An important one is the acoustic feedback. Another instance is the proper automatic control of all hearing aid components by means of a classification unit. In addition to an overview of state-of-the-art algorithms, this paper focuses on future trends.

  17. Numerical Simulations of the Dark Universe: State of the Art and the Next Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlen, Michael; Angulo, Raul

    2012-01-01

    We present a review of the current state of the art of cosmological dark matter simulations, with particular emphasis on the implications for dark matter detection efforts and studies of dark energy. This review is intended both for particle physicists, who may find the cosmological simulation literature opaque or confusing, and for astro-physicists, who may not be familiar with the role of simulations for observational and experimental probes of dark matter and dark energy. Truly massive dark matter-only simulations are being conducted on national supercomputing centers, employing from several billion to over half a trillion particles to simulate the formation and evolution of cosmologically representative volumes (cosmic scale) or to zoom in on individual halos (cluster and galactic scale). These simulations cost millions of core-hours, require tens to hundreds of terabytes of memory, and use up to petabytes of disk storage. The field is quite internationally diverse, with top simulations having been run in...

  18. State-of-the-art of long-span bridge engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Haifan; GE Yaojun

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the state-of-the-art of long-span bridge engineering in China with emphases on recent long-span bridge projects,bridge deck configuration and material,design codes of long-span bridges and improvement of aerodynamic performance.The recent long-span bridge projects include thirty-eight completed suspension bridges,cable-stayed and arch bridges with a main span over 400 m,and eighteen major bridges are under construction.The bridge deck configuration and material,with prestressed concrete decks,steel-concrete composite decks and steel box decks together with several popular cross-sections,are presented.The third part briefly outlines four design codes,including static and dynamic design for highway long-span bridges,and the recent engineering experiences gained from several aerodynamic vibration control projects of long-span bridges are shared in the last part.

  19. Applications of Nanostructured Carbon Materials in Constructions: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Nan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent studies on the applications of nanostructured carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene oxides, in constructions are presented. First, the preparation of nanostructured carbon/infrastructure material composites is summarized. This part is mainly focused on how the nanostructured carbon materials were mixed with cementitious or asphalt matrix to realize a good dispersion condition. Several methods, including high speed melting mixing, surface treatment, and aqueous solution with surfactants and sonication, were introduced. Second, the applications of the carbon nanostructured materials in constructions such as mechanical reinforcement, self-sensing detectors, self-heating element for deicing, and electromagnetic shielding component were systematically reviewed. This paper not only helps the readers understand the preparation process of the carbon nanostructured materials/infrastructure material composites but also sheds some light on the state-of-the-art applications of carbon nanostructured materials in constructions.

  20. Effect of nanofillers on the properties of a state of the art epoxy gelcoat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of the inclusion of electrically conductive and non-conductive nanofillers in a state of the art epoxy gelcoat was studied. The conductive fillers used were multi-wall carbon nanotubes and exfoliated nanographite. The non-conductive ones were nanoclay and nano-titanium dioxide. The content of the nanofillers was 0.65% per weight and their inclusion took place using high shear mixing devices. The conductive fillers showed an increase in tensile and fracture properties, as well as in the thermal properties whereas the non-conductive fillers did not show any improvement on the fracture properties. The glass transition temperature was practically unaffected by the presence of the nanofillers while conversly, the coefficient of thermal expansion was decreased for all the nanofillers for temperatures above the glass transition temperature. Finally, weatherometer tests showed that the nanofillers contribute into less weight losses in comparison with the reference epoxy gelcoat.

  1. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Coatings Through Dual-Cure Processes: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Malucelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic (O/I coatings obtained through the exploitation of dual-cure processes, which involve a photo-induced polymerization followed by a thermal treatment: this latter allows the occurrence of sol-gel reactions of suitable alkoxy precursors already embedded in the UV-curable system. After a brief introduction on hybrid organic-inorganic coatings, the first part of the review is focused on the design and feasibility issues provided by the dual-cure method, emphasizing the possibility of tuning the structure of the final hybrid network on the basis of the composition of the starting liquid mixture. Then, some recent examples of hybrid organic-inorganic networks are thoroughly described, showing their potential advances and the application fields to which they can be addressed.

  2. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  3. A General Simulation Framework for Supply Chain Modeling: State of the Art and Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Cimino, Antonio; Mirabelli, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays there is a large availability of discrete event simulation software that can be easily used in different domains: from industry to supply chain, from healthcare to business management, from training to complex systems design. Simulation engines of commercial discrete event simulation software use specific rules and logics for simulation time and events management. Difficulties and limitations come up when commercial discrete event simulation software are used for modeling complex real world-systems (i.e. supply chains, industrial plants). The objective of this paper is twofold: first a state of the art on commercial discrete event simulation software and an overview on discrete event simulation models development by using general purpose programming languages are presented; then a Supply Chain Order Performance Simulator (SCOPS, developed in C++) for investigating the inventory management problem along the supply chain under different supply chain scenarios is proposed to readers.

  4. Ceramic dental biomaterials and CAD/CAM technology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Raymond Wai Kim; Chow, Tak Wah; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Ceramics are widely used as indirect restorative materials in dentistry because of their high biocompatibility and pleasing aesthetics. The objective is to review the state of the arts of CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials. CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials are highlighted and a subsequent literature search was conducted for the relevant subjects using PubMed followed by manual search. Developments in CAD/CAM technology have catalyzed researches in all-ceramic biomaterials and their applications. Feldspathic glass ceramic and glass infiltrated ceramic can be fabricated by traditional laboratory methods or CAD/CAM. The advent of polycrystalline ceramics is a direct result of CAD/CAM technology without which the fabrication would not have been possible. The clinical uses of these ceramics have met with variable clinical success. Multiple options are now available to the clinicians for the fabrication of aesthetic all ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. State-of-the-art in vibration-based electrostatic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah Khan, Farid; Usman Qadir, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    Recently, embedded systems and wireless sensor nodes have been gaining importance. For operating these devices several vibration-based energy harvesters have been successfully developed and reported, such as piezoelectric, electromagnetic, and electrostatic energy harvesters (EEHs). This paper presents the state-of-the-art in the field of vibration-based EEHs. Mainly, two types of EEHs, electret-free and electret-based, are reported in the literature. The developed EEHs are mostly of the centimeter scale. These energy harvesters, with resonant frequencies ranging from 2 Hz to 1.7 kHz, when subjected to excitation on the order of 0.25 g to 14.2 g, generate power that ranges from 0.46 nW to 2.1 mW.

  6. Fatigue of Nitinol: The state-of-the-art and ongoing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtabi, M J; Shamsaei, Nima; Mitchell, M R

    2015-10-01

    Nitinol, a nearly equiatomic alloy of nickel and titanium, has been considered for a wide range of applications including medical and dental devices and implants as well as aerospace and automotive components and structures. The realistic loading condition in many of these applications is cyclic; therefore, fatigue is often the main failure mode for such components and structures. The fatigue behavior of Nitinol involves many more complexities compared with traditional metal alloys arising from its uniqueness in material properties such as superelasticity and shape memory effects. In this paper, a review of the present state-of-the-art on the fatigue behavior of superelastic Nitinol is presented. Various aspects of fatigue of Nitinol are discussed and microstructural effects are explained. Effects of material preparation and testing conditions are also reviewed. Finally, several conclusions are made and recommendations for future works are offered.

  7. Proceedings of B Factories, the state of the art in accelerators, detectors and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitlin, D. (ed.) (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The conference B Factories, The State of the Art in Accelerators, Detectors and Physics was held at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on April 6-10, 1992. The guiding principle of the conference was to bring together accelerator physicists and high energy experimentalists and theorists at the same time, with the goal of encouraging communication in defining and solving problems in a way which cut across narrow areas of specialization. Thus the conference was, in large measure, two distinct conferences, one involving accelerator specialists, the other theorists and experimentalists. There were initial and closing plenary sessions, and three separate tracks of parallel sessions, called Accelerator, Detector/Physics and Joint Interest sessions. This report contains the papers of this conference, the general topics of these cover: vacuum system, lattice design, beam-beam interactions, rf systems, feedback systems, measuring instrumentation, the interaction region, radiation background, particle detectors, particle tracking and identification, data acquisition, and computing system, and particle theory.

  8. State of the Art. Work Stream 3 – the Danish Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Larsen, Jeppe Fuglsang; Meret, Susi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the State Of the Art (SOA) is to gain knowledge about the Danish Context of organisations, groups and movements in civil society countering hate speech, institutional racism and exclusionary practices and to identify gaps in national research on the issue that can be explored through...... field work, interviews and group discussions/dialogues, possibly to be debated at roundtable convening in the autumn of 2014. The SOA gives an overview of the role of the state, institutions, the political parties and social movements in combating racism, discrimination hate-speech and exclusionary...... behaviours. It will first give a brief overview of the historical context in Denmark before WWII and after Denmark joined the EU in 1972, focusing on the different referendum and on the implications of the four Danish opt-outs to the Maastricht Treaty in 1994. Then it will discuss the role of the State...

  9. Fatigue crack growth under remote and local compression – a state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chahardehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ever increasing need for accurate understanding of the fatigue crack growth behaviour in major engineering materials and components. With the move towards more complex, probabilistic assessments, the traditional ‘safe’ or conservative approach for prediction of fatigue crack growth rate may no longer be attractive. Current codes and standards tend to be ambiguous about the treatment of compressive stress cycles: on the one hand code guidance on fatigue crack initiation may be non-conservative, while assessment of crack propagation may be inconsistently conservative. Where codes are non-conservative they could lead to dangerous assessments. The current paper provides a critical review of state-of-the-art in literature and a study of current code implications.

  10. Anatomical basis for carrying out a state-of-the-art radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Atsushi; Tewari, Ashutosh K

    2012-01-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy has consolidated the position of surgical treatment for localized prostate cancer in the USA. In a few years, it is expected to spread rapidly worldwide. However, surgical anatomy has trailed the advance in surgical techniques of robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Therefore, we reviewed the recent literature, which sometimes refutes the established consensus on pelvic anatomy, for the state-of-the-art technique. We also describe the anatomical findings for each basic step during robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, and show evidence-based surgical techniques. Of course, these findings will also be useful for radical retropubic, perineal and conventional laparoscopic prostatectomy. Surgical anatomy should always be developing and changing with advances in surgical approaches.

  11. Technology Integration around the Geographic Information: A State of the Art

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce-Medellin, Rafael; Vargas, Rocio; Ruiz, Lirio

    2009-01-01

    One of the elements that have popularized and facilitated the use of geographical information on a variety of computational applications has been the use of Web maps; this has opened new research challenges on different subjects, from locating places and people, the study of social behavior or the analyzing of the hidden structures of the terms used in a natural language query used for locating a place. However, the use of geographic information under technological features is not new, instead it has been part of a development and technological integration process. This paper presents a state of the art review about the application of geographic information under different approaches: its use on location based services, the collaborative user participation on it, its contextual-awareness, its use in the Semantic Web and the challenges of its use in natural languge queries. Finally, a prototype that integrates most of these areas is presented.

  12. Threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support: A review of the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JN Roux

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In a military environment an operator is typically required to evaluate the tactical situation in real-time and protect defended assets against enemy threats by assigning available weapon systems to engage enemy craft. This environment requires rapid operational planning and decision making under severe stress conditions, and the associated responsibilities are usually divided between a number of operators and computerized decision support systems that aid these operators during the decision making processes. The aim in this paper is to review the state of the art of this kind of threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support process as it stands within the context of a ground based air defence system (GBADS at the turn of the twenty first century. However, much of the contents of the paper may be generalized to military environments other than a GBADS one.

  13. Preliminary state-of-the-art survey: mining techniques for salt and other rock types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This is a systematic review of the state-of-the-art of underground mining and excavation technology in the U.S. as applied to salt, limestone, shale, and granite. Chapter 2 covers the basic characteristics of these rock types, the most frequently used underground mining methods, shaft and slope entry construction, equipment, and safety and productivity data. Chapters 3 and 4 summarize underground salt and limestone mining in the U.S. Chapter 5 shows that large amounts of thick shale exist in the U.S., but little is mined. Chapter 6 discusses underground excavations into granite-type rocks. Suggestions are given in the last chapter for further study. (DLC)

  14. Technology Integration around the Geographic Information: A State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Vargas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the elements that have popularized and facilitated the use of geographical information on a variety of computational applications has been the use of Web maps; this has opened new research challenges on different subjects, from locating places and people, the study of social behavior or the analyzing of the hidden structures of the terms used in a natural language query used for locating a place. However, the use of geographic information under technological features is not new, instead it has been part of a development and technological integration process. This paper presents a state of the art review about the application of geographic information under different approaches: its use on location based services, the collaborative user participation on it, its contextual-awareness, its use in the Semantic Web and the challenges of its use in natural language queries. Finally, a prototype that integrates most of these areas is presented.

  15. State-of-the-art research: optimal investment in market-based electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, Einar; Skjeret, Frode

    2008-04-15

    The purpose of this state-of-the-art research paper is to surveying the literature on investment in market based electric power systems as a background for identifying and discussing some important issues in the optimal design and operation of such systems. A fundamental distinction has to be made between investment in the competitive part of the power system (generation and trading) on the one hand and the natural monopoly part (network infrastructure) on the other. The paper starts with a listing and discussion on market characteristics and properties of electric power and goes on to discussing performance criteria and potential sources of market failure for optimal electric power investment. After the literature survey there is a discussion of conditions under which optimal investment may occur. (author). 78 refs., figs

  16. State of the Art Review on Theoretical Tribology of Fluid Power Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerimagic, Remzija; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20 years an increasing focus on efficiency and reliability in fluid power displacement machines has provided an incentive to study loss and wear mechanisms. One example is the hydrostatic fluid power transmission systems for wind and wave energy applications. The loss and wear...... mechanisms are mainly attributed to the tribological interfaces in fluid power machines. Consequently, optimization of efficiency and reliability of fluid power machines imply considerations of tribological interface design. The majority of the work done by researchers and engineers on the study of loss...... and wear mechanisms in the lubricating gaps in fluid power machines is confined to simulation models, as experimental treatments of these mechanisms are very difficult. The aim of this paper is a state of the art review on the theoretical work for the design and optimization of fluid power displacement...

  17. Biotechnologies for greenhouse gases (CH₄, N₂O, and CO₂) abatement: state of the art and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan C; Quijano, Guillermo; Souza, Theo S O; Estrada, José M; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2013-03-01

    Today, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions represent approximately 98 % of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory worldwide, and their share is expected to increase significantly in this twenty-first century. CO2 represents the most important GHG with approximately 77 % of the total GHG emissions (considering its global warming potential) worldwide, while CH4 and N2O are emitted to a lesser extent (14 and 8 %, respectively) but exhibit global warming potentials 23 and 298 times higher than that of CO2, respectively. Most members of the United Nations, based on the urgent need to maintain the global average temperature 2 °C above preindustrial levels, have committed themselves to significantly reduce their GHG emissions. In this context, an active abatement of these emissions will help to achieve these target emission cuts without compromising industrial growth. Nowadays, there are sufficient empirical evidence to support that biological technologies can become, if properly tailored, a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to physical/chemical methods for the abatement of GHGs. This study constitutes a state-of-the-art review of the microbiology (biochemistry, kinetics, and waste-to-value processes) and bioreactor technology of CH4, N2O, and CO2 abatement. The potential and limitations of biological GHG degradation processes are critically discussed, and the current knowledge gaps and technology niches in the field are identified.

  18. A state of the art on penetration failure estimation under external vessel cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. T.; Park, R. J.; Kang, K. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, S. B.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, K. Y

    2000-04-01

    A state of the art on penetration failure was reviewed and analyzed to establish the direction of the experimental program in the KNGR and to decide the test section design. The interaction between the corium and the reactor vessel and the corium behavior in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel were analyzed to investigate the penetration effect on severe accident progression, and the TMI-2 accident was investigated in the point of penetration failure. Theoretical model and experiment results on penetration failure under the severe accident were investigated and reviewed to establish the direction of the experimental program on the estimation of the penetration failure in the KNGR. These results were compared with the TMI-2 results. The existing test facilities on penetration failure were investigated and reviewed to decide the test section design. It can be said from the state of the art review that penetration in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel is a week point in the reactor vessel failure under the severe accident, but the reactor vessel may not be failed by penetration failure in condition with the coolant supply to the penetration. Since the penetration is different with reactor types and there is no study on estimation of the penetration welding, it is necessary to investigate failure or not of the penetration in condition with external vessel cooling to maintain the reactor vessel integrity in KNGR. In the present experimental program on the integrity estimation of the KNGR penetration, the aluminum oxide melt by thermite reaction and the test section with one penetration of the real size and real material were selected. The melt mass, the pressure of the system, and the vessel geometry were selected as an experimental parameter. (author)

  19. Selected examples of intelligent (micro) sensor systems: state-of-the-art and tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Peter R.

    2006-03-01

    The capability of intelligent sensors to have more intelligence built into them continues to drive their application in areas including automotive, aerospace and defense, industrial, intelligent house and wear, medical and homeland security. In principle it is difficult to overestimate the importance of intelligent (micro) sensors or sensor systems within advanced societies but one characteristic feature is the global market for sensors, which is now about 20 billion annually. Therefore sensors or sensor systems play a dominant role in many fields from the macro sensor in manufacturing industry down to the miniaturized sensor for medical applications. The diversity of sensors precludes a complete description of the state-of-the-art; selected examples will illustrate the current situation. MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) devices are of special interest in the context of micro sensor systems. In past the main requirements of a sensor were in terms of metrological performance. The electrical (or optical) signal produced by the sensor needed to match the measure relatively accurately. Such basic functionality is no longer sufficient. Data processing near the sensor, the extraction of more information than just the direct sensor information by signal analysis, system aspects and multi-sensor information are the new demands. A shifting can be observed away from aiming to design perfect single-function transducers and towards the utilization of system-based sensors as system components. In the ideal case such systems contain sensors, actuators and electronics. They can be realized in monolithic, hybrid or discrete form—which kind is used depends on the application. In this article the state-of-the-art of intelligent sensors or sensor systems is reviewed using selected examples. Future trends are deduced.

  20. Why does cervical cancer occur in a state-of-the-art screening program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K; Cheung, Li C; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Befano, Brian; Schussler, John; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark

    2017-09-01

    The goal of cervical screening is to detect and treat precancers before some become cancer. We wanted to understand why, despite state-of-the-art methods, cervical cancers occured in relationship to programmatic performance at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), where >1,000,000 women aged ≥30years have undergone cervical cancer screening by triennial HPV and cytology cotesting since 2003. We reviewed clinical histories preceding cervical cancer diagnoses to assign "causes" of cancer. We calculated surrogate measures of programmatic effectiveness (precancers/(precancers and cancers)) and diagnostic yield (precancers and cancers per 1000 cotests), overall and by age at cotest (30-39, 40-49, and ≥50years). Cancer was rare and found mainly in a localized (treatable) stage. Of 623 cervical cancers with at least one preceding or concurrent cotest, 360 (57.8%) were judged to be prevalent (diagnosed at a localized stage within one year or regional/distant stage within two years of the first cotest). Non-compliance with recommended screening and management preceded 9.0% of all cancers. False-negative cotests/sampling errors (HPV and cytology negative), false-negative histologic diagnoses, and treatment failures preceded 11.2%, 9.0%, and 4.3%, respectively, of all cancers. There was significant heterogeneity in the causes of cancer by histologic category (p<0.001 for all; p=0.002 excluding prevalent cases). Programmatic effectiveness (95.3%) and diagnostic yield were greater for squamous cell versus adenocarcinoma histology (p<0.0001) and both decreased with older ages (ptrend<0.0001). A state-of-the-art intensive screening program results in very few cervical cancers, most of which are detected early by screening. Screening may become less efficient at older ages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ARIA: Delivering state-of-the-art InSAR products to end users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agram, P. S.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Manipon, G.; Sacco, G. F.; Bue, B. D.; Fielding, E. J.; Yun, S. H.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Lundgren, P.; Liu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Center for Natural Hazards aims to bring state-of-the-art geodetic imaging capabilities to an operational level in support of local, national, and international hazard response communities. ARIA project's first foray into operational generation of InSAR products was with Calimap Project, in collaboration with ASI-CIDOT, using X-band data from the Cosmo-SkyMed constellation. Over the last year, ARIA's processing infrastructure has been significantly upgraded to exploit the free stream of high quality C-band SAR data from ESA's Sentinel-1 mission and related algorithmic improvements to the ISCE software. ARIA's data system can now operationally generate geocoded unwrapped phase and coherence products in GIS-friendly formats from Sentinel-1 TOPS mode data in an automated fashion, and this capability is currently being exercised various study sites across the United States including Hawaii, Central California, Iceland and South America. The ARIA team, building on the experience gained from handling X-band data and C-band data, has also built an automated machine learning-based classifier to label the auto-generated interferograms based on phase unwrapping quality. These high quality "time-series ready" InSAR products generated using state-of-the-art processing algorithms can be accessed by end users using two different mechanisms - 1) a Faceted-search interface that includes browse imagery for quick visualization and 2) an ElasticSearch-based API to enable bulk automated download, post-processing and time-series analysis. In this talk, we will present InSAR results from various global events that ARIA system has responded to. We will also discuss the set of geospatial big data tools including GIS libraries and API tools, that end users will need to familiarize themselves with in order to maximize the utilization of continuous stream of InSAR products from the Sentinel-1 and NISAR missions that the ARIA project will generate.

  2. A state of the art on penetration failure estimation under external vessel cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. T.; Park, R. J.; Kang, K. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, S. B.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, K. Y

    2000-04-01

    A state of the art on penetration failure was reviewed and analyzed to establish the direction of the experimental program in the KNGR and to decide the test section design. The interaction between the corium and the reactor vessel and the corium behavior in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel were analyzed to investigate the penetration effect on severe accident progression, and the TMI-2 accident was investigated in the point of penetration failure. Theoretical model and experiment results on penetration failure under the severe accident were investigated and reviewed to establish the direction of the experimental program on the estimation of the penetration failure in the KNGR. These results were compared with the TMI-2 results. The existing test facilities on penetration failure were investigated and reviewed to decide the test section design. It can be said from the state of the art review that penetration in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel is a week point in the reactor vessel failure under the severe accident, but the reactor vessel may not be failed by penetration failure in condition with the coolant supply to the penetration. Since the penetration is different with reactor types and there is no study on estimation of the penetration welding, it is necessary to investigate failure or not of the penetration in condition with external vessel cooling to maintain the reactor vessel integrity in KNGR. In the present experimental program on the integrity estimation of the KNGR penetration, the aluminum oxide melt by thermite reaction and the test section with one penetration of the real size and real material were selected. The melt mass, the pressure of the system, and the vessel geometry were selected as an experimental parameter. (author)

  3. [Shifting paradigm in skull base surgery: Roots, current state of the art and future trends of endonasal endoscopic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhouma, M; Messerer, M; Jouanneau, E

    2012-02-01

    During the last two decades, endoscopic endonasal approach has completed the minimally invasive skull base surgery armamentarium. Endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery (EESBS) was initially developed in the field of pituitary adenomas, and gained an increasing place for the treatment of a wide variety of skull base pathologies, extending on the midline from crista galli process to the occipitocervical junction and laterally to the parasellar areas and petroclival apex. Until now, most studies are retrospective and lack sufficient methodological quality to confirm whether the endoscopic endonasal pituitary surgery has better results than the microsurgical trans-sphenoidal classical approach. The impressions of the expert teams show a trend toward better results for some pituitary adenomas with the endoscopic endonasal route, in terms of gross total resection rate and probably more comfortable postoperative course for the patient. Excepting intra- and suprasellar pituitary adenomas, EESBS seems useful for selected lesions extending onto the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave but also for clival pathologies. Nevertheless, this infatuation toward endoscopic endonasal approaches has to be balanced with the critical issue of cerebrospinal fluid leaks, which constitutes actually the main limit of this approach. Through their experience and a review of the literature, the authors aim to present the state of the art of this approach as well as its limits.

  4. State-of-the-art of liquid waste disposal for geothermal energy systems: 1979. Report PNL-2404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defferding, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of geothermal liquid waste disposal is reviewed and surface and subsurface disposal methods are evaluated with respect to technical, economic, legal, and environmental factors. Three disposal techniques are currently in use at numerous geothermal sites around the world: direct discharge into surface waters; deep-well injection; and ponding for evaporation. The review shows that effluents are directly discharged into surface waters at Wairakei, New Zealand; Larderello, Italy; and Ahuachapan, El Salvador. Ponding for evaporation is employed at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Deep-well injection is being practiced at Larderello; Ahuachapan; Otake and Hatchobaru, Japan; and at The Geysers in California. All sites except Ahuachapan (which is injecting only 30% of total plant flow) have reported difficulties with their systems. Disposal techniques used in related industries are also reviewed. The oil industry's efforts at disposal of large quantities of liquid effluents have been quite successful as long as the effluents have been treated prior to injection. This study has determined that seven liquid disposal methods - four surface and three subsurface - are viable options for use in the geothermal energy industry. However, additional research and development is needed to reduce the uncertainties and to minimize the adverse environmental impacts of disposal. (MHR)

  5. Implementation and Use of State-of-the-Art, Cell-Based In Vitro Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    The impressive advances in the generation and interpretation of functional omics data have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the (patho-)physiology of many biological systems and led to a massive increase in the number of specific targets and phenotypes to investigate in both basic and applied research. The obvious complexity revealed by these studies represents a major challenge to the research community and asks for improved target characterisation strategies with the help of reliable, high-quality assays. Thus, the use of living cells has become an integral part of many research activities because the cellular context more closely represents target-specific interrelations and activity patterns. Although still predominant, the use of traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture models has been gradually complemented by studies based on three-dimensional (3D) spheroid (Sutherland 1988) and other 3D tissue culture systems (Santos et al. 2012; Matsusaki et al. 2014) in an attempt to employ model systems more closely representing the microenvironment of cells in the body. Hence, quite a variety of state-of-the-art cell culture models are available for the generation of novel chemical probes or the identification of starting points for drug development in translational research and pharma drug discovery. In order to cope with these information-rich formats and their increasing technical complexity, cell-based assay development has become a scientific research topic in its own right and is used to ensure the provision of significant, reliable and high-quality data outlasting any discussions related to the current "irreproducibility epidemic" (Dolgin 2014; Prinz et al. 2011; Schatz 2014). At the same time the use of cells in microplate assay formats has become state of the art and greatly facilitates rigorous cell-based assay development by providing the researcher with the opportunity to address the multitude of factors affecting the actual

  6. [Flat-panel detector technology -State-of-the-art and future prospects-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tatsuya

    2002-01-01

    A flat-panel detector (FPD) is a long-awaited technology to implement the digital X-ray imaging technology into the radiological department. This paper describes the state-of-the-art technology and future prospects on the FPD technology. State-of-the-art technology was reviewed taking the CXDI series as an example. Several FPD-based systems have been introduced into the Japanese market since CXDI-11 opened it in November 1998. Accompanying CXDI-C2 for control, CXDI-22 for table position and CXDI-31 for portable, the CXDI series fulfills the requirement of the radiography room being a fully digitalized room. The FPD on the CXDI series is comprised of a scintillator (Gd(2)O(2)S:Tb(3+)) as a primary sensor in which the X-ray is captured and an amorphous silicon detector (LANMIT) as a secondary sensor in which the fluorescent light is detected. Since the scintillator is identical to that of the screen-film systems, it can be said as proven, durable and chemically stable and it is expected to produce the same image quality as the screen-film systems. CXDI-31, a portable FPD-based system, was developed targeting thinner dimensions, lightweight, durability and high spatial resolution. Thoroughly re-designing the mechanical structure and reducing the power consumption at the readout IC realized thinner dimensions. Introducing the portable note PC technologies successfully combined lightweight with durability. Improving the sensor process and re-designing the layout made the sensor high resolution without compromising the signal-to-noise ratio. Future prospects were overviewed in the aspect of technology and applications. Sensitivity, spatial resolution, frame rate and portability were described as the upcoming technology. Increasing gain and reducing noise will realize higher sensitivity, especially by adopting the PbI(2), HgI(2) or such photoconductor materials as the primary sensor. Pixelized amplifier will also achieve higher sensitivity. Layered sensor designed such

  7. State of the art in atomic resolution off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linck, Martin, E-mail: mlinck@lbl.gov [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zum Triebenberg 50, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Freitag, Bert; Kujawa, Stephan [FEI Company, Eindhoven, Building AAE, Achtseweg Noord 5, P.O. Box 80066, 5600 KA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lehmann, Michael; Niermann, Tore [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    As proposed by Hannes Lichte, to resolve structure-property relations not only the question 'Which atom is where?' but also the question 'Which fields are around?' has to be answered. High-resolution off-axis electron holography opens up an access to these key questions in that it allows accessing the complete exit-wave of the object provided within the information limit of the microscope, i.e. amplitude and phase including atomic details such as position and species, and moreover, information about large area electric potentials and magnetic fields, which a conventional transmission electron microscope is blind for-also when using a Cs-corrector. For an excellent object exit-wave reconstruction, special care has to be taken on the hologram quality, i.e. interference fringe contrast and electron dose. Severe restrictions are given to signal resolution by the limited brightness of the electron source. Utilizing a new high-brightness Schottky field electron emitter in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope operated at 300 kV, the phase signal resolution at atomic resolution can significantly be enhanced. An improvement by at least a factor of 2.88 compared to the most recently reported single hologram at atomic resolution is found. To proof the applicability of this setup to real materials science problems, a grain boundary of gold has been investigated holographically. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of the brightness on the reconstructed signal in electron holography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factor 2.8 gain in signal quality by setup with a high brightness electron gun. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of a grain boundary in gold with a state-of-the-art holography setup. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A-posteriori aberration fine-tuning for true one Angstrom resolution in the object wave. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mistilt analysis on the atomic scale by numerical wave optics.

  8. HIGH DENSITY AERIAL IMAGE MATCHING: STATE-OF-THE-ART AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Haala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing innovations in matching algorithms are continuously improving the quality of geometric surface representations generated automatically from aerial images. This development motivated the launch of the joint ISPRS/EuroSDR project “Benchmark on High Density Aerial Image Matching”, which aims on the evaluation of photogrammetric 3D data capture in view of the current developments in dense multi-view stereo-image matching. Originally, the test aimed on image based DSM computation from conventional aerial image flights for different landuse and image block configurations. The second phase then put an additional focus on high quality, high resolution 3D geometric data capture in complex urban areas. This includes both the extension of the test scenario to oblique aerial image flights as well as the generation of filtered point clouds as additional output of the respective multi-view reconstruction. The paper uses the preliminary outcomes of the benchmark to demonstrate the state-of-the-art in airborne image matching with a special focus of high quality geometric data capture in urban scenarios.

