Sample records for jupiter radiation belts

  1. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.


    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  2. Modeling of Jupiter's electron an ion radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Angelica


    In the Fifties, James Van Allen showed the existence of regions of the terrestrial magnetosphere consisted of energetic particles, trapped by the magnetic field: the radiation belts. The radiation belts of the Earth were the subject of many modeling works and are studied since several years at the Departement Environnement Spatial (DESP) of ONERA. In 1998, the DESP decided to adapt the radiation belts model of the Earth, Salammbo, to radiation environment of Jupiter. A first thesis was thus carried out on the subject and a first radiation belts model of electrons of Jupiter was developed [Santos-Costa, 2001]. The aim of this second thesis is to develop a radiation belts model for protons and heavy ions. In order to validate the developed model, the comparisons between Salammbo results and observations are essential. However, the validation is difficult in the case of protons and heavy ions because in-situ measurements of the probes are very few and most of the time contaminated by very energetic electrons. To solve this problem, a very good model of electrons radiation belts is essential to confirm or cancel the contamination of protons and heavy ions measurements. Thus, in parallel to the development of the protons and heavy ions radiation belts model, the electrons models, already existing, has been improved. Then Salammbo results have been compared to the different observations available (in-situ measurements, radio-astronomical observations). The different comparisons show a very good agreement between Salammbo results and observations. (author) [fr

  3. Jupiter radiation belt models (July 1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, N.


    Flux profiles which were derived from data returned by Pioneer 10 during Jupiter encounter, form the basis for a new set of numerical models for the energy spectra of electrons and protons in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere

  4. Variations of Synchrotron Radio Emissions from Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belt (United States)

    Lou, Y.-Q.


    Variations of Synchrotron Radio Emissions from Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belt Yu-Qing Lou* Physics Department, Tsinghua Centre for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua-National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) joint Research Centre for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China We describe the basic phenommenology of quasi-periodic 40 minute (QP-40) polar burst activities of Jupiter and their close correlation with the solar wind speed variations at the Jovian magnetosphere. Physically, relativistic electrons of QP-40 bursts most likely come from the circumpolar regions of the inner radiation belt (IRB) which gives off intense synchroton radio emissions in a wide wavelength range. Such relativistic electron bursts also give rise to beamed low-frequency radio bursts along polar magnetic field lines with distinct polarizations from Jupiter's two polar regions. Jovian aurora activities are expected to be also affected by such QP-40 burst activities. We present evidence of short-term (typical timescales shorter than an hour) variabilities of the IRB at 6cm wavelength and describe recent joint radio telescope observation campaign to monitor Jupiter in coordination with JUNO spacecraft. Except for low-frequency polarization features, we anticipate JUNO to detect QP-40 activities from both polar regions during the arrival of high-speed solar wind with intermittency. References 1. Y.-Q. Lou, The Astrophysical Journal, 548, 460 (2001). 2. Y.-Q. Lou, and C. Zheng, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Letters, 344, L1 (2003). 3. Y.-Q. Lou, H. G. Song, Y.Y. Liu, and M. Yang, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Letters, 421, L62 (2012). 4. Y.-Q. Lou, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 609 (1996). 5. Y.-Q. Lou, Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 14747 (1994). 6. G. R. Gladstone, et al., Nature, 415, 1000 (2002).

  5. Loss and source mechanisms of Jupiter's radiation belts near the inner boundary of trapping regions (United States)

    Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.; Becker, Heidi N.; Clark, George; Kollmann, Peter; Paranicas, Chris; Mauk, Barry; Joergensen, John L.; Adriani, Alberto; Thorne, Richard M.; Bagenal, Fran; Janssen, Mike A.; Levin, Steve M.; Oyafuso, Fabiano A.; Williamson, Ross; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Kurth, Bill; Connerney, John E. P.


    We have merged a set of physics-based and empirical models to investigate the energy and spatial distributions of Jupiter's electron and proton populations in the inner and middle magnetospheric regions. Beyond the main source of plasma (> 5 Rj) where interchange instability is believed to drive the radial transport of charged particles, the method originally developed by Divine and Garrett [J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6889-6903, 1983] has been adapted. Closer to the planet where field fluctuations control the radial transport, a diffusion theory approach is used. Our results for the equatorial and mid-latitude regions are compared with Pioneer and Galileo Probe measurements. Data collected along Juno's polar orbit allow us to examine the features of Jupiter's radiation environment near the inner boundary of trapping regions. Significant discrepancies between Juno (JEDI keV energy particles and high energy radiation environment measurements made by Juno's SRU and ASC star cameras and the JIRAM infrared imager) and Galileo Probe data sets and models are observed close to the planet. Our simulations of Juno MWR observations of Jupiter's electron-belt emission confirm the limitation of our model to realistically depict the energy and spatial distributions of the ultra-energetic electrons. In this paper, we present our modeling approach, the data sets and resulting data-model comparisons for Juno's first science orbits. We describe our effort to improve our models of electron and proton belts. To gain a physical understanding of the dissimilarities with observations, we revisit the magnetic environment and the mechanisms of loss and source in our models.

  6. A revised model of Jupiter's inner electron belts: Updating the Divine radiation model (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Levin, Steven M.; Bolton, Scott J.; Evans, Robin W.; Bhattacharya, Bidushi


    In 1983, Divine presented a comprehensive model of the Jovian charged particle environment that has long served as a reference for missions to Jupiter. However, in situ observations by Galileo and synchrotron observations from Earth indicate the need to update the model in the inner radiation zone. Specifically, a review of the model for 1 MeV data. Further modifications incorporating observations from the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft will be reported in the future.

  7. Observations of MeV electrons in Jupiter's innermost radiation belts and polar regions by the Juno radiation monitoring investigation: Perijoves 1 and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Santos-Costa, Daniel; Jørgensen, John Leif


    Juno's “Perijove 1” (27 August 2016) and “Perijove 3” (11 December 2016) flybys through the innermost region of Jupiter's magnetosphere (radial distances ... Investigation collected particle counts and noise signatures from penetrating high-energy particle impacts in images acquired by the Stellar Reference Unit and Advanced Stellar Compass star trackers, and the Jupiter Infrared Auroral Mapper infrared imager. This coordinated observation campaign sampled radiation...

  8. Comparison of radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radition 2. East--west asymmetry in the radiation belts as a functon of Jovian longitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Pater, I.


    On the basis of comparison of radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiaton the 'hot region' or east--west asymmetry in the planet's radiation belts is proposed to be due to the combined effect of an overabundance of electrons at jovicentric longitudes lambda/sub J/approx.240 0 --360 0 and the existence of a dusk dawn directed electric field over the inner magnetosphere, generated by the wind system in the upper atmosphere. The model calculations were based upon the magnetic field configurations derived from the Pioneer data by Acuna and Ness [1976] (the O 4 model) and Davis, Jones and Smith (quoted in Smith and Gulkis [1979]) (the P 11 (3,2)A model), with an electron distribution derived in the first paper of this series [de Pater, this issue]. We would infer from the calculations that the O 4 model gives a slightly better fit to the data; the relatively large number density at lambda/sub J/approx.240 0 --360 0 , however, might indicate the presence of even higher order moments in the field

  9. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.


    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  10. Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System (United States)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

    To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

  11. Radiation Belt Test Model (United States)

    Freeman, John W.


    Rice University has developed a dynamic model of the Earth's radiation belts based on real-time data driven boundary conditions and full adiabaticity. The Radiation Belt Test Model (RBTM) successfully replicates the major features of storm-time behavior of energetic electrons: sudden commencement induced main phase dropout and recovery phase enhancement. It is the only known model to accomplish the latter. The RBTM shows the extent to which new energetic electrons introduced to the magnetosphere near the geostationary orbit drift inward due to relaxation of the magnetic field. It also shows the effects of substorm related rapid motion of magnetotail field lines for which the 3rd adiabatic invariant is violated. The radial extent of this violation is seen to be sharply delineated to a region outside of 5Re, although this distance is determined by the Hilmer-Voigt magnetic field model used by the RBTM. The RBTM appears to provide an excellent platform on which to build parameterized refinements to compensate for unknown acceleration processes inside 5Re where adiabaticity is seen to hold. Moreover, built within the framework of the MSFM, it offers the prospect of an operational forecast model for MeV electrons.

  12. Jupiter (United States)


    This processed color image of Jupiter was produced in 1990 by the U.S. Geological Survey from a Voyager image captured in 1979. The colors have been enhanced to bring out detail. Zones of light-colored, ascending clouds alternate with bands of dark, descending clouds. The clouds travel around the planet in alternating eastward and westward belts at speeds of up to 540 kilometers per hour. Tremendous storms as big as Earthly continents surge around the planet. The Great Red Spot (oval shape toward the lower-left) is an enormous anticyclonic storm that drifts along its belt, eventually circling the entire planet.

  13. Radiation analysis for manned missions to the Jupiter system. (United States)

    De Angelis, G; Clowdsley, M S; Nealy, J E; Tripathi, R K; Wilson, J W


    An analysis for manned missions targeted to the Jovian system has been performed in the framework of the NASA RASC (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program on Human Exploration beyond Mars. The missions were targeted to the Jupiter satellite Callisto. The mission analysis has been divided into three main phases, namely the interplanetary cruise, the Jupiter orbital insertion, and the surface landing and exploration phases. The interplanetary phase is based on departure from the Earth-Moon L1 point. Interplanetary trajectories based on the use of different propulsion systems have been considered, with resulting overall cruise phase duration varying between two and five years. The Jupiter-approach and the orbital insertion trajectories are considered in detail, with the spacecraft crossing the Jupiter radiation belts and staying around the landing target. In the surface exploration phase the stay on the Callisto surface is considered. The satellite surface composition has been modeled based on the most recent results from the GALILEO spacecraft. In the transport computations the surface backscattering has been duly taken into account. Particle transport has been performed with the HZETRN heavy ion code for hadrons and with an in-house developed transport code for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons. The obtained doses have been compared to dose exposure limits. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; Brasser, Ramon; Gomes, Rodney; Levison, Harold F.; Tsiganis, Kleomenis


    We use the current orbital structure of large (>50 km) asteroids in the main asteroid belt to constrain the evolution of the giant planets when they migrated from their primordial orbits to their current ones. Minton and Malhotra showed that the orbital distribution of large asteroids in the main belt can be reproduced by an exponentially decaying migration of the giant planets on a timescale of τ ∼ 0.5 Myr. However, self-consistent numerical simulations show that the planetesimal-driven migration of the giant planets is inconsistent with an exponential change in their semi-major axes on such a short timescale. In fact, the typical timescale is τ ≥ 5 Myr. When giant planet migration on this timescale is applied to the asteroid belt, the resulting orbital distribution is incompatible with the observed one. However, the planet migration can be significantly sped up by planet-planet encounters. Consider an evolution where both Jupiter and Saturn have close encounters with a Neptune-mass planet (presumably Uranus or Neptune itself) and where this third planet, after being scattered inward by Saturn, is scattered outward by Jupiter. This scenario leads to a very rapid increase in the orbital separation between Jupiter and Saturn which we show here to have only mild effects on the structure of the asteroid belt. This type of evolution is called a 'jumping-Jupiter' case. Our results suggest that the total mass and dynamical excitation of the asteroid belt before migration were comparable to those currently observed. Moreover, they imply that, before migration, the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn were much less eccentric than their current ones.

  15. Jupiter and planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The evolution of Jupiter and Earth are discussed along with their atmospheres, the radiation belts around both planets, natural satellites, the evolution of life, and the Pioneer 10. Educational study projects are also included

  16. A new look at Jupiter: results at the now frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Pioneer 10's encounter with Jupiter is discussed along with the interplanetary space beyond the orbit of Mars. Other topics discussed include the size of Jupiter, the Galilean satellites, the magnetic field of Jupiter, radiation belts, Jupiter's weather and interior, and future exploration possibilities. Educational projects are also included

  17. Storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics: Repeatability in the outer radiation belt (United States)

    Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; Watt, C.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.


    During intervals of enhanced solar wind driving the outer radiation belt becomes extremely dynamic leading to geomagnetic storms. During these storms the flux of energetic electrons can vary by over 4 orders of magnitude. Despite recent advances in understanding the nature of competing storm-time electron loss and acceleration processes the dynamic behavior of the outer radiation belt remains poorly understood; the outer radiation belt can exhibit either no change, an enhancement, or depletion in radiation belt electrons. Using a new analysis of the total radiation belt electron content, calculated from the Van Allen probes phase space density (PSD), we statistically analyze the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms. We demonstrate that by removing adiabatic effects there is a clear and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. Namely, the relativistic (μ=1000 MeV/G) and ultra-relativistic (μ=4000 MeV/G) electron populations can be separated into two phases; an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase dominated by acceleration. At lower energies, the radiation belt seed population of electrons (μ=150 MeV/G) shows no evidence of loss but rather a net enhancement during storms. Further, we investigate the dependence of electron dynamics as a function of the second adiabatic invariant, K. These results demonstrate a global coherency in the dynamics of the source, relativistic and ultra-relativistic electron populations as function of the second adiabatic invariant K. This analysis demonstrates two key aspects of storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. First, the radiation belt responds repeatably to solar wind driving during geomagnetic storms. Second, the response of the radiation belt is energy dependent, relativistic electrons behaving differently than lower energy seed electrons. These results have important implications in radiation belt research. In particular

  18. Estimates Of Radiation Belt Remediation Requirements (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.; Hoyt, R. P.; Minor, B. M.


    A low-Earth orbit nuclear detonation could produce an intense artificial radiation belt of relativistic electrons. Many satellites would be destroyed within a few weeks. We present here simple estimates of radiation belt remediation by several different techniques, including electron absorption by gas release, pitch angle scattering by steady electric and magnetic fields from tether arrays, and pitch angle scattering by wave-particle interactions from in-situ transmitters. For each technique, the mass, size, and power requirements are estimated for a one-week remediation (e-folding) timescale, assuming that a 10 kTon blast trapped 1024 fission product electrons (1 to 8 MeV) at L = 1.5 in a dipolar belt of width dL = 0.1.

  19. Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Penne, Barbra


    Our solar system's largest planet is huge enough that all of the system's other planets could fit inside it. Although Jupiter has been known since ancient times, scientists are still learning exciting new information about the planet and its satellites today. In fact, several of its moons are now believed to have oceans below their icy surfaces. Chapters focus on topics such as Jupiter's orbit and rotation, rings, atmosphere, and moons, as well as on the space missions that have helped us get a closer look at the planet and its moons over the past decades.

  20. Bayesian inference of radiation belt loss timescales. (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.


    Electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts are routinely studied using the classical quasi-linear radial diffusion model. Although this simplified linear equation has proven to be an indispensable tool in understanding the dynamics of the radiation belt, it requires specification of quantities such as the diffusion coefficient and electron loss timescales that are never directly measured. Researchers have so far assumed a-priori parameterisations for radiation belt quantities and derived the best fit using satellite data. The state of the art in this domain lacks a coherent formulation of this problem in a probabilistic framework. We present some recent progress that we have made in performing Bayesian inference of radial diffusion parameters. We achieve this by making extensive use of the theory connecting Gaussian Processes and linear partial differential equations, and performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of radial diffusion parameters. These results are important for understanding the role and the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations and, eventually, for providing a probabilistic forecast of energetic electron fluxes in a Space Weather context.

  1. A reassessment of Galileo radiation exposures in the Jupiter magnetosphere. (United States)

    Atwell, William; Townsend, Lawrence; Miller, Thomas; Campbell, Christina


    Earlier particle experiments in the 1970s on Pioneer-10 and -11 and Voyager-1 and -2 provided Jupiter flyby particle data, which were used by Divine and Garrett to develop the first Jupiter trapped radiation environment model. This model was used to establish a baseline radiation effects design limit for the Galileo onboard electronics. Recently, Garrett et al. have developed an updated Galileo Interim Radiation Environment (GIRE) model based on Galileo electron data. In this paper, we have used the GIRE model to reassess the computed radiation exposures and dose effects for Galileo. The 34-orbit 'as flown' Galileo trajectory data and the updated GIRE model were used to compute the electron and proton spectra for each of the 34 orbits. The total ionisation doses of electrons and protons have been computed based on a parametric shielding configuration, and these results are compared with previously published results.

  2. A reassessment of Galileo radiation exposures in the Jupiter magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwell, W.; Townsend, L.; Miller, T.; Campbell, C.


    Earlier particle experiments in the 1970's on Pioneer-10 and -11 and Voyager-1 and -2 provided Jupiter flyby particle data, which were used by Divine and Garrett to develop the first Jupiter trapped radiation environment model. This model was used to establish a baseline radiation effects design limit for the Galileo onboard electronics. Recently, Garrett et al. have developed an updated Galileo Interim Radiation Environment (GIRE) model based on Galileo electron data. In this paper, we have used the GIRE model to reassess the computed radiation exposures and dose effects for Galileo. The 34-orbit 'as flown' Galileo trajectory data and the updated GIRE model were used to compute the electron and proton spectra for each of the 34 orbits. The total ionisation doses of electrons and protons have been computed based on a parametric shielding configuration, and these results are compared with previously published results. Published by Oxford Univ. Press. All right reserved. (authors)

  3. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  4. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  5. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.


    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  6. Beam structure of Jupiter's decametric radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K; Carr, T D


    The well-defined zones of central meridian longitude within which the probability of jovian radio emission at frequencies near 22 MHz is relatively high are known as sources A, B and C. Each consists of a component for which the emission probability is strongly correlated with Io's orbital position, and another that is Io-unrelated. The paper presents convincing evidence based on concurrent observations from two Voyager spacecraft and a terrestrial observatory that the component of source A radiation that is not correlated with Io's position is generally emitted in co-rotating searchlight beams of distinctive cross-sectional shape.

  7. Space electronics: radiation belts set new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, J.L.; Barillot, C.; Boudenot, J.C.


    Telecommunications satellites have been in use since 1962 with the first satellite network (constellation) coming into operation in 1966. GPS systems have been available since the mid seventies. Until now, all these systems have avoided orbits which lie within the radiation belts. The latest constellation projects, offering much wider bandwidths, need to use orbits between 1500 and 2000 km, where the proton density is at its highest. The vulnerability of future generations of components can be predicted by extrapolating the behaviour of current devices. Screening is not a viable option due to cost and weight limitations in satellite applications. As a result, satellite and component manufacturers are seeking new methods of hardening components or making them more radiation tolerant in an environment where the radiation levels are ten times those currently experiences. (authors)

  8. On a new component of radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorov, N.L.; Kurnosova, L.V.; Razorenov, L.A.; Remizov, A.S.; Fradkin, M.I.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.


    The mechanism of electron radiation belt filling with high-energy particles is discussed. Experimental data on particle fluxes in the Earth magnetosphere are presented. The experiments are carried out using the Cherenkov scintillation telescope installed on the ''Lightning-1'' satellite. Values of secondary particle flux obtained during the measurement at a height of 500 km and 30-40 th. km. coincide within the limits of errors. It is noted that secondary particle flux, equal to the albedo electron flux, is registered on large heights. This reason indicates the fact of forbidden angle filling with electrons with energies above 10 MeV

  9. Problems with models of the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, E.J.; Lemaire, J.; Heynderickx, D.; Rodgers, D.J.


    The current standard models of the radiation-belt environment have many shortcomings, not the least of which is their extreme age. Most of the data used for them were acquired in the 1960's and early 1970's. Problems with the present models, and the ways in which data from more recent missions are being or can be used to create new models with improved functionality, are described. The phenomenology of the radiation belts, the effects on space systems, and geomagnetic coordinates and modeling are discussed. Errors found in present models, their functional limitations, and problems with their implementation and use are detailed. New modeling must address problems at low altitudes with the south Atlantic anomaly, east-west asymmetries and solar cycle variations and at high altitudes with the highly dynamic electron environment. The important issues in space environment modeling from the point of view of usability and relationship with effects evaluation are presented. New sources of data are discussed. Future requirements in the data, models, and analysis tools areas are presented

  10. Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux (United States)

    Roederer, Juan G.; Lejosne, Solène


    Fifty years have passed since the parameter "L-star" was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like "distance to the equatorial point of a field line," McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameterization, some "recipes" on how to compute adiabatic parameters, and we illustrate our points with a real event in which magnetospheric disturbance is shown to adiabatically affect the particle fluxes measured onboard the Van Allen Probes.

  11. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research (United States)

    Ludwig, G. H.


    phenomenon. It also provided the first hint that there were two distinct radiation belts, although that conclusion was not reached until later. Although that new information was quickly announced, the results of the high altitude nuclear detonations were kept secret until well into 1959. They clearly revealed the charged particle shells created by the Argos nuclear detonations. The next major step in mapping and understanding the high-intensity radiation involved the launch of deep space probes Pioneers III and IV in December 1958 and March 1959. Although both launches fell short in their primary objective, to reach the moon, they traveled far enough from the Earth to fully meet the needs of the scientific experiment. They very clearly showed the two-radiation belt structure, and mapped its extent. They also showed the probable effect of a magnetic storm on 25 February, thus indicating the direct influence of solar activity on the outer belt. By the end of 1959, the existence of the Van Allen Radiation Belts and their general structure were solidly established, early information about the composition of the radiation was appearing in print, and energetic work was under way to understand the physics of the processes involved.

  12. Jupiter: as a planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The planet Jupiter, its planetary mass and atmosphere, radio waves emitted from Jupiter, thermal radiation, internal structure of Jupiter, and the possibility of life on Jupiter are discussed. Educational study projects are included

  13. Some features of Jupiter decametric radiation and its temporary variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitskij, L.S.


    The following parameters of Jupiter decametric radiation are considered: duration of the storms, the distribution of the storms over Jupiter's longitudes and Io's position, the distribution along frequency range, burstness. It is shown that probability W of revealing decametric emission does not depend on solar activity level. The relative probability (W 3 /W) of appearing noise storms of large intensity changes according to variations of solar activity indexes for all frequencies (10-35 MHz). The duration of noise storms, its frequency range, intensity and L-burst number increase systematically with the storm's power. There is a tendency to the expansion of the sources of the emission along the longitude if the observer (the Earth) changes his position from the boundary to center of emission cone. Io effects in decametric emission are appreciable for the largest storms only. For small storms these effects may be revealed only in years of minimum solar activity. A part of storms with large number of L-bursts is correlated with the Asub(p)-index

  14. Moist convection and the 2010-2011 revival of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, G. S.; Rogers, J. H.; Giles, R. S.; Payne, A. V.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Vedovato, M.


    The transformation of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (SEB) from its faded, whitened state in 2009-2010 (Fletcher et al., 2011b) to its normal brown appearance is documented via comparisons of thermal-infrared (5-20 μm) and visible-light imaging between November 2010 and November 2011. The SEB revival consisted of convective eruptions triggered over ∼100 days, potentially powered by the latent heat released by the condensation of water. The plumes rise from the water cloud base and ultimately diverge and cool in the stably-stratified upper troposphere. Thermal-IR images from the Very Large Telescope (VLT) were acquired 2 days after the SEB disturbance was first detected as a small white spot by amateur observers on November 9th 2010. Subsequent images over several months revealed the cold, putatively anticyclonic and cloudy plume tops (area 2.5 × 106 km2) surrounded by warm, cloud-free conditions at their peripheries due to subsidence. The latent heating was not directly detectable in the 5-20 μm range. The majority of the plumes erupted from a single source near 140 -160∘ W, coincident with the remnant cyclonic circulation of a brown barge that had formed during the fade. The warm remnant of the cyclone could still be observed in IRTF imaging 5 days before the November 9th eruption. Additional plumes erupted from the leading edge of the central disturbance immediately east of the source, which propagated slowly eastwards to encounter the Great Red Spot. The tropospheric plumes were sufficiently vigorous to excite stratospheric thermal waves over the SEB with a 20 -30∘ longitudinal wavelength and 5-6 K temperature contrasts at 5 mbar, showing a direct connection between moist convection and stratospheric wave activity. The subsidence and compressional heating of dry, unsaturated air warmed the troposphere (particularly to the northwest of the central branch of the revival) and removed the aerosols that had been responsible for the fade. Dark, cloud

  15. Changes in the Cloud Belts of Jupiter, 1630–1664, as Reported in the 1665 Astronomia Reformata of Giovanni Battista Riccioli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graney Christopher M.


    Full Text Available A translation of a section from the 1665 Astronomia Reformata of G. B. Riccioli discussing the appearance of the disk of Jupiter during the years 1630-1664; changes in the Jovian cloud belts as recorded by a variety of observers are a major feature of Riccioli’s discussion.

  16. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.


    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  17. Statistics of the outer radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.J.; Johnstone, A.D.


    The highly variable electron flux levels in the outer radiation belt come about by competition between time-dependent source and loss mechanisms. In order to identify some of the different mechanisms involved, we examine the statistics of the variability of fluxes at geostationary orbit. Data from the SEM-2 analyzer on Meteosat-3 and from GOES-7 are used. Correlation analysis is used to find time-delays between changes in flux at different energies. We see that low energy flux is added to this region during sub-storms and that higher energy fluxes appear after 2 or 3 days. Whilst the timescale for this process is brief compared to a complete cycle of the open-quote Recirculation close-quote energization process, it is consistent with the timescale of its final step endash outward radial diffusion. By isolating periods when no new injection of plasma occurs, we make an assessment of flux loss rates in a quiet magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Formation and Decay of the Inner Electron Radiation Belt (United States)


    a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 09-01-2017 2. REPORT TYPE...radiation belt: CRAND and trapped solar protons......17 APPENDIX C - Inward diffusion and loss of radiation belt protons...transfer orbit that can be damaged by the intense charged -particle environment. Protons are the prominent hazard, often causing single event upsets in

  19. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.


    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., <1000 km) where many robotic and human space flights occur. The availability of radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  20. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization (United States)

    Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Bourdarie, S.; Horne, R.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Mann, I.; Santolik, O.; Turner, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgiou, M.; Giannakis, O.; Papadimitriou, C.; Ropokis, G.; Sandberg, I.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glauert, S.; Grison, B., Kersten T.; Kolmasova, I.; Lazaro, D.; Mella, M.; Ozeke, L.; Usanova, M.


    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. The MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520.

  1. Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study: Radiation Belt Seed Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.


    Using the Van Allen Probes data, we study the radiation belt seed population and it associated with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storm events. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, these storm events are divided into two groups of “non-preconditioned” and “preconditioned”. The statistical study shows that the storm intensity is of significant importance for the distribution of the seed population (336 keV electrons) in the outer radiation belt. However, substorm intensity can also be important to the evolution of the seed population for some geomagnetic storm events. For non-preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the peak fluxes and their L-shell locations of the seed population and relativistic electrons (592 keV, 1.0 MeV, 1.8 MeV, and 2.1 MeV) is consistent with the energy-dependent dynamic processes in the outer radiation belt. For preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the features of the seed population and relativistic electrons is not fully consistent with the energy-dependent processes. It is suggested that the good correlation between the radiation belt seed population and ≤1.0 MeV electrons contributes to the prediction of the evolution of ≤1.0 MeV electrons in the Earth’s outer radiation belt during periods of geomagnetic storms.

  2. An Experimental Concept for Probing Nonlinear Physics in Radiation Belts (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Ganguli, G.; Tejero, E. M.; Amatucci, B.; Siefring, C. L.


    A sounding rocket experiment, Space Measurement of Rocket-Released Turbulence (SMART), can be used to probe the nonlinear response to a known stimulus injected into the radiation belt. Release of high-speed neutral barium atoms (8- 10 km/s) generated by a shaped charge explosion in the ionosphere can be used as the source of free energy to seed weak turbulence in the ionosphere. The Ba atoms are photo-ionized forming a ring velocity distribution of heavy Ba+ that is known to generate lower hybrid waves. Induced nonlinear scattering will convert the lower hybrid waves into EM whistler/magnetosonic waves. The escape of the whistlers from the ionospheric region into the radiation belts has been studied and their observable signatures quantified. The novelty of the SMART experiment is to make coordinated measurement of the cause and effect of the turbulence in space plasmas and from that to deduce the role of nonlinear scattering in the radiation belts. Sounding rocket will carry a Ba release module and an instrumented daughter section that includes vector wave magnetic and electric field sensors, Langmuir probes and energetic particle detectors. The goal of these measurements is to determine the whistler and lower hybrid wave amplitudes and spectrum in the ionospheric source region and look for precipitated particles. The Ba release may occur at 600-700 km near apogee. Ground based cameras and radio diagnostics can be used to characterize the Ba and Ba+ release. The Van Allen Probes can be used to detect the propagation of the scattering-generated whistler waves and their effects in the radiation belts. By detecting whistlers and measuring their energy density in the radiation belts the SMART mission will confirm the nonlinear generation of whistlers through scattering of lower hybrid along with other nonlinear responses of the radiation belts and their connection to weak turbulence.

  3. High-energy outer radiation belt dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Nightingale, R.W.; Rinaldi, M.A.


    Specification of the average high-energy radiation belt environment in terms of phenomenological montages of satellite measurements has been available for some time. However, for many reasons both scientific and applicational (including concerns for a better understanding of the high-energy radiatino background in space), it is desirable to model the dynamic response of the high-energy radiation belts to sources, to losses, and to geomagnetic activity. Indeed, in the outer electron belt, this is the only mode of modeling that can handle the large intensity fluctuations. Anticipating the dynamic modeling objective of the upcoming Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program, we have undertaken to initiate the study of the various essential elements in constructing a dynamic radiation belt model based on interpretation of satellite data according to simultaneous radial and pitch-angle diffusion theory. In order to prepare for the dynamic radiation belt modeling based on a large data set spanning a relatively large segment of L-values, such as required for CRRES, it is important to study a number of test cases with data of similar characteristics but more restricted in space-time coverage. In this way, models of increasing comprehensiveness can be built up from the experience of elucidating the dynamics of more restrictive data sets. The principal objectives of this paper are to discuss issues concerning dynamic modeling in general and to summarize in particular the good results of an initial attempt at constructing the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt based on a moderately active data period from Lockheed's SC-3 instrument flown on board the SCATHA (P78-2) spacecraft. Further, we shall discuss the issues brought out and lessons learned in this test case

  4. Visible Near-infrared Spectral Evolution of Irradiated Mixed Ices and Application to Kuiper Belt Objects and Jupiter Trojans (United States)

    Poston, Michael J.; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Brown, Michael E.; Carlson, Robert W.; Eiler, John M.; Hand, Kevin P.; Hodyss, Robert; Wong, Ian


    Understanding the history of Kuiper Belt Objects and Jupiter Trojans will help to constrain models of solar system formation and dynamical evolution. Laboratory simulations of a possible thermal and irradiation history of these bodies were conducted on ice mixtures while monitoring their spectral properties. These simulations tested the hypothesis that the presence or absence of sulfur explains the two distinct visible near-infrared spectral groups observed in each population and that Trojans and KBOs share a common formation location. Mixed ices consisting of water, methanol, and ammonia, in mixtures both with and without hydrogen sulfide, were deposited and irradiated with 10 keV electrons. Deposition and initial irradiation were performed at 50 K to simulate formation at 20 au in the early solar system, then heated to Trojan-like temperatures and irradiated further. Finally, irradiation was concluded and resulting samples were observed during heating to room temperature. Results indicated that the presence of sulfur resulted in steeper spectral slopes. Heating through the 140–200 K range decreased the slopes and total reflectance for both mixtures. In addition, absorption features at 410, 620, and 900 nm appeared under irradiation, but only in the H2S-containing mixture. These features were lost with heating once irradiation was concluded. While the results reported here are consistent with the hypothesis, additional work is needed to address uncertainties and to simulate conditions not included in the present work.

  5. Radiation Belt Transport Driven by Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations (United States)

    Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mueller, H.


    The creation of the Earth's outer zone radiation belts is attributed to earthward transport and adiabatic acceleration of electrons by drift-resonant interactions with electromagnetic fluctuations in the magnetosphere. Three types of radial transport driven by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations that have been identified are: (1) radial diffusion [Falthammer, 1965], (2) significant changes in the phase space density radial profile due to a single or few ULF drift-resonant interactions [Ukhorskiy et al., 2006; Degeling et al., 2008], and (3) shock associated injections of radiation belt electrons occurring in less than a drift period [Li et al., 1993]. A progress report will be given on work to fully characterize different forms of radial transport and their effect on the Earth's radiation belts. The work is being carried out by computing test-particle trajectories in electric and magnetic fields from a simple analytic ULF field model and from global MHD simulations of the magnetosphere. Degeling, A. W., L. G. Ozeke, R. Rankin, I. R. Mann, and K. Kabin (2008), Drift resonant generation of peaked relativistic electron distributions by Pc 5 ULF waves, textit{J. Geophys. Res., 113}, A02208, doi:10.1029/2007JA012411. Fälthammar, C.-G. (1965), Effects of Time-Dependent Electric Fields on Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation, J. Geophys. Res., 70(11), 2503-2516, doi:10.1029/JZ070i011p02503. Li, X., I. Roth, M. Temerin, J. R. Wygant, M. K. Hudson, and J. B. Blake (1993), Simulation of the prompt energization and transport of radiation belt particles during the March 24, 1991 SSC, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 20}(22), 2423-2426, doi:10.1029/93GL02701. Ukhorskiy, A. Y., B. J. Anderson, K. Takahashi, and N. A. Tsyganenko (2006), Impact of ULF oscillations in solar wind dynamic pressure on the outer radiation belt electrons, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 33}(6), L06111, doi:10.1029/2005GL024380.

  6. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Utilizing multiple data sources from the year 1997–2007, this study identifies radiation belt electron dropouts which are ultimately triggered when solar wind stream interfaces (SI) arrived at ... Center for Space Research, School for Physical and Chemical Sciences, North–West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.

  7. Quantitative Simulation of QARBM Challenge Events During Radiation Belt Enhancements (United States)

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Chu, X.


    Various physical processes are known to affect energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative effects at different times and locations in space need further investigation. This presentation focuses on discussing the quantitative roles of various physical processes that affect Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics during radiation belt enhancement challenge events (storm-time vs. non-storm-time) selected by the GEM Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling (QARBM) focus group. We construct realistic global distributions of whistler-mode chorus waves, adopt various versions of radial diffusion models (statistical and event-specific), and use the global evolution of other potentially important plasma waves including plasmaspheric hiss, magnetosonic waves, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves from all available multi-satellite measurements. These state-of-the-art wave properties and distributions on a global scale are used to calculate diffusion coefficients, that are then adopted as inputs to simulate the dynamical electron evolution using a 3D diffusion simulation during the storm-time and the non-storm-time acceleration events respectively. We explore the similarities and differences in the dominant physical processes that cause radiation belt electron dynamics during the storm-time and non-storm-time acceleration events. The quantitative role of each physical process is determined by comparing against the Van Allen Probes electron observations at different energies, pitch angles, and L-MLT regions. This quantitative comparison further indicates instances when quasilinear theory is sufficient to explain the observed electron dynamics or when nonlinear interaction is required to reproduce the energetic electron evolution observed by the Van Allen Probes.

  8. Large enhancement of highly energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt and its transport into the inner radiation belt inferred from MDS-1 satellite observations (United States)

    Obara, T.; Matsumoto, H.


    We have examined a large increase of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt and its penetration into the inner radiation belt over slot region using the MDS-1 satellite observations. Result of analyses demonstrates that a large increase took place in the spring and autumn seasons, and we have newly confirmed that the penetration of outer belt electrons to the inner radiation zone took place during the big magnetic storms by examining a pitch angle distribution of the penetrating electrons.

  9. Dynamics of the earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere (geophysical monograph series)

    CERN Document Server


    Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere draws together current knowledge of the radiation belts prior to the launch of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RPSP) and other imminent space missions, making this volume timely and unique. The volume will serve as a useful benchmark at this exciting and pivotal period in radiation belt research in advance of the new discoveries that the RPSP mission will surely bring. Highlights include the following: a review of the current state of the art of radiation belt science; a complete and up-to-date account of the wave-particle interactions that control the dynamical acceleration and loss processes of particles in the Earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere; a discussion emphasizing the importance of the cross-energy coupling of the particle populations of the radiation belts, ring current, and plasmasphere in controlling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphe...

  10. Main magnetic field of Jupiter and its implications for future orbiter missions (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.


    A very strong planetary magnetic field and an enormous magnetosphere with extremely intense radiation belts exist at Jupiter. Pioneer 10 and 11 fly-bys confirmed and extended the earlier ground based estimates of many of these characteristics but left unanswered or added to the list of several important and poorly understood features: the source mechanism and location of decametric emissions, and the absorption effects by the natural satellites Amalthea, Io, Europa and Ganymede. High inclination orbits (exceeding 60 deg) with low periapses (less than 2 Jupiter radii) are required to map the radiation belts and main magnetic field of Jupiter accurately so as to permit full investigation of these and associated phenomena.

  11. Nonlinear Whistler Wave Physics in the Radiation Belts (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris


    Wave particle interactions between electrons and whistler waves are a dominant mechanism for controlling the dynamics of energetic electrons in the radiation belts. They are responsible for loss, via pitch-angle scattering of electrons into the loss cone, and energization to millions of electron volts. It has previously been theorized that large amplitude waves on the whistler branch may scatter their wave-vector nonlinearly via nonlinear Landau damping leading to important consequences for the global distribution of whistler wave energy density and hence the energetic electrons. It can dramatically reduce the lifetime of energetic electrons in the radiation belts by increasing the pitch angle scattering rate. The fundamental building block of this theory has now been confirmed through laboratory experiments. Here we report on in situ observations of wave electro-magnetic fields from the EMFISIS instrument on board NASA's Van Allen Probes that show the signatures of nonlinear scattering of whistler waves in the inner radiation belts. In the outer radiation belts, whistler mode chorus is believed to be responsible for the energization of electrons from 10s of Kev to MeV energies. Chorus is characterized by bursty large amplitude whistler mode waves with frequencies that change as a function of time on timescales corresponding to their growth. Theories explaining the chirping have been developed for decades based on electron trapping dynamics in a coherent wave. New high time resolution wave data from the Van Allen probes and advanced spectral techniques are revealing that the wave dynamics is highly structured, with sub-elements consisting of multiple chirping waves with discrete frequency hops between sub-elements. Laboratory experiments with energetic electron beams are currently reproducing the complex frequency vs time dynamics of whistler waves and in addition revealing signatures of wave-wave and beat-wave nonlinear wave-particle interactions. These new data

  12. Nonlinear Scattering of VLF Waves in the Radiation Belts (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris; Rudakov, Leonid; Ganguli, Guru; Mithaiwala, Manish


    Electromagnetic VLF waves, such as whistler mode waves, control the lifetime of trapped electrons in the radiation belts by pitch-angle scattering. Since the pitch-angle scattering rate is a strong function of the wave properties, a solid understanding of VLF wave sources and propagation in the magnetosphere is critical to accurately calculate electron lifetimes. Nonlinear scattering (Nonlinear Landau Damping) is a mechanism that can strongly alter VLF wave propagation [Ganguli et al. 2010], primarily by altering the direction of propagation, and has not been accounted for in previous models of radiation belt dynamics. Laboratory results have confirmed the dramatic change in propagation direction when the pump wave has sufficient amplitude to exceed the nonlinear threshold [Tejero et al. 2014]. Recent results show that the threshold for nonlinear scattering can often be met by naturally occurring VLF waves in the magnetosphere, with wave magnetic fields of the order of 50-100 pT inside the plasmapause. Nonlinear scattering can then dramatically alter the macroscopic dynamics of waves in the radiation belts leading to the formation of a long-lasting wave-cavity [Crabtree et al. 2012] and, when amplification is present, a multi-pass amplifier [Ganguli et al. 2012]. By considering these effects, the lifetimes of electrons can be dramatically reduced. This work is supported by the Naval Research Laboratory base program.

  13. Statistical studies of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, A.D.; Rodgers, D.J.; Jones, G.H. E-mail:


    The medium electron A (MEA) instrument aboard the CRRES spacecraft provided data on terrestrial radiation belt electrons in the energy range from 153 to 1582 keV, during 1990-91. These data have previously been used to produce an empirical model of the radiation belts from L=1.1 to 8.9, ordered according to 17 energy bands, 18 pitch angle bins, and 5 Kp ranges. Empirical models such as this are very valuable, but are prone to statistical fluctuations and gaps in coverage. In this study, in order to smooth the data and make it more easy to interpolate within data gaps, the pitch angle distribution at each energy in the model was fitted with a Bessel function. This provided a way to characterize the pitch angle in terms of only two parameters for each energy. It was not possible to model fluxes reliably within the loss cone because of poor statistics. The fitted distributions give an indication of the way in which pitch angle diffusion varies in the outer radiation belts. The two parameters of the Bessel function were found to vary systematically with L value, energy and Kp. Through the fitting of a simple function to these systematic variations, the number of parameters required to describe the model could be reduced drastically.

  14. Canadian radiation belt science in the ILWS era (United States)

    Mann, I. R.

    The Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration, and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) is a Canadian Space Agency small satellite mission proposed as a Canadian contribution to the satellite infrastructure for the International Living With a Star (ILWS) program. Planned to operate contemporaneously with the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), the ORBITALS will monitor the energetic electron and ion populations in the inner magnetosphere across a wide range of energies (keV to tens of MeV) as well as the dynamic electric and magnetic fields, waves, and cold plasma environment which govern the injection, transport, acceleration and loss of these energetic and space weather critical particle populations in the inner magnetosphere. Currently in Phase A Design Study, the ORBITALS will be launched into a low-inclination GTO-like orbit which every second orbit maximizes the long lasting apogee-pass conjunctions with both the ground-based instruments of the Canadian Geospace Monitoring (CGSM) array as well as with the GOES East and West and geosynchronous communications satellites in the North American sector. In a twelve-hour orbit, every second apogee will conjunct with instrumentation 180 degree in longitude away in the Asian sector. Specifically, the ORBITALS will make the measurements necessary to reach reveal fundamental new understanding of the relative importance of different physical processes (for example VLF verses ULF waves) which shape the energetic particle populations in the inner magnetosphere, as well as providing the raw radiation measurements at MEO altitudes necessary for the development of the next-generation of radiation belt specification models. On-board experiments will also monitor the dose, single event upset, and deep-dielectric charging responses of electronic components on-orbit. Supporting ground-based measurements of ULF and higher frequency wave fields from the Canadian CARISMA ( magnetometer array, as well as from

  15. Internal Charging Design Environments for the Earths Radiation Belts (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.


    Relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are a widely recognized threat to spacecraft because they penetrate lightly shielded vehicle hulls and deep into insulating materials where they accumulate to sufficient levels to produce electrostatic discharges. Strategies for evaluating the magnitude of the relativistic electron flux environment and its potential for producing ESD events are varied. Simple "rule of thumb" estimates such as the widely used 10(exp 10) e-/sq cm fluence within 10 hour threshold for the onset of pulsing in dielectric materials provide a quick estimate of when to expect charging issues. More sophisticated strategies based on models of the trapped electron flux within the Earth s magnetic field provide time dependent estimates of electron flux along spacecraft orbits and orbit integrate electron flux. Finally, measurements of electron flux can be used to demonstrate mean and extreme relativistic electron environments. This presentation will evaluate strategies used to specify energetic electron flux and fluence environments along spacecraft trajectories in the Earth s radiation belts.

  16. James A. Van Allen: The Trip to Jupiter (United States)

    Jacobsen, Sally


    Discusses the research purposes and activities of the Pioneer mission, including the instruments used, data on Jupiter's radiation belt, and information about cosmic ray intensity. Included is a description of the scientist's view about the value of the space program. (CC)

  17. The Formation of Jupiter, the Jovian Early Bombardment and the Delivery of Water to the Asteroid Belt: The Case of (4) Vesta (United States)

    Turrini, Diego; Svetsov, Vladimir


    The asteroid (4) Vesta, parent body of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites, is one of the first bodies that formed, mostly from volatile-depleted material, in the Solar System. The Dawn mission recently provided evidence that hydrated material was delivered to Vesta, possibly in a continuous way, over the last 4 Ga, while the study of the eucritic meteorites revealed a few samples that crystallized in presence of water and volatile elements. The formation of Jupiter and probably its migration occurred in the period when eucrites crystallized, and triggered a phase of bombardment that caused icy planetesimals to cross the asteroid belt. In this work, we study the flux of icy planetesimals on Vesta during the Jovian Early Bombardment and, using hydrodynamic simulations, the outcome of their collisions with the asteroid. We explore how the migration of the giant planet would affect the delivery of water and volatile materials to the asteroid and we discuss our results in the context of the geophysical and collisional evolution of Vesta. In particular, we argue that the observational data are best reproduced if the bulk of the impactors was represented by 1–2 km wide planetesimals and if Jupiter underwent a limited (a fraction of au) displacement. PMID:25370027

  18. The Formation of Jupiter, the Jovian Early Bombardment and the Delivery of Water to the Asteroid Belt: The Case of (4 Vesta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Turrini


    Full Text Available The asteroid (4 Vesta, parent body of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite meteorites, is one of the first bodies that formed, mostly from volatile-depleted material, in the Solar System. The Dawn mission recently provided evidence that hydrated material was delivered to Vesta, possibly in a continuous way, over the last 4 Ga, while the study of the eucritic meteorites revealed a few samples that crystallized in presence of water and volatile elements. The formation of Jupiter and probably its migration occurred in the period when eucrites crystallized, and triggered a phase of bombardment that caused icy planetesimals to cross the asteroid belt. In this work, we study the flux of icy planetesimals on Vesta during the Jovian Early Bombardment and, using hydrodynamic simulations, the outcome of their collisions with the asteroid. We explore how the migration of the giant planet would affect the delivery of water and volatile materials to the asteroid and we discuss our results in the context of the geophysical and collisional evolution of Vesta. In particular, we argue that the observational data are best reproduced if the bulk of the impactors was represented by 1–2 km wide planetesimals and if Jupiter underwent a limited (a fraction of au displacement.

  19. Examining Relativistic Electron Loss in the Outer Radiation Belt (United States)

    Green, J. C.; Onsager, T. G.; O'Brien, P.


    Since the discovery of earth's radiation belts researchers have sought to identify the mechanisms that dictate the seemingly erratic relativistic electron flux levels in the outer belt. Contrary to intuition, relativistic electron flux levels do not always increase during geomagnetic storms even though these storms signify enhanced energy input from the solar wind to the magnetosphere [Reeves et al., 2003; O'Brien et al., 2001]. The fickle response of the radiation belt electrons to geomagnetic activity suggests that flux levels are determined by the outcome of a continuous competition between acceleration and loss. Some progress has been made developing and testing acceleration mechanisms but little is known about how relativistic electrons are lost. We examine relativistic electron losses in the outer belt focusing our attention on flux decrease events of the type first described by Onsager et al. [2002]. The study showed a sudden decrease of geosynchronous >2MeV electron flux occurring simultaneously with local stretching of the magnetic field. The decrease was first observed near 15:00 MLT and progressed to all local times after a period of ˜10 hours. Expanding on the work of Onsager et al. [2002], we have identified ˜ 51 such flux decrease events in the GOES and LANL data and present the results of a superposed epoch analysis of solar wind data, geomagnetic activity indicators, and locally measured magnetic field and plasma data. The analysis shows that flux decreases occur after 1-2 days of quiet condition. They begin when either the solar wind dynamic pressure increases or Bz turns southward pushing hot dense plasma earthward to form a partial ring current and stretched magnetic field at dusk. Adiabatic electron motion in response to the stretched magnetic field may explain the initial flux reduction; however, often the flux does not recover with the magnetic field recovery, indicating that true loss from the magnetosphere is occurring. Using Polar and

  20. Radiation Environment Model of Protons and Heavier Ions at Jupiter (United States)

    Sierra, Luz Maria Martinez; Garrett, Henry B.; Jun, Insoo


    We performed an in depth study of the methods used to review the geometric factors (GF) and sensitivity to charge particles of the Energetic Particle Detector instrument on board the Galileo Spacecraft. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to understand the interactions of electrons and ions (i. e., protons and alphas) with the sensitive regions of the instrument. The DC0 and B0 channels were studied with the intention of using them to update the jovian proton radiation model. The results proved that the B0 is a clean proton chanel without any concerns for contamination by heavier ions and electrons. In contrast, DC0 was found to be contaminated by electrons. Furthermore, we also found out that the B2 channel is a clean alpha particle channel (in other words, no contamination by electrons and/or protons).

  1. The polarization of the decimeter radiation and the magnetic field of jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidhoefer, J.


    In the frame of polarization measurements with the newly developed Double-Channel-Korrelation-System, there were measurements conducted of the decimeter radiation of Jupiter at wavelengths of 11 and 18cm with the 100m telescope of the MPIFR. The operating mode, the construction, influences of errors and their elimination during operation described in such a receiving system. The most important particular components are investigated including their limits of performance. Measurement of antenna properties of the Effelsberg-telescope are presented at three wavelengths (18, 11 and 3.3 cm) including high-sensitivity antenna diagrams for all Stokes-parameter. (orig./WL) [de

  2. These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnos (United States)


    These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnostic of physical phenomena The 7.85-micron image in the upper left shows stratospheric temperatures which are elevated in the region of the A fragment impact (to the left of bottom). Temperatures deeper in the atmosphere near 150-mbar are shown by the 17.2-micron image in the upper right. There is a small elevation of temperatures at this depth, indicated by the arrow, and confirmed by other measurements near this wavelength. This indicates that the influence of the impact of fragment A on the troposphere has been minimal. The two images in the bottom row show no readily apparent perturbation of the ammmonia condensate cloud field near 600 mbar, as diagnosed by 8.57-micron radiation, and deeper cloud layers which are diagnosed by 5-micron radiation.

  3. An interpretation of Jupiter's decametric radiation and the terrestrial kilometric radiation as direct amplified gyroemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melrose, D.B.


    Electron streams precipitating from a planetary magnetosphere can cause gyroemission in the x-mode to be amplified provided the following conditions are satisfied: (a) β/sub perpendicular/ 0 2 > approx. β/sub parallel/ 0 and, (b) abs. value β/sub s/ > f/sub p/ 2 /f/sub b/ 2 , where β/sub s/c, β/sub perpendicular/ 0 , and β/sub parallel/ 0 2 c 2 are the mean parallel velocity and the mean square perpendicular and parallel velocity spreads, respectively, and where f/sub p/ and f/sub B/ are the plasma frequency and the electron cyclotron frequency, respectively. The required anisotropy β/sub perpendicular/ 0 2 approx. > β/sub parallel/ 0 is assumed to be set up through the betatron effect, i.e., due to the stream propagating in the direction of increasing magnetic induction B. The back-reaction of the amplified emission on the stream causes β/sub perpendicular/ 0 2 to decrease. A steady state is set up with the anisotropy maintained near the threshold value β/sub perpendicular/ 0 2 approx. =β/sub parallel/ 0 , and with the excess perpendicular energy, which is gained through the betatron effect, transferred to the escaping radiation.This mechanism can account for the gross features of Jupiter's decametric emission (DAM) and for its terrestrial counterpart, the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR). The required number density in the precipitating electrons is n 1 > approx. 20 cm -3 for DAM and n 1 > approx. 2 cm -3 for AKR. Most of the power in DAM at higher frequencies ( > approx. 20MHz) is directed to higher latitudes and is not seen from the Earth. The polarization of DAM and the ray paths in the Jovian magnetosphere are discussed. The observed characteristics of ''inverted V'' auroral electron precipitation events, which correlate with AKR, appear to satisfy all the requirements of the theory. AKR should contain fine structure on a time scale approx.1μs

  4. The evolution of Saturn's radiation belts modulated by changes in radial diffusion (United States)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Kotova, A.; Paranicas, C.; Krupp, N.


    Globally magnetized planets, such as the Earth1 and Saturn2, are surrounded by radiation belts of protons and electrons with kinetic energies well into the million electronvolt range. The Earth's proton belt is supplied locally from galactic cosmic rays interacting with the atmosphere3, as well as from slow inward radial transport4. Its intensity shows a relationship with the solar cycle4,5 and abrupt dropouts due to geomagnetic storms6,7. Saturn's proton belts are simpler than the Earth's because cosmic rays are the principal source of energetic protons8 with virtually no contribution from inward transport, and these belts can therefore act as a prototype to understand more complex radiation belts. However, the time dependence of Saturn's proton belts had not been observed over sufficiently long timescales to test the driving mechanisms unambiguously. Here we analyse the evolution of Saturn's proton belts over a solar cycle using in-situ measurements from the Cassini Saturn orbiter and a numerical model. We find that the intensity in Saturn's proton radiation belts usually rises over time, interrupted by periods that last over a year for which the intensity is gradually dropping. These observations are inconsistent with predictions based on a modulation in the cosmic-ray source, as could be expected4,9 based on the evolution of the Earth's proton belts. We demonstrate that Saturn's intensity dropouts result instead from losses due to abrupt changes in magnetospheric radial diffusion.

  5. First Results of Modeling Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics with the SAMI3 Plasmasphere Model (United States)

    Komar, C. M.; Glocer, A.; Huba, J.; Fok, M. C. H.; Kang, S. B.; Buzulukova, N.


    The radiation belts were one of the first discoveries of the Space Age some sixty years ago and radiation belt models have been improving since the discovery of the radiation belts. The plasmasphere is one region that has been critically important to determining the dynamics of radiation belt populations. This region of space plays a critical role in describing the distribution of chorus and magnetospheric hiss waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. Both of these waves have been shown to interact with energetic electrons in the radiation belts and can result in the energization or loss of radiation belt electrons. However, radiation belt models have been historically limited in describing the distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma and have relied on empirically determined plasmasphere models. Some plasmasphere models use an azimuthally symmetric distribution of the plasmasphere which can fail to capture important plasmaspheric dynamics such as the development of plasmaspheric drainage plumes. Previous work have coupled the kinetic bounce-averaged Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model used to model ring current and radiation belt populations with the Block-adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATSRUS) global magnetohydrodynamic model to self-consistently obtain the magnetospheric magnetic field and ionospheric potential. The present work will utilize this previous coupling and will additionally couple the SAMI3 plasmasphere model to better represent the dynamics on the plasmasphere and its role in determining the distribution of waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. First results on the relevance of chorus, hiss, and ultralow frequency waves on radiation belt electron dynamics will be discussed in context of the June 1st, 2013 storm-time dropout event.

  6. Forecasting of Radiation Belts: Results From the PROGRESS Project. (United States)

    Balikhin, M. A.; Arber, T. D.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Walker, S. N.


    Forecasting of Radiation Belts: Results from the PROGRESS Project. The overall goal of the PROGRESS project, funded in frame of EU Horizon2020 programme, is to combine first principles based models with the systems science methodologies to achieve reliable forecasts of the geo-space particle radiation environment.The PROGRESS incorporates three themes : The propagation of the solar wind to L1, Forecast of geomagnetic indices, and forecast of fluxes of energetic electrons within the magnetosphere. One of the important aspects of the PROGRESS project is the development of statistical wave models for magnetospheric waves that affect the dynamics of energetic electrons such as lower band chorus, hiss and equatorial noise. The error reduction ratio (ERR) concept has been used to optimise the set of solar wind and geomagnetic parameters for organisation of statistical wave models for these emissions. The resulting sets of parameters and statistical wave models will be presented and discussed. However the ERR analysis also indicates that the combination of solar wind and geomagnetic parameters accounts for only part of the variance of the emissions under investigation (lower band chorus, hiss and equatorial noise). In addition, advances in the forecast of fluxes of energetic electrons, exploiting empirical models and the first principles IMPTAM model achieved by the PROGRESS project is presented.