  9. Cyber-Physical System Security of a Power Grid: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Che Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the smart grid development, more and more technologies are developed and deployed on the power grid to enhance the system reliability. A primary purpose of the smart grid is to significantly increase the capability of computer-based remote control and automation. As a result, the level of connectivity has become much higher, and cyber security also becomes a potential threat to the cyber-physical systems (CPSs. In this paper, a survey of the state-of-the-art is conducted on the cyber security of the power grid concerning issues of: (1 the structure of CPSs in a smart grid; (2 cyber vulnerability assessment; (3 cyber protection systems; and (4 testbeds of a CPS. At Washington State University (WSU, the Smart City Testbed (SCT has been developed to provide a platform to test, analyze and validate defense mechanisms against potential cyber intrusions. A test case is provided in this paper to demonstrate how a testbed helps the study of cyber security and the anomaly detection system (ADS for substations.

  10. Bevacizumab in Ovarian Cancer: State of the Art and Unanswered Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musella, Angela; Vertechy, Laura; Romito, Alessia; Marchetti, Claudia; Giannini, Andrea; Sciuga, Valentina; Bracchi, Carlotta; Tomao, Federica; Di Donato, Violante; De Felice, Francesca; Monti, Marco; Muzii, Ludovico; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a most lethal gynecologic tumor. The mainstay treatment is cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy. However, a high percentage of patients recur, thus needing multiple treatments with a frequently poor prognosis. In the last two decades, research has focused on the potential of target therapies to improve the survival of patients affected by ovarian cancer. Bevacizumab is one of the most studied target therapies, and it is approved for first- and second-line treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal tumors. Despite its widespread use with favorable results, controversy regarding patient selection and the best schedule, dosage, and timing of bevacizumab still exists. This review summarizes the state of the art on the use of bevacizumab for ovarian cancer in front-line, recurrence, and neoadjuvant settings. This study focuses on the results of pivotal trials, emerging data, ongoing research, and still unanswered questions about the most adequate dosage of bevacizumab and its potential activity after disease progression or rechallenge in previously treated patients.

  11. FerryBox systems: State-of-the-art in Europe and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Wilhelm

    2014-12-01

    The current state-of-the-art of FerryBox systems are presented, and their usage as part of European observing systems such as Alg@line in the Baltic Sea or the coastal observatory COSYNA in the North Sea is discussed as well as data management systems. An overview of diverse FerryBox measurement activities is provided, covering the wide and varied potential for utilizing FerryBox data. One innovative technical component is the application of newly developed sensors suitable for FerryBox systems that focus on biogeochemical processes. This component could fill currently existing gaps of robust biogeochemical observations in the oceans and may create, together with the high spatial and temporal resolution of FerryBox systems, the possibility for new insights into physical and biogeochemical processes that were impossible to study before. Such new insights could contribute to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and include observations of the coastal carbonate system and its interaction with climate change or eutrophication and productivity.

  12. Vitamin D and chronic diseases: the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Altieri, Barbara; Annweiler, Cedric; Balercia, Giancarlo; Pal, H B; Boucher, Barbara J; Cannell, John J; Foresta, Carlo; Grübler, Martin R; Kotsa, Kalliopi; Mascitelli, Luca; März, Winfried; Orio, Francesco; Pilz, Stefan; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to provide the current state of the art regarding the role of vitamin D in chronic diseases (osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, autism, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, male and female fertility). The document was drawn up by panelists that provided their contribution according to their own scientific expertise. Each scientific expert supplied a first draft manuscript on a specific aspect of the document's topic that was subjected to voting by all experts as "yes" (agreement with the content and/or wording) or "no" (disagreement). The adopted rule was that statements supported by ≥75 % of votes would be immediately accepted, while those with D in bone health but not in other health conditions. However, subjects with vitamin D deficiency have been found to be at high risk of developing chronic diseases. Therefore, although at the present time there is not sufficient evidence to recommend vitamin D supplementation as treatment of chronic diseases, the treatment of vitamin D deficiency should be desiderable in order to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases.

  13. Benchmarking of state-of-the-art needle detection algorithms in 3D ultrasound data volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; de With, Peter H. N.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.; Mihajlovic, Nenad

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle interventions are widely practiced in medical diagnostics and therapy, i.e. for biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia or for brachytherapy. Needle guidance using 2D ultrasound can be very challenging due to the poor needle visibility and the limited field of view. Since 3D ultrasound transducers are becoming more widely used, needle guidance can be improved and simplified with appropriate computer-aided analyses. In this paper, we compare two state-of-the-art 3D needle detection techniques: a technique based on line filtering from literature and a system employing Gabor transformation. Both algorithms utilize supervised classification to pre-select candidate needle voxels in the volume and then fit a model of the needle on the selected voxels. The major differences between the two approaches are in extracting the feature vectors for classification and selecting the criterion for fitting. We evaluate the performance of the two techniques using manually-annotated ground truth in several ex-vivo situations of different complexities, containing three different needle types with various insertion angles. This extensive evaluation provides better understanding on the limitations and advantages of each technique under different acquisition conditions, which is leading to the development of improved techniques for more reliable and accurate localization. Benchmarking results that the Gabor features are better capable of distinguishing the needle voxels in all datasets. Moreover, it is shown that the complete processing chain of the Gabor-based method outperforms the line filtering in accuracy and stability of the detection results.

  14. Neurofeedback Therapy for Enhancing Visual Attention: State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordikhani-Seyedlar, Mehdi; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Sorensen, Helge B. D.; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2016-01-01

    We have witnessed a rapid development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) linking the brain to external devices. BCIs can be utilized to treat neurological conditions and even to augment brain functions. BCIs offer a promising treatment for mental disorders, including disorders of attention. Here we review the current state of the art and challenges of attention-based BCIs, with a focus on visual attention. Attention-based BCIs utilize electroencephalograms (EEGs) or other recording techniques to generate neurofeedback, which patients use to improve their attention, a complex cognitive function. Although progress has been made in the studies of neural mechanisms of attention, extraction of attention-related neural signals needed for BCI operations is a difficult problem. To attain good BCI performance, it is important to select the features of neural activity that represent attentional signals. BCI decoding of attention-related activity may be hindered by the presence of different neural signals. Therefore, BCI accuracy can be improved by signal processing algorithms that dissociate signals of interest from irrelevant activities. Notwithstanding recent progress, optimal processing of attentional neural signals remains a fundamental challenge for the development of efficient therapies for disorders of attention. PMID:27536212

  15. PEOPLE RETRIEVAL BY MEANS OF COMPOSITE PICTURES: PROBLEM STATE-OF-THE-ART AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy A. Kukharev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problem of people retrieval by means of composite pictures constructed according to descriptive portrait. An overview of the problem state-of-the-art is provided beginning from the basic concepts and terminology to a modern technology for composite picture creation, real-world scenarios and search results. The development history of systems for forming composite portraits (photo robots and sketches and the ideas implemented in these systems are provided. The problem of automatic comparison of composite pictures with the original ones is discussed, and the reasons for unattainability of stable retrieval of originals by a composite picture in real-world scenarios are revealed. Requirements to composite pictures databases in addition to the existing benchmark databases of facial images and also methods for implementation of such databases are formulated. Approaches for generation of sketches population from an initial one that increase effectiveness of identikit-based photo image retrieval systems are proposed. The method of similarity index increasing in the couple identikit-photograph based on computation of an average identikit from the created population is provided. It is shown that such composite pictures are more similar to original portraits and their use in the discussed search problem can lead to good results. Thus the created identikits meet the requirements of the truthful scenario as take into account the possibility of incomplete information in descriptions. Results of experiments on CUHK Face Sketch and CUHK Face Sketch FERET databases and also open access identikits and corresponding photos are discussed.

  16. Building Extraction from Airborne Laser Scanning Data: An Analysis of the State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tomljenovic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of building extraction approaches applied to Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS data by examining elements used in original publications, such as data set area, accuracy measures, reference data for accuracy assessment, and the use of auxiliary data. We succinctly analyzed the most cited publication for each year between 1998 and 2014, resulting in 54 ISI-indexed articles and 14 non-ISI indexed publications. Based on this, we position some built-in features of ALS to create a comprehensive picture of the state of the art and the progress through the years. Our analyses revealed trends and remaining challenges that impact the community. The results show remaining deficiencies, such as inconsistent accuracy assessment measures, limitations of independent reference data sources for accuracy assessment, relatively few documented applications of the methods to wide area data sets, and the lack of transferability studies and measures. Finally, we predict some future trends and identify some gaps which existing approaches may not exhaustively cover. Despite these deficiencies, this comprehensive literature analysis demonstrates that ALS data is certainly a valuable source of spatial information for building extraction. When taking into account the short civilian history of ALS one can conclude that ALS has become well established in the scientific community and seems to become indispensable in many application fields.

  17. Soft Robotics: Biological Inspiration, State of the Art, and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Trivedi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional robots have rigid underlying structures that limit their ability to interact with their environment. For example, conventional robot manipulators have rigid links and can manipulate objects using only their specialised end effectors. These robots often encounter difficulties operating in unstructured and highly congested environments. A variety of animals and plants exhibit complex movement with soft structures devoid of rigid components. Muscular hydrostats (e.g. octopus arms and elephant trunks are almost entirely composed of muscle and connective tissue and plant cells can change shape when pressurised by osmosis. Researchers have been inspired by biology to design and build soft robots. With a soft structure and redundant degrees of freedom, these robots can be used for delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. This paper discusses the novel capabilities of soft robots, describes examples from nature that provide biological inspiration, surveys the state of the art and outlines existing challenges in soft robot design, modelling, fabrication and control.

  18. EUV processing investigation on state of the art coater/developer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shite, H.; Bradon, N.; Shimoaoki, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nafus, K.; Kosugi, H.; Foubert, P.; Hermans, J.; Hendrickx, E.; Goethals, M.; Gronheid, R.; Jehoul, C.

    2011-04-01

    In order to further understand the processing sensitivities of the EUV resist process, TEL and imec have continued their collaborative efforts. For this work, TEL has delivered and installed the state of the art, CLEAN TRACK™ LITHIUS Pro™ -EUV coater/developer to the newly expanded imec 300mm cleanroom in Leuven, Belgium. The exposures detailed in this investigation were performed off-line to the ASML EUV Alpha Demo Tool (ADT) as well as on the inline ADT cluster with CLEAN TRACK™ ACT™ 12 coater/developer. As EUV feature sizes are reduced, is it apparent that there is a need for more precise processing control, as can be demonstrated in the LITHIUS Pro™ -EUV. In previous work from this collaboration1, initial investigations from the ACT™ 12 work showed reasonable results; however, certainly hardware and processing improvements are necessary for manufacturing quality processing performance. This work continues the investigation into CDU and defectivity performance, as well as improvements to the process with novel techniques such as advanced defect reduction (ADR), pattern collapse mitigation with FIRM™Extreme and resolution improvement with tetrabutylammoniumhydroxide (TBAH).

  19. State-of-the-Art Electron Guns and Injector Designs for Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M.M. Todd; A. Ambrosio; H. Bluem; V. Christina; M.D. Cole; M. Falletta; D. Holmes; E. Peterson; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; R. Wong; I. Ben-Zvi; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X.Y. Chang; H. Hahn; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; V. Litvinenko; G.T. McIntyre; T. Nicoletti; J. Rank; T. Rao; J. Scaduto; K.-C. Wu; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; S.V. Benson; E. Daly; D. Douglas; H.F.D. Dylla; L. W. Funk; C. Hernandez-Garcia; J. Hogan; P. Kneisel; J. Mammosser; G. Neil; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble; R.A. Rimmer; C.H. Rode; T. Siggins; T. Whitlach; M. Wiseman; I.E. Campisi; P. Colestock; J.P. Kelley; S.S. Kurennoy; D.C. Nguyen; W. Reass; D. Rees; S.J. Russell; D.L. Schrage; R.L. Wood; D. Janssen; J.W. Lewellen; J.S. Sekutowicz; L.M. Young

    2005-05-01

    A key technology issue of ERL devices for high-power free-electron laser (FEL) and 4th generation light sources is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, high-power injector operation. Ongoing programs that target up to 1 Ampere injector performance at emittance values consistent with the requirements of these applications are described. We consider that there are three possible approaches that could deliver the required performance. The first is a DC photocathode gun and superconducting RF (SRF) booster cryomodule. Such a 750 MHz device is being integrated and will be tested up to 100 mA at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility beginning in 2007. The second approach is a high-current normal-conducting RF photoinjector. A 700 MHz gun will undergo thermal test in 2006 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which, if successful, when equipped with a suitable cathode, would be capable of 1 Ampere operation. The last option is an SRF gun. A half-cell 703 MHz SRF gun capable of delivering 1.0 Ampere will be tested to 0.5 Ampere at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2006. The fabrication status, schedule and projected performance for each of these state-of-the-art injector programs will be presented.

  20. State of the art for the biosorption process--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Witek-Krowiak, Anna

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, biosorption process has become an economic and eco-friendly alternative treatment technology in the water and wastewater industry. In this light, a number of biosorbents were developed and are successfully employed for treating various pollutants including metals, dyes, phenols, fluoride, and pharmaceuticals in solutions (aqueous/oil). However, still there are few technical barriers in the biosorption process that impede its commercialization and thus to overcome these problems there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. This resulted in large numbers of publications and patents each year. This review reports the state of the art in biosorption research. In this review, we provide a compendium of know-how in laboratory methodology, mathematical modeling of equilibrium and kinetics, identification of the biosorption mechanism. Various mathematical models of biosorption were discussed: the process in packed-bed column arrangement, as well as by suspended biomass. Particular attention was paid to patents in biosorption and pilot-scale systems. In addition, we provided future aspects in biosorption research.

  1. A State-of-the-Art Experimental Laboratory for Cloud and Cloud-Aerosol Interaction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremaux, Charles M.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    The state of the art for predicting climate changes due to increasing greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere with high accuracy is problematic. Confidence intervals on current long-term predictions (on the order of 100 years) are so large that the ability to make informed decisions with regard to optimum strategies for mitigating both the causes of climate change and its effects is in doubt. There is ample evidence in the literature that large sources of uncertainty in current climate models are various aerosol effects. One approach to furthering discovery as well as modeling, and verification and validation (V&V) for cloud-aerosol interactions is use of a large "cloud chamber" in a complimentary role to in-situ and remote sensing measurement approaches. Reproducing all of the complex interactions is not feasible, but it is suggested that the physics of certain key processes can be established in a laboratory setting so that relevant fluid-dynamic and cloud-aerosol phenomena can be experimentally simulated and studied in a controlled environment. This report presents a high-level argument for significantly improved laboratory capability, and is meant to serve as a starting point for stimulating discussion within the climate science and other interested communities.

  2. Salter-Harris type II proximal humerus injuries: state-of-the-art treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Pellegrini, Andrea; Lunini, Enricomaria; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Ceccarelli, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Proximal epiphyseal injuries of the humerus represent a very low percentage of traumatic growth pathologies, 5 % of all fractures during childhood. In the literature, there have been only a limited number of clinical studies investigating these injuries, basically from an epidemiological point of view, focusing on the incidence of the different types of fractures. We report our experience of 6 young patients with Salter-Harris type II proximal humerus epiphyseal injuries adopting a minimally invasive surgical technique consisting of closed reduction and percutaneous fixation with Kirschner wires. At 2 years of follow-up, the results consisting in constant; disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand; simple shoulder test; and Visual Analogue Scale scores obtained have been excellent and all the patients come back to a normal life with sports practice and normal daily activities. The range of motion was completely restored without any deficit in abduction-adduction, flection-extension, or intra-extra rotation. No differences in anthropometric parameters were found with no case of malangulation, vascular, or neurological complications. Our data support with evidence how the close reduction internal fixation with K-wires treatment can give to the surgeons and the patients a better security about the correct fracture healing. Furthermore, with this article, we will provide a detailed review of the literature in order to define the state-of-the-art treatment to better face such a challenging skeletal injury.

  3. Culture and Cultural Competence in Nursing Education and Practice: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Linda; Kaddoura, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    The concept of cultural competency has developed a substantial presence in nursing education and practice since first attracting widespread attention in the 1990s. While several theories and corresponding measures of cultural competency have been advanced and tried, much work remains, as many nursing professionals continue to call for greater evidence-based research and attention to patient perspectives and outcomes. Using a method provided by Hawker et al. to appraise articles, this paper compares nine recent (2008-2013) studies (including two composite studies) related to cultural competency, undergraduate curricula, and teaching strategies in nursing to assess the state of the art in this important area of care. The studies applied phenomenological, study abroad, online, and service learning strategies, four of which relied on some version of Campinha-Bacote's IAPCC© model. These studies reported a general improvement in competency among students, though generally only to a level of cultural awareness, and admitted being constrained by several common limitations. Improved results and more realistic expectations in this area may require a closer understanding of the nature of the "culture" that underlies cultural competence. Harkess Kaddoura. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Bivalve Omics: State of the Art and Potential Applications for the Biomonitoring of Harmful Marine Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Venier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary progress experienced by sequencing technologies and bioinformatics has made the development of omic studies virtually ubiquitous in all fields of life sciences nowadays. However, scientific attention has been quite unevenly distributed throughout the different branches of the tree of life, leaving molluscs, one of the most diverse animal groups, relatively unexplored and without representation within the narrow collection of well established model organisms. Within this Phylum, bivalve molluscs play a fundamental role in the functioning of the marine ecosystem, constitute very valuable commercial resources in aquaculture, and have been widely used as sentinel organisms in the biomonitoring of marine pollution. Yet, it has only been very recently that this complex group of organisms became a preferential subject for omic studies, posing new challenges for their integrative characterization. The present contribution aims to give a detailed insight into the state of the art of the omic studies and functional information analysis of bivalve molluscs, providing a timely perspective on the available data resources and on the current and prospective applications for the biomonitoring of harmful marine compounds.

  5. The chemistry and applications of antimicrobial polymers: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenawy, El-Refaie; Worley, S D; Broughton, Roy

    2007-05-01

    Microbial infection remains one of the most serious complications in several areas, particularly in medical devices, drugs, health care and hygienic applications, water purification systems, hospital and dental surgery equipment, textiles, food packaging, and food storage. Antimicrobials gain interest from both academic research and industry due to their potential to provide quality and safety benefits to many materials. However, low molecular weight antimicrobial agents suffer from many disadvantages, such as toxicity to the environment and short-term antimicrobial ability. To overcome problems associated with the low molecular weight antimicrobial agents, antimicrobial functional groups can be introduced into polymer molecules. The use of antimicrobial polymers offers promise for enhancing the efficacy of some existing antimicrobial agents and minimizing the environmental problems accompanying conventional antimicrobial agents by reducing the residual toxicity of the agents, increasing their efficiency and selectivity, and prolonging the lifetime of the antimicrobial agents. Research concerning the development of antimicrobial polymers represents a great a challenge for both the academic world and industry. This article reviews the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers primarily since the last comprehensive review by one of the authors in 1996. In particular, it discusses the requirements of antimicrobial polymers, factors affecting the antimicrobial activities, methods of synthesizing antimicrobial polymers, major fields of applications, and future and perspectives in the field of antimicrobial polymers.

  6. State of the Art in Transfer Functions for Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Ljung, Patric

    2016-07-04

    A central topic in scientific visualization is the transfer function (TF) for volume rendering. The TF serves a fundamental role in translating scalar and multivariate data into color and opacity to express and reveal the relevant features present in the data studied. Beyond this core functionality, TFs also serve as a tool for encoding and utilizing domain knowledge and as an expression for visual design of material appearances. TFs also enable interactive volumetric exploration of complex data. The purpose of this state-of-the-art report (STAR) is to provide an overview of research into the various aspects of TFs, which lead to interpretation of the underlying data through the use of meaningful visual representations. The STAR classifies TF research into the following aspects: dimensionality, derived attributes, aggregated attributes, rendering aspects, automation, and user interfaces. The STAR concludes with some interesting research challenges that form the basis of an agenda for the development of next generation TF tools and methodologies. © 2016 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2016 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Corrected and republished: Suicide in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Vian Nissan; Ahmad, Abdulbaghi

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the, incidence of suicide in Kurdistan has been increasing, especially among females, to a degree it cannot be neglected. Consequently, attention was given to this phenomena and the aggressive method of suicide used by young peoples, especially females, in Kurdistan. In attempt to obtain an objective picture of the frequently media-reported suicide among youths and women in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The responsible authorities and medical service units in the region were visited to collect information, and the available data were explored to produce a state-of-the-art overview on the subject. Because of insufficient documentation and lack of systematic registration, the data on suicide were scattered and difficult to evaluate. However, the findings did confirm that suicide exists as a serious problem in the society in Kurdistan, particularly among females. Urgent attention is demanded from the responsible authorities and organizations concerned in the region. Further research is needed to investigate the exact extent of suicide and its correlates in the society in Kurdistan, in order to plan for effective preventive measures. Burn, Iraq, Kurdistan, Suicide, Young.

  8. Suicide in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Vian Nissan; Ahmad, Abdulbaghi

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the, incidence of suicide in Kurdistan has been increasing, especially among females, to a degree it cannot be neglected. Consequently, attention was given to this phenomena and the aggressive method of suicide used by young peoples, especially females, in Kurdistan. In attempt to obtain an objective picture of the frequently media-reported suicide among youths and women in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The responsible authorities and medical service units in the region were visited to collect information, and the available data were explored to produce a state-of-the-art overview on the subject. Because of insufficient documentation and lack of systematic registration, the data on suicide were scattered and difficult to evaluate. However, the findings did confirm that suicide exists as a serious problem in the society in Kurdistan, particularly among females. Urgent attention is demanded from the responsible authorities and organizations concerned in the region. Further research is needed to investigate the exact extent of suicide and its correlates in the society in Kurdistan, in order to plan for effective preventive measures.

  9. Myoelectric control of prosthetic hands: state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethanjali, Purushothaman

    2016-01-01

    Myoelectric signals (MES) have been used in various applications, in particular, for identification of user intention to potentially control assistive devices for amputees, orthotic devices, and exoskeleton in order to augment capability of the user. MES are also used to estimate force and, hence, torque to actuate the assistive device. The application of MES is not limited to assistive devices, and they also find potential applications in teleoperation of robots, haptic devices, virtual reality, and so on. The myoelectric control-based prosthetic hand aids to restore activities of daily living of amputees in order to improve the self-esteem of the user. All myoelectric control-based prosthetic hands may not have similar operations and exhibit variation in sensing input, deciphering the signals, and actuating prosthetic hand. Researchers are focusing on improving the functionality of prosthetic hand in order to suit the user requirement with the different operating features. The myoelectric control differs in operation to accommodate various external factors. This article reviews the state of the art of myoelectric prosthetic hand, giving description of each control strategy.

  10. The state-of-the-art in the rehabilitation of a PIONEER Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Bledea

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the analysis about the state of stress in the girder of a PIONEER crane with a prescribed vertical loading of 0,75 tones belonging to the thermal power-station Timisoara. The analysis has been performed with a FEA software (COSMOS/M which is able to conduct to important results regarding the map of stress, especially in areas where high stress concentration are present. There have been automatically combined a wide range of finite elements: shell, brick, beam,truss-cable simulating the different zones of the girder. The combination of the most advanced standard components as well the implementation of the modular product concepts and the state-of-the-art regarding the design of cranes must be in a perfect agreement with the state of stress in the metallic structure. In the end, a comparison between the FEA results and the classical calculus with the strength of materials theory has been performed.

  11. Surveillance strategies for colitis-associated cancer: state of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Rath, Timo; Pastorelli, Luca; Vecchi, Maurizio; Neumann, Helmut

    2017-05-01

    Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) represents a concrete risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with long lasting inflammatory bowel diseases. Surveillance colonoscopy is a rapidly evolving research field with profound changes from the traditional approach based on scheduled controls and random biopsy protocols. Areas covered: A literature search was performed using PubMed/Embase to review the latest evidence supporting the need for surveillance colonoscopy. By focusing on the most promising recent advances in this field, we provide a state-of-the-art overview of the current gold standards for the diagnosis and management of colitis-associated dysplasia. Expert commentary: Evidence-based and emerging data have questioned the efficacy and effectiveness of both standard surveillance colonoscopy and random biopsy protocols. The latest guidelines endorse early initiation of surveillance programs, risk-profiling assessment of colonoscopy intervals and standardized use of advanced imaging modalities to detect early dysplasia. Current trends clearly reveal increased attention to direct visualization and endoscopic management of visible dysplastic lesions, even in patients with longstanding colitis. Emerging technological advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy are expected to change the endoscopic surveillance protocols in the near future.

  12. NTF-Conference on Person Transport Models - Summary, State-of-the-art and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker

    modeller-ne. Kapi-tel 4 beskriver en række diskussio-ner ved-rørende kvalitets-sik-ring af data og model-bereg-ninger, herunder brugen af GIS. Kapitel 5 dis-kuterer state-of-the art af prak-tiske modeller i Norden, som det fremgik af kon-ferencen, mens kapitel 6 beskriver for-skellige forskningsmæssige......I de senere år har der i Norden været stigende anvendelse af persontransport-modeller. Dette skyldes blandt andet øget trafik, øget fokus på trafikkens miljøpåvirkning samt en række store nordiske anlægsprojekter og trafikpolitiske tiltag (f.eks. de faste forbindelser i Danmark, Dennis Parketet i...... Stockholm og Road Pricing i Oslo). Nordisk Transport-forsknings Konference om persontransportmodeller kan ses som en konsekvens af denne udvikling. Konferencen fokuserede primært på en række praktiske modelarbejder, omend enkelte indlæg også omhandlede forskning i emnet. En række af diskussionerne og...

  13. English Language Teaching Methods: State of the Art in Grammar Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdiana Junaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of grammar has fluctuated and shifted over years. This paper addresses issues such as different ways of teaching grammar, changes in ideas, and practices at the present stage of its development as well as the current state of the art in grammar instruction. Several grammar textbooks which were published in different years also are looked at in order to discover the extent of change in terms of the materials used to teach grammar from time to time. A considerable array of English language teaching methods is available for teacher to utilize since 1980s. Before deciding to employ a particular method, however, educational practitioners need to take several things into consideration such as the objectives of the instruction, the needs, the interests, the expectation, the age, and the level of the learners, and the available supporting facilities. Equally important, the possible constraints such as the environment where the students are learning, the time, and the expectation of the institution are also needed to be considered.

  14. Advances in wastewater nitrogen removal by biological processes: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the most recent advances in biological nitrogen removal, including process design criteria and technological innovations. With reference to the Modified Ludzck Ettinger (MLE process (pre-denitrification and nitrification in the activated sludge process, the most common nitrogen removal process used nowadays, a new design equation for the denitrification reactor based on specific denitrification rate (SDNR has been proposed. In addition, factors influencing SDNR (DO in the anoxic reactor; hydrodynamic behavior are analyzed, and technological solutions are proposed. Concerning technological advances, the paper presents a summary of various “deammonification” processes, better known by their patent names like ANAMMOX®, DEMON®, CANON®, ANITA® and others. These processes have already found applications in the treatment of high-strength wastewater such as digested sludge liquor and landfill leachate. Among other emerging denitrification technologies, consideration is given to the Membrane Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs that can be operated both in oxidation and reduction mode.

  15. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: State of the Art and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhoff, Julian; Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Bresser, Dominic; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are becoming increasingly important for electrifying the modern transportation system and, thus, hold the promise to enable sustainable mobility in the future. However, their large-scale application is hindered by severe safety concerns when the cells are exposed to mechanical, thermal, or electrical abuse conditions. These safety issues are intrinsically related to their superior energy density, combined with the (present) utilization of highly volatile and flammable organic-solvent-based electrolytes. Herein, state-of-the-art electrolyte systems and potential alternatives are briefly surveyed, with a particular focus on their (inherent) safety characteristics. The challenges, which so far prevent the widespread replacement of organic carbonate-based electrolytes with LiPF6 as the conducting salt, are also reviewed herein. Starting from rather "facile" electrolyte modifications by (partially) replacing the organic solvent or lithium salt and/or the addition of functional electrolyte additives, conceptually new electrolyte systems, including ionic liquids, solvent-free, and/or gelled polymer-based electrolytes, as well as solid-state electrolytes, are also considered. Indeed, the opportunities for designing new electrolytes appear to be almost infinite, which certainly complicates strict classification of such systems and a fundamental understanding of their properties. Nevertheless, these innumerable opportunities also provide a great chance of developing highly functionalized, new electrolyte systems, which may overcome the afore-mentioned safety concerns, while also offering enhanced mechanical, thermal, physicochemical, and electrochemical performance.

  16. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. STATE OF THE ART TECHNIQUES USED FOR NOISE SOURCE IDENTIFICATION ON COMPLEX BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu STOICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, many approaches have been undertaken in order to asses detailed noise source identification on complex bodies, i.e. aircrafts, cars, machinery. Noise source identification implies to accurately obtain the position and frequency of the dominant noise sources. There are cases where traditional testing methods can not be applied at all or their use involves some limitations. Optical systems used for near field analysis require a line of sight that may not be available. The state-of-the-art technology for this purpose is the use of a large number of microphones whose signals are acquired simultaneously, i.e. microphone phased array. Due to the excessive cost of the instruments and the data acquisition system required, the implementation of this technology was restricted to governmental agencies (NASA, DLR and big companies such as Boeing and Airbus. During the past years, this technique was developed in wind tunnels and some universities to perform noise source identification on scale airframes, main landing gear models, and aerodynamic profiles (used on airplanes, helicopter rotors and wind mills.

  18. Survey of the present state of the art of piezoelectric linear motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsel; Wallaschek

    2000-03-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors have been investigated for several years and have already found their first practical applications. Their key feature is that they are able to produce a high thrust force related to their volume. Beside rotary drives like the travelling wave motor, linear drives have also been developed, but only a few are presently commercially available. In the present paper, we first describe the state of the art of linear piezoelectric motors. The motors are characterized with respect to their no-load velocity, maximum thrust force, efficiency and other technical properties. In the second part, we present a new motor, which is judged to be capable of surpassing the characteristics of other piezoelectric motors because of its unique design which allows the piezoelectric drive elements to be pre-stressed in the direction of their polarization. The piezoelectric elements convert energy using the longitudinal d33 effect which allows an improved reliability, large vibration amplitudes and excellent piezoelectric coupling. Energy loss by vibration damping is minimized, and the efficiency can be improved significantly. Experimental results show that the motor characteristics can be optimized for a particular task by choosing the appropriate operating parameters such as exciting voltage, exciting frequency and normal force.

  19. State-of-the-art review of the applications of nanotechnology in pavement materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Luis, Jr.

    The use of nanotechnology in pavement materials is one main area that shows great promise and has the potential to change commonly used materials. This will develop more effective solutions to achieve the desired performance. The overall objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art literature review of nano-science-based principles to improve the performance and, ultimately, the life cycle of transportation construction materials. This work will be organized into two different parts. The first part will consist of six sections: applications of nanotechnology in concrete pavements, applications of nanotechnology in asphalt pavement, application of nanotechnology in general soils, cost-benefit analysis, challenges, and trends to the future. In addition, a current practice review was performed from a literature review that included a questionnaire of the knowledge and opinion about nanotechnology, which included students, general contractors, teachers, engineers, and architects. The second part will deal with the advancement of the application of nanotechnology in pavement materials for different developed countries. Because nanotechnology is relatively a young field in pavement materials, limited research has been conducted in North America, Europe, and Asia. A comparison of the advancement of nano-science-based principles, as applied to the performance and life cycle of transportation materials, for the three continents will be carried out in a summarized manner.

  20. State-of-the-Art Pediatric Hypnosis Training: Remodeling Curriculum and Refining Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Daniel P; Kaiser, Pamela; Olness, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Training in pediatric hypnosis has been part of clinical hypnosis education in the United States since 1976. Workshops expanded over time and are now taught by highly experienced pediatric clinicians across the globe. In 1987, a small vanguard of North American faculty, academic pediatricians, and pediatric psychologists taught a 3-day pediatric hypnosis workshop at the national meeting of the Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics (SDBP). This model of annual tri-level concurrent workshops (introductory, intermediate, and advanced) was sponsored by the SDBP for 24 years. In 2009, the National Pediatric Hypnosis Training Institute (NPHTI) assembled, and in 2010, offered its first annual workshops. This article documents this history of pediatric hypnosis education and describes NPHTI's remodeling and ongoing refinement toward a state-of-the-art curriculum with innovative methodology based upon (1) current research about adult experiential and small group learning; (2) design principles for presentations that maximize adult learning and memory; and (3) evaluations by participants and faculty. These underpinnings-including clinical training videos, individualized learning choices, emphasis on personalized, goal-oriented sessions, and advances in faculty selection, and ongoing development-are applicable to adult training models. Integration of developmental and self-regulation strategies may be more unique to pediatric hypnosis skills training programs. The conclusion proposes expansion of pediatric hypnosis education and elimination of related barriers toward goals that all children learn self-hypnosis (SH) for mind-body health.

  1. State of the art and the dark side of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio; Musarò

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS) is a disorder that involves the degeneration of motor neurons,muscle atrophy,and paralysis.In a few familiar forms of ALS,mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1(SOD1) gene have been held responsible for the degeneration of motor neurons.Nevertheless,after the discovery of the SOD1 mutations no consensus has emerged as to which cells,tissues and pathways are primarily implicated in the pathogenic events that lead to ALS.Ubiquitous overexpression of mutant SOD1 in transgenic animals recapitulates the pathological features of ALS.However,the toxicity of mutant SOD1 is not necessarily limited to the central nervous system.Views about ALS pathogenesis are now enriched by the recent discovery of mutations in a pair of DNA/RNA-binding proteins called TDP-43 and FUS/TLS as causes of familial and sporadic forms of ALS.Although the steps that lead to the pathological state are well defined,several fundamental issues are still controversial:are the motor neurons the first direct targets of ALS;and what is the contribution of non-neuronal cells,if any,to the pathogenesis of ALS?The state of the art of ALS pathogenesis and the open questions are discussed in this review.

  2. Myoelectric control of prosthetic hands: state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethanjali P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purushothaman Geethanjali School of Electrical Engineering Department of Control and Automation VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Myoelectric signals (MES have been used in various applications, in particular, for identification of user intention to potentially control assistive devices for amputees, orthotic devices, and exoskeleton in order to augment capability of the user. MES are also used to estimate force and, hence, torque to actuate the assistive device. The application of MES is not limited to assistive devices, and they also find potential applications in teleoperation of robots, haptic devices, virtual reality, and so on. The myoelectric control-based prosthetic hand aids to restore activities of daily living of amputees in order to improve the self-esteem of the user. All myoelectric control-based prosthetic hands may not have similar operations and exhibit variation in sensing input, deciphering the signals, and actuating prosthetic hand. Researchers are focusing on improving the functionality of prosthetic hand in order to suit the user requirement with the different operating features. The myoelectric control differs in operation to accommodate various external factors. This article reviews the state of the art of myoelectric prosthetic hand, giving description of each control strategy. Keywords: EMG, assistive device, amputee, myoelectric control, electric powered, body ­powered, bioelectric signal control

  3. State-of-the-art risk-based approach to spill contingency planning and risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Etkin, Dagmar [Environmental Research Consulting (United States)], email: etkin@environmental-research.com; Reilly, Timothy [Lighthouse Technical Consultants, Inc (United States); French McCay, Deborah [Applied Science Associates, Inc (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The paper proposes incorporating a comprehensive examination of spill risk into risk management and contingency planning, and applying state-of-the-art modeling tools to evaluate various alternatives for appropriate spill response measures and optimize protective responses. The approach allows spill contingency planners and decision-makers to determine the types of spill scenarios that may occur in a particular location or from a particular source and calculate the probability distribution of the various scenarios. The spill probability information is useful in assessing and putting into perspective the various costs options for spill control systems that will be recommended ultimately. Using advanced modeling tools helps in estimating the potential environmental and socioeconomic consequences of each spill scenario based on location-specific factors over a range of stochastic possibilities, simulating spill scenarios and determining optimal responses and protection strategies. The benefits and costs of various response alternatives and variations in response time can be calculated and modeling tools for training and risk allocation/transfer purposes used.

  4. A review of state-of-the-art processing operations in coal preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noble Aaron; Luttrell Gerald H.

    2015-01-01

    Coal preparation is an integral part of the coal commodity supply chain. This stage of post-mining, pre-utilization beneficiation uses low-cost separation technologies to remove unwanted mineral matter and moisture which hinder the value of the coal product. Coal preparation plants typically employ several parallel circuits of cleaning and dewatering operations, with each circuit designed to optimally treat a specific size range of coal. Recent innovations in coal preparation have increased the efficiency and capac-ity of individual unit operations while reinforcing the standard parallel cleaning approach. This article, which describes the historical influences and state-of-the-art design for the various coal preparation unit operations, is organized to distinguish between coarse/intermediate coal cleaning and fine/ultrafine coal cleaning. Size reduction, screening, classification, cleaning, dewatering, waste disposal unit operations are particularly highlighted, with a special focus on the U.S. design philosophy. Notable differences between the U.S. and international operations are described as appropriate.

  5. Exploration of dual supply voltage logic synthesis in state-of-the-art ASIC design flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mahnke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual supply voltage scaling (DSVS for logiclevel power optimization at the has increasingly attracted attention over the last few years. However, mainly due to the fact that the most widely used design tools do not support this new technique, it has still not become an integral part of real-world design flows. In this paper, a novel logic synthesis methodology that enables DSVS while relying entirely on standard tools is presented. The key to this methodology is a suitably modeled dual supply voltage (DSV standard cell library. A basic evaluation of the methodology has been carried out on a number of MCNC benchmark circuits. In all these experiments, the results of state-of-the-art powerdriven single supply voltage (SSV logic synthesis have been used as references in order to determine the true additional benefit of DSVS. Compared with the results of SSV power optimization, additional power reductions of 10% on average have been achieved. The results prove the feasibility of the new approach and reveal its greater efficiency in comparison with a well-known dedicated DSVS algorithm. Finally, the methodology has been applied to an embedded microcontroller core in order to further explore the potentials and limitations of DSVS in an existing industrial design environment.

  6. Human health risk assessment related to contaminated land: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartjes, F A

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools.

  7. Perception for mobile robot navigation: A survey of the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, David

    1994-01-01

    In order for mobile robots to navigate safely in unmapped and dynamic environments they must perceive their environment and decide on actions based on those perceptions. There are many different sensing modalities that can be used for mobile robot perception; the two most popular are ultrasonic sonar sensors and vision sensors. This paper examines the state-of-the-art in sensory-based mobile robot navigation. The first issue in mobile robot navigation is safety. This paper summarizes several competing sonar-based obstacle avoidance techniques and compares them. Another issue in mobile robot navigation is determining the robot's position and orientation (sometimes called the robot's pose) in the environment. This paper examines several different classes of vision-based approaches to pose determination. One class of approaches uses detailed, a prior models of the robot's environment. Another class of approaches triangulates using fixed, artificial landmarks. A third class of approaches builds maps using natural landmarks. Example implementations from each of these three classes are described and compared. Finally, the paper presents a completely implemented mobile robot system that integrates sonar-based obstacle avoidance with vision-based pose determination to perform a simple task.

  8. State-of-the-Art Report on Pilot Operated Safety Relief Valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun; Yoon, Ju Hyeon

    2003-12-15

    The pilot operated safety relief valve(POSRV) is a overpressure protection device. But the POSRV is additionally designed to be functioned as a fast depressurization device differently from the pressurizer safety valve(PSV). So, the POSRV assembly takes on the complicated configuration differently from the PSV, and also its configuration and component parts are much different according to its manufacturers. The objective of the study is to investigate the state of the art for POSRV. We want that the findings of the study are put to practical use as a selection guide to the utilities or system designers which want to purchase the POSRV. In this study, we selected the SEBIM and CCI made goods as the subject of investigation, and have investigated the technical characteristics and operating principles of the goods. However, in this report, the comparative contents with other company which were issued by one company were not handled. Also the advantages or disadvantages between two companies were not handled. Only the technical characteristics and operating principles with each company were described. For reference, the main considerations to select the POSRV' type are follows. - the characteristics of the system that the POSRV is to be installed - the fitness of the POSRV for the system - the requirements related to the function and operation of the POSRV - the vender's opinion.

  9. Neurofeedback therapy for enhancing visual attention: state-of-the-art and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ordikhani-Seyedlar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have witnessed a rapid development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs linking the brain to external devices. BCIs can be utilized to treat neurological conditions and even to augment brain functions. BCIs offer a promising treatment for mental disorders, including disorders of attention. Here we review the current state of the art and challenges of attention-based BCIs, with a focus on visual attention. Attention-based BCIs utilize electroencephalograms (EEGs or other recording techniques to generate neurofeedback, which patients use to improve their attention, a complex cognitive function. Although progress has been made in the studies of neural mechanisms of attention, extraction of attention-related neural signals needed for BCI operations is a difficult problem. To attain good BCI performance, it is important to select the features of neural activity that represent attentional signals. BCI decoding of attention-related activity may be hindered by the presence of different neural signals. Therefore, BCI accuracy can be improved by signal processing algorithms that dissociate signals of interest from irrelevant activities. Notwithstanding recent progress, optimal processing of attentional neural signals remains a fundamental challenge for the development of efficient therapies for disorders of attention.

  10. Combining Brain-Computer Interfaces and Assistive Technologies: State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José del R. Millán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, new research has brought the field of EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfacing (BCI out of its infancy and into a phase of relative maturity through many demonstrated prototypes such as brain-controlled wheelchairs, keyboards, and computer games. With this proof-of-concept phase in the past, the time is now ripe to focus on the development of practical BCI technologies that can be brought out of the lab and into real-world applications. In particular, we focus on the prospect of improving the lives of countless disabled individuals through a combination of BCI technology with existing assistive technologies (AT. In pursuit of more practical BCIs for use outside of the lab, in this paper, we identify four application areas where disabled individuals could greatly benefit from advancements in BCI technology, namely,“Communication & Control”, “Motor Substitution”, “Entertainment”, and “Motor Recovery”. We review the current state of the art and possible future developments, while discussing the main research issues in these four areas. In particular, we expect the most progress in the development of technologies such as hybrid BCI architectures, user-machine adaptation algorithms, the exploitation of users’ mental states for BCI reliability and confidence measures, the incorporation of principles in human-computer interaction (HCI to improve BCI usability, and the development of novel BCI technology including better EEG devices.

  11. Retinal imaging in the twenty-first century: state of the art and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Pearse A; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of chorioretinal disease is dependent on the ability to visualize pathologic changes occurring in the posterior segment of the eye using optical instruments, termed ophthalmoscopy. Ophthalmoscopy, in turn, has been enhanced greatly by the development of techniques that allow recording of these changes, termed retinal imaging. As well as documenting pathologic features, retinal and fundal imaging facilitates the identification of morphologic features not visible to the clinician on biomicroscopy. As such, advances in retinal imaging have proven fundamental to many paradigm shifts in our understanding and treatment of ocular disease. In the 1950s, with the advent of electronic flashes and 35-mm cameras, the field of modern fundus photography was born. Similarly, in the 1960s and 1970s, the introduction of fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography revolutionized our ability to assess the integrity of the chorioretinal vasculature. More recently, in the 1990s, the introduction of a wholly new form of noninvasive cross-sectional imaging, optical coherence tomography, has greatly facilitated use of emerging pharmacotherapies in diagnosing and monitoring chorioretinal disease. In this translational science review, we provide an overview of current, state-of-the-art retinal imaging technologies, as well as highlight many emerging imaging technologies that we believe are likely to transform the provision of eye care in the 21st century.

  12. Combining Brain-Computer Interfaces and Assistive Technologies: State-of-the-Art and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, J D R; Rupp, R; Müller-Putz, G R; Murray-Smith, R; Giugliemma, C; Tangermann, M; Vidaurre, C; Cincotti, F; Kübler, A; Leeb, R; Neuper, C; Müller, K-R; Mattia, D

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, new research has brought the field of electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interfacing (BCI) out of its infancy and into a phase of relative maturity through many demonstrated prototypes such as brain-controlled wheelchairs, keyboards, and computer games. With this proof-of-concept phase in the past, the time is now ripe to focus on the development of practical BCI technologies that can be brought out of the lab and into real-world applications. In particular, we focus on the prospect of improving the lives of countless disabled individuals through a combination of BCI technology with existing assistive technologies (AT). In pursuit of more practical BCIs for use outside of the lab, in this paper, we identify four application areas where disabled individuals could greatly benefit from advancements in BCI technology, namely, "Communication and Control", "Motor Substitution", "Entertainment", and "Motor Recovery". We review the current state of the art and possible future developments, while discussing the main research issues in these four areas. In particular, we expect the most progress in the development of technologies such as hybrid BCI architectures, user-machine adaptation algorithms, the exploitation of users' mental states for BCI reliability and confidence measures, the incorporation of principles in human-computer interaction (HCI) to improve BCI usability, and the development of novel BCI technology including better EEG devices.

  13. Non-invasive techniques for measuring body composition: state of the art and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  14. A state-of-the-art report on the development of liquid metal reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yung Suk; Noh, Kye Hoh; Han, Jung Hoh; Park, Jee Yun; Lee, Duk Hyun; Suh, Jung Hoon; Park, Kee Sung; Jung, Choong Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    A state-of-the are survey on the LMR materials - core and structural materials and the others - has been conducted. For core materials, ferritic steels with superior swelling resistance such as HT-9 or PNC-FMS and the ODS steels are found to be one of the best candidates for the cladding and wrapper tubes, respectively. As boron carbide presently used for a neutron absorber also needs to extend its life time, much attention is now being paid to the development of a coated pellets and a kind of cermet made of boron carbide and metal in order to eliminate the control rod failure. As structural materials for pressure vessel, pipe and steam generator, the 316 MN SS with lower carbon and medium nitrogen compared to the 316 SS and 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steels are well recommended, respectively. The inelastic analytical model and the evaluation methodology to predict creep fatigue life time have been reviewed. On the other hand, a state of the art survey on the EMP coil/insulator materials has been conducted and the feasibility of the functionally gradient materials such as ZrO2-304 SS has also been investigated. 89 figs., 34 tabs., 131 refs. (Author).

  15. Carbon/Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: State of the Art and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinming; Lv, Zheng; Zhu, Hongwei

    2015-11-01

    In the last few decades, advances and breakthroughs of carbon materials have been witnessed in both scientific fundamentals and potential applications. The combination of carbon materials with traditional silicon semiconductors to fabricate solar cells has been a promising field of carbon science. The power conversion efficiency has reached 15-17% with an astonishing speed, and the diversity of systems stimulates interest in further research. Here, the historical development and state-of-the-art carbon/silicon heterojunction solar cells are covered. Firstly, the basic concept and mechanism of carbon/silicon solar cells are introduced with a specific focus on solar cells assembled with carbon nanotubes and graphene due to their unique structures and properties. Then, several key technologies with special electrical and optical designs are introduced to improve the cell performance, such as chemical doping, interface passivation, anti-reflection coatings, and textured surfaces. Finally, potential pathways and opportunities based on the carbon/silicon heterojunction are envisaged. The aspects discussed here may enable researchers to better understand the photovoltaic effect of carbon/silicon heterojunctions and to optimize the design of graphene-based photodevices for a wide range of applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Accuracy of State-of-the-Art Actuator-Line Modeling for Wind Turbine Wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Pankaj; Churchfield, Matthew; Moriarty, Patrick; Schmitz, Sven

    2013-01-14

    The current actuator line method (ALM) within an OpenFOAM computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver was used to perform simulations of the NREL Phase VI rotor under rotating and parked conditions, two fixed-wing designs both with an elliptic spanwise loading, and the NREL 5-MW turbine. The objective of this work is to assess and improve the accuracy of the state-of-the-art ALM in predicting rotor blade loads, particularly by focusing on the method used to project the actuator forces onto the flow field as body forces. Results obtained for sectional normal and tangential force coefficients were compared to available experimental data and to the in-house performance code XTurb-PSU. It was observed that the ALM results agree well with measured data and results obtained from XTurb-PSU except in the root and tip regions if a three-dimensional Gaussian of width, ε, constant along the blade span is used to project the actuator force onto the flow field. A new method is proposed where the Gaussian width, ε, varies along the blade span following an elliptic distribution. A general criterion is derived that applies to any planform shape. It is found that the new criterion for ε leads to improved prediction of blade tip loads for a variety of blade planforms and rotor conditions considered.

  17. Model-Based PAT for Quality Management in Pharmaceuticals Freeze-Drying: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissore, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Model-based process analytical technologies can be used for the in-line control and optimization of a pharmaceuticals freeze-drying process, as well as for the off-line design of the process, i.e., the identification of the optimal operating conditions. This paper aims at presenting the state of the art in this field, focusing, particularly, on three groups of systems, namely, those based on the temperature measurement (i.e., the soft sensor), on the chamber pressure measurement (i.e., the systems based on the test of pressure rise and of pressure decrease), and on the sublimation flux estimate (i.e., the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and the valveless monitoring system). The application of these systems for in-line process optimization (e.g., using a model predictive control algorithm) and to get a true quality by design (e.g., through the off-line calculation of the design space of the process) is presented and discussed. PMID:28224123

  18. Proton Therapy At Siteman Cancer Center: The State Of The Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Charles

    2011-06-01

    Barnes-Jewish Hospital is on the verge of offering proton radiation therapy to its patients. Those treatments will be delivered from the first Monarch 250, a state-of-the-art cyclotron produced by Still River Systems, Inc., Littleton, MA. The accelerator is the world's first superconducting synchrocyclotron, with a field-strength of 10 tesla, providing the smallest accelerator for high-energy protons currently available. On May 14, 2010 it was announced that the first production unit had successfully extracted 250 MeV protons. That unit is scheduled for delivery to the Siteman Cancer Center, an NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center at Washington University School of Medicine. At a weight of 20 tons and with a diameter of less than 2 meters the compact cyclotron will be mounted on a gantry, another first for proton therapy systems. The single-energy system includes 3 contoured scatterers and 14 different range modulators to provide 24 distinct beam delivery configurations. This allows proton fields up to 25 cm in diameter, with a maximum range from 5.5 to 32 cm and spread-out-Bragg-peak extent up to 20 cm. Monte Carlo simulations have been run using MCNPX to simulate the clinical beam properties. Those calculations have been used to commission a commercial treatment planning system prior to final clinical measurements. MCNPX was also used to calculate the neutron background generated by protons in the scattering system and patient. Additional details of the facility and current status will be presented.

  19. Low temperature measurements of state-of-the-art concentrator solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, Valery D.; Chekalin, Alexander V.; Malevskiy, Dmitry A.; Shvarts, Maxim Z.; Andreev, Valery M.

    2015-09-01

    Knowing the temperature behavior of the photovoltaic parameters in multi-junction (MJ) solar cells (SCs) can give information suitable for comparing different cell structures and for estimating a potential of their operation in various environmental conditions. As a rule, the cell structures are designed specifically for terrestrial (with high sunlight concentration), or space (sometimes with relatively low concentration) applications, differing in certain, but not principal, details. Structural improvements introduced in one of the cell types may highlight the effective ways for improvements applicable for another cell type. In this work, a set of the state-of-the-art concentrator triple-junction SCs were investigated to analyze the influence of temperature in a very wide range of -170 ≤ T ≤ +85°C, together with the sunlight concentration ratio variation, on the cell performance. In particular, the PV conversion efficiencies as high as 50 - 52% (AM1.5d) have been measured in the temperature range of -120 - -150°C for the sunlight concentration ratios of C = 50 - 300 suns. Such investigations may be regarded as a tool for revealing the presence of the "parasitic" built-in energy barriers at cell structure optimization.

  20. State of the art of solid state dosimetry; Estado da arte em dosimetria do estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Susana O., E-mail: sosouza@ufs.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Yamamoto, Takayoshi [Radioisotope Research Center, Osaka University (Japan); D' Errico, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.derrico@yale.edu [Yale University, School of Medicine, CT (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Passive solid-state detectors still dominate the personal dosimetry field. This article provides state of the art in this field and summarizes the most recent works presented on TL, OSL and RPL during the 17th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry held in Recife in September 2013. The Article contains in particular the techniques Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radio photoluminescence (RPL). Thermoluminescence has the biggest advantage of the wide availability of commercial materials for dosimetry, and the nature tissue-equivalent of several of these materials. The limitation of the TL dosimetry presents fading luminance signal and the need for high temperatures to obtain the signal. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence has the advantages of high sensitivity, the possibility of multiple reading, while its limit is the need to use response compensating filters in addition to the high cost of equipment and dosimeters still restricted very few options trading . The radio photoluminescence has a reading that is completely non-destructive, but their dosimeters present lack of tissue-equivalent and a high cost. Presents the details of the techniques and the advantages and limitations of each of these will be discussed.

  1. Laser-accelerated high-energy ions: state of-the-art and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghesi, M [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Fuchs, J [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Willi, O [Institut fuer Laser-und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-03-01

    The acceleration of high-energy ion beams (up to several tens of MeV per nucleon) following the interaction of short (t < 1ps) and intense (I{lambda}{sup 2}> 10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2} {mu}m{sup -2}) laser pulses with solid targets has been one of the most important results of recent laser-plasma research. The acceleration is driven by relativistic electrons, which acquire energy directly from the laser pulse and set up extremely large ({approx}TV/m) space charge fields at the target interfaces. In view of a number of advantageous properties, laser-driven ion beams can be employed in a number of innovative applications in the scientific, technological and medical areas. Among these, their possible use in hadrontherapy, with potential reduction of facility costs, has been proposed recently. This paper will briefly review the current state-of-the-art in laser-driven proton/ion source development, and will discuss the progress needed in order to implement some of the above applications. Recent results relating to the optimization of beam energy, spectrum and collimation will be presented.

  2. State-of-the-art hydrogen sulfide control for geothermal energy systems: 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, F.B.; Hill, J.H.; Phelps, P.L. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Existing state-of-the-art technologies for removal of hydrogen sulfide are discussed along with a comparative assessment of their efficiencies, reliabilities and costs. Other related topics include the characteristics of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated resources, energy conversion systems, and the sources of hydrogen sulfide emissions. It is indicated that upstream control technologies are preferred over downsteam technologies primarily because upstream removal of hydrogen sulfide inherently controls all downstream emissions including steam-stacking. Two upstream processes for vapor-dominated resources appear promising; the copper sulfate (EIC) process, and the steam converter (Coury) process combined with an off-gas abatement system such as a Stretford unit. For liquid-dominated systems that produce steam, the process where the non-condensible gases are scrubbed with spent geothermal fluid appears to be promising. An efficient downstream technology is the Stretford process for non-condensible gas removal. In this case, partitioning in the surface condenser will determine the overall abatement efficiency. Recommendations for future environmental control technology programs are included.

  3. State of the art and new developments in molecular diagnostics for hemoglobinopathies in multiethnic societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, C L

    2014-02-01

    For detecting carriers of thalassemia traits, the basic part of diagnostics consists of measurement of the hematological indices followed by mostly automatic separation and measurement of the Hb fractions, while direct Hb separation either on high pressure liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis is sufficient to putatively identify carriers of the common Hb variants like HbS, C, E, D, and O-Arab. A putative positive result is reported together with an advice for parents, partner, or family analysis. For couples, presumed at-risk confirmation at the DNA level is essential. In general, this part of diagnostics is done in specialized centers provided with sufficient experience and the technical tools needed to combine hematological and biochemical interpretation with identification of the mutations at the molecular level. State-of-the-art tools are usually available in centers that also provide prenatal diagnosis and should consist of gap-PCR for the common deletions, direct DNA sequencing for all kind of point-mutations and the capacity to uncover novel or rare mutations or disease mechanisms. New developments are MLPA for large and eventually unknown deletion defects and microarray technology for fine mapping and primer design for breakpoint analysis. Gap-PCR primers designed in the region flanking the deletion breakpoints can subsequently be used to facilitate carrier detection of uncommon deletions in family members or isolated populations in laboratories where no microarray technology or MLPA is available.

  4. Comparative study of state-of-the-art myoelectric controllers for multigrasp prosthetic hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L. Segil, MS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A myoelectric controller should provide an intuitive and effective human-machine interface that deciphers user intent in real-time and is robust enough to operate in daily life. Many myoelectric control architectures have been developed, including pattern recognition systems, finite state machines, and more recently, postural control schemes. Here, we present a comparative study of two types of finite state machines and a postural control scheme using both virtual and physical assessment procedures with seven nondisabled subjects. The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP was used in order to compare the effectiveness of the controllers during activities of daily living using a multigrasp artificial hand. Also, a virtual hand posture matching task was used to compare the controllers when reproducing six target postures. The performance when using the postural control scheme was significantly better (p < 0.05 than when using the finite state machines during the physical assessment when comparing within-subject averages using the SHAP percent difference metric. The virtual assessment results described significantly greater completion rates (97% and 99% for the finite state machines, but the movement time tended to be faster (2.7 s for the postural control scheme. Our results substantiate that postural control schemes rival other state-of-the-art myoelectric controllers.

  5. Flow cytometry for the assessment of animal sperm integrity and functionality: state of the art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Sharoare Hossain; Anders Johannisson; Margareta Wallgren; Szabolcs Nagy; Amanda Pimenta Siqueira; Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometry is now a recognized methodology within animal spermatology, and has moved from being a research tool to become routine in the assessment of animal semen destined to breeding. The availability of 'bench-top' flow cytometers and of newer and versatile markers for cell structure and function had allowed the instrumentation to measure more sperm parameters, from viability to reactiveness when exposed to exogenous stimuli, and to increase our capabilities to sort spermatozoa for potential fertilizing capacity, or chromosomal sex. The present review summarizes the state of the art regarding flow cytometry applied to animal andrology, albeit keeping an open comparative intent. It critically evaluates the present and future capabilities of flow cytometry for the diagnostics of potential fertility and for the development of current reproductive technologies such as sperm freezing, sperm selection and sperm sorting. The flow cytometry methods will probably further revolutionize our understanding of the sperm physiology and their functionality, and will undoubtedly extend its application in isolating many uncharacterized features of spermatozoa. However, continuous follow-up of the methods is a necessity owing to technical developments and the complexity of mapping spermatozoa.

  6. State-of-the-art exposure chamber for highly controlled and reproducible THz biological effects studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna, Cesario Z.; Elam, David P.; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Sloan, Mark A.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

    2014-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used at international airports for security screening purposes and at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis. The emergence of new THz applications has directly resulted in an increased interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range. Knowledge of THz biological effects is also desired for the safe use of THz systems, identification of health hazards, and development of empirically-based safety standards. In this study, we developed a state-of-the-art exposure chamber that allowed for highly controlled and reproducible studies of THz biological effects. This innovative system incorporated an industry grade cell incubator system that permitted a highly controlled exposure environment, where temperatures could be maintained at 37 °C +/- 0.1 °C, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels at 5% +/- 0.1%, and relative humidity (RH) levels at 95% +/- 1%. To maximize the THz power transmitted to the cell culture region inside the humid incubator, a secondary custom micro-chamber was fabricated and incorporated into the system. This micro-chamber shields the THz beam from the incubator environment and could be nitrogen-purged to eliminate water absorption effects. Additionally, a microscope that allowed for real-time visualization of the live cells before, during, and after THz exposure was integrated into the exposure system.

  7. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Cells for Bone Regereneration: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Barba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue represents a hot topic in regenerative medicine because of the tissue source abundance, the relatively easy retrieval, and the inherent biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells residing in its stroma. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs are indeed multipotent somatic stem cells exhibiting growth kinetics and plasticity, proved to induce efficient tissue regeneration in several biomedical applications. A defined consensus for their isolation, classification, and characterization has been very recently achieved. In particular, bone tissue reconstruction and regeneration based on ASCs has emerged as a promising approach to restore structure and function of bone compromised by injury or disease. ASCs have been used in combination with osteoinductive biomaterial and/or osteogenic molecules, in either static or dynamic culture systems, to improve bone regeneration in several animal models. To date, few clinical trials on ASC-based bone reconstruction have been concluded and proved effective. The aim of this review is to dissect the state of the art on ASC use in bone regenerative applications in the attempt to provide a comprehensive coverage of the topics, from the basic laboratory to recent clinical applications.

  8. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, M V; Leino, O; Kollanus, V; Tuomisto, J T; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Kalogeras, N; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Tijhuis, M J; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    Environmental health assessment covers a broad area: virtually all systematic analysis to support decision making on issues relevant to environment and health. Consequently, various different approaches have been developed and applied for different needs within the broad field. In this paper we explore the plurality of approaches and attempt to reveal the state-of-the-art in environmental health assessment by characterizing and explicating the similarities and differences between them. A diverse, yet concise, set of approaches to environmental health assessment is analyzed in terms of nine attributes: purpose, problem owner, question, answer, process, use, interaction, performance and establishment. The conclusions of the analysis underline the multitude and complexity of issues in environmental health assessment as well as the variety of perspectives taken to address them. In response to the challenges, a tendency towards developing and applying more inclusive, pragmatic and integrative approaches can be identified. The most interesting aspects of environmental health assessment are found among these emerging approaches: (a) increasing engagement between assessment and management as well as stakeholders, (b) strive for framing assessments according to specific practical policy needs, (c) integration of multiple benefits and risks, as well as (d) explicit incorporation of both scientific facts and value statements in assessment. However, such approaches are yet to become established, and many contemporary mainstream environmental health assessment practices can still be characterized as relatively traditional risk assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental Impact on DNA Methylation in the Germline: State of the Art and Gaps of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pacchierotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epigenome consists of chemical changes in DNA and chromatin that without modifying the DNA sequence modulate gene expression and cellular phenotype. The epigenome is highly plastic and reacts to changing external conditions with modifications that can be inherited to daughter cells and across generations. Whereas this innate plasticity allows for adaptation to a changing environment, it also implies the potential of epigenetic derailment leading to so-called epimutations. DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic mark. DNA methylation changes have been associated with cancer, infertility, cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, immunologic, and neurodegenerative pathologies. Experiments in rodents demonstrate that exposure to a variety of chemical stressors, occurring during the prenatal or the adult life, may induce DNA methylation changes in germ cells, which may be transmitted across generations with phenotypic consequences. An increasing number of human biomonitoring studies show environmentally related DNA methylation changes mainly in blood leukocytes, whereas very few data have been so far collected on possible epigenetic changes induced in the germline, even by the analysis of easily accessible sperm. In this paper, we review the state of the art on factors impinging on DNA methylation in the germline, highlight gaps of knowledge, and propose priorities for future studies.