  7. Nonlinear VLF Wave Physics in the Radiation Belts (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Mithaiwala, M.; Rudakov, L.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.


    Electromagnetic VLF waves, such as whistler mode waves, both control the lifetime of trapped electrons in the radiation belts by pitch-angle scattering and are responsible for the energization of electrons during storms. Traditional approaches to understanding the influence of waves on trapped electrons have assumed that the wave characteristics (frequency spectrum, wave-normal angle distribution, etc.) were both stationary in time and amplitude independent from event to event. In situ data from modern satellite missions, such as the Van Allen probes, are showing that this assumption may not be justified. In addition, recent theoretical results [Crabtree et al. 2012] show that the threshold for nonlinear wave scattering can often be met by naturally occurring VLF waves in the magnetosphere, with wave magnetic fields of the order of 50-100 pT inside the plasmapause. Nonlinear wave scattering (Nonlinear Landau Damping) is an amplitude dependent mechanism that can strongly alter VLF wave propagation [Ganguli et al. 2010], primarily by altering the direction of propagation. Laboratory results have confirmed the dramatic change in propagation direction when the pump wave has sufficient amplitude to exceed the nonlinear threshold [Tejero et al. 2014]. Nonlinear scattering can alter the macroscopic dynamics of waves in the radiation belts leading to the formation of a long-lasting wave-cavity [Crabtree et al. 2012] and, when amplification is present, a multi-pass amplifier [Ganguli et al., 2012]. Such nonlinear wave effects can dramatically reduce electron lifetimes. Nonlinear wave dynamics such as these occur when there are more than one wave present, such a condition necessarily violates the assumption of traditional wave-normal analysis [Santolik et al., 2003] which rely on the plane wave assumption. To investigate nonlinear wave dynamics using modern in situ data we apply the maximum entropy method [Skilling and Bryan, 1984] to solve for the wave distribution function

  8. Proton flux under radiation belts: near-equatorial zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, O.R.; Panasyuk, M.I.; Petrov, A.N.; Kudela, K.


    In this work the features of low-energy proton flux increases in near-equatorial region (McIlvein parameter L th the proton flux (with energy from tens keV up to several MeV) increases are registering regularly. However modern proton flux models (for example AP8 model) works at L>1.15 only and does not take into account near-equatorial protons. These fluxes are not too big, but the investigation of this phenomenon is important in scope of atmosphere-ionosphere connections and mechanisms of particles transport in magnetosphere. In according to double charge-exchange model the proton flux in near-equatorial region does not depend on geomagnetic local time (MLT) and longitude. However the Azur satellite data and Kosmos-484, MIR station and Active satellite data revealed the proton flux dependence on longitude. The other feature of near-equatorial proton flux is the dependence on geomagnetic local time revealed in the Sampex satellite experiment and other experiments listed above. In this work the dependences on MLT and longitude are investigated using the Active satellite (30-500 keV) and Sampex satellite (>800 keV). This data confirms that main sources of near-equatorial protons are radiation belts and ring current. The other result is that near-equatorial protons are quasi-trapped. The empirical proton flux dependences on L, B at near-equatorial longitudes are presented. (author)

  9. Rapid flattening of butterfly pitch angle distributions of radiation belt electrons by whistler-mode chorus (United States)

    Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Funsten, H. O.


    Van Allen radiation belt electrons exhibit complex dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. Investigation of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) can provide important information on the dominant physical mechanisms controlling radiation belt behaviors. Here we report a storm time radiation belt event where energetic electron PADs changed from butterfly distributions to normal or flattop distributions within several hours. Van Allen Probes observations showed that the flattening of butterfly PADs was closely related to the occurrence of whistler-mode chorus waves. Two-dimensional quasi-linear STEERB simulations demonstrate that the observed chorus can resonantly accelerate the near-equatorially trapped electrons and rapidly flatten the corresponding electron butterfly PADs. These results provide a new insight on how chorus waves affect the dynamic evolution of radiation belt electrons.

  10. Rapid flattening of butterfly pitch angle distributions of radiation belt electrons by whistler-mode chorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chang; Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan


    Van Allen radiation belt electrons exhibit complex dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. Investigation of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) can provide important information on the dominant physical mechanisms controlling radiation belt behaviors. In this paper, we report a storm time radiation belt event where energetic electron PADs changed from butterfly distributions to normal or flattop distributions within several hours. Van Allen Probes observations showed that the flattening of butterfly PADs was closely related to the occurrence of whistler-mode chorus waves. Two-dimensional quasi-linear STEERB simulations demonstrate that the observed chorus can resonantly accelerate the near-equatorially trapped electrons and rapidly flatten the corresponding electron butterfly PADs. Finally, these results provide a new insight on how chorus waves affect the dynamic evolution of radiation belt electrons.

  11. Detailed Characteristics of Radiation Belt Electrons Revealed by CSSWE/REPTile Measurements (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Gerhardt, D. T.; Millan, R. M.


    The outer radiation belt electrons are highly dynamic. We study the detailed characteristics of the relativistic electrons in the outer belt using measurements from the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) mission, a low Earth orbit Cubesat, which transverses the radiation belt four times in one orbit ( 1.5 hr) and has the advantage of measuring the dynamic activities of the electrons including their rapid precipitations. Among the features of the relativistic electrons, we show the measured electron distribution as a function of geomagnetic activities and local magnetic field strength. Moreover, a specific precipitation band, which happened on 19 Jan 2013, is investigated based on the conjunctive measurement of CSSWE and the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL). In this precipitation band event, the net loss of the 0.58 1.63 MeV electrons (L=3.5 6) is estimated to account for 6.84% of the total electron content.

  12. RF communications subsystem for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission (United States)

    Srinivasan, Dipak K.; Artis, David; Baker, Ben; Stilwell, Robert; Wallis, Robert


    The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission, currently in Phase B, is a two-spacecraft, Earth-orbiting mission, which will launch in 2012. The spacecraft's S-band radio frequency (RF) telecommunications subsystem has three primary functions: provide spacecraft command capability, provide spacecraft telemetry and science data return, and provide accurate Doppler data for navigation. The primary communications link to the ground is via the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory's (JHU/APL) 18 m dish, with secondary links to the NASA 13 m Ground Network and the Tracking and Data Relay Spacecraft System (TDRSS) in single-access mode. The on-board RF subsystem features the APL-built coherent transceiver and in-house builds of a solid-state power amplifier and conical bifilar helix broad-beam antennas. The coherent transceiver provides coherency digitally, and controls the downlink data rate and encoding within its field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The transceiver also provides a critical command decoder (CCD) function, which is used to protect against box-level upsets in the C&DH subsystem. Because RBSP is a spin-stabilized mission, the antennas must be symmetric about the spin axis. Two broad-beam antennas point along both ends of the spin axis, providing communication coverage from boresight to 70°. An RF splitter excites both antennas; therefore, the mission is designed such that no communications are required close to 90° from the spin axis due to the interferometer effect from the two antennas. To maximize the total downlink volume from the spacecraft, the CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) has been baselined for the RBSP mission. During real-time ground contacts with the APL ground station, downlinked files are checked for errors. Handshaking between flight and ground CFDP software results in requests to retransmit only the file fragments lost due to dropouts. This allows minimization of RF link margins, thereby maximizing data rate and

  13. The impact of radiation belts region on top side ionosphere condition during last solar minimum. (United States)

    Rothkaehl, Hanna; Przepiórka, Dororta; Matyjasiak, Barbara


    The wave particle interactions in radiation belts region are one of the key parameters in understanding the global physical processes which govern the near Earth environment. The populations of outer radiation belts electrons increasing in response to changes in the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field, and decreasing as a result of scattering into the loss cone and subsequent absorption by the atmosphere. The most important question in relation to understanding the physical processes in radiation belts region relates to estimate the ratio between acceleration and loss processes. This can be also very useful for construct adequate models adopted in Space Weather program. Moreover the wave particle interaction in inner radiation zone and in outer radiation zone have significant influence on the space plasma property at ionospheric altitude. The aim of this presentation is to show the manifestation of radiation belts region at the top side ionosphere during the last long solar minimum. The presentation of longitude and seasonal changes of plasma parameters affected by process occurred in radiation belts region has been performed on the base of the DEMETER and COSMIC 3 satellite registration. This research is partly supported by grant O N517 418440

  14. Conceptual design of a Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) shuttle-attached experiment (United States)

    Aguilar, Jerry L.


    The conceptual design of a shuttle-attached Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) experiment is presented. The MBR is an advanced radiator concept in which a rotating belt is used to radiate thermal energy to space. The experiment is developed with the primary focus being the verification of the dynamic characteristics of a rotating belt with a secondary objective of proving the thermal and sealing aspects in a reduced gravity, vacuum environment. The mechanical design, selection of the belt material and working fluid, a preliminary test plan, and program plan are presented. The strategy used for selecting the basic sizes and materials of the components are discussed. Shuttle and crew member requirements are presented with some options for increasing or decreasing the demands on the STS. An STS carrier and the criteria used in the selection process are presented. The proposed carrier for the Moving Belt Radiator experiment is the Hitchhiker-M. Safety issues are also listed with possible results. This experiment is designed so that a belt can be deployed, run at steady state conditions, run with dynamic perturbations imposed, verify the operation of the interface heat exchanger and seals, and finally be retracted into a stowed position for transport back to earth.

  15. A three-dimensional phase space dynamical model of the Earth's radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscher, D. M.; Beutier, T.; Bourdarie, S.


    A three dimensional phase space model of the Earth's radiation belt is presented. We have taken into account the magnetic and electric radial diffusions, the pitch angle diffusions due to Coulomb interactions and interactions with the plasmaspheric hiss, and the Coulomb drag. First, a steady state of the belt is presented. Two main maxima are obtained, corresponding to the inner and outer parts of the belt. Then, we have modelled a simple injection at the external boundary. The particle transport seems like what was measured aboard satellites. A high energy particle loss is found, by comparing the model results and the measurements. It remains to be explained

  16. A Physical Model of the Proton Radiation Belts of Jupiter inside Europa's Orbit (United States)

    Nénon, Q.; Sicard, A.; Kollmann, P.; Garrett, H. B.; Sauer, S. P. A.; Paranicas, C.


    A physical model of the Jovian trapped protons with kinetic energies higher than 1 MeV inward of the orbit of the icy moon Europa is presented. The model, named Salammbô, takes into account the radial diffusion process, the absorption effect of the Jovian moons, and the Coulomb collisions and charge exchanges with the cold plasma and neutral populations of the inner Jovian magnetosphere. Preliminary modeling of the wave-particle interaction with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves near the moon Io is also performed. Salammbô is validated against in situ proton measurements of Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, Galileo Probe, and Galileo Orbiter. A prominent feature of the MeV proton intensity distribution in the modeled area is the 2 orders of magnitude flux depletion observed in MeV measurements near the orbit of Io. Our simulations reveal that this is not due to direct interactions with the moon or its neutral environment but results from scattering of the protons by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  17. A physical model of the proton radiation belts of Jupiter inside Europa’s orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nénon, Quentin; Sicard, Angelica; Kollmann, Peter


    A physical model of the Jovian trapped protons with kinetic energies higher than 1 MeV inward of the orbit of the icy moon Europa is presented. The model, named Salammbô, takes into account the radial diffusion process, the absorption effect of the Jovian moons, and the Coulomb collisions and cha...

  18. Observations by Juno's Radiation Monitoring Investigation During the First Year at Jupiter (United States)

    Becker, H. N.; Adumitroaie, V.; Alexander, J. W.; Daubar, I.; Joergensen, J. L.; Denver, T.; Benn, M.; Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Cicchetti, A.; Noschese, R.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Gladstone, R.; Hue, V.; Versteeg, M.; Santos-Costa, D.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S.; Thorne, R. M.


    Juno's Radiation Monitoring (RM) Investigation measures MeV electron fluxes at Jupiter by utilizing the noise signatures of penetrating high-energy particles which are visible in images collected by Juno's heavily shielded star cameras and science instruments. Image processing is used to identify and extract the characteristic signatures of penetrating high-energy electrons and ions and derive count rates which are used to infer external integral electron flux levels [Becker, H.N., et al. (2017), Space Sci Rev, doi: 10.1007/s11214-017-0345-9; Becker H.N. et al. (2017), Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, doi:10.1002/2017GL073091]. The count rate data from each RM instrument represents detection of electrons from within a broad energy channel (e.g. > 5 MeV or > 10 MeV electron sensitivity, determined using Geant4 shielding analysis). Simultaneous observations by the instruments therefore allow study of the external spectra where coordinated measurements are achieved. The spacecraft Stellar Reference Unit (SRU), the Magnetic Field Investigation's Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) camera head D, and the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) infrared imager are the primary instruments used in RM's collaborative observation campaigns. Penetrating particle signatures and trends across a broader range of Juno instruments and spacecraft housekeeping data also contribute to the analysis. This paper presents an overview of RM measurements of the Jovian high energy particle environment observed during the first eight science orbits of Juno's prime mission.

  19. Probing clouds in planets with a simple radiative transfer model: the Jupiter case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendikoa, Iñigo; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín


    Remote sensing of planets evokes using expensive on-orbit satellites and gathering complex data from space. However, the basic properties of clouds in planetary atmospheres can be successfully estimated with small telescopes even from an urban environment using currently available and affordable technology. This makes the process accessible for undergraduate students while preserving most of the physics and mathematics involved. This paper presents the methodology for carrying out a photometric study of planetary atmospheres, focused on the planet Jupiter. The method introduces the basics of radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres, some notions on inverse problem theory and the fundamentals of planetary photometry. As will be shown, the procedure allows the student to derive the spectral reflectivity and top altitude of clouds from observations at different wavelengths by applying a simple but enlightening ‘reflective layer model’. In this way, the planet's atmospheric structure is estimated by students as an inverse problem from the observed photometry. Web resources are also provided to help those unable to obtain telescopic observations of the planets. (paper)

  20. Probing clouds in planets with a simple radiative transfer model: the Jupiter case (United States)

    Mendikoa, Iñigo; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín


    Remote sensing of planets evokes using expensive on-orbit satellites and gathering complex data from space. However, the basic properties of clouds in planetary atmospheres can be successfully estimated with small telescopes even from an urban environment using currently available and affordable technology. This makes the process accessible for undergraduate students while preserving most of the physics and mathematics involved. This paper presents the methodology for carrying out a photometric study of planetary atmospheres, focused on the planet Jupiter. The method introduces the basics of radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres, some notions on inverse problem theory and the fundamentals of planetary photometry. As will be shown, the procedure allows the student to derive the spectral reflectivity and top altitude of clouds from observations at different wavelengths by applying a simple but enlightening ‘reflective layer model’. In this way, the planet's atmospheric structure is estimated by students as an inverse problem from the observed photometry. Web resources are also provided to help those unable to obtain telescopic observations of the planets.

  1. Precipitated Fluxes of Radiation Belt Electrons via Injection of Whistler-Mode Waves (United States)

    Kulkarni, P.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.


    Inan et al. (U.S. Inan et al., Controlled precipitation of radiation belt electrons, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108 (A5), 1186, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009580, 2003.) suggested that the lifetime of energetic (a few MeV) electrons in the inner radiation belts may be moderated by in situ injection of whistler mode waves at frequencies of a few kHz. We use the Stanford 2D VLF raytracing program (along with an accurate estimation of the path-integrated Landau damping based on data from the HYDRA instrument on the POLAR spacecraft) to determine the distribution of wave energy throughout the inner radiation belts as a function of injection point, wave frequency and injection wave normal angle. To determine the total wave power injected and its initial distribution in k-space (i.e., wave-normal angle), we apply the formulation of Wang and Bell ( T.N.C. Wang and T.F. Bell, Radiation resistance of a short dipole immersed in a cold magnetoionic medium, Radio Science, 4 (2), 167-177, February 1969) for an electric dipole antenna placed at a variety of locations throughout the inner radiation belts. For many wave frequencies and wave normal angles the results establish that most of the radiated power is concentrated in waves whose wave normals are located near the resonance cone. The combined use of the radiation pattern and ray-tracing including Landau damping allows us to make quantitative estimates of the magnetospheric distribution of wave power density for different source injection points. We use these results to estimate the number of individual space-based transmitters needed to significantly impact the lifetimes of energetic electrons in the inner radiation belts. Using the wave power distribution, we finally determine the energetic electron pitch angle scattering and the precipitated flux signatures that would be detected.

  2. Trapping in stochastic mechanics and applications to covers of clouds and radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Blanchard, P.; Combe, P.; Rodriguez, R.; Sirugue, M.; Sirugue-Collin, M.


    It is possible to assign a stochastic acceleration to conservative stochastic diffusion processes. As a basic assumption, this stochastic acceleration is set equal to the deterministic smooth component of the external force acting on the particle, whereas the influences of the remainder is modelled by a diffusion coefficient. In this paper, we shall try to see whether it can account for the observation in two cases: the cover of clouds of planets and the radiation belts in the planetary magnetic field. We describe the basic properties of Newtonian Diffusion Stochastic Processes and indicate their connection with Schroedinger-like equations. Furthermore we give a heuristic interpretation of the nodal surfaces as impenetrable barriers for Newtonian Stochastic Diffusion Processes. The possible applications to the observed average cloud covering in the planetary atmosphere are presented we discuss the radiation belts (Van Allen Belts) along the previous ideas

  3. The Global Statistical Response of the Outer Radiation Belt During Geomagnetic Storms (United States)

    Murphy, K. R.; Watt, C. E. J.; Mann, I. R.; Jonathan Rae, I.; Sibeck, D. G.; Boyd, A. J.; Forsyth, C. F.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J.


    Using the total radiation belt electron content calculated from Van Allen Probe phase space density, the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms is statistically studied. Using phase space density reduces the impacts of adiabatic changes in the main phase, allowing a separation of adiabatic and nonadiabatic effects and revealing a clear modality and repeatable sequence of events in storm time radiation belt electron dynamics. This sequence exhibits an important first adiabatic invariant (μ)-dependent behavior in the seed (150 MeV/G), relativistic (1,000 MeV/G), and ultrarelativistic (4,000 MeV/G) populations. The outer radiation belt statistically shows an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase of rapid acceleration, while the seed population shows little loss and immediate enhancement. The time sequence of the transition to the acceleration is also strongly μ dependent and occurs at low μ first, appearing to be repeatable from storm to storm.

  4. Oscillations of the Outer Boundary of the Outer Radiation Belt During Sawtooth Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hun Kim


    Full Text Available We report three sawtooth oscillation events observed at geosynchronous orbit where we find quasi-periodic (every 2-3 hours sudden flux increases followed by slow flux decreases at the energy levels of ˜50-400 keV. For these three sawtooth events, we have examined variations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt. In order to determine L values of the outer boundary, we have used data of relativistic electron flux observed by the SAMPEX satellite. We find that the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt oscillates periodically being consistent with sawtooth oscillation phases. Specifically, the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt expands (namely, the boundary L value increases following the sawtooth particle flux enhancement of each tooth, and then contracts (namely, the boundary L value decreases while the sawtooth flux decreases gradually until the next flux enhancement. On the other hand, it is repeatedly seen that the asymmetry of the magnetic field intensity between dayside and nightside decreases (increases due to the dipolarization (the stretching on the nightside as the sawtooth flux increases (decreases. This implies that the periodic magnetic field variations during the sawtooth oscillations are likely responsible for the expansion-contraction oscillations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt.

  5. Studies on the evaluation of thermal belts and radiation fog over mountainous regions by LANDSAT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurose, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Horiguchi, I.; Fukaishi, K.; Kanechika, O.; Ishida, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Sakai, T.; Yamauchi, Y.; Kohno, Y.


    Local meteorological phenomena and characteristics under conditions of nocturnal radiative cooling in winter were investigated using Landsat data and physiographic parameters over the hilly and mountainous regions of the western part of shikoku. (1) Relative elevation between thermal belts and underlying ground such as bottom of basin or valley was 400m on an average. (2) Thermal belts appeared in the zone between 400m and 1000m above the sea level in the western part of Shikoku. (3) Temperature of the thermal belts varied with the elevation in a ratio of about 1 degrees C/100m. This observation indicated that the thermal belt temperature was closely related to the altitude of the zone where the thermal belts originated. (4) Radiation fog was frequently recorded over some part along the Hiji river and over the area along Ootoyo to Motoyama; fog was present even at 10 a.m. (3 hours after sunrise). (5) Upper surface of the fog layer was located at 200m and 600m above the sea level in the Oozu basin and in the area along Ootoyo to Motoyama respectively. (6) In the Oozu basin, the distribution of hamlets on the mountainside was often recognized in the localities within the upper limit of foggy areas

  6. Detection of the strange bodies on the conveyor belt using gamma radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, A.; Ochiana, G.; Oncescu, M.


    The aim of this paper is to present a method for the computation of the activity of a gamma radiation source used in a radiometric assembly designed to detect the strange bodies (iron, stone or wood-made granules) within the textile material on the conveyor belt. The mathematical modelling method based on the Monte Carlo procedure has been used, with different values of the errors of types I and II; the investigation method is the transmission of gamma radiations. (Author)

  7. Upper limit on the inner radiation belt MeV electron intensity (United States)

    Li, X; Selesnick, RS; Baker, DN; Jaynes, AN; Kanekal, SG; Schiller, Q; Blum, L; Fennell, J; Blake, JB


    No instruments in the inner radiation belt are immune from the unforgiving penetration of the highly energetic protons (tens of MeV to GeV). The inner belt proton flux level, however, is relatively stable; thus, for any given instrument, the proton contamination often leads to a certain background noise. Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment CubeSat, in a low Earth orbit, clearly demonstrate that there exist sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt because their flux level is orders of magnitude higher than the background, while higher-energy electron (>1.6 MeV) measurements cannot be distinguished from the background. Detailed analysis of high-quality measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope on board Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, provides, for the first time, quantified upper limits on MeV electron fluxes in various energy ranges in the inner belt. These upper limits are rather different from flux levels in the AE8 and AE9 models, which were developed based on older data sources. For 1.7, 2.5, and 3.3 MeV electrons, the upper limits are about 1 order of magnitude lower than predicted model fluxes. The implication of this difference is profound in that unless there are extreme solar wind conditions, which have not happened yet since the launch of Van Allen Probes, significant enhancements of MeV electrons do not occur in the inner belt even though such enhancements are commonly seen in the outer belt. Key Points Quantified upper limit of MeV electrons in the inner belt Actual MeV electron intensity likely much lower than the upper limit More detailed understanding of relativistic electrons in the magnetosphere PMID:26167446

  8. Radio emission from Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velusamy, T.


    The basic features of the different radio emissions from the planet Jupiter are reviewed. These radio emissions characterized into three types as thermal, decimetric and decametric, are discussed. The coherent emission mechanism for the origin of the decametric bursts and the acceleration mechanism for relativistic electrons in the decimetric radiation have not been properly understood. The emissions are much related to the magnetic field of Jupiter. The system III rotation period for Jupiter has been calculated as 092 55 m 29.74 S. (A.K.)

  9. Low altitude observations of the energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt during isolated substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, L.; Venkatesan, D.; Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD; Meng, C.I.


    The low energy (1-20 keV) detector registering particles onboard the polar-orbiting low altitude (approx. 850 km) DMSP-F2 and -F3 satellites also records high energy electrons penetrating the detector walls. Thus the dynamics of this electron population at L=3.5 can be studied during isolated periods of magnetospheric substorms identified by the indices of auroral electrojet (AE), geomagnetic (Ksub(p)) and ring current (Dsub(st)). Temporal changes in the electron flux during the substorms are observed to be an additional contribution riding over the top of the pre-storm (or geomagnetically quiet-time) electron population; the duration of the interval of intensity variations is observed to be about the same as that of the enhancement of the AE index. This indicates the temporal response of the outer radiation belt to the substorm activity, since the observation was made in the ''horns'' of the outer radiation belt. The observed enhanced radiation at low altitude may associate with the instantaneous increase and/or dumping of the outer radiation belt energetic electrons during each isolated substorm activity. (author)

  10. Solar Modulation of Inner Trapped Belt Radiation Flux as a Function of Atmospheric Density (United States)

    Lodhi, M. A. K.


    No simple algorithm seems to exist for calculating proton fluxes and lifetimes in the Earth's inner, trapped radiation belt throughout the solar cycle. Most models of the inner trapped belt in use depend upon AP8 which only describes the radiation environment at solar maximum and solar minimum in Cycle 20. One exception is NOAAPRO which incorporates flight data from the TIROS/NOAA polar orbiting spacecraft. The present study discloses yet another, simple formulation for approximating proton fluxes at any time in a given solar cycle, in particular between solar maximum and solar minimum. It is derived from AP8 using a regression algorithm technique from nuclear physics. From flux and its time integral fluence, one can then approximate dose rate and its time integral dose.

  11. Comparison of high-energy trapped particle environments at the Earth and Jupiter. (United States)

    Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B


    The 'Van Allen belts' of the trapped energetic particles in the Earth's magnetosphere were discovered by the Explorer I satellite in 1958. In addition, in 1959, it was observed that UHF radio emissions from Jupiter probably had a similar source--the Jovian radiation belts. In this paper, the global characteristics of these two planets' trapped radiation environments and respective magnetospheres are compared and state-of-the-art models used to generate estimates of the high-energy electron (> or = 100 keV) and proton (> or = 1 MeV) populations--the dominant radiation particles in these environments. The models used are the AP8/AE8 series for the Earth and the Divine-Garrett/GIRE model for Jupiter. To illustrate the relative magnitude of radiation effects at each planet, radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the total ionising dose levels at the geosynchronous orbit for the Earth and at Europa (Jupiter's 4th largest moon) for Jupiter. The results show that the dose rates are -0.1 krad(Si) d(-1) at the geosynchronous orbit and -30 krad(Si) d((-1) at Europa for a 2.5 mm spherical shell aluminium shield--a factor of -300 between the two planets.

  12. Comparison of high-energy trapped particle environments at the earth and jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, I.; Garrett, H. B.


    The 'Van Allen belts' of the trapped energetic particles in the Earth's magnetosphere were discovered by the Explorer I satellite in 1958. In addition, in 1959, it was observed that UHF radio emissions from Jupiter probably had a similar source - The Jovian radiation belts. In this paper, the global characteristics of these two planets' trapped radiation environments and respective magnetospheres are compared and state-of-the-art models used to generate estimates of the high-energy electron (≥100 keV) and proton ≥1 MeV) populations - The dominant radiation particles in these environments. The models used are the AP8/ AE8 series for the Earth and the Divine-Garrett/GIRE model for Jupiter. To illustrate the relative magnitude of radiation effects at each planet, radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the total ionising dose levels at the geosynchronous orbit for the Earth and at Europa (Jupiter's 4. largest moon) for Jupiter. The results show that the dose rates are ∼0.1 krad(Si) d -1 at the geosynchronous orbit and ∼30 krad(Si) d -1 at Europa for a 2.5 mm spherical shell aluminium shield - a factor of ∼300 between the two planets. (authors)

  13. Study the Precipitation of Radiation Belt Electrons during the Rapid Dropout Events (United States)

    Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.; Li, X.; Chen, Y.


    During the main phase of storms, the relativistic electron flux in the radiation belt can drop by orders of magnitude on timescales of a few hours. Where do the electrons go? This is one of the most important outstanding questions in radiation belt studies. Radiation belt electrons can be lost either by transport across the magnetopause into interplanetary space or by precipitation into the atmosphere. In this work we first conduct a survey of the MeV electron dropouts using the Van Allen Probes data in conjunction with the low-altitude measurements of precipitating electrons by 6 NOAA/POES satellites. The dropout events are categorized into three types: precipitation-loss dominant, outward radial diffusion dominant, or with contributions from both mechanisms. The survey results suggest the relative importance of precipitation and outward radial diffusion to the fast dropouts of radiation belt electrons, and their extent in L-shell and electron energy. Then, for specific events identified as dominated by precipitation loss, we use the Drift-Diffusion model, which includes the effects of azimuthal drift and pitch angle diffusion, to simulate both the electron dropout observed by Van Allen Probes and the distributions of drift-loss-cone electrons observed by multiple low-earth-orbit satellites (6 POES and the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment). The model quantifies the electron precipitation loss and pitch angle diffusion coefficient, Dxx, with high temporal and spatial resolution. Finally, by comparing the Dxx derived from the model with those estimated from the quasi-linear theory using wave data from Van Allen Probes and other event-specific wave models, we are able to test the validity of quasi-linear theory and seek direct evidence of the wave-particle interactions during the dropouts.

  14. Effects of Electromagnetic Perturbations on Particles Trapped in the Radiation Belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dungey, J. W. [Imperial College of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom)


    Since the radiation belts were discovered by Van Allen in 1958, observations of trapped particles have rapidly built up a large body of information. Knowledge of the neutral atmosphere as well as the ionosphere shows that for energetic particles the probable time before colliding with another particle of any kind may be extremely long. Then the only feature known to affect the motion of the particle is the electromagnetic field and, conversely, over a long time even weak electromagnetic disturbances can be important. Consequently, electromagnetic disturbances should be important in determining the form of the radiation belts, and it will be seen that certain features encourage an interpretation of this kind. The physics of the radiation belts may be regarded as a part of plasma physics, namely the realm in which collisions are negligible. This needs qualifying in that there is a boundary layer (the ionosphere) where collisions are important, and this is analogous to laboratory plasma containment devices. The energy range of trapped particles is wide, but includes the energy range required for fusion reactors. The mean free time in the radiation belts is extreme, but the neglect of collisions yields a great simplification in theoretical work, and an understanding of collision-free plasmas is expected to be useful. Observations in space have great advantages. The quantity measured by a particle-detector sensitive to a limited range of energy and with a limited cone of acceptance is the velocity distribution function, which is fundamental in theoretical work. Local electric and magnetic measurements are also made with very little disturbance by the spacecraft. The disadvantage is that simultaneous measurements cannot be made at many different points.

  15. Polar PWI and CEPPAD observations of chorus emissions and radiation belt electron acceleration: Four case studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigsbee, K.; Menietti, J. D.; Santolík, Ondřej; Blake, J. B.


    Roč. 70, č. 14 (2008), s. 1774-1788 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA301120601 Grant - others: NASA (US) NNG05GM52G; NSF(US) 0307319 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : chorus * outer radiation belt Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2008

  16. A new Predictive Model for Relativistic Electrons in Outer Radiation Belt (United States)

    Chen, Y.


    Relativistic electrons trapped in the Earth's outer radiation belt present a highly hazardous radiation environment for spaceborne electronics. These energetic electrons, with kinetic energies up to several megaelectron-volt (MeV), manifest a highly dynamic and event-specific nature due to the delicate interplay of competing transport, acceleration and loss processes. Therefore, developing a forecasting capability for outer belt MeV electrons has long been a critical and challenging task for the space weather community. Recently, the vital roles of electron resonance with waves (including such as chorus and electromagnetic ion cyclotron) have been widely recognized; however, it is still difficult for current diffusion radiation belt models to reproduce the behavior of MeV electrons during individual geomagnetic storms, mainly because of the large uncertainties existing in input parameters. In this work, we expanded our previous cross-energy cross-pitch-angle coherence study and developed a new predictive model for MeV electrons over a wide range of L-shells inside the outer radiation belt. This new model uses NOAA POES observations from low-Earth-orbits (LEOs) as inputs to provide high-fidelity nowcast (multiple hour prediction) and forecast (> 1 day prediction) of the energization of MeV electrons as well as the evolving MeV electron distributions afterwards during storms. Performance of the predictive model is quantified by long-term in situ data from Van Allen Probes and LANL GEO satellites. This study adds new science significance to an existing LEO space infrastructure, and provides reliable and powerful tools to the whole space community.

  17. Dynamics of Quasi-Electrostatic Whistler waves in Earth's Radiation belts (United States)

    Goyal, R.; Sharma, R. P.; Gupta, D. N.


    A numerical model is proposed to study the dynamics of high amplitude quasi-electrostatic whistler waves propagating near resonance cone angle and their interaction with finite frequency kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) in Earth's radiation belts. The quasi-electrostatic character of whistlers is narrated by dynamics of wave propagating near resonance cone. A high amplitude whistler wave packet is obtained using the present analysis which has also been observed by S/WAVES instrument onboard STEREO. The numerical simulation technique employed to study the dynamics, leads to localization (channelling) of waves as well as turbulent spectrum suggesting the transfer of wave energy over a range of frequencies. The turbulent spectrum also indicates the presence of quasi-electrostatic whistlers and density fluctuations associated with KAW in radiation belts plasma. The ponderomotive force of pump quasi-electrostatic whistlers (high frequency) is used to excite relatively much lower frequency waves (KAWs). The wave localization and steeper spectra could be responsible for particle energization or heating in radiation belts.

  18. Application of multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models in radiation belt modeling (United States)

    Aryan, H.; Kang, S. B.; Balikhin, M. A.; Fok, M. C. H.; Agapitov, O. V.; Komar, C. M.; Kanekal, S. G.; Nagai, T.; Sibeck, D. G.


    Numerical simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts are important to understand the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model along with many other radiation belt models require inputs for pitch angle, energy, and cross diffusion of electrons, due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. These parameters are calculated using statistical wave distribution models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes. In this study we incorporate recently developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We perform CIMI simulations for two geomagnetic storms and compare the flux enhancement of MeV electrons with data from the Van Allen Probes and Akebono satellites. We show that the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with multi-parameter wave models resembles the observations more accurately than the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with single-parameter wave models. This indicates that wave models based on a combination of geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters are more effective as inputs to radiation belt models.

  19. Modeling radiation belt dynamics using a 3-D layer method code (United States)

    Wang, C.; Ma, Q.; Tao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Teng, S.; Albert, J. M.; Chan, A. A.; Li, W.; Ni, B.; Lu, Q.; Wang, S.


    A new 3-D diffusion code using a recently published layer method has been developed to analyze radiation belt electron dynamics. The code guarantees the positivity of the solution even when mixed diffusion terms are included. Unlike most of the previous codes, our 3-D code is developed directly in equatorial pitch angle (α0), momentum (p), and L shell coordinates; this eliminates the need to transform back and forth between (α0,p) coordinates and adiabatic invariant coordinates. Using (α0,p,L) is also convenient for direct comparison with satellite data. The new code has been validated by various numerical tests, and we apply the 3-D code to model the rapid electron flux enhancement following the geomagnetic storm on 17 March 2013, which is one of the Geospace Environment Modeling Focus Group challenge events. An event-specific global chorus wave model, an AL-dependent statistical plasmaspheric hiss wave model, and a recently published radial diffusion coefficient formula from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) statistics are used. The simulation results show good agreement with satellite observations, in general, supporting the scenario that the rapid enhancement of radiation belt electron flux for this event results from an increased level of the seed population by radial diffusion, with subsequent acceleration by chorus waves. Our results prove that the layer method can be readily used to model global radiation belt dynamics in three dimensions.

  20. The Jupiter program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.J.


    Jupiter is a Sandia initiative to develop the next generation of fast Z-pinch drivers for applications to high energy density physics, inertial confinement fusion, and radiation effects simulation. Jupiter will also provide unique capabilities for science research in a broad spectrum of areas involving ultra high magnetic fields, hot/dense plasmas, x-ray physics, intense neutron sources, etc. The program is based on the premise that a single facility using magnetically driven implosions can meet the needs in these multiple program areas. Jupiter requires a 450-500 TW, 8-10 MV, ∼ 100 ns pulsed power generator to impart - 15 MJ kinetic energy to an imploding plasma load. The baseline concept uses a highly modular, robust architecture with demonstrated performance reliability. The design also has the flexibility to drive longer implosion times. This paper describes the Jupiter accelerator concept, and the research underway to establish the technological readiness to proceed with construction of the facility

  1. Modeling of electron time variations in the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.W.; Teague, M.J.; Schofield, N.J.; Vette, J.I.


    A review of the temporal variation in the trapped electron population of the inner and outer radiation zones is presented. Techniques presently used for modeling these zones are discussed and their deficiencies identified. An intermediate region is indicated between the zones in which the present modeling techniques are inadequate due to the magnitude and frequency of magnetic storms. Future trends are examined, and it is suggested that modeling of individual magnetic storms may be required in certain L bands. An analysis of seven magnetic storms is presented, establishing the independence of the depletion time of the storm flux and the storm magnitude. Provisional correlation between the storm magnitude and the Dst index is demonstrated

  2. Three-dimensional data assimilation and reanalysis of radiation belt electrons: Observations over two solar cycles, and operational forecasting. (United States)

    Kellerman, A. C.; Shprits, Y.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Podladchikova, T.; Drozdov, A.; Subbotin, D.; Makarevich, R. A.; Donovan, E.; Nagai, T.


    Understanding of the dynamics in Earth's radiation belts is critical to accurate modeling and forecasting of space weather conditions, both which are important for design, and protection of our space-borne assets. In the current study, we utilize the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, multi-spacecraft measurements, and a split-operator Kalman filter to recontructe the global state of the radiation belt system in the CRRES era and the current era. The reanalysis has revealed a never before seen 4-belt structure in the radiation belts during the March 1991 superstorm, and highlights several important aspects in regards to the the competition between the source, acceleration, loss, and transport of particles. In addition to the above, performing reanalysis in adiabatic coordinates relies on specification of the Earth's magnetic field, and associated observational, and model errors. We determine the observational errors for the Kalman filter directly from cross-spacecraft phase-space density (PSD) conjunctions, and obtain the error in VERB by comparison with reanalysis over a long time period. Specification of errors associated with several magnetic field models provides an important insight into the applicability of such models for radiation belt research. The comparison of CRRES area reanalysis with Van Allen Probe era reanalysis allows us to perform a global comparison of the dynamics of the radiation belts during different parts of the solar cycle and during different solar cycles. The data assimilative model is presently used to perform operational forecasts of the radiation belts (

  3. Three-dimensional data assimilation and reanalysis of radiation belt electrons: Observations of a four-zone structure using five spacecraft and the VERB code (United States)

    Kellerman, A. C.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Kondrashov, D.; Subbotin, D.; Makarevich, R. A.; Donovan, E.; Nagai, T.


    Obtaining the global state of radiation belt electrons through reanalysis is an important step toward validating our current understanding of radiation belt dynamics and for identification of new physical processes. In the current study, reanalysis of radiation belt electrons is achieved through data assimilation of five spacecraft with the 3-D Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code using a split-operator Kalman filter technique. The spacecraft data are cleaned for noise, saturation effects, and then intercalibrated on an individual energy channel basis, by considering phase space density conjunctions in the T96 field model. Reanalysis during the CRRES era reveals a never-before-reported four-zone structure in the Earth's radiation belts during the 24 March 1991 shock-induced injection superstorm: (1) an inner belt, (2) the high-energy shock-injection belt, (3) a remnant outer radiation belt, and (4) a second outer radiation belt. The third belt formed near the same time as the second belt and was later enhanced across keV to MeV energies by a second particle injection observed by CRRES and the Northern Solar Terrestrial Array riometer network. During the recovery phase of the storm, the fourth belt was created near L*=4RE, lasting for several days. Evidence is provided that the fourth belt was likely created by a dominant local heating process. This study outlines the necessity to consider all diffusive processes acting simultaneously and the advantage of supporting ground-based data in quantifying the observed radiation belt dynamics. It is demonstrated that 3-D data assimilation can resolve various nondiffusive processes and provides a comprehensive picture of the electron radiation belts.

  4. To the problem on a charge state of energetic ions of radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, M.I.


    Estimation of the effect of recharging processes upon formation of intensity maxima of radiation belt ions of different types is obtained as well as the ion charge states in the area of intensity maxima. Comparison of spatial position of intensity maxima of the H, He, C, O ions with the energies more than 1 MeV with the calculation results is presented. It provides the particle radial drift under the effect of sudden impulses and death at the expence of ionization losses. Application of adiabaticity criterion of the particle movement to the analysis of position of outer edge of radiation belt of heavy ions permitted to carry out estimation of the He, C, O ion charge state. He ions with the energy more than 1 MeV possess mainly the charge state of +2, C and O ions with the energy of several MeV over L=5-6 are in the ionized state almost completely, and during the drift into the depth of the belts the ion charge decreases to 3-4 over L approximately 3.5 with the energy increase. At the energies higher than several MeV the recharge processes are significant for the C and.O ions. For He ions with the energy higher 1 MeV and for H ions with more than 0.1 MeV the recharge role is not considerable

  5. Empirical radiation belt models: Comparison with in situ data and implications for environment definition (United States)

    de Soria-Santacruz Pich, Maria; Jun, Insoo; Evans, Robin


    The empirical AP8/AE8 model has been the de facto Earth's radiation belts engineering reference for decades. The need from the community for a better model incubated the development of AP9/AE9/SPM, which addresses several shortcomings of the old model. We provide additional validation of AP9/AE9 by comparing in situ electron and proton data from Jason-2, Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), and the Van Allen Probes spacecraft with the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles from AE9/AP9 and with the model outputs from AE8/AP8. The relatively short duration of Van Allen Probes and Jason-2 missions means that their measurements are most certainly the result of specific climatological conditions. In low Earth orbit (LEO), the Jason-2 proton flux is better reproduced by AP8 compared to AP9, while the POES electron data are well enveloped by AE9 5th and 95th percentiles. The shape of the South Atlantic anomaly (SAA) from Jason-2 data is better captured by AP9 compared to AP8, while the peak SAA flux is better reproduced by AP8. The <1.5 MeV inner belt electrons from Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) are well enveloped by AE9 5th and 95th percentiles, while AE8 overpredicts the measurements. In the outer radiation belt, MagEIS and Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) electrons closely follow the median estimate from AE9, while AP9 5th and 95th percentiles generally envelope REPT proton measurements in the inner belt and slot regions. While AE9/AP9 offer the flexibility to specify the environment with different confidence levels, the dose and trapped proton peak flux for POES and Jason-2 trajectories from the AE9/AP9 50th percentile and above are larger than the estimates from the AE8/AP8 models.

  6. Drift-resonant, relativistic electron acceleration at the outer planets: Insights from the response of Saturn's radiation belts to magnetospheric storms (United States)

    Roussos, E.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Paranicas, C.; Dialynas, K.; Sergis, N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hamilton, D. C.; Krimigis, S. M.


    The short, 7.2-day orbital period of Cassini's Ring Grazing Orbits (RGO) provided an opportunity to monitor how fast the effects of an intense magnetospheric storm-time period (days 336-343/2016) propagated into Saturn's electron radiation belts. Following the storms, Cassini's MIMI/LEMMS instrument detected a transient extension of the electron radiation belts that in subsequent orbits moved towards the inner belts, intensifying them in the process. This intensification was followed by an equally fast decay, possibly due to the rapid absorption of MeV electrons by the planet's main rings. Surprisingly, all this cycle was completed within four RGOs, effectively in less than a month. That is considerably faster than the year-long time scales of Saturn's proton radiation belt evolution. In order to explain this difference, we propose that electron radial transport is partly controlled by the variability of global scale electric fields which have a fixed local time pointing. Such electric fields may distort significantly the orbits of a particular class of energetic electrons that cancel out magnetospheric corotation due to their westward gradient and curvature drifts (termed "corotation-resonant" or "local-time stationary" electrons) and transport them radially between the ring current and the radiation belts within several days and few weeks. The significance of the proposed process is highlighted by the fact that corotation resonance at Saturn occurs for electrons of few hundred keV to several MeV. These are the characteristic energies of seed electrons from the ring current that sustain the radiation belts of the planet. Our model's feasibility is demonstrated through the use of a simple test-particle simulation, where we estimate that uniform but variable electric fields with magnitudes lower that 1.0 mV/m can lead to a very efficient transport of corotation resonant electrons. Such electric fields have been consistently measured in the magnetosphere, and here we

  7. Riding the Banzai Pipeline at Jupiter: Balancing Low Delta-V and Low Radiation to Reach Europa (United States)

    McElrath, Timothy P.; Campagnola, Stefano; Strange, Nathan J.


    Europa's tantalizing allure as a possible haven for life comes cloaked in a myriad of challenges for robotic spacecraft exploration. Not only are the propulsive requirements high and the solar illumination low, but the radiation environment at Jupiter administers its inexorable death sentence on any electronics dispatched to closely examine the satellite. So to the usual trades of mass, delta-V, and cost, we must add radiation dose, which tugs the trajectory solution in a contrary direction. Previous studies have concluded that adding radiation shielding mass is more efficient than using ?V to reduce the exposure time, but that position was recently challenged by a study focusing on delivering simple landers to the Europa surface. During this work, a new trajectory option was found to occupy a strategic location in the delta-V/radiation continuum - we call it the "Banzai pipeline" due to the visual similarity with the end-on view down a breaking wave, as shown in the following figures.

  8. Electron flux enhancement in the inner radiation belt during moderate magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tadokoro


    Full Text Available During moderate magnetic storms, an electron channel (300–1100 keV of the NOAA satellite has shown sudden electron flux enhancements in the inner radiation belt. After examinating the possibility of contamination by different energetic particles, we conclude that these electron flux enhancements are reliable enough to be considered as natural phenomena, at least for the cases of small to moderate magnetic storms. Here, we define small and moderate storms to be those in which the minimum Dst ranges between −30 and −100 nT. The electron flux enhancements appear with over one order of magnitude at L~2 during these storms. The enhancement is not accompanied by any transport of electron flux from the outer belt. Statistical analysis shows that these phenomena have a duration of approximately 1 day during the period, starting with the main phase to the early recovery phase of the storms. The flux enhancement shows a dawn-dusk asymmetry; the amount of increased flux is larger in the dusk side. We suggest that this phenomenon could not be caused by the radial diffusion but would be due to pitch-angle scattering at the magnetic equator. The inner belt is not in a stationary state, as was previously believed, but is variable in response to the magnetic activity.

  9. Prediction Model of the Outer Radiation Belt Developed by Chungbuk National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Kyu Shin


    Full Text Available The Earth’s outer radiation belt often suffers from drastic changes in the electron fluxes. Since the electrons can be a potential threat to satellites, efforts have long been made to model and predict electron flux variations. In this paper, we describe a prediction model for the outer belt electrons that we have recently developed at Chungbuk National University. The model is based on a one-dimensional radial diffusion equation with observationally determined specifications of a few major ingredients in the following way. First, the boundary condition of the outer edge of the outer belt is specified by empirical functions that we determine using the THEMIS satellite observations of energetic electrons near the boundary. Second, the plasmapause locations are specified by empirical functions that we determine using the electron density data of THEMIS. Third, the model incorporates the local acceleration effect by chorus waves into the one-dimensional radial diffusion equation. We determine this chorus acceleration effect by first obtaining an empirical formula of chorus intensity as a function of drift shell parameter L*, incorporating it as a source term in the one-dimensional diffusion equation, and lastly calibrating the term to best agree with observations of a certain interval. We present a comparison of the model run results with and without the chorus acceleration effect, demonstrating that the chorus effect has been incorporated into the model to a reasonable degree.

  10. The Magnetic Local Time Distribution of Energetic Electrons in the Radiation Belt Region (United States)

    Allison, H. J.


    Using fourteen years of electron flux data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), a statistical study of the magnetic local time (MLT) distribution of the electron population is performed across a range of activity levels, defined by AE, AE*, Kp, solar wind velocity (Vsw), and VswBz. Three electron energies (>30, >100, and >300 keV) are considered. Dawn-dusk flux asymmetries larger than order of magnitude were observed for >30 and >100 keV electrons. For >300 keV electrons, dawn-dusk asymmetries were primarily due to a decrease in the average dusk-side flux beyond L* ˜ 4.5 that arose with increasing activity. For the >30 keV population, substorm injections enhance the dawn-side flux, which may not reach the dusk-side as the electrons can be on open drift paths and lost to the magnetopause. The asymmetries in the >300 keV population are attributed to the combination of magnetopause shadowing and >300 keV electron injections by large electric fields. We suggest that 3D radiation belt models could set the minimum energy boundary (Emin) to 30 keV or above at L* ˜6 during periods of low activity. However, for more moderate conditions, Emin should be larger than 100 keV and, for very extreme activities, ˜300 keV. Our observations show the extent that in-situ electron flux readings may vary during active periods due to the MLT of the satellite and highlight the importance of 4D radiation belt models to fully understand radiation belt processes.

  11. Multi-Point Measurements to Characterize Radiation Belt Electron Precipitation Loss (United States)

    Blum, L. W.


    Multipoint measurements in the inner magnetosphere allow the spatial and temporal evolution of various particle populations and wave modes to be disentangled. To better characterize and quantify radiation belt precipitation loss, we utilize multi-point measurements both to study precipitating electrons directly as well as the potential drivers of this loss process. Magnetically conjugate CubeSat and balloon measurements are combined to estimate of the temporal and spatial characteristics of dusk-side precipitation features and quantify loss due to these events. To then understand the drivers of precipitation events, and what determines their spatial structure, we utilize measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes to estimate spatial and temporal scales of various wave modes in the inner magnetosphere, and compare these to precipitation characteristics. The structure, timing, and spatial extent of waves are compared to those of MeV electron precipitation during a few individual events to determine when and where EMIC waves cause radiation belt electron precipitation. Magnetically conjugate measurements provide observational support of the theoretical picture of duskside interaction of EMIC waves and MeV electrons leading to radiation belt loss. Finally, understanding the drivers controlling the spatial scales of wave activity in the inner magnetosphere is critical for uncovering the underlying physics behind the wave generation as well as for better predicting where and when waves will be present. Again using multipoint measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we estimate the spatial and temporal extents and evolution of plasma structures and their gradients in the inner magnetosphere, to better understand the drivers of magnetospheric wave characteristic scales. In particular, we focus on EMIC waves and the plasma parameters important for their growth, namely cold plasma density and cool and warm ion density, anisotropy, and composition.

  12. Quantifying the Precipitation Loss of Radiation Belt Electrons during a Rapid Dropout Event (United States)

    Pham, K. H.; Tu, W.; Xiang, Z.


    Relativistic electron flux in the radiation belt can drop by orders of magnitude within the timespan of hours. In this study, we used the drift-diffusion model that includes azimuthal drift and pitch angle diffusion of electrons to simulate low-altitude electron distribution observed by POES/MetOp satellites for rapid radiation belt electron dropout event occurring on May 1, 2013. The event shows fast dropout of MeV energy electrons at L>4 over a few hours, observed by the Van Allen Probes mission. By simulating the electron distributions observed by multiple POES satellites, we resolve the precipitation loss with both high spatial and temporal resolution and a range of energies. We estimate the pitch angle diffusion coefficients as a function of energy, pitch angle, and L-shell, and calculate corresponding electron lifetimes during the event. The simulation results show fast electron precipitation loss at L>4 during the electron dropout, with estimated electron lifetimes on the order of half an hour for MeV energies. The electron loss rate show strong energy dependence with faster loss at higher energies, which suggest that this dropout event is dominated by quick and localized scattering process that prefers higher energy electrons. The estimated pitch angle diffusion rates from the model are then compared with in situ wave measurements from Van Allen Probes to uncover the underlying wave-particle-interaction mechanisms that are responsible for the fast electron precipitation. Comparing the resolved precipitation loss with the observed electron dropouts at high altitudes, our results will suggest the relative role of electron precipitation loss and outward radial diffusion to the radiation belt dropouts during storm and non-storm times, in addition to its energy and L dependence.

  13. Modelling formation of new radiation belts and response to ULF oscillations following March 24, 1991 SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.K.; Kotelnikov, A.D.; Li, X.; Lyon, J.G.; Roth, I.; Temerin, M.; Wygant, J.R.; Blake, J.B.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Yumoto, K.; Shiokawa, K.


    The rapid formation of a new proton radiation belt at L≅2.5 following the March 24, 1991 Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) observed at the CRRES satellite is modelled using a relativistic guiding center test particle code. The new radiation belt formed on a time scale shorter than the drift period of eg. 20 MeV protons. The SSC is modelled by a bipolar electric field and associated compression and relaxation in the magnetic field, superimposed on a background dipole magnetic field. The source population consists of solar protons that populated the outer magnetosphere during the solar proton event that preceeded the SSC and trapped inner zone protons. The simulations show that both populations contribute to drift echoes in the 20 endash 80 MeV range measured by the Aerospace instrument and in lower energy channels of the Protel instrument on CRRES, while primary contribution to the newly trapped population is from solar protons. Proton acceleration by the SSC differs from electron acceleration in two notable ways: different source populations contribute and nonrelativistic conservation of the first adiabatic invariant leads to greater energization of protons for a given decrease in L than for relativistic electrons. Model drift echoes, energy spectra and flux distribution in L at the time of injection compare well with CRRES observations. On the outbound pass, ∼2 hours after the SSC, the broad spectral peak of the new radiation belt extends to higher energies (20 endash 40 MeV) than immediately after formation. Electron flux oscillations observed at this later time are attributed to post-SSC impulses evident in ground magnetograms, while two minute period ULF oscillations also evident in CRRES field data appear to be cavity modes in the inner magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. Alternatives to accuracy and bias metrics based on percentage errors for radiation belt modeling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report reviews existing literature describing forecast accuracy metrics, concentrating on those based on relative errors and percentage errors. We then review how the most common of these metrics, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), has been applied in recent radiation belt modeling literature. Finally, we describe metrics based on the ratios of predicted to observed values (the accuracy ratio) that address the drawbacks inherent in using MAPE. Specifically, we define and recommend the median log accuracy ratio as a measure of bias and the median symmetric accuracy as a measure of accuracy.

  15. A virtual radiation belt observatory: Looking forward to the electronic geophysical year (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Green, J. C.; Kroehl, H. W.; Kihn, E.; Virbo Team

    During the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), member countries established many new capabilities pursuing the major IGY objectives of collecting geophysical data as widely as possible and providing free access to these data for all scientists around the globe. A key achievement of the IGY was the establishment of a worldwide system of data centers and physical observatories. The worldwide scientific community has now endorsed and is promoting an electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) initiative. The proposed eGY concept would both commemorate the 50th anniversary of the IGY in 2007-2008 and would provide a forward impetus to geophysics in the 21st century, similar to that provide by the IGY fifty years ago. The eGY concept advocates the establishment of a series of virtual geophysical observatories now being deployed in cyberspace. We are developing the concept of a Virtual Radiation Belt Observatory (ViRBO) that will bring together near-earth particle and field measurements acquired by NASA, NOAA, DoD, DOE, and other spacecraft. We discuss plans to aggregate these measurements into a readily accessible database along with analysis, visualization, and display tools that will make radiation belt information available and useful both to the scientific community and to the user community. We envision that data from the various agencies along with models being developed under the auspices of the National Science Foundation Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) will help us to provide an excellent `climatology' of the radiation belts over the past several decades. In particular, we would plan to use these data to drive physical models of the radiation belts to form a gridded database which would characterize particle and field properties on solar-cycle (11-year) time scales. ViRBO will also provide up-to-date specification of conditions for event analysis and anomaly resolution. We are even examining the possibilities for near-realtime acquisition of

  16. Sharpening Up Jupiter (United States)


    , MAD project manager Enrico Marchetti and Sébastien Tordo from the MAD team tracked two of Jupiter's largest moons, Europa and Io - one on each side of the planet - to provide a good correction across the full disc of the planet. "It was the most challenging observation we performed with MAD, because we had to track with high accuracy two moons moving at different speeds, while simultaneously chasing Jupiter," says Marchetti. With this unique series of images, the team found a major alteration in the brightness of the equatorial haze, which lies in a 16 000-kilometre wide belt over Jupiter's equator [2]. More sunlight reflecting off upper atmospheric haze means that the amount of haze has increased, or that it has moved up to higher altitudes. "The brightest portion had shifted south by more than 6000 kilometres," explains team member Mike Wong. This conclusion came after comparison with images taken in 2005 by Wong and colleague Imke de Pater using the Hubble Space Telescope. The Hubble images, taken at infrared wavelengths very close to those used for the VLT study, show more haze in the northern half of the bright Equatorial Zone, while the 2008 VLT images show a clear shift to the south. "The change we see in the haze could be related to big changes in cloud patterns associated with last year's planet-wide upheaval, but we need to look at more data to narrow down precisely when the changes occurred," declares Wong.

  17. Mass spectrometer determinations of solar wind He, Ne, and Ar and radiation belt He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warasila, R.L.


    A unique mass spectrometer system was built and used to measure He, Ne, and Ar abundances and isotopic ratios in various samples of spacecraft that have been exposed to the space environment. The Apollo 12 mission brought back sections of the Surveyor 3 vehicle suitable for mass spectrometric studies of implanted solar wind and solar cosmic ray particles. Using the mass spectrometer, a 4 He flux of 6-8 x 10 6 ions/cm 2 --sec was measured, and in addition 4 He/ 3 He = 2700 +- 50; 4 He/ 20 Ne = 410 + 30; 20 Ne/ 22 Ne = 13.5 +- 0.2; 20 Ne/ 36 Ar = 24.5 +- 2.5; and 36 Ar/ 38 Ar = 5.41 +- 0.20 isotopic abundances were measured. An upper limit for the flux of SCR 3 He in the 10-20 MeV/nucleon range was also determined, for the thirty-one month exposure period. In the radiation belt environment, 3 He was found in the aluminum antenna housing from the recovered second stage of a pre-Apollo Saturn test flight launched January 28, 1964 and returned to earth on April 28, 1966. The amount of 3 He found was about 6 x 10 -10 cc(STP)/cm 2 with a 4 He/ 3 He ratio of 145 or less. The 3 He was shown to come from the lower radiation belt as all other sources of 3 He were orders of magnitude lower than the observed value

  18. The quiet time structure of energetic (35--560 keV) radiation belt electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.; Williams, D.J.


    Detailed Explorer 45 equatorial observations of the quiet time structure of radiation belt electrons (35--560 keV) for 1.7approximately-less-thanLapproximately-less-than5.2 are presented. Throughout the slot region and outer regions of the plasmasphere the observed pitch angle distributions are found to agree with those expected from resonant interactions with the plasmaspheric whistler mode wave band. Coulomb collisions become the dominant loss mechanism within the inner zone. The overall two-zone structure of the observed radial profiles is found to agree with the equilibrium structure expected to result from a balance between pitch angle scattering losses and radial diffusion from an average outer zone source. This agreement suggests that the dominant quiet time source and loss mechanisms have been identified and evaluated for energetic radiation belt electrons within the plasmasphere. In the outer regions of the plasmasphere (Lapprox.5) the equilibrium structure is observed to be modified by daily flux variations associated with changes in the level of magnetic activity that occur even during relatively quiet times. Within the inner region of the plasmasphere (Lapproximately-less-than3.5), electron fluxes are decoupled from these magnetic activity variations by the long time scales (>10 days) required for pitch angle and radial diffusion. Consequently, fluxes of these electrons are observed to remain nearly constant at equilibrium levels throughout the quiet periods examined

  19. Modeling the Proton Radiation Belt With Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope Data (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.


    An empirical model of the proton radiation belt is constructed from data taken during 2013-2017 by the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model intensity is a function of time, kinetic energy in the range 18-600 MeV, equatorial pitch angle, and L shell of proton guiding centers. Data are selected, on the basis of energy deposits in each of the nine silicon detectors, to reduce background caused by hard proton energy spectra at low L. Instrument response functions are computed by Monte Carlo integration, using simulated proton paths through a simplified structural model, to account for energy loss in shielding material for protons outside the nominal field of view. Overlap of energy channels, their wide angular response, and changing satellite orientation require the model dependencies on all three independent variables be determined simultaneously. This is done by least squares minimization with a customized steepest descent algorithm. Model uncertainty accounts for statistical data error and systematic error in the simulated instrument response. A proton energy spectrum is also computed from data taken during the 8 January 2014 solar event, to illustrate methods for the simpler case of an isotropic and homogeneous model distribution. Radiation belt and solar proton results are compared to intensities computed with a simplified, on-axis response that can provide a good approximation under limited circumstances.

  20. HEPD on NEXTSat-1: A High Energy Particle Detector for Measurements of Precipitating Radiation Belt Electrons (United States)

    Sohn, Jongdae; Lee, Jaejin; Min, Kyoungwook; Lee, Junchan; Lee, Seunguk; Lee, Daeyoung; Jo, Gyeongbok; Yi, Yu; Na, Gowoon; Kang, Kyung-In; Shin, Goo-Hwan


    Radiation belt particles of the inner magnetosphere precipitate into the atmosphere in the subauroral regions when they are pitch-angle scattered into the loss cone by wave-particle interactions. Such particle precipitations are known to be especially enhanced during space storms, though they can also occur during quiet times. The observed characteristics of precipitating electrons can be distinctively different, in their time series as well as in their spectra, depending on the waves involved. The present paper describes the High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) on board the Next Generation Small Satellite-1 (NEXTSat-1), which will measure these radiation belt electrons from a low-Earth polar orbit satellite to study the mechanisms related to electron precipitation in the sub-auroral regions. The HEPD is based on silicon barrier detectors and consists of three telescopes that are mounted on the satellite to have angles of 0°. 45°, and 90°, respectively with the local geomagnetic field during observations. With a high time resolution of 32 Hz and a high spectral resolution of 11 channels over the energy range from 350 keV to 2 MeV, together with the pitch angle information provided by the three telescopes, HEPD is capable of identifying physical processes, such as microbursts and dust-side relativistic electron precipitation (DREP) events associated with electron precipitations. NextSat-1 is scheduled for launch in early 2018.

  1. Automated Identification and Shape Analysis of Chorus Elements in the Van Allen Radiation Belts (United States)

    Sen Gupta, Ananya; Kletzing, Craig; Howk, Robin; Kurth, William; Matheny, Morgan


    An important goal of the Van Allen Probes mission is to understand wave-particle interaction by chorus emissions in terrestrial Van Allen radiation belts. To test models, statistical characterization of chorus properties, such as amplitude variation and sweep rates, is an important scientific goal. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrumentation suite provides measurements of wave electric and magnetic fields as well as DC magnetic fields for the Van Allen Probes mission. However, manual inspection across terabytes of EMFISIS data is not feasible and as such introduces human confirmation bias. We present signal processing techniques for automated identification, shape analysis, and sweep rate characterization of high-amplitude whistler-mode chorus elements in the Van Allen radiation belts. Specifically, we develop signal processing techniques based on the radon transform that disambiguate chorus elements with a dominant sweep rate against hiss-like chorus. We present representative results validating our techniques and also provide statistical characterization of detected chorus elements across a case study of a 6 s epoch.

  2. Wave-Particle Interactions in the Earth's Radiation Belts: Recent Advances and Unprecedented Future Opportunities (United States)

    Li, W.


    In the collisionless heliospheric plasmas, wave-particle interaction is a fundamental physical process in transferring energy and momentum between particles with different species and energies. This presentation focuses on one of the important wave-particle interaction processes: interaction between whistler-mode waves and electrons. Whistler-mode waves have frequencies between proton and electron cyclotron frequency and are ubiquitously present in the heliospheric plasmas including solar wind and planetary magnetospheres. I use Earth's Van Allen radiation belt as "local space laboratory" to discuss the role of whistler-mode waves in energetic electron dynamics using multi-satellite observations, theory and modeling. I further discuss solar wind drivers leading to energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, which is critical in predicting space weather that has broad impacts on our technological systems and society. At last, I discuss the unprecedented future opportunities of exploring space science using multi-satellite observations and state-of-the-art theory and modeling.

  3. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy. (United States)

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S


    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave-particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity.

  4. Detailed characteristics of radiation belt electrons revealed by CSSWE/REPTile measurements: Geomagnetic activity response and precipitation observation (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Gerhardt, D.; Zhao, H.; Millan, R.


    Earth's outer radiation belt electrons are highly dynamic. We study the detailed characteristics of relativistic electrons in the outer belt using measurements from the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) mission, a low Earth orbit (LEO) CubeSat, which traverses the radiation belt four times in one orbit ( 1.5 h) and has the advantage of measuring the dynamic activities of the electrons including their rapid precipitation. We focus on the measured electron response to geomagnetic activity for different energies to show that there are abundant sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt and slot region. These electrons are further enhanced during active times, while there is a lack of >1.63 MeV electrons in these regions. We also show that the variation of measured electron flux at LEO is strongly dependent on the local magnetic field strength, which is far from a dipole approximation. Moreover, a specific precipitation band, which happened on 19 January 2013, is investigated based on the conjunctive measurement of CSSWE, the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses, and one of the Polar Operational Environmental Satellites. In this precipitation band event, the net loss of the 0.58-1.63 MeV electrons (L = 3.5-6) is estimated to account for 6.8% of the total electron content.

  5. Solar Rotational Periodicities and the Semiannual Variation in the Solar Wind, Radiation Belt, and Aurora (United States)

    Emery, Barbara A.; Richardson, Ian G.; Evans, David S.; Rich, Frederick J.; Wilson, Gordon R.


    The behavior of a number of solar wind, radiation belt, auroral and geomagnetic parameters is examined during the recent extended solar minimum and previous solar cycles, covering the period from January 1972 to July 2010. This period includes most of the solar minimum between Cycles 23 and 24, which was more extended than recent solar minima, with historically low values of most of these parameters in 2009. Solar rotational periodicities from S to 27 days were found from daily averages over 81 days for the parameters. There were very strong 9-day periodicities in many variables in 2005 -2008, triggered by recurring corotating high-speed streams (HSS). All rotational amplitudes were relatively large in the descending and early minimum phases of the solar cycle, when HSS are the predominant solar wind structures. There were minima in the amplitudes of all solar rotational periodicities near the end of each solar minimum, as well as at the start of the reversal of the solar magnetic field polarity at solar maximum (approx.1980, approx.1990, and approx. 2001) when the occurrence frequency of HSS is relatively low. Semiannual equinoctial periodicities, which were relatively strong in the 1995-1997 solar minimum, were found to be primarily the result of the changing amplitudes of the 13.5- and 27-day periodicities, where 13.5-day amplitudes were better correlated with heliospheric daily observations and 27-day amplitudes correlated better with Earth-based daily observations. The equinoctial rotational amplitudes of the Earth-based parameters were probably enhanced by a combination of the Russell-McPherron effect and a reduction in the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling efficiency during solstices. The rotational amplitudes were cross-correlated with each other, where the 27 -day amplitudes showed some of the weakest cross-correlations. The rotational amplitudes of the > 2 MeV radiation belt electron number fluxes were progressively weaker from 27- to 5-day periods

  6. Parametric validations of analytical lifetime estimates for radiation belt electron diffusion by whistler waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Artemyev


    Full Text Available The lifetimes of electrons trapped in Earth's radiation belts can be calculated from quasi-linear pitch-angle diffusion by whistler-mode waves, provided that their frequency spectrum is broad enough and/or their average amplitude is not too large. Extensive comparisons between improved analytical lifetime estimates and full numerical calculations have been performed in a broad parameter range representative of a large part of the magnetosphere from L ~ 2 to 6. The effects of observed very oblique whistler waves are taken into account in both numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical lifetimes (and pitch-angle diffusion coefficients are found to be in good agreement with full numerical calculations based on CRRES and Cluster hiss and lightning-generated wave measurements inside the plasmasphere and Cluster lower-band chorus waves measurements in the outer belt for electron energies ranging from 100 keV to 5 MeV. Comparisons with lifetimes recently obtained from electron flux measurements on SAMPEX, SCATHA, SAC-C and DEMETER also show reasonable agreement.

  7. rosuvastatin (JUPITER)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridker, Paul M; MacFadyen, Jean G; Fonseca, Francisco A H


    were calculated across a range of end points, timeframes, and subgroups using data from Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER), a randomized evaluation of rosuvastatin 20 mg versus placebo conducted among 17 802 apparently healthy men...... infarction, stroke, revascularization, or death, the 5-year NNT within JUPITER was 20 (95% CI, 14 to 34). All subgroups had 5-year NNT values for this end point below 50; as examples, 5-year NNT values were 17 for men and 31 for women, 21 for whites and 19 for nonwhites, 18 for those with body mass index 300...

  8. Relativistic electrons of the outer radiation belt and methods of their forecast (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov A.S.


    Full Text Available The paper reviews studies of the dynamics of relativistic electrons in the geosynchronous region. It lists the physical processes that lead to the acceleration of electrons filling the outer radiation belt. As one of the space weather factors, high-energy electron fluxes pose a serious threat to the operation of satellite equipment in one of the most populated orbital regions. Necessity is emphasized for efforts to develop methods for forecasting the situation in this part of the magnetosphere, possible predictors are listed, and their classification is given. An example of a predictive model for forecasting relativistic electron flux with a 1–2-day lead time is proposed. Some questions of practical organization of prediction are discussed; the main objectives of short-term, medium-term, and long-term forecasts are listed.

  9. Outer Radiation Belt Dropout Dynamics Following the Arrival of Two Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (United States)

    Alves, L. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Souza, V. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Jauer, P. R.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Walsh, B. M.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Marchezi, J. P.; Rockenbach, M.; hide


    Magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions are recognized as the two primary mechanisms for losses of electrons from the outer radiation belt. We investigate these mechanisms, sing satellite observations both in interplanetary space and within the magnetosphere and particle drift modeling. Two interplanetary shocks sheaths impinged upon the magnetopause causing a relativistic electron flux dropout. The magnetic cloud (C) and interplanetary structure sunward of the MC had primarily northward magnetic field, perhaps leading to a concomitant lack of substorm activity and a 10 day long quiescent period. The arrival of two shocks caused an unusual electron flux dropout. Test-particle simulations have shown 2 to 5 MeV energy, equatorially mirroring electrons with initial values of L 5.5can be lost to the magnetosheath via magnetopause shadowing alone. For electron losses at lower L-shells, coherent chorus wave-driven pitch angle scattering and ULF wave-driven radial transport have been shownto be viable mechanisms.

  10. Wave-Particle Interactions in the Radiation Belts, Aurora,and Solar Wind: Opportunities for Lab Experiments (United States)

    Kletzing, C.


    The physics of the creation, loss, and transport of radiation belt particles is intimately connected to the electric and magnetic fields which mediate these processes. A large range of field and particle interactions are involved in this physics from large-scale ring current ion and magnetic field dynamics to microscopic kinetic interactions of whistler-mode chorus waves with energetic electrons. To measure these kinds of radiation belt interactions, NASA implemented the two-satellite Van Allen Probes mission. As part of the mission, the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) investigation is an integrated set of instruments consisting of a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer (MAG) and a Waves instrument which includes a triaxial search coil magnetometer (MSC). We show a variety of waves thought to be important for wave particle interactionsin the radiation belts: low frequency ULF pulsations, EMIC waves, and whistler mode waves including upper and lower band chorus. Outside ofthe radiation belts, Alfven waves play a key role in both solar wind turbulenceand auroral particle acceleration. Several of these wave modes could benefit (or have benefitted) from laboratory studies to further refineour understanding of the detailed physics of the wave-particle interactionswhich lead to energization, pitch angle scattering, and cross-field transportWe illustrate some of the processes and compare the wave data with particle measurements to show relationships between wave activity and particle processobserved in the inner magnetosphere and heliosphere.

  11. Combined convective and diffusive modeling of the ring current and radiation belt electron dynamics using the VERB-4D code (United States)

    Aseev, N.; Shprits, Y.; Drozdov, A.; Kellerman, A. C.; Wang, D.


    Ring current and radiation belts are key elements in the global dynamics of the Earth's magnetosphere. Comprehensive mathematical models are useful tools that allow us to understand the multiscale dynamics of these charged particle populations. In this work, we present results of simulations of combined ring current - radiation belt electron dynamics using the four-dimensional Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB-4D) code. The VERB-4D code solves the modified Fokker-Planck equation including convective terms and models simultaneously ring current (1 - 100 keV) and radiation belt (100 keV - several MeV) electron dynamics. We apply the code to the number of geomagnetic storms that occurred in the past, compare the results with different satellite observations, and show how low-energy particles can affect the high-energy populations. Particularly, we use data from Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) mission that provides a very good MLT coverage with 1.5-hour time resolution. The POES data allow us to validate the approach of the VERB-4D code for modeling MLT-dependent processes such as electron drift, wave-particle interactions, and magnetopause shadowing. We also show how different simulation parameters and empirical models can affect the results, making a particular emphasis on the electric and magnetic field models. This work will help us reveal advantages and disadvantages of the approach behind the code and determine its prediction efficiency.

  12. Radiation belt electron acceleration during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm: Observations and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Zhang, X.-J.


    Various physical processes are known to cause acceleration, loss, and transport of energetic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative roles in different time and space need further investigation. During the largest storm over the past decade (17 March 2015), relativistic electrons experienced fairly rapid acceleration up to ~7 MeV within 2 days after an initial substantial dropout, as observed by Van Allen Probes. In the present paper, we evaluate the relative roles of various physical processes during the recovery phase of this large storm using a 3-D diffusion simulation. By quantitatively comparing the observed and simulated electron evolution, we found that chorus plays a critical role in accelerating electrons up to several MeV near the developing peak location and produces characteristic flat-top pitch angle distributions. By only including radial diffusion, the simulation underestimates the observed electron acceleration, while radial diffusion plays an important role in redistributing electrons and potentially accelerates them to even higher energies. Moreover, plasmaspheric hiss is found to provide efficient pitch angle scattering losses for hundreds of keV electrons, while its scattering effect on > 1 MeV electrons is relatively slow. Although an additional loss process is required to fully explain the overestimated electron fluxes at multi-MeV, the combined physical processes of radial diffusion and pitch angle and energy diffusion by chorus and hiss reproduce the observed electron dynamics remarkably well, suggesting that quasi-linear diffusion theory is reasonable to evaluate radiation belt electron dynamics during this big storm.

  13. High Altitude Balloons as a Platform for Space Radiation Belt Science (United States)

    Mazzino, L.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Johnson, W.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB)


    The goals of the University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons Program (UA-HAB) are to i) use low cost balloons to address space radiation science, and ii) to utilise the excitement of "space mission" involvement to promote and facilitate the recruitment of undergraduate and graduate students in physics, engineering, and atmospheric sciences to pursue careers in space science and engineering. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB) is a unique opportunity for University of Alberta students (undergraduate and graduate) to engage in the hands-on design, development, build, test and flight of a payload to operate on a high altitude balloon at around 30km altitude. The program development, including formal design and acceptance tests, reports and reviews, mirror those required in the development of an orbital satellite mission. This enables the students to gain a unique insight into how space missions are flown. UA-HAB is a one and half year program that offers a gateway into a high-altitude balloon mission through hands on experience, and builds skills for students who may be attracted to participate in future space missions in their careers. This early education will provide students with the experience necessary to better assess opportunities for pursuing a career in space science. Balloons offer a low-cost alternative to other suborbital platforms which can be used to address radiation belt science goals. In particular, the participants of this program have written grant proposal to secure funds for this project, have launched several 'weather balloon missions', and have designed, built, tested, and launched their particle detector called "Maple Leaf Particle Detector". This detector was focussed on monitoring cosmic rays and space radiation using shielded Geiger tubes, and was flown as one of the payloads from the institutions participating in the High Altitude Student Platform (HASP), organized by the Louisiana State University and the Louisiana

  14. Observations and models of the decimetric radio emission from Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pater, I. de.


    The high energy electron distribution as a function of energy, pitch angle and spatial coordinates in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere was derived from a comparison of radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation. (Auth.)

  15. Characteristics of pitch angle distributions of hundreds of keV electrons in the slot region and inner radiation belt (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Malaspina, D. M.


    The pitch angle distribution (PAD) of energetic electrons in the slot region and inner radiation belt received little attention in the past decades due to the lack of quality measurements. Using the state-of-the-art pitch angle-resolved data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer instrument onboard the Van Allen Probes, a detailed analysis of hundreds of keV electron PADs below L = 4 is performed, in which the PADs are categorized into three types: normal (flux peaking at 90°), cap (exceedingly peaking narrowly around 90°), and 90° minimum (lower flux at 90°) PADs. By examining the characteristics of the PADs of ˜460 keV electrons for over a year, we find that the 90° minimum PADs are generally present in the inner belt (Lpitch angle scattering of hiss waves. Fitting the normal PADs into sinnα form, the parameter n is much higher below L = 3 than that in the outer belt and relatively constant in the inner belt but changes significantly in the slot region (2 mechanism can hardly explain the formation of 90° minimum PADs at the center of inner belt.

  16. Lognormal Kalman filter for assimilating phase space density data in the radiation belts (United States)

    Kondrashov, D.; Ghil, M.; Shprits, Y.


    Data assimilation combines a physical model with sparse observations and has become an increasingly important tool for scientists and engineers in the design, operation, and use of satellites and other high-technology systems in the near-Earth space environment. Of particular importance is predicting fluxes of high-energy particles in the Van Allen radiation belts, since these fluxes can damage spaceborne platforms and instruments during strong geomagnetic storms. In transiting from a research setting to operational prediction of these fluxes, improved data assimilation is of the essence. The present study is motivated by the fact that phase space densities (PSDs) of high-energy electrons in the outer radiation belt—both simulated and observed—are subject to spatiotemporal variations that span several orders of magnitude. Standard data assimilation methods that are based on least squares minimization of normally distributed errors may not be adequate for handling the range of these variations. We propose herein a modification of Kalman filtering that uses a log-transformed, one-dimensional radial diffusion model for the PSDs and includes parameterized losses. The proposed methodology is first verified on model-simulated, synthetic data and then applied to actual satellite measurements. When the model errors are sufficiently smaller then observational errors, our methodology can significantly improve analysis and prediction skill for the PSDs compared to those of the standard Kalman filter formulation. This improvement is documented by monitoring the variance of the innovation sequence.

  17. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth’s radiation belts uncovers a missing energy (United States)

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.


    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth’s magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth’s magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth’s radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  18. Effect of solar UV/EUV heating on the intensity and spatial distribution of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation (United States)

    Kita, H.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Tao, C.; Morioka, A.


    We analyzed the Very Large Array archived data observed in 2000 to determine whether solar ultraviolet (UV)/extreme ultraviolet (EUV) heating of the Jovian thermosphere causes variations in the total flux density and dawn-dusk asymmetry (the characteristic differences between the peak emissions at dawn and dusk) of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation (JSR). The total flux density varied by 10% over 6 days of observations and accorded with theoretical expectations. The average dawn-dusk peak emission ratio indicated that the dawn side emissions were brighter than those on the dusk side and this was expected to have been caused by diurnal wind induced by the solar UV/EUV. The daily variations in the dawn-dusk ratio did not correspond to the solar UV/EUV, and this finding did not support the theoretical expectation that the dawn-dusk ratio and diurnal wind velocity varies in correspondence with the solar UV/EUV. We tried to determine whether the average dawn-dusk ratio could be explained by a reasonable diurnal wind velocity. We constructed an equatorial brightness distribution model of JSR using the revised Divine-Garrett particle distribution model and used it to derive a relation between the dawn-dusk ratio and diurnal wind velocity. The estimated diurnal wind velocity reasonably corresponded to a numerical simulation of the Jovian thermosphere. We also found that realistic changes in the diurnal wind velocity could not cause the daily variations in the dawn-dusk ratio. Hence, we propose that the solar UV/EUV related variations were below the detection limit and some other processes dominated the daily variations in the dawn-dusk ratio.

  19. Jupiter's Deep Cloud Structure Revealed Using Keck Observations of Spectrally Resolved Line Shapes (United States)

    Bjoraker, G. L.; Wong, M.H.; de Pater, I.; Adamkovics, M.


    Technique: We present a method to determine the pressure at which significant cloud opacity is present between 2 and 6 bars on Jupiter. We use: a) the strength of a Fraunhofer absorption line in a zone to determine the ratio of reflected sunlight to thermal emission, and b) pressure- broadened line profiles of deuterated methane (CH3D) at 4.66 meters to determine the location of clouds. We use radiative transfer models to constrain the altitude region of both the solar and thermal components of Jupiter's 5-meter spectrum. Results: For nearly all latitudes on Jupiter the thermal component is large enough to constrain the deep cloud structure even when upper clouds are present. We find that Hot Spots, belts, and high latitudes have broader line profiles than do zones. Radiative transfer models show that Hot Spots in the North and South Equatorial Belts (NEB, SEB) typically do not have opaque clouds at pressures greater than 2 bars. The South Tropical Zone (STZ) at 32 degrees South has an opaque cloud top between 4 and 5 bars. From thermochemical models this must be a water cloud. We measured the variation of the equivalent width of CH3D with latitude for comparison with Jupiter's belt-zone structure. We also constrained the vertical profile of H2O in an SEB Hot Spot and in the STZ. The Hot Spot is very dry for a probability less than 4.5 bars and then follows the H2O profile observed by the Galileo Probe. The STZ has a saturated H2O profile above its cloud top between 4 and 5 bars.

  20. Explaining the Diverse Response of the Ultra-relativistic Van Allen Radiation Belt to Solar Wind Forcing (United States)

    Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L.; Murphy, K. R.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Rae, J.; Milling, D. K.; Kale, A.; Baker, D. N.


    The NASA Van Allen Probes have opened a new window on the dynamics of ultra-relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. Under different solar wind forcing the outer belt is seen to respond in a variety of apparently diverse and sometimes remarkable ways. For example, sometimes a third radiation belt is carved out (e.g., September 2012), or the belts can remain depleted for 10 days or more (September 2014). More usually there is a sequential response of a strong and sometimes rapid depletion followed by a re-energization, the latter increasing outer belt electron flux by orders of magnitude on hour timescales during some of the strongest storms of this solar cycle (e.g., March 2013, March 2015). Such dynamics also appear to be often bounded at low-L by an apparently impenetrable barrier at L 2.8 through which ultra-relativistic electrons do not penetrate. Many studies in the Van Allen Probes era have sought explanations for these apparently diverse features, often incorporating the effects from multiple plasma waves. In contrast, we show how this apparently diverse behaviour can instead be explained by one dominant process: ULF wave radial transport. Once ULF wave transport rates are accurately specified by observations, and coupled to the dynamical variation of the outer boundary condition at the edge of the outer belt, the observed diverse responses can all be explained. However, in order to get good agreement with observations, the modeling reveals the importance of still currently unexplained very fast loss in the main phase which results in an almost total extinction of the belts and decouples pre- and post-storm ultra-relativistic electron flux on hour timescales. Similarly, varying plasmasheet source populations are seen to be of critical importance such that near-tail dynamics play a crucial role in Van Allen belt dynamics. Nonetheless, simple models incorporating accurate transport rates derived directly from ULF wave measurements are shown to

  1. ICME-driven sheath regions deplete the outer radiation belt electrons (United States)

    Hietala, H.; Kilpua, E. K.; Turner, D. L.


    It is an outstanding question in space weather and solar wind-magnetosphere interaction studies, why some storms result in an increase of the outer radiation belt electron fluxes, while others deplete them or produce no change. One approach to this problem is to look at differences in the storm drivers. Traditionally drivers have been classified to Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). However, an 'ICME event' is a complex structure: The core is a magnetic cloud (MC; a clear flux rope structure). If the mass ejection is fast enough, it can drive a shock in front of it. This leads to the formation of a sheath region between the interplanetary shock and the leading edge of the MC. While both the sheath and the MC feature elevated solar wind speed, their other properties are very different. For instance, the sheath region has typically a much higher dynamic pressure than the magnetic cloud. Moreover, the sheath region has a high power in magnetic field and dynamic pressure Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) range fluctuations, while the MC is characterised by an extremely smooth magnetic field. Magnetic clouds have been recognised as important drivers magnetospheric activity since they can comprise long periods of very large southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). Nevertheless, previous studies have shown that sheath regions can also act as storm drivers. In this study, we analyse the effects of ICME-driven sheath regions on the relativistic electron fluxes observed by GOES satellites on the geostationary orbit. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of 31 sheath regions from solar cycle 23. Our results show that the sheaths cause an approximately one order of magnitude decrease in the 24h-averaged electron fluxes. Typically the fluxes also stay below the pre-event level for more than two days. Further analysis reveals that the decrease does not depend on, e.g., whether the sheath interval contains predominantly northward

  2. Reanalyses of the radiation belt electron phase space density using nearly equatorial CRRES and polar-orbiting Akebono satellite observations (United States)

    Ni, Binbin; Shprits, Yuri; Nagai, Tsugunobu; Thorne, Richard; Chen, Yue; Kondrashov, Dmitri; Kim, Hee-jeong


    Data assimilation techniques provide algorithms that allow for blending of incomplete and inaccurate data with physics-based dynamic models to reconstruct the electron phase space density (PSD) in the radiation belts. In this study, we perform reanalyses of the radial PSD profile using two independent data sources from the nearly equatorial CRRES Medium Electron A (MEA) observations and the polar-orbiting Akebono Radiation Monitor (RDM) measurements for a 50-day period from 18 August to 6 October 1990. We utilize the University of California, Los Angeles, One-Dimensional Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (UCLA 1-D VERB) code and a Kalman filtering approach. Comparison of the reanalyses obtained independently using the CRRES MEA and Akebono RDM measurements shows that the dynamics of the PSD can be accurately reconstructed using Kalman filtering even when available data are sparse, inaccurate, and contaminated by random errors. The reanalyses exhibit similarities in the locations and magnitudes of peaks in radial profiles of PSD and the rate and radial extent of the dropouts during storms. This study shows that when unidirectional data are not available, pitch angle averaged flux measurements can be used to infer the long-term behavior (climatology) of the radiation belts. The methodology of obtaining PSD from pitch angle averaged and unidirectional fluxes using the Tsyganenko and Stern (1996) magnetic field model is described in detail.

  3. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-ray Emission associated with Jupiter (United States)

    Ezoe, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Uchiyama, Y.; Negoro, H.


    Our discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter is reported. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations revealed several types of X-rays in the vicinity of Jupiter such as auroral and disk emission from Jupiter and faint diffuse X-rays from the Io Plasma Torus (see Bhardwaj et al. 2007 for review). To investigate possible diffuse hard X-ray emission around Jupiter with the highest sensitivity, we conducted data analysis of Suzaku XIS observations of Jupiter on Feb 2006. After removing satellite and planetary orbital motions, we detected a significant diffuse X-ray emission extending to ~6 x 3 arcmin with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of ~3e15 erg/s. The emitting region very well coincided with the Jupiter's radiation belts. The 1-5 keV X-ray spectrum was represented by a simple power law model with a photon index of 1.4. Such a flat continuum strongly suggests non-thermal origin. Although such an emission can be originated from multiple background point sources, its possibility is quite low. We hence examined three mechanisms, assuming that the emission is truly diffuse: bremsstrahlung by keV electrons, synchrotron emission by TeV electrons, and inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by MeV electrons. The former two can be rejected because of the X-ray spectral shape and implausible existence of TeV electrons around Jupiter, respectively. The last possibility was found to be possible because tens MeV electrons, which have been confirmed in inner radiation belts (Bolton et al. 2002), can kick solar photons to the keV energy range and provide a simple power-law continuum. We estimated an average electron density from the X-ray luminosity assuming the oblate spheroid shaped emitting region with 8 x 8 x 4 Jovian radii. The necessary density was 0.02 1/cm3 for 50 MeV electrons. Hence, our results may suggest a new particle acceleration phenomenon around Jupiter.

  4. Transport, charge exchange and loss of energetic heavy ions in the earth's radiation belts - Applicability and limitations of theory (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.


    Computer simulations of processes which control the relative abundances of ions in the trapping regions of geospace are compared with observations from discriminating ion detectors. Energy losses due to Coulomb collisions between ions and exospheric neutrals are considered, along with charge exchange losses and internal charge exchanges. The time evolution of energetic ion fluxes of equatorially mirroring ions under radial diffusion is modelled to include geomagnetic and geoelectric fluctutations. Limits to the validity of diffusion transport theory are discussed, and the simulation is noted to contain provisions for six ionic charge states and the source effect on the radiation belt oxygen ion distributions. Comparisons are made with ion flux data gathered on Explorer 45 and ISEE-1 spacecraft and results indicate that internal charge exchanges cause the radiation belt ion charge state to be independent of source charge rate characteristics, and relative charge state distribution is independent of the radially diffusive transport rate below the charge state redistribution zone.

  5. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras (United States)


    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  6. Effects of Drift-Shell Splitting by Chorus Waves on Radiation Belt Electrons (United States)

    Chan, A. A.; Zheng, L.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.; Elkington, S. R.; Albert, J.


    Drift shell splitting in the radiation belts breaks all three adiabatic invariants of charged particle motion via pitch angle scattering, and produces new diffusion terms that fully populate the diffusion tensor in the Fokker-Planck equation. Based on the stochastic differential equation method, the Radbelt Electron Model (REM) simulation code allows us to solve such a fully three-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation, and to elucidate the sources and transport mechanisms behind the phase space density variations. REM has been used to perform simulations with an empirical initial phase space density followed by a seed electron injection, with a Tsyganenko 1989 magnetic field model, and with chorus wave and ULF wave diffusion models. Our simulation results show that adding drift shell splitting changes the phase space location of the source to smaller L shells, which typically reduces local electron energization (compared to neglecting drift-shell splitting effects). Simulation results with and without drift-shell splitting effects are compared with Van Allen Probe measurements.

  7. Neoclassical Diffusion of Radiation-Belt Electrons Across Very Low L-Shells (United States)

    Cunningham, Gregory S.; Loridan, Vivien; Ripoll, Jean-François; Schulz, Michael


    In the presence of drift-shell splitting intrinsic to the International Geomagnetic Reference Field magnetic field model, pitch angle scattering from Coulomb collisions experienced by radiation-belt electrons in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere produces extra radial diffusion, a form of neoclassical diffusion. The strength of the neoclassical radial diffusion at L nuclear detonation. The data show apparent lifetimes 10-100 times as long as would have been expected from collisional pitch angle diffusion and Coulomb drag alone. Our model reproduces apparent lifetimes for >0.5-MeV electrons in the region 1.14 < L < 1.26 to within a factor of 2 (comparable to the uncertainty quoted for the observations). We conclude that neoclassical radial diffusion (resulting from drift-shell splitting intrinsic to International Geomagnetic Reference Field's azimuthal asymmetries) mitigates the decay expected from collisional pitch angle diffusion and inelastic energy loss alone and thus contributes importantly to the long apparent lifetimes observed at these low L-shells.

  8. Solar cyclic behavior of trapped energetic electrons in Earth's inner radiation belt (United States)

    Abel, Bob; Thorne, Richard M.


    Magnetic electron spectrometer data from six satellites (OV3-3, OV1-14, OGO 5, S3-2, S3-3, and CRRES) have been used to study long-term (1966-1991) behavior of trapped energetic electrons in the inner radiation belt. Comparison of the observed energy spectra at L equal to or greater than 1.35 for different phases of the solar cycle reveals a clear trend toward enhanced fluxes during periods of solar maximum for energies below a few hundred keV; we suggest that this is caused by an increase in the rate of inward radial diffusion from a source at higher L. In contrast, for L less than 1.30, where atmospheric collisions become increasingly important, the electron flux is reduced during solar maximum; we attribute this to the expected increase in upper atmospheric densities. The electron flux above 1 MeV exhibits a systematic decay beyond 1979 to values well below the current NASA AE-8 model. This indicates that the natural background of high-energy electrons has previously been overestimated due to the long lasting presence of electrons produced by nuclear detonations in the upper atmosphere in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

  9. Combined Global MHD and Test-Particle Simulation of a Radiation Belt Storm: Comparing Depletion, Recovery and Enhancement with in Situ Measurements (United States)

    Sorathia, K.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Lyon, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.


    During geomagnetic storms the intensities of radiation belt electrons exhibit dramatic variability. In the main phase electron intensities exhibit deep depletion over a broad region of the outer belt. The intensities then increase during the recovery phase, often to levels that significantly exceed their pre-storm values. In this study we analyze the depletion, recovery and enhancement of radiation belt intensities during the 2013 St. Patrick's geomagnetic storm. We simulate the dynamics of high-energy electrons using our newly-developed test-particle radiation belt model (CHIMP) based on a hybrid guiding-center/Lorentz integrator and electromagnetic fields derived from high-resolution global MHD (LFM) simulations. Our approach differs from previous work in that we use MHD flow information to identify and seed test-particles into regions of strong convection in the magnetotail. We address two science questions: 1) what are the relative roles of magnetopause losses, transport-driven atmospheric precipitation, and adiabatic cooling in the radiation belt depletion during the storm main phase? and 2) to what extent can enhanced convection/mesoscale injections account for the radiation belt buildup during the recovery phase? Our analysis is based on long-term model simulation and the comparison of our model results with electron intensity measurements from the MAGEIS experiment of the Van Allen Probes mission.

  10. Electron acceleration at Jupiter: input from cyclotron-resonant interaction with whistler-mode chorus waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield


    Full Text Available Jupiter has the most intense radiation belts of all the outer planets. It is not yet known how electrons can be accelerated to energies of 10 MeV or more. It has been suggested that cyclotron-resonant wave-particle interactions by chorus waves could accelerate electrons to a few MeV near the orbit of Io. Here we use the chorus wave intensities observed by the Galileo spacecraft to calculate the changes in electron flux as a result of pitch angle and energy diffusion. We show that, when the bandwidth of the waves and its variation with L are taken into account, pitch angle and energy diffusion due to chorus waves is a factor of 8 larger at L-shells greater than 10 than previously shown. We have used the latitudinal wave intensity profile from Galileo data to model the time evolution of the electron flux using the British Antarctic Survey Radiation Belt (BAS model. This profile confines intense chorus waves near the magnetic equator with a peak intensity at ∼5° latitude. Electron fluxes in the BAS model increase by an order of magnitude for energies around 3 MeV. Extending our results to L = 14 shows that cyclotron-resonant interactions with chorus waves are equally important for electron acceleration beyond L = 10. These results suggest that there is significant electron acceleration by cyclotron-resonant interactions at Jupiter contributing to the creation of Jupiter's radiation belts and also increasing the range of L-shells over which this mechanism should be considered.

  11. Wave-Particle Interactions Involving Correlated Electron Bursts and Whistler Chorus in Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Echterling, N.; Schriver, D.; Roeder, J. L.; Fennell, J. F.


    During the recovery phase of substorm plasma injections, the Van Allen Probes commonly observe events of quasi-periodic energetic electron bursts correlating with simultaneously detected upper-band, whistler-mode chorus emissions. These electron bursts exhibit narrow ranges of pitch angles (75-80° and 100-105°) and energies (20-40 keV). Electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) emissions are also commonly detected, but typically do not display correlation with the electron bursts. To examine sources of free energy and the generation of these wave emissions, an observed electron velocity distribution on January 13, 2013 is used as the starting condition for a particle in cell (PIC) simulation. Effects of temperature anisotropy (perpendicular temperature greater than parallel temperature), the presence of a loss cone and a cold electron population on the generation of whistler and ECH waves are examined to understand wave generation and nonlinear interactions with the particle population. These nonlinear interactions produce energy diffusion along with strong pitch angle scattering into the loss cone on the order of milliseconds, which is faster than a typical bounce period of seconds. To examine the quasi-periodic nature of the electron bursts, a loss-cone recycling technique is implemented to model the effects of the periodic emptying of the loss cone and electron injection on the growth of whistler and ECH waves. The results of the simulations are compared to the Van Allen Probe observations to determine electron acceleration, heating and transport in Earth's radiation belts due to wave-particle interactions.

  12. Observations of energetic helium ions in the Earth's radiation belts during a sequence of geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spjeldvik, W.N.; Fritz, T.A.


    Every year a significant number of magnetic storms disturb the earth's magnetosphere and the trapped particle populations. In this paper, we present observations of energetic (MeV) helium ions made with Explorer 45 during a sequence of magnetic storms during June through December of 1972. The first of these storms started on June 17 and had a Dst index excursion to approx.190 gamma, and the MeV helium ions were perturbed primarily beyond 3 earth radii in the equatorial radiation belts with a typical flux increase of an order of magnitude at L = 4. The second storm period took place during August and was associated with very major solar flare activity. Although the Dst extremum was at best 35 gamma less than the June storm, this period can be characterized as irregular (or multi-storm) with strong compression of the magnetosphere and very large (order of magnitude) MeV helium ion flux enhancements down to Lapprox.2. Following this injection the trapped helium ion fluxes showed positive spectral slope with the peak beyond 3.15 MeV at L = 2.5; and at the lowest observable L shells (Lapprox.2--3) little flux decay (tau>100 days) was seen during the rest of the year. Any effects of two subsequent major magnetic storms in September and November were essentially undetectable in the prolonged after-effect of the August solar flare associated MeV helium ion injection. The helium ion radial profile of the phase space density showed a significant negative slope during this period, and we infer that radial diffusion constitutes a significant loss of helium ions on L shells above Lapprox. =4 during the aftermath of the August 1972 magnetic storm

  13. Command and Data Handling Flight Software test framework: A Radiation Belt Storm Probes practice (United States)

    Hill, T. A.; Reid, W. M.; Wortman, K. A.

    During the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission, a test framework was developed by the Embedded Applications Group in the Space Department at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The test framework is implemented for verification of the Command and Data Handling (C& DH) Flight Software. The RBSP C& DH Flight Software consists of applications developed for use with Goddard Space Flight Center's core Flight Executive (cFE) architecture. The test framework's initial concept originated with tests developed for verification of the Autonomy rules that execute with the Autonomy Engine application of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. The test framework was adopted and expanded for system and requirements verification of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. During the evolution of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software test framework design, a set of script conventions and a script library were developed. The script conventions and library eased integration of system and requirements verification tests into a comprehensive automated test suite. The comprehensive test suite is currently being used to verify releases of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. In addition to providing the details and benefits of the test framework, the discussion will include several lessons learned throughout the verification process of RBSP C& DH Flight Software. Our next mission, Solar Probe Plus (SPP), will use the cFE architecture for the C& DH Flight Software. SPP also plans to use the same ground system as RBSP. Many of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software applications are reusable on the SPP mission, therefore there is potential for test design and test framework reuse for system and requirements verification.

  14. On the Relationship Between High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua


    Both past and recent research results indicate that solar wind speed has a close connection to radiation belt electron fluxes [e.g., Paulikas and Blake, 1979; Reeves et aI., 2011]: a higher solar wind speed is often associated with a higher level of radiation electron fluxes. But the relationship can be very complex [Reeves et aI., 2011]. The study presented here provides further corroboration of this viewpoint by emphasizing the importance of a global perspective and time history. We find that all the events during years 2010 and 2011 where the >0.8 MeV integral electron flux exceeds 10(exp 5) particles/sq cm/sr/s (pfu) at GEO orbit are associated with the high speed streams (HSS) following the onset of the Stream Interaction Region (SIR), with most of them belonging to the long-lasting Corotating Interaction Region (CIR). Our preliminary results indicate that during HSS events, a maximum speed of 700 km/s and above is a sufficient but not necessary condition for the > 0.8 MeV electron flux to reach 10(exp 5) pfu. But in the exception cases of HSS events where the electron flux level exceeds the 10(exp 5) pfu value but the maximum solar wind speed is less than 700 km/s, a prior impact can be noted either from a CME or a transient SIR within 3-4 days before the arrival of the HSS - stressing the importance of time history. Through superposed epoch analysis and studies providing comparisons with the CME events and the HSS events where the flux level fails to reach the 10(exp 5) pfu, we will present the quantitative assessment of behaviors and relationships of various quantities, such as the time it takes to reach the flux threshold value from the stream interface and its dependence on different physical parameters (e.g., duration of the HSS event, its maximum or average of the solar wind speed, IMF Bz, Kp). The ultimate goal is to apply what is derived to space weather forecasting.

  15. Observational evidence of competing source, loss, and transport processes for relativistic electrons in Earth's outer radiation belt (United States)

    Turner, Drew; Mann, Ian; Usanova, Maria; Rodriguez, Juan; Henderson, Mike; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Morley, Steven; Claudepierre, Seth; Li, Wen; Kellerman, Adam; Boyd, Alexander; Kim, Kyung-Chan

    Earth’s outer electron radiation belt is a region of extreme variability, with relativistic electron intensities changing by orders of magnitude over time scales ranging from minutes to years. Extreme variations of outer belt electrons ultimately result from the relative impacts of various competing source (and acceleration), loss, and transport processes. Most of these processes involve wave-particle interactions between outer belt electrons and different types of plasma waves in the inner magnetosphere, and in turn, the activity of these waves depends on different solar wind and magnetospheric driving conditions and thus can vary drastically from event to event. Using multipoint analysis with data from NASA’s Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and SAMPEX missions, NOAA’s GOES and POES constellations, and ground-based observatories, we present results from case studies revealing how different source/acceleration and loss mechanisms compete during active periods to result in drastically different distributions of outer belt electrons. By using a combination of low-Earth orbiting and high-altitude-equatorial orbiting satellites, we briefly review how it is possible to get a much more complete picture of certain wave activity and electron losses over the full range of MLTs and L-shells throughout the radiation belt. We then show example cases highlighting the importance of particular mechanisms, including: substorm injections and whistler-mode chorus waves for the source and acceleration of relativistic electrons; magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions with EMIC waves for sudden losses; and ULF wave activity for driving radial transport, a process which is important for redistributing relativistic electrons, contributing both to acceleration and loss processes. We show how relativistic electron enhancement events involve local acceleration that is consistent with wave-particle interactions between a seed population of 10s to 100s of keV electrons, with a

  16. Intensity increase of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt of the Earth in July 1972 according to data of the ''Prognoz-2'' artificial Earth satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyudov, V.A.; Volodichev, N.N.; Nechaev, O.Yu.; Savenko, I.A.; Saraeva, M.A.; Shavrin, P.I.


    Carried out is the investigation of the 6-10 MeV electrons in the outer radiation belt of the Earth at the ''Prognoz-2'' artificial Earth satellite along the trajectory of the satellite motion according to the Mac Ilvain parameter L. With the help of a ternary coincidance telescope in Juny 1972, the formationand decay of the belt of energetic electrons with the maximum intensity in the L=3.7 region was recorded. The maximum fluxer of this belt electrons are estimated. It is supposed that the event recorded is the consequence of the magnetospherical disturbance that occured on 18.4.1972

  17. Forecasting the Earth’s radiation belts and modelling solar energetic particle events: Recent results from SPACECAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedts Stefaan


    Full Text Available High-energy charged particles in the van Allen radiation belts and in solar energetic particle events can damage satellites on orbit leading to malfunctions and loss of satellite service. Here we describe some recent results from the SPACECAST project on modelling and forecasting the radiation belts, and modelling solar energetic particle events. We describe the SPACECAST forecasting system that uses physical models that include wave-particle interactions to forecast the electron radiation belts up to 3 h ahead. We show that the forecasts were able to reproduce the >2 MeV electron flux at GOES 13 during the moderate storm of 7–8 October 2012, and the period following a fast solar wind stream on 25–26 October 2012 to within a factor of 5 or so. At lower energies of 10 – a few 100 keV we show that the electron flux at geostationary orbit depends sensitively on the high-energy tail of the source distribution near 10 RE on the nightside of the Earth, and that the source is best represented by a kappa distribution. We present a new model of whistler mode chorus determined from multiple satellite measurements which shows that the effects of wave-particle interactions beyond geostationary orbit are likely to be very significant. We also present radial diffusion coefficients calculated from satellite data at geostationary orbit which vary with Kp by over four orders of magnitude. We describe a new automated method to determine the position at the shock that is magnetically connected to the Earth for modelling solar energetic particle events and which takes into account entropy, and predict the form of the mean free path in the foreshock, and particle injection efficiency at the shock from analytical theory which can be tested in simulations.

  18. Spatial characterization of relativistic electron enhancements in the Earth's outer radiation belt during the Van Allen Probes era (United States)

    Pinto, V. A.; Bortnik, J.; Moya, P. S.; Lyons, L. R.; Sibeck, D. G.; Kanekal, S. G.


    Using Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) instrument we have identified 73 relativistic electron enhancement events in the outer radiation belt that occurred at different L values between L = 2.5 and L = 6.0. To determine an enhancement, we have used three different identification methods. We then determine the radial location, MLT location, timing and strength of those enhancements. We discuss the differences of each of the methods and test them to pinpoint the origin and spatial propagation of each enhancement. We have classified the events based on the radial propagation, speed of enhancement and intensity of fluxes and response for energy channels ranging from 1.8 MeV to 6.3 MeV. In addition, we have used OMNI data to study the statistical properties of the solar wind during each event and have classified similarities and differences that might be relevant for each group of enhancements and help us determine the physical process responsible for different types of enhancements. Additionally, we have used >2 MeV electron fluxes at geostationary orbit as measured by the GOES 13 and 15 Energetic Particle Sensor (EPS) instrument to compare our results with the geostationary orbit. Our results suggest that under certain conditions GOES data can be used to predict fluxes at the core of the radiation belt and vice-versa.

  19. Magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ness, N.F.


    The magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn and the characteristics of their magnetospheres, formed by interaction with the solar wind, are discussed. The origins of both magnetic fields are associated with a dynamo process deep in the planetary interior. The Jovian magnetosphere is analogous to that of a pulsar magnetosphere: a massive central body with a rapid rotation and an associated intense magnetic field. Its most distinctive feature is its magnetodisk of concentrated plasma and particle flux, and reduced magnetic field intensity. The magnetopause near the subsolar point has been observed at radial distances ranging over 50 to 100 Jovian radii, implying a relatively compressible obstacle to solar wind flow. The composition of an embedded current sheet within the magnetic tail is believed to be influenced by volcanic eruptions and emissions from Io. Spectral troughs of the Jovian radiation belts have been interpreted as possible ring particles. The Saturnian magnetosphere appears to be more like the earth in its topology. It is mainly characterized by a dipole axis parallel to the rotational axis of the planet and a magnetic field intensity much less than expected

  20. Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts (United States)

    Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.


    How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of

  1. Detection of water vapor on Jupiter (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R.; Gautier, T. N., III


    High-altitude (12.4 km) spectroscopic observations of Jupiter at 5 microns from the NASA 91.5 cm airborne infrared telescope have revealed 14 absorptions assigned to the rotation-vibration spectrum of water vapor. Preliminary analysis indicates a mixing ratio about 1 millionth for the vapor phase of water. Estimates of temperature (greater than about 300 K) and pressure (less than 20 atm) suggest observation of water deep in Jupiter's hot spots responsible for its 5 micron flux. Model-atmosphere calculations based on radiative-transfer theory may change these initial estimates and provide a better physical picture of Jupiter's atmosphere below the visible cloud tops.

  2. LANL* V1.0: a radiation belt drift shell model suitable for real-time and reanalysis applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Koller


    Full Text Available We describe here a new method for calculating the magnetic drift invariant, L*, that is used for modeling radiation belt dynamics and for other space weather applications. L* (pronounced L-star is directly proportional to the integral of the magnetic flux contained within the surface defined by a charged particle moving in the Earth's geomagnetic field. Under adiabatic changes to the geomagnetic field L* is a conserved quantity, while under quasi-adiabatic fluctuations diffusion (with respect to a particle's L* is the primary term in equations of particle dynamics. In particular the equations of motion for the very energetic particles that populate the Earth's radiation belts are most commonly expressed by diffusion in three dimensions: L*, energy (or momentum, and pitch angle (the dot product of velocity and the magnetic field vector. Expressing dynamics in these coordinates reduces the dimensionality of the problem by referencing the particle distribution functions to values at the magnetic equatorial point of a magnetic "drift shell" (or L-shell irrespective of local time (or longitude. While the use of L* aids in simplifying the equations of motion, practical applications such as space weather forecasting using realistic geomagnetic fields require sophisticated magnetic field models that, in turn, require computationally intensive numerical integration. Typically a single L* calculation can require on the order of 105 calls to a magnetic field model and each point in the simulation domain and each calculated pitch angle has a different value of L*. We describe here the development and validation of a neural network surrogate model for calculating L* in sophisticated geomagnetic field models with a high degree of fidelity at computational speeds that are millions of times faster than direct numerical field line mapping and integration. This new surrogate model has

  3. Lightning activity on Jupiter (United States)

    Borucki, W. J.; Bar-Nun, A.; Scarf, F. L.; Look, A. F.; Hunt, G. E.


    Photographic observations of the nightside of Jupiter by the Voyager 1 spacecraft show the presence of extensive lightning activity. Detection of whistlers by the plasma wave analyzer confirms the optical observations and implies that many flashes were not recorded by the Voyager camera because the intensity of the flashes was below the threshold sensitivity of the camera. Measurements of the optical energy radiated per flash indicate that the observed flashes had energies similar to that for terrestrial superbolts. The best estimate of the lightning energy dissipation rate of 0.0004 W/sq m was derived from a consideration of the optical and radiofrequency measurements. The ratio of the energy dissipated by lightning compared to the convective energy flux is estimated to be between 0.000027 and 0.00005. The terrestrial value is 0.0001.

  4. Calibration of an electron/proton monitor for the earth's radiation belt at 4 R/sub E/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Argo, H.V.; Baker, D.N.


    A charged particle dosimeter (the Burst Detector Dosimeter or BDD) was designed and fabricated and will be flown on certain of the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) series of spacecraft. The BDD will monitor the dose received by the GPS spacecraft from the fluxes of electrons and protons in the Earth's radiation belt. The BDD uses absorbers in front of silicon sensors to determine the energy thresholds for measuring incident particle fluxes; and the magnitude of energy loss in a single sensor distinguishes between ions and electrons over a wide range of energies. Our electron calibrations were performed to determine accurately the energy response function of the dosimeter. The experimentally determined energy and angular responses are used to determine the equivalent energy thresholds and geometric factors for idealized step function responses

  5. FIREBIRD: A Dual Satellite Mission to Examine the Spatial and Energy Coherence Scales of Radiation Belt Electron Microbursts (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Spence, H. E.; Larsen, B. A.; Blake, J. B.; Springer, L.; Crew, A. B.; Mosleh, E.; Mashburn, K. W.


    FIREBIRD (Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst Intensity, Range, and Dynamics), a mission under NSF’s “CubeSat-based Science Missions for Space Weather and Atmospheric Research”, will address the broad scientific question: What is the role of microburst electron precipitation in radiation belt dynamics? There are four major candidate processes for losses of relativistic electrons from the outer radiation belt [Millan and Thorne, 2007]: wave-particle interactions with whistler-mode chorus, wave-particle interactions with electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves, outward radial diffusion to the magnetopause, and loss of adiabaticity on stretched magnetic field lines. FIREBIRD will further investigate the role of whistler-mode chorus, by examining the microburst electron precipitation phenomenon attributed to chorus. Microbursts are thought to be a hallmark of rapid radiation belt losses, possibly removing the entire pre-storm outer zone in a single day [Lorentzen 2001b; O'Brien et al., 2004], yet they are also intimately tied to in-situ acceleration mechanisms. FIREBIRD’s two 1.5U (10 x 10 x 15 cm) CubeSats, each weighing up to 2 kg, will be placed into a common high-inclination bead-on-a-string orbit. The two satellites will remain within ~500 km of one another for six to twelve months, allowing characterization over the spatial scale regime from 10 - 500 km. Each satellite will carry an identical co-aligned pair of solid-state detectors sensitive to electrons from 30 keV to ~3 MeV with 100 msec time resolution. Simultaneous dual measurements provided by the twin FIREBIRD satellites will permit, for the first time, the determination of spatial scales of single microburst events. Along with energy-resolved spectra, these measurements will provide the critically needed answers on the radiation belt loss rate attributed to microbursts. There are three critical questions about relativistic electron microbursts that FIREBIRD can answer: 1) What

  6. Terrestrial magnetosphere and comparison with Jupiter's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, F.C.


    A review of the characteristics of Jupiter's magnetosphere, with comparisons to the earth's is given. Radio observations of Jupiter indicate that energetic electrons are trapped in its magnetic field. The interaction of the trapped radiation with the satellite Io and the centrifugal instability of Jupiter's magnetosphere are discussed. Jupiter's outer magnetosphere is constantly accreting plasma at an uncertain rate. Various mechanisms for supplying ions to the outer magnetosphere are discussed, including: gravitational and centrifugal forces acting on corotating particles; field-line diffusion; photoelectron injection; excitation by Io or other satellites; and viscous interaction with the solar wind. The over-all morphology of the Jovian magnetosphere seems to be highly distorted by centrifugal forces and is easily compressed or deflected by the solar wind

  7. Characteristics of Pitch Angle Distributions of 100s Kev Electrons in the Slot Region and Inner Radiation Belt­­­­­­­­ (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Malaspina, D.