  10. Microemulsion systems containing bioactive natural oils: an overview on the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier-Junior, F H; Vauthier, C; Morais, A R V; Alencar, E N; Egito, E S T

    2017-05-01

    Natural oils are extremely complex mixtures containing compounds of different chemical nature. Some of them have physiological or therapeutic activities that may act either alone or in synergy. Therefore, they are used in the pharmaceutical, agronomic, food, sanitary and cosmetic industries. Today, the interest in bioactive natural oils is growing due to their immense potential to prevent and treat numerous human diseases. Formulation in microemulsions (MEs) containing natural oils appeared suitable to improve pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical properties of bioactive compound derivatives from these oils. Microemulsion systems are thermodynamically stable, transparent, and are isotropic dispersions consisting of oil and water stabilized by an interfacial film of surfactants, typically in combination with a cosurfactant. They can protect labile compounds from premature degradation, control release, increase solubility and hence enhance the bioavailability of poorly bioavailable compounds. The aim of this work was to review the various advantages of bioactive compounds presented in natural oil loaded ME systems to be used as delivery systems. First, the state of the art of the parameters involved in the ME formation, including the basic concepts of the physicochemical formulation of the ME systems, and the main aspects of production and the energy responsible for their formation were reported. The second section describes the use of ME systems and reviews the recent applications of natural oil-loaded in the ME systems as the bioactive compound in the formulation.

  11. White biotechnology: State of the art strategies for the development of biocatalysts for biorefining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heux, S; Meynial-Salles, I; O'Donohue, M J; Dumon, C

    2015-12-01

    White biotechnology is a term that is now often used to describe the implementation of biotechnology in the industrial sphere. Biocatalysts (enzymes and microorganisms) are the key tools of white biotechnology, which is considered to be one of the key technological drivers for the growing bioeconomy. Biocatalysts are already present in sectors such as the chemical and agro-food industries, and are used to manufacture products as diverse as antibiotics, paper pulp, bread or advanced polymers. This review proposes an original and global overview of highly complementary fields of biotechnology at both enzyme and microorganism level. A certain number of state of the art approaches that are now being used to improve the industrial fitness of biocatalysts particularly focused on the biorefinery sector are presented. The first part deals with the technologies that underpin the development of industrial biocatalysts, notably the discovery of new enzymes and enzyme improvement using directed evolution techniques. The second part describes the toolbox available by the cell engineer to shape the metabolism of microorganisms. And finally the last part focuses on the 'omic' technologies that are vital for understanding and guide microbial engineering toward more efficient microbial biocatalysts. Altogether, these techniques and strategies will undoubtedly help to achieve the challenging task of developing consolidated bioprocessing (i.e. CBP) readily available for industrial purpose.

  12. [Genetically modified plants and food safety. State of the art and discussion in the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauzu, M

    2004-09-01

    Placing genetically modified (GM) plants and derived products on the European Union's (EU) market has been regulated by a Community Directive since 1990. This directive was complemented by a regulation specific for genetically modified and other novel foods in 1997. Specific labelling requirements have been applicable for GM foods since 1998. The law requires a pre-market safety assessment for which criteria have been elaborated and continuously adapted in accordance with the state of the art by national and international bodies and organisations. Consequently, only genetically modified products that have been demonstrated to be as safe as their conventional counterparts can be commercialized. However, the poor acceptance of genetically modified foods has led to a de facto moratorium since 1998. It is based on the lack of a qualified majority of EU member states necessary for authorization to place genetically modified plants and derived foods on the market. New Community Regulations are intended to end this moratorium by providing a harmonized and transparent safety assessment, a centralised authorization procedure, extended labelling provisions and a traceability system for genetically modified organisms (GMO) and derived food and feed.

  13. Dengue therapeutics, chemoprophylaxis, and allied tools: state of the art and future directions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Whitehorn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most common arboviral disease of humans. There is an unmet need for a therapeutic intervention that reduces the duration and severity of dengue symptoms and diminishes the likelihood of severe complications. To this end, there are active discovery efforts in industry and academia to develop interventions, with a focus on small molecule inhibitors of dengue virus replication that are suitable for therapy or chemoprophylaxis. Advancements in animal models of dengue virus infection together with the possibility of a dengue human infection model have further enhanced the platform for dengue drug discovery. Whilst drug discovery efforts gestate, there are ongoing clinical research designed to benefit today's patients, including trials of supportive care interventions, and descriptive studies that should improve the ability of clinicians to make an accurate diagnosis early in the illness course and to identify patients most at risk of progression to severe disease. This review provides a state of the art summary of dengue drug discovery, clinical trials, and supportive allied research and reflects discussions at the 2nd International Dengue Therapeutics Workshop held in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, in December 2013.

  14. Non-invasive brain stimulation of the aging brain: State of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatti, Elisa; Rossi, Simone; Innocenti, Iglis; Rossi, Alessandro; Santarnecchi, Emiliano

    2016-08-01

    Favored by increased life expectancy and reduced birth rate, worldwide demography is rapidly shifting to older ages. The golden age of aging is not only an achievement but also a big challenge because of the load of the elderly on social and medical health care systems. Moreover, the impact of age-related decline of attention, memory, reasoning and executive functions on self-sufficiency emphasizes the need of interventions to maintain cognitive abilities at a useful degree in old age. Recently, neuroscientific research explored the chance to apply Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NiBS) techniques (as transcranial electrical and magnetic stimulation) to healthy aging population to preserve or enhance physiologically-declining cognitive functions. The present review will update and address the current state of the art on NiBS in healthy aging. Feasibility of NiBS techniques will be discussed in light of recent neuroimaging (either structural or functional) and neurophysiological models proposed to explain neural substrates of the physiologically aging brain. Further, the chance to design multidisciplinary interventions to maximize the efficacy of NiBS techniques will be introduced as a necessary future direction.

  15. Stochastic programming the state of the art in honor of George B. Dantzig

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    From the Preface… The preparation of this book started in 2004, when George B. Dantzig and I, following a long-standing invitation by Fred Hillier to contribute a volume to his International Series in Operations Research and Management Science, decided finally to go ahead with editing a volume on stochastic programming. The field of stochastic programming (also referred to as optimization under uncertainty or planning under uncertainty) had advanced significantly in the last two decades, both theoretically and in practice. George Dantzig and I felt that it would be valuable to showcase some of these advances and to present what one might call the state-of- the-art of the field to a broader audience. We invited researchers whom we considered to be leading experts in various specialties of the field, including a few representatives of promising developments in the making, to write a chapter for the volume. Unfortunately, to the great loss of all of us, George Dantzig passed away on May 13, 2005. Encouraged by...

  16. Dogs'olfactory diagnostics applied on human species: state of the art and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, B; Nardo, B; Lippi, G; Palmieri, L; Vadalà, M; Laurino, C

    2016-01-01

    Dogs'smell ability is about 10000-100000 more developed than humans' one. Dogs smell is usually exploited in forensic medicine, to find missing people and specific substances showing peculiar sensorial features. In clinic, there is the possibility to take advantage of dogs smell, which are conveniently trained, for the screening of cancers and other diseases. The common feature is the presence of molecules in organic samples that may be considered as biomarkers of a specific pathology. In cancer, scientific evidences exist about screening of melanoma, lung, breast, rectum, ovarian, prostate and bladder cancer. Instead, other pathologies manifest the presence of organic volatile compounds in biologic materials, such as spit, faeces and urine that may be studied by dogs smell in order to identify the presence of a specific disease. This review shows the state of the art of actual dogs' olfactory ability based on scientific principles and the advantages and the disadvantages of this method. The authors also reveal some potential pathologies joined by the presence of organic volatile compounds, which may be investigated by dogs smell.

  17. Nanoscale surface modifications of medically relevant metals: state-of-the art and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variola, Fabio; Brunski, John B.; Orsini, Giovanna; Tambasco de Oliveira, Paulo; Wazen, Rima; Nanci, Antonio

    2011-02-01

    Evidence that nanoscale surface properties stimulate and guide various molecular and biological processes at the implant/tissue interface is fostering a new trend in designing implantable metals. Cutting-edge expertise and techniques drawn from widely separated fields, such as nanotechnology, materials engineering and biology, have been advantageously exploited to nanoengineer surfaces in ways that control and direct these processes in predictable manners. In this review, we present and discuss the state-of-the-art of nanotechnology-based approaches currently adopted to modify the surface of metals used for orthopedic and dental applications, and also briefly consider their use in the cardiovascular field. The effects of nanoengineered surfaces on various in vitro molecular and cellular events are firstly discussed. This review also provides an overview of in vivo and clinical studies with nanostructured metallic implants, and addresses the potential influence of nanotopography on biomechanical events at interfaces. Ultimately, the objective of this work is to give the readership a comprehensive picture of the current advances, future developments and challenges in the application of the infinitesimally small to biomedical surface science. We believe that an integrated understanding of the in vitro and particularly of the in vivo behavior is mandatory for the proper exploitation of nanostructured implantable metals and, indeed, of all biomaterials.

  18. Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: State of the art and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseti, Livia; Parisi, Valentina; Petretta, Mauro; Cavallo, Carola; Desando, Giovanna; Bartolotti, Isabella; Grigolo, Brunella

    2017-09-01

    This review is intended to give a state of the art description of scaffold-based strategies utilized in Bone Tissue Engineering. Numerous scaffolds have been tested in the orthopedic field with the aim of improving cell viability, attachment, proliferation and homing, osteogenic differentiation, vascularization, host integration and load bearing. The main traits that characterize a scaffold suitable for bone regeneration concerning its biological requirements, structural features, composition, and types of fabrication are described in detail. Attention is then focused on conventional and Rapid Prototyping scaffold manufacturing techniques. Conventional manufacturing approaches are subtractive methods where parts of the material are removed from an initial block to achieve the desired shape. Rapid Prototyping techniques, introduced to overcome standard techniques limitations, are additive fabrication processes that manufacture the final three-dimensional object via deposition of overlying layers. An important improvement is the possibility to create custom-made products by means of computer assisted technologies, starting from patient's medical images. As a conclusion, it is highlighted that, despite its encouraging results, the clinical approach of Bone Tissue Engineering has not taken place on a large scale yet, due to the need of more in depth studies, its high manufacturing costs and the difficulty to obtain regulatory approval. PUBMED search terms utilized to write this review were: "Bone Tissue Engineering", "regenerative medicine", "bioactive scaffolds", "biomimetic scaffolds", "3D printing", "3D bioprinting", "vascularization" and "dentistry". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. State-of-the-art lab chip sensors for environmental water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Am; Zou, Zhiwei; Kug Lee, Kang; Ahn, Chong H.; Bishop, Paul L.

    2011-03-01

    As a result of increased water demand and water pollution, both surface water and groundwater quantity and quality are of major concern worldwide. In particular, the presence of nutrients and heavy metals in water is a serious threat to human health. The initial step for the effective management of surface waters and groundwater requires regular, continuous monitoring of water quality in terms of contaminant distribution and source identification. Because of this, there is a need for screening and monitoring measurements of these compounds at contaminated areas. However, traditional monitoring techniques are typically still based on laboratory analyses of representative field-collected samples; this necessitates considerable effort and expense, and the sample may change before analysis. Furthermore, currently available equipment is so large that it cannot usually be made portable. Alternatively, lab chip and electrochemical sensing-based portable monitoring systems appear well suited to complement standard analytical methods for a number of environmental monitoring applications. In addition, this type of portable system could save tremendous amounts of time, reagent, and sample if it is installed at contaminated sites such as Superfund sites (the USA's worst toxic waste sites) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facilities or in rivers and lakes. Accordingly, state-of-the-art monitoring equipment is necessary for accurate assessments of water quality. This article reviews details on our development of these lab-on-a-chip (LOC) sensors.

  20. Passive Optical Access Networks: State of the Art and Future Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Muciaccia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the very last years, optical access networks are growing very rapidly, from both the network operators and the research interests points of view. Fiber To The Home (FTTH is already a reality in plenty of real contexts and there has been a further stimulus to the proposal of new solutions and the investigation of new possibilities, in order to optimize network performance and reduce capital and operational expenditure. A complete and systematic overview of passive optical access networks is presented in this paper, concerning both the hot research topics and the main operative issues about the design guidelines and the deployment of Passive Optical Networks (PON architectures, nowadays the most commonly implemented approach to realize optical fiber links in the access networks. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages of different multiplexing techniques is discussed, with specific reference to WDM-based networks, almost universally considered as the enabling technology for future proof bandwidth requirements. An exhaustive summary is also given about the-state-of-the-art of modulation and encoding techniques recently proposed by the scientific community, as well as the open challenges (such as colorless and coolerless ONUs for telecom companies and international standardization compliance.

  1. State-of-the-art characterization techniques for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Tianpin; Amine, Khalil

    2017-03-01

    To meet future needs for industries from personal devices to automobiles, state-of-the-art rechargeable lithium-ion batteries will require both improved durability and lowered costs. To enhance battery performance and lifetime, understanding electrode degradation mechanisms is of critical importance. Various advanced in situ and operando characterization tools developed during the past few years have proven indispensable for optimizing battery materials, understanding cell degradation mechanisms, and ultimately improving the overall battery performance. Here we review recent progress in the development and application of advanced characterization techniques such as in situ transmission electron microscopy for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Using three representative electrode systems—layered metal oxides, Li-rich layered oxides and Si-based or Sn-based alloys—we discuss how these tools help researchers understand the battery process and design better battery systems. We also summarize the application of the characterization techniques to lithium-sulfur and lithium-air batteries and highlight the importance of those techniques in the development of next-generation batteries.

  2. Reliability optimization of binary state non-repairable systems: A state of the art survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Soltani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available IThe purpose of this paper is to discuss the state of the art on models and methods for reliability optimization problems (ROPs including reliability allocation, redundancy allocation and reliability-redundancy allocation. There are literally few surveys for reviewing the literature of the ROPs. Tillman et al. (1980 classified the related papers by system structure, problem type, and solution methods, separately. In another work, Tzafestas (1980 reviewed system reliability optimization models and the optimization techniques. Yearout (1986 reviewed the literature related to standby redundancy. Kuo (2000 studied the system reliability optimization based on system structure and solution methods. Kuo and Prasad (2004 overviewed system reliability optimization methods. Later, Kuo (2007 reviewed recent advances in optimal reliability allocation problems. The present study adds to the previous literature surveys and focuses mainly on papers after year 2000 but with a quick review on the previous works so that the readers become familiar with the existing approaches. This research investigates the literature from system structure, system performance, uncertainty state and solution approach standpoints, simultaneously.

  3. State of the art of current 3-D scoliosis classifications: a systematic review from a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzelli, Sabrina; Poma, Salvatore; Balzarini, Luca; Borboni, Alberto; Respizzi, Stefano; Villafane, Jorge Hugo; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2015-10-16

    Scoliosis is a complex three dimensional (3D) deformity: the current lack of a 3D classification could hide something fundamental for scoliosis prognosis and treatment. A clear picture of the actually existing 3D classifications lacks. The aim of this systematic review was to identify all the 3D classification systems proposed until now in the literature with the aim to identify similarities and differences mainly in a clinical perspective.After a MEDLINE Data Base review, done in November 2013 using the search terms "Scoliosis/classification" [Mesh] and "scoliosis/classification and Imaging, three dimensional" [Mesh], 8 papers were included with a total of 1164 scoliosis patients, 23 hyperkyphosis and 25 controls, aged between 8 and 20 years, with curves from 10° to 81° Cobb, and various curve patterns. Six studies looked at the whole 3D spine and found classificatory parameters according to planes, angles and rotations, including: Plane of Maximal Curvature (PMC), Best Fit Plane, Cobb angles in bodily plane and PMC, Axial rotation of the apical vertebra and of the PMC, and geometric 3D torsion. Two studies used the regional (spinal) Top View of the spine and found classificatory parameters according to its geometrical properties (area, direction and barycenter) including: Ratio of the frontal and the sagittal size, Phase, Directions (total, thoracic and lumbar), and Shift. It was possible to find similarities among 10 out of the 16 the sub-groups identified by different authors with different methods in different populations.In summation, the state of the art of 3D classification systems include 8 studies which showed some comparability, even though of low level. The most useful one in clinical everyday practice, is far from being defined. More than 20 years passed since the definition of the third dimension of the scoliosis deformity, now the time has come for clinicians and bioengineers to start some real clinical application, and develop means to make this

  4. Cognitive load theory and multimedia learning, task characteristics, and learning engagement: The current state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Femke; Kester, Liesbeth; Corbalan, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, F., Kester, L., & Corbalan, G. (2011). Cognitive load theory and multimedia learning, task characteristics, and learner engagement: The current state of the art. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1-4. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.003

  5. Cognitive load theory and multimedia learning, task characteristics, and learning engagement: The current state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Femke; Kester, Liesbeth; Corbalan, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, F., Kester, L., & Corbalan, G. (2011). Cognitive load theory and multimedia learning, task characteristics, and learner engagement: The current state of the art. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1-4. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.003

  6. State of the Art of Language Learning Design Using Mobile Technology: Sample Apps and Some Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Elena; Read, Timothy; Underwood, Joshua; Obari, Hiroyuki; Cojocnean, Diana; Koyama, Toshiko; Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Calle, Cristina; Pomposo, Lourdes; Talaván, Noa; Ávila-Cabrera, José; Ibañez, Ana; Vermeulen, Anna; Jordano, María; Arús-Hita, Jorge; Rodríguez, Pilar; Castrillo, María Dolores; Kétyi, Andras; Selwood, Jaime; Gaved, Mark; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, experiences from different research groups illustrate the state-of-the-art of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (henceforth, MALL) in formal and non-formal education. These research samples represent recent and on-going progress made in the field of MALL at an international level and offer encouragement for practitioners who are…

  7. The State of the Art: Leadership Training and Development--US Perspectives--Above and beyond Recorded History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogotch, Ira E.

    2011-01-01

    There are essentially two overlapping approaches to describe the state of the art of school leadership training and development in the US. The first approach is what I call recorded history. It is a factual documentation of milestone events, governance changes as well as the passage of landmark laws and policies. The second approach, hidden…

  8. The state-of-the-art in short-term prediction of wind power. A literature overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G.; Brownsword, R.; Kariniotakis, G.

    2003-08-01

    Based on an appropriate questionnaire (WP1.1) and some other works already in progress, this report details the state-of-the-art in short term prediction of wind power, mostly summarising nearly all existing literature on the topic. (au)

  9. A Learning Patterns Perspective on Student Learning in Higher Education: State of the Art and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, Jan D.; Donche, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the state of the art of research and theory development on student learning patterns in higher education and beyond. First, the learning patterns perspective and the theoretical framework are introduced. Second, research published since 2004 on student learning patterns is systematically identified and…

  10. MOLECULAR MECHANICS OF WATER AND ITS ROLE IN INCREASE OF VIABILITY OF BIOSYSTEMS (STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sh. Ismailov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In work modern data on molecular structure of water in the form of the state-of-the-art review are considered. The irreplaceable role of water in activity processes is shown. Ways of effective use of active forms of water in technologies are defined.

  11. MOLECULAR MECHANICS OF WATER AND ITS ROLE IN INCREASE OF VIABILITY OF BIOSYSTEMS (STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Sh. Ismailov; M. K. Kazimagomedov; G. M. Abacarov

    2013-01-01

    In work modern data on molecular structure of water in the form of the state-of-the-art review are considered. The irreplaceable role of water in activity processes is shown. Ways of effective use of active forms of water in technologies are defined.

  12. The state-of-the-art in short-term prediction of wind power. A literature overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G.; Draxl, C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Brownsword, R. (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Oxford (United Kingdom)); Kariniotakis, G. (ARMINES, Paris (France)); Denhard, M. (ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom))

    2011-01-15

    This Deliverable of ANEMOS.plus (Advanced Tools for the Management of Electricity Grids with Large-Scale Wind Generation) and SafeWind projects presents the state of the art in wind power forecasting. More than 380 references of journal and conference papers have been reviewed. (LN)

  13. Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Burgos, D., Koper, R. (2005) Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges. In E-Journal of Educational Research, Assessment and Evaluation, vol. 11, issue 2 [www.uv.es/RELIEVE]. Available at [http://www.uv.es/

  14. The Merits of Cold Gas Micropropulsion in State-of-the-Art Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H.; Köhler, J.; Stenmark, L.

    2002-01-01

    Cold gas micropropulsion is a sound choice for space missions that require extreme stabilisation, pointing precision or contamination-free operation. The use of forces in the micronewton range for spacecraft operations have been identified as a mission-critical item in several demanding space systems currently under development. The required micropropulsion systems are emerging, using various principles, e.g. field emission, colloid acceleration, solid combustion, and cold gas expulsion. Cold gas micropropulsion systems share merits with traditional cold gas systems in being of simple design, clean, safe, and robust. They do not generate net charge to the spacecraft, and typically operate on low-power. The necessary extreme miniaturisation of system parts furthermore works well to increasing other merits of these systems, making them truly competitive for state-of-the-art spacecraft: e.g. DARWIN, LISA, or high-performance nanosatellites. Silicon microsystems technology can be used for the cold gas micropropulsion system manufacture. Here, the decrease of dimensions is not restricted to fit standard components or tools. This allows for an astonishing mass reduction, e.g. 80 g for a unit comprising four independent nozzles, proportional valves, particle filters, control electronics, and housing. The minute size is also suitable for inclusion on nanosatellites. The dynamic range of a cold gas micropropulsion system can be quite wide (e.g. 1 μN - 10 mN) by using differently sized nozzles in parallel systems. Again, the microsystems technology makes this scheme possible without compromising the mass budget. The micropropulsion system benefits greatly from using a continuously proportional control on the thrust. In this system, the impulse is obtained as the difference of two opposite thrusters in the same unit. Here, the minimum impulse bit is reduced to virtually zero, while simultaneously avoiding any troubles emerging from extremely low flows at near-zero thrust

  15. Initiation of a Marinoan Snowball Earth in a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voigt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the initiation of a Marinoan Snowball Earth (~635 million years before present with the state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. This is the most sophisticated model ever applied to Snowball initiation. A comparison with a pre-industrial control climate shows that the change of surface boundary conditions from present-day to Marinoan, including a shift of continents to low latitudes, induces a global-mean cooling of 4.6 K. Two thirds of this cooling can be attributed to increased planetary albedo, the remaining one third to a weaker greenhouse effect. The Marinoan Snowball Earth bifurcation point for pre-industrial atmospheric carbon dioxide is between 95.5 and 96% of the present-day total solar irradiance (TSI, whereas a previous study with the same model found that it was between 91 and 94% for present-day surface boundary conditions. A Snowball Earth for TSI set to its Marinoan value (94% of the present-day TSI is prevented by doubling carbon dioxide with respect to its pre-industrial level. A zero-dimensional energy balance model is used to predict the Snowball Earth bifurcation point from only the equilibrium global-mean ocean potential temperature for present-day TSI. We do not find stable states with sea-ice cover above 55%, and land conditions are such that glaciers could not grow with sea-ice cover of 55%. Therefore, none of our simulations qualifies as a "slushball" solution. While uncertainties in important processes and parameters such as clouds and sea-ice albedo suggest that the Snowball Earth bifurcation point differs between climate models, our results contradict previous findings that Snowball Earth initiation would require much stronger forcings.

  16. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  17. State of the art on bioethanol production; Stato dell'arte della produzione di bioetanolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisano, D.; De Bari, I.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fonti Rinnovabili di Energia, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Policoro, Matera (Italy); Cantarella, M.; Gallifuoco, A. [L' Aquila Univ., L' Aquila (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e dei Materiali

    2001-07-01

    The state of the art, deals with the ethanol production from current processes based on the use of sugar and starch as feedstock and those under development based on lignocellulosic biomass. In the first section are reported the commercially available processes together with hints to the newest technologies. As regard the ethanol production from lignocellulosics, it has been collected data on the biomass availability in Europe as energy crops, industrial crops, agricultural residues and domestic waste. It is provided a bibliographic study on the technologies and processes under development worldwide for the conversion of lignocellulosics into ethanol. Finally, a brief discussion on the economics highlights the near term viability of producing ethanol by this way. [Italian] Questo lavoro tratta della produzione di etanolo da diverse biomasse, compreso i materiali lignocellulosici. Sono riportati cenni al mercato mondiale ed europeo dell'etanolo insieme ad una breve rassegna dei processi impiegati correntemente; si tratta per lo piu' di tecnologie ormai mature basate sull'utilizzo di piante ad alto contenuto di zucchero o di amido. Per quanto riguarda la produzione di etanolo da biomasse lignocellulosiche, sono riportati i risultati di un'indagine statistica sulla disponibilita' in Europa di questi materiali in termini di coltivazini dedicate, residui agro-forestali e rifiuti domestici. E' riportata altresi una ricerca bibliografica sui recenti sviluppi dei processi di conversione a etanolo su scala banco e pilota. Infine, una breve discussione sugli aspetti economici connessi all'utilizzo di materiali lignocellulosici per la produzione di etanolo mostra come questi processi si stiano avvicinando alla completa fattibilita'.

  18. State-of-the-Art in GPU-Based Large-Scale Volume Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Johanna

    2015-05-01

    This survey gives an overview of the current state of the art in GPU techniques for interactive large-scale volume visualization. Modern techniques in this field have brought about a sea change in how interactive visualization and analysis of giga-, tera- and petabytes of volume data can be enabled on GPUs. In addition to combining the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming, a major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount and resolution of data that is actually visible on screen, i.e. \\'output-sensitive\\' algorithms and system designs. This leads to recent output-sensitive approaches that are \\'ray-guided\\', \\'visualization-driven\\' or \\'display-aware\\'. In this survey, we focus on these characteristics and propose a new categorization of GPU-based large-scale volume visualization techniques based on the notions of actual output-resolution visibility and the current working set of volume bricks-the current subset of data that is minimally required to produce an output image of the desired display resolution. Furthermore, we discuss the differences and similarities of different rendering and data traversal strategies in volume rendering by putting them into a common context-the notion of address translation. For our purposes here, we view parallel (distributed) visualization using clusters as an orthogonal set of techniques that we do not discuss in detail but that can be used in conjunction with what we present in this survey. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Geoelectrical Tomography for landslide monitoring: state-of-the-art and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, V.; Perrone, A.; Piscitelli, S.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, novel algorithms for tomographic data inversion, robust models for describing the hydrogeophysical processes and new sensor networks for the field data acquisition have rapidly transformed the geoelectrical methods in a powerful and cost-effective tool for geo-hazard monitoring. These technological and methodological improvements disclose the way for a wide spectra of interesting and challenging applications in geo-hazards monitoring: reconstruction of landslide geometry; identification of fluid and gas uprising in volcanic areas; electrical imaging of seismic faults etc.. We briefly resume the current state-of-the-art of the geoelectrical methods in landslide monitoring and introduce new and emerging applications of the geoelectrical tomographic methods. An overview of the more interesting results obtained in different areas of Italian territory affected by wide and diffuse hydrogeological instability phenomena will be presented and discussed. We will focus the attention to some recent results obtained in the frame of national and international projects (Morfeo, Eurorisk/Preview, DORIS). One of the key challenges for the future will be the integration of active (Resistivity) and passive (Self-Potential) measurements for obtaining 2D, 3D and 4D (time-lapse) electrical tomographies able to follow the spatial and temporal dynamics of electrical parameters (i.e. resistivity, self-potential) inside the landslide body. The resistivity imaging can be applied for illuminating the sliding surfaces and for mapping the time-dependent changes of water content in vadose zones, while the Self Potential imaging could give a significant contribute for delineating the groundwater circulation patterns and to the early identification of triggering factors.

  20. Minimal invasive single-site surgery in colorectal procedures: Current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Michele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive single-site (MISS surgery has recently been applied to colorectal surgery. We aimed to assess the current state of the art and the adequacy of preliminary oncological results. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Medline, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Keywords used were "Single Port" or "Single-Incision" or "LaparoEndoscopic Single Site" or "SILS™" and "Colon" or "Colorectal" and "Surgery". Results: Twenty-nine articles on colorectal MISS surgery have been published from July 2008 to July 2010, presenting data on 149 patients. One study reported analgesic requirement. The final incision length ranged from 2.5 to 8 cm. Only two studies reported fascial incision length. There were two port site hernias in a series of 13 patients (15.38%. Two "fully laparoscopic" MISS procedures with preparation and achievement of the anastomosis completely intracorporeally are reported. Future site of ileostomy was used as the sole access for the procedures in three studies. Lymph node harvesting, resection margins and length of specimen were sufficient in oncological cases. Conclusions: MISS colorectal surgery is a challenging procedure that seems to be safe and feasible, but the existing clinical evidence is limited. In selected cases, and especially when an ileostomy is planned, colorectal surgery may be an ideal indication for MISS surgery leading to a no-scar surgery. Despite preliminary oncological results showing the feasibility of MISS surgery, we want to stress the need to standardize the technique and carefully evaluate its application in oncosurgery under ethical committee control.

  1. State of the art toxicological and microscopic assessment of biomedical nanocrystals on the lung in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Martin J. D.; Gehr, Peter; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2011-03-01

    Due to the ever increasing production of nanosized materials for a variety of novel applications (e.g. biomedicine), increased research has focused upon understanding the potential toxicity of these nanomaterials. In order to determine the potential toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs), it is essential that, in parallel to biochemical and toxicological testing, their specific route of uptake (if any), as well as their possible and/or subsequent intracellular localisation is investigated. By using a novel 3D in vitro triple cell co-culture model of the human epithelial airway barrier (containing epithelial cells and macrophages (apical-layer) and dendritic cells (basolateral-layer) which has been shown to mimic the architecture of the lung in vivo, in combination with a novel air-liquid interface cell exposure system, it is possible to mimic the exposure of NPs to the lung in vitro. Using both conventional and state-of-the art toxicological tests, in addition to light, laser scanning (including digital image restoration) and transmission electron microscopy methods, it has been possible to determine the interaction of both fluorescent (specifically designed core-shell nanoparticles with shell-embedded fluorophores for use in biomedicine) and electron dense NPs with the in vitro triple cell co-culture. It has been observed that the material of the engineered NPs (either gold or iron oxide) has no significant influence upon the toxicity and intracellular localisation over time. The results of these studies have shown that despite different compositions, specific NPs intended for use in biomedical applications, when exposed realistically (exposure method/concentration/primary contact cells) cause minimal effects to the lung in vitro.