    The pitch angle distribution (PAD) of energetic electrons in the slot region and inner radiation belt received little attention in the past decades due to the lack of quality measurements. Using the state-of-art pitch-angle-resolved data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument onboard the Van Allen Probes, a detailed analysis of 100s keV electron PADs below L =4 is performed, in which the PADs is categorized into three types: normal (flux peaking at 90°), cap (exceedingly peaking narrowly around 90°) and 90°-minimum (lower flux at 90°) PADs. By examining the characteristics of the PADs of 460 keV electrons for over a year, we find that the 90°-minimum PADs are generally present in the inner belt (Lpitch angle scattering of hiss waves. Fitting the normal PADs into sinnα form, the parameter n is much higher below L=3 than that in the outer belt and relatively constant in the inner belt but changes significantly in the slot region (2mechanism can hardly explain the formation of 90°-minimum PADs at the center of inner belt. These new and compelling observations, made possible by the high-quality measurements of MagEIS, present a challenge for the wave modelers, and future work is still needed to fully understand them.

  8. ISO celebrates its prolonged life with a video of Jupiter (United States)


    the results so far. "By observing Jupiter with ISO we can build up a 3-D picture of the peculiar weather on this giant planet," Encrenaz comments. "We can also fit into our big picture the local results coming from NASA's Galileo spacecraft. For example, it sent a probe into Jupiter and scientists were puzzled by the results, and now we know that the probe plunged by chance into one of the dry, cloud-free anticyclones seen clearly by ISO at 5 microns. ISO's perspective links the winds, clouds, temperatures and chemistry of Jupiter's atmosphere in fascinating ways." Notes about the ISO Jupiter video The video is available to broadcasters on request, in Betacam form. Please contact ESTEC (Tel :+31.71.565.3429) or ESA HQ (Tel: +33 (0) The video consists of 86 frames shown at a rate of 2.5 frames per second. Each frame is at a different wavelength between 2.3 and 11.6 microns, as indicated by the moving pointer. North is at the top. The images were obtained sequentially over 35 minutes. During that time the Great Red Spot, seen conspicuously bright below the equatorial at the outset moves a little to the right. At the outset and in other early frames ISO sees the cloudy zones of Jupiter and the Great Red Spot. Around 3.3 microns the planet goes dramatically dark because methane gas in the atmosphere absorbs all the infrared radiation. At 5 microns, ISO sees deep into the atmosphere, in the belts between the cloud zones. The bright spots conspicuous north of the equator are hot dry regions, similar to the one visited by the Galileo probe. Around 7.7 microns, ISO is looking at the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) of Jupiter. The south polar region glows bright. In the last images, Jupiter is becoming too hot for the camera The rate of frequency change is not constant. Thus 3 microns is attained at frames 15-16, 4 microns at 31-32, 5 microns at 44-47, 6 microns at 54-55, 7 microns at 63-64, 8 microns at 69-70, 9 microns at 74-75, 10 microns at 82-83, and 11

  9. Voyage to Jupiter. (United States)

    Morrison, David; Samz, Jane

    This publication illustrates the features of Jupiter and its family of satellites pictured by the Pioneer and the Voyager missions. Chapters included are: (1) "The Jovian System" (describing the history of astronomy); (2) "Pioneers to Jupiter" (outlining the Pioneer Mission); (3) "The Voyager Mission"; (4)…

  10. Direct detection of albedo neutron decay electrons at the inner edge of the radiation belt and experimental determination of neutron density in near-Earth space (United States)

    Li, X.; Selesnick, R.; Schiller, Q. A.; Zhang, K.; Zhao, H.; Baker, D. N.; Temerin, M. A.


    The galaxy is filled with cosmic ray particles, mostly protons with kinetic energy above hundreds of mega-electron volts (MeV). Soon after the discovery of Earth's Van Allen radiation belts almost six decades ago, it was recognized that the main source of inner belt protons, with kinetic energies of tens to hundreds of MeV, is Cosmic Ray Albedo Neutron Decay (CRAND). In this process, cosmic rays reaching the upper atmosphere from throughout the galaxy interact with neutral atoms to produce albedo neutrons which, being unstable to 𝛽 decay, are a potential source of geomagnetically trapped protons and electrons. Protons retain most of the neutrons' kinetic energy while the electrons have lower energies, mostly below 1 MeV. The viability of the electron source was, however, uncertain because measurements showed that electron intensity can vary greatly while the neutron decay rate should be almost constant. Recent measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) onboard the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat now show that CRAND is the main electron source for the radiation belt near its inner edge, and also contributes to the inner belt elsewhere. Furthermore, measurement of the CRAND electron intensity provides the first experimental determination of the neutron density in near-Earth space, 2x10-9/cm3, confirming earlier theoretical estimates.

  11. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway: Single-Point Access to Long-Term Radiation Belt Measurements and Space Weather Nowcasting (United States)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sotirelis, T.; Stephens, G.


    The Science Gateway gives single-point access to over 4.5 years of comprehensive wave and particle measurements from the Van Allen Probes NASA twin-spacecraft mission. The Gateway provides a set of visualization and data analysis tools including: HTML5-based interactive visualization of high-level data products from all instrument teams in the form of: line plots, orbital content plots, dynamical energy spectra, L-shell context plots (including two-spacecraft plotting), FFT spectra of wave data, solar wind and geomagnetic indices data, etc.; download custom multi-instrument CDF data files of selected data products; publication quality plots of digital data; combined orbit predicts for mission planning and coordination including: Van Allen Probes, MMS, THEMIS, Arase (ERG), Cluster, GOES, Geotail, FIREBIRD; magnetic footpoint calculator for coordination with LEO and ground-based assets; real-time computation and processing of empirical magnetic field models - computation of magnetic ephemeris, computation of adiabatic invariants. Van Allen Probes is the first spacecraft mission to provide a nowcast of the radiation environment in the heart of the radiation belts, where the radiation levels are the highest and most dangerous for spacecraft operations. For this purpose, all instruments continuously broadcast a subset of their science data in real time. Van Allen Probes partners with four foreign institutions who operate ground stations that receive the broadcast: Korea (KASI), the Czech republic (CAS), Argentina (CONAE), and Brazil (INPE). The SpWx broadcast is then collected at APL and delivered to the community via the Science Gateway.

  12. A new high background radiation area in the Geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, V.C.; Sharma, S.P.; Sengupta, D.; Sandilya, M.K.; Bhaumik, B.K.; Guin, R.; Saha, S.K.


    A high natural radiation zone is investigated for the first time in a geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa state in India. The surrounding area comprises a geothermal region which has surveyed using a portable pulsed Geiger-Muller counter. On the basis of findings of GM counter, an area was marked as a high radiation zone. Soil and rock samples collected from the high radiation zone were analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry (GRS) using NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity is found to be contributed mainly by thorium. Concentration of thorium is reported to be very high compared to their normal abundance in crustal rocks. Further, concentrations of 238 U and 40 K are also high compared to normal abundance in crustal rocks but their magnitude is comparatively less than that of thorium. The average concentrations of 238 U (i.e. U(β-γ)), 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 33, 459ppm and 3%, respectively, in soils and 312, 1723ppm and 5%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Maximum concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 95, 1194ppm and 4%, respectively, in soils and 1434, 10,590ppm and 8%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Radioactive element emits various energies in its decay chain. High energies are utilized to estimate the concentration of actual 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K using a NaI(Tl) detector, however, low energies are used for the same in an HPGe detector. Some of the rock samples (eight in number) were also analyzed using HPGe detector for studying the behavior of low energies emitted in the decay series of uranium and thorium. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air and external annual dose rate of the high radiation zone are calculated to be 2431nGy/h and 3.0mSv/y, respectively. It is approximately 10 times greater than the dose rates obtained outside the high radiation zone. The high concentration of uranium and thorium may be one of the possible heat sources together with the normal geothermal gradient for hot springs

  13. Pitch-angle diffusion of electrons through growing and propagating along a magnetic field electromagnetic wave in Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.-R.; Dokgo, K.; Min, K.-W.; Woo, M.-H.; Choi, E.-J.; Hwang, J.; Park, Y.-D.; Lee, D.-Y.


    The diffusion of electrons via a linearly polarized, growing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagating along a uniform magnetic field is investigated. The diffusion of electrons that interact with the growing EM wave is investigated through the autocorrelation function of the parallel electron acceleration in several tens of electron gyration timescales, which is a relatively short time compared with the bounce time of electrons between two mirror points in Earth's radiation belts. Furthermore, the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient is derived for the resonant and non-resonant electrons, and the effect of the wave growth on the electron diffusion is discussed. The results can be applied to other problems related to local acceleration or the heating of electrons in space plasmas, such as in the radiation belts

  14. Ducting of the Whistler-Mode Waves by Magnetic Field-Aligned Density Enhancements in the Radiation Belt (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Bengtson, M.; English, D.; Miller, M.; Turco, L.


    Whistler-mode waves (or whistlers) are the right-hand polarized electromagnetic waves with a frequency in the range above the lower hybrid frequency and below the electron cyclotron frequency. They can efficiently interact with energetic electrons in the equatorial magnetosphere and remediate them from the earth's radiation belt. These interactions are non-linear, they depend on the wave amplitude, and for them to be efficient the wave power needs to be delivered from the transmitter to the interaction region without significant losses. The main physical mechanism which can solve this problem is ducting/guiding of whistlers by magnetic field-aligned density inhomogeneities or ducts. We present results from a modeling of whistler-mode waves observed by the NASA Van Allen Probes satellites inside the ducts formed by density enhancements (also known as, high-density ducts or HDD). Our previous studies suggest that HDD can confine without leakage only waves with some particular parameters (frequency, perpendicular and parallel wavelength) connected with the parameters of the duct (like duct's "width" and "depth"). Our numerical results confirm that 1) the high-density ducts with amplitudes and perpendicular sizes observed by the RBSP satellites can indeed guide whistlers over significant distances along the ambient magnetic field with small leakage, and 2) the quality of the ducting indeed depends on the wave perpendicular and parallel wavelengths and, therefore, the fact that the wave is ducted by HDD can be used to determine parameters of the wave.

  15. A positive correlation between energetic electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves in the radiation belt slot region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chang; Su, Z.; Xiao, F.; Zheng, H.


    Energetic (hundreds of keV) electrons in the radiation belt slot region have been found to exhibit the butterfly pitch angle distributions. Resonant interactions with magnetosonic and whistler-mode waves are two potential mechanisms for the formation of these peculiar distributions. Here we perform a statistical study of energetic electron pitch angle distribution characteristics measured by Van Allen Probes in the slot region during a three-year period from May 2013 to May 2016. Our results show that electron butterfly distributions are closely related to magnetosonic waves rather than to whistlermode waves. Both electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves occur more frequently at the geomagnetically active times than at the quiet times. In a statistical sense, more distinct butterfly distributions usually correspond to magnetosonic waves with larger amplitudes and vice versa. The averaged magnetosonic wave amplitude is less than 5 pT in the case of normal and flat-top distributions with a butterfly index BI = 1 but reaches ~ 35–95 pT in the case of distinct butterfly distributions with BI > 1:3. For magnetosonic waves with amplitudes > 50 pT, the occurrence rate of butterfly distribution is above 80%. Our study suggests that energetic electron butterfly distributions in the slot region are primarily caused by magnetosonic waves.

  16. Generation of Nonlinear Electric Field Bursts in the Outer Radiation Belt through Electrons Trapping by Oblique Whistler Waves (United States)

    Agapitov, Oleksiy; Drake, James; Mozer, Forrest


    Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures - TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on board the Van Allen Probes. A large part of the observed non-linear structures are associated with whistler waves and some of them can be directly driven by whistlers. The parameters favorable for the generation of TDS were studied experimentally as well as making use of 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the system with inhomogeneous magnetic field. It is shown that an outward propagating front of whistlers and hot electrons amplifies oblique whistlers which collapse into regions of intense parallel electric field with properties consistent with recent observations of TDS from the Van Allen Probe satellites. Oblique whistlers seed the parallel electric fields that are driven by the beams. The resulting parallel electric fields trap and heat the precipitating electrons. These electrons drive spikes of intense parallel electric field with characteristics similar to the TDSs seen in the VAP data. The decoupling of the whistler wave and the nonlinear electrostatic component is shown in PIC simulation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field system. These effects are observed by the Van Allen Probes in the radiation belts. The precipitating hot electrons propagate away from the source region in intense bunches rather than as a smooth flux.

  17. Thermal electron acceleration by electric field spikes in the outer radiation belt: generation of field-aligned pitch angle distributions (United States)

    Vasko, I.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.


    Van Allen Probes observations in the outer radiation belt have demonstrated an abundance non-linear electrostatic stucture called Time Domain Structures (TDS). One of the type of TDS is electrostatic electron-acoustic double layers (DL). Observed DLs are frequently accompanied by field-aligned (bi-directional) pitch angle distributions (PAD) of electrons with energies from hundred eVs up to several keV (rarely up to tens of keV). We perform numerical simulations of the DL interaction with thermal electrons making use of the test particle approach. DL parameters assumed in the simulations are adopted from observations. We show that DLs accelerate thermal electrons parallel to the magnetic field via the electrostatic Fermi mechanism, i.e. due to reflections from DL potential humps. Due to this interaction some fraction of electrons is scattered into the loss cone. The electron energy gain is larger for larger DL scalar potential amplitudes and higher propagation velocities. In addition to the Fermi mechanism electrons can be trapped by DLs in their generation region and accelerated due to transport to higher latitudes. Both mechanisms result in formation of field-aligned PADs for electrons with energies comparable to those found in observations. The Fermi mechanism provides field-aligned PADs for <1 keV electrons, while the trapping mechanism extends field-aligned PADs to higher energy electrons.

  18. Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ripoll, J.-F.; Reeves, G. D.; Cunningham, G. S.; Loridan, V.; Denton, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C. A.; Turner, D. L.; Henderson, M. G.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.


    Roč. 43, č. 11 (2016), s. 5616-5625 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : radiation belts * slot region * electron losses * wave particle interactions * hiss wave s * electron lifetimes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016

  19. Empirical model of the high-latitude boundary of the Earth's outer radiation belt at altitudes of up to 1000 km (United States)

    Kalegaev, V. V.; Barinova, W. O.; Myagkova, I. N.; Eremeev, V. E.; Parunakyan, D. A.; Nguyen, M. D.; Barinov, O. G.


    An empirical model of the high-latitude boundary of the outer Earth's radiation belt (ERB) has been presented, which is based on the measurement data of electron fluxes on the polar low-orbit CORONAS-Photon, Meteor-M1, and Meteor-M2 satellites. The boundary was determined by a sharp decrease to the background level of the flux of trapped electrons with energies of 100 or 200 keV in the polar part of the profile of the outer radiation belt. A numerical algorithm has been implemented to determine the time moment, when the fastest flux changes are recorded. The primary search was carried out, first, on 30 s averaged data, then repeated on data with a higher resolution. A functional dependence was obtained in order to approximate the obtained set of intersections of the boundary by elliptical curve. The empirical model constructed using the CORONAS-Photon measurement data in the epoch of anomalously low geomagnetic activity reflects the longitude structure of the high-latitude boundary of the outer radiation belt associated with the internal Earth's magnetic field (MF), as well as its dependence on the universal time. Based on the data of intersections of the high-latitude boundary of the outer ERB (OERB) in the epoch of 2014-2016, the latitudinal shift of the boundary to the equator dependent on geomagnetic activity has been determined, as well as the nightside shift of the boundary due to the diurnal rotation of the Earth.

  20. High-altitude cosmic ray neutrons: probable source for the high-energy protons of the earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajnal, F.; Wilson, J.


    'Full Text:' Several High-altitude cosmic-ray neutron measurements were performed by the NASA Ames Laboratory in the mid-to late-1970s using airplanes flying at about 13km altitude along constant geomagnetic latitudes of 20, 44 and 51 degrees north. Bonner spheres and manganese, gold and aluminium foils were used in the measurements. In addition, large moderated BF-3 counters served as normalizing instruments. Data analyses performed at that time did not provide complete and unambiguous spectral information and field intensities. Recently, using our new unfolding methods and codes, and Bonner-sphere response function extensions for higher energies, 'new' neutron spectral intensities were obtained, which show progressive hardening of neutron spectra as a function of increasing geomagnetic latitude, with substantial increases in the energy region iron, 1 0 MeV to 10 GeV. For example, we found that the total neutron fluences at 20 and 51 degrees magnetic north are in the ratio of 1 to 5.2 and the 10 MeV to 10 GeV fluence ratio is 1 to 18. The magnitude of these ratios is quite remarkable. From the new results, the derived absolute neutron energy distribution is of the correct strength and shape for the albedo neutrons to be the main source of the high-energy protons trapped in the Earth's inner radiation belt. In addition, the results, depending on the extrapolation scheme used, indicate that the neutron dose equivalent rate may be as high as 0.1 mSv/h near the geomagnetic north pole and thus a significant contributor to the radiation exposures of pilots, flight attendants and the general public. (author)

  1. Jupiter Environment Tool (United States)

    Sturm, Erick J.; Monahue, Kenneth M.; Biehl, James P.; Kokorowski, Michael; Ngalande, Cedrick,; Boedeker, Jordan


    The Jupiter Environment Tool (JET) is a custom UI plug-in for STK that provides an interface to Jupiter environment models for visualization and analysis. Users can visualize the different magnetic field models of Jupiter through various rendering methods, which are fully integrated within STK s 3D Window. This allows users to take snapshots and make animations of their scenarios with magnetic field visualizations. Analytical data can be accessed in the form of custom vectors. Given these custom vectors, users have access to magnetic field data in custom reports, graphs, access constraints, coverage analysis, and anywhere else vectors are used within STK.

  2. Cold Hole Over Jupiter's Pole (United States)


    Observations with two NASA telescopes show that Jupiter has an arctic polar vortex similar to a vortex over Earth's Antarctica that enables depletion of Earth's stratospheric ozone.These composite images of Jupiter's north polar region from the Hubble Space Telescope (right) and the Infrared Telescope Facility (left) show a quasi-hexagonal shape that extends vertically from the stratosphere down into the top of the troposphere. A sharp temperature drop, compared to surrounding air masses, creates an eastward wind that tends to keep the polar atmosphere, including the stratospheric haze, isolated from the rest of the atmosphere.The linear striations in the composite projections are artifacts of the image processing. The area closest to the pole has been omitted because it was too close to the edge of the planet in the original images to represent the planet reliably.The composite on the right combines images from the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope taken at a wavelength of 890 nanometers, which shows stratospheric haze particles.The sharp boundary and wave-like structure of the haze layer suggest a polar vortex and a similarity to Earth's stratospheric polar clouds. Images of Jupiter's thermal radiation clinch that identification. The composite on the left, for example, is made from images taken with Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mid-Infrared Large-Well Imager at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility at a wavelength of 17 microns. It shows polar air mass that is 5 to 6 degrees Celsius (9 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit) colder than its surroundings, with the same border as the stratospheric haze. Similar observations at other infrared wavelengths show the cold air mass extends at least as high as the middle stratosphere down to the top of the troposphere.These images were taken Aug. 11 through Aug. 13, 1999, near a time when Jupiter's north pole was most visible from Earth. Other Infrared Telescope Facility images at frequencies sensitive to the

  3. Mid-infrared mapping of Jupiter's temperatures, aerosol opacity and chemical distributions with IRTF/TEXES (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Greathouse, T. K.; Orton, G. S.; Sinclair, J. A.; Giles, R. S.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Encrenaz, T.


    Global maps of Jupiter's atmospheric temperatures, gaseous composition and aerosol opacity are derived from a programme of 5-20 μm mid-infrared spectroscopic observations using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Image cubes from December 2014 in eight spectral channels, with spectral resolutions of R ∼2000 - 12 , 000 and spatial resolutions of 2-4° latitude, are inverted to generate 3D maps of tropospheric and stratospheric temperatures, 2D maps of upper tropospheric aerosols, phosphine and ammonia, and 2D maps of stratospheric ethane and acetylene. The results are compared to a re-analysis of Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations acquired during Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter in December 2000, demonstrating that this new archive of ground-based mapping spectroscopy can match and surpass the quality of previous investigations, and will permit future studies of Jupiter's evolving atmosphere. The visibility of cool zones and warm belts varies from channel to channel, suggesting complex vertical variations from the radiatively-controlled upper troposphere to the convective mid-troposphere. We identify mid-infrared signatures of Jupiter's 5-μm hotspots via simultaneous M, N and Q-band observations, which are interpreted as temperature and ammonia variations in the northern Equatorial Zone and on the edge of the North Equatorial Belt (NEB). Equatorial plumes enriched in NH3 gas are located south-east of NH3-desiccated 'hotspots' on the edge of the NEB. Comparison of the hotspot locations in several channels across the 5-20 μm range indicate that these anomalous regions tilt westward with altitude. Aerosols and PH3 are both enriched at the equator but are not co-located with the NH3 plumes. The equatorial temperature minimum and PH3/aerosol maxima have varied in amplitude over time, possibly as a result of periodic equatorial brightenings and the fresh updrafts of

  4. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.


    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  5. Hydrogen and helium isotope inner radiation belts in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Pugacheva

    Full Text Available Radial transport theory for inner radiation zone MeV ions has been extended by combining radial diffusive transport and losses due to Coulomb friction with local generation of D, T and 3He ions from nuclear reactions taking place on the inner edge of the inner radiation zone. Based on interactions between high energy trapped protons and upper atmospheric constituents we have included a nuclear reaction yield D, T and 3He flux source that was numerically derived from a nuclear reaction model code originally developed at the Institute of Nuclear Researches in Moscow, Russia. Magnetospheric transport computations have been made covering the L-shell range L=1.0–1.6. The resulting MeV energy D, T and 3He ion flux distributions show a strong influence of the local nuclear source mechanism on the inner zone energetic D, T and 3He ion content.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (Thermosphere-composition and chemistry · Magnetospheric physics (Energetic particles · trapped.

  6. Jupiter Laser Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Jupiter Laser Facility is an institutional user facility in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate at LLNL. The facility is designed to provide a high degree...

  7. Seismology of the Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, S.V.; Gudkova, T.V.; Zharkov, V.N.


    The structure and diagnostic properties of the spectrum of free oscillations of the models of the Jupiter are discussed. The spectrum is very sensitive to the properties of the inner core and density discontinuities in the interior of the planet. It is shown that in seismology of the Jupiter unlike to solar seismology, it is not possible to use the asymptotic theory for investigation of the high-frequency part of the acoustic spectrum

  8. Multiple loss processes of relativistic electrons outside the heart of outer radiation belt during a storm sudden commencement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.


    By examining the compression-induced changes in the electron phase space density and pitch angle distribution observed by two satellites of Van Allen Probes (RBSP-A/B), we find that the relativistic electrons (>2 MeV) outside the heart of outer radiation belt (L*≥5) undergo multiple losses during a storm sudden commencement. The relativistic electron loss mainly occurs in the field-aligned direction (pitch angle α < 30° or >150°), and the flux decay of the field-aligned electrons is independent of the spatial location variations of the two satellites. However, the relativistic electrons in the pitch angle range of 30°–150° increase (decrease) with the decreasing (increasing) geocentric distance (|ΔL|<0.25) of the RBSP-B (RBSP-A) location, and the electron fluxes in the quasi-perpendicular direction display energy-dispersive oscillations in the Pc5 period range (2–10 min). The relativistic electron loss is confirmed by the decrease of electron phase space density at high-L shell after the magnetospheric compressions, and their loss is associated with the intense plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, relativistic electron precipitation (observed by POES/NOAA satellites at 850 km), and magnetic field fluctuations in the Pc5 band. Finally, the intense EMIC waves and whistler mode hiss jointly cause the rapidly pitch angle scattering loss of the relativistic electrons within 10 h. Moreover, the Pc5 ULF waves also lead to the slowly outward radial diffusion of the relativistic electrons in the high-L region with a negative electron phase space density gradient.

  9. Detection of Chorus Elements and other Wave Signatures Using Geometric Computational Techniques in the Van Allen radiation belts (United States)

    Sengupta, A.; Kletzing, C.; Howk, R.; Kurth, W. S.


    An important goal of the Van Allen Probes mission is to understand wave particle interactions that can energize relativistic electron in the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. The EMFISIS instrumentation suite provides measurements of wave electric and magnetic fields of wave features such as chorus that participate in these interactions. Geometric signal processing discovers structural relationships, e.g. connectivity across ridge-like features in chorus elements to reveal properties such as dominant angles of the element (frequency sweep rate) and integrated power along the a given chorus element. These techniques disambiguate these wave features against background hiss-like chorus. This enables autonomous discovery of chorus elements across the large volumes of EMFISIS data. At the scale of individual or overlapping chorus elements, topological pattern recognition techniques enable interpretation of chorus microstructure by discovering connectivity and other geometric features within the wave signature of a single chorus element or between overlapping chorus elements. Thus chorus wave features can be quantified and studied at multiple scales of spectral geometry using geometric signal processing techniques. We present recently developed computational techniques that exploit spectral geometry of chorus elements and whistlers to enable large-scale automated discovery, detection and statistical analysis of these events over EMFISIS data. Specifically, we present different case studies across a diverse portfolio of chorus elements and discuss the performance of our algorithms regarding precision of detection as well as interpretation of chorus microstructure. We also provide large-scale statistical analysis on the distribution of dominant sweep rates and other properties of the detected chorus elements.

  10. Variations of the Electron Fluxes in the Terrestrial Radiation Belts Due To the Impact of Corotating Interaction Regions and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (United States)

    Benacquista, R.; Boscher, D.; Rochel, S.; Maget, V.


    In this paper, we study the variations of the radiation belts electron fluxes induced by the interaction of two types of solar wind structures with the Earth magnetosphere: the corotating interaction regions and the interplanetary coronal mass ejections. We use a statistical method based on the comparison of the preevent and postevent fluxes. Applied to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Polar Operational Environmental Satellites data, this gives us the opportunity to extend previous studies focused on relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit. We enlighten how corotating interaction regions and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections can impact differently the electron belts depending on the energy and the L shell. In addition, we provide a new insight concerning these variations by considering their amplitude. Finally, we show strong relations between the intensity of the magnetic storms related to the events and the variation of the flux. These relations concern both the capacity of the events to increase the flux and the deepness of these increases.

  11. Mapping lightning discharges on Earth with lightning-generated whistlers wave emission in space and their effects on radiation belt electrons (United States)

    Farges, T.; Ripoll, J. F.; Santolik, O.; Kolmasova, I.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.


    It is widely accepted that the slot region of the Van Allen radiation belts is sculpted by the presence of whistler mode waves especially by plasmaspheric hiss emissions. In this work, we investigate the role of lightning-generated whistler waves (LGW), which also contribute to scatter electrons trapped in the plasmaphere but, in general, to a lesser extent due to their low mean amplitude and occurrence rate. Our goal is to revisit the characterization of LGW occurrence in the Earth's atmosphere and in space as well as the computation of LGW effects by looking at a series of particular events, among which intense events, in order to characterize maximal scattering effects. We use multicomponent measurements of whistler mode waves by the Waves instrument of Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) onboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft as our primary data source. We combine this data set with local measurements of the plasma density. We also use the data of the World Wide Lightning Location Network in order to localize the source of lightning discharges on Earth and their radiated energy, both locally at the footprint of the spacecraft and, globally, along the drift path. We discuss how to relate the signal measured in space with the estimation of the power emitted in the atmosphere and the associated complexity. Using these unique data sets we model the coefficients of quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion and we estimate effects of these waves on radiation belt electrons. We show evidence that lightning generated whistlers can, at least in some cases, influence the radiation belt dynamics.

  12. Galileo Measurements of the Jovian Electron Radiation Environment (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.


    The Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) has been used to map Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii (1 jovian radius = 71,400 km). The electron count rates from the instrument were averaged into 10-minute intervals over the energy range 0.2 MeV to 11 MeV to form an extensive database of observations of the jovian radiation belts between Jupiter orbit insertion (JOI) in 1995 and end of mission in 2003. These data were then used to provide differential flux estimates in the jovian equatorial plane as a function of radial distance (organized by magnetic L-shell position). These estimates provide the basis for an omni-directional, equatorial model of the jovian electron radiation environment. The comparison of these results with the original Divine model of jovian electron radiation and their implications for missions to Jupiter will be discussed. In particular, it was found that the electron dose predictions for a representative mission to Europa were about a factor of 2 lower than the Divine model estimates over the range of 100 to 1000 mils (2.54 to 25.4 mm) of aluminum shielding, but exceeded the Divine model by about 50% for thicker shielding for the assumed Europa orbiter trajectories. The findings are a significant step forward in understanding jovian electron radiation and represent a valuable tool for estimating the radiation environment to which jovian science and engineering hardware will be exposed.

  13. Status of JUPITER Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Teruji; Shirakata, Keisho; Kinjo, Katsuya; Ikegami, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Masaaki.


    The criticality experiment program for large fast reactors by the joint research of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. and the Department of Energy, USA, is called JUPITER Program. The experiment was carried out from April, 1978, to August, 1979, using the zero power plutonium reactor in ANL, and the analysis is carried out independently in Japan and USA. The experiment this time was carried out with two assemblies, ZPPR-9 and 10, and it is called JUPITER Phase 1. Two engineers were dispatched from PNC to ANL-Idaho for two years from August, 1978, and they took part in the planning, execution and analysis of the experiment to obtain the informations. The FBR Core Design Committee was installed in PNC, and has studied the core plan, experimental plan and the course of analysis. The JUPITER Phase 1 is the bench mark experiment to obtain the informations required at the initial stage of the nuclear design of demonstration reactor cores. The rating, object and progress of the JUPITER Phase 1, the outline of experiment, and the present state of the analysis of experiment are described. Hereafter, the general evaluation of the JUPITER Phase 1 will be carried out to clarify the problems when the present method of analysis is applied to large homogeneous reactors. Also the bench mark experiment on large heterogeneous reactors will be planned. (Kako, I.)

  14. Solar Flux Deposition And Heating Rates In Jupiter's Atmosphere (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sánchez-Lavega, A.


    We discuss here the solar downward net flux in the 0.25 - 2.5 µm range in the atmosphere of Jupiter and the associated heating rates under a number of vertical cloud structure scenarios focusing in the effect of clouds and hazes. Our numerical model is based in the doubling-adding technique to solve the radiative transfer equation and it includes gas absorption by CH4, NH3 and H2, in addition to Rayleigh scattering by a mixture of H2 plus He. Four paradigmatic Jovian regions have been considered (hot-spots, belts, zones and Polar Regions). The hot-spots are the most transparent regions with downward net fluxes of 2.5±0.5 Wm-2 at the 6 bar level. The maximum solar heating is 0.04±0.01 K/day and occurs above 1 bar. Belts and zones characterization result in a maximum net downward flux of 0.5 Wm-2 at 2 bar and 0.015 Wm-2 at 6 bar. Heating is concentrated in the stratospheric and tropospheric hazes. Finally, Polar Regions are also explored and the results point to a considerable stratospheric heating of 0.04±0.02 K/day. In all, these calculations suggest that the role of the direct solar forcing in the Jovian atmospheric dynamics is limited to the upper 1 - 2 bar of the atmosphere except in the hot-spot areas. Acknowledgments: This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  15. Jupiter's Magnetosphere: Plasma Description from the Ulysses Flyby. (United States)

    Bame, S J; Barraclough, B L; Feldman, W C; Gisler, G R; Gosling, J T; McComas, D J; Phillips, J L; Thomsen, M F; Goldstein, B E; Neugebauer, M


    Plasma observations at Jupiter show that the outer regions of the Jovian magnetosphere are remarkably similar to those of Earth. Bow-shock precursor electrons and ions were detected in the upstream solar wind, as at Earth. Plasma changes across the bow shock and properties of the magnetosheath electrons were much like those at Earth, indicating that similar processes are operating. A boundary layer populated by a varying mixture of solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas was found inside the magnetopause, again as at Earth. In the middle magnetosphere, large electron density excursions were detected with a 10-hour periodicity as planetary rotation carried the tilted plasma sheet past Ulysses. Deep in the magnetosphere, Ulysses crossed a region, tentatively described as magnetically connected to the Jovian polar cap on one end and to the interplanetary magnetic field on the other. In the inner magnetosphere and lo torus, where corotation plays a dominant role, measurements could not be made because of extreme background rates from penetrating radiation belt particles.

  16. Storm-time electron flux precipitation in the inner radiation belt caused by wave-particle interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tadokoro


    Full Text Available It has been believed that electrons in the inner belt do not show the dynamical variation during magnetic storms except for great magnetic storms. However, Tadokoro et al. (2007 recently disclosed that low-altitude electrons in the inner belt frequently show flux variations during storms (Storm Time inner belt Electron Enhancement at the Low altitude (STEEL. This paper investigates a possible mechanism explaining STEEL during small and moderate storms, and shows that it is caused not by radial transport processes but by pitch angle scattering through wave-particle interactions. The waves related to wave-particle interactions are attributed to be banded whistler mode waves around 30 kHz observed in the inner magnetosphere by the Akebono satellite. The estimated pitch angle distribution based on a numerical calculation is roughly consistent with the observed results.

  17. Separation of the Galactic Cosmic Rays and Inner Earth Radiation Belt Contributions to the Daily Dose Onboard the International Space Station in 2005-2011 (United States)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.


    The DB-8 detectors of the ISS radiation monitoring system (RMS) have operated almost continuously onboard the ISS service module since August 2001 till December 2014. The RMS data obtained were used for the daily monitoring of the radiation environment aboard the station. This paper considers the technique of RMS data analysis that allows one to distinguish the contributions of galactic cosmic rays and the Earth's inner radiation belt to the daily dose based on the dosimetry data obtained as a result of the station's passage in areas of the highest geomagnetic latitudes. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the dosimetry data based on this technique for 2005-2011, as well as a comparison with similar results the authors obtained previously using the technique based on an analysis of the dosimetry data obtained during station passages in the area of the South Atlantic Anomaly.

  18. Van Allen Probe Observations of Chorus Wave Activity, Source and Seed electrons, and the Radiation Belt Response During ICME and CIR Storms (United States)

    Bingham, S.; Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Farrugia, C. J.; Paulson, K. W.; Huang, C. L.; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Kletzing, C.


    Whistler mode chorus waves are electromagnetic waves that have been shown to be a major contributor to enhancements in the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. The temperature anisotropy of source electrons (10s of keV) provides the free energy for chorus waves, which can accelerate sub-relativistic seed electrons (100s of keV) to relativistic energies. This study uses Van Allen Probe observations to examine the excitation and plasma conditions associated with chorus wave observations, the development of the seed population, and the outer radiation belt response in the inner magnetosphere, for 25 ICME and 35 CIR storms. Plasma data from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument and magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) are used to identify chorus wave activity and to model a linear theory based proxy for chorus wave growth. A superposed epoch analysis shows a peak of chorus wave power on the dawnside during the storm main phase that spreads towards noon during the storm recovery phase. According to the linear theory results, this wave activity is driven by the enhanced convection driving plasma sheet electrons across the dayside. Both ICME and CIR storms show comparable levels of wave growth. Plasma data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) are used to observe the seed and relativistic electrons. A superposed epoch analysis of seed and relativistic electrons vs. L shows radiation belt enhancements with much greater frequency in the ICME storms, coinciding with a much stronger and earlier seed electron enhancement in the ICME storms.

  19. LANL* V1.0: a radiation belt drift shell model suitable for real-time and reanalysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, Josep [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reeves, Geoffrey D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Friedel, Reiner H W [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Space weather modeling, forecasts, and predictions, especially for the radiation belts in the inner magnetosphere, require detailed information about the Earth's magnetic field. Results depend on the magnetic field model and the L* (pron. L-star) values which are used to describe particle drift shells. Space wather models require integrating particle motions along trajectories that encircle the Earth. Numerical integration typically takes on the order of 10{sup 5} calls to a magnetic field model which makes the L* calculations very slow, in particular when using a dynamic and more accurate magnetic field model. Researchers currently tend to pick simplistic models over more accurate ones but also risking large inaccuracies and even wrong conclusions. For example, magnetic field models affect the calculation of electron phase space density by applying adiabatic invariants including the drift shell value L*. We present here a new method using a surrogate model based on a neural network technique to replace the time consuming L* calculations made with modern magnetic field models. The advantage of surrogate models (or meta-models) is that they can compute the same output in a fraction of the time while adding only a marginal error. Our drift shell model LANL* (Los Alamos National Lab L-star) is based on L* calculation using the TSK03 model. The surrogate model has currently been tested and validated only for geosynchronous regions but the method is generally applicable to any satellite orbit. Computations with the new model are several million times faster compared to the standard integration method while adding less than 1% error. Currently, real-time applications for forecasting and even nowcasting inner magnetospheric space weather is limited partly due to the long computing time of accurate L* values. Without them, real-time applications are limited in accuracy. Reanalysis application of past conditions in the inner magnetosphere are used to understand

  20. LANL* V1.0: a radiation belt drift shell model suitable for real-time and reanalysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, Josep; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reiner H.W.


    Space weather modeling, forecasts, and predictions, especially for the radiation belts in the inner magnetosphere, require detailed information about the Earth's magnetic field. Results depend on the magnetic field model and the L* (pron. L-star) values which are used to describe particle drift shells. Space wather models require integrating particle motions along trajectories that encircle the Earth. Numerical integration typically takes on the order of 10 5 calls to a magnetic field model which makes the L* calculations very slow, in particular when using a dynamic and more accurate magnetic field model. Researchers currently tend to pick simplistic models over more accurate ones but also risking large inaccuracies and even wrong conclusions. For example, magnetic field models affect the calculation of electron phase space density by applying adiabatic invariants including the drift shell value L*. We present here a new method using a surrogate model based on a neural network technique to replace the time consuming L* calculations made with modern magnetic field models. The advantage of surrogate models (or meta-models) is that they can compute the same output in a fraction of the time while adding only a marginal error. Our drift shell model LANL* (Los Alamos National Lab L-star) is based on L* calculation using the TSK03 model. The surrogate model has currently been tested and validated only for geosynchronous regions but the method is generally applicable to any satellite orbit. Computations with the new model are several million times faster compared to the standard integration method while adding less than 1% error. Currently, real-time applications for forecasting and even nowcasting inner magnetospheric space weather is limited partly due to the long computing time of accurate L* values. Without them, real-time applications are limited in accuracy. Reanalysis application of past conditions in the inner magnetosphere are used to understand physical

  1. Interaction of ring current and radiation belt protons with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. 2. Time evolution of the distribution function (United States)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Miller, R. H.; Villalon, E.


    The evolution of the bounce-averaged ring current/radiation belt proton distribution is simulated during resonant interactions with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. The plasmaspheric hiss is assumed to be generated by ring current electrons and to be damped by the energetic protons. Thus energy is transferred between energetic electrons and protons using the plasmaspheric hiss as a mediary. The problem is not solved self-consistently. During the simulation period, interactions with ring current electrons (not represented in the model) are assumed to maintain the wave amplitudes in the presence of damping by the energetic protons, allowing the wave spectrum to be held fixed. Diffusion coefficients in pitch angle, cross pitch angle/energy, and energy were previously calculated by Kozyra et al. (1994) and are adopted for the present study. The simulation treats the energy range, E>=80 keV, within which the wave diffusion operates on a shorter timescale than other proton loss processes (i.e., Coulomb drag and charge exchange). These other loss processes are not included in the simulation. An interesting result of the simulation is that energy diffusion maximizes at moderate pitch angles near the edge of the atmospheric loss cone. Over the simulation period, diffusion in energy creates an order of magnitude enhancement in the bounce-averaged proton distribution function at moderate pitch angles. The loss cone is nearly empty because scattering of particles at small pitch angles is weak. The bounce-averaged flux distribution, mapped to ionospheric heights, results in elevated locally mirroring proton fluxes. OGO 5 observed order of magnitude enhancements in locally mirroring energetic protons at altitudes between 350 and 1300 km and invariant latitudes between 50° and 60° (Lundblad and Soraas, 1978). The proton distributions were highly anisotropic in pitch angle with nearly empty loss cones. The similarity between the observed distributions and those resulting from this

  2. Jupiter's Big Bang. (United States)

    McDonald, Kim A.


    Collision of a comet with Jupiter beginning July 16, 1994 will be observed by astronomers worldwide, with computerized information relayed to a center at the University of Maryland, financed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and National Science Foundation. Geologists and paleontologists also hope to learn more about earth's…

  3. Two Step Acceleration Process of Electrons in the Outer Van Allen Radiation Belt by Time Domain Electric Field Bursts and Large Amplitude Chorus Waves (United States)

    Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Lejosne, S.


    A huge number of different non-linear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc) have been observed by the electric field experiment on the Van Allen Probes in conjunction with relativistic electron acceleration in the Earth's outer radiation belt. These structures, found as short duration (~0.1 msec) quasi-periodic bursts of electric field in the high time resolution electric field waveform, have been called Time Domain Structures (TDS). They can quite effectively interact with radiation belt electrons. Due to the trapping of electrons into these non-linear structures, they are accelerated up to ~10 keV and their pitch angles are changed, especially for low energies (˜1 keV). Large amplitude electric field perturbations cause non-linear resonant trapping of electrons into the effective potential of the TDS and these electrons are then accelerated in the non-homogeneous magnetic field. These locally accelerated electrons create the "seed population" of several keV electrons that can be accelerated by coherent, large amplitude, upper band whistler waves to MeV energies in this two step acceleration process. All the elements of this chain acceleration mechanism have been observed by the Van Allen Probes.

  4. Small inner companions of warm Jupiters: Lifetimes and legacies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa; Greenberg, Richard


    Although warm Jupiters are generally too far from their stars for tides to be important, the presence of an inner planetary companion to a warm Jupiter can result in tidal evolution of the system. Insight into the process and its effects comes form classical secular theory of planetary perturbations. The lifetime of the inner planet may be shorter than the age of the system, because the warm Jupiter maintains its eccentricity and hence promotes tidal migration into the star. Thus a warm Jupiter observed to be alone in its system might have previously cleared away any interior planets. Before its demise, even if an inner planet is of terrestrial scale, it may promote damping of the warm Jupiter's eccentricity. Thus any inferences of the initial orbit of an observed warm Jupiter must include the possibility of a greater initial eccentricity than would be estimated by assuming it had always been alone. Tidal evolution involving multiple planets also enhances the internal heating of the planets, which readily exceeds that of stellar radiation for the inner planet, and may be great enough to affect the internal structure of warm Jupiters. Secular theory gives insight into the tidal processes, providing, among other things, a way to constrain eccentricities of transiting planets based on estimates of the tidal parameter Q.

  5. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.


    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.


    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  8. JUICE space mission to Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. Planned for launch in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in 2029, it will spend at least three years making detailed observations of the giant gaseous planet Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto would complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. Jupiter is the archetype for the giant planets of the Solar System and for the numerous giant planets now known to orbit other stars. Moreover, Jupiter's diverse Galilean satellites - three of which are believed to harbour internal oceans - are central to understanding the habitability of icy worlds. JUICE spacecraft will carry the most powerful remote sensing, geophysical, and in situ paylo...

  9. Resonance zones and quasi-linear diffusion coefficients for radiation belt energetic electron interaction with oblique chorus waves in the Dungey magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Run; Ni, Binbin; Gu Xudong; Zhao Zhengyu; Zhou Chen


    The resonance regions for resonant interactions of radiation belt electrons with obliquely propagating whistler-mode chorus waves are investigated in detail in the Dungey magnetic fields that are parameterized by the intensity of uniform southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz or, equivalently, by the values of D=(M/B z,0 ) 1/3 (where M is the magnetic moment of the dipole and B z,0 is the uniform southward IMF normal to the dipole’s equatorial plane). Adoption of background magnetic field model can considerably modify the determination of resonance regions. Compared to the results for the case of D = 50 (very close to the dipole field), the latitudinal coverage of resonance regions for 200 keV electrons interacting with chorus waves tends to become narrower for smaller D-values, regardless of equatorial pitch angle, resonance harmonics, and wave normal angle. In contrast, resonance regions for 1 MeV electrons tend to have very similar spatial lengths along the field line for various Dungey magnetic field models but cover different magnetic field intervals, indicative of a strong dependence on electron energy. For any given magnetic field line, the resonance regions where chorus-electron resonant interactions can take place rely closely on equatorial pitch angle, resonance harmonics, and kinetic energy. The resonance regions tend to cover broader latitudinal ranges for smaller equatorial pitch angles, higher resonance harmonics, and lower electron energies, consistent with the results in Ni and Summers [Phys. Plasmas 17, 042902, 042903 (2010)]. Calculations of quasi-linear bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients for radiation belt electrons due to nightside chorus waves indicate that the resultant scattering rates differ from using different Dungey magnetic field models, demonstrating a strong dependence of wave-induced electron scattering effect on the adoption of magnetic field model. Our results suggest that resonant wave-particle interaction processes

  10. Study of energetic electrons in the outer radiation-belt regions using data obtained by the LLL spectrometer on OGO-5 in 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, H.I. Jr.; Buck, R.M.; Davidson, G.


    An account is given of measurements of electrons made by the LLL magnetic electron spectrometer (60 to 3000 keV in seven differential energy channels) on the Ogo-5 satellite in the earth's outer-belt regions during 1968 and early 1969. The data were analyzed specifically to determine pitch-angle diffusion lifetimes as a function of energy in the L-range 2 to 5. As a part of this effort, the general dynamics of these regions were studied in terms of the time-dependent energy spectra, and pitch-angle distributions for the seven energy groups were obtained as a function of L with representative values presented for L = 2.5 to 6. The pitch-angle-diffusion results were used to analyze the dynamics of the electrons injected following the intense storms on October 31 and November 1, 1968, in terms of radial diffusion; the derived diffusion coefficients provide a quite reasonable picture of electron transport in the radiation belts. Both the radial- and pitch-angle-diffusion results are compared with earlier results. 53 references

  11. Dynamics of the outer radiation belts and their links with the polar substorms and the injection of hot plasma at the geostationary orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvaud, J.A.; Winckler, J.R.


    The aim of this paper is to analyse the results obtained aboard geostationary satellites and on the ground, in the auroral zone, on the dynamic changes in the outer radiation belts and their link with the time development of auroral forms during magnetospheric substorms. The measurements of high-energy particles, plasma, and magnetic induction at 6.6 Rsub(E) in the local midnight sector indicate the existence of a pre-expansion phase in substorms during which the outer belts move toward the Earth under the effect of the modification in the topology of the local magnetic induction. The pre-expansion phase coincides with an increase in the AE index, suggesting a direct link between the electrojet and the currents flowing across the tail of the magnetosphere. It also coincides in the auroral zone with the intensification and movement of the quiet arc system toward the equator. The phase is invariably terminated at the beginning of the expansion of the substorm by the break-up of the auroral arcs and the injection of hot plasma at the geostationary orbit near local midnight under the action of the induced electric field associated with the collapse of the geomagnetic field force lines. The study of the data, event by event, shows the complexity of phenomena which may be involved during the pre-expansion phase particularly with the possible presence of pseudo-substorms or aborted (minor) substorms which do not modify the general evolution described above [fr

  12. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.


    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  13. The Contribution of Compressional Magnetic Pumping to the Energization of the Earth's Outer Electron Radiation Belt During High-Speed Stream-Driven Storms (United States)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.; Horne, Richard B.; Meredith, Nigel P.


    Compressional magnetic pumping is an interaction between cyclic magnetic compressions and pitch angle scattering with the scattering acting as a catalyst to allow the cyclic compressions to energize particles. Compressional magnetic pumping of the outer electron radiation belt at geosynchronous orbit in the dayside magnetosphere is analyzed by means of computer simulations, wherein solar wind compressions of the dayside magnetosphere energize electrons with electron pitch angle scattering by chorus waves and by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. The magnetic pumping is found to produce a weak bulk heating of the electron radiation belt, and it also produces an energetic tail on the electron energy distribution. The amount of energization depends on the robustness of the solar wind compressions and on the amplitude of the chorus and/or EMIC waves. Chorus-catalyzed pumping is better at energizing medium-energy (50-200 keV) electrons than it is at energizing higher-energy electrons; at high energies (500 keV-2 MeV) EMIC-catalyzed pumping is a stronger energizer. The magnetic pumping simulation results are compared with energy diffusion calculations for chorus waves in the dayside magnetosphere; in general, compressional magnetic pumping is found to be weaker at accelerating electrons than is chorus-driven energy diffusion. In circumstances when solar wind compressions are robust and when EMIC waves are present in the dayside magnetosphere without the presence of chorus, EMIC-catalyzed magnetic pumping could be the dominant energization mechanism in the dayside magnetosphere, but at such times loss cone losses will be strong.

  14. Variation Process of Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes due to Interaction With Chorus and EMIC Rising-tone Emissions Localized in Longitude (United States)

    Kubota, Y.; Omura, Y.


    Using results of test particle simulations of a large number of electrons interacting with a pair of chorus emissions, we create Green's functions to model the electron distribution function after all of the possible interactions with the waves [Omura et al., 2015]. Assuming that the waves are generated in a localized range of longitudes in the dawn side, we repeat taking the convolution integral of the Green's function with the distribution function of the electrons injected into the generation region of the localized waves. From numerical and theoretical analyses, we find that electron acceleration process only takes place efficiently below 4 MeV. Because extremely relativistic electrons go through the wave generation region rapidly due to grad-B0 and curvature drift, they don't have enough interaction time to be accelerated. In setting up the electrons after all interaction with chorus emissions as initial electron distribution function, we also compute the loss process of radiation belt electron fluxes due to interaction with EMIC rising-tone emissions generated in a localized range of longitudes in the dusk side [Kubota and Omura,2017]. References: (1) Omura, Y., Y. Miyashita, M. Yoshikawa, D. Summers, M. Hikishima, Y. Ebihara, and Y. Kubota (2015), Formation process of relativistic electron flux through interaction with chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9545-9562, doi:10.1002/2015JA021563. (2) Kubota, Y., and Y. Omura (2017), Rapid precipitation of radiation belt electrons induced by EMIC rising tone emissions localized in longitude inside and outside the plasmapause, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 293-309, doi:10.1002/2016JA023267.

  15. Jupiter: Lord of the Planets. (United States)

    Kaufmann, William


    Presents a chapter from an introductory college-level astronomy textbook in which full-color photographs and numerous diagrams highlight an extensive description of the planet Jupiter. Topics include Jupiter's geology, rotation, magnetic field, atmosphere (including clouds and winds), and the Great Red Spot. (DH)

  16. Hot Jupiters around M dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgas F.


    Full Text Available The WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS is a near-infrared transit survey running on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT. We conduct Monte Carlo transit injection and detection simulations for short period (<10 day Jupiter-sized planets to characterize the sensitivity of the survey. We investigate the recovery rate as a function of period and magnitude in 2 hypothetical star-planet cases: M0–2 + hot Jupiter, M2–4 + hot Jupiter. We find that the WTS lightcurves are very sensitive to the presence of Jupiter-sized short-period transiting planets around M dwarfs. The non-detection of a hot-Jupiter around an M dwarf by the WFCAM Transit Survey allows us to place a firm upper limit of 1.9 per cent (at 95 per cent confidence on the planet occurrence rate.

  17. Jupiter and the Voyager mission (United States)

    Soderblom, L.; Spall, Henry


    In 1977, the United States launched two unmanned Voyager spacecraft that were to take part in an extensive reconnaissance of the outer planets over a 12-year period visiting the environs of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Their first encounter was with the complex Jupiter planetary system 400 million miles away. Sweeping by Jupiter and its five moons in 1979, the two spacecraft have sent back to Earth an enormous amount of data that will prove to be vital in understanding our solar system. Voyager 1 is scheduled to fly past Saturn on November 13 of this year; Voyager 2, in August of the following year. 

  18. On internal constitution of Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, N.A.


    Jupiter internal construction is considered. The density and pressure inside a cosmic body can be calculated from the known values of the mass and radius. For Jupiter, the inertia moment calculated from the motion of the satellites permits to determine the degree of uniformity of its structure and to find more precise values of density and pressure in the center of the planet. In assumption that the matter of Jupiter consists of hydrogen only, the dependence of pressure on temperature was calculated with accounting for the degeneracy of gas and electrostatic interactions. Hence the central temperature, calculated from pressure and density, appears to be equal to 165.000 deg K. At the thermal conductivity by free electrons such a temperature at the center is to result in a thermal flux of about 1.0x10 4 erg/cm 2 from Jupiter's surface, which was observed during the flights of the ''Pioneer'' stations

  19. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  20. Ulysses dust measurements near Jupiter. (United States)

    Grün, E; Zook, H A; Baguhl, M; Fechtig, H; Hanner, M S; Kissel, J; Lindblad, B A; Linkert, D; Linkert, G; Mann, I B


    Submicrometer- to micrometer-sized particles were recorded by the Ulysses dust detector within 40 days of the Jupiter flyby. Nine impacts were recorded within 50 Jupiter radii with most of them recorded after closest approach. Three of these impacts are consistent with particles on prograde orbits around Jupiter and the rest are believed to have resulted from gravitationally focused interplanetary dust. From the ratio of the impact rate before the Jupiter flyby to the impact rate after the Jupiter flyby it is concluded that interplanetary dust particles at the distance of Jupiter move on mostly retrograde orbits. On 10 March 1992, Ulysses passed through an intense dust stream. The dust detector recorded 126 impacts within 26 hours. The stream particles were moving on highly inclined and apparently hyperbolic orbits with perihelion distances of >5 astronomical units. Interplanetary dust is lost rather quickly from the solar system through collisions and other mechanisms and must be almost continuously replenished to maintain observed abundances. Dust flux measurements, therefore, give evidence of the recent rates of production from sources such as comets, asteroids, and moons, as well as the possible presence of interstellar grains.

  1. Design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for advanced space radiation studies (United States)

    Königstein, T.; Karger, O.; Pretzler, G.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Hidding, B.; Hidding


    We present design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for mimicking space radiation and testing space-grade electronics. This novel application takes advantage of the inherent ability of laser-plasma accelerators to produce particle beams with exponential energy distribution, which is a characteristic shared with the hazardous relativistic electron flux present in the radiation belts of planets such as Earth, Saturn and Jupiter. Fundamental issues regarding laser-plasma interaction parameters, beam propagation, flux development, and experimental setup are discussed.

  2. A Low Mass for Mars from Jupiter's Early Gas-Driven Migration (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N.; O'Brien, David P.; Mandell, Avi M.


    Jupiter and Saturn formed in a few million years from a gas-dominated protoplanetary disk, and were susceptible to gas-driven migration of their orbits on timescales of only approximately 100,000 years. Hydrodynamic simulations show that these giant planets can undergo a two-stage, inward-then-outward, migration. The terrestrial planets finished accreting much later and their characteristics, including Mars' small mass, are best reproduced by starting from a planetesimal disk with an outer edge at about one astronomical unit from the Sun (1 AU is the Earth-Sun distance). Here we report simulations of the early Solar System that show how the inward migration of Jupiter to 1.5 AU, and its subsequent outward migration, lead to a planetesimal disk truncated at 1 AU; the terrestrial planets then form from this disk over the next 30-50 million years, with an Earth/Mars mass ratio consistent with observations. Scattering by Jupiter initially empties but then repopulates the asteroid belt, with inner-belt bodies originating between 1 and 3 AU and outer-belt bodies originating between and beyond the giant planets. This explains the significant compositional differences across the asteroid belt. The key aspect missing from previous models of terrestrial planet formation is the substantial radial migration of the giant planets, which suggests that their behaviour is more similar to that inferred for extrasolar planets than previously thought.

  3. Deduction of the rates of radial diffusion of protons from the structure of the Earth's radiation belts (United States)

    Kovtyukh, Alexander S.


    From the data on the fluxes and energy spectra of protons with an equatorial pitch angle of α0 ≈ 90° during quiet and slightly disturbed (Kp ≤ 2) periods, I directly calculated the value DLL, which is a measure of the rate of radial transport (diffusion) of trapped particles. This is done by successively solving the systems (chains) of integrodifferential equations which describe the balance of radial transport/acceleration and ionization losses of low-energy protons of the stationary belt. This was done for the first time. For these calculations, I used data of International Sun-Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE-1) for protons with an energy of 24 to 2081 keV at L = 2-10 and data of Explorer-45 for protons with an energy of 78.6 to 872 keV at L = 2-5. Ionization losses of protons (Coulomb losses and charge exchange) were calculated on the basis of modern models of the plasmasphere and the exosphere. It is shown that for protons with μ from ˜ 0.7 to ˜ 7 keV nT-1 at L ≈ 4.5-10, the functions of DLL can be approximated by the following equivalent expressions: DLL ≈ 4.9 × 10-14μ-4.1L8.2 or DLL ≈ 1.3 × 105(EL)-4.1 or DLL ≈ 1.2 × 10-9fd-4.1, where fd is the drift frequency of the protons (in mHz), DLL is measured in s-1, E is measured in kiloelectronvolt and μ is measured in kiloelectronvolt per nanotesla. These results are consistent with the radial diffusion of particles under the action of the electric field fluctuations (pulsations) in the range of Pc6 and contradict the mechanism of the radial diffusion of particles under the action of sudden impulses (SIs) of the magnetic field and also under the action of substorm impulses of the electric field. During magnetic storms DLL increases, and the expressions for DLL obtained here can change completely.

  4. Deduction of the rates of radial diffusion of protons from the structure of the Earth's radiation belts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kovtyukh


    Full Text Available From the data on the fluxes and energy spectra of protons with an equatorial pitch angle of α0 ≈ 90° during quiet and slightly disturbed (Kp ≤ 2 periods, I directly calculated the value DLL, which is a measure of the rate of radial transport (diffusion of trapped particles. This is done by successively solving the systems (chains of integrodifferential equations which describe the balance of radial transport/acceleration and ionization losses of low-energy protons of the stationary belt. This was done for the first time. For these calculations, I used data of International Sun–Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE-1 for protons with an energy of 24 to 2081 keV at L = 2–10 and data of Explorer-45 for protons with an energy of 78.6 to 872 keV at L = 2–5. Ionization losses of protons (Coulomb losses and charge exchange were calculated on the basis of modern models of the plasmasphere and the exosphere. It is shown that for protons with μ from  ∼ 0.7 to ∼ 7 keV nT−1 at L ≈ 4.5–10, the functions of DLL can be approximated by the following equivalent expressions: DLL ≈ 4.9 × 10−14μ−4.1L8.2 or DLL ≈ 1.3 × 105(EL−4.1 or DLL ≈ 1.2 × 10−9fd−4.1, where fd is the drift frequency of the protons (in mHz, DLL is measured in s−1, E is measured in kiloelectronvolt and μ is measured in kiloelectronvolt per nanotesla. These results are consistent with the radial diffusion of particles under the action of the electric field fluctuations (pulsations in the range of Pc6 and contradict the mechanism of the radial diffusion of particles under the action of sudden impulses (SIs of the magnetic field and also under the action of substorm impulses of the electric field. During magnetic storms DLL increases, and the expressions for DLL obtained here can change completely.

  5. Deduction of the rates of radial diffusion of protons from the structure of the Earth's radiation belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovtyukh, Alexander S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics


    From the data on the fluxes and energy spectra of protons with an equatorial pitch angle of α{sub 0} ∼ 90 during quiet and slightly disturbed (Kp≤2) periods, I directly calculated the value D{sub LL}, which is a measure of the rate of radial transport (diffusion) of trapped particles. This is done by successively solving the systems (chains) of integrodifferential equations which describe the balance of radial transport/acceleration and ionization losses of low-energy protons of the stationary belt. This was done for the first time. For these calculations, I used data of International Sun-Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE-1) for protons with an energy of 24 to 2081 keV at L = 2-10 and data of Explorer-45 for protons with an energy of 78.6 to 872 keV at L = 2-5. Ionization losses of protons (Coulomb losses and charge exchange) were calculated on the basis of modern models of the plasmasphere and the exosphere. It is shown that for protons with μ from ∝0.7 to ∝7 keV nT{sup -1} at L ∼ 4.5-10, the functions of D{sub LL} can be approximated by the following equivalent expressions: D{sub LL} ∼ 4.9 x 10{sup -14}μ{sup -4.1}L{sup 8.2} or D{sub LL} ∼ 1.3 x 10{sup 5}(EL){sup -4.1} or D{sub LL} ∼ 1.2 x 10{sup -9}f{sub d}{sup -4.1}, where f{sub d} is the drift frequency of the protons (in mHz), D{sub LL} is measured in s{sup -1}, E is measured in kiloelectronvolt and μ is measured in kiloelectronvolt per nanotesla. These results are consistent with the radial diffusion of particles under the action of the electric field fluctuations (pulsations) in the range of Pc6 and contradict the mechanism of the radial diffusion of particles under the action of sudden impulses (SIs) of the magnetic field and also under the action of substorm impulses of the electric field. During magnetic storms D{sub LL} increases, and the expressions for D{sub LL} obtained here can change completely.

  6. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.


    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  7. Average profiles of the solar wind and outer radiation belt during the extreme flux enhancement of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka


    Full Text Available We report average profiles of the solar wind and outer radiation belt during the extreme flux enhancement of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit (GEO. It is found that seven of top ten extreme events at GEO during solar cycle 23 are associated with the magnetosphere inflation during the storm recovery phase as caused by the large-scale solar wind structure of very low dynamic pressure (<1.0 nPa during rapid speed decrease from very high (>650 km/s to typical (400–500 km/s in a few days. For the seven events, the solar wind parameters, geomagnetic activity indices, and relativistic electron flux and geomagnetic field at GEO are superposed at the local noon period of GOES satellites to investigate the physical cause. The average profiles support the "double inflation" mechanism that the rarefaction of the solar wind and subsequent magnetosphere inflation are one of the best conditions to produce the extreme flux enhancement at GEO because of the excellent magnetic confinement of relativistic electrons by reducing the drift loss of trapped electrons at dayside magnetopause.

  8. Does Io's ionosphere influence Jupiter's radio bursts. (United States)

    Webster, D. L.; Alksne, A. Y.; Whitten, R. C.


    Goldreich and Lynden-Bell's theory of Jupiter's Io-correlated decametric radiation sets a lower limit to Io's conductivity, high enough to carry the current associated with the radiated power. Dermott's analysis of conductivities of rocks and ice shows no such conductivity at Io's temperature. However, we show that if Io has even a small atmosphere, say of methane as suggested by Binder and Cruikshank, or of argon or nitrogen, it will have an ionosphere with adequate conductivity to meet the above criterion. A requirement for higher conductivity was found by Goldreich and Lynden-Bell on the basis of motion of magnetic lines past Io. This requirement appears to us unnecessary in view of experiments which prove that motion of the lines is not the source of the electromotance.

  9. Galileo's Telescopy and Jupiter's Tablet (United States)

    Usher, P. D.


    A previous paper (BAAS 33:4, 1363, 2001) reported on the dramatic scene in Shakespeare's Cymbeline that features the descent of the deity Jupiter. The paper suggested that the four ghosts circling the sleeping Posthumus denote the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The god Jupiter commands the ghosts to lay a tablet upon the prone Posthumus, but says that its value should not be overestimated. When Posthumus wakens he notices the tablet, which he calls a "book." Not only has the deity's "tablet" become the earthling's "book," but it appears that the book has covers which Posthumus evidently recognizes because without even opening the book he ascribes two further properties to it: rarity, and the very property that Jupiter had earlier attributed, viz. that one must not read too much into it. The mystery deepens when the Jovian gift undergoes a second metamorphosis, to "label." With the help of the OED, the potentially disparate terms "tablet," "book," and "label," may be explained by terms appropriate either to supernatural or worldly beings. "Tablet" may recognize the Mosaic artifact, whereas "book" and "label" are probably mundane references to Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius which appeared shortly before Cymbeline. The message of the Olympian god indicates therefore that the book is unique even as its contents have limited value. The first property celebrates the fact that Galileo's book is the first of its kind, and the second advises that all results except the discovery of Jupiter's moons have been reported earlier, in Hamlet.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig, Fernando [Observatòrio Nacional, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Nesvorný, David, E-mail:, E-mail: [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)


    In this work, we investigate the evolution of a primordial belt of asteroids, represented by a large number of massless test particles, under the gravitational effect of migrating Jovian planets in the framework of the jumping-Jupiter model. We perform several simulations considering test particles distributed in the Main Belt, as well as in the Hilda and Trojan groups. The simulations start with Jupiter and Saturn locked in the mutual 3:2 mean motion resonance plus three Neptune-mass planets in a compact orbital configuration. Mutual planetary interactions during migration led one of the Neptunes to be ejected in less than 10 Myr of evolution, causing Jupiter to jump by about 0.3 AU in semimajor axis. This introduces a large-scale instability in the studied populations of small bodies. After the migration phase, the simulations are extended over 4 Gyr, and we compare the final orbital structure of the simulated test particles to the current Main Belt of asteroids with absolute magnitude H < 9.7. The results indicate that, in order to reproduce the present Main Belt, the primordial belt should have had a distribution peaked at ∼10° in inclination and at ∼0.1 in eccentricity. We discuss the implications of this for the Grand Tack model. The results also indicate that neither primordial Hildas, nor Trojans, survive the instability, confirming the idea that such populations must have been implanted from other sources. In particular, we address the possibility of implantation of Hildas and Trojans from the Main Belt population, but find that this contribution should be minor.

  11. Scientists Revise Thinking on Comets, Planet Jupiter (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974


    Discusses scientific information obtained from Pioneer 10's Jupiter flyby and the comet Kohoutek's first trip around the sun, including the high hydrogen emission of Jupiter's principal moon, Io. (CC)

  12. Parametric excitation of very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic whistler waves and interaction with energetic electrons in radiation belt (United States)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Caplinger, J.; Main, D.; Mishin, E.; Gershenzon, N.; Genoni, T.; Paraschiv, I.; Rose, D.


    The concept of a parametric antenna in ionospheric plasma is analyzed. Such antennas are capable of exciting electromagnetic radiation fields, specifically the creation of whistler waves generated at the very low frequency (VLF) range, which are also capable of propagating large distances away from the source region. The mechanism of whistler wave generation is considered a parametric interaction of quasi-electrostatic whistler waves (also known as low oblique resonance (LOR) oscillations) excited by a conventional loop antenna. The interaction of LOR waves with quasi-neutral density perturbations in the near field of an antenna gives rise to electromagnetic whistler waves on combination frequencies. It is shown in this work that the amplitude of these waves can considerably exceed the amplitude of whistler waves directly excited by a loop. Additionally, particle-in-cell simulations, which demonstrate the excitation and spatial structure of VLF waves excited by a loop antenna, are presented. Possible applications including the wave-particle interactions to mitigate performance anomalies of low Earth orbit satellites, active space experiments, communication via VLF waves, and modification experiments in the ionosphere will be discussed.

  13. Assessing the Time Variability of Jupiter's Tropospheric Properties from 1996 to 2011 (United States)

    Orton, G. S.; Fletcher, L. N.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Greco, J.; Wakefield, L.


    We acquired and analyzed mid-infrared images of Jupiter's disk at selected wavelengths from NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) from 1996 to 2011, including a period of large-scale changes of cloud color and albedo. We derived the 100-300 mbar temperature structure, together with tracers of vertical motion: the thickness of a 600- mbar cloud layer, the 300-mbar abundance of the condensable gas NH3, and the 400- mbar para- vs. ortho-H2 ratio. The biggest visual change was detected in the normally dark South Equatorial Belt (SEB) that 'faded' to a light color in 2010, during which both cloud thickness and NH3 abundance rose; both returned to their pre-fade levels in 2011, as the SEB regained its normal dark color. The cloud thickness in Jupiter's North Temperate Belt (NTB) increased in 2002, coincident with its visible brightening, and its NH3 abundance spiked in 2002-2003. Jupiter's Equatorial Zone (EZ), a region marked by more subtle but widespread color and albedo change, showed high cloud thickness variability between 2007 and 2009. In Jupiter's North Equatorial Belt (NEB), the cloud thickened in 2005, then slowly decreased to a minimum value in 2010-2011. No temperature variations were associated with any of these changes, but we discovered temperature oscillations of approx.2-4 K in all regions, with 4- or 8-year periods and phasing that was dissimilar in the different regions. There was also no detectable change in the para- vs. ortho-H2 ratio over time, leading to the possibility that it is driven from much deeper atmospheric levels and may be time-invariant. Our future work will continue to survey the variability of these properties through the Juno mission, which arrives at Jupiter in 2016, and to connect these observations with those made using raster-scanned images from 1980 to 1993 (Orton et al. 1996 Science 265, 625).

  14. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt? (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P


    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  15. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.


    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  16. Exciting an Initially Cold Asteroid Belt Through a Planetary Instability (United States)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Izidoro, Andre; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Gomes, Rodney; Nesvorny, David; Raymond, Sean N.


    The main asteroid belt (MB) is low in mass but dynamically excited, with much larger eccentricities and inclinations than the planets. In recent years, the Grand Tack model has been the predominant model capable of reconciling the formation of the terrestrial planets with a depleted but excited MB. Despite this success, the Grand Tack is still not generally accepted because of uncertainties in orbital migration. It was recently proposed that chaotic early evolution of Jupiter and Saturn could excite the initially cold MB. However, hydrodynamical simulations predict that the giant planets should generally emerge from the gas disk phase on orbits characterized by resonant and regular motion. Here we propose a new mechanism to excite the MB during the giant planets' ('Nice model') instability, which is expected to have included repeated close encounters between Jupiter and one or more ice giants ('Jumping Jupiter' -- JJ). We show that when Jupiter temporarily reaches a high enough level of excitation, both in eccentricity and inclination, it induces strong forced vectors of eccentricity and inclination within the MB region. Because during the JJ instability Jupiter's orbit 'jumps' around, forced vectors keep changing both in magnitude and phase throughout the whole MB region. The entire cold primordial MB can thus be excited as a natural outcome of the JJ instability. Furthermore, we show that the subsequent evolution of the Solar System is capable of reshaping the resultant MB to its present day orbital state, and that a strong mass depletion is always associated to the JJ instability phase.

  17. Study of Jupiter polarization properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolkvadze, O.R.


    Investigations into polarization properties of the Jupiter reflected light were carried on at the Abastumani astrophysical observatory in 1967, 1968 and 1969 in the four spectral ranges: 4000, 4800, 5400 and 6600 A deg. Data on light polarization in different parts of the Jupiter visible disk are given. Curves of dependence of the planet light polarization degree on a phase angle are plotted. It is shown that in the central part of the visible planet disk the polarization degree is low. Atmosphere is in a stable state in this part of Jupiter. Mean radius of particles of a cloud layer is equal to 0.26μ, and optical thickness of overcloud atmosphere tau=0.05. Height of transition boundary of the cloud layer into overcloud gas atmosphere changes from year to year at the edges of the equatorial zone. Optical thickness of overcloud atmosphere changes also with changing height of a transient layer. The polar Jupiter regions possess a high degree of polarization which depends on a latitude. Polarization increases monotonously with the latitude and over polar regions accepts a maximum value [ru

  18. Jupiter: Cosmic Jekyll and Hyde. (United States)

    Grazier, Kevin R


    It has been widely reported that Jupiter has a profound role in shielding the terrestrial planets from comet impacts in the Solar System, and that a jovian planet is a requirement for the evolution of life on Earth. To evaluate whether jovians, in fact, shield habitable planets from impacts (a phenomenon often referred to as the "Jupiter as shield" concept), this study simulated the evolution of 10,000 particles in each of the jovian inter-planet gaps for the cases of full-mass and embryo planets for up to 100 My. The results of these simulations predict a number of phenomena that not only discount the "Jupiter as shield" concept, they also predict that in a Solar System like ours, large gas giants like Saturn and Jupiter had a different, and potentially even more important, role in the evolution of life on our planet by delivering the volatile-laden material required for the formation of life. The simulations illustrate that, although all particles occupied "non-life threatening" orbits at their onset of the simulations, a significant fraction of the 30,000 particles evolved into Earth-crossing orbits. A comparison of multiple runs with different planetary configurations revealed that Jupiter was responsible for the vast majority of the encounters that "kicked" outer planet material into the terrestrial planet region, and that Saturn assisted in the process far more than has previously been acknowledged. Jupiter also tends to "fix" the aphelion of planetesimals at its orbit irrespective of their initial starting zones, which has the effect of slowing their passages through the inner Solar System, and thus potentially improving the odds of accretion of cometary material by terrestrial planets. As expected, the simulations indicate that the full-mass planets perturb many objects into the deep outer Solar System, or eject them entirely; however, planetary embryos also did this with surprising efficiency. Finally, the simulations predict that Jupiter's capacity to

  19. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim


    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  20. The number of Jupiter family comets as a constraint on the transneptunian population (United States)

    Tancredi, G.; et al.

    Several duynamical studies point out that the comets of the Jupiter family were originated in a flat belt in the transneptunian region. The Jupiter family is a transient dynamical state between the injection from the outer region and i) the ejection out of the Solar System, ii) the collision against one of its members or iii) the desintegration into a meteor stream. It has been generally assumed that the Jupiter family (JF) is in a steady state; i.e. the injection is balanced by the ejection+collision+ desintegration. Knowing the duration of a typical visit into the Jupiter family and the number of JF comets we could infer the injection rate. The rate of escapes from the transneptunian region and the fraction that reach the Jupiter family can be computed from massive integrations of particles starting in the outer region. An estimate of the required population of transneptunian objects can then be inferred from these numbers. There have been published several estimates of the dynamical parameters mentioned above but the total number of JF comets has been difficult to estimate. Based on a compilation of all the reported nuclear magnitudes of JF comets, we derive the total number of objects in the cometary population. The observed population (~ 200) is a tiny fraction of the total population (several thousands). Compiling all these numbers, we then derive the required trasneptunian population.

  1. A long-lived refilling event of the slot region between the Van Allen radiation belts from Nov 2004 to Jan 2005 (United States)

    Yang, X.


    A powerful relativistic electron enhancement in the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts is investigated by multi-satellites measurements. The measurement from Space Particle Component Detectors (SPCDs) aboard Fengyun-1 indicates that the relativistic electron (>1.6MeV) flux began to enhance obviously on early 10 November with the flux peak fixed at L~3.0. In the next day, the relativistic electron populations increased dramatically. Subsequently, the flux had been enhancing slowly, but unceasingly, until 17 November, and the maximum flux reached up to 7.8×104 cm-2·sr-1·s-1 at last. The flux peak fixed at L~3.0 and the very slow decay rate in this event make it to be an unusual long-lived slot region refilling event. We trace the cause of the event back to the interplanetary environment and find that there were two evident magnetic cloud constructions: dramatically enhanced magnetic field strength and long and smooth rotation of field vector from late 7 to 8 November and from late 9 to 10 November, respectively; solar wind speed increased in 'step-like' fashion on late 7 November and persisted the level of high speed >560 km·s-1 for about 124 hours. Owed to the interplanetary disturbances, very strong magnetic storms and substorms occurred in the magnetosphere. Responding to the extraordinarily magnetic perturbations, the plasmasphere shrank sharply. The location of plasmapause inferred from Dst indicates that the plasmapause shrank inward to as low as L~2.5. On account of these magnetospheric conditions, strong chorus emissions are expected near the earth. In fact, the STAFF on Cluster mission measured intensive whistler mode chorus emissions on 10 and 12 November, corresponding to the period of the remarkable enhancement of relativistic electron. Furthermore, we investigate the radial profile of phase space density (PSD) by electron flux from multi-satellites, and the evolution of the phase space density profile reveals that the local

  2. The radioastronomy of Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, D.


    Evidence for departures of the magnetic field from that of a simple dipole is discussed, and two models which have been proposed to account for the observed irregularities are described. A crucial observational test of these models is provided by measurements of the centroid of the decimetric emission relative to the optical disk with the evidence appearing to favour the centred dipole model with a localized field anomaly. The Pioneer 10 magnetometer results are described and recent observations of the decimetric emission are reviewed, and some unexplained features of the radiation discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Aerosol influence on energy balance of the middle atmosphere of Jupiter. (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; West, Robert A; Irwin, Patrick G J; Nixon, Conor A; Yung, Yuk L


    Aerosols are ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres in the Solar System. However, radiative forcing on Jupiter has traditionally been attributed to solar heating and infrared cooling of gaseous constituents only, while the significance of aerosol radiative effects has been a long-standing controversy. Here we show, based on observations from the NASA spacecraft Voyager and Cassini, that gases alone cannot maintain the global energy balance in the middle atmosphere of Jupiter. Instead, a thick aerosol layer consisting of fluffy, fractal aggregate particles produced by photochemistry and auroral chemistry dominates the stratospheric radiative heating at middle and high latitudes, exceeding the local gas heating rate by a factor of 5-10. On a global average, aerosol heating is comparable to the gas contribution and aerosol cooling is more important than previously thought. We argue that fractal aggregate particles may also have a significant role in controlling the atmospheric radiative energy balance on other planets, as on Jupiter.

  4. Atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.E.


    In this paper the current knowledge of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are reviewed making use of the extensive telescopic studies, International Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite observations and the measurements made during the recent Pioneer and Voyager flybys which have been supported by detailed theoretical studies. A detailed discussion is given of the composition of these atmospheres and the abundance ratios which provide insight into their original state and their evolution. The Voyager observations indicate a surprisingly close similarity between the weather systems of the Earth and the giant planets. Although both Jupiter and Saturn have internal heat sources, and are therefore star-like in their interiors, they appear to produce terrestrial-style weather systems. A detailed discussion is given of this work, which forms a major study of the Laboratory for Planetary Atmospheres at University College London. (author)

  5. Jupiter's Mid-Infrared Aurora: Solar Connection and Minor Constituents (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore; Livengood, T.A.; Fast, K.E.; Hewagama, T.; Schmilling, F.; Sonnabend, G.; Delgado, J.


    High spectral resolution in the 12 pin region of the polar regions of Jupiter reveal unique information on auroral phenomena and upper stratospheric composition. Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate; throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based. spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane, emission brightness and solar 10.7-cm radar flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high scalar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. The spectra measured contain features that cannot be attributed to ethane and are most likely spectra of minor constituents whose molecular bands overlap the v9 band of ethane. Possible candidates are allene, propane, and other higher order hydrocarbons. These features appear to be enhanced in the active polar regions. Laboratory measurements at comparable spectral resolution of spectra of candidate molecules will be used to identify the constituents. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the NASA/ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  6. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko


    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  7. An interstellar origin for Jupiter's retrograde co-orbital asteroid (United States)

    Namouni, F.; Morais, M. H. M.


    Asteroid (514107) 2015 BZ509 was discovered recently in Jupiter's co-orbital region with a retrograde motion around the Sun. The known chaotic dynamics of the outer Solar system have so far precluded the identification of its origin. Here, we perform a high-resolution statistical search for stable orbits and show that asteroid (514107) 2015 BZ509 has been in its current orbital state since the formation of the Solar system. This result indicates that (514107) 2015 BZ509 was captured from the interstellar medium 4.5 billion years in the past as planet formation models cannot produce such a primordial large-inclination orbit with the planets on nearly coplanar orbits interacting with a coplanar debris disc that must produce the low-inclination small-body reservoirs of the Solar system such as the asteroid and Kuiper belts. This result also implies that more extrasolar asteroids are currently present in the Solar system on nearly polar orbits.

  8. Telecommunications Antennas for the Juno Mission to Jupiter (United States)

    Vacchione, Joseph D.; Kruid, Ronald C.; Prata, Aluizio, Jr.; Amaro, Luis R.; Mittskus, Anthony P.


    The Juno Mission to Jupiter requires a full sphere of coverage throughout its cruise to and mission at Jupiter. This coverage is accommodated through the use of five (5) antennas; forward facing low gain, medium gain, and high gain antennas, and an aft facing low gain antenna along with an aft mounted low gain antenna with a torus shaped antenna pattern. Three of the antennas (the forward low and medium gain antennas) are classical designs that have been employed on several prior NASA missions. Two of the antennas employ new technology developed to meet the Juno mission requirements. The new technology developed for the low gain with torus shaped radiation pattern represents a significant evolution of the bicone antenna. The high gain antenna employs a specialized surface shaping designed to broaden the antenna's main beam at Ka-band to ease the requirements on the spacecraft's attitude control system.

  9. Status of the Galileo interim radiation electron model (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.


    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) were used to develop a new model of Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii (1 jovian radius = 71,400 km). 10-minute averages of these data formed an extensive database of observations of the jovian radiation belts between Jupiter orbit insertion (JOI) in 1995 and 2002. These data were then averaged to provide a differential flux spectrum at 0.174, 0.304, 0.527, 1.5, 2.0, 11.0, and 31 MeV in the jovian equatorial plane as a function of radial distance. This omni-directional, equatorial model was combined with the original Divine model of jovian electron radiation to yield estimates of the out-of-plane radiation environment. That model, referred to here as the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (or GIRE) model, was then used to calculate the Europa mission dose for an average and a 1-sigma worst-case situation. The prediction of the GIRE model is about a factor of 2 lower than the Divine model estimate over the range of 100 to 1000 mils (2.54 to 25.4 mm) of aluminum shielding, but exceeds the Divine model by about 50% for thicker shielding. The model, the steps leading to its creation, and relevant issues and concerns are discussed. While work remains to be done, the GIRE model clearly represents a significant step forward in the study of the jovian radiation environment, and it is a useful and valuable tool for estimating that environment for future space missions.

  10. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A


    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  11. Identifying the Source of Large-Scale Atmospheric Variability in Jupiter (United States)

    Orton, Glenn


    We propose to use the unique mid-infrared filtered imaging and spectroscopic capabilities of the Subaru COMICS instrument to determine the mechanisms associated with recent unusual rapid albedo and color transformations of several of Jupiter's bands, particularly its South Equatorial Belt (SEB), as a means to understand the coupling between its dynamics and chemistry. These observations will characterize the temperature, degree of cloud cover, and distribution of minor gases that serve as indirect tracers of vertical motions in regions that will be undergoing unusual large-scale changes in dynamics and chemistry: the SEB, as well as regions near the equator and Jupiter's North Temperate Belt. COMICS is ideal for this investigation because of its efficiency in doing both imaging and spectroscopy, its 24.5-mum filter that is unique to 8-meter-class telescopes, its wide field of view that allows imaging of nearly all of Jupiter's disk, coupled with a high diffraction-limited angular resolution and optimal mid-infrared atmospheric transparency.

  12. Strange Isotope Ratios in Jupiter (United States)

    Manuel, O.; Ragland, D.; Windler, K.; Zirbel, J.; Johannes, L.; Nolte, A.


    At the January AAS meeting, Dr. Daniel Goldin ordered the release of isotopic data from the 1995 Galileo probe into Jupiter. This probe took mass readings for mass numbers 2-150, which includes all of the noble gas isotopes. A certain few noble gas isotopes, specifically those at mass/charge = 21, 40, 78, 124, and 126, are difficult to distinguish from background, while interference causes some variation in signals for noble gas isotopes at mass/charge = 20, 22, 36, 38, 40, 80, 82, 83, 84 and 86. Some contamination was caused by incomplete adsorption of low mass hydrocarbons by Carbosieve, the material used in the concentration cells [Space Sci. Rev. 60, 120 (1992)]. Thus, preliminary results are most reliable in the high mass region that includes xenon. The Galileo Probe provided the first direct measurements from a planet with a chemical composition drastically different from Earth. Our preliminary analyses indicate that Jupiter contains Xe-X [Nature 240, 99 (1972)], which differs significantly from Earth's xenon. Xe-X and primordial He are tightly coupled on the microscopic scale of meteorite minerals [Science 195, 208 (1977); Meteoritics 15, 117 (1980)]. The presence today of Xe-X in the He-rich atmosphere of Jupiter suggests that the primordial linkage of Xe-X with He extended across the protosolar nebula, on a planetary scale [Comments Astrophys. 18, 335 (1997)]. Contamination by hydrocarbons and other gases does not necessarily remove light noble gases from further consideration. Currently, isolation of signals of these elements from interference continues and may result in the presentation of many other interesting observations at the conference.

  13. Variability of ethane on Jupiter (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Espenak, Fred; Mumma, Michael J.; Deming, Drake; Zipoy, David


    Varying stratospheric temperature profiles and C2H6 altitude distributions furnish contexts for the evaluation of ethane abundances and distributions in the Jupiter stratosphere. Substantial ethane line emission and retrieved mole fraction variability is noted near the footprint of Io's flux tube, as well as within the auroral regions. It is suggested that this and other observed phenomena are due to the modification of local stratospheric chemistry by higher-order effects, which are in turn speculated to be due to the precipitation of charged particles along magnetic field lines.

  14. On the existence of a comet belt beyond Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.


    The possible existence of a comet belt in connection with the origin of the short-period comets is analysed. It is noted that the current theory - that these comets originate as near-parabolic comets captured by Jupiter and the other giant planets - implies an excessive wastage of comets lost in hyperbolic orbits, which is avoided in the present model. The following picture is predicted. Solid conglomerates up to approximately 10 18 g were formed by gravitational instabilities in the belt region (about 35 to 50 AU). A further fragmentation-accretion process led to a power-law mass distribution similar to that observed in the asteroids. Since then, close encounters between members of the belt have provoked the diffusion of some of them with the effect that they have become subject to the strong perturbations of Neptune. Of these a small number pass from one planet to the next inside and end as short-period comets. By means of a Monte Carlo method, the influence of close encounters between belt comets is then studied in relation to the diffusion of their orbits. It is concluded that if such a belt contains members with masses equal to or greater than that of Ceres, the orbital diffusion could proceed fast enough to maintain the number of observed short-period comets in a steady state. (author)

  15. Internal radiation due to bioaccumulated natural radionuclides ({sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra) in some wild plants sampled from Singhbhum Thrust Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V K [Co-operative College, Jamshedpur (India). Botany Dept.; Geeta, [Jamshedpur Women` s College, Jamshedpur (India). Botany Dept.


    Estimation of radioactivity (Bq/Kg dry Wt.) due to bioaccumulated {sup 238}U,{sup 226}Ra was carried out in six species of native plants growing in the non-occupational settings of Singhbhum Thrust Belt (STB). Due to medicinal and other economic values, these plants are used by the local people in their day to day life. Among the six species, Echinops echinatus excelled in the pick-up process of radionuclides. The rank decreased in the order: Echinops>Vitex>Cleistanthus>Ocimum>Holorrhoena>Lantana. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Beibei; Showman, Adam P.


    The ongoing characterization of hot Jupiters has motivated a variety of circulation models of their atmospheres. Such models must be integrated starting from an assumed initial state, which is typically taken to be a wind-free, rest state. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of hot-Jupiter atmospheric circulation to initial conditions with shallow-water models and full three-dimensional models. Those models are initialized with zonal jets, and we explore a variety of different initial jet profiles. We demonstrate that, in both classes of models, the final, equilibrated state is independent of initial condition—as long as frictional drag near the bottom of the domain and/or interaction with a specified planetary interior are included so that the atmosphere can adjust angular momentum over time relative to the interior. When such mechanisms are included, otherwise identical models initialized with vastly different initial conditions all converge to the same statistical steady state. In some cases, the models exhibit modest time variability; this variability results in random fluctuations about the statistical steady state, but we emphasize that, even in these cases, the statistical steady state itself does not depend on initial conditions. Although the outcome of hot-Jupiter circulation models depend on details of the radiative forcing and frictional drag, aspects of which remain uncertain, we conclude that the specification of initial conditions is not a source of uncertainty, at least over the parameter range explored in most current models.

  17. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.


    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  18. Belt conveying of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stace, L.R.; Yardley, E.D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering


    A discussion of the history and economics of conveyor applications sets the scene. Conveyor design is investigated in detail, covering power requirements, belt tensioning, and hardware. Principles regarding construction and joining of belts are outlined and a helpful and practical overview of relevant standards, belt test methods, and issues surrounding standardisation is given. Conveyor belt systems can represent a significant operational hazard, so the authors have set out to highlight the important area of safety, with consideration given to fire/electrical resistance, as well as the interface between personnel and conveyor systems - including nip points and operational issues such as man-riding. Selected case studies illustrate some practical aspects of installation and operation, at Selby mine in the UK and Prosper-Haniel Colliery in Germany and others. 3 apps.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Eric D. [Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    Since the discovery of the first transiting hot Jupiters, models have sought to explain the anomalously large radii of highly irradiated gas giants. We now know that the size of hot Jupiter radius anomalies scales strongly with a planet's level of irradiation and numerous models like tidal heating, ohmic dissipation, and thermal tides have since been developed to help explain these inflated radii. In general, however, these models can be grouped into two broad categories: models that directly inflate planetary radii by depositing a fraction of the incident irradiation into the interior and models that simply slow a planet's radiative cooling, allowing it to retain more heat from formation and thereby delay contraction. Here we present a new test to distinguish between these two classes of models. Gas giants orbiting at moderate orbital periods around post-main-sequence stars will experience enormous increases to their irradiation as their host stars move up the sub-giant and red-giant branches. If hot Jupiter inflation works by depositing irradiation into the planet's deep interiors then planetary radii should increase in response to the increased irradiation. This means that otherwise non-inflated gas giants at moderate orbital periods of >10 days can re-inflate as their host stars evolve. Here we explore the circumstances that can lead to the creation of these “re-inflated” gas giants and examine how the existence or absence of such planets can be used to place unique constraints on the physics of the hot Jupiter inflation mechanism. Finally, we explore the prospects for detecting this potentially important undiscovered population of planets.

  20. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.


    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  1. Belt conveyor apparatus (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.


    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  2. Jupiter's evolution with primordial composition gradients (United States)

    Vazan, Allona; Helled, Ravit; Guillot, Tristan


    Recent formation and structure models of Jupiter suggest that the planet can have composition gradients and not be fully convective (adiabatic). This possibility directly affects our understanding of Jupiter's bulk composition and origin. In this Letter we present Jupiter's evolution with a primordial structure consisting of a relatively steep heavy-element gradient of 40 M⊕. We show that for a primordial structure with composition gradients, most of the mixing occurs in the outer part of the gradient during the early evolution (several 107 yr), leading to an adiabatic outer envelope (60% of Jupiter's mass). We find that the composition gradient in the deep interior persists, suggesting that 40% of Jupiter's mass can be non-adiabatic with a higher temperature than the one derived from Jupiter's atmospheric properties. The region that can potentially develop layered convection in Jupiter today is estimated to be limited to 10% of the mass. Movies associated to Figs. 1-3 are available at http://


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, N. J.; Choukroun, M.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Bryden, G., E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    The Sun was an order of magnitude more luminous during the first few hundred thousand years of its existence, due in part to the gravitational energy released by material accreting from the solar nebula. If Jupiter was already near its present mass, the planet's tides opened an optically thin gap in the nebula. Using Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that sunlight absorbed by the nebula and re-radiated into the gap raised temperatures well above the sublimation threshold for water ice, with potentially drastic consequences for the icy bodies in Jupiter's feeding zone. Bodies up to a meter in size were vaporized within a single orbit if the planet was near its present location during this early epoch. Dust particles lost their ice mantles, and planetesimals were partially to fully devolatilized, depending on their size. Scenarios in which Jupiter formed promptly, such as those involving a gravitational instability of the massive early nebula, must cope with the high temperatures. Enriching Jupiter in the noble gases through delivery trapped in clathrate hydrates will be more difficult, but might be achieved by either forming the planet much farther from the star or capturing planetesimals at later epochs. The hot gap resulting from an early origin for Jupiter also would affect the surface compositions of any primordial Trojan asteroids.

  4. The infrared spectrum of Jupiter (United States)

    Ridgway, S. T.; Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.


    The principal characteristics of Jupiter's infrared spectrum are reviewed with emphasis on their significance for our understanding of the composition and temperature structure of the Jovian upper atmosphere. The spectral region from 1 to 40 microns divides naturally into three regimes: the reflecting region, thermal emission from below the cloud deck (5-micron hot spots), and thermal emission from above the clouds. Opaque parts of the Jovian atmosphere further subdivide these regions into windows, and each is discussed in the context of its past or potential contributions to our knowledge of the planet. Recent results are incorporated into a table of atmospheric composition and abundance which includes positively identified constituents as well as several which require verification. The limited available information about spatial variations of the infrared spectrum is presented

  5. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.


    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of hot jupiter upper atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trammell, George B.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Arras, Phil, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)


    Two-dimensional simulations of hot Jupiter upper atmospheres including the planet's magnetic field are presented. The goal is to explore magnetic effects on the layer of the atmosphere that is ionized and heated by stellar EUV radiation, and the imprint of these effects on the Lyα transmission spectrum. The simulations are axisymmetric, isothermal, and include both rotation and azimuth-averaged stellar tides. Mass density is converted to atomic hydrogen density through the assumption of ionization equilibrium. The three-zone structure—polar dead zone (DZ), mid-latitude wind zone (WZ), and equatorial DZ—found in previous analytic calculations is confirmed. For a magnetic field comparable to that of Jupiter, the equatorial DZ, which is confined by the magnetic field and corotates with the planet, contributes at least half of the transit signal. For even stronger fields, the gas escaping in the mid-latitude WZ is found to have a smaller contribution to the transit depth than the equatorial DZ. Transmission spectra computed from the simulations are compared to Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and Advanced Camera for Surveys data for HD 209458b and HD 189733b, and the range of model parameters consistent with the data is found. The central result of this paper is that the transit depth increases strongly with magnetic field strength when the hydrogen ionization layer is magnetically dominated, for dipole magnetic field B {sub 0} ≳ 10 G. Hence transit depth is sensitive to magnetic field strength, in addition to standard quantities such as the ratio of thermal to gravitational binding energies. Another effect of the magnetic field is that the planet loses angular momentum orders of magnitude faster than in the non-magnetic case, because the magnetic field greatly increases the lever arm for wind braking of the planet's rotation. Spin-down timescales for magnetized models of HD 209458b that agree with the observed transit depth


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel; Showman, Adam P.


    Infrared light curves of transiting hot Jupiters present a trend in which the atmospheres of the hottest planets are less efficient at redistributing the stellar energy absorbed on their daysides—and thus have a larger day-night temperature contrast—than colder planets. To this day, no predictive atmospheric model has been published that identifies which dynamical mechanisms determine the atmospheric heat redistribution efficiency on tidally locked exoplanets. Here we present a shallow-water model of the atmospheric dynamics on synchronously rotating planets that explains why heat redistribution efficiency drops as stellar insolation rises. Our model shows that planets with weak friction and weak irradiation exhibit a banded zonal flow with minimal day-night temperature differences, while models with strong irradiation and/or strong friction exhibit a day-night flow pattern with order-unity fractional day-night temperature differences. To interpret the model, we develop a scaling theory which shows that the timescale for gravity waves to propagate horizontally over planetary scales, τ wave , plays a dominant role in controlling the transition from small to large temperature contrasts. This implies that heat redistribution is governed by a wave-like process, similar to the one responsible for the weak temperature gradients in the Earth's tropics. When atmospheric drag can be neglected, the transition from small to large day-night temperature contrasts occurs when τ wave ∼√(τ rad /Ω), where τ rad is the radiative relaxation time and Ω is the planetary rotation frequency. Alternatively, this transition criterion can be expressed as τ rad ∼ τ vert , where τ vert is the timescale for a fluid parcel to move vertically over the difference in day-night thickness. These results subsume the more widely used timescale comparison for estimating heat redistribution efficiency between τ rad and the horizontal day-night advection timescale, τ adv . Only



    While hunting for volcanic plumes on Io, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured these images of the volatile moon sweeping across the giant face of Jupiter. Only a few weeks before these dramatic images were taken, the orbiting telescope snapped a portrait of one of Io's volcanoes spewing sulfur dioxide 'snow.' These stunning images of the planetary duo are being released to commemorate the ninth anniversary of the Hubble telescope's launch on April 24, 1990. All of these images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The three overlapping snapshots show in crisp detail Io passing above Jupiter's turbulent clouds. The close-up picture of Io (bottom right) reveal a 120-mile-high (200-kilometer) plume of sulfur dioxide 'snow' emanating from Pillan, one of the moon's active volcanoes. 'Other observations have inferred sulfur dioxide 'snow' in Io's plumes, but this image offers direct observational evidence for sulfur dioxide 'snow' in an Io plume,' explains John R. Spencer of Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz. A Trip Around Jupiter The three snapshots of the volcanic moon rounding Jupiter were taken over a 1.8-hour time span. Io is roughly the size of Earth's moon but 2,000 times farther away. In two of the images, Io appears to be skimming Jupiter's cloud tops, but it's actually 310,000 miles (500,000 kilometers) away. Io zips around Jupiter in 1.8 days, whereas the moon circles Earth every 28 days. The conspicuous black spot on Jupiter is Io's shadow and is about the size of the moon itself (2,262 miles or 3,640 kilometers across). This shadow sails across the face of Jupiter at 38,000 mph (17 kilometers per second). The smallest details visible on Io and Jupiter measure 93 miles (150 kilometers) across, or about the size of Connecticut. These images were further sharpened through image reconstruction techniques. The view is so crisp that one would have to stand on Io to see this much detail on Jupiter with the naked eye. The bright patches on Io

  9. D/H ratio for Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Schempp, W.V.; Baines, K.H.


    Observations of Jupiter's spectrum near the R5(0) HD line at 6063.88 A are reported. A feature with an equivalent width of 0.065 + or - 0.021 mA is coincident with the expected line. This feature is compared with HD profiles computed for inhomogeneous scattering models for Jupiter to yield a range for the Jovian D/H ratio of 1.0-2.9 x 10 to the -5th. This D/H ratio is in the lower range of previously reported D/H values for Jupiter and corresponds to an essentially solar D/H ratio for Jupiter. The detection of HD features in the presence of probable blends with spectral features of minor atmospheric hydrocarbon molecules is discussed. Such blends may make unambiguous identification of HD features difficult. 26 references

  10. Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Ragozzine, Darin; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Carter, Joshua A.; Ford, Eric B.; Holman, Matthew J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Welsh, William F.; Borucki, William J.; Boss, Alan P.; Ciardi, David R.; Quinn, Samuel N.


    We present the results of a search for planetary companions orbiting near hot Jupiter planet candidates (Jupiter-size candidates with orbital periods near 3 d) identified in the Kepler data through its sixth quarter of science operations. Special emphasis is given to companions between the 2∶1 interior and exterior mean-motion resonances. A photometric transit search excludes companions with sizes ranging from roughly two-thirds to five times the size of the Earth, depending upon the noise properties of the target star. A search for dynamically induced deviations from a constant period (transit timing variations) also shows no significant signals. In contrast, comparison studies of warm Jupiters (with slightly larger orbits) and hot Neptune-size candidates do exhibit signatures of additional companions with these same tests. These differences between hot Jupiters and other planetary systems denote a distinctly different formation or dynamical history. PMID:22566651

  11. Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters. (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H; Ragozzine, Darin; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Carter, Joshua A; Ford, Eric B; Holman, Matthew J; Rowe, Jason F; Welsh, William F; Borucki, William J; Boss, Alan P; Ciardi, David R; Quinn, Samuel N


    We present the results of a search for planetary companions orbiting near hot Jupiter planet candidates (Jupiter-size candidates with orbital periods near 3 d) identified in the Kepler data through its sixth quarter of science operations. Special emphasis is given to companions between the 21 interior and exterior mean-motion resonances. A photometric transit search excludes companions with sizes ranging from roughly two-thirds to five times the size of the Earth, depending upon the noise properties of the target star. A search for dynamically induced deviations from a constant period (transit timing variations) also shows no significant signals. In contrast, comparison studies of warm Jupiters (with slightly larger orbits) and hot Neptune-size candidates do exhibit signatures of additional companions with these same tests. These differences between hot Jupiters and other planetary systems denote a distinctly different formation or dynamical history.

  12. Astronomers find distant planet like Jupiter

    CERN Multimedia


    Astronomers searching for planetary systems like our solar system have found a planet similar to Jupiter orbiting a nearby star similar to our Sun, about 90 light-years from Earth, according to researchers (1/2 page).

  13. Analysis of JUPITER experiment in ZPPR-9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Information and data from the ZPPR-9 reactor JUPITER experiment are presented concerning a general description of data and methods; criticality; reaction rate ratio and reaction rate distribution; Doppler and sample reactivity worth; sodium void worth; and control rod worth.

  14. Jupiter's Multi-level Clouds (United States)


    Clouds and hazes at various altitudes within the dynamic Jovian atmosphere are revealed by multi-color imaging taken by the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) onboard the Galileo spacecraft. These images were taken during the second orbit (G2) on September 5, 1996 from an early-morning vantage point 2.1 million kilometers (1.3 million miles) above Jupiter. They show the planet's appearance as viewed at various near-infrared wavelengths, with distinct differences due primarily to variations in the altitudes and opacities of the cloud systems. The top left and right images, taken at 1.61 microns and 2.73 microns respectively, show relatively clear views of the deep atmosphere, with clouds down to a level about three times the atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface.By contrast, the middle image in top row, taken at 2.17 microns, shows only the highest altitude clouds and hazes. This wavelength is severely affected by the absorption of light by hydrogen gas, the main constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere. Therefore, only the Great Red Spot, the highest equatorial clouds, a small feature at mid-northern latitudes, and thin, high photochemical polar hazes can be seen. In the lower left image, at 3.01 microns, deeper clouds can be seen dimly against gaseous ammonia and methane absorption. In the lower middle image, at 4.99 microns, the light observed is the planet's own indigenous heat from the deep, warm atmosphere.The false color image (lower right) succinctly shows various cloud and haze levels seen in the Jovian atmosphere. This image indicates the temperature and altitude at which the light being observed is produced. Thermally-rich red areas denote high temperatures from photons in the deep atmosphere leaking through minimal cloud cover; green denotes cool temperatures of the tropospheric clouds; blue denotes cold of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The polar regions appear purplish, because small-particle hazes allow leakage and reflectivity

  15. New developments of belt conveyor systems; Inclined belt systems, vertical pipe elevators, vibration belts, oscillating tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahke, E.A. (Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik)


    Factors that have influenced the design of belt conveyor systems are discussed - these include strength and shaping. Belt conveyor systems for inclined, steep-angle and vertical conveying are described and comparison made between cable belt and steel cord belt conveyors used in coal mines. Hose-belt or tube conveyors such as are used in the PWH/Conti-Rollgurt Conveyor System for feeding boilers in German coal fired power stations are mentioned and advantages of the pipe-belt conveyor for vertical transport discussed. Design of the vibratory conveyor for transporting solids upwards by pulses is described. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Hot Jupiters and cool stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaver, Eva; Mustill, Alexander J.; Livio, Mario; Siess, Lionel


    Close-in planets are in jeopardy, as their host stars evolve off the main sequence (MS) to the subgiant and red giant phases. In this paper, we explore the influences of the stellar mass (in the range 1.5-2 M ☉ ), mass-loss prescription, planet mass (from Neptune up to 10 Jupiter masses), and eccentricity on the orbital evolution of planets as their parent stars evolve to become subgiants and red giants. We find that planet engulfment along the red giant branch is not very sensitive to the stellar mass or mass-loss rates adopted in the calculations, but quite sensitive to the planetary mass. The range of initial separations for planet engulfment increases with decreasing mass-loss rates or stellar masses and increasing planetary masses. Regarding the planet's orbital eccentricity, we find that as the star evolves into the red giant phase, stellar tides start to dominate over planetary tides. As a consequence, a transient population of moderately eccentric close-in Jovian planets is created that otherwise would have been expected to be absent from MS stars. We find that very eccentric and distant planets do not experience much eccentricity decay, and that planet engulfment is primarily determined by the pericenter distance and the maximum stellar radius.

  17. Dynamical evolution of V-type photometric candidates in the central and outer main belt asteroids (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Huaman, M.


    V-type asteroids are associated with basaltic composition, and are supposed to be fragments of crust of differentiated objects. Most V-type asteroids in the main belt are found in the inner main belt, and are either current members of the Vesta dynamical family (Vestoids), or past members that drifted away. However, several V-type photometric candidates have been recently identified in the central and outer main belt. The origin of this large population of V-type objects is not well understood, since it seems unlikely that Vestoids crossing the 3:1 and 5:2 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter could account for the whole observed population. In this work, we investigated a possible origin of the bodies from local sources, such as the parent bodies of the Eunomia, Merxia, and Agnia asteroid families in the central main belt, and Dembowska, Eos and Magnya asteroid families in the outer main belt. Our results show that dynamical evolution from the parent bodies of the Eunomia and Merxia/Agnia families on timescales of 2 Gyr or more could be responsible for the current orbital location of most of the V-type photometric candidates in the central main belt. Studies for the outer main belt are currently in progress. by the FAPESP (grant 2011/19863-3) and CAPES (grant 15029-12-3) funding agencies.

  18. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  19. Linking the collisional history of the main asteroid belt to its dynamical excitation and depletion (United States)

    Bottke, William F.; Durda, Daniel D.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Levison, Harold F.


    The main belt is believed to have originally contained an Earth mass or more of material, enough to allow the asteroids to accrete on relatively short timescales. The present-day main belt, however, only contains ˜5×10 Earth masses. Numerical simulations suggest that this mass loss can be explained by the dynamical depletion of main belt material via gravitational perturbations from planetary embryos and a newly-formed Jupiter. To explore this scenario, we combined dynamical results from Petit et al. [Petit, J. Morbidelli, A., Chambers, J., 2001. The primordial excitation and clearing of the asteroid belt. Icarus 153, 338-347] with a collisional evolution code capable of tracking how the main belt undergoes comminution and dynamical depletion over 4.6 Gyr [Bottke, W.F., Durda, D., Nesvorny, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H., 2005. The fossilized size distribution of the main asteroid belt. Icarus 175, 111-140]. Our results were constrained by the main belt's size-frequency distribution, the number of asteroid families produced by disruption events from diameter D>100 km parent bodies over the last 3-4 Gyr, the presence of a single large impact crater on Vesta's intact basaltic crust, and the relatively constant lunar and terrestrial impactor flux over the last 3 Gyr. We used our model to set limits on the initial size of the main belt as well as Jupiter's formation time. We find the most likely formation time for Jupiter was 3.3±2.6 Myr after the onset of fragmentation in the main belt. These results are consistent with the estimated mean disk lifetime of 3 Myr predicted by Haisch et al. [Haisch, K.E., Lada, E.A., Lada, C.J., 2001. Disk frequencies and lifetimes in young clusters. Astrophys. J. 553, L153-L156]. The post-accretion main belt population, in the form of diameter D≲1000 km planetesimals, was likely to have been 160±40 times the current main belt's mass. This corresponds to 0.06-0.1 Earth masses, only a small fraction

  20. Variability of Jupiter's Five-Micron Hot Spot Inventory (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Wakefield, L.; Rogers, J. H.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Boydstun, K.


    Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. We track the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-micron hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5degN (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images. Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-microns thermal radiance. Ortiz et al. (1998, GRL, 103) characterized the latitude and drift rates of the hot spots, including the descent of the Galileo probe at the southern edge of a 5-micron hot spot, as the superposition of equatorial Rossby waves, with phase speeds between 99 - 103m/s, relative to System III. We note that the high 5-micron radiances correlate well but not perfectly with high 8.57-micron radiances. Because the latter are modulated primarily by changes in the upper ammonia (NH3) ice cloud opacity, this correlation implies that changes in the ammonia ice cloud field may be responsible for the variability seen in the 5-m maps. During the NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were absent, an atmospheric state not seen in decades. The ongoing NEB revival indicates nascent 5-m hot spots as early as April 2012, with corresponding visible dark spots. Their continuing growth through July 2012 indicates the possit.le re-establishment of Rossby waves. The South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and NEB revivals began similarly with an instability that developed into a major outbreak, and many similarities in the observed propagation of clear regions.

  1. New Measurements Of Jupiter's Equatorial Region In Visible Wavelengths (United States)

    Rojas, Jose; Arregi, J.; García-Melendo, E.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Hueso, R.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.


    We have studied the equatorial region of Jupiter, between 15ºS and 15ºN, on Cassini ISS images obtained during the Jupiter flyby at the end of 2000 and on HST images acquired in May and July 2008. We have found significant longitudinal variations in the intensity of the 6ºN eastward jet, up to 60 m s-1 in Cassini and HST observations. In the HST case we found that these longitudinal variations are associated to different cloud morphology. Photometric and radiative transfer analysis of the cloud features used as tracers in HST images shows that there is only a small height difference, no larger than 0.5 - 1 scale heights at most, between the slow ( 100 m s-1) and fast ( 150 m s-1) moving features. This suggests that speed variability at 6ºN is not dominated by vertical wind shears and we propose that Rossby wave activity is the responsible for the zonal variability. After removing this variability we found that Jupiter's equatorial jet is actually symmetric relative to the equator with two peaks of 140 - 150 m s-1 located at latitudes 6ºN and 6ºS and at a similar pressure level. We also studied a large, long-lived feature called the White Spot (WS) located at 6ºS that turns to form and desapear. The internal flow field in the White Spot indicates that it is a weakly rotating quasi-equatorial anticyclone relative to the ambient meridionally sheared flow. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showman, Adam P.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Shabram, Megan


    The meteorology of hot Jupiters has been characterized primarily with thermal measurements, but recent observations suggest the possibility of directly detecting the winds by observing the Doppler shift of spectral lines seen during transit. Motivated by these observations, we show how Doppler measurements can place powerful constraints on the meteorology. We show that the atmospheric circulation—and Doppler signature—of hot Jupiters splits into two regimes. Under weak stellar insolation, the day-night thermal forcing generates fast zonal jet streams from the interaction of atmospheric waves with the mean flow. In this regime, air along the terminator (as seen during transit) flows toward Earth in some regions and away from Earth in others, leading to a Doppler signature exhibiting superposed blueshifted and redshifted components. Under intense stellar insolation, however, the strong thermal forcing damps these planetary-scale waves, inhibiting their ability to generate jets. Strong frictional drag likewise damps these waves and inhibits jet formation. As a result, this second regime exhibits a circulation dominated by high-altitude, day-to-night airflow, leading to a predominantly blueshifted Doppler signature during transit. We present state-of-the-art circulation models including non-gray radiative transfer to quantify this regime shift and the resulting Doppler signatures; these models suggest that cool planets like GJ 436b lie in the first regime, HD 189733b is transitional, while planets hotter than HD 209458b lie in the second regime. Moreover, we show how the amplitude of the Doppler shifts constrains the strength of frictional drag in the upper atmospheres of hot Jupiters. If due to winds, the ∼2 km s –1 blueshift inferred on HD 209458b may require drag time constants as short as 10 4 -10 6 s, possibly the result of Lorentz-force braking on this planet's hot dayside.