  2. Biomedical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair: surgical applications, state of the art, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Bryan J; Gordon, Tessa; Loverde, Joseph R; Kochar, Arshneel S; Mackinnon, Susan E; Cullen, D Kacy

    2011-01-01

    Damage to the peripheral nervous system is surprisingly common and occurs primarily from trauma or a complication of surgery. Although recovery of nerve function occurs in many mild injuries, outcomes are often unsatisfactory following severe trauma. Nerve repair and regeneration presents unique clinical challenges and opportunities, and substantial contributions can be made through the informed application of biomedical engineering strategies. This article reviews the clinical presentations and classification of nerve injuries, in addition to the state of the art for surgical decision-making and repair strategies. This discussion presents specific challenges that must be addressed to realistically improve the treatment of nerve injuries and promote widespread recovery. In particular, nerve defects a few centimeters in length use a sensory nerve autograft as the standard technique; however, this approach is limited by the availability of donor nerve and comorbidity associated with additional surgery. Moreover, we currently have an inadequate ability to noninvasively assess the degree of nerve injury and to track axonal regeneration. As a result, wait-and-see surgical decisions can lead to undesirable and less successful "delayed" repair procedures. In this fight for time, degeneration of the distal nerve support structure and target progresses, ultimately blunting complete functional recovery. Thus, the most pressing challenges in peripheral nerve repair include the development of tissue-engineered nerve grafts that match or exceed the performance of autografts, the ability to noninvasively assess nerve damage and track axonal regeneration, and approaches to maintain the efficacy of the distal pathway and targets during the regenerative process. Biomedical engineering strategies can address these issues to substantially contribute at both the basic and applied levels, improving surgical management and functional recovery following severe peripheral nerve injury.

  3. Fetal cells in maternal blood: state of the art for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S S; O'Donoghue, K; Choolani, M

    2003-09-01

    In Singapore, 1 in 5 pregnancies occur in mothers > 35 years old and genetic diseases, such as thalassaemia, are common. Current methods for the diagnosis of aneuploidy and monogenic disorders require invasive testing by amniocentesis, chorion villus biopsy or fetal blood sampling. These tests carry a procedure-related risk of miscarriage that is unacceptable to many couples. Development of non-invasive methods for obtaining intact fetal cells would allow accurate prenatal diagnosis for aneuploidy and single gene disorders, without the attendant risks associated with invasive testing, and would increase the uptake of prenatal diagnosis by women at risk. Isolation of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood should allow accurate non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of both aneuploidies and monogenic disorders. Expression of gamma-globin in maternal erythroblasts and the inability to locate fetal erythroblasts reliably in all pregnancies have prevented its clinical application. In the absence of a highly specific fetal cell marker, enrichment, identification and diagnosis--the 3 components of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis--have clearly defined objectives. Since fetal cells are rare in maternal blood, the sole purpose of enrichment is yield--to recover as many fetal cells as possible--even if purity is compromised at this stage. In contrast, the primary goal of identification is specificity; absolute certainty of fetal origin is required at this stage if the ultimate objective of diagnosis, accuracy, is to be achieved. This review summarises the current state of the art of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using fetal erythroblasts enriched from maternal blood.

  4. Simulation of safety: a review of the state of the art in road safety simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William; Sobhani, Amir; Lenné, Michael G; Sarvi, Majid

    2014-05-01

    Recent decades have seen considerable growth in computer capabilities, data collection technology and communication mediums. This growth has had considerable impact on our ability to replicate driver behaviour and understand the processes involved in failures in the traffic system. From time to time it is necessary to assess the level of development as a basis of determining how far we have come. This paper sets out to assess the state of the art in the use of computer models to simulate and assess the level of safety in existing and future traffic systems. It reviews developments in the area of road safety simulation models. In particular, it reviews computer models of driver and vehicle behaviour within a road context. It focuses on stochastic numerical models of traffic behaviour and how reliable these are in estimating levels of safety on the traffic network. Models of this type are commonly used in the assessment of traffic systems for capacity, delay and general performance. Adding safety to this assessment regime may allow more comprehensive assessment of future traffic systems. To date the models have focused primarily on vehicular traffic that is, cars and heavy vehicles. It has been shown that these models have potential in measuring the level of conflict on parts of the network and the measure of conflict correlated well with crash statistics. Interest in the prediction of crashes and crash severity is growing and new models are focusing on the continuum of general traffic conditions, conflict, severe conflict, crash and severe crashes. The paper also explores the general data types used to develop, calibrate and validate these models. Recent technological development in in-vehicle data collection, driver simulators and machine learning offers considerable potential for improving the behavioural base, rigour and application of road safety simulation models. The paper closes with some indication of areas of future development.

  5. The State of the Art Report on the Development and Manufacturing Technology of Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, M. H.; Choi, B. K.; Baek, J. H.; Park, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, H. G.; Kim, K. H

    2006-07-15

    The main objective of the present R and D on breeder blanket is the development of test blanket modules (TBMs) to be installed and tested in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In the program of the blanket development, a blanket module test in the ITER is scheduled from the beginning of the ITER operation, and the performance test of TBM in ITER is the most important milestone for the development of the DEMO blanket. The fabrication of TBMs has been required to test the basic performance of the DEMO blanket, i.e., tritium production/recovery, high-grade heat generation and radiation shielding. Therefore, the integration of the TBM systems into ITER has been investigated with the aim to check the safety, reliability and compatibility under nuclear fusion state. For this reason, in the Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) as an activity of the International Energy Association (IEA), a variety of ITER TBMs have been proposed and investigated by each party: helium-cooled ceramic (WSG-1), helium-cooled LiPb (WSG-2), water-cooled ceramic (WSG-3), self-cooled lithium (WSG-4) and self-cooled molten salt (WSG-5) blanket systems. Because we are still deficient in investigation of TBM development, the need of development became pressing. In this report, for the development of TBM sub-module and mock-up, it is necessary to analyze and examine the state of the art on the development of manufacturing technology of TBM in other countries. And we will be applied as basic data to establish a manufacturing technology.

  6. Nanocarriers for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme: Current state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Reatul; Palazzo, Claudio; Evrard, Brigitte; Piel, Geraldine

    2016-04-10

    Glioblastoma multiforme, a grade IV glioma, is the most frequently occurring and invasive primary tumor of the central nervous system, which causes about 4% of cancer-associated-deaths, making it one of the most fatal cancers. With present treatments, using state-of-the-art technologies, the median survival is about 14 months and 2 year survival rate is merely 3-5%. Hence, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently necessary. However, most drug molecules are not able to cross the blood-brain barrier, which is one of the major difficulties in glioblastoma treatment. This review describes the features of blood-brain barrier, and its anatomical changes with different stages of tumor growth. Moreover, various strategies to improve brain drug delivery i.e. tight junction opening, chemical modification of the drug, efflux transporter inhibition, convection-enhanced delivery, craniotomy-based drug delivery and drug delivery nanosystems are discussed. Nanocarriers are one of the highly potential drug transport systems that have gained huge research focus over the last few decades for site specific drug delivery, including drug delivery to the brain. Properly designed nanocolloids are capable to cross the blood-brain barrier and specifically deliver the drug in the brain tumor tissue. They can carry both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, protect them from degradation, release the drug for sustained period, significantly improve the plasma circulation half-life and reduce toxic effects. Among various nanocarriers, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles and lipid nanocapsules are the most widely studied, and are discussed in this review. For each type of nanocarrier, a general discussion describing their composition, characteristics, types and various uses is followed by their specific application to glioblastoma treatment. Moreover, some of the main challenges regarding toxicity and standardized evaluation techniques are narrated in brief.

  7. Monetary Valuation of Health Risks of Heavy Metals: State-of-the-art and some gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ščasný M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment (HIA is a fundamental part of modern decision-making process, in particular policies that affect releases, exposures or doses of pollutants including heavy metals. Traditionally, HIA focus is on risk assessment and securing safe levels of pollution exposure or dose. Only recently HIA has extended its focus to include evaluation of health effects in monetary terms that allows for a comprehensive Cost-Benefit Analysis, a widely used quantitative decision support tool to assess desirability of policies and projects based on economic rationale. The aim of this contribution is to review the state-of-the-art in valuation of health impacts related to heavy metals and discuss some gaps faced here. We start by introducing concept of risk in valuation literature, related mortality denominator, Value of Statistical Life (VSL and difficulties in deriving values for chronic health conditions. We then overview valuation of various health outcomes in five broad impact categories – carcinogenicity, dose toxicity, sensitization, effects on fertility and developmental toxicity and discuss difficulties in translating risk assessment and toxicological research findings of human health effects of heavy metal exposure/dose to changes in welfare in such a way that is comprehensible for general population. We briefly examine and discuss numerous issues and gaps in establishing such links between exposure and welfare impacts in the context of a study commissioned by European Chemicals Agency. The study’s goal is to deliver EU-wide values of willingness to pay for avoiding adverse health outcomes due to exposure to chemicals. We emphasize the necessity of such discussion among experts from different areas for the results to be useful for decision-making related to regulation of (not only heavy metals releases to the environment.

  8. Open-Source Sequence Clustering Methods Improve the State Of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, Evguenia; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Mercier, Céline; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Mahé, Frédéric; He, Yan; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Rognes, Torbjørn; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Sequence clustering is a common early step in amplicon-based microbial community analysis, when raw sequencing reads are clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to reduce the run time of subsequent analysis steps. Here, we evaluated the performance of recently released state-of-the-art open-source clustering software products, namely, OTUCLUST, Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA, against current principal options (UCLUST and USEARCH) in QIIME, hierarchical clustering methods in mothur, and USEARCH's most recent clustering algorithm, UPARSE. All the latest open-source tools showed promising results, reporting up to 60% fewer spurious OTUs than UCLUST, indicating that the underlying clustering algorithm can vastly reduce the number of these derived OTUs. Furthermore, we observed that stringent quality filtering, such as is done in UPARSE, can cause a significant underestimation of species abundance and diversity, leading to incorrect biological results. Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA have been included in the QIIME 1.9.0 release. IMPORTANCE Massive collections of next-generation sequencing data call for fast, accurate, and easily accessible bioinformatics algorithms to perform sequence clustering. A comprehensive benchmark is presented, including open-source tools and the popular USEARCH suite. Simulated, mock, and environmental communities were used to analyze sensitivity, selectivity, species diversity (alpha and beta), and taxonomic composition. The results demonstrate that recent clustering algorithms can significantly improve accuracy and preserve estimated diversity without the application of aggressive filtering. Moreover, these tools are all open source, apply multiple levels of multithreading, and scale to the demands of modern next-generation sequencing data, which is essential for the analysis of massive multidisciplinary studies such as the Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) (J. A. Gilbert, J. K. Jansson, and R. Knight, BMC Biol 12:69, 2014, http

  9. Coenzyme Q10 and Heart Failure: A State-of-the-Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhinav; Fonarow, Gregg C; Butler, Javed; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Felker, G Michael

    2016-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) with either preserved or reduced ejection fraction is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Evidence-based therapies are often limited by tolerability, hypotension, electrolyte disturbances, and renal dysfunction. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) may represent a safe therapeutic option for patients with HF. CoQ10 is a highly lipophilic molecule with a chemical structure similar to vitamin K. Although being a common component of cellular membranes, CoQ10's most prominent role is to facilitate the production of adenosine triphosphate in the mitochondria by participating in redox reactions within the electron transport chain. Numerous trials during the past 30 years examining CoQ10 in patients with HF have been limited by small numbers and lack of contemporary HF therapies. The recent publication of the Q-SYMBIO randomized controlled trial demonstrated a reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events with CoQ10 supplementation in a contemporary HF population. Although having limitations, this study has renewed interest in evaluating CoQ10 supplementation in patients with HF. Current literature suggests that CoQ10 is relatively safe with few drug interactions and side effects. Furthermore, it is already widely available as an over-the-counter supplement. These findings warrant future adequately powered randomized controlled trials of CoQ10 supplementation in patients with HF. This state-of-the-art review summarizes the literature about the mechanisms, clinical data, and safety profile of CoQ10 supplementation in patients with HF.

  10. Master index for the carbon dioxide research state-of-the-art report series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, M P [ed.

    1987-03-01

    Four State of the Art (SOA) reports, ''Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Cycle,'' ''Direct Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation,'' ''Detecting the Climatic Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide,'' and ''Projecting the Climatic Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide,'' and two companion reports, ''Characterization of Information Requirements for Studies of CO/sub 2/ Effects: Water Resources, Agriculture, Fisheries, Forests and Human Health'' and ''Glaciers, Ice Sheets, and Sea Level: Effect of a CO/sub 2/-Induced Climatic Change,'' were published by the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Division. Considerable information on atmospheric carbon dioxide and its possible effects on world climate is summarized in these six volumes. Each volume has its own index, but to make the information that is distributed throughout the six volumes more accessible and usable, comprehensive citation and subject indexes have been compiled. The subject indexes of the individual volumes have been edited to provide a uniformity from volume to volume and also to draw distinctions not needed in the separate volumes' indexes. Also, the comprehensive subject index has been formatted in a matrix arrangement to graphically show the distribution of subject treatment from volume to volume. Other aids include cross references between the scientific and common names of the animals and plants referred to, a glossary of special terms used, tables of data and conversion factors related to the data, and explanations of the acronyms and initialisms used in the texts of the six volumes. The executive summaries of the six volumes are collected and reproduced to allow the readers interested in the contents of one volume to rapidly gain information on the contents of the other volumes.

  11. STATE-OF-THE-ART TASKS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF PARALINGUISTIC SPEECH ANALYSIS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karpov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present analytical survey of state-of-the-art actual tasks in the area of computational paralinguistics, as well as the recent achievements of automatic systems for paralinguistic analysis of conversational speech. Paralinguistics studies non-verbal aspects of human communication and speech such as: natural emotions, accents, psycho-physiological states, pronunciation features, speaker’s voice parameters, etc. We describe architecture of a baseline computer system for acoustical paralinguistic analysis, its main components and useful speech processing methods. We present some information on an International contest called Computational Paralinguistics Challenge (ComParE, which is held each year since 2009 in the framework of the International conference INTERSPEECH organized by the International Speech Communication Association. We present sub-challenges (tasks that were proposed at the ComParE Challenges in 2009-2016, and analyze winning computer systems for each sub-challenge and obtained results. The last completed ComParE-2015 Challenge was organized in September 2015 in Germany and proposed 3 sub-challenges: 1 Degree of Nativeness (DN sub-challenge, determination of nativeness degree of speakers based on acoustics; 2 Parkinson's Condition (PC sub-challenge, recognition of a degree of Parkinson’s condition based on speech analysis; 3 Eating Condition (EC sub-challenge, determination of the eating condition state during speaking or a dialogue, and classification of consumed food type (one of seven classes of food by the speaker. In the last sub-challenge (EC, the winner was a joint Turkish-Russian team consisting of the authors of the given paper. We have developed the most efficient computer-based system for detection and classification of the corresponding (EC acoustical paralinguistic events. The paper deals with the architecture of this system, its main modules and methods, as well as the description of used training and evaluation

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to produce biofuels: state of the art and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskin, M. S.; Chernova, N. I.; Kiseleva, S. V.; Popel', O. S.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-09-01

    The article presents a review of the state of the art and lines of research on hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae (MA). The main advantages of this technology for production of biofuel are that it does not require predrying of the feedstock and ensures a relatively high product yield—the ratio of the end product weight to the feedstock weight—owing to the fact that all the microalgal components, viz., lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, are converted into biofuel. MA hydrothermal liquefaction is considered to be a promising technology for conversion of biomass and is a subject of a series of research studies and, judging by the available publications, the scope of research in this field is expanding currently. However, many significant problems remain unsolved. In particular, an active searched is being conducted for suitable strains that will ensure not only a high lipid yield—necessary to convert microalgae into biodiesel—but also higher biomass productivity and a higher biofuel yield; the chemical reactions that occur during the hydrothermal treatment are being studied; and the effect of significant process variables, such as temperature, heating rate, holdup time at the maximum temperature, biomass concentration in the water suspension, biochemical and elemental compositions of the microalgae, use of catalysts, etc., on the liquefaction processes is being studied. One of the urgent tasks is also the reduction of the nitrogen content in the resulting biofuel. Studies aimed at the development of a continuous process and rational heat-processing plants for thermal microalgal conversion are being conducted to increase the energy efficiency of the HTL process, in particular, to provide the heat recovery and separation of the end product.

  13. ClC-1 chloride channels: state-of-the-art research and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eImbrici

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-dependent ClC-1 chloride channel belongs to the CLC channel/transporter family. It is a homodimer comprising two individual pores which can operate independently or simultaneously according to two gating modes, the fast and the slow gate of the channel. ClC-1 is preferentially expressed in the skeletal muscle fibers where the presence of an efficient Cl- homeostasis is crucial for the correct membrane repolarization and propagation of action potential. As a consequence, mutations in the CLCN1 gene cause dominant and recessive forms of Myotonia Congenita, a rare skeletal muscle channelopathy caused by abnormal membrane excitation, and clinically characterized by muscle stiffness and various degrees of transitory weakness. Elucidation of the mechanistic link between the genetic defects and the disease pathogenesis is still incomplete and, at this time, there is no specific treatment for Myotonia Congenita. Still controversial is the subcellular localization pattern of ClC-1 channels in skeletal muscle as well as its modulation by some intracellular factors. The expression of ClC-1 in other tissues such as in brain and heart and the possible assembly of ClC-1/ClC-2 heterodimers further expand the physiological properties of ClC-1 and its involvement in diseases. A recent de novo CLCN1 truncation mutation in a patient with generalized epilepsy indeed postulates an unexpected role of this channel in the control of neuronal network excitability. This review summarizes the most relevant and state-of-the-art research on ClC-1 chloride channels physiology and associated diseases.

  14. Software process improvement: a systematic mapping study on the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Kuhrmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Software process improvement (SPI has been around for decades: frameworks are proposed, success factors are studied, and experiences have been reported. However, the sheer mass of concepts, approaches, and standards published over the years overwhelms practitioners as well as researchers. What is out there? Are there new trends and emerging approaches? What are open issues? Still, we struggle to answer these questions about the current state of SPI and related research. In this article, we present results from an updated systematic mapping study to shed light on the field of SPI, to develop a big picture of the state of the art, and to draw conclusions for future research directions. An analysis of 769 publications draws a big picture of SPI-related research of the past quarter-century. Our study shows a high number of solution proposals, experience reports, and secondary studies, but only few theories and models on SPI in general. In particular, standard SPI models like CMMI and ISO/IEC 15,504 are analyzed, enhanced, and evaluated for applicability in practice, but these standards are also critically discussed, e.g., from the perspective of SPI in small-to-medium-sized companies, which leads to new specialized frameworks. New and specialized frameworks account for the majority of the contributions found (approx. 38%. Furthermore, we find a growing interest in success factors (approx. 16% to aid companies in conducting SPI and in adapting agile principles and practices for SPI (approx. 10%. Beyond these specific topics, the study results also show an increasing interest into secondary studies with the purpose of aggregating and structuring SPI-related knowledge. Finally, the present study helps directing future research by identifying under-researched topics awaiting further investigation.

  15. Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R. [Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs.

  16. As pesquisas denominadas "estado da arte" Research called "state of the art"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sandra de Almeida Ferreira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos quinze anos, no Brasil e em outros países, tem se produzido um conjunto significativo de pesquisas conhecidas pela denominação "estado da arte" ou "estado do conhecimento". Definidas como de caráter bibliográfico, elas parecem trazer em comum o desafio de mapear e de discutir uma certa produção acadêmica em diferentes campos do conhecimento, tentando responder que aspectos e dimensões vêm sendo destacados e privilegiados em diferentes épocas e lugares, de que formas e em que condições têm sido produzidas certas dissertações de mestrado, teses de doutorado, publicações em periódicos e comunicações em anais de congressos e de seminários. Neste artigo levanto e tento responder as seguintes questões: seria possível fazer um esforço de interrogar a história a produção acadêmica sobre determinada área do conhecimento, optando por ler apenas dados bibliográficos e resumos dos trabalhos? O que significa ler esse lugar (catálogos, instituição de divulgação dos trabalhos, tomando-o como fonte documental para um mapeamento da produção acadêmica, em pesquisas denominadas "estado da arte"?These last fifteen years, Brazil and other countries have seen the production of a significant set of research, known as "state of the art" or "state of knowledge". Defined as having a bibliographic feature, they seem to share the challenge of mapping and discussing a certain academic production in different fields of knowledge. They try to show which aspects and dimensions have been highlighted and privileged at different times and places. They also pinpoint how and in what conditions certain kinds of master's degree thesis and doctor's degree dissertations, publications in periodicals and communications in annals of congress and seminary were produced. In this article, I pose and try to answer the following questions: Is it worth making the effort of interrogating the history of the academic production about a given area

  17. Mobile medical and health apps: state of the art, concerns, regulatory control and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Brewer, Ann C; Karimkhani, Chante; Buller, David B; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the state of the art in mobile clinical and health-related apps. A 2012 estimate puts the number of health-related apps at no fewer than 40,000, as healthcare professionals and consumers continue to express concerns about the quality of many apps, calling for some form of app regulatory control or certification to be put in place. We describe the range of apps on offer as of 2013, and then present a brief survey of evaluation studies of medical and health-related apps that have been conducted to date, covering a range of clinical disciplines and topics. Our survey includes studies that highlighted risks, negative issues and worrying deficiencies in existing apps. We discuss the concept of 'apps as a medical device' and the relevant regulatory controls that apply in USA and Europe, offering examples of apps that have been formally approved using these mechanisms. We describe the online Health Apps Library run by the National Health Service in England and the calls for a vetted medical and health app store. We discuss the ingredients for successful apps beyond the rather narrow definition of 'apps as a medical device'. These ingredients cover app content quality, usability, the need to match apps to consumers' general and health literacy levels, device connectivity standards (for apps that connect to glucometers, blood pressure monitors, etc.), as well as app security and user privacy. 'Happtique Health App Certification Program' (HACP), a voluntary app certification scheme, successfully captures most of these desiderata, but is solely focused on apps targeting the US market. HACP, while very welcome, is in ways reminiscent of the early days of the Web, when many "similar" quality benchmarking tools and codes of conduct for information publishers were proposed to appraise and rate online medical and health information. It is probably impossible to rate and police every app on offer today, much like in those early days of the Web, when people

  18. Numerical methods in vehicle system dynamics: state of the art and current developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M.; Burgermeister, B.; Führer, C.; Hippmann, G.; Rill, G.

    2011-07-01

    Robust and efficient numerical methods are an essential prerequisite for the computer-based dynamical analysis of engineering systems. In vehicle system dynamics, the methods and software tools from multibody system dynamics provide the integration platform for the analysis, simulation and optimisation of the complex dynamical behaviour of vehicles and vehicle components and their interaction with hydraulic components, electronical devices and control structures. Based on the principles of classical mechanics, the modelling of vehicles and their components results in nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) or differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) of moderate dimension that describe the dynamical behaviour in the frequency range required and with a level of detail being characteristic of vehicle system dynamics. Most practical problems in this field may be transformed to generic problems of numerical mathematics like systems of nonlinear equations in the (quasi-)static analysis and explicit ODEs or DAEs with a typical semi-explicit structure in the dynamical analysis. This transformation to mathematical standard problems allows to use sophisticated, freely available numerical software that is based on well approved numerical methods like the Newton-Raphson iteration for nonlinear equations or Runge-Kutta and linear multistep methods for ODE/DAE time integration. Substantial speed-ups of these numerical standard methods may be achieved exploiting some specific structure of the mathematical models in vehicle system dynamics. In the present paper, we follow this framework and start with some modelling aspects being relevant from the numerical viewpoint. The focus of the paper is on numerical methods for static and dynamic problems, including software issues and a discussion which method fits best for which class of problems. Adaptive components in state-of-the-art numerical software like stepsize and order control in time integration are

  19. Glacial isostatic adjustment and sea-level change. State of the art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Pippa (Durham Univ., Dept. of Geography, Durham (United Kingdom))

    2009-04-15

    This report outlines the physics of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), how this affects sea-level, and the methods which are employed by researchers to study and understand these processes. The report describes the scientific background into the processes and methods presented in SKB TR-06-23 (INIS ref 38-021351). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for people who require a more in-depth understanding of GIA processes than is presented in the earlier report. The key components of the GIA system are described, and this is followed by a concise description of the processes that take place within and between these components during a glacial cycle. The report contains 4 chapters: Chapter 1, 'Introduction'; Chapter 2, 'GIA systems', describes the three main systems which are involved in the GIA process; the solid Earth, the hydrosphere and the cryosphere. The various parameters which govern the behaviour of these systems, and must be known in order to model GIA processes, are defined. Chapter 3, 'Governing equations', lays out the physics of GIA and derives the equations which must be solved to determine the redistribution of water over the surface of the Earth, and the solid Earth response. Secondary processes, such as ocean syphoning, are also described. The driving forces behind glacial cycles are briefly discussed. The methods used to solve these equations are laid out in chapter 4, 'State-of-the-art GIA models'. In this chapter, the different approaches used by different groups of researchers are discussed, as are the relative accuracy of the methods. Recent improvements to the theory are described, as are current shortcomings of the models. The various data sets used to calibrate and verify the accuracy of the modelling are also briefly described in this chapter. In the past few years advances in computational speed have enabled researchers to develop models which attempt to account for the

  20. State-of-the-art of beyond mean field theories with nuclear density functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egido, J. Luis

    2016-07-01

    classical β and γ vibrations by considering the quadrupole operators as coordinates. We present pairing fluctuations by considering the pairing gaps as generator coordinates. The combination of quadrupole and pairing fluctuations mirrors the elementary modes of excitation of the atomic nucleus and provides a realistic description of it. Lastly the explicit consideration of the time reversal symmetry breaking in the HFB wave function by the cranking procedure allows the alignment of nucleon pairs opening a new dimension in the BMFT calculations. Abundant calculations with the finite range density dependent Gogny force applied to exotic nuclei illustrate the state-of-the-art of BMFTs with nuclear density functionals. We conclude with a thorough discussion on the potential poles of the theory.

  1. Flyash Based Geopolymer Concrete – A State of the Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    cement which in turn cut the CO2 emissions. Many researchers have worked on the development of geopolymer cement and concrete for the past ten years. The time has come for the review of progress made in the field of development of geopolymer concrete. Consequently 102 papers pertaining to the ingredients and technology of geopolymer concrete have been reviewed in this state of the art paper.