  3. A possibly universal red chromophore for modeling color variations on Jupiter (United States)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Baines, K. H.; Fry, P. M.; Carlson, R. W.


    A new laboratory-generated chemical compound made from photodissociated ammonia (NH3) molecules reacting with acetylene (C2H2) was suggested as a possible coloring agent for Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) by Carlson et al. (2016, Icarus 274, 106-115). Baines et al. (2016, Icarus, submitted) showed that the GRS spectrum measured by the visual channels of the Cassini VIMS instrument in 2000 could be accurately fit by a cloud model in which the chromophore appeared as a physically thin layer of small particles immediately above the main cloud layer of the GRS. Here we show that the same chromophore and same layer location can also provide close matches to the short wavelength spectra of many other cloud features on Jupiter, suggesting this material may be a nearly universal chromophore that could explain the various degrees of red coloration on Jupiter. This is a robust conclusion, even for 12% changes in VIMS calibration and large uncertainties in the refractive index of the main cloud layer due to uncertain fractions of NH4SH and NH3 in its cloud particles. The chromophore layer can account for color variations among north and south equatorial belts, equatorial zone, and the Great Red Spot, by varying particle size from 0.12 μm to 0.29 μm and 1-μm optical depth from 0.06 to 0.76. The total mass of the chromophore layer is much less variable, ranging from 18 to 30 μg/cm2, except in the equatorial zone, where it is only 10-13 μg/cm2. We also found a depression of the ammonia volume mixing ratio in the two belt regions, which averaged 0.4 - 0.5 ×10-4 immediately below the ammonia condensation level, while the other regions averaged twice that value.

  4. Spectral Comparison and Stability of Red Regions on Jupiter (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Carlson, R. W.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.


    A study of absolute color on Jupiter from Hubble Space Telescope imaging data shows that the Great Red Spot (GRS) is not the reddest region of the planet. Rather, a transient red cyclone visible in 1995 and the North Equatorial Belt both show redder spectra than the GRS (i.e., more absorption at blue and green wavelengths). This cyclone is unique among vortices in that it is intensely colored yet low altitude, unlike the GRS. Temporal analysis shows that the darkest regions of the NEB are relative constant in color from 1995 to 2008, while the slope of the GRS core may vary slightly. Principal component analysis shows several spectral components are needed, in agreement with past work, and further highlights the differences between regions. These color differences may be indicative of the same chromophore(s) under different conditions, such as mixing with white clouds, longer UV irradiation at higher altitude, and thermal processing, or may indicate abundance variations in colored compounds. A single compound does not fit the spectrum of any region well and mixes of multiple compounds including NH4SH, photolyzed NH3, hydrocarbons, and possibly P4, are likely needed to fully match each spectrum.

  5. SPEAKING IN LIGHT - Jupiter radio signals as deflections of light-emitting electron beams in a vacuum chamber (United States)

    Petrovic, K.


    Light emitting electron beam generated in a vacuum chamber is used as a medium for visualizing Jupiter's electromagnetic radiation. Dual dipole array antenna is receiving HF radio signals that are next amplified to radiate a strong electromagnetic field capable of influencing the propagation of electron beam in plasma. Installation aims to provide a platform for observing the characteristics of light emitting beam in 3D, as opposed to the experiments with cathode ray tubes in 2-dimensional television screens. Gas giant 'speaking' to us by radio waves bends the light in the tube, allowing us to see and hear the messages of Jupiter - God of light and sky.

  6. On possible life on Jupiter's satellite Io (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.


    Some of the satellites of Jupiter may well be suitable both for mastering, and for finding possible traces of life there. Among them such satellite like Io - nearest Galilean satellite of Jupiter, and one of the most volcanically active bodies in the solar system. Warming of the mantle is caused by a powerful tidal force from the side of Jupiter. This leads to the heating of some parts of the mantle to a temperature above 1800 K, with an average surface temperature of about 140 K. But under its surface can be safe and even comfortable shelters, where life could once have come from the outside (even in a very primitive form), and could survive to this day. Moreover, according to some model's assumptions, Io could sometime be formed in another part of the Solar system, where the water could exist. Note that on neighboring Galilean satellites now exist significant amounts of water .

  7. Deconstructing the conveyor belt. (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan


    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  8. Flow of Energy through the Inner Magnetosphere during the March 17, 2015 solar storm as observed by the Van Allen Probes Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) (United States)

    Manweiler, J. W.; Madanian, H.; Gerrard, A. J.; Patterson, J. D.; Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.


    On March 17, 2015, a large solar storm impacted the Earth's magnetosphere with a maximum negative Dst of -232 nT. We report on the temporal and spatial evolution of the proton energetic particle distributions in phase space during this storm, as measured by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on board each of the Van Allen Probes. We characterize the distribution prior to onset of the storm to provide a definition of quiet time conditions. We then show how the distribution evolves during the storm noting key changes of the distribution as a function of L and MLT and showing how the pitch angle distributions change throughout the storm. These observations displayed a number of interesting features of the storm including high beta plasma conditions and multiple injections of protons into the inner magnetosphere. We present the radial changes of the distribution at storm onset and following the evolution of the distribution during storm recovery. We compare observations of the East/West asymmetry in the proton distribution before versus after onset using both Van Allen Probes A and B spacecraft observations. Finally, we note interesting changes in the distribution showing an anomalous dropout in mid-energies of the distribution and observe an outward radial propagation of this dropout during recovery.

  9. Thermal tides on a hot Jupiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh H.-F.


    Full Text Available Following the linear analysis laid out by Gu & Ogilvie 2009 (hereafter GO09, we investigate the dynamical response of a non-synchronized hot Jupiter to stellar irradiation. Besides the internal and Rossby waves considered by GO09, we study the Kelvin waves excited by the diurnal Fourier harmonic of the prograde stellar irradiation. We also present a 2-dimensional plot of internal waves excited by the semi-diurnal component of the stellar irradiation and postulate that thermal bulges may arise in a hot Jupiter. Whether our postulation is valid and is consistent with the recent results from Arras & Socrates (2009b requires further investigation.

  10. Lucy: Navigating a Jupiter Trojan Tour (United States)

    Stanbridge, Dale; Williams, Ken; Williams, Bobby; Jackman, Coralie; Weaver, Hal; Berry, Kevin; Sutter, Brian; Englander, Jacob


    In January 2017, NASA selected the Lucy mission to explore six Jupiter Trojan asteroids. These six bodies, remnants of the primordial material that formed the outer planets, were captured in the Sun-Jupiter L4 and L5 Lagrangian regions early in the solar system formation. These particular bodies were chosen because of their diverse spectral properties and the chance to observe up close for the first time two orbiting approximately equal mass binaries, Patroclus and Menoetius. KinetX, Inc. is the primary navigation supplier for the Lucy mission. This paper describes preliminary navigation analyses of the approach phase for each Trojan encounter.

  11. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the jupiter environment. (United States)

    Stone, R G; Pedersen, B M; Harvey, C C; Canu, P; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N; Desch, M D; de Villedary, C; Fainberg, J; Farrell, W M; Goetz, K; Hess, R A; Hoang, S; Kaiser, M L; Kellogg, P J; Lecacheux, A; Lin, N; Macdowall, R J; Manning, R; Meetre, C A; Meyer-Vernet, N; Moncuquet, M; Osherovich, V; Reiner, M J; Tekle, A; Thiessen, J; Zarka, P


    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of aurorallike hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the lo plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the lo torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.

  12. Reconstructing the size distribution of the primordial Main Belt (United States)

    Tsirvoulis, G.; Morbidelli, A.; Delbo, M.; Tsiganis, K.


    In this work we aim to constrain the slope of the size distribution of main-belt asteroids, at their primordial state. To do so we turn out attention to the part of the main asteroid belt between 2.82 and 2.96 AU, the so-called "pristine zone", which has a low number density of asteroids and few, well separated asteroid families. Exploiting these unique characteristics, and using a modified version of the hierarchical clustering method we are able to remove the majority of asteroid family members from the region. The remaining, background asteroids should be of primordial origin, as the strong 5/2 and 7/3 mean-motion resonances with Jupiter inhibit transfer of asteroids to and from the neighboring regions. The size-frequency distribution of asteroids in the size range 17 size distribution slope q = - 1.43 . In addition, applying the same 'family extraction' method to the neighboring regions, i.e. the middle and outer belts, and comparing the size distributions of the respective background populations, we find statistical evidence that no large asteroid families of primordial origin had formed in the middle or pristine zones.

  13. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  14. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.


    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  15. From Basking Ridge to the Jupiter Trojans (United States)

    Englander, Jacob


    This presentation describes the activities of the Global Trajectory Optimization Lab, a subdivision of the Navigation and Mission Design Branch at NASA GSFC. The students will learn the basics of interplanetary trajectory optimization and then, as an example, the Lucy mission to the Jupiter Trojans will be described from both a science and engineering perspective.

  16. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy. (United States)

    Huttemeyer, Bob


    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…


    The JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) project seeks to enhance and build on the technology and momentum behind two of the most popular sensitivity analysis, data assessment, calibration, and uncertainty analysis programs used in envi...

  18. Jupiter Quest: A Path to Scientific Discovery. (United States)

    Bollman, Kelly A.; Rodgers, Mark H.; Mauller, Robert L.


    To experience the world of professional science, students must have access to the scientific community and be allowed to become real scientists. A partnership involving the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Lewis Center for Educational Research has produced Jupiter Quest, an engaging curriculum…

  19. Meteorite Dichotomy Implies that Jupiter Formed Early (United States)

    Kruijer, T. S.; Burkhardt, C.; Budde, G.; Kleine, T.


    Meteorites derive from two distinct nebular reservoirs that co-existed and remained spatially separated between 1 and 3–4 Ma after CAIs. This can most easily be explained if Jupiter acted as a barrier and formed early, within less than 1 Ma.

  20. Baby Jupiters Must Gain Weight Fast (United States)


    This photograph from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the young star cluster NGC 2362. By studying it, astronomers found that gas giant planet formation happens very rapidly and efficiently, within less than 5 million years, meaning that Jupiter-like worlds experience a growth spurt in their infancy.

  1. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 meets Jupiter. (United States)

    Levy, D. H.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.


    The impact of comet D/1993 F2 (Shoemaker-Levy 9) with Jupiter was unforgettable, an event probably not to be repeated for millennia to come. One year later the astronomers who first spotted the comet reflect on their discovery, on the anxious months of anticipation before the collision and on what has been learned since.

  2. Origin and evolution of Jupiter and Saturn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S S [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville (USA)


    Arguments are presented which make it very unlikely that Jupiter and Saturn were formed by contraction from initially extended gaseous states. Formation of these and other planets (in the solar system) by the mechanism of accretion does not appear to present any difficulties.

  3. Juno's first peek at Jupiter's interior (United States)

    Guillot, Tristan; Miguel, Yamila; Hubbard, William B.; Kaspi, Yohai; Reese, Daniel; Helled, Ravit; Galanti, Eli; Militzer, Burkhard; Wahl, Sean; Folkner, William M.; Anderson, John; Iess, Luciano; Durante, Daniele; Parisi, Marzia; Stevenson, David J.


    The first orbits of Juno around Jupiter have led to a considerable improvement in the measurement of the planet's even gravitational moments. We will discuss how this leads to better constraints on jovian interior models, and how internal differential rotation and equations of state play an important part in the analysis.

  4. Why Are Hot Jupiters So Lonely? (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Jupiter-like planets with blisteringly close-in orbits are generally friendless, with no nearbyplanets transiting along with them. Giant planets with orbits a little further out, on the other hand, often have at least one companion. A new study examines the cause of hot Jupiters loneliness.Forming Close-In GiantsArtists impression of a planet forming within a protoplanetary disk. [NAOJ]Though weve studied close-in giant planets for decades now, we still dont fully understand how these objects form and evolve. Jupiter-like giant planets could form in situ next to their host stars, or they could form further out in the system beyond the ice line and then migrate inwards. And if they do migrate, this migration could occur early, while the protoplanetary disk still exists, or long after, via excitation of large eccentricities.We can try to resolve this mystery by examining the statistics of the close-in giant planets weve observed, but this often raises more questions than it answers. A prime example: the properties of close-in giants that have close-in companion planets orbiting in the same plane (i.e., co-transiting).About half of warm Jupiters Jupiter-like planets with periods of 1030 days appear to have close-in, co-transiting companions. In contrast, almost no hot Jupiters Jupiter-like planets with periods of less than 10 days have such companions. What causes this dichotomy?Schematic of the authors model, in which the close-in giant (m1) encounters a resonance with its host star, causing the orbit of the exterior companion (m2) to become tilted. [Spalding Batygin 2017]Friendless Hot JupitersWhile traditional models have argued that the two types of planets form via different pathways warm Jupiters form in situ, or else migrate inward early and smoothly, whereas hot Jupiters migrate inward late and violently, losing their companions in the process a new study casts doubt on this picture.Two scientists from the California Institute of Technology, Christopher

  5. Belt for picking up liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R B.H.; Nelson, S P


    This belt for picking up liquids consists of a layer of strong material, e.g., coarse cloth, sewed on at least one layer of absorbing material, e.g., sponge cloth, the stitching being disposed along chevrons with their apexes along the central axis of the belt; the edges do not contain any other marks. This arrangement facilitates the expulsion of the absorbed liquid when the belt passes between compression rollers.

  6. Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence nanoanalyses of the metallome of a ~3.3 Ga-old microbial biofilm from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa. (United States)

    Hubert, A.; Lemelle, L.; Salome, M.; Cloetens, P.; Westall, F.; Simionovici, A.


    Combining in situ nanometer-scale techniques on the fossilized Josefsdal Chert Microbial Biofilm (JCMB) reveals a distinct vertical structural and compositional organisation: the lower part is calcified as aragonite, while the upper non-calcified kerogenous layer is characterised by up to 1% sulphur [1]. The in situ analysis of all the metals as a group represents a useful microbial fingerprint [2] and we will continue to explore it. Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence maps of high spatial resolution (Conference Proceedings, 1221, 131-138. 4. Bleuet P., et al., 2008. App. Phys. Lett., 92, 213111-1-3. 5. Golosio B., et al., 2003. Appl. Phys., 94, 145-157. 6. M. Haschke, 2003. PhD dissertation, T.U. Berlin. 7. Simionovici A. S., et al., 2010. Proceedings of the Meteoritical Society Conference, N.Y., USA. 8. Solé V.A., et al., 2006, Elsevier, 62, 63-68.

  7. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe


    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  8. Jupiter: His limb darkening and the magnitude of his internal energy source (United States)

    Trafton, L.M.; Wildey, R.L.


    The most accurate infrared photometric observations (8 to 14 microns) to date of the average limb darkening of Jupiter have been combined with the most refined deduction of jovian model atmospheres in which flux constancy has been closely maintained in the upper regime of radiative equilibrium and a much more accurate approximation of the 10- and 16-micron vibration-rotation bands of ammonia has been incorporated. The theoretically predicted emergent specific intensity has been multiplied by the spectral response function and folded (mathematically convolved - intersmeared) with the spatial response function of the atmosphere-telescope-photometer combination. The resulting comparison indicates that Jupiter is radiating from three to four times as much power as the planet is receiving from the sun.

  9. Comparison of the orbital properties of Jupiter Trojan asteroids and Trojan dust (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Schmidt, Jrgen


    In a previous paper we simulated the orbital evolution of dust particles from the Jupiter Trojan asteroids ejected by the impacts of interplanetary particles, and evaluated their overall configuration in the form of dust arcs. Here we compare the orbital properties of these Trojan dust particles and the Trojan asteroids. Both Trojan asteroids and most of the dust particles are trapped in the Jupiter 1:1 resonance. However, for dust particles, this resonance is modified because of the presence of solar radiation pressure, which reduces the peak value of the semi-major axis distribution. We find also that some particles can be trapped in the Saturn 1:1 resonance and higher order resonances with Jupiter. The distributions of the eccentricity, the longitude of pericenter, and the inclination for Trojans and the dust are compared. For the Trojan asteroids, the peak in the longitude of pericenter distribution is about 60 degrees larger than the longitude of pericenter of Jupiter; in contrast, for Trojan dust this difference is smaller than 60 degrees, and it decreases with decreasing grain size. For the Trojan asteroids and most of the Trojan dust, the Tisserand parameter is distributed in the range of two to three.

  10. Strong Solar Control of Infrared Aurora on Jupiter: Correlation Since the Last Solar Maximum (United States)

    Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Hewagama, T.


    Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora, acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane emission brightness and solar 10.7 cm radio flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high solar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the Europa Jupiter System Mission. Results of observations at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) operated by the University of Hawaii under Cooperative Agreement no. NCC5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Astronomy Program. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program.

  11. Infrared rotational light curves on Jupiter induced by wave activities and cloud patterns andimplications on brown dwarfs (United States)

    Ge, Huazhi; Zhang, Xi; Fletcher, Leigh; Orton, Glenn S.; Sinclair, James Andrew; Fernandes,, Joshua; Momary, Thomas W.; Warren, Ari; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sato, Takao M.; Fujiyoshi, Takuya


    Many brown dwarfs exhibit infrared rotational light curves with amplitude varying from a fewpercent to twenty percent (Artigau et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 1534; Radigan et al. 2012, ApJ, 750,105). Recently, it was claimed that weather patterns, especially planetary-scale waves in thebelts and cloud spots, are responsible for the light curves and their evolutions on brown dwarfs(Apai et al. 2017, Science, 357, 683). Here we present a clear relationship between the direct IRemission maps and light curves of Jupiter at multiple wavelengths, which might be similar withthat on cold brown dwarfs. Based on infrared disk maps from Subaru/COMICS and VLT/VISIR,we constructed full maps of Jupiter and rotational light curves at different wavelengths in thethermal infrared. We discovered a strong relationship between the light curves and weatherpatterns on Jupiter. The light curves also exhibit strong multi-bands phase shifts and temporalvariations, similar to that detected on brown dwarfs. Together with the spectra fromTEXES/IRTF, our observations further provide detailed information of the spatial variations oftemperature, ammonia clouds and aerosols in the troposphere of Jupiter (Fletcher et al. 2016,Icarus, 2016 128) and their influences on the shapes of the light curves. We conclude that waveactivities in Jupiter’s belts (Fletcher et al. 2017, GRL, 44, 7140), cloud holes, and long-livedvortices such as the Great Red Spot and ovals control the shapes of IR light curves and multi-wavelength phase shifts on Jupiter. Our finding supports the hypothesis that observed lightcurves on brown dwarfs are induced by planetary-scale waves and cloud spots.

  12. Chemical fingerprints of hot Jupiter planet formation (United States)

    Maldonado, J.; Villaver, E.; Eiroa, C.


    Context. The current paradigm to explain the presence of Jupiter-like planets with small orbital periods (P involves their formation beyond the snow line following inward migration, has been challenged by recent works that explore the possibility of in situ formation. Aims: We aim to test whether stars harbouring hot Jupiters and stars with more distant gas-giant planets show any chemical peculiarity that could be related to different formation processes. Methods: Our methodology is based on the analysis of high-resolution échelle spectra. Stellar parameters and abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn for a sample of 88 planet hosts are derived. The sample is divided into stars hosting hot (a 0.1 au) Jupiter-like planets. The metallicity and abundance trends of the two sub-samples are compared and set in the context of current models of planet formation and migration. Results: Our results show that stars with hot Jupiters have higher metallicities than stars with cool distant gas-giant planets in the metallicity range +0.00/+0.20 dex. The data also shows a tendency of stars with cool Jupiters to show larger abundances of α elements. No abundance differences between stars with cool and hot Jupiters are found when considering iron peak, volatile elements or the C/O, and Mg/Si ratios. The corresponding p-values from the statistical tests comparing the cumulative distributions of cool and hot planet hosts are 0.20, products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 072.C-0033(A), 072.C-0488(E), 074.B-0455(A), 075.C-0202(A), 077.C-0192(A), 077.D-0525(A), 078.C-0378(A), 078.C-0378(B), 080.A-9021(A), 082.C-0312(A) 082.C-0446(A), 083.A-9003(A), 083.A-9011(A), 083.A-9011(B), 083.A-9013(A), 083.C-0794(A), 084.A-9003(A), 084.A-9004(B), 085.A-9027(A), 085.C-0743(A), 087.A-9008(A), 088.C-0892(A), 089.C-0440(A), 089.C-0444(A), 089.C-0732(A), 090.C-0345(A), 092.A-9002(A), 192.C-0852

  13. Geography of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  14. Status of Galileo interim radiation electron model (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.


    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EDP) were used to develop a new model of Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii.

  15. A New Approach to Modeling Jupiter's Magnetosphere (United States)

    Fukazawa, K.; Katoh, Y.; Walker, R. J.; Kimura, T.; Tsuchiya, F.; Murakami, G.; Kita, H.; Tao, C.; Murata, K. T.


    The scales in planetary magnetospheres range from 10s of planetary radii to kilometers. For a number of years we have studied the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn by using 3-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, we have not been able to reach even the limits of the MHD approximation because of the large amount of computer resources required. Recently thanks to the progress in supercomputer systems, we have obtained the capability to simulate Jupiter's magnetosphere with 1000 times the number of grid points used in our previous simulations. This has allowed us to combine the high resolution global simulation with a micro-scale simulation of the Jovian magnetosphere. In particular we can combine a hybrid (kinetic ions and fluid electrons) simulation with the MHD simulation. In addition, the new capability enables us to run multi-parameter survey simulations of the Jupiter-solar wind system. In this study we performed a high-resolution simulation of Jovian magnetosphere to connect with the hybrid simulation, and lower resolution simulations under the various solar wind conditions to compare with Hisaki and Juno observations. In the high-resolution simulation we used a regular Cartesian gird with 0.15 RJ grid spacing and placed the inner boundary at 7 RJ. From these simulation settings, we provide the magnetic field out to around 20 RJ from Jupiter as a background field for the hybrid simulation. For the first time we have been able to resolve Kelvin Helmholtz waves on the magnetopause. We have investigated solar wind dynamic pressures between 0.01 and 0.09 nPa for a number of IMF values. These simulation data are open for the registered users to download the raw data. We have compared the results of these simulations with Hisaki auroral observations.

  16. Modeling Magnetospheric Fields in the Jupiter System


    Saur, Joachim; Chané, Emmanuel; Hartkorn, Oliver


    The various processes which generate magnetic fields within the Jupiter system are exemplary for a large class of similar processes occurring at other planets in the solar system, but also around extrasolar planets. Jupiter’s large internal dynamo magnetic field generates a gigantic magnetosphere, which in contrast to Earth’s magnetosphere is strongly rotational driven and possesses large plasma sources located deeply within the magnetosphere. The combination of the latter two effects is the ...

  17. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio


    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10 –8 . This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro


    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to ∼5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) × 10 –7 for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) × 10 7 planetesimals with absolute magnitude H disk ∼ 14-28 M Earth , is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  19. A retrograde object near Jupiter's orbit (United States)

    Connors, M.; Wiegert, P.


    Asteroid 2007 VW266 is among the rare objects with a heliocentric retrograde orbit, and its semimajor axis is within a Hill sphere radius of that of Jupiter. This raised the interesting possibility that it could be in co-orbital retrograde resonance with Jupiter, a second "counter-orbital" object in addition to recently discovered 2015 BZ509. We find instead that the object is in 13/14 retrograde mean motion resonance (also referred to as 13/-14). The object is shown to have entered its present orbit about 1700 years ago, and it will leave it in about 8000 years, both through close approach to Jupiter. Entry and exit states both avoid 1:1 retrograde resonance, but the retrograde nature is preserved. The temporary stable state is due to an elliptic orbit with high inclination keeping nodal passages far from the associated planet. We discuss the motion of this unusual object based on modeling and theory, and its observational prospects.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E., E-mail: [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    One of the most enigmatic and hitherto unexplained properties of Jupiter Trojans is their bimodal color distribution. This bimodality is indicative of two sub-populations within the Trojans, which have distinct size distributions. In this paper, we present a simple, plausible hypothesis for the origin and evolution of the two Trojan color sub-populations. In the framework of dynamical instability models of early solar system evolution, which suggest a common primordial progenitor population for both Trojans and Kuiper Belt objects, we use observational constraints to assert that the color bimodalities evident in both minor body populations developed within the primordial population prior to the onset of instability. We show that, beginning with an initial composition of rock and ices, location-dependent volatile loss through sublimation in this primordial population could have led to sharp changes in the surface composition with heliocentric distance. We propose that the depletion or retention of H{sub 2}S ice on the surface of these objects was the key factor in creating an initial color bimodality. Objects that retained H{sub 2}S on their surfaces developed characteristically redder colors upon irradiation than those that did not. After the bodies from the primordial population were scattered and emplaced into their current positions, they preserved this primordial color bimodality to the present day. We explore predictions of the volatile loss model—in particular, the effect of collisions within the Trojan population on the size distributions of the two sub-populations—and propose further experimental and observational tests of our hypothesis.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.


    One of the most enigmatic and hitherto unexplained properties of Jupiter Trojans is their bimodal color distribution. This bimodality is indicative of two sub-populations within the Trojans, which have distinct size distributions. In this paper, we present a simple, plausible hypothesis for the origin and evolution of the two Trojan color sub-populations. In the framework of dynamical instability models of early solar system evolution, which suggest a common primordial progenitor population for both Trojans and Kuiper Belt objects, we use observational constraints to assert that the color bimodalities evident in both minor body populations developed within the primordial population prior to the onset of instability. We show that, beginning with an initial composition of rock and ices, location-dependent volatile loss through sublimation in this primordial population could have led to sharp changes in the surface composition with heliocentric distance. We propose that the depletion or retention of H 2 S ice on the surface of these objects was the key factor in creating an initial color bimodality. Objects that retained H 2 S on their surfaces developed characteristically redder colors upon irradiation than those that did not. After the bodies from the primordial population were scattered and emplaced into their current positions, they preserved this primordial color bimodality to the present day. We explore predictions of the volatile loss model—in particular, the effect of collisions within the Trojan population on the size distributions of the two sub-populations—and propose further experimental and observational tests of our hypothesis.

  2. UV Reflectance of Jupiter's Moon Europa and Asteroid (16) Psyche (United States)

    Becker, T. M.; Retherford, K. D.; Roth, L.; Hendrix, A.; McGrath, M. A.; Cunningham, N.; Feaga, L. M.; Saur, J.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Walhund, J. E.; Molyneux, P.


    Surface reflectance observations of solar system objects in the UV are not only complimentary to longer wavelength observations for identifying surface composition, but can also reveal new and meaningful information about the surfaces of those bodies. On Europa, far-UV (FUV) spectral observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) show that the surface lacks a strong water ice absorption edge near 165 nm, which is intriguing because such a band has been detected on most icy satellites. This may suggest that radiolytic processing by Jupiter's magnetosphere has altered the surface, causing absorption at wavelengths longward of the H2O edge, masking this feature. Additionally, the FUV spectra are blue (increasing albedo with shorter wavelengths), and regions that are observed to be dark in the visible appear bright in the FUV. This spectral inversion, also observed on the Moon and some asteroids, may provide insight into the properties of the surface material and how they are processed.We also explore the UV reflectance spectra of the main belt asteroid (16) Psyche. This asteroid is believed to be the metallic remnant core of a differentiated asteroid, stripped of its mantle through collisions. However, there is speculation that the asteroid could have formed as-is from highly reduced metal-rich material near the Sun early in the formation of the solar system. Further, spectral observations in the infrared have revealed pyroxene and hydroxyl on the asteroid's surface, complicating the interpretation that (16) Psyche is a pure metallic object. Laboratory studies indicate that there are diagnostic spectral features in the UV that could be useful for determining the surface composition. We obtained HST observations of Psyche from 160 - 300 nm. Preliminary results show a featureless, red-sloped spectrum, inconsistent with significant amounts of pyroxene on the surface. We will present the spectra of Europa and the asteroid (16) Psyche and discuss the unique details


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izidoro, André; Raymond, Sean N.; Pierens, Arnaud [Laboratoire d’astrophysique de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac (France); Morbidelli, Alessandro [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Winter, Othon C. [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista—Grupo de Dinâmica Orbital and Planetologia, Guaratinguetá, CEP 12.516-410, São Paulo (Brazil); Nesvorny' , David, E-mail: [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)


    The orbital structure of the asteroid belt holds a record of the solar system’s dynamical history. The current belt only contains ∼10{sup −3} Earth masses yet the asteroids’ orbits are dynamically excited, with a large spread in eccentricity and inclination. In the context of models of terrestrial planet formation, the belt may have been excited by Jupiter’s orbital migration. The terrestrial planets can also be reproduced without invoking a migrating Jupiter; however, as it requires a severe mass deficit beyond Earth’s orbit, this model systematically under-excites the asteroid belt. Here we show that the orbits of the asteroids may have been excited to their current state if Jupiter’s and Saturn’s early orbits were chaotic. Stochastic variations in the gas giants’ orbits cause resonances to continually jump across the main belt and excite the asteroids’ orbits on a timescale of tens of millions of years. While hydrodynamical simulations show that the gas giants were likely in mean motion resonance at the end of the gaseous disk phase, small perturbations could have driven them into a chaotic but stable state. The gas giants’ current orbits were achieved later, during an instability in the outer solar system. Although it is well known that the present-day solar system exhibits chaotic behavior, our results suggest that the early solar system may also have been chaotic.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R., E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    We present dual-band Herschel /PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust ( T {sub warm} ∼ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer . Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μ m), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid–Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer /IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μ m) and Herschel /PACS (70-to-160 μ m) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout ( f {sub MB} = a {sub min}/ a {sub BOS} ∼ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel -unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems.

  5. Mass-loss evolution of close-in exoplanets: Evaporation of hot Jupiters and the effect on population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, H.; Nakamoto, T.


    During their evolution, short-period exoplanets may lose envelope mass through atmospheric escape owing to intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from their host stars. Roche-lobe overflow induced by orbital evolution or intense atmospheric escape can also contribute to mass loss. To study the effects of mass loss on inner planet populations, we calculate the evolution of hot Jupiters considering mass loss of their envelopes and thermal contraction. Mass loss is assumed to occur through XUV-driven atmospheric escape and the following Roche-lobe overflow. The runaway effect of mass loss results in a dichotomy of populations: hot Jupiters that retain their envelopes and super Earths whose envelopes are completely lost. Evolution primarily depends on the core masses of planets and only slightly on migration history. In hot Jupiters with small cores (≅ 10 Earth masses), runaway atmospheric escape followed by Roche-lobe overflow may create sub-Jupiter deserts, as observed in both mass and radius distributions of planetary populations. Comparing our results with formation scenarios and observed exoplanets populations, we propose that populations of closely orbiting exoplanets are formed by capturing planets at/inside the inner edges of protoplanetary disks and subsequent evaporation of sub-Jupiters.

  6. Mass-loss evolution of close-in exoplanets: Evaporation of hot Jupiters and the effect on population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, H. [Department of Physics, Nagoya Univsersity, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Nakamoto, T., E-mail: [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)


    During their evolution, short-period exoplanets may lose envelope mass through atmospheric escape owing to intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from their host stars. Roche-lobe overflow induced by orbital evolution or intense atmospheric escape can also contribute to mass loss. To study the effects of mass loss on inner planet populations, we calculate the evolution of hot Jupiters considering mass loss of their envelopes and thermal contraction. Mass loss is assumed to occur through XUV-driven atmospheric escape and the following Roche-lobe overflow. The runaway effect of mass loss results in a dichotomy of populations: hot Jupiters that retain their envelopes and super Earths whose envelopes are completely lost. Evolution primarily depends on the core masses of planets and only slightly on migration history. In hot Jupiters with small cores (≅ 10 Earth masses), runaway atmospheric escape followed by Roche-lobe overflow may create sub-Jupiter deserts, as observed in both mass and radius distributions of planetary populations. Comparing our results with formation scenarios and observed exoplanets populations, we propose that populations of closely orbiting exoplanets are formed by capturing planets at/inside the inner edges of protoplanetary disks and subsequent evaporation of sub-Jupiters.

  7. Decameter radio emission of Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, B.P.; Arkhipov, A.V.; Shevchenko, V.A.


    Recent observations (1980 to 1982) at frequency band from 10 to 23 MHz have allowed large-scale dynamic spectra of S storms to be obtained for the overall duration of each storm. The observations were carried out with the East-West arm of the broad band decametric telescope UTB-2. The minimum-detectable flux density of the emission was 10 Jy. The occurrence probability of S-bursts has shown a periodic dependence on the observation frequency, with a period about 3.5 MHz. S-bursts appear at almost all values of the Jovian central meridian longitude and Io's phase angle PHIsub(Isub(0)), except the area PHIsub(i)O)=160 deg +- 40 deg. The appearance of powerful S-burst storms is controled by Io's orbital position. They concentrate near two values of PHIsub(Isub(0)), namely PHIsub9(Isub(01))=86 deg and PHIsub(Isub(02))=234 deg. All the S-bursts show a group frequency drift, with the rate varying from storm to storm between 60 and 600 kHz/min. The drift rate is positive in the strip near PHIsub(Isub(01)) and negative near PHIsub(Isub(02)). This implies that the conical radiation pattern of the decametric S-component is characterized by a frequency dependent angular structure

  8. Device for determining the content of bulk materials on conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, D.


    On the basis of the forward scattering of photon radiation the invention is aimed at determining the content of bulk material, in particular the ash content of lignite, independently of the height of the material conveyed by belts. This could be achieved by making the radiation source support movable, so that the distance between source and conveyor belt is variable and adaptable to the mean height of the bulk material


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović


    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Production of Sulfur Allotropes in Electron Irradiated Jupiter Trojans Ice Analogs (United States)

    Mahjoub, Ahmed; Poston, Michael J.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Eiler, John M.; Brown, Michael E.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Hodyss, Robert; Hand, Kevin P.; Carlson, Robert; Choukroun, Mathieu


    In this paper, we investigate sulfur chemistry in laboratory analogs of Jupiter Trojans and Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Electron irradiation experiments of CH3OH-NH3-H2O and H2S-CH3OH-NH3-H2O ices were conducted to better understand the chemical differences between primordial planetesimals inside and outside the sublimation line of H2S. The main goal of this work is to test the chemical plausibility of the hypothesis correlating the color bimodality in Jupiter Trojans with sulfur chemistry in the incipient solar system. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of the irradiated mixtures allows the detection of small sulfur allotropes (S3 and S4) after the irradiation of H2S containing ice mixtures. These small, red polymers are metastable and could polymerize further under thermal processing and irradiation, producing larger sulfur polymers (mainly S8) that are spectroscopically neutral at wavelengths above 500 nm. This transformation may affect the spectral reflectance of Jupiter Trojans in a different way compared to KBOs, thereby providing a useful framework for possibly differentiating and determining the formation and history of small bodies. Along with allotropes, we report the production of organo-sulfur molecules. Sulfur molecules produced in our experiment have been recently detected by Rosetta in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The very weak absorption of sulfur polymers in the infrared range hampers their identification on Trojans and KBOs, but these allotropes strongly absorb light at UV and Visible wavelengths. This suggests that high signal-to-noise ratio UV-Vis spectra of these objects could provide new constraints on their presence.

  11. Production of Sulfur Allotropes in Electron Irradiated Jupiter Trojans Ice Analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahjoub, Ahmed; Poston, Michael J.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Hodyss, Robert; Hand, Kevin P.; Carlson, Robert; Choukroun, Mathieu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Eiler, John M.; Brown, Michael E., E-mail: [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    In this paper, we investigate sulfur chemistry in laboratory analogs of Jupiter Trojans and Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Electron irradiation experiments of CH{sub 3}OH–NH{sub 3}–H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}S–CH{sub 3}OH–NH{sub 3}–H{sub 2}O ices were conducted to better understand the chemical differences between primordial planetesimals inside and outside the sublimation line of H{sub 2}S. The main goal of this work is to test the chemical plausibility of the hypothesis correlating the color bimodality in Jupiter Trojans with sulfur chemistry in the incipient solar system. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of the irradiated mixtures allows the detection of small sulfur allotropes (S{sub 3} and S{sub 4}) after the irradiation of H{sub 2}S containing ice mixtures. These small, red polymers are metastable and could polymerize further under thermal processing and irradiation, producing larger sulfur polymers (mainly S{sub 8}) that are spectroscopically neutral at wavelengths above 500 nm. This transformation may affect the spectral reflectance of Jupiter Trojans in a different way compared to KBOs, thereby providing a useful framework for possibly differentiating and determining the formation and history of small bodies. Along with allotropes, we report the production of organo-sulfur molecules. Sulfur molecules produced in our experiment have been recently detected by Rosetta in the coma of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The very weak absorption of sulfur polymers in the infrared range hampers their identification on Trojans and KBOs, but these allotropes strongly absorb light at UV and Visible wavelengths. This suggests that high signal-to-noise ratio UV–Vis spectra of these objects could provide new constraints on their presence.

  12. JUPOS : Amateur analysis of Jupiter images with specialized measurement software (United States)

    Jacquesson, M.; Mettig, H.-J.


    spectral range (sorted by descending priority): o color o monochrome red o IR broadband o green o not blue except for particular cases o not narrow band (except for methane band at 889nm) 5) Correct alignment of RGB color images from 3 monochrome frames 6) Choose images of better quality if several are available from about the same time An important prerequisite: adjust the outline frame correctly - Problems: o phase (darkening of the terminator) o limb darkening o tilt of the image (belt edges are not always horizontal) o north-south asymmetries (rare) o mirror-inverted images o invisibility of the illuminated limb on IR broad band and methane images - How to adjust the outline frame : o increase the luminosity and gamma to display the "real limb". This solution is not sufficient: many images do not show the real limb because of the image processing o use positions of satellites and shadows if visible o refer to latitudes of permanent or long lived objects, but only from recent images as their latitude can vary o setting the frame first on: the limb; the north and south poles; NOT at the terminator o in a series of images taken about 1 ½ hours apart, the same object must have the same position (+/- 0.5°) Measuring objects : 1) Place the WinJUPOS cursor onto the feature's centre - What to measure, what to omit? o some regions of Jupiter with big activity (SEB at present) show many small features that we omit because - finest details are often indistinguishable from image artefacts and noise - they are often short-living, and appear as "noise" in drift charts o omit measuring features too close to the planet's limb o problem with measuring the center of extended objects (e.g. GRS) : visual estimation can give a systematic error. The solution: rotate the image o diffuse features have no clear boundaries 2) Enter the standard JUPOS code of the object (longitude and latitude are automatically computed) 3) Optional: add a description of particular characteristics of the

  13. Changes in Jupiter's Zonal Wind Profile Preceding and During the Juno Mission (United States)

    Tollefson, Joshua; Wong, Michael H.; de Pater, Imke; Simon, Amy A.; Orton, Glenn S.; Rogers, John H.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Cosentino, Richard G.; Januszewski, William; Morales-Juberias, Raul; hide


    We present five epochs of WFC3 HST Jupiter observations taken between 2009-2016 and extract global zonal wind profiles for each epoch. Jupiter's zonal wind field is globally stable throughout these years, but significant variations in certain latitude regions persist. We find that the largest uncertainties in the wind field are due to vortices or hot-spots, and show residual maps which identify the strongest vortex flows. The strongest year-to-year variation in the zonal wind profiles is the 24 deg N jet peak. Numerous plume outbreaks have been observed in the Northern Temperate Belt and are associated with decreases in the zonal velocity and brightness. We show that the 24 deg N jet peak velocity and brightness decreased in 2012 and again in late 2016, following outbreaks during these years. Our February 2016 zonal wind profile was the last highly spatially resolved measurement prior to Juno s first science observations. The final 2016 data were taken in conjunction with Juno's perijove 3 pass on 11 December 2016, and show the zonal wind profile following the plume outbreak at 24 deg N in October 2016.

  14. Interplanetary electrons: what is the strength of the Jupiter source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillius, W.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Knickerbocker, P.


    Because there is not enough information to support a rigorous answer, we use a phenomenological approach and conservative assumptions to address the source strength of Jupiter for interplanetary electrons. We estimate that Jupiter emits approximately 10 24 - 10 26 electrons s -1 of energy > 6 MeV, which source may be compared with the population of approximately 3 x 10 28 electrons of the same energy in Jupiter's outer magnetosphere. We conclude that Jupiter accelerates particles at a rate exceeding that of ordinary trapped particle dynamical processes. (author)

  15. Study of Power Options for Jupiter and Outer Planet Missions (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James


    Power for missions to Jupiter and beyond presents a challenging goal for photovoltaic power systems, but NASA missions including Juno and the upcoming Europa Clipper mission have shown that it is possible to operate solar arrays at Jupiter. This work analyzes photovoltaic technologies for use in Jupiter and outer planet missions, including both conventional arrays, as well as analyzing the advantages of advanced solar cells, concentrator arrays, and thin film technologies. Index Terms - space exploration, spacecraft solar arrays, solar electric propulsion, photovoltaic cells, concentrator, Fresnel lens, Jupiter missions, outer planets.

  16. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.


    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported

  17. The formation of giant planets and its effects on protoplanetary disks: the case of Jupiter and the Jovian Early Bombardment (United States)

    Turrini, D.; ISSI Team "Vesta, the key to the origins of the Solar System"; EChO "Planetary Formation" Working Group

    The formation of giant planets is accompanied by a short but intense primordial bombardment \\citep{safronov69,weidenschilling75,weidenschilling01,turrini11}: the prototype for this class of events is the Jovian Early Bombardment (JEB) caused by the formation of Jupiter in the Solar System \\citep{turrini11,turrini12}. The JEB affected the collisional evolution of the minor bodies in the inner Solar System by inflicting mass loss to planetesimals \\citep{turrini12,turrini14a,turrini14b} due to cratering erosion and, at the same time, delivering water and volatile materials to the asteroid belt \\citep{turrini14b}. The JEB also resulted in a significant number of collisions between Jupiter and planetesimals formed over a wide orbital range, delivering volatile and refractory materials to the giant planet and its circumplanetary disk \\citep{turrini14c}. In this talk I'll discuss how the study of the effects of the JEB on Vesta can be used to constrain the early evolution of the Solar System \\citep{turrini14a,turrini14b} and how these constraints can, in turn, provide insight on the composition of Jupiter and of its satellites. Finally, I'll discuss the implications of the JEB model for extrasolar planets \\citep{turrini14c}.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  19. ESO Observations of New Moon of Jupiter (United States)


    Two astronomers, both specialists in minor bodies in the solar system, have performed observations with ESO telescopes that provide important information about a small moon, recently discovered in orbit around the solar system's largest planet, Jupiter. Brett Gladman (of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and working at Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, France) and Hermann Boehnhardt ( ESO-Paranal) obtained detailed data on the object S/1999 J 1 , definitively confirming it as a natural satellite of Jupiter. Seventeen Jovian moons are now known. The S/1999 J 1 object On July 20, 2000, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) announced on IAU Circular 7460 that orbital computations had shown a small moving object, first seen in the sky in 1999, to be a new candidate satellite of Jupiter. The conclusion was based on several positional observations of that object made in October and November 1999 with the Spacewatch Telescope of the University of Arizona (USA). In particular, the object's motion in the sky was compatible with that of an object in orbit around Jupiter. Following the official IAU procedure, the IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams designated the new object as S/1999 J 1 (the 1st candidate Satellite of Jupiter to be discovered in 1999). Details about the exciting detective story of this object's discovery can be found in an MPC press release and the corresponding Spacewatch News Note. Unfortunately, Jupiter and S/1999 J 1 were on the opposite side of the Sun as seen from the Earth during the spring of 2000. The faint object remained lost in the glare of the Sun in this period and, as expected, a search in July 2000 through all available astronomical data archives confirmed that it had not been seen since November 1999, nor before that time. With time, the extrapolated sky position of S/1999 J 1 was getting progressively less accurate. New observations were thus urgently needed to "recover

  20. Chaos on the conveyor belt. (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  1. Mobile belt conveyor


    Tenora, Jiří


    Cílem bakalářské práce je návrh pásového dopravníku pro přepravu drobného kameniva, zeminy a drobné stavební sutě s dopravním výkonem 60 t/h, výškovým rozdílem 3,5 m a vzdáleností mezi osami bubnů 8 m. Tato práce obsahuje také popis základních částí pásového dopravníku, funkční výpočty podle normy ČSN ISO 5048, návrh hlavních rozměrů dopravníku a pohonu. Celá práce se skládá z technické zprávy a výkresové dokumentace. The aim of this word is to design belt conveyor to transport tiny aggreg...

  2. JUPITER and satellites: Clinical implications of the JUPITER study and its secondary analyses. (United States)

    Kostapanos, Michael S; Elisaf, Moses S


    THE JUSTIFICATION FOR THE USE OF STATINS IN PREVENTION: an intervention trial evaluating rosuvastatin (JUPITER) study was a real breakthrough in primary cardiovascular disease prevention with statins, since it was conducted in apparently healthy individuals with normal levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C JUPITER, rosuvastatin was associated with significant reductions in cardiovascular outcomes as well as in overall mortality compared with placebo. In this paper the most important secondary analyses of the JUPITER trial are discussed, by focusing on their novel findings regarding the role of statins in primary prevention. Also, the characteristics of otherwise healthy normocholesterolemic subjects who are anticipated to benefit more from statin treatment in the clinical setting are discussed. Subjects at "intermediate" or "high" 10-year risk according to the Framingham score, those who exhibit low post-treatment levels of both LDL-C (JUPITER added to our knowledge that statins may be effective drugs in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in normocholesterolemic individuals at moderate-to-high risk. Also, statin treatment may reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism and preserve renal function. An increase in physician-reported diabetes represents a major safety concern associated with the use of the most potent statins.

  3. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  4. Shock Synthesis in the Atmosphere of Jupiter (United States)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; McDonald, G. D.; de Vanssay, E.; Borucki, W. J.; McKay, C. P.; Bernstein, M. P.; Hartman, T. G.; Lech, J.


    We have previously investigated an approximate simulation of the Jupiter troposphere at the 1 bar NH_3 cloud level using Laser Induced Plasma (LIP) for shock synthesis in a 84.62:13.3:1.07:1.01 H_2:He:CH_4:NH_3 gas mixture, and found by GC/MS that HCN is the most abundant product, more abundant than all the major product hydrocarbons (C_2H_6, C_2H_2, C_3H_8, and C_4H10) combined. Using purge and trap isolation techniques on the LIP gas mixture using two absorbent traps in tandem, thermal desorption GC/MS has revealed a large array of product molecules starting from simple hydrocarbons such as C_2H_2, C_2H_4, etc., simple nitriles such as HCN, CH_3CN, etc., to molecules up to C13 (e.g. C13H23N). Here we report the results of our more accurate simulation of Jupiter at the 5 bar level using LIP with a 88:11.7:0.2:0.1 H_2:He:CH_4:NH_3 mixture, for comparison with mass spectral data from the Galileo probe. We detect in this more acurate simulation of Jupiter many of the same compounds, such as HCN, dimethylaminoacetonitrile, and dimethylcyanamide, as in the previous lower dilution experiment. We will compare the present results with those from low-pressure continuous flow plasma discharge experiments (McDonald et al. 1992, al Icarus 99, 131). We will also discuss the relevance of our data in light of the significant discrepancies between standard models of the jovian atmosphere and the compositional data returned by the Galileo entry probe.

  5. The Interiors of Jupiter and Saturn (United States)

    Helled, Ravit


    Probing the interiors of the giant planets in our Solar System is not an easy task. This requires a set of observations combined with theoretical models that are used to infer the planetary composition and its depth dependence. The masses of Jupiter and Saturn are 318 and 96 Earth masses, respectively, and since a few decades, we know that they mostly consist of hydrogen and helium. It is the mass of heavy elements (all elements heavier than helium) that is not well determined, as well as its distribution within the planets. While the heavy elements are not the dominating materials in Jupiter and Saturn, they are the key for our understanding of their formation and evolution histories. The planetary internal structure is inferred to fit the available observational constraints including the planetary masses, radii, 1-bar temperatures, rotation rates, and gravitational fields. Then, using theoretical equations of states (EOSs) for hydrogen, helium, their mixtures, and heavier elements (typically rocks and/or ices), a structure model is developed. However, there is no unique solution for the planetary structure, and the results depend on the used EOSs and the model assumptions imposed by the modeler. Standard interior models of Jupiter and Saturn include three main regions: (1) the central region (core) that consists of heavy elements, (2) an inner metallic hydrogen envelope that is helium rich, and (3) an outer molecular hydrogen envelope depleted with helium. The distribution of heavy elements can be either homogenous or discontinuous between the two envelopes. Major model assumptions that can affect the derived internal structure include the number of layers, the heat transport mechanism within the planet (and its entropy), the nature of the core (compact vs. diluted), and the location/pressure where the envelopes are divided. Alternative structure models assume a less distinct division between the layers and/or a less non-homogenous distribution of the heavy

  6. Jupiter Europa Orbiter Architecture Definition Process (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Shishko, Robert


    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter mission, planned for launch in 2020, is using a new architectural process and framework tool to drive its model-based systems engineering effort. The process focuses on getting the architecture right before writing requirements and developing a point design. A new architecture framework tool provides for the structured entry and retrieval of architecture artifacts based on an emerging architecture meta-model. This paper describes the relationships among these artifacts and how they are used in the systems engineering effort. Some early lessons learned are discussed.

  7. HET/JUPITER project assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, B.J.; Harrington, F.E.; Kaiser, G.G.; Wolf, J.


    This report is an assessment of the United States' Hot Engineering Test (HET) and the Federal Republic of Germany's Juelich Pilot Plant Thorium Element Reprocessing (JUPITER) Projects. The assessment was conducted with a view to developing mutually supportive roles in the achievement of hot engineering test objectives. Conclusions of the assessment are positive and identify several technical areas with potential for US/FRG cooperation. Recommendations presented in this report support a cost-effective US/FRG program to jointly develop high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel recycle technology. (orig.) [de

  8. JunoCam Images of Jupiter: Science from an Outreach Experiment (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Orton, G. S.; Caplinger, M. A.; Ravine, M. A.; Rogers, J.; Eichstädt, G.; Jensen, E.; Bolton, S. J.; Momary, T.; Ingersoll, A. P.


    The Juno mission to Jupiter carries a visible imager on its payload primarily for outreach, and also very useful for jovian atmospheric science. Lacking a formal imaging science team, members of the public have volunteered to process JunoCam images. Lightly processed and raw JunoCam data are posted on the JunoCam webpage at Citizen scientists download these images and upload their processed contributions. JunoCam images through broadband red, green and blue filters and a narrowband methane filter centered at 889 nm mounted directly on the detector. JunoCam is a push-frame imager with a 58 deg wide field of view covering a 1600 pixel width, and builds the second dimension of the image as the spacecraft rotates. This design enables capture of the entire pole of Jupiter in a single image at low emission angle when Juno is 1 hour from perijove (closest approach). At perijove the wide field of view images are high-resolution while still capturing entire storms, e.g. the Great Red Spot. Juno's unique polar orbit yields polar perspectives unavailable to earth-based observers or most previous spacecraft. The first discovery was that the familiar belt-zone structure gives way to more chaotic storms, with cyclones grouped around both the north and south poles [1, 2]. Recent time-lapse sequences have enabled measurement of the rotation rates and wind speeds of these circumpolar cyclones [3]. Other topics are being investigated with substantial, in many cases essential, contributions from citizen scientists. These include correlating the high resolution JunoCam images to storms and disruptions of the belts and zones tracked throughout the historical record. A phase function for Jupiter is being developed empirically to allow image brightness to be flattened from the subsolar point to the terminator. We are studying high hazes and the stratigraphy of the upper atmosphere, utilizing the methane filter, structures illuminated


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Adams, E. R.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.


    Using data from the Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES), we investigate the inclination distributions of objects in the Kuiper Belt. We present a derivation for observational bias removal and use this procedure to generate unbiased inclination distributions for Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) of different DES dynamical classes, with respect to the Kuiper Belt plane. Consistent with previous results, we find that the inclination distribution for all DES KBOs is well fit by the sum of two Gaussians, or a Gaussian plus a generalized Lorentzian, multiplied by sin i. Approximately 80% of KBOs are in the high-inclination grouping. We find that Classical object inclinations are well fit by sin i multiplied by the sum of two Gaussians, with roughly even distribution between Gaussians of widths 2.0 +0.6 -0.5 0 and 8.1 +2.6 -2.1 0 . Objects in different resonances exhibit different inclination distributions. The inclinations of Scattered objects are best matched by sin i multiplied by a single Gaussian that is centered at 19.1 +3.9 -3.6 0 with a width of 6.9 +4.1 -2.7 0 . Centaur inclinations peak just below 20 0 , with one exceptionally high-inclination object near 80 0 . The currently observed inclination distribution of the Centaurs is not dissimilar to that of the Scattered Extended KBOs and Jupiter-family comets, but is significantly different from the Classical and Resonant KBOs. While the sample sizes of some dynamical classes are still small, these results should begin to serve as a critical diagnostic for models of solar system evolution.

  10. BAOBAB (Big And Outrageously Bold Asteroid Belt) Project (United States)

    Mcfadden, L. A.; Thomas, C. A; Englander, J. A.; Ruesch, O.; Hosseini, S.; Goossens, S. J.; Mazarico, E. M.; Schmerr, N.


    One of the intriguing results of NASA's Dawn mission is the composition and structure of the Main Asteroid Belt's only known dwarf planet, Ceres [1]. It has a top layer of dehydrated clays and salts [2] and an icy-rocky mantle [3,4]. It is widely known that the asteroid belt failed to accrete as a planet by resonances between the Sun and Jupiter. About 20-30 asteroids >100 km diameter are probably differentiated protoplanets [5]. 1) how many more and which ones are fragments of protoplanets? 2) How many and which ones are primordial rubble piles left over from condensation of the solar nebula? 3) How would we go about gaining better and more complete characterization of the mass, interior structure and composition of the Main Belt asteroid population? 4) What is the relationship between asteroids and ocean worlds? Bulk parameters such as the mass, density, and porosity, are important to characterize the structure of any celestial body, and for asteroids in particular, they can shed light on the conditions in the early solar system. Asteroid density estimates exist but currently they are often based on assumed properties of taxonomic classes, or through astronomical survey data where interactions with asteroids are weak at best resulting in large measurement uncertainty. We only have direct density estimates from spacecraft encounters for a few asteroids at this time. Knowledge of the asteroids is significant not only to understand their role in solar system workings, but also to assess their potential as space resources, as impact hazards on Earth, or even as harboring life forms. And for the distant future, we want to know if the idea put forth in a contest sponsored by Physics Today, to surface the asteroids into highly reflecting, polished surfaces and use them as a massively segmented mirror for astrophysical exploration [6], is feasible.

  11. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  12. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use


    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C


    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted.

  13. Reigniting the Debate: First Spectroscopic Evidence for Stratospheres In Hot Jupiters (United States)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather


    Hot Jupiters represent an extreme end of the exoplanet distribution: they orbit very close to their host stars, which subjects them to an intense heating from stellar radiation. An inverted temperature structure (i.e. a stratosphere) was an early observable prediction from atmospheric models of these planets, which demonstrated that high-temperature absorbers such as TiO and VO could reprocess incident UV/visible irradiation to heat the upper layers of the atmosphere.Evidence for such thermal inversions began with the first secondary eclipse measurements of transiting hot Jupiters taken with the IRAC camera on Spitzer, offering the chance to physical processe at work in the atmospheres of hot exoplanets. However, these efforts have been stymied by recent revelations of significant systematic biases and uncertainties buried within older Spitzer results, calling into question whether or not temperature inversions are actually present in hot Jupiters.We have recently published spectroscopy of secondary eclipses of the extrasolar planet WASP-33b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope, which allow us to constrain the temperature structure and composition of its dayside atmosphere. WASP-33b is one of the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters discovered to date and orbits a relatively inactive A star, making it an excellent candidate for eclipse spectroscopy at NIR wavelengths (1.1 - 1.7 µm). We find that a fit to combined data from HST, Spitzer and ground-based photometry can rule out models without a temperature inversion; additionally, we find that our measured spectrum displays excess in the measured flux toward short wavelengths that is best explained as emission from TiO.This discovery re-opens the debate on the presence and origin of stratospheres in hot Jupiters, but it also confirms that the combination of HST spectroscopy and a robust analysis of Spitzer and ground-based photometry can conclusively detect thermally inverted atmospheres


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffell, Paul C.; Chiang, Eugene


    Numerical hydrodynamics calculations are performed to determine the conditions under which giant planet eccentricities can be excited by parent gas disks. Unlike in other studies, Jupiter-mass planets are found to have their eccentricities amplified—provided their orbits start off as eccentric. We disentangle the web of co-rotation, co-orbital, and external resonances to show that this finite-amplitude instability is consistent with that predicted analytically. Ellipticities can grow until they reach of order of the disk's aspect ratio, beyond which the external Lindblad resonances that excite eccentricity are weakened by the planet's increasingly supersonic epicyclic motion. Forcing the planet to still larger eccentricities causes catastrophic eccentricity damping as the planet collides into gap walls. For standard parameters, the range of eccentricities for instability is modest; the threshold eccentricity for growth (∼0.04) is not much smaller than the final eccentricity to which orbits grow (∼0.07). If this threshold eccentricity can be lowered (perhaps by non-barotropic effects), and if the eccentricity driving documented here survives in 3D, it may robustly explain the low-to-moderate eccentricities ≲0.1 exhibited by many giant planets (including Jupiter and Saturn), especially those without planetary or stellar companions

  15. The Occurrence Rate of Hot Jupiters (United States)

    Rampalli, Rayna; Catanzarite, Joseph; Batalha, Natalie M.


    As the first kind of exoplanet to be discovered, hot Jupiters have always been objects of interest. Despite being prevalent in radial velocity and ground-based surveys, they were found to be much rarer based on Kepler observations. These data show a pile-up at radii of 9-22 Rearth and orbital periods of 1-10 days. Computing accurate occurrence rates can lend insight into planet-formation and migration-theories. To get a more accurate look, the idea of reliability was introduced. Each hot Jupiter candidate was assigned a reliability based on its location in the galactic plane and likelihood of being a false positive. Numbers were updated if ground-based follow-up indicated a candidate was indeed a false positive. These reliabilities were introduced into an occurrence rate calculation and yielded about a 12% decrease in occurrence rate for each period bin examined and a 25% decrease across all the bins. To get a better idea of the cause behind the pileup, occurrence rates based on parent stellar metallicity were calculated. As expected from previous work, higher metallicity stars yield higher occurrence rates. Future work includes examining period distributions in both the high metallicity and low metallicity sample for a better understanding and confirmation of the pile-up effect.

  16. The Jovian rings as observed from Jupiter. (United States)

    Malinnikova Bang, A.; Joergensen, J. L.; Joergensen, P. S.; Denver, T.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S.


    Juno entered a highly eliptic orbit around Jupiter on the 4. July 2016. Since then, it has completed 8 perijove passages. The Magnetometer experiment consists of two measurement platforms mounted 10m and 12m from the spacecraft spin axis, on one of three large solar panels. Each magnetometer platform is equipped with two star trackers to provide accurate attitude information to the vector magnetometers. The star trackers are pointed 13deg from the (anti) spin vector, and clocked 180deg to avoid simultaneous blinding effects from bright Jupiter only 6000km away, during perijove. This brings Juno well inside the innermost known satellite, Metis. The star trackers pointing close to, and above the Jovian horizon for most of each rotation of Juno, has an excellent view of the Jovian ring systems with a beta-angle close to 180deg. We report on the ring imaging performed during the first 8 orbits, discuss the structure, optical depth and moon sheparding of the inner rings as measured so far.

  17. Basaltic material in the main belt: a tale of two (or more) parent bodies? (United States)

    Ieva, S.; Dotto, E.; Lazzaro, D.; Fulvio, D.; Perna, D.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta; Medeiros, H.; Fulchignoni, M.


    The majority of basaltic objects in the main belt are dynamically connected to Vesta, the largest differentiated asteroid known. Others, due to their current orbital parameters, cannot be easily dynamically linked to Vesta. This is particularly true for all the basaltic asteroids located beyond 2.5 au, where lies the 3:1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter. In order to investigate the presence of other V-type asteroids in the middle and outer main belt (MOVs) we started an observational campaign to spectroscopically characterize in the visible range MOV candidates. We observed 18 basaltic candidates from TNG and ESO - NTT between 2015 and 2016. We derived spectral parameters using the same approach adopted in our recent statistical analysis and we compared our data with orbital parameters to look for possible clusters of MOVs in the main belt, symptomatic for a new basaltic family. Our analysis seemed to point out that MOVs show different spectral parameters respect to other basaltic bodies in the main belt, which could account for a diverse mineralogy than Vesta; moreover, some of them belong to the Eos family, suggesting the possibility of another basaltic progenitor. This could have strong repercussions on the temperature gradient present in the early Solar System, and on our current understanding of differentiation processes.

  18. Speculations on the dynamics of Jupiter's atmosphere from 1 to 100 bars (United States)

    Ingersoll, A. P.


    The latitude-altitude map of ammonia mixing ratio shows an ammonia-rich zone at 0-5°N, with mixing ratios of 320-340 ppm, extending from 40-60 bars up to the ammonia cloud base at 0.7 bars. Ammonia-poor air occupies a belt from 5-20°N. We argue that downdrafts as well as updrafts are needed in the 0-5°N zone to balance the upward ammonia flux. Outside the 0-20°N region, the belt-zone signature is weaker. At latitudes out to ±40°, there is an ammonia-rich layer from cloud base down to 2 bars which we argue is caused by falling precipitation. Below, there is an ammonia-poor layer with a minimum at 6 bars. Unanswered questions include how the ammonia-poor layer is maintained, why the belt-zone structure is barely evident in the ammonia distribution outside 0-20°N, and how the internal heat is transported through the ammonia-poor layer to the ammonia cloud base. Here we speculate on possible answers, including double-diffusive convection, deep abyssal overturning, and mass loading of heavy condensates in a hydrogen/helium atmosphere. Ingersoll, A. P. et al. (2017). Implications of the ammonia distribution on Jupiter from 1 to 100 bars as measured by the Juno microwave radiometer. Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, doi: 10.1002/2017GL074277.

  19. Enclosed belts in the ascendancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Although there will always be a place for traditional overland belt conveyors, enclosed belt systems are increasingly being specified where environmental protection assumes high priority or where there is a need to protect material from the weather. The article reports on recent conveyor projects such as: an MRC cable Belt in a 6.4 km system to carry coal in the Appalachian Mountains; a $40 m contract awarded to FL Smidth to supply an integrated coal handling system to LILIAMA in Vietnam and other contracts to handle coal for India's Coastal Gujarat Power; and a contract awarded to Bateman Engineered Technologies to supply a 7 km Japan Pipe Conveyor for a coal power station in Brazil. 3 photos.

  20. Latitudinal beaming of Jupiter's low frequency radio emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.K.; Desch, M.D.; Kaiser, M.L.; Thieman, J.R.


    By comparing Rae 1 and Imp 6 satelite measurements of Jupiter's radio emissions near 1 MHz with recent Voyager 1 and 2 observations in the same frequency range it is now possible to study the properties of the low frequency radiation pattern over a 10 0 range of latitudes with respect to the Jovian rotation equator. These observations, which cover a wider latitudinal range than is possible from the earth, are consistent with many aspect of earlier ground-based measurements that have been used to infer a sharp beaming pattern for the decameter wavelength emissions. We find marked, systematic changes in the statistical occurrence probability distributions with system III central meridian longitude as the Jovigraphic latitude of the observer changes over this range. Moreover, simultaneous observations by the two Voyager spacecraft, which are separated by up to 3 0 in Jovigraphic latitude, suggest that the instantaneous beam width may be no more than a few degrees at times. The new hectometer wave results can be interpreted in terms of a narrow, curved sheet at a fixed magnetic latitude into which the emission is beamed to escape the planet

  1. Ammonia in Jupiter's troposphere: a comparison of ground-based 5-μm high-resolution spectroscopy and Juno MWR observations (United States)

    Giles, R.; Orton, G.; Fletcher, L. N.; Irwin, P. G.; Sinclair, J. A.


    Latitudinally-resolved 5-micron observations of Jupiter from the CRIRES instrument at the Very Large Telescope are used to measure the spatial variability in Jupiter's tropospheric ammonia (NH3) abundance and these results are compared to the results from Juno's Microwave Radiometer (MWR). The 5-micron spectral region is an atmospheric window, allowing us to probe down to Jupiter's middle troposphere. The high-resolution 2012 CRIRES observations include several spectrally-resolved NH3 absorption features; these features probe slightly different pressure levels, allowing the NH3 vertical profile at 1-4 bar to be constrained. We find that in regions of low cloud opacity, the NH3 abundance must decrease with altitude within this pressure range. The CRIRES observations do not provide evidence for any significant belt-zone variability in NH3, as any difference in the spectral shape can be accounted for by the large differences in cloud opacity between the cloudy zones and the cloud-free belts. However, we do find evidence for a strong localised enhancement in NH3 on the southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt (4-6°N). These results can be directly compared with observations from the Juno mission's MWR experiment. Li et al. (2017, doi 10.1002/2017GL073159) have used MWR data to retrieve NH3 abundances at pressure levels of 1-100 bar. In bright, cloud-free regions of the planet, the two datasets are broadly consistent, including the asymmetrical enhancement on the southern edge of the NEB. However, in the cool, cloudy Equatorial Zone, the MWR retrieved abundances are significantly higher than those from CRIRES and forward modeling shows that the MWR vertical distributions are unable to fit the CRIRES data. We will investigate possible explanations for this discrepancy, including the role of tropospheric clouds and temperature variations.

  2. A Secular Resonant Origin for the Loneliness of Hot Jupiters (United States)

    Spalding, Christopher; Batygin, Konstantin


    Despite decades of inquiry, the origin of giant planets residing within a few tenths of an astronomical unit from their host stars remains unclear. Traditionally, these objects are thought to have formed further out before subsequently migrating inwards. However, the necessity of migration has been recently called into question with the emergence of in situ formation models of close-in giant planets. Observational characterization of the transiting subsample of close-in giants has revealed that “warm” Jupiters, possessing orbital periods longer than roughly 10 days more often possess close-in, co-transiting planetary companions than shorter period “hot” Jupiters, that are usually lonely. This finding has previously been interpreted as evidence that smooth, early migration or in situ formation gave rise to warm Jupiter-hosting systems, whereas more violent, post-disk migration pathways sculpted hot Jupiter-hosting systems. In this work, we demonstrate that both classes of planet may arise via early migration or in situ conglomeration, but that the enhanced loneliness of hot Jupiters arises due to a secular resonant interaction with the stellar quadrupole moment. Such an interaction tilts the orbits of exterior, lower-mass planets, removing them from transit surveys where the hot Jupiter is detected. Warm Jupiter-hosting systems, in contrast, retain their coplanarity due to the weaker influence of the host star’s quadrupolar potential relative to planet-disk interactions. In this way, hot Jupiters and warm Jupiters are placed within a unified theoretical framework that may be readily validated or falsified using data from upcoming missions, such as TESS.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youdin, Andrew N.; Mitchell, Jonathan L.


    The intense irradiation received by hot Jupiters suppresses convection in the outer layers of their atmospheres and lowers their cooling rates. 'Inflated' hot Jupiters, i.e., those with anomalously large transit radii, require additional sources of heat or suppressed cooling. We consider the effect of forced turbulent mixing in the radiative layer, which could be driven by atmospheric circulation or by another mechanism. Due to stable stratification in the atmosphere, forced turbulence drives a downward flux of heat. Weak turbulent mixing slows the cooling rate by this process, as if the planet were irradiated more intensely. Stronger turbulent mixing buries heat into the convective interior, provided the turbulence extends to the radiative-convective boundary. This inflates the planet until a balance is reached between the heat buried into and radiated from the interior. We also include the direct injection of heat due to the dissipation of turbulence or other effects. Such heating is already known to slow planetary cooling. We find that dissipation also enhances heat burial from mixing by lowering the threshold for turbulent mixing to drive heat into the interior. Strong turbulent mixing of heavy molecular species such as TiO may be necessary to explain stratospheric thermal inversions. We show that the amount of mixing required to loft TiO may overinflate the planet by our mechanism. This possible refutation of the TiO hypothesis deserves further study. Our inflation mechanism requires a deep stratified layer that only exists when the absorbed stellar flux greatly exceeds the intrinsic emitted flux. Thus, it would be less effective for more luminous brown dwarfs and for longer period gas giants, including Jupiter and Saturn.

  4. Positional Catalogues of Saturn's and Jupiter's Moons (United States)

    Yizhakevych, O.; Andruk, V.; Pakuliak, L.; Lukianchuk, V.; Shatokhina, S.

    In the framework of the UkrVO national project ( we have started the processing of photographic observations of Saturn's (S1-S8) and Jupiter's (J6-J8) moons. Observations were conducted during 1961-1993 with three astrographs DLFA, DWA, DAZ and Z600 reflector. Plate images were digitized as tif-files with commercial scanners. Image processing was carried out by specific software package in the LINUX-MIDAS-ROMAFOT environment with Tycho2 as reference. The software was developed at the MAO NASU. Obtained positions of objects were compared with theoretically predicted ones in IMCCE (Paris) ( online. Rms error of divergence between observed and calculated positions is of 0.20' - 0.35'.

  5. Magnetosphere - Ionosphere - Thermosphere (MIT) Coupling at Jupiter (United States)

    Yates, J. N.; Ray, L. C.; Achilleos, N.


    Jupiter's upper atmospheric temperature is considerably higher than that predicted by Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) heating alone. Simulations incorporating magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling effects into general circulation models have, to date, struggled to reproduce the observed atmospheric temperatures under simplifying assumptions such as azimuthal symmetry and a spin-aligned dipole magnetic field. Here we present the development of a full three-dimensional thermosphere model coupled in both hemispheres to an axisymmetric magnetosphere model. This new coupled model is based on the two-dimensional MIT model presented in Yates et al., 2014. This coupled model is a critical step towards to the development of a fully coupled 3D MIT model. We discuss and compare the resulting thermospheric flows, energy balance and MI coupling currents to those presented in previous 2D MIT models.

  6. The European SL-9/JUPITER Workshop (United States)


    During the past six months, many astronomers - observational as well theoretical - have been busy interpreting the many data taken during the impacts and thereafter. This is a very labour-intensive task and although the first conclusions have begun to emerge, it has also become obvious that extensive consultations between the various groups are necessary before it will be possible to understand the very complex processes during the impacts and thereafter. In order to further the interaction among the involved scientists, it has been decided to hold a three-day "European SL-9/Jupiter Workshop" at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. More than 100 astronomers will meet on February 13-15, 1995, and close to 100 reports will be delivered on this occasion. Although most come from European countries, the major groups on other continents are also well represented. This meeting will give the participants the opportunity to exchange information about their individual programmes and will serve to establish future collaborative efforts. SL-9/JUPITER PRESS CONFERENCE In this connection, ESO is pleased to invite the media to a Press Conference: Wednesday, February 15, 1995, 17:30 CET ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany This conference will be held at the end of the Workshop and will provide a thorough overview of the latest results, as presented during the meeting. Media representatives who are interested in participating in this Press Conference are requested to register with the ESO Information Service (Mrs. E. Völk, Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax: +49-89-3202362), at the latest on Friday, February 10, 1995. ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: and on CompuServe (space science and astronomy area, GO SPACE).

  7. The Jupiter system through the eyes of Voyager 1 (United States)

    Smith, B.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Johnson, T.V.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Collins, S.A.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Hunt, G.E.; Masursky, H.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Cook, A.F.; Boyce, J.; Danielson, G.E.; Owen, Timothy W.; Sagan, C.; Beebe, R.F.; Veverka, J.; Strom, R.G.; McCauley, J.F.; Morrison, D.; Briggs, G.A.; Suomi, V.E.


    The cameras aboard Voyager I have provided a closeup view of the Jupiter system, revealing heretofore unknown characteristics and phenomena associated with the planet's atmosphere and the surfaces of its five major satellites. On Jupiter itself, atmospheric motions-the interaction of cloud systems-display complex vorticity. On its dark side, lightning and auroras are observed. A ring was discovered surrounding Jupiter. The satellite surfaces display dramatic differences including extensive active volcanismn on Io, complex tectonism on Ganymnede and possibly Europa, and flattened remnants of enormous impact features on Callisto. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  8. The high albedo of the hot Jupiter Kepler-7b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demory, B.-O.; Seager, S.; Madhusudhan, N.


    Hot Jupiters are expected to be dark from both observations (albedo upper limits) and theory (alkali metals and/or TiO and VO absorption). However, only a handful of hot Jupiters have been observed with high enough photometric precision at visible wavelengths to investigate these expectations....... The NASA Kepler mission provides a means to widen the sample and to assess the extent to which hot Jupiter albedos are low. We present a global analysis of Kepler-7 b based on Q0-Q4 data, published radial velocities, and asteroseismology constraints. We measure an occultation depth in the Kepler bandpass...

  9. Phosphorus Chemistry in the Atmosphere of Jupiter: A Reassessment (United States)

    Borunov, Sergei; Dorofeeva, Vera; Khodakovsky, Igor; Drossart, Pierre; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Encrenaz, Thérèse


    A new distribution of phosphorus compounds in the atmosphere of Jupiter is given, using revised values for the chemical constants. In contrast with previous works, it is shown that phosphine PH 3 remains the most abundant equilibrium gaseous compound even at the upper levels of Jupiter's troposphere. The observed PH 3 abundance is equal to the equilibrium value, at all temperatures above 535 K for solar P and O elemental abundances, and above 600 K for a reasonable range of P and O abundances. P 4O 6 does not take part in the phosphorus cycle on Jupiter.

  10. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  11. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander (United States)

    Lyons, James J., III


    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  12. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  13. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  15. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  16. Searching sequences of resonant orbits between a spacecraft and Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formiga, J K S; Prado, A F B A


    This research shows a study of the dynamical behavior of a spacecraft that performs a series of close approaches with the planet Jupiter. The main idea is to find a sequence of resonant orbits that allows the spacecraft to stay in the region of the space near the orbit of Jupiter around the Sun gaining energy from each passage by the planet. The dynamical model considers the existence of only two massive bodies in the systems, which are the Sun and Jupiter. They are assumed to be in circular orbits around their center of mass. Analytical equations are used to obtain the values of the parameters required to get this sequence of close approaches. Those equations are useful, because they show which orbits are physically possible when taking into account that the periapsis distances have to be above the surface of the Sun and that the closest approach distances during the passage by Jupiter have to be above its surface


    The JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) project builds on the technology of two widely used codes for sensitivity analysis, data assessment, calibration, and uncertainty analysis of environmental models: PEST and UCODE.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Voyager 1 Jupiter encounter position data that have been generated at a 48.0 second sample rate using the NAIF SPICE kernals. The data set is...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Voyager 2 Jupiter encounter position data that have been generated at a 48.0 second sample rate using the NAIF SPICE kernals. The data set is...

  20. Jupiter energetic particle experiment ESAD proton sensor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.; Higbie, P.R.


    A proton sensor design for the Jupiter Energetic Particle Experiment is described. The sensor design uses avalanche multiplication in order to lower the effective energy threshold. A complete signal-to-noise analysis is given for this design


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Voyager 2 Jupiter encounter magnetometer data that have been resampled at a 48.0 second sample rate. The data set is composed of 6 columns: 1)...

  2. The Frequency of Hot Jupiters in the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sackett P. D.


    Full Text Available The frequency of Hot Jupiters around Galactic dwarf stars is determined from the results of the SuperLupus transit survey and realistic Monte Carlo simulations of the survey efficiency. We find that for Hot Jupiters with mean radii of 1.1RJ and periods between 1 and 10 days, the frequency around dwarf stars is just 0.16±0.60.2%.

  3. A Learning Organization approach for Knowledge Management at Jupiter Design.


    Jones, Timothy John


    This report has been carried out by a student studying for the degree of a Masters in Business Administration at Nottingham University Business School. The focus of the report is to suggest a knowledge management framework for the client Jupiter Design Limited. Jupiter has experienced considerable success and growth over recent years, evolving from a relatively small but well respected design agency into one of the largest agencies operating outside of London. Due to an expanding clie...

  4. An analysis of Jupiter data from the RAE-1 satellite (United States)

    Carr, T. D.


    The analysis of Radio Astronomy Explorer Satellite data are presented. Radio bursts from Jupiter are reported in the frequency range 4700 KHz to 45 KHz. Strong correlations with lo were found at 4700, 3930, and 2200 KHz, while an equally strong Europa effect was observed at 1300, 900, and 700 KHz. Histograms indicating the relative probability and the successful identification of Jupiter activity were plotted, using automatic computer and visual search techniques.

  5. Characterization of the white ovals on the Jupiter's southern hemisphere using the first data by Juno/JIRAM instrument (United States)

    Sindoni, Giuseppe; Grassi, Davide; Adriani, Alberto; Mura, Alessandro; Moriconi, Maria Luisa; Dinelli, Bianca Maria; Filacchione, Gianrico; Tosi, Federico; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Altieri, Francesca; Bolton, Scott J.; Connerney, Jack E. P.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Bagenal, Fran; Hansen, Candy; Ingersoll, Andy; Janssen, Michael; Levin, Steven M.; Lunine, Jonathan; Orton, Glenn S.


    The JIRAM, Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper, is an imager/spectrometer aboard the NASA/Juno spacecraft. The JIRAM instrument is composed by an IR imager (IMG) and a spectrometer (SPE) [1]. The spectrometer, based on grating diffraction of a pixel size slit, covers the spectral interval 2.0-5.0 μm and has a FOV of 3.52° (across track) sampled by 256 pixels with a square IFOV of 250x250 μrad [1]. JIRAM measurements of the first Juno orbit around Jupiter highlighted the presence of the white ovals belt in the southern hemisphere, between 30°S and 45°S. The spectrometer covers also the spectral range sensitive to the reflected sunlight and since during the first Juno orbit JIRAM was pointing around the terminator, we were able to observe the upper clouds. In particular, the spectral range between 2 and 3 μm is sensitive to the variations of gaseous ammonia, altitude and opacity of NH3 ice cloud [2] and N2H4 haze [4]. For this purpose, an atmospheric radiative transfer (RT) model is required. The implementation of a RT code, which includes multiple scattering, in an inversion algorithm based on the Bayesian approach [5], can provide strong constraints about both the clouds and hazes optical properties and the atmospheric gaseous composition. Here we report the first results obtained by the analysis of the JIRAM observations acquired during the first Juno perijove after orbit insertion (PJ1). Spectral observations with a spatial resolution never achieved before (around 250 km on the 1 bar level) allow, for the first time, the accurate characterization of clouds and hazes structure inside and outside the ovals. We focused on the latitudinal ovals belt (30-45°S) in the longitudinal region covering the three ovals having higher contrast both at 2 and 5 μm. Moreover, the ammonia gaseous content retrieved in the 2-3 μm spectral range by the procedure above mentioned can be compared with the results obtained on the same spectra in the thermal range (around 5

  6. First Earth-Based Detection of a Superbolide on Jupiter (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Wesley, A.; Go, C.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Wong, M. H.; Fletcher, L. N.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Boslough, M. B.; DePater, I.; Orton, G. S.; hide


    Cosmic collisions can planets cause detectable optical flashes that range from terrestrial shooting stars to bright fireballs. On 2010 June 3 a bolide in Jupiter's atmosphere was simultaneously observed from the Earth by two amateur astronomers observing Jupiter in red and blue wavelengths, The bolide appeared as a flash of 2 s duration in video recording data of the planet. The analysis of the light carve of the observations results in an estimated energy of the impact of (0.9-4,0) x 10(exp 15) J which corresponds to a colliding body of 8-13 m diameter assuming a mean density of 2 g/cu cm. Images acquired a few days later by the Hubble Space Telescope and other large ground-based facilities did not show any signature of aerosol debris, temperature, or chemical composition anomaly, confirming that the body was small and destroyed in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Several collisions of this size may happen on Jupiter on a yearly basis. A systematic study of the impact rate and size of these bolides can enable an empirical determination. of the flux of meteoroids in Jupiter with implications for the populations of small bodies in the outer solar system and may allow a better quantification of the threat of impacting bodies to Earth. The serendipitous recording of this optical flash opens a new window in the observation of Jupiter with small telescopes.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Wesley, A.; Go, C.; Wong, M. H.; De Pater, I.; Fletcher, L. N.; Boslough, M. B. E.; Orton, G. S.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Edwards, M. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Clarke, J. T.; Noll, K. S.


    Cosmic collisions on planets cause detectable optical flashes that range from terrestrial shooting stars to bright fireballs. On 2010 June 3 a bolide in Jupiter's atmosphere was simultaneously observed from the Earth by two amateur astronomers observing Jupiter in red and blue wavelengths. The bolide appeared as a flash of 2 s duration in video recording data of the planet. The analysis of the light curve of the observations results in an estimated energy of the impact of (0.9-4.0) x 10 15 J which corresponds to a colliding body of 8-13 m diameter assuming a mean density of 2 g cm -3 . Images acquired a few days later by the Hubble Space Telescope and other large ground-based facilities did not show any signature of aerosol debris, temperature, or chemical composition anomaly, confirming that the body was small and destroyed in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Several collisions of this size may happen on Jupiter on a yearly basis. A systematic study of the impact rate and size of these bolides can enable an empirical determination of the flux of meteoroids in Jupiter with implications for the populations of small bodies in the outer solar system and may allow a better quantification of the threat of impacting bodies to Earth. The serendipitous recording of this optical flash opens a new window in the observation of Jupiter with small telescopes.

  8. Strong tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter from astrometric observations. (United States)

    Lainey, Valéry; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Karatekin, Ozgür; Van Hoolst, Tim


    Io is the volcanically most active body in the Solar System and has a large surface heat flux. The geological activity is thought to be the result of tides raised by Jupiter, but it is not known whether the current tidal heat production is sufficiently high to generate the observed surface heat flow. Io's tidal heat comes from the orbital energy of the Io-Jupiter system (resulting in orbital acceleration), whereas dissipation of energy in Jupiter causes Io's orbital motion to decelerate. Here we report a determination of the tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter through its effect on the orbital motions of the Galilean moons. Our results show that the rate of internal energy dissipation in Io (k(2)/Q = 0.015 +/- 0.003, where k(2) is the Love number and Q is the quality factor) is in good agreement with the observed surface heat flow, and suggest that Io is close to thermal equilibrium. Dissipation in Jupiter (k(2)/Q = (1.102 +/- 0.203) x 10(-5)) is close to the upper bound of its average value expected from the long-term evolution of the system, and dissipation in extrasolar planets may be higher than presently assumed. The measured secular accelerations indicate that Io is evolving inwards, towards Jupiter, and that the three innermost Galilean moons (Io, Europa and Ganymede) are evolving out of the exact Laplace resonance.

  9. Estimating the Magnetic Field Strength in Hot Jupiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Rakesh K. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Thorngren, Daniel P., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)


    A large fraction of known Jupiter-like exoplanets are inflated as compared to Jupiter. These “hot” Jupiters orbit close to their parent star and are bombarded with intense starlight. Many theories have been proposed to explain their radius inflation and several suggest that a small fraction of the incident starlight is injected into the planetary interior, which helps to puff up the planet. How will such energy injection affect the planetary dynamo? In this Letter, we estimate the surface magnetic field strength of hot Jupiters using scaling arguments that relate energy available in planetary interiors to the dynamo-generated magnetic fields. We find that if we take into account the energy injected in the planetary interior that is sufficient to inflate hot Jupiters to observed radii, then the resulting dynamo should be able generate magnetic fields that are more than an order of magnitude stronger than the Jovian values. Our analysis highlights the potential fundamental role of the stellar light in setting the field strength in hot Jupiters.

  10. Shoemaker-Levy 9/JUPITER Collision Update (United States)


    There are many signs that the upcoming collision between comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 and giant planet Jupiter is beginning to catch the imagination of the public. Numerous reports in the various media describe the effects expected during this unique event which according to the latest calculations will start in the evening of July 16 and end in the morning of July 22, 1994. (The times in this Press Release are given in Central European Summer Time (CEST), i.e., Universal Time (UT) + 2 hours. The corresponding local time in Chile is CEST - 6 hours.) Astronomers all over the world are now preparing to observe the associated phenomena with virtually all major telescopes. There will be no less than 12 different investigations at the ESO La Silla observatory during this period. This Press Release updates the information published in ESO PR 02/94 (27 January 1994) and provides details about the special services which will be provided by ESO to the media around this rare astronomical event. SCIENTIFIC EXPECTATIONS The nucleus of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 broke into many smaller pieces during a near passage of Jupiter in July 1992. They are now moving in parallel orbits around this planet and recent calculations show with close to 100 % certainty that they will all collide with it, just two months from now. At some time, more than 20 individual nuclei were observed. This Press Release is accompanied by a photo that shows this formation, the famous "string of pearls", as it looked like in early May 1994. Both Jupiter and these nuclei have been extensively observed during the past months. A large, coordinated observing programme at La Silla has been active since early April and the first results have become available. However, while we now possess more accurate information about the comet's motion and the times of impact, there is still great uncertainty about the effects which may actually be observed at the time of the impacts. This is first of all due to the fact that it has not

  11. Features of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (United States)


    This montage features activity in the turbulent region of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS). Four sets of images of the GRS were taken through various filters of the Galileo imaging system over an 11.5 hour period on 26 June, 1996 Universal Time. The sequence was designed to reveal cloud motions. The top and bottom frames on the left are of the same area, northeast of the GRS, viewed through the methane (732 nm) filter but about 70 minutes apart. The top left and top middle frames are of the same area and at the same time, but the top middle frame is taken at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane absorbs more strongly. (Only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength.) Brightness differences are caused by the different depths of features in the two images. The bottom middle frame shows reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere. The white spot is to the northwest of the GRS; its appearance at different wavelengths suggests that the brightest elements are 30 km higher than the surrounding clouds. The top and bottom frames on the right, taken nine hours apart and in the violet (415 nm) filter, show the time evolution of an atmospheric wave northeast of the GRS. Visible crests in the top right frame are much less apparent 9 hours later in the bottom right frame. The misalignment of the north-south wave crests with the observed northwestward local wind may indicate a shift in wind direction (wind shear) with height. The areas within the dark lines are 'truth windows' or sections of the images which were transmitted to Earth using less data compression. Each of the six squares covers 4.8 degrees of latitude and longitude (about 6000 square kilometers). North is at the top of each frame.Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The

  12. Spectroscopical studies of impurities in the belt pinch HECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singethan, J.


    In this paper UV-line-intensity measurements of impurities are presented, which have been performed in the belt-pinch HECTOR. From the line-intensities impurity concentrations and information on the radiation losses is be obtained. At temperatures below 100 eV, the energy loss due to line emission of oxygen and carbon impurities is one of the most important electron energy loss mechanisms. Thus the measurement and calculation of the radiation losses is of particular relevance. Furthermore the electron temperature time dependence can be obtained by comparing the line intensity time dependence with the solution of the respective rate equations. (orig./HT) [de

  13. Jupiter Analogs Orbit Stars with an Average Metallicity Close to That of the Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Lars A.; Bitsch, Bertram; Johansen, Anders


    Jupiter played an important role in determining the structure and configuration of the Solar System. Whereas hot-Jupiter type exoplanets preferentially form around metal-rich stars, the conditions required for the formation of planets with masses, orbits, and eccentricities comparable to Jupiter...... (Jupiter analogs) are unknown. Using spectroscopic metallicities, we show that stars hosting Jupiter analogs have an average metallicity close to solar, in contrast to their hot-Jupiter and eccentric cool-Jupiter counterparts, which orbit stars with super-solar metallicities. Furthermore......, the eccentricities of Jupiter analogs increase with host-star metallicity, suggesting that planet-planet scatterings producing highly eccentric cool Jupiters could be more common in metal-rich environments. To investigate a possible explanation for these metallicity trends, we compare the observations to numerical...

  14. Wave propagation in the magnetosphere of Jupiter (United States)

    Liemohn, H. B.


    A systematic procedure is developed for identifying the spatial regimes of various modes of wave propagation in the Jupiter magnetosphere that may be encountered by flyby missions. The Clemmow-Mullaly-Allis (CMA) diagram of plasma physics is utilized to identify the frequency regimes in which different modes of propagation occur in the magnetoplasma. The Gledhill model and the Ioannidis and Brice model of the magnetoplasma are summarized, and configuration-space CMA diagrams are constructed for each model for frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 MHz. The distinctive propagation features, the radio noise regimes, and the wave-particle interactions are discussed. It is concluded that the concentration of plasma in the equatorial plane makes this region of vital importance for radio observations with flyby missions. Local radio noise around the electron cyclotron frequency will probably differ appreciably from its terrestrial counterpart due to the lack of field-line guidance. Hydromagnetic wave properties at frequencies near the ion cyclotron frequency and below will probably be similar to the terrestrial case.

  15. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Yang Bin; Haghighipour, Nader; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Denneau, Larry; Kaluna, Heather M.; Kleyna, Jan; Novaković, Bojan; Abe, Shinsuke; Chen Wenping; Ip, Wing; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Lacerda, Pedro; Granvik, Mikael; Grav, Tommy; Knight, Matthew M.; Lisse, Carey M.; Maclennan, Eric


    likely representative of other objects in the same region of the main belt, though the relatively close proximity of the 13:6 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter and the (3,–2,–1) three-body mean-motion resonance with Jupiter and Saturn mean that dynamical instability on larger timescales cannot be ruled out.

  17. Modeling of the outer electron belt during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desorgher, L.; Buehler, P.; Zehnder, A.; Daly, E.; Adams, L.


    The flux dropout of relativistic electrons in the earth's outer radiation belt, during the main phase of the 26 March 1995 magnetic storm is examined. Outer belt measurements by the Radiation Environment Monitor, REM aboard the STRV-1b satellite are presented to characterize this dropout. In order to simulate the dynamics of the electron belt during the storm main phase a particle tracing code was developed which allows to trace the trajectories of equatorially mirroring electrons in a dynamic magnetospheric electromagnetic field. Two simulations were performed in a non-stationary magnetic field, one taking only the induced electric field into account (fully adiabatic motion), and one with an additional non-stationary convection electric field. The simulations show, that adiabatic deceleration can produce the observed count rate decrease and also the observed inward motion of the count rate peak. The convection electric field causes diffusion, which can take particles from low L values out to the magnetopause and contribute to an additional loss of particles, which is suggested by the observations


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankman, C.; Gladman, B. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agriculture Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kaib, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queens University (Canada); Kavelaars, J. J. [National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Petit, J. M. [Institut UTINAM, CNRS-Universite de Franche-Comte, Besancon (France)


    Via joint analysis of a calibrated telescopic survey, which found scattering Kuiper Belt objects, and models of their expected orbital distribution, we explore the scattering-object (SO) size distribution. Although for D > 100 km the number of objects quickly rise as diameters decrease, we find a relative lack of smaller objects, ruling out a single power law at greater than 99% confidence. After studying traditional ''knees'' in the size distribution, we explore other formulations and find that, surprisingly, our analysis is consistent with a very sudden decrease (a divot) in the number distribution as diameters decrease below 100 km, which then rises again as a power law. Motivated by other dynamically hot populations and the Centaurs, we argue for a divot size distribution where the number of smaller objects rises again as expected via collisional equilibrium. Extrapolation yields enough kilometer-scale SOs to supply the nearby Jupiter-family comets. Our interpretation is that this divot feature is a preserved relic of the size distribution made by planetesimal formation, now ''frozen in'' to portions of the Kuiper Belt sharing a ''hot'' orbital inclination distribution, explaining several puzzles in Kuiper Belt science. Additionally, we show that to match today's SO inclination distribution, the supply source that was scattered outward must have already been vertically heated to the of order 10 Degree-Sign .

  19. Phase Offsets and the Energy Budgets of Hot Jupiters (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel C.; Kashner, Zane; Jovmir, Diana; Cowan, Nicolas B.


    Thermal phase curves of short-period planets on circular orbits provide joint constraints on the fraction of incoming energy that is reflected (Bond albedo) and the fraction of absorbed energy radiated by the night hemisphere (heat recirculation efficiency). Many empirical studies of hot Jupiters have implicitly assumed that the dayside is the hottest hemisphere and the nightside is the coldest hemisphere. For a given eclipse depth and phase amplitude, an orbital lag between a planet’s peak brightness and its eclipse—a phase offset—implies that planet’s nightside emits greater flux. To quantify how phase offsets impact the energy budgets of short-period planets, we compile all infrared observations of the nine planets with multi-band eclipse depths and phase curves. Accounting for phase offsets shifts planets to lower Bond albedo and greater day-night heat transport, usually by ≲1σ. For WASP-12b, the published phase variations have been analyzed in two different ways, and the inferred energy budget depends sensitively on which analysis one adopts. Our fiducial scenario supports a Bond albedo of {0.27}-0.13+0.12, significantly higher than the published optical geometric albedo, and a recirculation efficiency of {0.03}-0.02+0.07, following the trend of larger day-night temperature contrast with greater stellar irradiation. If instead we adopt the alternative analysis, then WASP-12b has a Bond albedo consistent with zero and a much higher recirculation efficiency. To definitively determine the energy budget of WASP-12b, new observational analyses will be necessary.

  20. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  1. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.

  2. The mass disruption of Jupiter Family comets (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.


    I show that the size-distribution of small scattered-disk trans-neptunian objects when derived from the observed size-distribution of Jupiter Family comets (JFCs) and other observational constraints implies that a large percentage (94-97%) of newly arrived active comets within a range of 0.2-15.4 km effective radius must physically disrupt, i.e., macroscopically disintegrate, within their median dynamical lifetime. Additional observational constraints include the numbers of dormant and active nuclei in the near-Earth object (NEO) population and the slope of their size distributions. I show that the cumulative power-law slope (-2.86 to -3.15) of the scattered-disk TNO hot population between 0.2 and 15.4 km effective radius is only weakly dependent on the size-dependence of the otherwise unknown disruption mechanism. Evidently, as JFC nuclei from the scattered disk evolve into the inner Solar System only a fraction achieve dormancy while the vast majority of small nuclei (e.g., primarily those with effective radius <2 km) break-up. The percentage disruption rate appears to be comparable with that of the dynamically distinct Oort cloud and Halley type comets (Levison, H.F., Morbidelli, A., Dones, L., Jedicke, R., Wiegert, P.A., Bottke Jr., W.F. [2002]. Science 296, 2212-2215) suggesting that all types of comet nuclei may have similar structural characteristics even though they may have different source regions and thermal histories. The typical disruption rate for a 1 km radius active nucleus is ∼5 × 10-5 disruptions/year and the dormancy rate is typically 3 times less. We also estimate that average fragmentation rates range from 0.01 to 0.04 events/year/comet, somewhat above the lower limit of 0.01 events/year/comet observed by Chen and Jewitt (Chen, J., Jewitt, D.C. [1994]. Icarus 108, 265-271).

  3. Search for the radio occulation flash at Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.; Tyler, G.L.; Eshleman, V.R.; Wood, G.E.; Lindall, G.F.


    The 'evolute flash' a focusing effect caused by the curvature of a planet's limb, was sought in the radio data taken during the occulation of Voyager 1 by Jupiter, using a modified matched-filter technique. The expected frequency structure of the flash signal is double branched, while the intensity structure is highly localized in time. The search for the signal was carried out over a 6.4 s period. The signal parameters were varied to span the uncertainties introduced by imperfect knowledge of the orbit of the spacecraft and the shape of Jupiter. Several peaks at the 8 standard deviation level were present in the filter output. However, these peaks were separated in time by up to 3.3 s, and none could be identified as the flash. From this negative result a lower bound on the absorption along a ray with periapsis near the 4 bar level in Jupiter's atmosphere can be established at 25 dB. Employing the new Voyager results on the structure of the atmosphere of Jupiter and the mixing ratio of the absorbent ammonia, as well as the improved knowledge of flash characteristics resulting from this study, we estimate that the flash would have been detected if the distance behind the planet where the spacecraft trajectory crossed the evolute were at least 20 Jupiter radii, as compared with a value near 7 in the experiment. For focusing at this greater distance, the atmospheric pressure at the ray periapsis would be between 1.5 and 2 bar

  4. Cassini-VIMS at Jupiter: Solar occultation measurements using Io (United States)

    Formisano, V.; D'Aversa, E.; Bellucci, G.; Baines, K.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Chamberlain, M.C.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Showalter, M.; Filacchione, G.


    We report unusual and somewhat unexpected observations of the jovian satellite Io, showing strong methane absorption bands. These observations were made by the Cassini VIMS experiment during the Jupiter flyby of December/January 2000/2001. The explanation is straightforward: Entering or exiting from Jupiter's shadow during an eclipse, Io is illuminated by solar light which has transited the atmosphere of Jupiter. This light, therefore becomes imprinted with the spectral signature of Jupiter's upper atmosphere, which includes strong atmospheric methane absorption bands. Intercepting solar light refracted by the jovian atmosphere, Io essentially becomes a "miffor" for solar occultation events of Jupiter. The thickness of the layer where refracted solar light is observed is so large (more than 3000 km at Io's orbit), that we can foresee a nearly continuous multi-year period of similar events at Saturn, utilizing the large and bright ring system. During Cassini's 4-year nominal mission, this probing tecnique should reveal information of Saturn's atmosphere over a large range of southern latitudes and times. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Li


    Full Text Available This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed approach provides improved accuracy for dynamic design of belt conveyors.

  6. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Stratospheric Ethane Following the Jupiter Impact of 2009 (United States)

    Fast, Kelly; Kostiuk, Theodor; Livengood, Timothy A.; Hewagama, Tilak; Amen, John


    We report on high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of ethane (C2H6) performed at the latitude of an impact site on Jupiter discovered on 19 July 2009 by A. Wesley from a location in Murrumbateman, Australia. The observations used the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Wind and Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. HIPWAC is a mid-infrared (9-12 microns) heterodyne spectrometer operating at the highest limit of spectral resolving power (lambda\\Delta\\lambda > l06), providing information on atmospheric constituent abundance and temperature through fully resolved tine shapes. Ethane is a stable trace product of methane photochemistry that is nearly uniformly mixed in Jupiter's stratosphere, providing an effective probe of that altitude region. Ethane emission line profiles near 11,74 microns in the Ug band were measured in Jupiter's stratosphere at 25 MHz (11.00083/cm) resolution. A sequence of spectra of ethane acquired over a range of longitude at the impact latitude (56S planetocentric) probes constituent abundance and temperature profile, both on and off the impact region. Near the site of the impact, ethane emission increased above levels measured well outside the impact region. Radiative transfer analysis indicates increased ethane mole fraction (30% greater). Variation in the measured continuum level and line intensities within 75deg of the impact longitude indicate the presence of an opacity source (haze) at altitudes near and above the tropopause and as high as the 10-mbar level near the impact site. The indication of possible haze opacity up to the 10-mbar level in the atmosphere is consistent with measurements made by HIPWAC's predecessor as part of the IRTF Shoemaker Levy-9 campaign in 1994.

  7. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program. (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan


    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  8. Continuous Mass Measurement on Conveyor Belt (United States)

    Tomobe, Yuki; Tasaki, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Ohnishi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kurosu, Shigeru

    The continuous mass measurement of packages on a conveyor belt will become greatly important. In the mass measurement, the sequence of products is generally random. An interesting possibility of raising throughput of the conveyor line without increasing the conveyor belt speed is offered by the use of two or three conveyor belt scales (called a multi-stage conveyor belt scale). The multi-stage conveyor belt scale can be created which will adjust the conveyor belt length to the product length. The conveyor belt scale usually has maximum capacities of less than 80kg and 140cm, and achieves measuring rates of more than 150 packages per minute and more. The output signals from the conveyor belt scale are always contaminated with noises due to vibrations of the conveyor and the product to be measured in motion. In this paper an employed digital filter is of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) type designed under the consideration on the dynamics of the conveyor system. The experimental results on the conveyor belt scale suggest that the filtering algorithms are effective enough to practical applications to some extent.

  9. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek


    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  10. Hot Jupiters Aren't As Lonely As We Thought (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The Friends of Hot Jupiters (FOHJ) project is a systematic search for planetary- and stellar-mass companions in systems that have known hot Jupiters short-period, gas-giant planets. This survey has discovered that many more hot Jupiters may have companions than originally believed.Missing FriendsFOHJ was begun with the goal of better understanding the systems that host hot Jupiters, in order to settle several longstanding issues.The first problem was one of observational statistics. We know that roughly half of the Sun-like stars nearby are in binary systems, yet weve only discovered a handful of hot Jupiters around binaries. Are binary systems less likely to host hot Jupiters? Or have we just missed the binary companions in the hot-Jupiter-hosting systems weve seen so far?An additional issue relates to formation mechanisms. Hot Jupiters probably migrated inward from where they formed out beyond the ice lines in protoplanetary disks but how?This median-stacked image, obtained with adaptive optics, shows one of the newly-discovered stellar companions to a star hosting a hot Jupiter. The projected separation is ~180 AU. [Ngo et al. 2015]Observations reveal two populations of hot Jupiters: those with circular orbits aligned with their hosts spins, and those with eccentric, misaligned orbits. The former population support a migration model dominated by local planet-disk interactions, whereas the latter population suggest the hot Jupiters migrated through dynamical interactions with distant companions. A careful determination of the companion rate in hot-Jupiter-hosting systems could help establish the ability of these two models to explain the observed populations.Search for CompanionsThe FOHJ project began in 2012 and studied 51 systems hosting known, transiting hot Jupiters with roughly half on circular, aligned orbits and half on eccentric, misaligned orbits. The survey consisted of three different, complementary components:Study 1Lead author: Heather Knutson

  11. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.


    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  12. Galileo's first images of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Head, J. W.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Greeley, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Senske, D.; Pappalardo, R.; Collins, G.; Vasavada, A.R.; Sullivan, R.; Simonelli, D.; Geissler, P.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Chapman, C.R.; Anger, C.; Greenberg, R.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Beebe, R.F.; Burns, J.A.; Fanale, F.; Ip, W.; Johnson, T.V.; Morrison, D.; Moore, J.; Orton, G.S.; Thomas, P.; West, R.A.


    The first images of Jupiter, Io, Europa, and Ganymede from the Galileo spacecraft reveal new information about Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and the surfaces of the Galilean satellites. Features similar to clusters of thunderstorms were found in the GRS. Nearby wave structures suggest that the GRS may be a shallow atmospheric feature. Changes in surface color and plume distribution indicate differences in resurfacing processes near hot spots on lo. Patchy emissions were seen while Io was in eclipse by Jupiter. The outer margins of prominent linear markings (triple bands) on Europa are diffuse, suggesting that material has been vented from fractures. Numerous small circular craters indicate localized areas of relatively old surface. Pervasive brittle deformation of an ice layer appears to have formed grooves on Ganymede. Dark terrain unexpectedly shows distinctive albedo variations to the limit of resolution.

  13. Launch Opportunities for Jupiter Missions Using the Gravity Assist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song


    Full Text Available Interplanetary trajectories using the gravity assists are studied for future Korean interplanetary missions. Verifications of the developed softwares and results were performed by comparing data from ESA's Mars Express mission and previous results. Among the Jupiter exploration mission scenarios, multi-planet gravity assist mission to Jupiter (Earth-Mars-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist, EMEJGA trajectory requires minimum launch energy (C3 of 29.231 km2/s2 with 4.6 years flight times. Others, such as direct mission and single-planet(Mars gravity assist mission, requires launch energy (C3 of 75.656 km^2/s^2 with 2.98 years flight times and 63.590 km2/s2 with 2.33 years flight times, respectively. These results show that the planetary gravity assists can reduce launch energy, while EMEJGA trajectory requires the longer flight time than the other missions.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yanqin; Lithwick, Yoram


    In a planetary system with two or more well-spaced, eccentric, inclined planets, secular interactions may lead to chaos. The innermost planet may gradually become very eccentric and/or inclined as a result of the secular degrees of freedom drifting toward equipartition of angular momentum deficit. Secular chaos is known to be responsible for the eventual destabilization of Mercury in our own solar system. Here we focus on systems with three giant planets. We characterize the secular chaos and demonstrate the criterion for it to occur, but leave a detailed understanding of secular chaos to a companion paper. After an extended period of eccentricity diffusion, the inner planet's pericenter can approach the star to within a few stellar radii. Strong tidal interactions and ensuing tidal dissipation extract orbital energy from the planet and pull it inward, creating a hot Jupiter. In contrast to other proposed channels for the production of hot Jupiters, such a scenario (which we term 'secular migration') explains a range of observations: the pile-up of hot Jupiters at 3 day orbital periods, the fact that hot Jupiters are in general less massive than other radial velocity planets, that they may have misaligned inclinations with respect to stellar spin, and that they have few easily detectable companions (but may have giant companions in distant orbits). Secular migration can also explain close-in planets as low in mass as Neptune; and an aborted secular migration can explain the 'warm Jupiters' at intermediate distances. In addition, the frequency of hot Jupiters formed via secular migration increases with stellar age. We further suggest that secular chaos may be responsible for the observed eccentricities of giant planets at larger distances and that these planets could exhibit significant spin-orbit misalignment.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugé, C.; Nesvorný, D.


    Doppler and transit observations of exoplanets show a pile-up of Jupiter-size planets in orbits with a 3 day period. A fraction of these hot Jupiters have retrograde orbits with respect to the parent star's rotation, as evidenced by the measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. To explain these observations we performed a series of numerical integrations of planet scattering followed by the tidal circularization and migration of planets that evolved into highly eccentric orbits. We considered planetary systems having three and four planets initially placed in successive mean-motion resonances, although the angles were taken randomly to ensure orbital instability in short timescales. The simulations included the tidal and relativistic effects, and precession due to stellar oblateness. Our results show the formation of two distinct populations of hot Jupiters. The inner population (Population I) is characterized by semimajor axis a 1 Gyr and fits nicely the observed 3 day pile-up. A comparison between our three-planet and four-planet runs shows that the formation of hot Jupiters is more likely in systems with more initial planets. Due to the large-scale chaoticity that dominates the evolution, high eccentricities and/or high inclinations are generated mainly by close encounters between the planets and not by secular perturbations (Kozai or otherwise). The relative proportion of retrograde planets seems of be dependent on the stellar age. Both the distribution of almost aligned systems and the simulated 3 day pile-up also fit observations better in our four-planet simulations. This may suggest that the planetary systems with observed hot Jupiters were originally rich in the number of planets, some of which were ejected. In a broad perspective, our work therefore hints on an unexpected link between the hot Jupiters and recently discovered free floating planets.

  16. Ultraviolet Studies of Jupiter's Hydrocarbons and Aerosols from Galileo (United States)

    Gladstone, G. Randall


    This is the final report for this project. The purpose of this project was to support PI Wayne Pryor's effort to reduce and analyze Galileo UVS (Ultraviolet Spectrometer) data under the JSDAP program. The spectral observations made by the Galileo UVS were to be analyzed to determine mixing ratios for important hydrocarbon species (and aerosols) in Jupiter's stratosphere as a function of location on Jupiter. Much of this work is still ongoing. To date, we have concentrated on analyzing the variability of the auroral emissions rather than the absorption signatures of hydrocarbons, although we have done some work in this area with related HST-STIS data.

  17. Unmasking Europa the search for life on Jupiter's ocean moon

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Richard


    Jupiter's ice moon Europa is widely regarded as the most likely place to find extraterrestrial life. This book tells the engaging story of Europa, the oceanic moon. It features a large number of stunning images of the ocean moon's surface, clearly displaying the spectacular crack patterns, extensive rifts and ridges, and refrozen pools of exposed water filled with rafts of displaced ice. Coverage also features firsthand accounts of Galileo's mission to Jupiter and its moons. The book tells the rough and tumble inside story of a very human enterprise in science that lead to the discovery of a f

  18. Recent Simulations of the Late Stages Growth of Jupiter (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; D'Angelo, Gennaro; Hubickyj, Olenka


    Presented by Lissauer et al. (2009, Icarus 199, 338) are used to test the model of capture of Jupiter's irregular satellites within proto-Jupiter's distended and thermally-supported envelope. We find such capture highly unlikely, since the envelope shrinks too slowly for a large number of moons to be retained, and many of those that would be retained would orbit closer to the planet than do the observed Jovian irregulars. Our calculations do not address (and therefore do not exclude) the possibility that the irregular satellites were captured as a result of gas drag within a circumjovian disk. Support for this research from NASA Outer Planets Research Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Analysis of JUPITER critical experiments by JENDL-3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Makoto


    Applicability of the JENDL-3.2 library to large FBR cores was evaluated using JUPITER experimental data. The nuclear characteristics treated in the present report include criticality, reaction rate ratio, space dependency of C/E values, sodium void reactivity and Doppler reactivity. As a conclusion, JENDL-3.2 is judged to be a well-balanced library for prediction of large FBR core parameters. The unification of integral experimental information from JUPITER and differential nuclear data of JENDL-3.2 will enhance the accuracy and reliability of large FBR core design. (author)

  20. The Hottest Hot Jupiters May Host Atmospheric Dynamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, T. M. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); McElwaine, J. N. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    Hot Jupiters have proven themselves to be a rich class of exoplanets that test our theories of planetary evolution and atmospheric dynamics under extreme conditions. Here, we present three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations and analytic results that demonstrate that a dynamo can be maintained in the thin, stably stratified atmosphere of a hot Jupiter, independent of the presumed deep-seated dynamo. This dynamo is maintained by conductivity variations arising from strong asymmetric heating from the planets’ host star. The presence of a dynamo significantly increases the surface magnetic field strength and alters the overall planetary magnetic field geometry, possibly affecting star–planet magnetic interactions.

  1. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech. (United States)


    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  2. 76 FR 24513 - Public Land Order No. 7765; Partial Revocation Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Withdrawal; Florida (United States)


    ...] Public Land Order No. 7765; Partial Revocation Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Withdrawal; Florida AGENCY... as part of the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area. DATES: Effective Date: May 2, 2011... U.S.C. 1787), which created the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area, and which...

  3. 77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL (United States)


    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL AGENCY... offshore of Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World Championship, a high speed power boat race. The... Atlantic Ocean, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida. The high speed power boat race event will include...

  4. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.


    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  5. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.