  2. Reexamination of the State of the Art Cloud Modeling Shows Real Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlbauer, Andreas D.; Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Malinowski, S. P.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Bryan, George; Lebo, Zachary; Milbrandt, Jason; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Tessendorf, Sarah; Theriault, Julie M.; Thompson, Gregory

    2013-05-25

    Following up on an almost thirty year long history of International Cloud Modeling Workshops, that started out with a meeting in Irsee, Germany in 1985, the 8th International Cloud Modeling Workshop was held in July 2012 in Warsaw, Poland. The workshop, hosted by the Institute of Geophysics at the University of Warsaw, was organized by Szymon Malinowski and his local team of students and co-chaired by Wojciech Grabowski (NCAR/MMM) and Andreas Muhlbauer (University of Washington). International Cloud Modeling Workshops have been held traditionally every four years typically during the week before the International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation (ICCP) . Rooted in the World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO) weather modification program, the core objectives of the Cloud Modeling Workshop have been centered at the numerical modeling of clouds, cloud microphysics, and the interactions between cloud microphysics and cloud dynamics. In particular, the goal of the workshop is to provide insight into the pertinent problems of today’s state-of-the-art of cloud modeling and to identify key deficiencies in the microphysical representation of clouds in numerical models and cloud parameterizations. In recent years, the workshop has increasingly shifted the focus toward modeling the interactions between aerosols and clouds and provided case studies to investigate both the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation as well as the impact of cloud and precipitation processes on aerosols. This time, about 60 (?) scientists from about 10 (?) different countries participated in the workshop and contributed with discussions, oral and poster presentations to the workshop’s plenary and breakout sessions. Several case leaders contributed to the workshop by setting up five observationally-based case studies covering a wide range of cloud types, namely, marine stratocumulus, mid-latitude squall lines, mid-latitude cirrus clouds, Arctic stratus and winter-time orographic

  3. Thermally driven up-slope flows: state of the art and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Thermally driven flows over simple slopes are a relevant research topic, not only per se, but also as a source of key concepts for understanding and modelling many other flows over more complex topographies. However, compared to down-slope, up-slope flows have received much less attention in the literature. Indeed, to investigate katabatic winds many extensive and well equipped field measurements were performed in recent years under various research projects, and a series of high-resolution numerical simulations were run. On the contrary, few field experiments have provided detailed datasets documenting the development of anabatic flows, and the analysis of numerical investigations still relies on Schumann's (1990) pioneering LES simulations. Also, analytic solutions - such as Prandtl's (1942) constant-K profiles - reproduce fairly well katabatic flows, but are definitely inadequate to accurately reproduce field data for up-slope flows (Defant 1949). In particular, some open questions still claim for further investigations, such as the conditions of instability of slope-parallel flow vs. vertical motions, and the related possible occurrence of flow separation, and the similarity analysis of slope-normal velocity profiles of temperature anomaly, wind intensity and turbulence related quantities. Here a review of the state of the art on the subject is proposed, along with some insights into possible future developments. ReferencesDefant, F., 1949: Zur Theorie der Hangwinde, nebst Bemerkungen zur Theorie der Berg- und Talwinde. [A theory of slope winds, along with remarks on the theory of mountain winds and valley winds]. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioclimatol., Ser. A, 1, 421-450 (Theoretical and Applied Climatology). [English translation: Whiteman, C.D., and E. Dreiseitl, 1984: Alpine meteorology: Translations of classic contributions by A. Wagner, E. Ekhart and F. Defant. PNL-5141 / ASCOT-84-3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington, 121 pp]. Prandtl, L

  4. State-of-the-art EUV materials and processes for the 7nm node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Elizabeth; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Yildirim, Oktay; Custers, Rolf; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Mochi, Iacopo; Fallica, Roberto; Tasdemir, Zuhal; Ekinci, Yasin

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL, λ = 13.5 nm) being the most likely candidate to manufacture electronic devices for future technology nodes is to be introduced in high volume manufacturing (HVM) at the 7 nm logic node, at least at critical lithography levels. With this impending introduction, it is clear that excellent resist performance at ultra-high printing resolutions (below 20 nm line/space L/S) is ever more pressing. Nonetheless, EUVL has faced many technical challenges towards this paradigm shift to a new lithography wavelength platform. Since the inception of chemically amplified resists (CARs) they have been the base upon which state-of-the art photoresist technology has been developed from. Resist performance as measured in terms of printing resolution (R), line edge roughness (LER), sensitivity (D or exposure dose) and exposure latitude (EL) needs to be improved but there are well known trade-off relationships (LRS trade-off) among these parameters for CARs that hamper their simultaneous enhancement. Here, we present some of the most promising EUVL materials tested by EUV interference lithography (EUV-IL) with the aim of resolving features down to 11 nm half-pitch (HP), while focusing on resist performance at 16 and 13 nm HP as needed for the 7 and 5 nm node, respectively. EUV-IL has enabled the characterization and development of new resist materials before commercial EUV exposure tools become available and is therefore a powerful research and development tool. With EUV-IL, highresolution periodic images can be printed by the interference of two or more spatially coherent beams through a transmission-diffraction grating mask. For this reason, our experiments have been performed by EUV-IL at Swiss Light Source (SLS) synchrotron facility located at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Having the opportunity to test hundreds of EUVL materials from vendors and research partners from all over the world, PSI is able to give a global update on some of the

  5. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The

  6. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: consumer perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Ø; Gunnlaugsdottir, H; Holm, F; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    Benefit and risk perception with respect to food consumption, have been a part of human daily life from beginning of time. In today's society the food chain is long with many different types of actors and low degree of transparency. Making informed food choices where knowledge of benefits and risks is part of the decision making process are therefore complicated for consumers. Thus, to understand how consumers perceive benefits and risks of foods, their importance in relation to quality evaluations are aspects that need to be addressed. The objective of this paper is to discuss state of the art in understanding consumer perceptions of benefits and risks of foods in order to improve understanding of consumer behaviour in the food domain. Risks may be associated with both acute and long term consequences, some of which may have serious effects. Perceived risks are connected to morbidity and mortality along two dimensions relating to unknown risk, and to which extent the risk is dreaded by the consumer. Unfamiliar, uncertain, unknown, uncontrollable, and severe consequences are some factors associated with risk perception. Novel food processing techniques, for instance, score high on several of these parameters and are consequently regarded with suspicion and perceived as risky by consumers. On a daily basis, benefits of foods and food consumption are more important in most consumers' minds than risks. Benefits are often associated with food's ability to assuage hunger, and to provide pleasure through eating and socialising. In addition, two main categories of benefits that are important for acceptance of product innovations are health and environmental benefits. Benefit and risk perception of foods seem to be inversely correlated, so when something is perceived as being highly beneficial, it is correspondingly perceived as having low risk. However, slightly different paths are used in the formation of these perceptions; benefit perception is based on heuristics and

  7. Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion: theory, state of the art, design guidelines, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro Amir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion presents a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries for portable electronic devices and for computerized and motorized prosthetics. We present the theory of energy harvesting from the human body and describe the amount of energy that can be harvested from body heat and from motions of various parts of the body during walking, such as heel strike; ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow joint motion; and center of mass vertical motion. Methods We evaluated major motions performed during walking and identified the amount of work the body expends and the portion of recoverable energy. During walking, there are phases of the motion at the joints where muscles act as brakes and energy is lost to the surroundings. During those phases of motion, the required braking force or torque can be replaced by an electrical generator, allowing energy to be harvested at the cost of only minimal additional effort. The amount of energy that can be harvested was estimated experimentally and from literature data. Recommendations for future directions are made on the basis of our results in combination with a review of state-of-the-art biomechanical energy harvesting devices and energy conversion methods. Results For a device that uses center of mass motion, the maximum amount of energy that can be harvested is approximately 1 W per kilogram of device weight. For a person weighing 80 kg and walking at approximately 4 km/h, the power generation from the heel strike is approximately 2 W. For a joint-mounted device based on generative braking, the joints generating the most power are the knees (34 W and the ankles (20 W. Conclusions Our theoretical calculations align well with current device performance data. Our results suggest that the most energy can be harvested from the lower limb joints, but to do so efficiently, an innovative and light-weight mechanical design is

  8. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-21

    with the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) and the American Plastics Council (APC), is working to develop technology for recycling materials from shredder residue. Several other organizations worldwide are also working on developing technology for recycling shredder residue. Without a commercially viable shredder industry, our nation may face greater environmental challenges and a decreased supply of quality scrap and be forced to turn to primary ores for the production of finished metals. This document presents a review of the state of the art in shredder residue recycling. Available technologies and emerging technologies for the recycling of materials from shredder residue are discussed.

  9. Science and technology of farm animal cloning: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, Gábor; Gjerris, Mickey

    2006-05-01

    Details of the first mammal born after nuclear transfer cloning were published by Steen Malte Willadsen in 1986. In spite of its enormous scientific significance, this discovery failed to trigger much public concern, possibly because the donor cells were derived from pre-implantation stage embryos. The major breakthrough in terms of public recognition has happened when Ian Wilmut et al. [Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A.E., McWhir, J., Kind, A.J., Campbell, K.H., 1997. Viable offspring derived from fetal és adult mammalian cells. Nature 385, 810-813] described the successful application of almost exactly the same method, but using the nuclei of somatic cells from an adult mammal, to create Dolly the sheep. It has become theoretically possible to produce an unlimited number of genetic replicates from an adult animal or a post-implantation foetus. Since 1997 a number of different species including pigs, goats, horses, cats, etc. have been cloned with the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. Although the technology still has relatively low success rates and there seems to be substantial problems with the welfare of some of the cloned animals, cloning is used both within basic research and the biomedical sector. The next step seems to be to implement cloning in the agricultural production system and several animals have been developed in this direction. This article reviews the current state of the art of farm animal cloning from a scientific and technological perspective, describes the animal welfare problems and critically assess different applications of farm animal cloning. The scope is confined to animal biotechnologies in which the use of cell nuclear transfer is an essential part and extends to both biomedical and agricultural applications of farm animal cloning. These applications include the production of genetically identical animals for research purposes, and also the creation of genetically modified animals. In the agricultural sector, cloning can be used as a

  10. Dose assessment in environmental radiological protection: State of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Karolina; Goméz-Ros, José M; Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Lindbo Hansen, Elisabeth; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Kapustka, Lawrence A; Wood, Michael D; Bradshaw, Clare; Real, Almudena; McGuire, Corynne; Hinton, Thomas G

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to radiation is a potential hazard to humans and the environment. The Fukushima accident reminded the world of the importance of a reliable risk management system that incorporates the dose received from radiation exposures. The dose to humans from exposure to radiation can be quantified using a well-defined system; its environmental equivalent, however, is still in a developmental state. Additionally, the results of several papers published over the last decade have been criticized because of poor dosimetry. Therefore, a workshop on environmental dosimetry was organized by the STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) Network of Excellence to review the state of the art in environmental dosimetry and prioritize areas of methodological and guidance development. Herein, we report the key findings from that international workshop, summarise parameters that affect the dose animals and plants receive when exposed to radiation, and identify further research needs. Current dosimetry practices for determining environmental protection are based on simple screening dose assessments using knowledge of fundamental radiation physics, source-target geometry relationships, the influence of organism shape and size, and knowledge of how radionuclide distributions in the body and in the soil profile alter dose. In screening model calculations that estimate whole-body dose to biota the shapes of organisms are simply represented as ellipsoids, while recently developed complex voxel phantom models allow organ-specific dose estimates. We identified several research and guidance development priorities for dosimetry. For external exposures, the uncertainty in dose estimates due to spatially heterogeneous distributions of radionuclide contamination is currently being evaluated. Guidance is needed on the level of dosimetry that is required when screening benchmarks are exceeded and how to report exposure in dose-effect studies, including quantification of uncertainties. Further

  11. Validating a physics-based back-of-the-envelope climate model with state-of-the-art data

    CERN Document Server

    Benestad, Rasmus E

    2013-01-01

    An old conceptual physics-based back-of-the-envelope model for greenhouse effect is revisited and validated against state-of-the-art reanalyses. Untraditional diagnostics show a physically consistent picture, for which the state of earth's climate is constrained by well-known physical principles, such as energy balance, flow and, conservation. Greenhouse gas concentrations affect the atmospheric optical depth for infrared radiation, and increased opacity implies higher altitude from which earth's equivalent bulk heat loss takes place without being re-absorbed. Such increase is seen in the reanalyses. There has also been a reduction in the correlation between the spatial structure of outgoing long-wave radiation and surface temperature, consistent with increasingly more processes interfering with the upwelling infrared light before it reaches the top of the atmosphere. State-of-the-art reanalyses further imply increases in the overturning in the troposphere, consistent with a constant and continuous vertical e...

  12. Inter-comparison of state-of-the-art MSS and geoid models in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Farrell, Sinead; Hendricks, Stefan

    State-of-the-art Arctic Ocean mean sea surface (MSS) and geoid models are used to support sea ice freeboard estimation from satellite altimeters, and for oceanographic studies. However, errors in a given model in the high frequency domain, e.g. due to unresolved gravity features, can result...... in errors in the estimated freeboard heights, especially in areas with a sparse lead distribution in consolidated ice conditions. Additionally these errors can impact ocean geostrophic current estimates and remaining biases in the models may impact longer-term, multi-sensor oceanographic time-series of sea...... level change.This study, part of the ESA CryoVal Sea Ice project, focuses on an inter-comparison of various state-of-the-art Arctic MSS models (UCL13/DTU13/ICEn) and commonly-used geoid models (EGM08). We show improved definition of gravity features, such as the Gakkel ridge, in the latest MSS models...

  13. Bio-aggregates based building materials state-of-the-art report of the RILEM Technical Committee 236-BBM

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The work of the RILEM Technical Committee (TC -236 BBM) was dedicated to the study of construction materials made from plant particles. It considered the question whether building materials containing as main raw material recyclable and easily available plant particles are renewable. This book includes a state-of-the-art report and an appendix. The state-of-the-art report relates to the description of vegetal aggregates. Then, hygrothermal properties, fire resistance, durability and finally the impact of the variability of the method of production of bio-based concrete are assessed. The appendix is a TC report which presents the experience of a working group. The goal was to define testing methods for the measurement of water absorption, bulk density, particle size distribution, and thermal conductivity of bio aggregates. The work is based on a first round robin test of the TC-BBM where the protocols in use by the different laboratories (labs) are compared. .

  14. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    KRUL Cyrille; Ashton, Rachel; Roggen, Erwin; Fuchs, Horst; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Poth, Albrecht; Wever, De, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15–16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry...

  15. Evaluation of the impact of solder die attach versus epoxy die attach in a state of the art power package

    CERN Document Server

    Czernohorsky, J; Viering, Matthias; Wright, L; Balanon, G

    2008-01-01

    Subject of this paper is the thermal investigation of epoxy (EDA) and solder (SDA) die attaches by a comparison of an ASIC with multiple heat sources in different package assemblies. Static and transient thermal measurements and simulations were performed to investigate the thermal behavior of two samples in a state of the art QFP power package differing only in the die attach material (EDA and SDA).

  16. The state-of-the-art report for flow and pressure measurement techniques in the piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Lee, Jeong Han; Kim, Bong Soo; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2002-12-01

    The sodium is widely used as one of the coolants in the liquid metal reactor system since it has important safety features such as a long thermal response time, a large margin to coolant boiling, and operating in near atmospheric pressure, etc. The state-of-the-art on the flow and pressure measurement techniques in the piping system worldwide is investigated and reviewed to utilize it as a basis for developing a new technique applying for the high temperature sodium flow environment.

  17. Approach to a State of the Art of Traditional and Popular Medicinal Practices in Hispano-American

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Alberto Garzón Chirivi

    2015-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios157.168 This article presents a state of the art of academic production concerning traditional and popular medicine in Latin America. It analyzes the relation between studies on chamanismo (the art of medicine men) in indigenous communities in some Spanish-speaking countries (Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, Spain) and studies on curanderismo (the art of healers) in urban contexts and evidences recurring elements of a magical, religious and...

  18. State of the Art Report for Conceptual Design of Fuel Storage and Handling System of SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Jae Seon; Yu, Je Yong; Kim, Dong Ok; Kim, Jong In; Zee, Sung Kyun

    2003-08-15

    The state of the art for domestic and international reactors which are in operation or under development was reviewed for the purpose of conceptual design of SMART-P fuel storage and handling system. For domestic reactors, pressurized light water reactor and pressurized heavy water reactor in operation, and fast breeder reactor under development called by KALIMER, were investigated. The fuel handling systems of IRIS, KLT-40, and CAREM were reviewed for the state of the art for international integral reactors. Russian pressurized-water reactor, VVER was also investigated. The systems of Monju in Japan and PFBR in India was selected for international fast breed reactor. Fugen in Japan and LUNGMEN in Tiwan was selected for pressurized boiling water reactors. According to the results of the state of the art, all reactor is composed of similar subsystems which are new fuel storage and handling system, spent fuel storage and handling system, and refueling system. However, those subsystems have particular designs suitable for each reactor characteristics so that the refueling process could be performed effectively. Therefore, the design of fuel handling system for SMART-P should be accomplished in optimal concept compatible with its characteristic.

  19. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Duranceau, C. M.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S. (Energy Systems)

    2011-02-22

    vehicles. Many of these materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals that are recovered. In addition, the number of hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles on the road is rapidly increasing. This trend will also introduce new materials for disposal at the end of their useful lives, including batteries. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), the Vehicle Recycling Partnership, LLC. (VRP) of the United States Council for Automotive Research, LLC. (USCAR), and the American Chemistry Council-Plastics Division (ACC-PD) are working to develop technology for recovering materials from end-of-life vehicles, including separating and recovering polymers and residual metals from shredder residue. Several other organizations worldwide are also working on developing technology for recycling materials from shredder residue. Without a commercially viable shredder industry, our nation and the world will most likely face greater environmental challenges and a decreased supply of quality scrap, and thereby be forced to turn to primary ores for the production of finished metals. This will result in increased energy consumption and increased damage to the environment, including increased greenhouse gas emissions. The recycling of polymers, other organics, and residual metals in shredder residue saves the equivalent of over 23 million barrels of oil annually. This results in a 12-million-ton reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This document presents a review of the state-of-the-art in the recycling of automotive materials.

  20. Historical Account to the State of the Art in Debris Flow Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2013-04-01

    In this contribution, I present a historical account of debris flow modelling leading to the state of the art in simulations and applications. A generalized two-phase model is presented that unifies existing avalanche and debris flow theories. The new model (Pudasaini, 2012) covers both the single-phase and two-phase scenarios and includes many essential and observable physical phenomena. In this model, the solid-phase stress is closed by Mohr-Coulomb plasticity, while the fluid stress is modeled as a non-Newtonian viscous stress that is enhanced by the solid-volume-fraction gradient. A generalized interfacial momentum transfer includes viscous drag, buoyancy and virtual mass forces, and a new generalized drag force is introduced to cover both solid-like and fluid-like drags. Strong couplings between solid and fluid momentum transfer are observed. The two-phase model is further extended to describe the dynamics of rock-ice avalanches with new mechanical models. This model explains dynamic strength weakening and includes internal fluidization, basal lubrication, and exchanges of mass and momentum. The advantages of the two-phase model over classical (effectively single-phase) models are discussed. Advection and diffusion of the fluid through the solid are associated with non-linear fluxes. Several exact solutions are constructed, including the non-linear advection-diffusion of fluid, kinematic waves of debris flow front and deposition, phase-wave speeds, and velocity distribution through the flow depth and through the channel length. The new model is employed to study two-phase subaerial and submarine debris flows, the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes/oceans, and rock-ice avalanches. Simulation results show that buoyancy enhances flow mobility. The virtual mass force alters flow dynamics by increasing the kinetic energy of the fluid. Newtonian viscous stress substantially reduces flow deformation, whereas non-Newtonian viscous stress may change the

  1. Cost assessment of natural hazards in Europe - state-of-the-art, knowledge gaps and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, V.; Becker, N.; Markantonis, V.; Schwarze, R.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.; Bouwer, L. M.; Bubeck, P.; Ciavola, P.; Thieken, A. H.; Genovese, E.; Green, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Kreibich, H.; Lequeux, Q.; Viavattenne, C.; Logar, I.; Papyrakis, E.; Pfurtscheller, C.; Poussin, J.; Przyluski, V.

    2012-04-01

    Effective and efficient reduction of natural hazard risks requires a thorough understanding of the costs of natural hazards in order to develop sustainable risk management strategies. The current methods that assess the costs of different natural hazards employ a diversity of terminologies and approaches for different hazards and impacted sectors. This makes it difficult to arrive at robust, comprehensive and comparable cost figures. The CONHAZ (Costs of Natural Hazards) project aimed to compile and synthesise current knowledge on cost assessment methods in order to strengthen the role of cost assessments in the development of integrated natural hazard management and adaptation planning. In order to achieve this, CONHAZ has adopted a comprehensive approach, considering natural hazards ranging from droughts, floods and coastal hazards to Alpine hazards, as well as different impacted sectors and cost types. Its specific objectives have been 1) to compile the state-of-the-art methods for cost assessment; 2) to analyse and assess these methods in terms of technical aspects, as well as terminology, data quality and availability, and research gaps; and 3) to synthesise resulting knowledge into recommendations and to identify further research needs. This presentation summarises the main results of CONHAZ. CONHAZ differentiates between direct tangible damages, losses due to business interruption, indirect damages, intangible effects, and costs of risk mitigation. It is shown that the main focus of cost assessment methods and their application in practice is on direct costs, while existing methods for assessing intangible and indirect effects are rather rarely applied and methods for assessing indirect effects often cannot be used on the scale of interest (e.g. the regional scale). Furthermore, methods often focus on single sectors and/or hazards, and only very few are able to reflect several sectors or multiple hazards. Process understanding and its use in cost assessment

  2. Intercomparison of state-of-the-art models for wind energy resources with mesoscale models:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Bjarke Tobias; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Badger, Jake; Joergensen, Hans E.

    2016-04-01

    vertical resolution, model parameterizations, surface roughness length) that could be used to group the various models and interpret the results of the intercomparison. 3. Main body abstract Twenty separate entries were received by the deadline of 31 March 2015. They included simulations done with various versions of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, but also of six other well-known mesoscale models. The various entries represent an excellent sample of the various models used in by the wind energy industry today. The analysis of the submitted time series included comparison to observations, summarized with well-known measures such as biases, RMSE, correlations, and of sector-wise statistics, e.g. frequency and Weibull A and k. The comparison also includes the observed and modeled temporal spectra. The various statistics were grouped as a function of the various models, their spatial resolution, forcing data, and the various integration methods. Many statistics have been computed and will be presented in addition to those shown in the Helsinki presentation. 4. Conclusions The analysis of the time series from twenty entries has shown to be an invaluable source of information about state of the art in wind modeling with mesoscale models. Biases between the simulated and observed wind speeds at hub heights (80-100 m AGL) from the various models are around ±1.0 m/s and fairly independent of the site and do not seem to be directly related to the model horizontal resolution used in the modeling. As probably expected, the wind speeds from the simulations using the various version of the WRF model cluster close to each other, especially in their description of the wind profile.

  3. Geographical education in Russia: state-of-the-art and new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalov, Sergey R.

    2010-05-01

    Up-today education systems of different countries face new perspectives in globalizing World. The Russian higher education framework was basically incompatible with the process of making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable throughout the World (so called Bologna process for Europe). So did Earth Sciences education framework. Today the key question in the further development of Earth sciences in Russia is the interaction with European education system. At the crossroads it is challenging to analyze the history and state-of-the-art. We considered the question on the example of one of the largest centers of the Earth Sciences education in Russia - Faculty of Geography of Lomonosov Moscow State University, which is moreover regarded to be one of the largest scientific and educational centers of geography in the World. There are 1200 students and 180 PhD students studying on the Faculty. The Faculty consists of 15 departments, 8 research laboratories and 4 field stations, where 850 employees work. Tuition of geography was established at Lomonosov Moscow State University since the day of its foundation. The significance of geographical studies at the University, which originally comprised the Faculty of Philosophy, the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Medicine, was already mentioned in the draft plan of its establishment (1755), which said that «anyone wishing to attend professors' lectures at the University has to learn foreign languages and first scientific basis beforehand". For this purpose two «gymnasiums» consisting of four schools were es-tablished at the University. Geography was included into the curriculum of the «first scientific basis school» and the «school of the distinguished European languages» - German and French. Today Geography in Russia is regarded to be one of the base sciences that are devoted to the problem of society and environment and their interactions. Geography was gone far from the descriptive

  4. PARA'04 Workshop on State-of-the-art in Scientific Computing, June 20-23, 2004: Complementary Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dongarra, Jack; Madsen, Kaj; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The PARA workshops in the past have been devoted to parallel computing methods in science and technology. There have been seven PARA meetings to date: PARA'94, PARA'95 and PARA'96 in Lyngby, Denmark, PARA'98 in Umeå, Sweden, PARA'2000 in Bergen, Norway, PARA'02 in Espoo, Finland, and PARA'04 again...... in Lyngby, Denmark. The rst six meetings featured lectures in modern numerical algorithms, computer science, engineering, and industrial applications, all in the context of scientific parallel computing. This meeting in the series, the PARA'04 Workshop with the title State of the Art in Scientific Computing...

  5. A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Robla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification, presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed.

  6. Inter-comparison of state-of-the-art MSS and geoid models in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Farrell, Sinead; Hendricks, Stefan

    in errors in the estimated freeboard heights, especially in areas with a sparse lead distribution in consolidated ice conditions. Additionally these errors can impact ocean geostrophic current estimates and remaining biases in the models may impact longer-term, multi-sensor oceanographic time-series of sea......State-of-the-art Arctic Ocean mean sea surface (MSS) and geoid models are used to support sea ice freeboard estimation from satellite altimeters, and for oceanographic studies. However, errors in a given model in the high frequency domain, e.g. due to unresolved gravity features, can result...

  7. Vagus nerve stimulation: state of the art of stimulation and recording strategies to address autonomic function neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Bonnet, Stéphane; Carrault, Guy; Couderc, Pascal; Hagège, Albert; Henry, Christine; Hernandez, Alfredo; Karam, Nicole; Le Rolle, Virginie; Mabo, Philippe; Maciejasz, Paweł; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Marijon, Eloi; Maubert, Sandrine; Picq, Chloé; Rossel, Olivier; Bonnet, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Neural signals along the vagus nerve (VN) drive many somatic and autonomic functions. The clinical interest of VN stimulation (VNS) is thus potentially huge and has already been demonstrated in epilepsy. However, side effects are often elicited, in addition to the targeted neuromodulation. Approach. This review examines the state of the art of VNS applied to two emerging modulations of autonomic function: heart failure and obesity, especially morbid obesity. Main results. We report that VNS may benefit from improved stimulation delivery using very advanced technologies. However, most of the results from fundamental animal studies still need to be demonstrated in humans.

  8. Thermal solar energy in Spain. State of the art and objectives; Energie solaire thermique en Espagne. Etat actuel et objectifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Jaouen

    2006-07-01

    According the Kyoto protocol, Spain has to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions at 330 millions of tons (a decrease of 18 % from the level of 2003). From the european commission policy, the energy resources will be of 12 % of renewable energies. In this context, Spain developed an energy policy in favor of the solar energy. This document provides information on: the energy market in Spain, the thermal solar energy operating, the CO{sub 2} emissions, the state of the art in the domain in spain, the 2010 objectives, the programs and the assistance, some data on the solar market in comparison with the Europe. (A.L.B.)

  9. State-of-the-art in the documentation of the Papuan languages of Timor, Alor, Pantar, and Kisar; A bibliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette Schapper

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Timor-Alor-Pantar (TAP language family has a special place in South-East Asian linguistics; its members make up the western extreme of the Papuan language sphere. Along with an exhaustive bibliography of works on the TAP languages, this paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the ongoing documentation of the TAP language family in terms of both linguistic description and (pre-historical reconstruction. The paper concludes with a consideration of the prospects for future studies of the TAP languages.

  10. State of the art of R and D in the anaerobic digestion process of municipal solid waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchi, F.; Traverso, P.G.; Mata-Alvarez, J.; Clancy, J.; Zaror, C.

    1988-01-01

    The state of the art of R and D in the field of anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in Europe is reviewed. A comparison is made of the quality and quantity of refuse produced in different European countries using data available in recent literature. The conclusion to be drawn from this analysis is that in programmes involving demonstration and full scale plants it is necessary to carry out more detailed studies of the process and its control, as well as carrying out further work on the microbiological aspects of anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

  11. Video Q&A: state-of-the-art therapy for the elite and non-elite athlete: an interview with Mike Carmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmont, Michael R

    2014-01-17

    In this video Q&A, Mr Mike Carmont answers questions about state-of-the-art treatments for elite athletes, and the progress and challenges behind translating these into successful therapies for the non-elite athlete.

  12. Establishment of database and network for research of stream generator and state of the art technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Bong; Hur, Nam Su; Moon, Seong In; Seo, Hyeong Won; Park, Bo Kyu; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyung Geun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired world widely. This wide spread damage has been caused by diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. Regarding domestic nuclear power plants, also, the increase of number of operating nuclear power plants and operating periods may result in the increase of steam generator tube failure. So, it is important to carry out the integrity evaluation process to prevent the steam generator tube damage. There are two objectives of this research. The one is to make database for the research of steam generator at domestic research institution. It will increase the efficiency and capability of limited domestic research resources by sharing data and information through network organization. Also, it will enhance the current standard of integrity evaluation procedure that is considerably conservative but can be more reasonable. The second objective is to establish the standard integrity evaluation procedure for steam generator tube by reviewing state of the art technology. The research resources related to steam generator tubes are managed by the established web-based database system. The following topics are covered in this project: development of web-based network for research on steam generator tubes review of state of the art technology.

  13. Indoor location-aware medical systems for smart homecare and telehealth monitoring: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Fendy; Redmond, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of current progress in the application of state-of-the-art indoor positioning systems for telecare and telehealth monitoring. This review is the first in the literature that provides a comprehensive discussion on how existing wireless indoor positioning systems can benefit the development of home-based care systems. More specifically, this review provides an in-depth comparative study of how both system users and medical practitioners can get benefit from indoor positioning technologies; e.g. for real-time monitoring of patients suffering chronic cardiovascular conditions, general monitoring of activities of daily living (ADLs), fall detection systems for the elderly as well as indoor navigation systems for those suffering from visual impairments. Furthermore, it also details various aspects worth considering when choosing a certain technology for a specific healthcare application; e.g. the spatial precision demanded by the application, trade-offs between unobtrusiveness and complexity, and issues surrounding compliance and adherence with the use of wearable tags. Beyond the current state-of-the-art, this review also rigorously discusses several research opportunities and the challenges associated with each.

  14. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of a Safety Assessment and a Radioactivity Exposure Assessment for the Decommissioning Process of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kang, Young Ae; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-09-15

    This report is to provide the reference contents of research and development for technologies of radioactivity exposure and safety assessment for development of the decommissioning technology for nuclear facilities. This report consists of as follows: - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a radioactivity exposure assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a safety assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities.

  15. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: the State of the Art with Special Reference to the Chinese Context%Computer-Assisted Language Learning:the State of the Art with Special Reference to the Chinese Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yue-guo

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to present a critical revw of the state of the art in computer-assisted languae llesrning(CALL)with special reference to the Chinese context. It first cites Levy's review of CALL as a global context in which the Chinese CALL is situated. CaALL in China has literall no pre-network CALL. The turn of the millennium witnessed cyber rush in China with 68 Web-based CALL faculties established within a very short space of time.The focus of this paper is to critically review this cyber rush with regard to the courseware design, evaluation, conceptualization, and policy dimension. The paper conculdes with ssuggestive strategies for coping with constantly changing telematic technologies.

  16. State-of-the-Art Report on Computer Systems for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Branner, Kim

    1997-01-01

    Although the shipbuilding industry is among the oldest and most traditional heavy industries in the world, it was also among the first to recognise the advantages of computers in the design and productionprocesses. Today the computer is an indispensable tool in the total design phase ranging...

  17. State-of-the-Art Report on Computer Systems for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Branner, Kim

    1997-01-01

    Although the shipbuilding industry is among the oldest and most traditional heavy industries in the world, it was also among the first to recognise the advantages of computers in the design and productionprocesses. Today the computer is an indispensable tool in the total design phase ranging...

  18. UC Riverside physicists contribute to state-of-the-art detector installed in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    PMUC Riverside scientists led by Gail Hanson, a distinguished professor of physics, are part of a collaboration of approximately 2300 international physicists who announced Dec. 19 that the world 's largest silicon tracking detector at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, had been successfully installed (see also ). Called the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) Silicon Strip Tracking Detector, the six-ton instrument has a total surface area of 205 square meters, about the same as a singles tennis court.

  19. UC Riverside physicists contribute to state-of-the-art detector installed in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    UC Riverside scientists led by Gail Hanson, a distinguished professor of physics, are part of a collaboration of approximately 2300 international physicists who announced Dec. 19 that the world's largest silicon tracking detector at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, had been successfully installed (see also ). Called the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) Silicon Strip Tracking Detector, the six-ton instrument has a total surface area of 205 square meters, about the same as a singles tennis court.

  20. Customer journey measures - State of the art research and best practices

    OpenAIRE

    Følstad, Asbjørn; Kvale, Knut; Halvorsrud, Ragnhild

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature on customer journeys to support our work on customer journey measures in the research project Customer Care 2015. A total of 54 journal and conference papers have been analysed along with the background literature referred in these papers. Key insights from the review include: • Customer journey measures should support customer journey mapping, that is, analyses to identify customer journeys in terms of phases, touchpoi...

  1. State of the art: Advanced techniques for prostatic urethral lift for the relief of prostate obstruction under local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lance Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) affects an estimated 60% of men over the age of 50 and 90% of men over the age of 80. The prostatic urethral lift (PUL) is a safe and effective office-based procedure that is used worldwide for the treatment of BPH in men who are dissatisfied with medications due to side effects or lack of efficacy or don't want to have a transurethral resection of the prostate due to the side effects and invasiveness of the procedure. In 2012 Barkin et al, published the standard technique for the delivery of the Urolift implant. The objective of this article is to describe the current state of the art advanced techniques for the delivery of the UroLift implant.

  2. A state-of-the-art report on the off-gas treatment technology generated from the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Hoo Geun; Park, Geun Il; Choi, Byung Seon; Lee, Kee Won; Cho, Il Hoon; Kim, Jung Kook; Park, Hyun Soo

    1997-10-01

    This state-of-the-art report describes various technologies for offgas treatment. It provides comprehensive treatment technologies of the extensive subject such as particulates, radioactive iodine, carbon dioxide, Kr/Xe and Cs/Ru. This report also incorporates the wastes generation and its characteristics as well as the historical and current management practices. A number of review articles by experts in various area of concern and some of the removal systems that have been designed for power plants and, particularly, for spent fuel reusing plants are also involved. As a result, it can be drawn that the drying processes for offgas treatment have much benefits in standpoints of simplicity, economy, disposal safety and resource reuse rather than the wet processes. (author). 226 refs., 38 tabs., 44 figs

  3. PARA'04 Workshop on State-of-the-art in Scientific Computing, June 20-23, 2004: Complementary Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dongarra, Jack; Madsen, Kaj; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    in Lyngby, Denmark. The rst six meetings featured lectures in modern numerical algorithms, computer science, engineering, and industrial applications, all in the context of scientific parallel computing. This meeting in the series, the PARA'04 Workshop with the title State of the Art in Scientific Computing...... (HPC). The ongoing development of ever more advanced computers provides the potential for solving increasingly dif cult computational problems. However, given the complexity of modern computer architectures, the task of realizing this potential needs careful attention. For example, the failure...... for HPC. A solution to this problem can be network computing, where remote computing facilities are exploited via the internet. PARA'04 featured invited talks, contributed talks, minisymposia, and software and hardware vendors. The rst day, June 20, was devoted to two parallel tutorials. The minisymposia...

  4. Learning analytics fundaments, applications, and trends : a view of the current state of the art to enhance e-learning

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a conceptual and empirical perspective on learning analytics, its goal being to disseminate the core concepts, research, and outcomes of this emergent field. Divided into nine chapters, it offers reviews oriented on selected topics, recent advances, and innovative applications. It presents the broad learning analytics landscape and in-depth studies on higher education, adaptive assessment, teaching and learning. In addition, it discusses valuable approaches to coping with personalization and huge data, as well as conceptual topics and specialized applications that have shaped the current state of the art. By identifying fundamentals, highlighting applications, and pointing out current trends, the book offers an essential overview of learning analytics to enhance learning achievement in diverse educational settings. As such, it represents a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners, and students interested in updating their knowledge and finding inspirations for their future work.

  5. A State-of-the-Art Review of the Sensor Location, Flow Observability, Estimation, and Prediction Problems in Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art review of flow observability, estimation, and prediction problems in traffic networks is performed. Since mathematical optimization provides a general framework for all of them, an integrated approach is used to perform the analysis of these problems and consider them as different optimization problems whose data, variables, constraints, and objective functions are the main elements that characterize the problems proposed by different authors. For example, counted, scanned or “a priori” data are the most common data sources; conservation laws, flow nonnegativity, link capacity, flow definition, observation, flow propagation, and specific model requirements form the most common constraints; and least squares, likelihood, possible relative error, mean absolute relative error, and so forth constitute the bases for the objective functions or metrics. The high number of possible combinations of these elements justifies the existence of a wide collection of methods for analyzing static and dynamic situations.

  6. Direct Numerical Simulation of Boiling Multiphase Flows: State-of-the-Art, Modeling, Algorithmic and Computer Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nourgaliev R.; Knoll D.; Mousseau V.; Berry R.

    2007-04-01

    The state-of-the-art for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of boiling multiphase flows is reviewed, focussing on potential of available computational techniques, the level of current success for their applications to model several basic flow regimes (film, pool-nucleate and wall-nucleate boiling -- FB, PNB and WNB, respectively). Then, we discuss multiphysics and multiscale nature of practical boiling flows in LWR reactors, requiring high-fidelity treatment of interfacial dynamics, phase-change, hydrodynamics, compressibility, heat transfer, and non-equilibrium thermodynamics and chemistry of liquid/vapor and fluid/solid-wall interfaces. Finally, we outline the framework for the {\\sf Fervent} code, being developed at INL for DNS of reactor-relevant boiling multiphase flows, with the purpose of gaining insight into the physics of multiphase flow regimes, and generating a basis for effective-field modeling in terms of its formulation and closure laws.

  7. Robot-assisted gait training for stroke patients: current state of the art and perspectives of robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morone, Giovanni; Paolucci, Stefano; Cherubini, Andrea; De Angelis, Domenico; Venturiero, Vincenzo; Coiro, Paola; Iosa, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we give a brief outline of robot-mediated gait training for stroke patients, as an important emerging field in rehabilitation. Technological innovations are allowing rehabilitation to move toward more integrated processes, with improved efficiency and less long-term impairments. In particular, robot-mediated neurorehabilitation is a rapidly advancing field, which uses robotic systems to define new methods for treating neurological injuries, especially stroke. The use of robots in gait training can enhance rehabilitation, but it needs to be used according to well-defined neuroscientific principles. The field of robot-mediated neurorehabilitation brings challenges to both bioengineering and clinical practice. This article reviews the state of the art (including commercially available systems) and perspectives of robotics in poststroke rehabilitation for walking recovery. A critical revision, including the problems at stake regarding robotic clinical use, is also presented. PMID:28553117

  8. State of the art and the future fuel portfolio of fluidized bed combustion systems; Status und kuenftiges Brennstoffportfolio bei Wirbelschichtfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szentannai, Pal; Friebert, Arpad; Winter, Franz [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Verfahrens-, Umwelttechnik und technische Biowissenschaften

    2008-07-01

    Coal, biomass and substitute fuels energetically can be used efficiently and with low pollution in fluidized bed plants. In comparison to biomass there are significant differences between the circulating and stationary fluidized bed technology. The stationary fluidised bed is fed predominantly with biomasses and residual substances. Coal usually is the basis fuel in the circulating fluidised bed. Biomass and residual substances frequently are course-fired. The state of the art is the employment of a broad fuel mixture in small and large fluidized-bed combustion systems. Future developments present an increased use of sewage sludge, fluidized bed combustion systems with wood as a basis fuel, utilization of household waste and the gas production.

  9. State-of-the-Art Multi-Objective Optimisation of Manufacturing Processes Based on Thermo-Mechanical Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2011-01-01

    competition between manufacturers of products in combination with the possibility of doing these highly complex simulations. Thus, there is a crucial need for combining advanced simulation tools for manufacturing processes with systematic optimisation algorithms which are capable of searching for single......During the last couple of decades the possibility of modelling multi-physics phenomena has increased dramatically, thus making simulation of very complex manufacturing processes possible and in some fields even an everyday event. A consequence of this has been improved products with respect....... These limitations eventually determine what is in fact possible today and hence define what the “state-of-the-art” is. So, seen from that perspective the very definition of the state-of-the-art itself in the field of optimisation of manufacturing processes constitutes an important discussion. Moreover, in the major...

  10. Computer simulation models relevant to ground water contamination from EOR or other fluids - state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, M.B.; Collins, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    Ground water contamination is a serious national problem. The use of computers to simulate the behavior of fluids in the subsurface has proliferated extensively over the last decade. Numerical models are being used to solve water supply problems, various kinds of enertgy production problems, and ground water contamination problems. Modeling techniques have progressed to the point that their accuracy is only limited by the modeller's ability to describe the reservoir in question and the heterogeneities therein. Pursuant to the Task and Milestone Update of Project BE3A, this report summarizes the state of the art of computer simulation models relevant to contamination of ground water by enhanced oil recovery (EOR) chemicals and/or waste fluids. 150 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Statistics in science and in society: From a state-of-the-art to a new research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Roten, Fabienne Crettaz; de Roten, Yves

    2013-10-01

    Statistics occupies a prominent role in science and citizens' daily life. This article provides a state-of-the-art of the problems associated with statistics in science and in society, structured along the three paradigms defined by Bauer, Allum and Miller (2007). It explores in more detail medicine and public understanding of science on the one hand, and risks and surveys on the other. Statistics has received a good deal of attention; however, very often handled in terms of deficit - either of scientists or of citizens. Many tools have been proposed to improve statistical literacy, the image of and trust in statistics, but with little understanding of their roots, with little coordination among stakeholders and with few assessments of impacts. These deficiencies represent as many new and promising directions in which the PUS research agenda could be expanded.

  12. Methane Post-Processor Development to Increase Oxygen Recovery beyond State-of-the-Art Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee A.; Alvarez, Giraldo; Iannantuono, Michelle; Jones, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art life support carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology, based on the Sabatier reaction, is theoretically capable of 50% recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. This recovery is constrained by the limited availability of reactant hydrogen. Post-processing of the methane byproduct from the Sabatier reactor results in hydrogen recycle and a subsequent increase in oxygen recovery. For this purpose, a Methane Post-Processor Assembly containing three sub-systems has been developed and tested. The assembly includes a Methane Purification Assembly (MePA) to remove residual CO2 and water vapor from the Sabatier product stream, a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to partially pyrolyze methane into hydrogen and acetylene, and an Acetylene Separation Assembly (ASepA) to purify the hydrogen product for recycle. The results of partially integrated testing of the sub-systems are reported

  13. Understanding the Role of Bureaucracy in the European Security and Defence Policy: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer Heidi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP in 1999 has led to the creation of a whole range of bureaucratic bodies in Brussels and the national capitals. These bodies support the crisis management operations of the European Union. This review article presents the state of the art of academic research on the role of bureaucracy in this recent policy area. It argues that the growing institutional complexity and the constant interaction between actors at the national and European level require scholars to go beyond the dominant approaches of International Relations. Using insights from comparative politics, public administration and multi-level governance, this article considers four important questions: who these civil servants are, why they matter, how they interact, and how they are controlled politically and democratically.

  14. A state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, B. K.; Lee, K. W.; Oh, W. Z.; Woo, Z. H.; Kim, G. H

    2004-11-15

    Many radioactive wastes are produced during the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities. Their radiological characterization must be estimated for disposal and reuse. Especially, it is very difficult to measure the in-pipe surface contamination, because of the difficulty of access. So, it is necessary to develop the measurement technology for the in-pipe surface contamination. In the developed counties of the decommissioning technology such as America, Japan etc. they developed the measuring device for the in-pipe radioactive contamination and performed the capacity estimation. In this report, the state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and radiation detector for measuring the each radiation(alpha, beta, and gamma) proceeding around the world was analyzed. By means of such technology analysis, we will develop the measuring technology of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and apply to the decommissioning sites.

  15. An overview of the state of the art technologies for multi-MW scale offshore wind turbines and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    systems that ensure performance and the design of offshore support structures to minimize cost of energy. Light weight carbon fiber blades, aeroelastic tailoring using bend–twist coupling are discussed in coordination with a multitude of aerodynamic technologies for optimal power capture such as high...... mechanisms such as individual blade pitch control offer promising advances. The lack of reliability of the gearbox has resulted in drive train technologies to move toward direct drives, whose benefits and liabilities are assessed in combination with generator concepts. The support structures are discussed......An overview of technological trends in the design of multi-mega Watt wind turbines focused on the offshore sector is presented. The state of the art technologies for wind turbine design are multidisciplinary ranging from blade aeroelasticity, power transmission to the generator, to advanced control...

  16. Comparison of State-of-the-Art Digital Control and Analogue Control for High Bandwidth Point of Load Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a comparison of state-of-the-art digital and analogue control for a Buck converter with synchronous rectification. The digital control scheme is based on a digital self-oscillating modulator that allows the sampling frequency to be higher than the switching...... frequency of the converter. Voltage mode control is used in both the analogue and digital control schemes. The experimental results show that it is possible to design a digitally controlled Buck converter that has the same performance as can be achieved using commercially available analogue control ICs....... The performance of the analogue system can however be increased by using a separate operational amplifier as error amplifier. Thus analogue control is still the best option if high control bandwidth and fast transient response to load steps are important design parameters....

  17. Multivariate pattern recognition for diagnosis and prognosis in clinical neuroimaging: state of the art, current challenges and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Sven; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    Many diseases are associated with systematic modifications in brain morphometry and function. These alterations may be subtle, in particular at early stages of the disease progress, and thus not evident by visual inspection alone. Group-level statistical comparisons have dominated neuroimaging studies for many years, proving fascinating insight into brain regions involved in various diseases. However, such group-level results do not warrant diagnostic value for individual patients. Recently, pattern recognition approaches have led to a fundamental shift in paradigm, bringing multivariate analysis and predictive results, notably for the early diagnosis of individual patients. We review the state-of-the-art fundamentals of pattern recognition including feature selection, cross-validation and classification techniques, as well as limitations including inter-individual variation in normal brain anatomy and neurocognitive reserve. We conclude with the discussion of future trends including multi-modal pattern recognition, multi-center approaches with data-sharing and cloud-computing.

  18. State-of-the-Art Multi-Objective Optimisation of Manufacturing Processes Based on Thermo-Mechanical Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2011-01-01

    to properties, weight/stiffness ratio and cost. However this development has mostly been based on “manual iterations” carried out by the user of the relevant simulation software rather than being based on a systematic search for optimal solutions. This is, however, about to change because of the very tough....... These limitations eventually determine what is in fact possible today and hence define what the “state-of-the-art” is. So, seen from that perspective the very definition of the state-of-the-art itself in the field of optimisation of manufacturing processes constitutes an important discussion. Moreover, in the major...... research fields of manufacturing process simulation and multi-objective optimisation there are still many issues to be reserved....

  19. Wave Energy Assessment and Performance Estimation of State of the Art Wave Energy Converters in Italian Hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vannucchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of offshore wave energy potential at the scale of the whole Mediterranean Sea. The offshore wave data were propagated, by means of numerical modeling, toward four Italian coastal areas, namely stretches of coast of Tuscany, Liguria, Sardinia and Sicily. For each area, the wave power and the monthly, seasonal and annual variability at water depths of 50 m and 15 m were analyzed and hotspots were located. The results show strong variability of the wave energy potential from point to point of the same area thus highlighting the need for spatially detailed analysis. The higher values of wave energy potential are located in the hotspots of Sardinia and Sicily, at 11.4 kW/m and 9.1 kW/m, respectively. The Tuscany and the Liguria hotspots are characterized, respectively, by 4.7 kW/m and 2.0 kW/m. In order to point out which state of the art WEC is best suited for the Italian areas, the performances of six different state of the art Wave Energy Converters (WECs were evaluated. Finally, a comparison of the performances of each WEC in the selected Italian sites and in some European (EU oceanic sites was conducted. The energy potential in the most energetic EU oceanic site, among those here investigated, is up to 38-times greater than the potentials in the studied Italian areas but the power output, of the best WEC technology, is no more than nine times greater.

  20. Human milk glycosaminoglycans: the state of the art and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppa Giovanni Valentino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, a complete characterization and detailed evaluation of the glycosaminoglycans of human milk were performed. The total glycosaminoglycans content in milk from healthy mothers having delivered term or preterm newborns showed a constant pattern which was essentially composed of two main polysaccharides: chondroitin sulfate (60-70% and heparin (30-40%. Moreover, considerable variations of glycosaminoglycans concentration were found during the first month of lactation, the highest values being present in colostrum compared to mature milk. Metabolism and potential biological functions of human milk glycosaminoglycans are hypothesized and future studies are encouraged.

  1. Zero emissions trucks. An overview of state-of-the-art technologies and their potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.; Aarnink, S. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Kleiner, F.; Pagenkopf, J. [German Aerospace Center DLR, Cologne (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The study by CE Delft and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), surveys the technology potential for zero-emission road freight transport in the EU. For short distance transport, battery electric technology is feasible, as distribution trucks have lower range requirements and recharging can occur at scheduled downtimes (e.g. overnight). For long haul applications, battery electric vehicles coupled with overhead wires (catenary) or in-road charging (dynamic) infrastructure are possible, as well as fuel cell drivelines. The cost differential between conventional and zero emission HDVs will diminish over the next 10-15 years, as fuel savings offset other costs. If zero-emission technologies are introduced on a large scale in the onroad freight transport sector beginning in 2020, the total end-user costs will not significantly increase. The total cost of ownership within this study do not consider required infrastructure investments. All zero emission technologies require major infrastructure investments, whether hydrogen refuelling stations, in-road inductive charging, or other systems. Broad policy support is needed to encourage the development and evaluation of various technology options. Over time, the policy focus must shift from stimulating innovation and technology adoption to regulation, if it is to spur a successful transformation of the truck market.

  2. State of the art of diagnostic technology for early-stage melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitera, Pascale; Menzies, Scott W

    2011-05-01

    In the past few decades, rapid improvements in noninvasive optical technologies have revolutionized the diagnosis of early-stage melanoma. Current knowledge and limitations of these tools will be reviewed in this article. Dermoscopy has been recognized as the 'gold standard' in the screening phase. Digital dermoscopy monitoring and total-body photography are used to identify so-called 'featureless' melanoma only on the criteria of change over time. Automated instruments, as well as optical and nonmorphological methods, are still under development, and offer many opportunities to improve the speed and accuracy of the diagnosis of melanoma and/or to reduce the need for expertise. Despite a penetration depth limited to the upper dermis, the quasi-histological imaging achieved by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy has been demonstrated to significantly aid diagnostic accuracy for selected melanocytic lesions. Future perspectives on diagnostic instrumentation will also be explored.

  3. Optical interconnects for satellite payloads: overview of the state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaeke, Michael; Debaes, Christof; Van Erps, Jürgen; Karppinen, Mikko; Tanskanen, Antti; Aalto, Timo; Harjanne, Mikko; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-05-01

    The increased demand of broadband communication services like High Definition Television, Video On Demand, Triple Play, fuels the technologies to enhance the bandwidth of individual users towards service providers and hence the increase of aggregate bandwidths on terrestial networks. Optical solutions clearly leverage the bandwidth appetite easily whereas electrical interconnection schemes require an ever-increasing effort to counteract signal distortions at higher bitrates. Dense wavelength division multiplexing and all-optical signal regeneration and switching solve the bandwidth demands of network trunks. Fiber-to-the-home, and fiber-to-the-desk are trends towards providing individual users with greatly increased bandwidth. Operators in the satellite telecommunication sector face similar challenges fuelled by the same demands as for their terrestial counterparts. Moreover, the limited number of orbital positions for new satellites set the trend for an increase in payload datacommunication capacity using an ever-increasing number of complex multi-beam active antennas and a larger aggregate bandwidth. Only satellites with very large capacity, high computational density and flexible, transparent fully digital payload solutions achieve affordable communication prices. To keep pace with the bandwidth and flexibility requirements, designers have to come up with systems requiring a total digital througput of a few Tb/s resulting in a high power consuming satellite payload. An estimated 90 % of the total power consumption per chip is used for the off-chip communication lines. We have undertaken a study to assess the viability of optical datacommunication solutions to alleviate the demands regarding power consumption and aggregate bandwidth imposed on future satellite communication payloads. The review on optical interconnects given here is especially focussed on the demands of the satellite communication business and the particular environment in which the optics have

  4. Bilateral robots for upper-limb stroke rehabilitation: State of the art and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Bo; Zhang, Yanxin; Meng, Wei; Deng, Chao; Xie, Shengquan

    2016-07-01

    Robot-assisted bilateral upper-limb training grows abundantly for stroke rehabilitation in recent years and an increasing number of devices and robots have been developed. This paper aims to provide a systematic overview and evaluation of existing bilateral upper-limb rehabilitation devices and robots based on their mechanisms and clinical-outcomes. Most of the articles studied here were searched from nine online databases and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from year 1993 to 2015. Devices and robots were categorized as end-effectors, exoskeletons and industrial robots. Totally ten end-effectors, one exoskeleton and one industrial robot were evaluated in terms of their mechanical characteristics, degrees of freedom (DOF), supported control modes, clinical applicability and outcomes. Preliminary clinical results of these studies showed that all participants could gain certain improvements in terms of range of motion, strength or physical function after training. Only four studies supported that bilateral training was better than unilateral training. However, most of clinical results cannot definitely verify the effectiveness of mechanisms and clinical protocols used in robotic therapies. To explore the actual value of these robots and devices, further research on ingenious mechanisms, dose-matched clinical protocols and universal evaluation criteria should be conducted in the future.

  5. Frame and edge seal technology: A state of the art survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyholt, Marit; Andresen, Inger; Hugdal, Berit; Aschehoug, Oeyvind

    1994-04-01

    In windows, the glazing is traditionally mounted in an operable or fixed frame, made of wood, metal (steel or aluminum), or PVC. The glazing component in solar collectors and solar walls is also typically mounted in a frame. The purpose of the frame is to protect the vulnerable edge of the glazing and give structural stability, which is especially important in operable windows. Sealed multipane glazings are almost exclusively fabricated with a metal (aluminum or galvanized steel) spacer bar along the edges. New advanced glazings will require new types of frame and edge seal products. As the insulation properties of the glazing itself reach a performance close to that of well-insulated opaque walls, the thermal bridging caused by the spacer bars and the frames will be unacceptable, even for wooden windows. The new glazings will also integrate other functions, which again will influence the design of the frames. There are already quite a few new technological developments in this field. New materials and products for the edge seal and the frame are being developed, and computer calculations gradually take over the manual analysis and laboratory testing of new products. The objective of this IEA Task 18 Case Study is to investigate the influence of the frame and glazing edge seal on the total U-value of a glazing system, to develop improved test and calculation methods, and to design, construct, and test low thermal loss frames for use in advanced glazing applications.

  6. State-of-the-art sports facility's HVAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, M.K. (Gateway Sports Complex, Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1994-08-01

    This article describes the HVAC systems design to keep Cleveland's new Gateway sports and entertainment complex comfortable. This magnificent new facility embraces the 42,000-seat Jacobs Field, with its natural grass playing surface, and the 21,000-seat Arena at Gateway (the official name will be announced at its August 1 opening). The Arena is the new home of the Cleveland Cavaliers NBA basketball team and the Lumberjacks IHL ice hockey team. Other events that will be held here include arena football, circuses, ice shows, and concerts. It is anticipated that the Arena will be in use in excess of 200 days a year for these and other functions. The ballpark and the arena are separated by Gateway Plaza, a large illuminated public space that also will be the site of various entertainment events. An air conditioned pedestrian bridge, approximately 0.7 miles in length, connects the Arena with the Regional Transit Authority's downtown rapid transit station. Other enclosed walkways connect the Arena with two parking garages (3,158 vehicles total) and the larger garage with Jacobs Field.

  7. Nutritional support in patients with GVHD of the digestive tract: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, B S; de Graaf, P; Wierdsma, N J; Langius, J A E; Janssen, J J W M; van Leeuwen, P A M; Visser, O J

    2013-04-01

    An important complication of allo-SCT is GVHD, which commonly affects the skin, liver and digestive tract. Clinical symptoms of GVHD of the digestive tract (GVHD-DT) include excessive diarrhoea, abdominal pain and cramps, nausea and vomiting, gastrointestinal bleeding, dysphagia, and weight loss. Treatment is complicated and regarding nutritional support, only a few guidelines are available. Our aim was to critically appraise the literature on nutritional assessment, nutritional status and nutritional support for patients with GVHD-DT. Evidence shows that GVHD-DT is often associated with malnutrition, protein losing enteropathy, magnesium derangements, and deficiencies of zinc, vitamin B12 and vitamin D. Limited evidence exists on derangements of magnesium, resting energy expenditure, bone mineral density and pancreatic function, and some beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. Expert opinions recommend adequate amounts of energy, at least 1.5 g protein/kg body weight, supplied by total parenteral nutrition in cases of severe diarrhoea. When diarrhoea is nutritional support strategies.

  8. Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in the Perioperative Period: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Sanchez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical and critically ill patients has undergone significant advances since 1936 when Studley demonstrated a direct relationship between pre-operative weight loss and operative mortality. The advent of total parenteral nutrition followed by the extraordinary progress in parenteral and enteral feedings, in addition to the increased knowledge of cellular biology and biochemistry, have allowed clinicians to treat malnutrition and improve surgical patient’s outcomes. We reviewed the literature for the current status of perioperative nutrition comparing parenteral nutrition with enteral nutrition. In a surgical patient with established malnutrition, nutritional support should begin at least 7–10 days prior to surgery. Those patients in whom eating is not anticipated beyond the first five days following surgery should receive the benefits of early enteral or parenteral feeding depending on whether the gut can be used. Compared to parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition is associated with fewer complications, a decrease in the length of hospital stay, and a favorable cost-benefit analysis. In addition, many patients may benefit from newer enteral formulations such as Immunonutrition as well as disease-specific formulations.

  9. Bioenergy in Ukraine: state of the art and prospects for the development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geletukha, Georgiy; Zheliezna, Tetiana (Scientific Engineering Center ' Biomass' Kyiv (Ukraine)), e-mail: geletukha@biomass.kiev.ua

    2010-07-15

    Ukraine has good preconditions for the dynamic development of bioenergy sector. The main drivers for this are permanent rise in prices of traditional energy carriers, first of all natural gas, and big potential of biomass available for energy production. The economic potential is estimated at 19-23 mtoe/yr, and it depends mainly on the annual yield of agricultural crops. Existing law on biofuels and the law on green tariff supports the introduction of bioenergy technologies for heat and power production. Nevertheless existing legislation needs further improvement. One of the serious barriers for bioenergy development in Ukraine is distortion of natural gas prices for some kinds of consumers. The price for population and communal services is artificially low that renders it impossible to introduce bioenergy technologies in these sectors. Establishment of the market price of natural gas for all kinds of consumers is a necessary precondition for large-scale substitution of natural gas by biomass. National targets on energy production from biomass must be stated in an official document like Biomass Action Plan. We consider the following targets to be real: 1% of the total energy consumption at the expense of biomass in 2010 (that is equivalent to consumption of about 1.4 mtoe), 5% in 2020, and 10% in 2030

  10. Organization of graphic controls for a state of the art human interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speckert, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a proposed control system organization, based on an existing design for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF). The trend of improving traditional status (output) devices such as lamps, gauges, and other single function status displays by use of computer generated color video displays in modern supervisory control environments has been extended to include control (input) devices. For MFTF, the usual arrays of knobs, switches, and physical buttons have been almost entirely replaced by graphic images of buttons which are displayed on color monitors equipped with curved transparent touchsensors. The light touch of a finger brings the operator the desired set of controls, requests a particular status display, or issues a command to the system being controlled, while banks of status monitors dynamically display his changing world. Because the operator can only interact with a portion of the total controls at any one time, the organization of these controls is critical for optimization of the man-machine interface.

  11. VIKOR Technique: A Systematic Review of the State of the Art Literature on Methodologies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mardani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a systematic review of the VlseKriterijuska Optimizacija I Komoromisno Resenje (VIKOR method in several application areas such as sustainability and renewable energy. This study reviewed a total of 176 papers, published in 2004 to 2015, from 83 high-ranking journals; most of which were related to Operational Research, Management Sciences, decision making, sustainability and renewable energy and were extracted from the “Web of Science and Scopus” databases. Papers were classified into 15 main application areas. Furthermore, papers were categorized based on the nationalities of authors, dates of publications, techniques and methods, type of studies, the names of the journals and studies purposes. The results of this study indicated that more papers on VIKOR technique were published in 2013 than in any other year. In addition, 13 papers were published about sustainability and renewable energy fields. Furthermore, VIKOR and fuzzy VIKOR methods, had the first rank in use. Additionally, the Journal of Expert Systems with Applications was the most significant journal in this study, with 27 publications on the topic. Finally, Taiwan had the first rank from 22 nationalities which used VIKOR technique.

  12. Magnetic resonance anisotropy in CeB6: an entangled state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeno, A. V.; Gilmanov, M. I.; Bogach, A. V.; Krasnorussky, V. N.; Samarin, A. N.; Samarin, N. A.; Sluchanko, N. E.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.; Filipov, V. B.; Glushkov, V. V.; Demishev, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) in strongly correlated metals is an exciting phenomenon, as strong spin fluctuations in this class of materials broaden extremely the absorption line below the detection limit. In this respect, ESR observation in CeB6 provides a unique chance to inspect Ce3+ magnetic state in the antiferroquadrupole (AFQ) phase. We apply the original high frequency (60 GHz) experimental technique to extract the temperature and angular dependences of g-factor, line width and oscillating magnetization. Experimental data show unambiguously that the modern ESR theory in the AFQ phase considering the Γ8 ground state of Ce3+ ion completely fails to predict both the g-factor magnitude and its angular dependence. Alignment of the external magnetic field along [100] axis induces a strong (more than twofold) broadening of ESR line width with respect to the other crystallographic directions and results also in the anomalous temperature dependences of the g-factor and oscillating magnetization. In this experimental geometry the latter parameter surprisingly exceeds total static magnetization by 20% at T* ~ 2.5 K. We argue that the unusual physical picture of ESR in CeB6 may be strongly affected by spin fluctuations and dynamic collective effects predominantly pronounced in [100] direction.

  13. [State of the art of the French Society for Hand Surgery Internet Websites Members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Ichihara, S; Facca, S; Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the websites of the members of the French Society for Hand Surgery, examine the container and the content, and propose a common code of ethics. The census of Websites of the French Society for Hand Surgery Internet members was obtained through a survey questionnaire with 17 items online on the mode of exercise of the surgeon and the website itself. Forty-six out of 568 members of the SFCM responded to the questionnaire: 9 junior members, 6 associate members and 31 full members. A total of 12.5 % had the HONcode certification. They included educational materials for patients in 80.95 % of non-urgent conditions, and 68.42 % of emergency. Answers to questions about attendance and the cost of maintenance of websites were unusable. It would be interesting to create a specific code of ethics for hand surgery, free, certified by the SFCM, in partnership with the High Authority in Health (HAS, in French).

  14. Disability in chronic daily headache: state of the art and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Domenico; Grazzi, L; Usai, S; Raggi, A; Leonardi, M; Bussone, G

    2011-05-01

    Aim of this literature review is to summarize the most relevant research findings on disability in subjects with chronic daily headache (CDH) and chronic migraine (CM) measured with the MIDAS and the HIT-6, and to address issues for further research in the field. Research strategy aimed to find papers published after 2001 that focused on disability in patients with CDH, CM and transformed migraine. Both, general population surveys or clinical series were included if they reported total scores, or distribution of the different disability levels, derived from the MIDAS and/or from the HIT-6. Fifteen papers were selected. Studies demonstrated that these subjects report a remarkable impact on functioning, with high disability scores, and reduced ability in work and non-work activities. Modern definitions of disability conceptualize it as the result of the interaction between a health condition and environmental factors. Research strategies should therefore recognize that disability may represent a global evaluation which should be added to more specific endpoints, using instruments that measure disability in a multi-dimensional way, such as the WHO-DAS II.