    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  6. Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer for investigation of Jupiter and its satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptaker, I.M.


    The Near-Infrared-Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) is one of the science instruments in the Galileo mission, which will explore Jupiter and its satellites in the mid-1990's. The NIMS experiment will map geological units on the surfaces of the Jovian satellites and characterize their mineral content; and, for the atmosphere of Jupiter, investigate cloud properties and the spatial and temporal variability of molecular abundances. The optics are gold-coated reflective and consist of a telescope and a grating spectrometer. The balance of the instrument includes a 17-detector (silicon and indium antimonide) focal plane array, a tuning fork chopper, microprocessor-controlled electronics, and a passive radiative cooler. A wobbling secondary mirror in the telescope provides 20 pixels in one dimension of spatial scanning in a pushbroom mode with 0.5 mr x 0.5 mr instantaneous field of view. The spectral range is 0.7-5.2 microns; resolution is 0.025 micron. NIMS is the first infrared experiment to combine both spatial and spectral mapping capability in one instrument

  7. A survey of eight hot Jupiters in secondary eclipse using WIRCam at CFHT (United States)

    Martioli, Eder; Colón, Knicole D.; Angerhausen, Daniel; Stassun, Keivan G.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Zhou, George; Gaudi, B. Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Beatty, Thomas G.; Tata, Ramarao; James, David J.; Eastman, Jason D.; Wilson, Paul Anthony; Bayliss, Daniel; Stevens, Daniel J.


    We present near-infrared high-precision photometry for eight transiting hot Jupiters observed during their predicted secondary eclipses. Our observations were carried out using the staring mode of the WIRCam instrument on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). We present the observing strategies and data reduction methods which delivered time series photometry with statistical photometric precision as low as 0.11 per cent. We performed a Bayesian analysis to model the eclipse parameters and systematics simultaneously. The measured planet-to-star flux ratios allowed us to constrain the thermal emission from the day side of these hot Jupiters, as we derived the planet brightness temperatures. Our results combined with previously observed eclipses reveal an excess in the brightness temperatures relative to the blackbody prediction for the equilibrium temperatures of the planets for a wide range of heat redistribution factors. We find a trend that this excess appears to be larger for planets with lower equilibrium temperatures. This may imply some additional sources of radiation, such as reflected light from the host star and/or thermal emission from residual internal heat from the formation of the planet.

  8. Vertical Cloud Structure Of The 2009 Jupiter Impact Based On HST/WFC3 Observations (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Wong, M.; Hueso, R.; Hammel, H. B.; Orton, G. S.; Fletcher, L. N.; de Pater, I.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Clarke, J. T.; Noll, K.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.


    The impact of a body of unknown origin with Jupiter in July 2009 (Sánchez-Lavega et al., Astrophys. J. Lett, Vol. 715, L155. 2010) produced an intense perturbation of the planet's atmosphere at the visible levels. The perturbation was caused by dense aerosol material; this strongly absorbing material expanded steadily as it was advected by the local winds. This phenomenon was observed at high spatial resolution by the Hubble Space Telescope in July, August, September and November 2009 with recently installed Wide Field Camera 3. In this work, we present radiative transfer modeling of the observed reflectivity in the near UV (200nm) to near IR (950nm) range. The geometrical and spectral variations of reflectivity elucidate the main particle properties (optical thickness, size, imaginary refractive index) and their temporal evolution. The aerosol particles that formed during the impact have a mean radius of about 1 micron and are located high in the atmosphere (above 10 mbar), in good agreement ith ground-based observations in deep methane absorption bands in the near infrared. The density of this particle layer decreases with time until it approaches that of the pre-impact atmosphere. These results are also discussed in terms of what we know from other impacts in Jupiter (1994's SL9 event and 2010's bolide). Acknowledgements: SPH, ASL and RH are supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  9. An Analysis of Cassini Observations Regarding the Structure of Jupiter's Equatorial Atmosphere (United States)

    Choi, David S.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.


    A variety of intriguing atmospheric phenomena reside on both sides of Jupiter's equator. 5-micron bright hot spots and opaque plumes prominently exhibit dynamic behavior to the north, whereas compact, dark chevron-shaped features and isolated anticyclonic disturbances periodically occupy the southern equatorial latitudes. All of these phenomena are associated with the vertical and meridional perturbations of Rossby waves disturbing the mean atmospheric state. As previous observational analysis and numerical simulations have investigated the dynamics of the region, an examination of the atmosphere's vertical structure though radiative transfer analysis is necessary for improved understanding of this unique environment. Here we present preliminary analysis of a multispectral Cassini imaging data set acquired during the spacecraft's flyby of Jupiter in 2000. We evaluated multiple methane and continuum spectral channels at available viewing angles to improve constraints on the vertical structure of the haze and cloud layers comprising these interesting features. Our preliminary results indicate distinct differences in the structure for both hemispheres. Upper troposphere hazes and cloud layers are prevalent in the northern equatorial latitudes, but are not present in corresponding southern latitudes. Continued analysis will further constrain the precise structure present in these phenomena and the differences between them.

  10. The Influence of Coronal Mass Ejections on the Mass-loss Rates of Hot-Jupiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherenkov, A.; Bisikalo, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 48 Pyatnitskaya St. 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fossati, L.; Möstl, C., E-mail: [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria)


    Hot-Jupiters are subject to extreme radiation and plasma flows coming from their host stars. Past ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope observations, supported by hydrodynamic models, confirmed that these factors lead to the formation of an extended envelope, part of which lies beyond the Roche lobe. We use gas-dynamic simulations to study the impact of time variations in the parameters of the stellar wind, namely that of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the envelope of the typical hot-Jupiter HD 209458b. We consider three CMEs characterized by different velocities and densities, taking their parameters from typical CMEs observed for the Sun. The perturbations in the ram-pressure of the stellar wind during the passage of each CME tear off most of the envelope that is located beyond the Roche lobe. This leads to a substantial increase of the mass-loss rates during the interaction with the CME. We find that the mass lost by the planet during the whole crossing of a CME is of ≈10{sup 15} g, regardless of the CME taken into consideration. We also find that over the course of 1 Gyr, the mass lost by the planet because of CME impacts is comparable to that lost because of high-energy stellar irradiation.

  11. Seat belt injuries and sigmoid colon trauma.


    Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D


    Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.

  12. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  13. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  14. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.


    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, G.; Bourke, S. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sirothia, S. K.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Post Bag 3, Pune University Campus, Pune 411007 (India); Antonova, A. [Department of Astronomy, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Doyle, J. G. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Hartman, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Golden, A. [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)


    Hot Jupiters have been proposed as a likely population of low-frequency radio sources due to electron cyclotron maser emission of similar nature to that detected from the auroral regions of magnetized solar system planets. Such emission will likely be confined to specific ranges of orbital/rotational phase due to a narrowly beamed radiation pattern. We report on GMRT 150 MHz radio observations of the hot Jupiter {tau} Booetis b, consisting of 40 hr carefully scheduled to maximize coverage of the planet's 79.5 hr orbital/rotational period in an effort to detect such rotationally modulated emission. The resulting image is the deepest yet published at these frequencies and leads to a 3{sigma} upper limit on the flux density from the planet of 1.2 mJy, two orders of magnitude lower than predictions derived from scaling laws based on solar system planetary radio emission. This represents the most stringent upper limits for both quiescent and rotationally modulated radio emission from a hot Jupiter yet achieved and suggests that either (1) the magnetic dipole moment of {tau} Booetis b is insufficient to generate the surface field strengths of >50 G required for detection at 150 MHz or (2) Earth lies outside the beaming pattern of the radio emission from the planet.

  16. Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies


    The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Method of modifying conveyor belt profile for monitoring ask content of coarse grain coal by radiometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taborsky, J.; Tryzna, P.; Formanek, Z.; Vales, J.


    The conveyor belt is gripped in the chosen place with benches to form a V shape with a constant cross section independent of the immediate amount of transported coal. At this point the source and the radiation intensity monitor are placed in horizontal plane on the sides of the conveyor belt. Their connecting line is perpendicular to the direction of the movement of the conveyor belt. Thus, monitoring of the ash content of mined coal and operative control of mining according to measured values are made possible. (Ha)

  18. The Juno Radiation Monitoring (RM) Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, H. N.; Alexander, J. W.; Adriani, A.


    The Radiation Monitoring Investigation of the Juno Mission will actively retrieve and analyze the noise signatures from penetrating radiation in the images of Juno’s star cameras and science instruments at Jupiter. The investigation’s objective is to profile Jupiter’s > 10-MeV electron environmen...

  19. Ulysses at jupiter: an overview of the encounter. (United States)

    Smith, E J; Wenzel, K P; Page, D E


    In February 1992, the Ulysses spacecraft flew through the giant magnetosphere of Jupiter. The primary objective of the encounter was to use the gravity field of Jupiter to redirect the spacecraft to the sun's polar regions, which will now be traversed in 1994 and 1995. However, the Ulysses scientific investigations were well suited to observations of the Jovian magnetosphere, and the encounter has resulted in a major contribution to our understanding of this complex and dynamic plasma environment. Among the more exciting results are (i) possible entry into the polar cap, (ii) the identification of magnetospheric ions originating from Jupiter's ionosphere, lo, and the solar wind, (iii) observation of longitudinal asymmetries in density and discrete wave-emitting regions of the lo plasma torus, (iv) the presence of counter-streaming ions and electrons, field-aligned currents, and energetic electron and radio bursts in the dusk sector on high-latitude magnetic field lines, and (v) the identification of the direction of the magnetic field in the dusk sector, which is indicative of tailward convection. This overview serves as an introduction to the accompanying reports that present the preliminary scientific findings. Aspects of the encounter that are common to all of the investigations, such as spacecraft capabilities, the flight path past Jupiter, and unique aspects of the encounter, are presented herein.

  20. A nebula of gases from Io surrounding Jupiter. (United States)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M; Mitchell, Donald G; Hamilton, Douglas C; Dandouras, Jannis; Armstrong, Thomas P; Bolton, Scott J; Cheng, Andrew F; Gloeckler, George; Hsieh, K C; Keath, Edwin P; Krupp, Norbert; Lagg, Andreas; Lanzerotti, Louis J; Livi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H; McEntire, Richard W; Roelof, Edmond C; Wilken, Berend; Williams, Donald J


    Several planetary missions have reported the presence of substantial numbers of energetic ions and electrons surrounding Jupiter; relativistic electrons are observable up to several astronomical units (au) from the planet. A population of energetic (>30[?]keV) neutral particles also has been reported, but the instrumentation was not able to determine the mass or charge state of the particles, which were subsequently labelled energetic neutral atoms. Although images showing the presence of the trace element sodium were obtained, the source and identity of the neutral atoms---and their overall significance relative to the loss of charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere---were unknown. Here we report the discovery by the Cassini spacecraft of a fast (>103[?]km[?]s-1) and hot magnetospheric neutral wind extending more than 0.5[?]au from Jupiter, and the presence of energetic neutral atoms (both hot and cold) that have been accelerated by the electric field in the solar wind. We suggest that these atoms originate in volcanic gases from Io, undergo significant evolution through various electromagnetic interactions, escape Jupiter's magnetosphere and then populate the environment around the planet. Thus a 'nebula' is created that extends outwards over hundreds of jovian radii.

  1. First Earth-based Detection of a Superbolide on Jupiter (United States)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Wesley, A.; Go, C.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Wong, M. H.; Fletcher, L. N.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Boslough, M. B. E.; de Pater, I.; Orton, G. S.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Edwards, M. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Clarke, J. T.; Noll, K. S.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.


    On June 3, 2010 a bolide in Jupiter's atmosphere was observed from the Earth for the first time. The flash was detected by amateur astronomers A. Wesley and C. Go observing in two wavelength ranges. We present an analysis of the light curve of those observations that allow estimating the size of the object to be significantly smaller than the SL9 and the July 2009 Jupiter impact. Observations obtained a few days later by large telescopes including HST, VLT, Keck and Gemini showed no signature of the impact in Jupiter atmosphere confirming the small size of the impact body. A nearly continuous observation campaign based on several small telescopes by amateurs astronomers might allow an empirical determination of the flux of meteoroids in Jupiter with implications for the populations of small bodies in the outer solar system and may allow a better quantification of the threat of impacting bodies to Earth. Acknowledgements: RH, ASL and SPH are supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. LNF is supported by a Glasstone Science Fellowship at the University of Oxford.

  2. First Results of ISO-SWS Grating Observations of Jupiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Encrenaz, Th.; de Graauw, Th.; Schaeidt, S.; Lellouch, E.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Beintema, D. A.; Bezard, B.; Drossart, P.; Griffin, M.; Heras, A.; Kessler, M.; Leech, K.; Morris, A.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Roos-Serote, M.; Salama, A.; Vandenbussche, B.; Valentijn, E. A.; Davies, G. R.; Naylor, D. A.


    The spectrum of Jupiter has been recorded on April 12, 1996, between 2.75 and 14.5 mu m, with the grating mode of the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer of ISO (Infrared Space Observatory). The resolving power is 1500 and the sensitivity limit is better than 1 Jy. The corresponding S/N ratio is better

  3. First results of ISO-SWS observations of Jupiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Encrenaz, T.; de Graauw, T.; Schaeidt, S.; Lellouch, E.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Beintema, D. A.; Bezard, B.; Drossart, P.; Griffin, M.; Heras, A.; Kessler, M.; Leech, K.; Morris, P.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Roos-Serote, M.; Salama, A.; Vandenbussche, B.; Valentijn, E. A.; Davis, G. R.; Naylor, D. A.

    The spectrum of Jupiter has been recorded between 2.75 and 14.5 mu m with the grating mode of the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of ISO. The resolving power is 1500. The main preliminary results of this observation are (1) at 3 mu m, the first spectroscopic signature, probably associated with

  4. Multi-band characterization of the hot Jupiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyano, M.; Almeida, L. A.; von Essen, C.


    We have carried out a campaign to characterize the hot Jupiters WASP-5b, WASP-44b and WASP-46b using multiband photometry collected at the Observatorio do Pico Dos Dias in Brazil. We have determined the planetary physical properties and new transit ephemerides for these systems. The new orbital...

  5. Influence of tides on the gravitational field of Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, S.V.; Zharkov, V.N.; Leont'ev, V.V.


    The influence of tides on the gravitational field of giant planets is considered quantitatively. The ''gravitational noise'' due to tides can affect the determination of J 8 and J 10 for Jupiter. Tidal sounding of the giant planets is suggested. (author)

  6. The Moons of Jupiter / Journey to the Stars (United States)

    Litwak, J.; Chatzichristou, E.


    The Moons of Jupiter/ Journey to the Stars uses the arts, most particularly theatre arts to inspire curiosity about science education. Using characters which include famous scientists as well as mythological figures, the project provokes thought and offers opportunity for discovery. The play and the subsequent creative teaching tools are accessible to scientists, artists and lay people in an out of the classroom.

  7. Application of cool wan flow control weight scale design on belt conveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djokorayono, Rony; Junus; Rivai, A; Gunarwan; Indarzah


    Control of the coal mass flow on the belt conveyor at coal handling unit PLTU Suralaya has been designed by using weight scale of gamma absorption technique where accuracy for the measurement of weight scale system is 0,5% to 0,1%. The absorption gamma radiation will be measured by scintillation or ion chamber detector

  8. An Overview of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter Concept's Europa Science Phase Orbit Design (United States)

    Lock, Robert E.; Ludwinski, Jan M.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Clark, Karla B.; Pappalardo, Robert T.


    Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), the proposed NASA element of the proposed joint NASA-ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), could launch in February 2020 and conceivably arrive at Jupiter in December of 2025. The concept is to perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months. This paper provides an overview of the JEO concept and describes the Europa Science phase orbit design and the related science priorities, model pay-load and operations scenarios needed to conduct the Europa Science phase. This overview is for planning and discussion purposes only.

  9. Effect of Thermospheric Neutral Density upon Inner Trapped-belt Proton Flux (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Lodhi, M. A. K.; Diaz, Abel B.


    We wish to point out that a secular change in the Earth's atmospheric neutral density alters charged-particle lifetime in the inner trapped radiation belts, in addition to the changes recently reported as produced by greenhouse gases. Heretofore, changes in neutral density have been of interest primarily because of their effect on the orbital drag of satellites. We extend this to include the orbital lifetime of charged particles in the lower radiation belts. It is known that the charged-belt population is coupled to the neutral density of the atmosphere through changes induced by solar activity, an effect produced by multiple scattering off neutral and ionized atoms along with ionization loss in the thermosphere where charged and neutral populations interact. It will be shown here that trapped-belt flux J is bivariant in energy E and thermospheric neutral density , as J(E,rho). One can conclude that proton lifetimes in these belts are also directly affected by secular changes in the neutral species populating the Earth s thermosphere. This result is a consequence of an intrinsic property of charged-particle flux, that flux is not merely a function of E but is dependent upon density rho when a background of neutrals is present.

  10. The hot plasma environment at jupiter: ulysses results. (United States)

    Lanzerotti, L J; Armstrong, T P; Gold, R E; Anderson, K A; Krimigis, S M; Lin, R P; Pick, M; Roelof, E C; Sarris, E T; Simnett, G M; Maclennan, C G; Choo, H T; Tappin, S J


    Measurements of the hot plasma environment during the Ulysses flyby of Jupiter have revealed several new discoveries related to this large rotating astrophysical system. The Jovian magnetosphere was found by Ulysses to be very extended, with the day-side magnetopause located at approximately 105 Jupiter radii. The heavy ion (sulfur, oxygen, and sodium) population in the day-side magnetosphere increased sharply at approximately 86 Jupiter radii. This is somewhat more extended than the "inner" magnetosphere boundary region identified by the Voyager hot plasma measurements. In the day-side magnetosphere, the ion fluxes have the anisotropy direction expected for corotation with the planet, with the magnitude of the anisotropy increasing when the spacecraft becomes more immersed in the hot plasma sheet. The relative abundances of sulfur, oxygen, and sodium to helium decreased somewhat with decreasing radial distance from the planet on the day-side, which suggests that the abundances of the Jupiter-derived species are dependent on latitude. In the dusk-side, high-latitude region, intense fluxes of counter-streaming ions and electrons were discovered from the edge of the plasma sheet to the dusk-side magnetopause. These beams of electrons and ions were found to be very tightly aligned with the magnetic field and to be superimposed on a time- and space-variable isotropic hot plasma background. The currents carried by the measured hot plasma particles are typically approximately 1.6 x 10(-4) microamperes per square meter or approximately 8 x 10(5) amperes per squared Jupiter radius throughout the high-latitude magnetosphere volume. It is likely that the intense particle beams discovered at high Jovian latitudes produce auroras in the polar caps of the planet.

  11. Tilting Saturn without Tilting Jupiter: Constraints on Giant Planet Migration (United States)

    Brasser, R.; Lee, Man Hoi


    The migration and encounter histories of the giant planets in our solar system can be constrained by the obliquities of Jupiter and Saturn. We have performed secular simulations with imposed migration and N-body simulations with planetesimals to study the expected obliquity distribution of migrating planets with initial conditions resembling those of the smooth migration model, the resonant Nice model and two models with five giant planets initially in resonance (one compact and one loose configuration). For smooth migration, the secular spin-orbit resonance mechanism can tilt Saturn’s spin axis to the current obliquity if the product of the migration timescale and the orbital inclinations is sufficiently large (exceeding 30 Myr deg). For the resonant Nice model with imposed migration, it is difficult to reproduce today’s obliquity values, because the compactness of the initial system raises the frequency that tilts Saturn above the spin precession frequency of Jupiter, causing a Jupiter spin-orbit resonance crossing. Migration timescales sufficiently long to tilt Saturn generally suffice to tilt Jupiter more than is observed. The full N-body simulations tell a somewhat different story, with Jupiter generally being tilted as often as Saturn, but on average having a higher obliquity. The main obstacle is the final orbital spacing of the giant planets, coupled with the tail of Neptune’s migration. The resonant Nice case is barely able to simultaneously reproduce the orbital and spin properties of the giant planets, with a probability ˜ 0.15%. The loose five planet model is unable to match all our constraints (probability <0.08%). The compact five planet model has the highest chance of matching the orbital and obliquity constraints simultaneously (probability ˜0.3%).

  12. Exploring the diversity of Jupiter-class planets. (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N; Irwin, Patrick G J; Barstow, Joanna K; de Kok, Remco J; Lee, Jae-Min; Aigrain, Suzanne


    Of the 900+ confirmed exoplanets discovered since 1995 for which we have constraints on their mass (i.e. not including Kepler candidates), 75% have masses larger than Saturn (0.3 MJ), 53% are more massive than Jupiter and 67% are within 1 AU of their host stars. When Kepler candidates are included, Neptune-sized giant planets could form the majority of the planetary population. And yet the term 'hot Jupiter' fails to account for the incredible diversity of this class of astrophysical object, which exists on a continuum of giant planets from the cool jovians of our own Solar System to the highly irradiated, tidally locked hot roasters. We review theoretical expectations for the temperatures, molecular composition and cloud properties of hydrogen-dominated Jupiter-class objects under a variety of different conditions. We discuss the classification schemes for these Jupiter-class planets proposed to date, including the implications for our own Solar System giant planets and the pitfalls associated with compositional classification at this early stage of exoplanetary spectroscopy. We discuss the range of planetary types described by previous authors, accounting for (i) thermochemical equilibrium expectations for cloud condensation and favoured chemical stability fields; (ii) the metallicity and formation mechanism for these giant planets; (iii) the importance of optical absorbers for energy partitioning and the generation of a temperature inversion; (iv) the favoured photochemical pathways and expectations for minor species (e.g. saturated hydrocarbons and nitriles); (v) the unexpected presence of molecules owing to vertical mixing of species above their quench levels; and (vi) methods for energy and material redistribution throughout the atmosphere (e.g. away from the highly irradiated daysides of close-in giants). Finally, we discuss the benefits and potential flaws of retrieval techniques for establishing a family of atmospheric solutions that reproduce the

  13. Exterior Companions to Hot Jupiters Orbiting Cool Stars Are Coplanar (United States)

    Becker, Juliette C.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Adams, Fred C.; Khain, Tali; Bryan, Marta


    The existence of hot Jupiters has challenged theories of planetary formation since the first extrasolar planets were detected. Giant planets are generally believed to form far from their host stars, where volatile materials like water exist in their solid phase, making it easier for giant planet cores to accumulate. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how giant planets can migrate inward from their birth sites to short-period orbits. One such mechanism, called Kozai-Lidov migration, requires the presence of distant companions in orbits inclined by more than ˜40° with respect to the plane of the hot Jupiter’s orbit. The high occurrence rate of wide companions in hot-Jupiter systems lends support to this theory for migration. However, the exact orbital inclinations of these detected planetary and stellar companions is not known, so it is not clear whether the mutual inclination of these companions is large enough for the Kozai-Lidov process to operate. This paper shows that in systems orbiting cool stars with convective outer layers, the orbits of most wide planetary companions to hot Jupiters must be well aligned with the orbits of the hot Jupiters and the spins of the host stars. For a variety of possible distributions for the inclination of the companion, the width of the distribution must be less than ˜20° to recreate the observations with good fidelity. As a result, the companion orbits are likely well aligned with those of the hot Jupiters, and the Kozai-Lidov mechanism does not enforce migration in these systems.

  14. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars. (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N


    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  15. Long term variations of the decimetric radio emission of Jupiter (and Saturn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, E.


    The Jovian total flux density at decimeter wavelengths is known to possess a short modulation due to the beaming of the synchrotron radiation of the relativistic electrons trapped in the dipole nagnetic field of the planet. The maximum flux (later called Isub(max)) occurs twice per rotation when the Earth is at zero magnetic declination. It has been a matter of dispute for many years to know whether Isub(max) was variable over long periods of time i.e. months and years. After more than a decade of observations it is clear that the flux density of Jupiter is variable (Roberts and Huguenin, 1963; Gerard, 1970; Klein et al., 1972; Berge, 1974; Gerard, 1974, in preparation) at 21, 11 and 6 cm wavelength. (Auth.)

  16. Jupiter's Great Red Spot: compactness condition and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichi Yano

    Full Text Available Linear Rossby wave dispersion relationships suggest that Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS is a baroclinic structure embedded in a barotropic shearing zonal flow. Quasi-geostrophic (QG two-layer simulations support the theory, as long as an infinitely deep zonal flow is assumed. However, once a finite depth of the lower layer is assumed, a self-interaction of the baroclinic eddy component produces a barotropic radiating field, so that the GRS-like eddy can no longer remain compact. Compactness is recovered by explicitly introducing a deep dynamics of the interior for the lower layer, instead of the shallow QG formulation. An implication of the result is a strong coupling of the GRS to a convectively active interior.

  17. Jupiter data analysis program (JDAP) research grant on wave accessibility and attributes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvert, W.


    For more than thirty years the intense decametric radio emissions from Jupiter (DAM) and the corresponding auroral kilometric radiation from the Earth (AKR) have remained major radio science mysteries. Part of the problem, aside from their inherent complexity, has been the difficulty of measuring their source location and emission properties from limited observations. Progress has been made on this problem by locating the source directly, i.e., by analysis of the faraday rotation observed with Voyager as the wave path crossed the Io plasma torus, and indirectly by comparing the peak frequencies of the decametric emission with that at the foot of the Io flux tube. Progress was also made on the general question of how the emissions originate by finding properties of both the AKR and DAM which would imply emission by natural radio lasing

  18. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel


    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  19. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Wesley C. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Brown, Michael E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice (France); Parker, Alex [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Batygin, Konstantin, E-mail: [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, α{sub 1}=1.5{sub −0.2}{sup +0.4}, and break magnitude, H{sub B}=6.9{sub −0.2}{sup +0.1} (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, α{sub 1}=0.87{sub −0.2}{sup +0.07}, and break magnitude H{sub B}=7.7{sub −0.5}{sup +1.0}. Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of α{sub 2} ∼ 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ∼0.01 and ∼3 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ⊕}. The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has α{sub 1} = 1.0 ± 0.2, α{sub 2} = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H {sub B} = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H{sub r{sup ′}}≲3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  20. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Parker, Alex; Batygin, Konstantin


    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, α 1 =1.5 −0.2 +0.4 , and break magnitude, H B =6.9 −0.2 +0.1 (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, α 1 =0.87 −0.2 +0.07 , and break magnitude H B =7.7 −0.5 +1.0 . Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of α 2 ∼ 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ∼0.01 and ∼3 × 10 –4 M ⊕ . The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has α 1 = 1.0 ± 0.2, α 2 = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H B = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H r ′ ≲3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  1. The Main Asteroid Belt: The Crossroads of the Solar System (United States)

    Michel, Patrick


    Orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter, main belt asteroids are leftover planetary building blocks that never accreted enough material to become planets. They are therefore keys to understanding how the Solar System formed and evolved. They may also provide clues to the origin of life, as similar bodies may have delivered organics and water to the early Earth.Strong associations between asteroids and meteorites emerged thanks to multi-technique observations, modeling, in situ and sample return analyses. Spacecraft images revolutionized our knowledge of these small worlds. Asteroids are stunning in their diversity in terms of physical properties. Their gravity varies by more orders of magnitude than its variation among the terrestrial planets, including the Moon. Each rendezvous with an asteroid thus turned our geological understanding on its head as each asteroid is affected in different ways by a variety of processes such as landslides, faulting, and impact cratering. Composition also varies, from ice-rich to lunar-like to chondritic.Nearly every asteroid we see today, whether of primitive or evolved compositions, is the product of a complex history involving accretion and one or more episodes of catastrophic disruption that sometimes resulted in families of smaller asteroids that have distinct and indicative petrogenic relationships. These families provide the best data to study the impact disruption process at scales far larger than those accessible in laboratory. Tens, perhaps hundreds, of early asteroids grew large enough to thermally differentiate. Their traces are scattered pieces of their metal-rich cores and, more rarely, their mantles and crusts.Asteroids represent stages on the rocky road to planet formation. They have great stories to tell about the formation and evolution of our Solar System as well as other planetary systems: asteroid belts seem common around Sun-like stars. We will review our current knowledge on their properties, their link to

  2. Belt design central to conveyor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    While a conveyor system comprises a complex range of components, it is the belt design which ultimately dictates its core performance and reliability. The complexity of modern systems can be seen by the recent contract awarded to ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik (TKF) to supply systems for a new steel plant (including a coking plant and a power plant) to be built in Sepetiba Bay in Brazil. Phoenix has designed the Phoenotec system to protect steel cord conveyor belts. Fenner Dunlop has developed Fenaplast belting with nylon or polyester load-bearing warp and weft yarns for good impact resistance. 2 photos.

  3. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  6. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  7. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  8. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund


    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  9. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors


    Gao Yang


    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  10. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA


    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  11. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors


    Li, Junxia; Pang, Xiaoxu


    This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed a...

  12. Seat-belt message and the law? (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G


    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  13. Electromagnetically Interacting Dust Streams During Ulysses' Second Jupiter Encounter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, H.; Forsyth, R.J.; Graps, A.L.; Gruen, E.


    The Jupiter system is a source of collimated burst-like streams of electrically charged 10-nm dust particles. In 2004 the Ulysses spacecraft had its second flyby at Jupiter and from late 2002 to early 2005 it measured a total of 24 dust streams between 0.8 and 3.4 AU from the planet. The grains show strong coupling to the interplanetary magnetic field: their impact directions correlate with the orientation and strength of the interplanetary magnetic field vector (namely its tangential and radial components) and they occur at 26 day intervals, closely matching the solar rotation period. Ulysses measured the dust streams over a large range in jovian latitude (+75 deg. to -35 deg.). Enhanced dust emission was measured along the jovian equator

  14. Ongoing Analysis of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes from Cassini (United States)

    Choi, D. S.; Showmwn, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.


    We present updated results from our ongoing analysis of Cassini observations of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach of the planet, the ISS instrument onboard Cassini regularly imaged the atmosphere of Jupiter. We created time-lapse movies from this period that show the complex activity and interactions of the equatorial atmosphere. During this period, hot spots exhibited significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes appear to be a result of interactions with passing vortex systems in adjacent latitudes. Strong anticyclonic gyres to the southeast of the dark areas converge with flow from the west and appear to circulate into a hot spot at its southwestern corner.

  15. Inferring Temperature Inversions in Hot Jupiters Via Spitzer Emission Spectroscopy (United States)

    Garhart, Emily; Deming, Drake; Mandell, Avi


    We present a systematic study of 35 hot Jupiter secondary eclipses, including 16 hot Jupiters never before characterized via emission, observed at the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm bandpasses of Warm Spitzer in order to classify their atmospheric structure, namely, the existence of temperature inversions. This is a robust study in that these planets orbit stars with a wide range of compositions, temperatures, and activity levels. This diverse sample allows us to investigate the source of planetary temperature inversions, specifically, its correlation with stellar irradiance and magnetic activity. We correct for systematic and intra-pixel sensitivity effects with a pixel level decorrelation (PLD) method described in Deming et al. (2015). The relationship between eclipse depths and a best-fit blackbody function versus stellar activity, a method described in Knutson et al. (2010), will ultimately enable us to appraise the current hypotheses of temperature inversions.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Fabrycky, Daniel; Johnson, John Asher


    We show that stars with transiting planets for which the stellar obliquity is large are preferentially hot (T eff > 6250 K). This could explain why small obliquities were observed in the earliest measurements, which focused on relatively cool stars drawn from Doppler surveys, as opposed to hotter stars that emerged more recently from transit surveys. The observed trend could be due to differences in planet formation and migration around stars of varying mass. Alternatively, we speculate that hot-Jupiter systems begin with a wide range of obliquities, but the photospheres of cool stars realign with the orbits due to tidal dissipation in their convective zones, while hot stars cannot realign because of their thinner convective zones. This in turn would suggest that hot Jupiters originate from few-body gravitational dynamics and that disk migration plays at most a supporting role.

  17. Neutron irradiation experiments for fusion reactor materials through JUPITER program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Namba, C.; Wiffen, F.W.; Jones, R.H.


    A Japan-USA program of irradiation experiments for fusion research, ''JUPITER'', has been established as a 6 year program from 1995 to 2000. The goal is to study ''the dynamic behavior of fusion reactor materials and their response to variable and complex irradiation environment''. This is phase-three of the collaborative program, which follows RTNS-II program (phase-1: 1982-1986) and FFTF/MOTA program (phase-2: 1987-1994). This program is to provide a scientific basis for application of materials performance data, generated by fission reactor experiments, to anticipated fusion environments. Following the systematic study on cumulative irradiation effects, done through FFTF/MOTA program. JUPITER is emphasizing the importance of dynamic irradiation effects on materials performance in fusion systems. The irradiation experiments in this program include low activation structural materials, functional ceramics and other innovative materials. The experimental data are analyzed by theoretical modeling and computer simulation to integrate the above effects. (orig.)

  18. Carbon monoxide in jupiter's upper atmosphere: An extraplanetary source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, M.J.; Logan, J.A.; McElroy, M.B.


    Ablation of meteoroidal material in Jupiter's atmosphere may provide substantial quantities of H 2 O. Subsequent photochemistry can convert H 2 O and CH 4 to CO and H 2 . The associated source of CO could account for the observations by Beer, Larson, Fink, and Treffers, and Beer and Taylor, and would explain the relatively low rotational temperatures inferred by Beer and Taylor. Meteoritic debris might also provide spectroscopically detectable concentrations of SiO


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Scott S.


    The optical colors of 58 objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune were obtained. The various Neptune resonant populations were found to have significantly different surface color distributions. The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have semimajor axes near the middle of the main Kuiper Belt and both are dominated by ultra-red material (spectral gradient: S ∼> 25). The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have statistically the same color distribution as the low-inclination 'cold' classical belt. The inner 4:3 and distant 5:2 resonances have objects with mostly moderately red colors (S ∼ 15), similar to the scattered and detached disk populations. The 2:1 resonance, which is near the outer edge of the main Kuiper Belt, has a large range of colors with similar numbers of moderately red and ultra-red objects at all inclinations. The 2:1 resonance was also found to have a very rare neutral colored object showing that the 2:1 resonance is really a mix of all object types. The inner 3:2 resonance, like the outer 2:1, has a large range of objects from neutral to ultra-red. The Neptune Trojans (1:1 resonance) are only slightly red (S ∼ 9), similar to the Jupiter Trojans. The inner 5:4 resonance only has four objects with measured colors but shows equal numbers of ultra-red and moderately red objects. The 9:5, 12:5, 7:3, 3:1, and 11:3 resonances do not have reliable color distribution statistics since few objects have been observed in these resonances, though it appears noteworthy that all three of the measured 3:1 objects have only moderately red colors, similar to the 4:3 and 5:2 resonances. The different color distributions of objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune are likely a result from the disruption of the primordial Kuiper Belt from the scattering and migration of the giant planets. The few low-inclination objects known in the outer 2:1 and 5:2 resonances are mostly only moderately red. This suggests if the 2:1 and 5:2 have a cold low-inclination component, the objects

  20. Coloring Jupiter's clouds: Radiolysis of ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH) (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.


    Here we present our recent studies on the color and spectral reflectance changes induced by ∼0.9 MeV proton irradiation of ammonium hydrosulfide, NH4SH, a compound predicted to be an important tropospheric cloud component of Jupiter and other giant planets. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to observe and identify reaction products in the ice sample and digital photography was used to document the corresponding color changes at 10-160 K. Our experiments clearly show that the resulting color of the sample depends not only on the irradiation dose but also the irradiation temperature. Furthermore, unlike in our most recent studies of irradiation of NH4SH at 120 K, which showed that higher irradiation doses caused the sample to appear green, the lower temperature studies now show that the sample becomes red after irradiation. However, comparison of these lower temperature spectra over the entire spectral range observed by HST shows that even though the color and spectrum resemble the color and spectrum of the GRS, there is still enough difference to suggest that another component may be needed to adequately fit spectra of the GRS and other red regions of Jupiter's clouds. Regardless, the presence of NH4SH in the atmosphere of Jupiter and other gas giants, combined with this compound's clear alteration via radiolysis, suggests that its contribution to the ultraviolet-visible spectra of any of these object's clouds is significant.

  1. Jupiter's Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere after Juno's First 8 Orbits (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Oliversen, R. J.; Espley, J. R.; Gruesbeck, J.; Kotsiaros, S.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Joergensen, J. L.; Joergensen, P. S.; Merayo, J. M. G.; Denver, T.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Malinnikova Bang, A.; Bloxham, J.; Moore, K.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S.; Gershman, D. J.


    The Juno spacecraft entered polar orbit about Jupiter on July 4, 2016, embarking upon an ambitious mission to map Jupiter's magnetic and gravitational potential fields and probe its deep atmosphere, in search of clues to the planet's formation and evolution. Juno is also instrumented to conduct the first exploration of the polar magnetosphere and to acquire images and spectra of its polar auroras and atmosphere. Juno's 53.5-day orbit trajectory carries her science instruments from pole to pole in approximately 2 hours, with a closest approach to within 1.05 Rj of the center of the planet (one Rj = 71,492 km, Jupiter's equatorial radius), just a few thousand km above the clouds. Repeated periapsis passes will eventually encircle the planet with a dense net of observations equally spaced in longitude (magnetometer sensor suites, located 10 and 12 m from the center of the spacecraft at the end of one of Juno's three solar panel wings. Each contains a vector fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located non-magnetic star tracker camera heads, providing accurate attitude determination for the FGM sensors. We present an overview of the magnetometer observations obtained during Juno's first year in orbit in context with prior observations and those acquired by Juno's other science instruments.

  2. Radio Emission from Red-Giant Hot Jupiters (United States)

    Fujii, Yuka; Spiegel, David S.; Mroczkowski, Tony; Nordhaus, Jason; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Madhusudhan, Nikku


    When planet-hosting stars evolve off the main sequence and go through the red-giant branch, the stars become orders of magnitudes more luminous and, at the same time, lose mass at much higher rates than their main sequence counterparts. Accordingly, if planetary companions exist around these stars at orbital distances of a few au, they will be heated up to the level of canonical hot Jupiters and also be subjected to a dense stellar wind. Given that magnetized planets interacting with stellar winds emit radio waves, such "Red-Giant Hot Jupiters" (RGHJs) may also be candidate radio emitters. We estimate the spectral auroral radio intensity of RGHJs based on the empirical relation with the stellar wind as well as a proposed scaling for planetary magnetic fields. RGHJs might be intrinsically as bright as or brighter than canonical hot Jupiters and about 100 times brighter than equivalent objects around main-sequence stars. We examine the capabilities of low-frequency radio observatories to detect this emission and find that the signal from an RGHJ may be detectable at distances up to a few hundred parsecs with the Square Kilometer Array.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheres of Titan and Jupiter (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Mcdonald, G. D.; Wing, Michael R.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Arakawa, E. T.


    PAHs are important components of the interstellar medium and carbonaceous chondrites, but have never been identified in the reducing atmospheres of the outer solar system. Incompletely characterized complex organic solids (tholins) produced by irradiating simulated Titan atmospheres reproduce well the observed UV/visible/IR optical constants of the Titan stratospheric haze. Titan tholin and a tholin generated in a crude simulation of the atmosphere of Jupiter are examined by two-step laser desorption/multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry. A range of two- to four-ring PAHs, some with one to four alkylation sites, are identified, with a net abundance of about 0.0001 g/g (grams per gram) of tholins produced. Synchronous fluorescence techniques confirm this detection. Titan tholins have proportionately more one- and two-ring PAHs than do Jupiter tholins, which in turn have more four-ring and larger PAHs. The four-ringed PAH chrysene, prominent in some discussions of interstellar grains, is found in Jupiter tholins.

  4. Architectural and chemical insights into the origin of hot Jupiters (United States)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.


    The origin of Jupiter-mass planets with orbital periods of only a few days is still uncertain. This problem has been with us for 20 years, long enough for significant progress to have been made, and also for a great deal of ``lore" to have accumulated about the properties of these planets. Among this lore is the widespread belief that hot Jupiters are less likely to be in multiple giant planet systems than longer-period giant planets. I will show that in this case the lore is not supported by the best data available today: hot Jupiters are not lonely. I will also show that stellar sodium abundance is inversely proportional to the probability that a star hosts a short-period giant planet. This observation is best explained by the effect of decreasing sodium abundance on protoplanetary disk structure and reveals that planetesimal-disk or planet-disk interactions are critical for the existence of short-period giant planets.

  5. 3D General Circulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere of Jupiter (United States)

    Zube, Nicholas Gerard; Zhang, Xi; Li, Cheng; Le, Tianhao


    The characteristics of Jupiter’s large-scale stratospheric circulation remain largely unknown. Detailed distributions of temperature and photochemical species have been provided by recent observations [1], but have not yet been accurately reproduced by middle atmosphere general circulation models (GCM). Jupiter’s stratosphere and upper troposphere are influenced by radiative forcing from solar insolation and infrared cooling from hydrogen and hydrocarbons, as well as waves propagating from the underlying troposphere [2]. The relative significance of radiative and mechanical forcing on stratospheric circulation is still being debated [3]. Here we present a 3D GCM of Jupiter’s atmosphere with a correlated-k radiative transfer scheme. The simulation results are compared with observations. We analyze the impact of model parameters on the stratospheric temperature distribution and dynamical features. Finally, we discuss future tracer transport and gravity wave parameterization schemes that may be able to accurately simulate the middle atmosphere dynamics of Jupiter and other giant planets.[1] Kunde et al. 2004, Science 305, 1582.[2] Zhang et al. 2013a, EGU General Assembly, EGU2013-5797-2.[3] Conrath 1990, Icarus, 83, 255-281.

  6. Ice Caps and Ice Belts: The Effects of Obliquity on Ice−Albedo Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Brian E. J. [Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany (State University of New York), 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Cronin, Timothy W. [Program in Atmospheres, Oceans, and Climate, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bitz, Cecilia M., E-mail: [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, MS 351640, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1640 (United States)


    Planetary obliquity determines the meridional distribution of the annual mean insolation. For obliquity exceeding 55°, the weakest insolation occurs at the equator. Stable partial snow and ice cover on such a planet would be in the form of a belt about the equator rather than polar caps. An analytical model of planetary climate is used to investigate the stability of ice caps and ice belts over the widest possible range of parameters. The model is a non-dimensional diffusive Energy Balance Model, representing insolation, heat transport, and ice−albedo feedback on a spherical planet. A complete analytical solution for any obliquity is given and validated against numerical solutions of a seasonal model in the “deep-water” regime of weak seasonal ice line migration. Multiple equilibria and unstable transitions between climate states (ice-free, Snowball, or ice cap/belt) are found over wide swaths of parameter space, including a “Large Ice-Belt Instability” and “Small Ice-Belt Instability” at high obliquity. The Snowball catastrophe is avoided at weak radiative forcing in two different scenarios: weak albedo feedback and inefficient heat transport (favoring stable partial ice cover), or efficient transport at high obliquity (favoring ice-free conditions). From speculative assumptions about distributions of planetary parameters, three-fourths to four-fifths of all planets with stable partial ice cover should be in the form of Earth-like polar caps.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matter, A.; Lopez, B.; Lagarde, S.; Danchi, W. C.; Robbe-Dubois, S.; Petrov, R. G.; Navarro, R.


    The observable quantities in optical interferometry, which are the modulus and the phase of the complex visibility, may be corrupted by parasitic fringes superimposed on the genuine fringe pattern. These fringes are due to an interference phenomenon occurring from stray light effects inside an interferometric instrument. We developed an analytical approach to better understand this phenomenon when stray light causes cross talk between beams. We deduced that the parasitic interference significantly affects the interferometric phase and thus the associated observables including the differential phase and the closure phase. The amount of parasitic flux coupled to the piston between beams appears to be very influential in this degradation. For instance, considering a point-like source and a piston ranging from λ/500 to λ/5 in the L band (λ = 3.5 μm), a parasitic flux of about 1% of the total flux produces a parasitic phase reaching at most one-third of the intrinsic phase. The piston, which can have different origins (instrumental stability, atmospheric perturbations, etc.), thus amplifies the effect of parasitic interference. According to the specifications of piston correction in space or at ground level (respectively λ/500 ∼ 2 nm and λ/30 ∼ 100 nm), the detection of hot Jupiter-like planets, one of the most challenging aims for current ground-based interferometers, limits parasitic radiation to about 5% of the incident intensity. This was evaluated by considering different types of hot Jupiter synthetic spectra. Otherwise, if no fringe tracking is used, the detection of a typical hot Jupiter-like system with a solar-like star would admit a maximum level of parasitic intensity of 0.01% for piston errors equal to λ/15. If the fringe tracking specifications are not precisely observed, it thus appears that the allowed level of parasitic intensity dramatically decreases and may prevent the detection. In parallel, the calibration of the parasitic phase by a

  8. Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Variations of Jupiter's Atmosphere from Observations of Thermal Emission, 1994-2011 (United States)

    Orton, G.; Fletcher, L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Greathouse, T.; Fisher, B.; Greco, J.; Wakefield, L.; Snead, E.; Boydstun, K.; Simon-Miller, A.; hide


    We analyzed mid-infrared images of Jupiter's thermal emission, covering approx.1.5 Jovian years, acquired in discrete filters between 7.8 and 24.5 microns. The behavior of stratospheric (approx.10-mbar) and tropospheric (approx.100-400 mbar) temperatures is generally consistent with predictions of seasonal variability, with differences between 100-mbar temperatures +/-50-60deg from the equator on the order of +/-2. Removing this effect, there appear to be long-term quasi-periodic variability of tropospheric temperatures, whose amplitude, phase and period depend on latitude. The behavior of temperatures in the Equatorial Zone (EZ) suggests a approx.4-6-year period with amplitude of about +/-1-1.5 K in temperature. At mid-latitudes, the periodicity is more distinct with amplitudes around +/-1.5-2.5 K and 4-8 year periods. The 4.2-year variation of stratospheric temperatures known as the quasiquadrennial oscillation or "QQO" (Leovy et al. 1991, Nature 354, 380) continued during this period. There were no variations of zonal mean temperatures associated with any of the "global upheaval" events that have produced dramatic changes of jupiter's visible appearance and cloud cover, although there are colder discrete regions associated with updrafts, e.g. the early stages of the re-darkening ("revival") of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) in late 2010. On the other hand increases in the visible albedos ("fades") of belts are accompanied by increases in the thickness of a 700-mbar cloud layer (most likely NH3 ice) and clouds at higher pressures, together with the mixing ratio of NH3 gas near 400 mbar (above its condensation level). These quantities decrease during re-darkening ("revival") episodes, during which we note discrete features that are exceptions to the general correlation between dark albedos and minimal cloudiness. In contrast to all these changes, the meridional distribution of the 240-mbar para-H2 fraction appears to be invariant in time.

  9. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt. (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap


    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  10. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y; Tomono, K; Takahashi, H; Uchida, T [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Physical conditions for Jupiter-like dynamo models (United States)

    Duarte, Lúcia D. V.; Wicht, Johannes; Gastine, Thomas


    The Juno mission will measure Jupiter's magnetic field with unprecedented precision and provide a wealth of additional data that will allow us to constrain the planet's interior structure and dynamics. Here we analyse 66 different numerical simulations in order to explore the sensitivity of the dynamo-generated magnetic field to the planets interior properties. Jupiter field models based on pre-Juno data and up-to-date interior models based on ab initio simulations serve as benchmarks. Our results suggest that Jupiter-like magnetic fields can be found for a number of different models. These complement the steep density gradients in the outer part of the simulated shell with an electrical conductivity profile that mimics the low conductivity in the molecular hydrogen layer and thus renders the dynamo action in this region largely unimportant. We find that whether we assume an ideal gas or use the more realistic interior model based on ab initio simulations makes no difference. However, two other factors are important. A low Rayleigh number leads to a too strong axial dipole contribution while the axial dipole dominance is lost altogether when the convective driving is too strong. The required intermediate range that yields Jupiter-like magnetic fields depends on the other system properties. The second important factor is the convective magnetic Reynolds number radial profile Rmc(r), basically a product of the non-axisymmetric flow velocity and electrical conductivity. We find that the depth where Rmc exceeds about 50 is a good proxy for the top of the dynamo region. When the dynamo region sits too deep, the axial dipole is once more too dominant due to geometric reasons. Extrapolating our results to Jupiter and the result suggests that the Jovian dynamo extends to 95% of the planetary radius. The zonal flow system in our simulations is dominated by an equatorial jet which remains largely confined to the molecular layer. Where the jet reaches down to higher


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Lewis, N. K.; Fortney, J. J.; Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S.


    Of the over 800 exoplanets detected to date, over half are on non-circular orbits, with eccentricities as high as 0.93. Such orbits lead to time-variable stellar heating, which has major implications for the planet's atmospheric dynamical regime. However, little is known about the fundamental dynamical regime of such planetary atmospheres, and how it may influence the observations of these planets. Therefore, we present a systematic study of hot Jupiters on highly eccentric orbits using the SPARC/MITgcm, a model which couples a three-dimensional general circulation model (the MITgcm) with a plane-parallel, two-stream, non-gray radiative transfer model. In our study, we vary the eccentricity and orbit-average stellar flux over a wide range. We demonstrate that the eccentric hot Jupiter regime is qualitatively similar to that of planets on circular orbits; the planets possess a superrotating equatorial jet and exhibit large day-night temperature variations. As in Showman and Polvani, we show that the day-night heating variations induce momentum fluxes equatorward to maintain the superrotating jet throughout its orbit. We find that as the eccentricity and/or stellar flux is increased (corresponding to shorter orbital periods), the superrotating jet strengthens and narrows, due to a smaller Rossby deformation radius. For a select number of model integrations, we generate full-orbit light curves and find that the timing of transit and secondary eclipse viewed from Earth with respect to periapse and apoapse can greatly affect what we see in infrared (IR) light curves; the peak in IR flux can lead or lag secondary eclipse depending on the geometry. For those planets that have large temperature differences from dayside to nightside and rapid rotation rates, we find that the light curves can exhibit 'ringing' as the planet's hottest region rotates in and out of view from Earth. These results can be used to explain future observations of eccentric transiting exoplanets.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barstow, J. K. [Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Aigrain, S.; Irwin, P. G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Sing, D. K., E-mail: [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom)


    We present a consistent optimal estimation retrieval analysis of 10 hot Jupiter exoplanets, each with transmission spectral data spanning the visible to near-infrared wavelength range. Using the NEMESIS radiative transfer and retrieval tool, we calculate a range of possible atmospheric states for WASP-6b, WASP-12b, WASP-17b, WASP-19b, WASP-31b, WASP-39b, HD 189733b, HD 209458b, HAT-P-1b, and HAT-P-12b. We find that the spectra of all 10 planets are consistent with the presence of some atmospheric aerosol; WASP-6b, WASP-12b, WASP-17b, WASP-19b, HD 189733b, and HAT-P-12b are all fit best by Rayleigh scattering aerosols, whereas WASP-31b, WASP-39b and HD 209458b are better represented by a gray cloud model. HAT-P-1b has solutions that fall into both categories. WASP-6b, HAT-P-12b, HD 189733b, and WASP-12b must have aerosol extending to low atmospheric pressures (below 0.1 mbar). In general, planets with equilibrium temperatures between 1300 and 1700 K are best represented by deeper, gray cloud layers, whereas cooler or hotter planets are better fit using high Rayleigh scattering aerosol. We find little evidence for the presence of molecular absorbers other than H{sub 2}O. Retrieval methods can provide a consistent picture across a range of hot Jupiter atmospheres with existing data, and will be a powerful tool for the interpretation of James Webb Space Telescope observations.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes wideband waveform measurements from the Galileo plasma wave receiver obtained during Jupiter orbital operations. These data were obtained...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes wideband waveform measurements from the Galileo plasma wave receiver obtained during Jupiter orbital operations. These data were obtained...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.


    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Yang Bin; Haghighipour, Nader; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Denneau, Larry; Kaluna, Heather M.; Kleyna, Jan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Novakovic, Bojan [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Abe, Shinsuke; Chen Wenping; Ip, Wing; Kinoshita, Daisuke [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Rd, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Fitzsimmons, Alan; Lacerda, Pedro [Astronomy Research Centre, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Granvik, Mikael [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Grav, Tommy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Knight, Matthew M. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Planetary Exploration Group, Space Department, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Maclennan, Eric, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, 602 South Humphreys Street, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); and others


    , suggesting that it is likely native to its current location and that its composition is likely representative of other objects in the same region of the main belt, though the relatively close proximity of the 13:6 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter and the (3,-2,-1) three-body mean-motion resonance with Jupiter and Saturn mean that dynamical instability on larger timescales cannot be ruled out.

  18. Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices. (United States)

    Kulaç, Selman


    In this study, a new protective design compatible with existing non-secure systems was proposed, since it is focused on the secure communication of wireless IMD systems in all transmissions. This new protector is an external wearable device and appears to be a belt fitted around for the patients IMD implanted. However, in order to provide effective full duplex transmissions and physical layer security, some sophisticated transceiver antennas have been placed on the belt. In this approach, beam-focused multi-antennas in optimal positions on the belt are randomly switched when transmissions to the IMD are performed and multi-jammer switching with MRC combining or majority-rule based receiving techniques are applied when transmissions from the IMD are carried out. This approach can also reduce the power consumption of the IMDs and contribute to the prolongation of the IMD's battery life.

  19. Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chadwick


    We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected during our survey for objects beyond the Kuiper Belt using the Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO 4 m telescope. We obtained broadband colors of 62412 at the Magellan Telescope, which, along with 62412's low albedo, suggests it is a C-type asteroid. 62412's orbital dynamics and color strongly correlate with the Hygiea family in the outer main belt, making it the first active asteroid known in this heavily populated family. We also find 62412 to have a very short rotation period of 3.33 ± 0.01 hours from a double-peaked light curve with a maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.45 ± 0.01 mag. We identify 62412 as the fastest known rotator of the Hygiea family and the nearby Themis family of similar composition, which contains several known main belt comets. The activity on 62412 was seen over one year after perihelion passage in its 5.6 year orbit. 62412 has the highest perihelion and one of the most circular orbits known for any active asteroid. The observed activity is probably linked to 62412's rapid rotation, which is near the critical period for break-up. The fast spin rate may also change the shape and shift material around 62412's surface, possibly exposing buried ice. Assuming 62412 is a strengthless rubble pile, we find the density of 62412 to be around 1500 kg m −3 .

  20. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiters Great Red Spot (United States)

    Carlson, Robert W.; Baines, Kevin H.; Anderson, M. S.; Filacchione, G.; Simon, A. A.


    The high altitude of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) may enhance the upward flux of gaseous ammonia (NH3 ) into the high troposphere, where NH3 molecules can be photodissociated and initiate a chain of chemical reactions with downwelling acetylene molecules (C2H2 ). These reactions, experimentally studied earlier by (Ferris and Ishikawa [1987] Nature 326, 777-778) and (Ferris and Ishikawa [1988] J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 110, 4306-4312), produce chromophores that absorb in the visible and ultraviolet regions. In this work we photolyzed mixtures of NH3 and C2H2 using ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of 214 nm and measured the spectral transmission of the deposited films in the visible region (400-740 nm). From these transmission data we estimated the imaginary indices of refraction. Assuming that ammonia grains at the top of the GRS clouds are coated with this material, we performed layered sphere and radiative transfer calculations to predict GRS reflection spectra. Comparison of those results with observed and previously unreported Cassini visible spectra and with true-color images of the GRS show that the unknown GRS chromophore is spectrally consistent with the coupled NH3-C2H2 photochemical products produced in our laboratory experiments. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy we infer that the chromophore-containing residue is composed of aliphatic azine, azo, and diazo compounds.