  15. A state-of-the-art analysis of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822

    CERN Document Server

    Fusco, F; Hidalgo, S L; Aparicio, A; Pietrinferni, A; Bono, G; Monelli, M; Cassisi, S

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed photometric study of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822 aimed at investigating the properties of its stellar populations and, in particular, the presence of stellar radial gradients. Our goal is to analyse the stellar populations in six fields, which cover the whole bar of this dwarf galaxy. We derived the quantitative star formation history (SFH) of the six fields using the IAC method, involving IAC-pop/MinnIAC codes. The solutions we derived show an enhanced star formation rate (SFR) in Fields 1 and 3 during the past 500 Myr. The SFRs of the other fields are almost extinguished at very recent epochs and. We study the radial gradients of the SFR and consider the total mass converted into stars in two time intervals (between 0 and 0.5 Gyr ago and between 0.5 and 13.5 Gyr ago). We find that the scale lengths of the young and intermediate-to-old populations are perfectly compatible, with the exception of the young populations in Fields 1 and 3. The recent SF in these two fields is greater...

  16. State-of-the-art cross-sectional liver imaging: beyond lesion detection and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luersen GF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gustavo Felipe Luersen, Priya Bhosale, Janio Szklaruk Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Cross-sectional imaging with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is routinely used to detect and diagnose liver lesions; however, these examinations can provide additional important information. The improvement of equipment and techniques has allowed outstanding evaluation of the vascular and biliary anatomy, which is practicable in most routine examinations. Anatomical variants may exclude patients from certain therapeutic options and may be the cause of morbidity or mortality after surgery or interventional procedures. Diffuse liver disease, such as steatosis, hemochromatosis, or fibrosis, must be diagnosed and quantified. Usually these conditions are silent until the late stages, and imaging plays an important role in detecting them early. Additionally, a background of diffuse disease may interfere in a focal lesion systematic reasoning. The diagnostic probability of a particular nodule varies according to the background liver disease. Nowadays, most diffuse liver diseases can be easily and accurately quantified by imaging, which has allowed better understanding of these diseases and improved patient management. Finally, cross-sectional imaging can calculate total and partial liver volumes and estimate the future liver remnant after hepatectomy. This information helps to select patients for portal vein embolization and reduces postoperative complications. Use of a specific hepatic contrast agent on magnetic resonance imaging, in addition to improving detection and characterization of focal lesions, provides functional global and segmental information about the liver parenchyma. Keywords: cirrhosis, steatosis, iron overload, vascular anatomy, biliary anatomy, functional liver remnant

  17. Intercomparison of eight state-of-the-art eddy covariance methane gas analysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Olli; Hensen, Arjan; Helfter, Carole; Belelli Marchesini, Luca; Mammarella, Ivan; Haapanala, Sami; Holst, Jutta; Elbers, Jan; Bosveld, Fred; van den Bulk, Pim; Röckmann, Thomas; Lindroth, Anders; Laurila, Tuomas; Vermeulen, Alex; Nemitz, Eiko

    2013-04-01

    During the last decade several gas analysers became available that are capable of measuring methane concentration with high sampling frequency needed for eddy covariance measurements. These new gas analysers require less maintenance compared with the models used in the 1990's and they give more reliable estimates for the ecosystem scale methane fluxes. However, with different instrument types available now, their performance should be crosscompared and validated. A gas analyser intercomparison campaign was held at Cabauw measurement station in the Netherlands between 6th and 27th of June, 2012. The campaign was organized within the InGOS FP7 project. Cabauw is well-established site with a long history in greenhouse gas monitoring and the surrounding landscape is a considerable source of methane. In total eight methane gas analysers manufactured by Picarro Inc., Los Gatos Research, Aerodyne Research Inc. and LI-COR Inc. were used in the experiment. Tentative results show relatively good agreement between the eight methane flux estimates and they also agree with previous studies done at the site. Magnitude and variation of the flux estimates are similar. Cumulative methane emissions calculated from not gapfilled data during a 10 day episode agree within 10 %, values ranging from 190 mg(CH4) m-2 to 210 mg(CH4) m-2. Comparison of random errors of the measured methane fluxes did not reveal any big differences between the instruments. Some of the gas analysers measuring methane were also capable of measuring water vapour at the same time. This is a big asset during data processing, since effect of water vapour on methane concentration measurement can then be easily corrected without need of additional water vapour measurement. The presentation will discuss the intercomparison campaign setup, instrument performance and will provide recommendations for CH4-EC measurements.

  18. A state-of-the-art analysis of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, F.; Buonanno, R.; Hidalgo, S. L.; Aparicio, A.; Pietrinferni, A.; Bono, G.; Monelli, M.; Cassisi, S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a detailed photometric study of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822 aimed at investigating the properties of its stellar populations and, in particular, the presence of stellar radial gradients. Our goal is to analyse the stellar populations in six fields, which cover the whole bar of this dwarf galaxy. We derived the quantitative star formation history (SFH) of the six fields using the IAC method, involving IAC-pop/MinnIAC codes. The solutions we derived show an enhanced star formation rate (SFR) in Fields 1 and 3 during the past 500 Myr. The SFRs of the other fields are almost extinguished at very recent epochs and. We study the radial gradients of the SFR and consider the total mass converted into stars in two time intervals (between 0 and 0.5 Gyr ago and between 0.5 and 13.5 Gyr ago). We find that the scale lengths of the young and intermediate-to-old populations are perfectly compatible, with the exception of the young populations in Fields 1 and 3. The recent SF in these two fields is greater than in the other ones. This might be an indication that in these two fields we are sampling incipient spiral arms. Further evidence and new observations are required to prove this hypothesis. In addition, we derived the age-metallicity relations. As expected, the metallicity increases with time for all of the fields. We do not observe any radial gradient in the metallicity. Based on observations collected with the ACS on board the NASA/ESA HST.The photometric catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A26

  19. Insights on the influence of surface roughness on photovoltaic properties of state of the art copper indium gallium diselenide thin films solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehl, Z.; Bouttemy, M.; Lincot, D.; Guillemoles, J. F.; Gerard, I.; Etcheberry, A.; Voorwinden, G.; Powalla, M.; Naghavi, N.

    2012-06-01

    The influence of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) surface roughness on the photovoltaic parameters of state of the art devices is reported, highlighting the importance of the roughness of the as-grown CIGSe absorbers on solar cell efficiencies. As-grown CIGSe surface is progressively smoothed using a chemical etch, and characterized by SEM, AFM, XPS, μ-Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and reflectivity. The decrease of roughness has no marked influence on crystal structure and surface composition of the absorber. The main effect is that the total reflectivity of the CIGSe surface increases with decreasing roughness. The samples are processed into solar cells and characterized by current-voltage measurements. While the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor remain constant, the short circuit current (Jsc) decreases markedly with decreasing roughness, resulting in a reduction of the solar cell efficiency from 14% down to 11%, which exceeds the expected decrease from increased reflectivity. Quantum efficiency and reflectivity measurements on complete cells are performed to analyze those effects. The influence of surface roughness on the theorical effective space charge region and diffusion length is based on a simple theoretical model. This paper discusses the comparison of CIGSe solar cells with n-i-p structures.

  20. Insights on the influence of surface roughness on photovoltaic properties of state of the art copper indium gallium diselenide thin films solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jehl, Z.; Lincot, D.; Guillemoles, J. F.; Naghavi, N. [Institut de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaieque (IRDEP - UMR 7174 EDF/CNRS/CHIMIE-PARISTECH), 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou Cedex (France); Bouttemy, M.; Gerard, I.; Etcheberry, A. [ILV - UMR 8180 CNRS, Universite de Versailles St Quentin, 45 Av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles CEDEX (France); Voorwinden, G. [Wuerth Elektronik Research GmbH, Industriestr. 4, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Powalla, M. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie-und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Industriestr. 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    The influence of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) surface roughness on the photovoltaic parameters of state of the art devices is reported, highlighting the importance of the roughness of the as-grown CIGSe absorbers on solar cell efficiencies. As-grown CIGSe surface is progressively smoothed using a chemical etch, and characterized by SEM, AFM, XPS, {mu}-Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and reflectivity. The decrease of roughness has no marked influence on crystal structure and surface composition of the absorber. The main effect is that the total reflectivity of the CIGSe surface increases with decreasing roughness. The samples are processed into solar cells and characterized by current-voltage measurements. While the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and fill factor remain constant, the short circuit current (J{sub sc}) decreases markedly with decreasing roughness, resulting in a reduction of the solar cell efficiency from 14% down to 11%, which exceeds the expected decrease from increased reflectivity. Quantum efficiency and reflectivity measurements on complete cells are performed to analyze those effects. The influence of surface roughness on the theorical effective space charge region and diffusion length is based on a simple theoretical model. This paper discusses the comparison of CIGSe solar cells with n-i-p structures.

  1. Calculation of molecular lipophilicity: State-of-the-art and comparison of log P methods on more than 96,000 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannhold, Raimund; Poda, Gennadiy I; Ostermann, Claude; Tetko, Igor V

    2009-03-01

    We first review the state-of-the-art in development of log P prediction approaches falling in two major categories: substructure-based and property-based methods. Then, we compare the predictive power of representative methods for one public (N = 266) and two in house datasets from Nycomed (N = 882) and Pfizer (N = 95809). A total of 30 and 18 methods were tested for public and industrial datasets, respectively. Accuracy of models declined with the number of nonhydrogen atoms. The Arithmetic Average Model (AAM), which predicts the same value (the arithmetic mean) for all compounds, was used as a baseline model for comparison. Methods with Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) greater than RMSE produced by the AAM were considered as unacceptable. The majority of analyzed methods produced reasonable results for the public dataset but only seven methods were successful on the both in house datasets. We proposed a simple equation based on the number of carbon atoms, NC, and the number of hetero atoms, NHET: log P = 1.46(+/-0.02) + 0.11(+/-0.001) NC-0.11(+/-0.001) NHET. This equation outperformed a large number of programs benchmarked in this study. Factors influencing the accuracy of log P predictions were elucidated and discussed.

  2. Introduction of the hybcell-based compact sequencing technology and comparison to state-of-the-art methodologies for KRAS mutation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopf, Agnes; Raim, Roman; Danzer, Martin; Niklas, Norbert; Spilka, Rita; Pröll, Johannes; Gabriel, Christian; Nechansky, Andreas; Roucka, Markus

    2015-03-01

    The detection of KRAS mutations in codons 12 and 13 is critical for anti-EGFR therapy strategies; however, only those methodologies with high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy as well as the best cost and turnaround balance are suitable for routine daily testing. Here we compared the performance of compact sequencing using the novel hybcell technology with 454 next-generation sequencing (454-NGS), Sanger sequencing, and pyrosequencing, using an evaluation panel of 35 specimens. A total of 32 mutations and 10 wild-type cases were reported using 454-NGS as the reference method. Specificity ranged from 100% for Sanger sequencing to 80% for pyrosequencing. Sanger sequencing and hybcell-based compact sequencing achieved a sensitivity of 96%, whereas pyrosequencing had a sensitivity of 88%. Accuracy was 97% for Sanger sequencing, 85% for pyrosequencing, and 94% for hybcell-based compact sequencing. Quantitative results were obtained for 454-NGS and hybcell-based compact sequencing data, resulting in a significant correlation (r = 0.914). Whereas pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing were not able to detect multiple mutated cell clones within one tumor specimen, 454-NGS and the hybcell-based compact sequencing detected multiple mutations in two specimens. Our comparison shows that the hybcell-based compact sequencing is a valuable alternative to state-of-the-art methodologies used for detection of clinically relevant point mutations.

  3. Airborne magnetic mapping of volcanic areas - state-of-the-art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supper, Robert; Paoletti, Valeria; Okuma, Shigeo

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally airborne magnetics surveys in volcanology are used for mapping regional geological features, fault zones and to develop a magnetic model of the volcanic subsurface. Within an Austrian-Italian-Japanese cooperation, several volcanic areas including Mt. Vesuvius, Ischia, Campi Flegreii and Aeolian Islands in Italy and Socorro Island in Mexico were mapped by high-resolution magnetic mapping during the last 15 years. In this paper, general conclusions from this long-term cooperation project on airborne magnetics in volcanic areas will be summarised. Basically the results showed the results from airborne magnetics could be used for three major purposes: 1. Developing a rough model for the magnetisation below the volcano down to several kilometres by applying advanced magnetic inversion algorithms helped to define the possible depth of the current or past magma chamber. Due to the complexity of the subsurface of volcanic areas, inversion of data was much dependent on constraints coming from other geoscientific disciplines. 2. After applying certain steps of reduction (topographic correction, field transformation) and a combination of source selective filtering, important regional structural trends could be derived from the alignment of the residual magnetic anomalies. 3. On the other hand during recent years, research has also focused on repeated measurements of the magnetic field of volcanic areas (differential in respect of time = differential magnetic measurements - DMM) using airborne sensors. Long-term temporal magnetic field variations in active volcanic areas can be caused by a changing size of the magma chamber or a general rise in temperature. This is caused by the fact that magnetization disappears, when a magnetic material is warmed up over a certain temperature (Curie- temperature). In consequence the resulting total magnetic field changes. Therefore, determining areas showing changes in the magnetic field could help to select areas where a

  4. Digital Photogrammetry – State of the Art and Potential for Application in Forest Management in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Balenović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The main goal of this paper is to inform forestry community about the latest developments in digital photogrammetry, as well as to present its possible application in forest management. For this purpose, the current state of technological development of the main tools of digital photogrammetry (digital aerophotogrammetric cameras and digital photogrammetric workstations has been presented. Furthermore, two adjusted methods of manual digital photogrammetry for application in forest management, namely: method for strata delineation (i.e. creation of forest management division, and method for measuring stand structure elements have been developed and presented here. Material and Methods: Research was carried out on the selected part of multi-aged, privately owned forest of ''Donja Kupčina - Pisarovina'' management unit which includes 6 compartments and 24 subcompartments and covers total area of 480 ha. After conducted aerial survey of research area, acquired digital images were processed, and digital terrain model and digital elevation model were derived. Digital aerial images of ground sample distance of 10 cm, topographical maps, digital terrain model and digital elevation model, as well as the digital photogrammetric workstations with appropriate software (PHOTOMOD, Global Mapper were used for developing methods for strata delineation and stand structure elements estimation. Developments of both methods were carried out in the stereomodel of colour infrared digital aerial images in PHOTOMOD StereoDraw module. Additional data processing was conducted in ArcGIS 9.1 (for strata delineation and in Global Mapper (for stand structure elements estimation software. Results and Conclusion: This research has showed that PHOTOMOD Lite and Global Mapper software packages in combination with the used materials (digital aerial images, digital elevation model and digital photogrammetric workstation completely satisfy the needs for

  5. Fire vegetative ash and erosion in the Mediterranean areas. State of the art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    erosion. At this point we are dealing with a complex interaction since interactions, since low severity fires due ash, and high severity fires, due temperature induce soil hydrophobicity. After the fire, other ash properties may interact with soil erosion, as particulate size, and chemical composition, that can induce soil particulates flocculation or dispersion. Ash chemistry is strongly related with fire severity (Pereira et al., 2012). Further studies may be directed in the complex interaction between ash physico-chemical properties interaction with the degree of fire impacts on soil. These and other ideas will be discussed during the session. Acknowledgements, The authors appreciated the support of the project "Litfire", Fire effects in Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-048/2011) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council and FUEGORED (Spanish Network of Forest Fire Effects on Soils http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/). References Bodi, M., Doerr, S., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soil. Geoderma 191: 14-13. Bodi, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., Cerdà, A. (2011) The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic matter content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda Y, Dietrich WE, Booker F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after a severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California. Catena. 72, 13-20. Pereira, P., Bodi. M., Úbeda, X., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. (2010) Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerdà, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualización en métodos y técnicas para el estudio de los suelos afectados por incendios forestales, 345-398. Càtedra de Divulgació de la Ciència. Universitat de Valencia. ISBN: 978

  6. Fire-induced risk in Andisols: An State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neris, Jonay; Cerdà, Artemi; Santamarta, Juan C.; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    work has been developed in the framework of the RECLAND Project. It has been funded by the European Union under Lifelong Learning Programme, Erasmus Programme: Erasmus Multilateral Projects, 526746-LLP-1-2012-1-ES-ERASMUS-EMCR, MSc Programme in Climate Change and Restoration of Degraded Land. The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Aznar, J.M., González-Pérez, J.A., Badía, D., Martí, C. 2013. At what depth are the properties of a Gypseous forest topsoil affected by burning?. Land Degradation and Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2258 Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Stefan H. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. 2012. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256- 263. doi:10.1016/S0341-8162(02)00027-9 Guénon, R., Vennetier, M., Dupuy, N., Roussos, S., Pailler, A., Gros, R. 2013. Trends in recovery of Mediterranean soil chemical properties and microbial activities after infrequent and frequent wildfires. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 115-128, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.1109. Jiménez, C., Tejedor, M., Morillas, G., Neris, J., 2006. Infiltration rate in Andisols: Effect of changes in vegetation cover (Tenerife, Spain). Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 61(3), 153-158. León, J., Bodí, M.B., Cerdà, A., Badía, D., 2013. The contrasted response of ash to wetting: The effects of ash type, thickness and rainfall events. Geoderma 209-210, 143

  7. Biogas in the agriculture. State of the art. Proceedings; Biogas in der Landwirtschaft. Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    fermentation of renewable raw materials effect organic soil carbon? (Peter Dominik et al.); (20) Efficiency of composting of residues of fermentation (Helmut Doehler et al.); (21) Feeding biogas in the natural gas grid: actual market developments in the area of gas processing and line feeding (Wolfgang Urban); (22) Practical experiences in the substitution of natural gas by bio methane in Germany (Michael Beil); (23) Biogas plants - the technical view of the network access (Uwe Klaus, Andreas Schrader); (24) Optimized cultivation of energy plants for biogas plants (Christoph Strauss); (25) Deintegration procedure - Expenditure and utility for the generation of biogas (Bjoern Schwarz et al.); (26) Biogas substrate - Which exotics have the potential for the future? (Armin Vetter); (27) The step of hydrolyse in the fermentation of renewable raw materials - Does it enhance the efficiency? (Hans Oechsner et al.); (28) Quality silage for the production of biogas (Christiane Herrmann et al.); (29) Possibilities of the optimization of mixtures of raw materials (Thomas Amon); (30) Ignition jet cogeneration plant - State of the art and perspectives using the effective post power generation of waste gas (Wolfram Dreier, Kai Liesendahl); (31) Gas-fuelled spark ignition engine - state of the art and perspectives (Thomas Elsenbruch); (32) Power generation from biogas in a fuel cell (Peter Landgraf); (33) Micro gas turbine - state of the art (Tobias Panne, Axel Widenhorn); (34) Possibilities of the reduction of the energy demand of biogas plants (Andreas Lehner, Matthias Effenberger); (35) EEG conform utilization of waste heat of agricultural biogas plants (Wolfgang Schulz). Beside these lectures twenty six poster contributions were exhibited.

  8. State of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Peder

    2010-01-01

    Den nyeste førskoleforskning kan sige en del om, hvad der kendetegner god kvalitet i daginstitutionerne. Men den kan ikke sige meget om, hvordan man skaber udvikling og kvalitet i en institution, hvor kvaliteten er ringe. Kortlægning af førskoleforskningen efterlyser viden om forandrings- og udvi...

  9. Mars ISRU for Production of Mission Critical Consumables - Options, Recent Studies, and Current State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G. B.; Paz, A.; Oryshchyn, L.; Araghi, K.; Muscatello, A.; Linne, D.; Kleinhenz, J.; Peters, T.

    2015-01-01

    In 1978, a ground breaking paper titled, "Feasibility of Rocket Propellant Production on Mars" by Ash, Dowler, and Varsi discussed how ascent propellants could be manufactured on the Mars surface from carbon dioxide collected from the atmosphere to reduce launch mass. Since then, the concept of making mission critical consumables such as propellants, fuel cell reactants, and life support consumables from local resources, commonly known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), for robotic and human missions to Mars has been studied many times. In the late 1990's, NASA initiated a series of Mars Human Design Reference Missions (DRMs), the first of which was released in 1997. These studies primarily focused on evaluating the impact of making propellants on Mars for crew ascent to Mars orbit, but creating large caches of life support consumables (water & oxygen) as a backup for regenerative life support systems for long-duration surface stays (>500 days) was also considered in Mars DRM 3.0. Until science data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter and subsequent robotic missions revealed that water may be widely accessable across the surface of Mars, prior Mars ISRU studies were limited to processing Mars atmospheric resources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and water vapor). In December 2007, NASA completed the Mars Human Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study which considered water on Mars as a potential resource for the first time in a human mission architecture. While knowledge of both water resources on Mars and the hardware required to excavate and extract the water were very preliminary, the study concluded that a significant reduction in mass and significant enhancements to the mission architecture were possible if Mars water resources were utilized. Two subsequent Mars ISRU studies aimed at reexamining ISRU technologies, processing options, and advancements in the state-of-the-art since 2007 and to better understand the volume and packaging associated

  10. Conference Report: The Hunt for the Nibelungen Treasure. BVM Conference: "Qualitative Market Research—State of the Art and Prospects"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kühn

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available On March 9th, 2005, a conference entitled "Qualitative Market Research—State of the Art and Prospects" was held in Frankfurt/M., organized by the Association of German Social and Market Researchers (BVM e.V.. Because of the great interest generated by the conference it was repeated on April 20th, 2005. The aim of the conference was to bring together market research professionals from the supply and demand sector to discuss the state of the art of qualitative market research in Germany. Within this report the main topics and discussions from the conference will be summarized and evaluated in relation to their meaning for qualitative market research in Germany. The presentations revealed that qualitative market research in Germany is a diverse enterprise. The conference was an important step to optimize transparency and knowledge-management within qualitative market research. First, the variety of the presented approaches was helpful: After an introduction on essential features of qualitative research that laid a theoretical foundation and a point of reference for the following discussion, qualitative market research was presented in five talks from psychodynamic, cognitive, ethnological and systemic perspectives. Second, the final clients’ forum provided the opportunity for intensive and fruitful discussions between market researchers from business organizations and institutes. In practice, the meaning of qualitative methods within the market research process differs broadly between organizations. It became clear that market researchers frequently combine qualitative and quantitative approaches, but that there is still the need to discuss how this integration of methods can be realized systematically and in the best way. Additionally, it was suggested that further discussion is needed on the importance of qualitative research by itself, e.g. in its meaning for predictions and consultancy needs. Summarizing, the conference illustrated that

  11. Primary system fission product release and transport: A state-of-the-art report to the committee on the safety of nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents a summary of the status of research activities associated with fission product behavior (release and transport) under severe accident conditions within the primary systems of water-moderated and water-cooled nuclear reactors. For each of the areas of fission product release and fission product transport, the report summarizes relevant information on important phenomena, major experiments performed, relevant computer models and codes, comparisons of computer code calculations with experimental results, and general conclusions on the overall state of the art. Finally, the report provides an assessment of the overall importance and knowledge of primary system release and transport phenomena and presents major conclusions on the state of the art.

  12. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future.

  13. Quantitative thermography for the estimation of the U-value: state of the art and a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Iole; Sfarra, Stefano; Ambrosini, Dario

    2014-11-01

    Energy consumption of buildings could be significantly reduced by improving the efficiency of the envelope. Currently, the estimation of the energy performance of existing buildings requires the knowledge of the overall heat transfer coefficient (U-value) of the walls. U-values can be calculated through a theoretical approach, knowing the thermal conductivity and thickness of each material that constitutes the wall stratigraphy, from project data or coring. Alternatively, U-values can be obtained experimentally, through the ISO recommended heat flow meter measurements. Although generally accepted, the heat flow meter method suffers from some disadvantages. Recently, an alternative approach based on infrared thermography (IRT) has been proposed for in situ measurements. Main advantages of this new approach are non invasivity and the possibility of inspecting relatively large areas in real time. In this paper, after a brief description of the state of the art in the field of U-value measurement by IRT, a case study is described. In particular, the results obtained by IRT on an existing building are compared with U-values given by the standard ISO calculation and heat flow meter measurements; advantages and limitations of the new method are outlined. Some suggestions for a successful exploiting of the IRT approach are also given.

  14. Accuracy evaluation of numerical methods used in state-of-the-art simulators for spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henker, Stephan; Partzsch, Johannes; Schüffny, René

    2012-04-01

    With the various simulators for spiking neural networks developed in recent years, a variety of numerical solution methods for the underlying differential equations are available. In this article, we introduce an approach to systematically assess the accuracy of these methods. In contrast to previous investigations, our approach focuses on a completely deterministic comparison and uses an analytically solved model as a reference. This enables the identification of typical sources of numerical inaccuracies in state-of-the-art simulation methods. In particular, with our approach we can separate the error of the numerical integration from the timing error of spike detection and propagation, the latter being prominent in simulations with fixed timestep. To verify the correctness of the testing procedure, we relate the numerical deviations to theoretical predictions for the employed numerical methods. Finally, we give an example of the influence of simulation artefacts on network behaviour and spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), underlining the importance of spike-time accuracy for the simulation of STDP.

  15. Membrane Separation Processes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture: State of the Art and Critical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belaissaoui Bouchra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Membrane processes have been initially seldom considered within a post-combustion carbon dioxide capture framework. More traditional processes, particularly gas-liquid absorption in chemical solvents, are often considered as the most appropriate solution for the first generation of technologies. In this paper, a critical state of the art of gas separation membranes for CO2 capture is proposed. In a first step, the key performances (selectivity, permeability of different membrane materials such as polymers, inorganic membranes, hybrid matrices and liquid membranes, including recently reported results, are reviewed. In a second step, the process design characteristics of a single stage membrane unit are studied. Purity and energy constraints are analysed as a function of operating conditions and membrane materials performances. The interest of multistage and hybrid systems, two domains which have not sufficiently investigated up to now, are finally discussed. The importance of technico-economical analyses is highlighted in order to better estimate the optimal role of membranes for CCS applications.

  16. Immobilization of Glycoside Hydrolase Families GH1, GH13, and GH70: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália G. Graebin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycoside hydrolases (GH are enzymes capable to hydrolyze the glycosidic bond between two carbohydrates or even between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. Because of the increasing interest for industrial applications of these enzymes, the immobilization of GH has become an important development in order to improve its activity, stability, as well as the possibility of its reuse in batch reactions and in continuous processes. In this review, we focus on the broad aspects of immobilization of enzymes from the specific GH families. A brief introduction on methods of enzyme immobilization is presented, discussing some advantages and drawbacks of this technology. We then review the state of the art of enzyme immobilization of families GH1, GH13, and GH70, with special attention on the enzymes β-glucosidase, α-amylase, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, and dextransucrase. In each case, the immobilization protocols are evaluated considering their positive and negative aspects. Finally, the perspectives on new immobilization methods are briefly presented.

  17. On the design and operation of primary settling tanks in state of the art wastewater treatment and water resources recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, Miklos; Günthert, Frank Wolfgang; Jardin, Norbert; Kainz, Harald; Londong, Jörg

    2016-11-01

    In state of the art wastewater treatment, primary settling tanks (PSTs) are considered as an integral part of the biological wastewater and sludge treatment process, as well as of the biogas and electric energy production. Consequently they strongly influence the efficiency of the entire wastewater treatment plant. However, in the last decades the inner physical processes of PSTs, largely determining their efficiency, have been poorly addressed. In common practice PSTs are still solely designed and operated based on the surface overflow rate and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) as a black box. The paper shows the results of a comprehensive investigation programme, including 16 PSTs. Their removal efficiency and inner physical processes (like the settling process of primary sludge), internal flow structures within PSTs and their impact on performance were investigated. The results show that: (1) the removal rates of PSTs are generally often underestimated in current design guidelines, (2) the removal rate of different PSTs shows a strongly fluctuating pattern even in the same range of the HRT, and (3) inlet design of PSTs becomes highly relevant in the removal efficiency at rather high surface overflow rates, above 5 m/h, which is the upper design limit of PSTs for dry weather load.

  18. Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations, such as US 2010, Tier 2 Bin 5 and beyond, off-road Tier 4 final, and Euro V/5 for particulate matter (PM) reduction applications, will mandate the use of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) technology, which is proven to be the only way that can effectively control the particulate emissions. This paper covers a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art DPF technologies, including the advanced filter substrate materials, the novel catalyst formulations, the highly sophisticated regeneration control strategies, the DPF uncontrolled regenerations and their control methodologies, the DPF soot loading prediction, and the soot sensor for the PM on-board diagnostics (OBD) legislations. Furthermore, the progress of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, which involves the integration of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) + (DPF, NOx reduction catalyst), the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on DPF, as well as DPF in the high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop systems, is well discussed. Besides, the impacts of the quality of fuel and lubricant on the DPF performance and the maintenance and retrofit of DPF are fully elaborated. Meanwhile, the high efficiency gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is being required to effectively reduce the PM and particulate number (PN) emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to comply with the future increasingly stricter emissions regulations.

  19. Microencapsulation by solvent extraction/evaporation: reviewing the state of the art of microsphere preparation process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sergio; Merkle, Hans P; Gander, Bruno

    2005-02-02

    The therapeutic benefit of microencapsulated drugs and vaccines brought forth the need to prepare such particles in larger quantities and in sufficient quality suitable for clinical trials and commercialisation. Very commonly, microencapsulation processes are based on the principle of so-called "solvent extraction/evaporation". While initial lab-scale experiments are frequently performed in simple beaker/stirrer setups, clinical trials and market introduction require more sophisticated technologies, allowing for economic, robust, well-controllable and aseptic production of microspheres. To this aim, various technologies have been examined for microsphere preparation, among them are static mixing, extrusion through needles, membranes and microfabricated microchannel devices, dripping using electrostatic forces and ultrasonic jet excitation. This article reviews the current state of the art in solvent extraction/evaporation-based microencapsulation technologies. Its focus is on process-related aspects, as described in the scientific and patent literature. Our findings will be outlined according to the four major substeps of microsphere preparation by solvent extraction/evaporation, namely, (i) incorporation of the bioactive compound, (ii) formation of the microdroplets, (iii) solvent removal and (iv) harvesting and drying the particles. Both, well-established and more advanced technologies will be reviewed.

  20. Single Molecule Fluorescence Detection and Tracking in Mammalian Cells: The State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Clarke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Insights from single-molecule tracking in mammalian cells have the potential to greatly contribute to our understanding of the dynamic behavior of many protein families and networks which are key therapeutic targets of the pharmaceutical industry. This is particularly so at the plasma membrane, where the method has begun to elucidate the mechanisms governing the molecular interactions that underpin many fundamental processes within the cell, including signal transduction, receptor recognition, cell-cell adhesion, etc. However, despite much progress, single-molecule tracking faces challenges in mammalian samples that hinder its general application in the biomedical sciences. Much work has recently focused on improving the methods for fluorescent tagging of target molecules, detection and localization of tagged molecules, which appear as diffraction-limited spots in charge-coupled device (CCD images, and objectively establishing the correspondence between moving particles in a sequence of image frames to follow their diffusive behavior. In this review we outline the state-of-the-art in the field and discuss the advantages and limitations of the methods available in the context of specific applications, aiming at helping researchers unfamiliar with single molecules methods to plan out their experiments.